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Sample records for beam treated scots

  1. Determination of the stress-strain curve in specimens of Scots pine for numerical simulation of defect free beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baño, V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to develop a twodimensional numerical model to simulate the response of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. defect free timber members in order to predict the behaviour of these members when subjected to external forces. For this purpose, data of the mechanical properties of Scots pine were obtained by performing experimental tests on specimens. We determined the stresses and deformations of timber beams in the elastic-plastic and plastic phases. In addition, we developed a finite element software that considered the orthotropic nature of timber, the non-linearity of the compression-reduction branch and the differing moduli of elasticity in tension and compression for Scots pine beams free from defects. The software developed simulates an experimental four point bending test according to UNE-EN 408 Standard.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numérico bidimensional de piezas de madera de Pinus sylvestris L. libre de defectos que prediga su comportamiento frente a solicitaciones externas. Para su desarrollo, fue necesario realizar ensayos experimentales sobre probetas de pequeño tamaño con el fin de obtener los datos de las propiedades mecánicas para el Pinus sylvestris L. de procedencia española. A partir de los datos experimentales obtenidos, se desarrolla un programa de elementos finitos que considera la ortotropía de la madera, la no linealidad de la rama compresión-acortamiento y los distintos módulos de elasticidad a tracción y a compresión para vigas libres de defectos. El programa simula el ensayo experimental de flexión en cuatro puntos según la Norma UNE-EN 408 y aborda la determinación de las tensiones y deformaciones de las vigas de madera en las tres fases de comportamiento: elástica, elastoplástica y plástica.

  2. When Macbeth becomes scots When Macbeth becomes scots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Derrick McClure

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, two Scots translations of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, by David Purves and Robin L.C. Lorimer, were published almost simultaneously.2 These had been made independently, though each translator was aware of the other’s intention; and they represent two unmistakably different approaches to the project. Before examining the translations themselves, I propose to submit certain assumptions—some almost axiomatic, some perhaps deserving of more detailed consideration—regarding poetic translation, and apply them in turn to the specific question of translating Shakespeare into Scots. In 1992, two Scots translations of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, by David Purves and Robin L.C. Lorimer, were published almost simultaneously.2 These had been made independently, though each translator was aware of the other’s intention; and they represent two unmistakably different approaches to the project. Before examining the translations themselves, I propose to submit certain assumptions—some almost axiomatic, some perhaps deserving of more detailed consideration—regarding poetic translation, and apply them in turn to the specific question of translating Shakespeare into Scots.

  3. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  4. Evaluation on ecological stability and biodegradation of dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.J.; Park, C.K.; Yoo, D.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, B.J.; Han, B.S.; Kim, J.K.; Kim, Y.R.

    2005-01-01

    Biological treatment of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam has been performed in order to evaluate the biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent. In the process of electron-beam treatment of wastewater there are utilized chemical transformations of pollutants induced by ionizing radiation. Partial decomposition of pollutant takes place as well as transformations of pollutant molecules that result in improving subsequent purification stages like as biological processing. Dyeing wastewater contains many kind of pollutants which are difficult to be decomposed completely by microorganisms. In this study, biodegradation with dyeing wastewater pre-treated by electron beams was observed. On the other hand, consideration on public acceptance in terms of ecological stability of biological effluent pre-treated by electron beams was given in this study. The results of laboratory investigations on biodegradation and ecological stability of effluent showed that biodegradation of dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam was enhanced compared to unirradiated one. In the initial stage of biological oxidation regardless of different HRT, dye wastewater pre-treated by electron beam could be oxidized easily compare to without treated one. More number of survived daphnia magna could be observed in the biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam. This means that biological effluent pre-treated by electron beam can be said 'it is safe on the ecological system'

  5. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey N Weiss

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we present the results of a single patient with optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS. SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and is the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date- www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867. SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of optic nerve and retinal diseases. Pre- and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams were independently performed at the Wilmer Eye Institute at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, USA. A 27 year old female patient had lost vision approximately 5 years prior to enrollment in SCOTS. Pre-treatment best-corrected visual acuity at the Wilmer Eye Institute was 20/800 Right Eye (OD and 20/4,000 Left Eye (OS. Four months following treatment in SCOTS, the central visual acuity had improved to 20/100 OD and 20/40 OS.

  6. Gelatin/piassava composites treated by Electron Beam Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takinami, Patricia Yoko Inamura; Shimazaki, Kleber; Moura, Esperidiana Augusta Barretos de; Mastro, Nelida Lucia del; Colombo, Maria Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Piassava (Attalea funifera Mart) fiber has been investigated as reinforcement for polymer composites with potential for practical applications. The purpose of the present work was to assess the behavior of specimens of piassava fiber and gelatin irradiated with electron beam at different doses and percentage. The piassava/gelatin specimens were made with 5 and 10% (w/w) piassava fiber, gelatin 25% (w/w), glycerin as plasticizer and acrylamide as copolymer. The samples were irradiated up to 40 kGy using an electron beam accelerator, at room temperature in presence of air. Preliminary results showed mechanical properties enhancement with the increase in radiation dose. (author)

  7. Positive correlation between occlusion rate and nidus size of proton beam treated brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomquist, Erik; Ronne Engström, Elisabeth; Borota, Ljubisa

    2016-01-01

    symptoms, clinical course, the size of AVM nidus and rate of occlusion was collected. Outcome parameters were the occlusion of the AVM, clinical outcome and side effects.Results. The rate of total occlusion was overall 68%. For target volume 0-2cm3 it was 77%, for 3-10 cm3 80%, for 11-15 cm3 50% and for 16...... of these had no effect and the other only partial occlusion from proton beams. Two thirds of those presenting with seizures reported an improved seizure situation after treatment.Conclusion. Our observations agree with earlier results and show that proton beam irradiation is a treatment alternative for brain......Background. Proton beam radiotherapy of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain has been performed in Uppsala since 1991. An earlier study based on the first 26 patients concluded that proton beam can be used for treating large and medium sized AVMs that were considered difficult to treat...

  8. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  9. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  10. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman; Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood

  11. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  12. Enhanced corrosion resistance of strontium hydroxyapatite coating on electron beam treated surgical grade stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopi, D., E-mail: dhanaraj_gopi@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Rajeswari, D. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Ramya, S. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Sekar, M. [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); R, Pramod; Dwivedi, Jishnu [Industrial and Medical Accelerator Section, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, Madhya Pradesh (India); Kavitha, L., E-mail: louiskavitha@yahoo.co.in [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Periyar University, Salem 636 011, Tamilnadu (India); Ramaseshan, R. [Thin film and Coatings Section, Surface and Nanoscience Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-12-01

    The surface of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) is irradiated by high energy low current DC electron beam (HELCDEB) with energy of 500 keV and beam current of 1.5 mA followed by the electrodeposition of strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp) to enhance its corrosion resistance in physiological fluid. The coatings were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The Sr-HAp coating on HELCDEB treated 316L SS exhibits micro-flower structure. Electrochemical results show that the Sr-HAp coating on HELCDEB treated 316L SS possesses maximum corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution.

  13. Enhanced corrosion resistance of strontium hydroxyapatite coating on electron beam treated surgical grade stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Rajeswari, D.; Ramya, S.; Sekar, M.; R, Pramod; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Kavitha, L.; Ramaseshan, R.

    2013-12-01

    The surface of 316L stainless steel (316L SS) is irradiated by high energy low current DC electron beam (HELCDEB) with energy of 500 keV and beam current of 1.5 mA followed by the electrodeposition of strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp) to enhance its corrosion resistance in physiological fluid. The coatings were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and High resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). The Sr-HAp coating on HELCDEB treated 316L SS exhibits micro-flower structure. Electrochemical results show that the Sr-HAp coating on HELCDEB treated 316L SS possesses maximum corrosion resistance in Ringer's solution.

  14. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT): cloning of the human SCOT gene, tertiary structural modeling of the human SCOT monomer, and characterization of three pathogenic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukao, T.; Mitchell, G. A.; Song, X. Q.; Nakamura, H.; Kassovska-Bratinova, S.; Orii, K. E.; Wraith, J. E.; Besley, G.; Wanders, R. J.; Niezen-Koning, K. E.; Berry, G. T.; Palmieri, M.; Kondo, N.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; locus symbol OXCT; EC 2.8.3.5) is the main determinant of the ketolytic capacity of tissues. Hereditary SCOT deficiency causes episodic ketoacidosis. Here we describe the human SCOT gene, which spans more than 100 kb and contains 17

  15. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-01-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  16. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomak, Eylem D.; Baysal, Ergun; Peker, Huseyin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. ► Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. ► The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. ► Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. ► Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  17. The effect of some wood preservatives on the thermal degradation of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem D., E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Baysal, Ergun, E-mail: bergun@mu.edu.tr [Mugla University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Kotekli, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Peker, Huseyin, E-mail: peker100@hotmail.com [Artvin Coruh University, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Industrial Engineering Department, 06100 Artvin (Turkey)

    2012-11-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scots pine samples were impregnated with 10 commercial wood preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal degradation of wood was evaluated by TG, DTG and DTA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal behavior of treated wood differed from that of untreated wood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron containing wood preservatives yielded more charcoal than other preservatives. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boric oxide and metal compounds in the formulations may affect char weight. - Abstract: Wood has been a structural material for many years; however, its ability to burn has limited its use in some applications. This study aims to evaluate the effect of commercial wood preservatives having concentration of 4% on the thermal behavior of Scots pine wood, and compare the fire retardant effectiveness of these preservatives with that of boron compounds. Thermal degradation of treated and untreated wood samples was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Thermal behavior of treated wood differed from thermal behavior of untreated wood in terms of a high char yield. Results showed that weight loss of wood reduced while char yield increased in the charring phase of the pyrolysis in the boron containing preservative treated wood accompanying with pyrolysis temperature lowered. The highest char yield was obtained from the samples treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate in the all treated groups.

  18. A simple technique for treating age-related macular degeneration with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Daniel E.; Francis, J. Winston; Newnham, W. John

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple external beam photon radiotherapy technique to treat age-related macular degeneration without the need for simulation, planning computed tomography (CT) or computer dosimetry. Methods and Materials: The goal was to enable the treatment to be set up reliably on the treatment machine on Day 1 with the patient supine in a head cast without any prior planning. Using measurements of ocular globe topography from Karlsson et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996; 33: 705-712), we chose a point 1.5 cm behind the anterior surface of the upper eyelid (ASUE) as the isocentre of a half-beam, blocked, 5.0 x 3.0-cm, angled lateral field to treat the involved eye. This would position the isocentre about 0.5 cm behind the posterior surface of the lens, and a little over 1 cm in front of the macula, according to Karlsson et al. The setup requires initial adjustment of the gantry from horizontal (to account for any asymmetry of position of the eyes), then angling 15 deg. posteriorly to avoid the contralateral eye. Finally, the couch is raised to position the isocentre 1.5 cm behind the ASUE. Results: To verify the applicability of the technique, we performed CT and computer dosimetry on the first 11 eyes so treated. Our CT measurements were in good agreement with Karlsson et al. The lens dose was < 5% and the macula was within the 95% isodose curve in each case (6-MV linac). Treatment setup time is approximately 10 min each day. The 11 patients were treated with 5 x 2.00 Gy (2 patients) or 5 x 3.00 Gy (9 patients), and subjective response on follow-up over 1 to 12 months (median 4 months) was comparable to previously reported results, with no significant acute side effects. Conclusion: Our technique is easy to set up and reliably treats the macula, with sparing of the lens and contralateral eye. It enables treatment to commence rapidly and cost-effectively without the need for simulation or CT computer planning

  19. SCoT: A Python Toolbox for EEG Source Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBillinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of brain connectivity has become an important research tool in neuroscience. Connectivity can be estimated between cortical sources reconstructed from the electroencephalogram (EEG. Such analysis often relies on trial averaging to obtain reliable results. However, some applications such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs require single-trial estimation methods.In this paper, we present SCoT – a source connectivity toolbox for Python. This toolbox implements routines for blind source decomposition and connectivity estimation with theMVARICA approach. Additionally, a novel extension called CSPVARICA is available for labeled data. SCoT estimates connectivity from various spectral measures relying on vector autoregressive (VAR models. Optionally, these VAR models can be regularized to facilitate ill posed applications such as single-trial fitting.We demonstrate basic usage of SCoT on motor imagery (MI data. Furthermore, we show simulation results of utilizing SCoT for feature extraction in a BCI application. These results indicate that CSPVARICA and correct regularization can significantly improve MI classification. While SCoT was mainly designed for application in BCIs, it contains useful tools for other areas of neuroscience. SCoT is a software package that (1 brings combined source decomposition and connectivtiy estimation to the open Python platform, and (2 offers tools for single-trial connectivity estimation. The source code is released under the MIT license and is available online at github.com/SCoT-dev/SCoT.

  20. Oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617 in high temperature helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Jung; Sah, Injin; Kim, Donghoon; Kim, Hyunmyung; Jang, Changheui

    2015-01-01

    The oxidation characteristics of the electron beam surface-treated Alloy 617, which has an Al-rich surface layer, were evaluated in high temperature helium environments. Isothermal oxidation tests were performed in helium (99.999% purity) and VHTR-helium (helium of prototypical VHTR chemistry containing impurities like CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , and H 2 ) environments at 900 °C for up to 1000 h. The surface-treated Alloy 617 showed an initial transient oxidation stage followed by the steady-state oxidation in all test environments. In addition, the steady-state oxidation kinetics of the surface-treated Alloy 617 was 2-order of magnitude lower than that of the as-received Alloy 617 in both helium environments as well as in air. The improvement in oxidation resistance was primarily due to the formation of the protective Al 2 O 3 layer on the surface. The weight gain was larger in the order of air, helium, and VHTR-helium, while the parabolic rate constants (k p ) at steady-state were similar for all test environments. In both helium environments, the oxide structure consisted of the outer transition Al 2 O 3 with a small amount of Cr 2 O 3 and inner columnar structured Al 2 O 3 without an internal oxide. In the VHTR-helium environment, where the impurities were added to helium, the initial transient oxidation increased but the steady state kinetics was not affected

  1. Rheoviscometric measurements on starch, flour and black pepper treated by electron-beam and microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Casandroiu, T.; Oprita, N.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation was performed with an ALIN-7 linac within the dose range of 0 to 16 kGy at a dose rate of approximately 1.5 kGy/min. The samples were accommodated in a cavity which was also used for the microwave treatment. The microwave irradiation was carried out inside a special designed system using a 2.45 GHz CW magnetron of 850 W maximum output power. The samples were treated using various power values for irradiation periods varying between 10 and 120 s. Combined treatment by both methods was also applied. The rheoviscometric measurements were carried out on gelified suspensions of starch, flour and black pepper in equivalent starch concentration conditions. For the black pepper suspensions the pH value was adjusted to more than 12 units by adding 33 % NaOH solution. The effects of electromagnetic field and irradiation on starch, flour and pepper were described in terms of apparent viscosity and shear stress. All the samples investigated exhibited similar rheoviscometric behaviour, which can be attributed to starch degradation caused by microwave and electron-beam irradiation, the latter having a more significant effect on the rheological properties. Some consideration were also made concerning the thermal and non-thermal effects of microwaves and of the combined (e-beam and microwave) treatments of starch, flour and pepper

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF SURFACE ODS TREATED ZIRCALOY-4 SHEET USING LASER BEAM SCANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYUN-GIL KIM

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The surface modification of engineering materials by laser beam scanning (LBS allows the improvement of properties in terms of reduced wear, increased corrosion resistance, and better strength. In this study, the laser beam scan method was applied to produce an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS structure on a zirconium metal surface. A recrystallized Zircaloy-4 alloy sheet with a thickness of 2 mm, and Y2O3 particles of 10 μm were selected for ODS treatment using LBS. Through the LBS method, the Y2O3 particles were dispersed in the Zircaloy-4 sheet surface at a thickness of 0.4 mm, which was about 20% when compared to the initial sheet thickness. The mean size of the dispersive particles was 20 nm, and the yield strength of the ODS treated plate at 500°C was increased more than 65 % when compared to the initial state. This strength increase was caused by dispersive Y2O3 particles in the matrix and the martensite transformation of Zircaloy-4 matrix by the LBS.

  3. Preirradiation PSA predicts biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with postprostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, Christopher H.; Rich, Tyvin A.; Read, Paul W.; Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Gillenwater, Jay Y.; Kelly, Maria D.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical outcome and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response and to determine prognostic factors for biochemical disease-free survival in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy without hormonal therapy. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March, 1988 and December, 1993. Seven patients had undetectable PSA ( 2.7. Five-year actuarial biochemical disease-free survival values were 71, 48, and 0%, respectively, for the three groups. Biochemical disease-free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, clinical stage, Gleason's score, pathologic stage, surgical margins, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, total dose, or presence of clinically suspicious local disease. Based on digital rectal exam, there were no local failures. Conclusion: Biochemical disease-free survival after postprostatectomy radiation is predicted by the PSA at the time of irradiation. Clinical local control is excellent, but distant failure remains a significant problem in this population. The addition of concomitant systemic therapy should be investigated in patients with PSA >2.7

  4. A dosimetric comparison of fan-beam intensity modulated radiotherapy with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery for treating intermediate intracranial lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lijun; Xia Ping; Verhey, Lynn J.; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To compare and evaluate treatment plans for the fan-beam intensity modulated radiotherapy and the Gamma Knife radiosurgery for treating medium-size intracranial lesions (range 4-25 cm 3 ). Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were developed for the Leksell Gamma Knife and a fan-beam inverse treatment planning system for intensity modulated radiotherapy. Treatment plan comparisons were carried out using dose-volume histogram (DVH), tissue-volume ratio (TVR), and maximum dose to the prescription dose (MDPD) ratio. The study was carried out for both simulated targets and clinical targets with irregular shapes and at different locations. Results: The MDPD ratio was significantly greater for the Gamma Knife plans than for the fan-beam IMRT plans. The Gamma Knife plans produced equivalent TVR values to the fan-beam IMRT plans. Based on the DVH comparison, the fan-beam IMRT delivered significantly more dose to the normal brain tissue than the Gamma Knife. The results of the comparison were found to be insensitive to the target locations. Conclusion: The Gamma Knife is better than the fan-beam IMRT in sparing normal brain tissue while producing equivalent tumor dose conformity for treating medium-size intracranial lesions. However, the target dose homogeneity is significantly better for the fan-beam IMRT than for the Gamma Knife

  5. SCoT: a Python toolbox for EEG source connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Martin; Brunner, Clemens; Müller-Putz, Gernot R

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of brain connectivity has become an important research tool in neuroscience. Connectivity can be estimated between cortical sources reconstructed from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Such analysis often relies on trial averaging to obtain reliable results. However, some applications such as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) require single-trial estimation methods. In this paper, we present SCoT-a source connectivity toolbox for Python. This toolbox implements routines for blind source decomposition and connectivity estimation with the MVARICA approach. Additionally, a novel extension called CSPVARICA is available for labeled data. SCoT estimates connectivity from various spectral measures relying on vector autoregressive (VAR) models. Optionally, these VAR models can be regularized to facilitate ill posed applications such as single-trial fitting. We demonstrate basic usage of SCoT on motor imagery (MI) data. Furthermore, we show simulation results of utilizing SCoT for feature extraction in a BCI application. These results indicate that CSPVARICA and correct regularization can significantly improve MI classification. While SCoT was mainly designed for application in BCIs, it contains useful tools for other areas of neuroscience. SCoT is a software package that (1) brings combined source decomposition and connectivtiy estimation to the open Python platform, and (2) offers tools for single-trial connectivity estimation. The source code is released under the MIT license and is available online at github.com/SCoT-dev/SCoT.

  6. Detection genetic variability of secale cereale L. by scot markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Petrovičová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rye (Secale cereale L. is our traditional cereal used for baking. The genetic variability of grown rye has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which subsequently prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a gene pool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to detect genetic variability among the set of 45 rye genotypes using 8 SCoT markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 45 genotypes, using SCoT analysis, yielded 114 fragments, with an average of 14.25 polymorphic fragments per primer. The most polymorphic primer was SCoT 36, where 21 polymorphic amplification products were detected. In contract the lowest polymorphic primer was SCoT 45 with 5 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI, probability of identity (PI and polymorphic information content (PIC. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the rye genotypes were divided into 2 main clusters. One rye genotype Motto, origin from Poland formed a separate subcluster (1b. Subscluster 2a included only genotype Valtické (CSK. In this experiment, SCoT proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  7. Urinary incontinence in prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Mitchell; Pickles, Tom; Berthelet, Eric; Agranovich, Alexander; Kwan, Winkle; Tyldesley, Scott; McKenzie, Michael; Keyes, Mira; Morris, James; Pai, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To describe the incidence of urinary incontinence among prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT) and to investigate associated risk factors. Patients and methods: One thousand and hundred ninety-two patients with ≥24 months follow-up were the subjects of this series. All patients received between 50 and 72 Gy in 20-37 fractions (median 66 Gy/33). Post-RT urinary incontinence was scored by direct patient interviewing according to the modified RTOG/SOMA scale: Grade 1-occasional use of incontinence pads, Grade 2-intermittent use of incontinence pads, Grade 3-persistent use of incontinence pads, and Grade 4-permanent catheter. Risk-factors investigated were: age, diabetes, TURP prior to RT, elapsed time from TURP to RT, clinical stage, RT dose and presence of Grade ≥2 acute GU and GI toxicity. Non-parametric, actuarial univariate (Kaplan-Meier) and multivariate tests (MVA, Cox regression) were performed. Results: Median follow-up for the group is 52 months (24-109). Thirty-four patients (2.9%) had incontinence prior to RT, which was more common in TURP patients (7.8% vs 1.6% P<0.001). These are excluded from further analysis. Fifty-seven patients (4.9%) developed Grade 1 incontinence, 7 (0.6%) Grade 2, and 7 (0.6%) Grade 3. There was no Grade 4 incontinence. Actuarial rates for Grade ≥1 and ≥2 incontinence at 5 years are 7 and 1.7%, respectively. Risk factors on MVA associated with the development of Grade 1 or worse incontinence are pre-RT TURP (5-year rates 10% vs 6%, P=0.026), presence of Grade ≥2 acute GU toxicity (5-year rates 11% vs 5%, P=0.002). Age, diabetes, clinical stage, elapsed time from TURP to RT, RT dose or fraction size, acute GI toxicity were not significant. Patients who underwent post-RT TURP or dilatation for obstructive symptoms (4.3%), were more likely to develop Grade 2-3 incontinence (5-year rate 8 vs 1.5%, P=0.0015). Conclusions: Grade 2 or greater urinary incontinence is rare

  8. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity, using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  9. Annual cycle of Scots pine photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Pertti; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Liisa; Kulmala, Markku; Noe, Steffen; Petäjä, Tuukka; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bäck, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    Photosynthesis, i.e. the assimilation of atmospheric carbon to organic molecules with the help of solar energy, is a fundamental and well-understood process. Here, we connect theoretically the fundamental concepts affecting C3 photosynthesis with the main environmental drivers (ambient temperature and solar light intensity), using six axioms based on physiological and physical knowledge, and yield straightforward and simple mathematical equations. The light and carbon reactions in photosynthesis are based on the coherent operation of the photosynthetic machinery, which is formed of a complicated chain of enzymes, membrane pumps and pigments. A powerful biochemical regulation system has emerged through evolution to match photosynthesis with the annual cycle of solar light and temperature. The action of the biochemical regulation system generates the annual cycle of photosynthesis and emergent properties, the state of the photosynthetic machinery and the efficiency of photosynthesis. The state and the efficiency of the photosynthetic machinery is dynamically changing due to biosynthesis and decomposition of the molecules. The mathematical analysis of the system, defined by the very fundamental concepts and axioms, resulted in exact predictions of the behaviour of daily and annual patterns in photosynthesis. We tested the predictions with extensive field measurements of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) photosynthesis on a branch scale in northern Finland. Our theory gained strong support through rigorous testing.

  10. Detection of vertical root fractures in vivo in endodontically treated teeth by cone-beam computed tomography scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metska, M.E.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Wesselink, P.R.; Özok, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The presence of a vertical root fracture (VRF) in an endodontically treated tooth has an immense impact on the treatment’s outcome. Early diagnosis of a VRF is imperative to avoid overtreatment and extensive bone loss. Our study aimed to examine the validity of 2 cone-beam computed

  11. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS): bone marrow-derived stem cells in the treatment of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N.; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments. Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy had visual acuity gains on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) of up to 35 letters and Snellen acuity improvements from hand motion to 20/200 and from counting fingers to 20/100. Visual field improvements were noted. Macular and optic nerve head nerve fiber layer typically thickened. No serious complications were seen. The increases in visual acuity obtained in our study were encouraging and suggest that the use of autologous BMSCs as provided in SCOTS for ophthalmologic mitochondrial diseases including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy may be a viable treatment option. PMID:27904503

  12. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roitto, M. [MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Environmental Research, Karilantie 2A, FIN-50600 Mikkeli (Finland) and Department of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FIN-15140 Lahti (Finland)]. E-mail: marja.roitto@mtt.fi; Rautio, P. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, R. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, PO Box 111, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Kukkola, E. [University of Helsinki, Department of Biosciences, Division of Plant Physiology, PO Box 56, FIN-00014, Helsinki (Finland); Huttunen, S. [Department of Biology, University of Oulu, PO Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-10-15

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg{sup -1} soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles.

  13. Changes in the concentrations of phenolics and photosynthates in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings exposed to nickel and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roitto, M.; Rautio, P.; Julkunen-Tiitto, R.; Kukkola, E.; Huttunen, S.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were done on the effects of elevated soil concentrations of copper (Cu) and (Ni) on foliar carbohydrates and phenolics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Four year-old seedlings were planted in pots filled with metal-treated mineral forest soil in early June. The experimental design included all combinations of four levels of Cu (0, 25, 40 and 50 mg kg -1 soil dw) and Ni (0, 5, 15 and 25 mg kg -1 soil dw). Current year needles were sampled for soluble sugar, starch and phenolics at the end of September. Ni increased sucrose concentration in the needles, indicating disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. Trees exposed to Ni had higher concentrations of condensed tannins compared with controls. In contrast, concentrations of several other phenolic compounds decreased when seedlings were exposed to high levels of Cu or to a combination of Ni and Cu. The results suggest that concentrations of phenolics in Scots pine needles vary in their responses to Ni and Cu in the forest soil. - Excess nickel in soil interferes with carbohydrate metabolism and induces an increase in concentration of condensed tannins in Scots pine needles

  14. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.C.F.; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  15. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  16. Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regenerationIn this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence

  17. Evaluation of seed production of scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research was carried out to investigate seed production in a 13 years-old scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) clonal seed orchard, including 30 clones. Eight of cone and seed traits as number of fertile and infertile scales, cone volume, cone number, filled and empty seed number, seed efficiency and 1000 seed weight were ...

  18. Evaluation of the mechanical and corrosion protection performance of electrodeposited hydroxyapatite on the high energy electron beam treated titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopi, D.; Sherif, El-Sayed M.; Rajeswari, D.; Kavitha, L.; Pramod, R.; Dwivedi, Jishnu; Polaki, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ti–6Al–4V alloy was surface treated by high energy low current DC electron beam. • Successful electrodeposition of HAP was achieved on surface treated Ti–6Al–4V. • The as-formed coating possessed improved surface wettability and adhesion strength. • Maximum corrosion protection performance was exhibited by the as-formed coating. - Abstract: In our present study, the Ti–6Al–4V alloy surface was modified by irradiating with the high energy low current DC electron beam (HELCDEB) using 700 keV DC accelerator. Following this, the HELCDEB treated surface was coated with hydroxyapatite by adopting electrodeposition method. The microstructure and hardness of HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy with and without electrodeposited hydroxyapatite were investigated. Also, the electrochemical corrosion characteristics of the samples in simulated body fluid (SBF) was studied by potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedence techniques (EIS) which showed an enhanced corrosion resistance and revealed an improved life time for the hydroxyapatite coating developed on the HELCDEB treated Ti–6A1–4V alloy than the untreated sample

  19. Accuracy of digital radiography and cone beam computed tomography on periapical radiolucency detection in endodontically treated teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venskutonis, Tadas; Daugela, Povilas; Strazdas, Marijus; Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography in the detection of periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. Radiographic images (cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans and digital periapical radiography [PR] images) from 60 patients, achieved from September 2008 to July 2013, were retrieved from databases of the Department of Oral Diseases, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for further evaluation. In 20 patients (42.4 [SD 12.1] years, 65% men and 35% women) a total of 35 endodontically treated teeth (1.75 [SD 0.91]; 27 in maxilla and 8 in mandible) were evaluated. Overall, it was observed a statistical significant difference between the number of periapical lesions observed in the CBCT (n = 42) and radiographic (n = 24) examinations (P cone beam computed tomography scans were more accurate compared to digital periapical radiographs for detecting periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. The difference was more pronounced in molar teeth.

  20. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the trachea: first reported case treated with proton beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, R; Bernstein, J M; Brennan, B; Rothera, M P

    2012-09-01

    We report a case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the trachea in a 14-month-old child, and we present the first reported use of proton beam therapy for this tumour. A 14-month-old girl presented acutely with a seven-day history of biphasic stridor. Emergency endoscopic debulking of a posterior tracheal mass was undertaken. Histological examination revealed an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with anaplasia. Multimodality therapy with surgery and chemotherapy was administered in the UK, and proton beam therapy in the USA. Only three cases of rhabdomyosarcoma of the trachea have previously been reported in the world literature. This is the first reported case of treatment of this tumour with proton beam therapy. Compared with conventional radiotherapy, proton beam therapy may confer improved long-term outcome in children, with benefits including reduced irradiation of the spinal cord.

  1. Flux agreement above a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, L. W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, Ch.; Blanford, J. H.

    1996-03-01

    The surface energy exchange of 12m high Scots pine plantation at Hartheim, Germany, was measured with a variety of methods during a 11-day period of fine weather in mid-May 1992. Net radiation and rate of thermal storage were measured with conventional net radiometers, soil heat flux discs and temperature-based storage models. The turbulent fluxes discussed in this report were obtained with an interchanging Bowen ratio energy budget system (BREB, at 14 m), two one-propeller eddy correlation systems (OPEC systems 1 and 2 at 17m), a 1-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 3) at 15 m, all on one “low” tower, and a 3-dimensional sonic eddy correlation system (SEC system 22) at 22 m on the “high” tower that was about 46 m distant. All systems measured sensible and latent heat (H and LE) directly, except for OPEC systems 1 and 2 which estimated LE as a residual term in the surface energy balance. Closure of turbulent fluxes from the two SEC systems was around 80% for daytime and 30% for night, with closure of 1-dimensional SEC system 3 exceeding that of 3-dimensional SEC system 22. The night measurements of turbulent fluxes contained considerable uncertainty, especially with the BREB system where measured gradients often yielded erroneous fluxes due to problems inherent in the method (i.e., computational instability as Bowen's ratio approaches -1). Also, both eddy correlation system designs (OPEC and SEC) appeared to underestimate |H| during stable conditions at night. In addition, both sonic systems (1- and 3-dimensional) underestimated |LE| during stable conditions. The underestimate of |H| at night generated residual estimates of OPEC LE containing a “phantom dew” error that erroneously decreased daily LE totals by about 10 percent. These special night problems are circumvented here by comparing results for daytime periods only, rather than for full days. To summarize, turbulent fluxes on the low tower from OPEC system 2 and the adjacent

  2. Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) for retinal and optic nerve diseases: a case report of improvement in relapsing auto-immune optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey N; Levy, Steven; Benes, Susan C

    2015-09-01

    We present the results from a patient with relapsing optic neuropathy treated within the Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS). SCOTS is an Institutional Review Board approved clinical trial and has become the largest ophthalmology stem cell study registered at the National Institutes of Health to date (www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT 01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) for treatment of retinal and optic nerve diseases. Pre-treatment and post-treatment comprehensive eye exams of a 54 year old female patient were performed both at the Florida Study Center, USA and at The Eye Center of Columbus, USA. As a consequence of a relapsing optic neuritis, the patient's previously normal visual acuity decreased to between 20/350 and 20/400 in the right eye and to 20/70 in the left eye. Significant visual field loss developed bilaterally. The patient underwent a right eye vitrectomy with injection of BMSCs into the optic nerve of the right eyeand retrobulbar, subtenon and intravitreal injection of BMSCs in the left eye. At 15 months after SCOTS treatment, the patient's visual acuity had improved to 20/150 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Bilateral visual fields improved markedly. Both macular thickness and fast retinal nerve fiber layer thickness were maximally improved at 3 and 6 months after SCOTS treatment. The patient also reduced her mycophenylate dose from 1,500 mg per day to 500 mg per day and required no steroid pulse therapy during the 15-month follow up.

  3. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between conventional disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (author)

  4. The technology and economics of treating waste water with electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, M.R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation from electron beam accelerators is considered in this paper for the disinfection of waste water. Combinations of radiation with oxygen, chlorine, heat and retention media are discussed as possible methods to reduce the dosage requirements and the treatment costs. The production of ozone by the irradiation of oxygen is also evaluated as an alternative method of using this form of energy. The capital and operating costs for large electron beam facilities are analyzed to show the favorable trends with rising power levels. Cost comparisons between 'conventional' disinfection processes and two radiation processes are presented and discussed. The results of these cost analyses support the premise that electron beam radiation should be evaluated as a likely competitor to ozonation or carbon filtration for large sewage treatment plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Preparation and characterization of electron-beam treated HDPE composites reinforced with rice husk ash and Brazilian clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, A.V., E-mail: angelortiz@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.G.; Gomes, M.G.; Oliveira, R.R. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil); Díaz, F.R.V. [Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Department, Polytechnic School, University of São Paulo Av. Prof. Mello de Morais 2463, São Paulo, SP 05508-900 (Brazil); Moura, E.A.B. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We examine changes in HDPE properties when waste and clay are used as reinforcement. • The addition of only 3% of clay leads to important gains in HDPE properties. • The use of electron-beam contributes to greater improvements in material properties. • We observe 85% of cross-linking degree for the HDPE when treated with e-beam. - Abstract: This work evaluates the morphology, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites. HDPE reinforced with rice husk ashes (80:20 wt%), HDPE reinforced with clay (97:3 wt%) and HDPE reinforced with both rice husk ashes and clay(77:20:3 wt%) were obtained. The Brazilian bentonite chocolate clay was used in this study. This Brazilian smectitic clay is commonly used to produce nanocomposites. The composites were produced by melting extrusion process and then irradiation was carried out in a 1.5 MeV electron-beam accelerator (room temperature, presence of air). Comparisons using the irradiated and non-irradiated neat polymer, and the irradiated and non-irradiated composites were made. The materials obtained were submitted to tensile, flexural and impact tests. Additionally HDT, SEM and XRD analyses were carried out along with the sol–gel analysis which aimed to assess the cross-linking degree of the irradiated materials. Results showed great improvement in most HDPE properties and a high cross-linking degree of 85% as a result of electron-beam irradiation of the material.

  6. Detection of vertical root fractures in endodontically treated teeth by a cone beam computed tomography scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassan, B.; Metska, M.E.; Özok, A.R.; van der Stelt, P.; Wesselink, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to compare the accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and periapical radiographs (PRs) in detecting vertical root fractures (VRFs) and to assess the influence of root canal filling (RCF) on fracture visibility. Eighty teeth were endodontically prepared and divided into

  7. Evaluation of a dose distribution calcul algorithm in patients treated photons beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellanos, M. E.; Barreto, G.

    2001-01-01

    The acceptance criteria proposed by J. Van Dyck et. al. is fulfilled in the case of symmetrical fields, while in the asymmetric ones a particular evaluation is required, taking in counts the possibility of a flattening filter influence of beam quality outside the central axis [es

  8. A beam-walking apparatus to assess behavioural impairments in MPTP-treated mice: pharmacological validation with R-(-)-deprenyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Leann P; Perren, Marion J; Brackenborough, Kim T; Woodhams, Peter L; Vidgeon-Hart, Martin; Chapman, Helen; Pangalos, Menelas N; Upton, Neil; Virley, David J

    2007-08-15

    A beam-walking apparatus has been evaluated for its ability to detect motor impairments in mice acutely treated with the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP, 30 mg/kg, s.c., single or double administration). Mice subjected to MPTP lesioning showed deficits in motor performance on the beam-walking task, for up to 6 days post-MPTP administration, as compared to saline-treated controls. In addition, MPTP-treated mice were detected to have a marked depletion in striatal dopamine levels and a concomitant reduction in substantia nigra (SN) tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, at 7 days post-MPTP administration, indicative of dopaminergic neuronal loss. Pre-administration of the potent MAO-B inhibitor R-(-)-deprenyl at 3 or 10 mg/kg, 30 min, s.c, significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced reduction in SN TH-immunoreactivity, striatal dopamine depletions and impairments in mouse motor function. The data described in the present study provides further evidence that functional deficits following an acute MPTP dosing schedule in mice can be quantified and are related to nigro-striatal dopamine function.

  9. Accuracy of Digital Radiography and Cone Beam Computed Tomography on Periapical Radiolucency Detection in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Venskutonis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of intraoral digital periapical radiography and cone beam computed tomography in the detection of periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods: Radiographic images (cone beam computed tomography [CBCT] scans and digital periapical radiography [PR] images from 60 patients, achieved from September 2008 to July 2013, were retrieved from databases of the Department of Oral Diseases, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Twenty patients met inclusion criteria and were selected for further evaluation. Results: In 20 patients (42.4 [SD 12.1] years, 65% men and 35% women a total of 35 endodontically treated teeth (1.75 [SD 0.91]; 27 in maxilla and 8 in mandible were evaluated. Overall, it was observed a statistical significant difference between the number of periapical lesions observed in the CBCT (n = 42 and radiographic (n = 24 examinations (P < 0.05. In molar teeth, CBCT identify a significantly higher amount of periapical lesions than with the radiographic method (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between CBCT and PR in the mean number of lesions identified per tooth (1.2 vs 0.66, P = 0.03, number of teeth with lesions (0.71 vs 0.46, P = 0.03 and number of lesions identified per canal (0.57 vs 0.33, P = 0.005. Considering CBCT as “gold standard” in lesion detection with the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy considering as score 1, then the same parameters of PR were 0.57, 1 and 0.76 respectively. Conclusions: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that cone beam computed tomography scans were more accurate compared to digital periapical radiographs for detecting periapical radiolucencies in endodontically treated teeth. The difference was more pronounced in molar teeth.

  10. Unresectable Retiform Hemangioendothelioma Treated with External Beam Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Z. Hirsh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Retiform hemangioendothelioma (RH is an infrequently encountered vascular neoplasm of intermediate or borderline malignancy. Treatment of RH is controversial. We present a case of a 44-year-old Asian male presenting with an unresectable RH of the pelvis. The patient was treated with concurrent low-dose Cisplatin and External beam Radiation (4140cGy in 180cGy per fraction. This is the first report of a clinical complete response and a long-term local control of this rare tumor. This has significant clinical implication, since it gives the first evidence of treatment of this rare tumor using concurrent low-dose chemotherapy and radiation.

  11. Desulfurization reaction of high sulfur content flue gas treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Shojiro; Suzuki, Ryoji; Aoki, Shinji; Kojima, Takuji; Hashimoto, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of flue gas treatment by electron beam were carried out, using simulated ligniteburning flue gas containing SO 2 (5500 ppm), NO (390 ppm) and H 2 O (22%). Removal efficiency of SO 2 was more than 90% at a dose of 1-2 kGy. It shows applicability of electron beam for treatment of lignite-burning flue gas. Another removal reaction besides the radiation-induced radical reaction and the thermal reaction occurring without irradiation was suggested by the facts that removal of SO 2 by the radical reaction is only a few hundreds of ppm and the removal amounts by thermal reaction under irradiation is lower than a half of total desulfurization. The mechanism similar to thermal reaction was proposed, assuming simultaneous uptake reaction of SO 2 and NH 3 on the surface of liquid aerosol. It was suggested that ammonium nitrate having deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 60% at 25 deg C plays an important role in producing liquid aerosols. Decrease of DRH of ammonium nitrate with elevating temperature and with formation of double salt of ammonium sulfate results in enhancement of formation of liquid aerosols. (author)

  12. Detection of irradiated fresh fruits treated by e-beam or gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, N.S.; Lamy-Freund, Maria Tereza; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Since about 1990, the amount of commercially irradiated food products available worldwide has increased. Commercial irradiation of foods has been allowed in Brazil since 1973 and now more than 20 different food products are approved. Among these products are a number of fresh fruits which may be irradiated for insect disinfestation, to delay ripening and to extend shelf-life. Today, there is a growing interest to apply radiation for the treatment of fruits instead of using fumigation or e.g. vapour-heat treatments, and an increased international trade in irradiated fruits is expected. To ensure free consumer choice, methods to identify irradiated foods are highly desirable. In this work, three detection methods for irradiated fruits have been employed: DNA Comet Assay, the half-embryo test and ESR. Both electron-beam (e-beam) and gamma rays were applied in order to compare the response with these two different kinds of radiation. Fresh fruits such as oranges, lemons, apples, watermelons and tomatoes were irradiated with doses in the range 0, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kGy. For analysis, the seeds of the fruits were utilized. Both DNA Comet Assay and the half-embryo test enabled an easy identification of the radiation treatment. However, under our conditions, ESR measurements were not satisfactory

  13. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Tanya N; Ris, M Douglas; Grosshans, David R; Mahajan, Anita; Okcu, M Fatih; Chintagumpala, Murali; Paulino, Arnold; Child, Amanda E; Orobio, Jessica; Stancel, Heather H; Kahalley, Lisa S

    2017-07-01

    This study examines attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). We examined 39 survivors (age 6-19years) who were 3.61years post-PBRT on average. Craniospinal (CSI; n=21) and focal (n=18) subgroups were analyzed. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning scores were compared to population norms, and clinical/demographic risk factors were examined. As a group, survivors treated with focal PBRT exhibited attention, processing speed, and executive functioning that did not differ from population norms (all p>0.05). Performance in the CSI group across attention scales was normative (all p>0.05), but areas of relative weakness were identified on one executive functioning subtest and several processing speed subtests (all pexecutive functioning remained intact and within normal limits for survivors treated with focal PBRT. Among survivors treated with CSI, a score pattern emerged that was suggestive of difficulties in underlying component skills (i.e., processing speed) rather than true executive dysfunction. No evidence of profound cognitive impairment was found in either group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methods for assisting recovery of damaged brain and spinal cord and treating various diseases using arrays of x-ray microplanar beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilmanian, F Avraham [Yaphank, NY; Anchel, David J [Rocky Point, NY; Gaudette, Glenn [Holden, MA; Romanelli, Pantaleo [Monteroduni, IT; Hainfeld, James [Shoreham, NY

    2010-06-29

    A method of assisting recovery of an injury site of the central nervous system (CNS) or treating a disease includes providing a therapeutic dose of X-ray radiation to a target volume through an array of parallel microplanar beams. The dose to treat CNS injury temporarily removes regeneration inhibitors from the irradiated site. Substantially unirradiated cells surviving between beams migrate to the in-beam portion and assist recovery. The dose may be staggered in fractions over sessions using angle-variable intersecting microbeam arrays (AVIMA). Additional doses are administered by varying the orientation of the beams. The method is enhanced by injecting stem cells into the injury site. One array or the AVIMA method is applied to ablate selected cells in a target volume associated with disease for palliative or curative effect. Atrial fibrillation is treated by irradiating the atrial wall to destroy myocardial cells while continuously rotating the subject.

  15. Complex immunological monitoring of breast cancer patients treated postoperatively by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, M.; Horvath, A.; Fekete, B.; Toth, J.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor the electron beam therapy some immunological parameters of breast cancer patients previously undergone surgery were tested before, during and after irradiation. Immune complex levels measured by complement consumption technique were not altered by irradiation. Killer cell activity tested in so-called antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) capacity assay showed a marked decrease in some cases. Based on the phagocytic capacity of the granulocytes the patients could be divided into two groups: one with declining activity and another with rising activity: The majority of the patients (22/45) were humoral leukocyte adherence inhibition (H-LAI) negative before and during irradiation. Those showed positive H-LAI indices before electron therapy had unchanged (7/45) or decreasing (9/45) tendencies during the observation period. Further study is needed to establish the clinical relevance of these in vitro assays used by us. (orig.) [de

  16. Applied biomechanics to evaluate the properties of laser beam treated orthopedic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieretti, Eurico Felix

    2016-01-01

    Laser beam marking is used to ensure biomaterials’ identification and traceability. The texturing imparts greater adhesion to the surfaces of implantable medical devices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface behaviour of the austenitic stainless steel ABNT NBR ISO 5832-1 marked and textured by optical fiber laser beam using selected parameters, changing the pulse frequency; in face of its biomechanical behaviour, through tests of tensile strength, fatigue and wear; verify the localized corrosion susceptibility by electrochemical tests in a solution that simulates the body fluids; and analyze microstructural changes. The treatments performed altered the biomaterials roughness and their micro hardness as a function of the increase of the pulse frequency. The microstructure and chemical composition of the surfaces underwent changes that directly affected the passive layer of the stainless steels, triggering the corrosion process. This effect was evidenced by SVET, XPS and characterization of electronic properties of the passive film by the Mott-Schottky technique. These two types of laser treatments increased the surfaces' magnetic susceptibility. The parameters used for the marking and texturing did not induce a decrease in the cellular viability of the samples, as no cytotoxicity was showed even after prolonged incubation. This biomaterial was adequate on the biomechanical tests, since the laser treatments, under the conditions used, did not induce the formation of surface tensions of magnitude capable of leading the fatigue fracture, indicating infinite fatigue life; the region of fracture by tension could not be related to the laser marking. The wear volume decreased as a function of the increase in micro hardness produced by the increase of the pulse frequency in the texturing. The visual character of the markings and texturing was assured after the majority of the tests performed. (author)

  17. Low grade gliomas: preliminary analysis of failure patterns among patients treated using 3D conformal external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pu, Anthony T.; Sandler, Howard M.; Radany, Eric H.; Blaivas, Mila; Page, Michaelyn A.; Greenberg, Harry S.; Junck, Larry; Ross, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The pattern of failure of low grade gliomas following radiotherapy is less well known than that of the high grade gliomas. Stereotactic histologic studies have suggested that tumor cells extend beyond imaging abnormalities, and that large margins would be required for radiotherapy target volumes to encompass all of the neoplasm. Our experience using computerized tomography (CT)- and magnetic resonance (MR)-planned irradiation of low grade gliomas was reviewed to determine the pattern of tumor recurrence, in an effort to clinically define the minimum margin required. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with low grade supratentorial gliomas were treated between April 1985 and November 1992 using three-dimensional (3D) conformal CT- or MR-planned external beam radiotherapy. Fields were designed to encompass a target volume created by adding a margin to the tumor in three dimensions. Generally, patients were treated using shrinking fields with an initial target (tumor plus a 1 to 3 cm margin) treated to a dose of 45 to 50.4 (median 50.4) Gy, and a boost (tumor plus a 0 to 2 cm margin) treated to a total of 54 to 59.4 (median 59.4) Gy. Median follow-up was 32.9 months. Results: There have been 11 failures; all of these occurred within the radiographic abnormality (either T2 prolongation or CT hypodensity) visualized at the time of treatment planning (i.e., all failures were within the boost volume). Median time to failure was 53 months. Because all failures were local, there was no relationship between the amount by which the tumor volumes were expanded to create target volumes and the eventual outcome. Conclusion: Despite pathologic data suggesting that low grade glioma cells can be found outside the MR T2-signal abnormality in many cases, our results demonstrate that conformal external beam radiotherapy, in which the high dose volume is limited, does not result in increased marginal or out-of-field failures. Until control of tumor within the

  18. Reducing the risk of radiocarcinogenesis in paediatric patients treated with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.L.; Franich, R.D.; Kron, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to determine readily-implementable means of out-of-field dose reduction in paediatric patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy for intracranial lesions. [n this way, the risk of secondary cancer induction may be reduced. Dose measurements were taken using LiF:Mg, Cu, P TLD 1 00 H chips in a 5 year old paediatric phantom. Multiple TLDs were placed at: the right and left lenses of the eye, optic nerve, brain, thyroid, lungs, heart, kidneys, abdomen and gonads. Varian 600 C and Varian Trilogy linear accelerators, both at 6 MV, were investigated, using different delivery parameters. Most of the out-of-field dose at large distances is attributable to leakage. The difference between stereotactic and larger field sizes is less significant far from the primary field. Out-of-field dose from the Trilogy was 40% higher than the 600 e . Aligning the craniocaudal axis of the patient with the x-plane of the collimator results in a dose reduction of 40%, for both machines. - A simple shielding arrangement may halve out-of-field dose. (author)

  19. Microstructures and phase formations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, J.X.; Grosdidier, T.; Zhang, K.M.; Gao, B.; Hao, S.Z.; Dong, C.

    2007-01-01

    The nanostructures and metastable phase transformations in the surface layer of an AISI D2 steel treated with high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) were investigated. The surface structure is marked by two distinct features, i.e. the formation of sub-micrometer fine austenite γ grains (50-150 nm), and the disappearance of carbides via dissolution and crater eruption. The γ phase directly grows from the melt and is retained down to room temperature. Although the cooling rate is as high as 10 7 K/s in our case, the martensitic transformation could completely be suppressed. Such an effect is due to the increased stability of the austenite phase through grain refinement and chemistry modification

  20. Complete response in a patient with gynecological hidradenocarcinoma treated with exclusive external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Flavio; Chiola, Ilaria; Belgioia, Liliana; Garelli, Stefania; Pastorino, Alice; Marcenaro, Michela; Mammoliti, Serafina; Costantini, Sergio; Bizzarri, Nicolò; Vellone, Valerio; Barra, Salvina; Corvò, Renzo

    2017-12-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma (HC) is a very rare disease. This case report illustrates a successful treatment of a 60-year-old woman with vulvo-vaginal localization of hidradenocarcinoma treated with external beam radiotherapy delivered by helical tomotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB), followed by brachytherapy. External beam radiotherapy dose prescription was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, five fractions per week to whole pelvis (planning target volume 1 - PTV1), 60.2 Gy in 28 fractions to SIB1 (fundus of uterus and right inguinal node), and 58.8 Gy in 28 fractions to SIB2 (lower/middle third of vagina, paraurethral region and right inguinal lymph nodes). Brachytherapy dose prescription was 28 Gy in 4 fractions for cervix, fundus of uterus and upper third of vagina (HR-CTV1), and 22 Gy in 4 fractions to middle third of vagina and paraurethral region (HR-CTV2). D 90 for whole treatment was 91.9 Gy and 86.0 Gy for HR-CTV1 and HR-CTV2, respectively. Patient remained 12-months disease-free without treatment related side effects.

  1. Complete response in a patient with gynecological hidradenocarcinoma treated with exclusive external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Giannelli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hidradenocarcinoma (HC is a very rare disease. This case report illustrates a successful treatment of a 60-year-old woman with vulvo-vaginal localization of hidradenocarcinoma treated with external beam radiotherapy delivered by helical tomotherapy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB, followed by brachytherapy. External beam radiotherapy dose prescription was 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, five fractions per week to whole pelvis (planning target volume 1 – PTV1, 60.2 Gy in 28 fractions to SIB1 (fundus of uterus and right inguinal node, and 58.8 Gy in 28 fractions to SIB2 (lower/middle third of vagina, paraurethral region and right inguinal lymph nodes. Brachytherapy dose prescription was 28 Gy in 4 fractions for cervix, fundus of uterus and upper third of vagina (HR-CTV1, and 22 Gy in 4 fractions to middle third of vagina and paraurethral region (HR-CTV2. D90 for whole treatment was 91.9 Gy and 86.0 Gy for HR-CTV1 and HR-CTV2, respectively. Patient remained 12-months disease-free without treatment related side effects.

  2. A retrospective analysis of 140 dogs with oral melanoma treated with external beam radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, David R; Ruslander, David M; Dodge, Richard K; Hauck, Marlene L; Williams, Laurel E; Horn, Birgitte; Price, G Sylvester; Thrall, Donald E

    2003-01-01

    Despite the early notion that canine oral malignant melanoma is radioresistant, recent data suggest that external beam radiotherapy is effective in local tumor control. However, optimal fractionation schedules have not been established. The high rate of regional and distant metastasis is another problem that has hindered long-term control. The role of chemotherapy in the management of canine oral melanoma has also not been determined. In this study, data from 140 dogs irradiated at North Carolina State University were evaluated with the following objectives: (1) to compare the efficacy of three radiation therapy protocols (36 Gy, 9 Gy x 4 fractions; 30 Gy, 10 Gy x 3 fractions; or >45 Gy, 2-4 Gy x 12-19 fractions) for the treatment of dogs with oral malignant melanoma, (2) to identify any host or tumor factors influencing prognosis, and (3) to determine the impact of systemic chemotherapy on treatment outcome. Information regarding response to therapy, disease progression, and survival were determined from the medical records or from information obtained by telephone or mail survey. Relationships between host, tumor, and treatment variables and outcome measures (response, time to first event, and survival) were evaluated using Fisher's exact test (response) and the Cox regression model (time to first event and survival). The median time to first event for the 140 dogs was 5.0 months (95% C.I., 4-6 months) and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% C.I., 6-9 months). In the univariate analysis, the following variables were associated with increased time to first event and survival: (1) rostral tumor sublocation; (2) lack of bone lysis observed on skull imaging, and (3) microscopic tumor burden. In a multivariate analysis of 111 dogs with complete data for these variables, tumor sublocation, bone lysis, and tumor volume were identified as joint predictors of time to first event (p oral malignant melanoma; however, the optimal fractionation scheme has yet to be

  3. P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron beam irradiation (LEEBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hiroshi; Kito, Masahiro; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa

    1989-01-01

    Distinct p-type conduction is realized with Mg-doped GaN by the low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI) treatment, and the properties of the GaN p-n junction LED are reported for the first time. It was found that the LEEBI treatment drastically lowers the resistivity and remarkably enhances the PL efficiency of MOVPE-grown Mg-doped GaN. The Hall effect measurement of this Mg-doped GaN treated with LEEBI at room temperature showed that the hole concentration is ∼2·10 16 cm -3 , the hole mobility is ∼8 cm 2 /V·s and the resistivity is ∼35Ω· cm. The p-n junction LED using Mg-doped GaN treated with LEEBI as the p-type material showed strong near-band-edge emission due to the hole injection from the p-layer to the n-layer at room temperature. (author)

  4. Oncologic and functional outcome of base of tongue cancer treated with external-beam radiation and I-192 implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, L.B.; Sessions, R.B.; Strong, E.W.; Fass, D.E.; Armstrong, J.G.; Zelefsky, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper assesses tumor control and functional outcome for squamous cancer of the base of the tongue managed with external irradiation plus Ir-192 implant. Between January 1981 and June 1990, 36 previously untreated patients were treated with 5,000-5,400 cGy of external-beam radiation plus a 2,000-3,000 cGy boost to the base of tongue with an Ir-192 implant. Negative necks were irradiated alone, and positive necks were treated with irradiation followed by neck dissection. Crude local control by T stage are as follows: T1, 10 of 11; T2, 13 of 14; T3, 8 of 10; and T4 1 of 1. Actuarial local control is 87.5%. Of the four local failures, two were salvaged by surgery. Neck control was achieved in 35 of 36 patients. Complications occurred in 25%. When implantation was done with the nonlooping technique, the injury rate was statistically higher than when done with the looping technique (6 of 12 = 50% vs 3 of 24 = 12.5%, P = .02)

  5. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iason, Glenn R.; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M.; Brewer, Mark J.; Summers, Ron W.; Moore, Ben D.

    2011-01-01

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ3-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes. PMID:21444308

  6. External beam radiotherapy dose response characteristics of 1127 men with prostate cancer treated in the PSA era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, Alan; Smith, Lewis G.; Eschenbach, Andrew C. von

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize the relationship of radiotherapy dose to prostate cancer patient outcome, with an emphasis on the influence of pretreatment prognostic variables. Methods and Materials: The 1127 Stage T1-T4 prostate cancer patients examined were treated consecutively with definitive external beam radiotherapy at the University of Texas-M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1987 to 1997. All had a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Treatment failure was defined as two consecutive PSA elevations on follow-up. There were 994 patients treated with a four-field box throughout to 60-70 Gy after a small reduction at 46 Gy and 161 treated with a six-field conformal boost after 46 Gy to 74-78 Gy. No patient received neoadjuvant or adjuvant androgen ablation. Median follow-up was 51.8 months. Results: Patients were divided into three radiotherapy dose groups consisting of ≤67 Gy (n = 500), >67-77 Gy (n = 495), and >77 Gy (n = 132). Relative to other prognostic factors, there were fewer patients treated to the highest dose level with a pretreatment PSA (PSAB) ≤4 or >20 ng/ml, Stage T3/T4 disease, or a Gleason score of 2-6. Actuarial 4-year freedom from biochemical failure (bNED) rates for the entire cohort were 54%, 71%, and 77% (p 67-77 Gy was associated with improved bNED rates for all PSAB (≤10 and >10), stage (T1/T2 and T3/T4), and Gleason score (2-6 and 7-10) subgroups tested. In contrast, the only prognostic group that benefited from raising dose from >67-77 Gy to >77 Gy was patients with a PSAB >10 ng/ml; although trends were noted for Stage T1/T2 and Gleason 2-6 patients. Patients with the combined features of a PSAB >10 ng/ml and Stage T1/T2 disease had 4-year bNED rates of 61% and 93% at the intermediate- and high-dose levels. A strongly significant linear association between dose (60-78 Gy) and 4-year actuarial bNED was demonstrated for patients with these intermediate-risk features. Conclusion: Prostate cancer dose response to external

  7. The arthropod community of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) canopies in Norway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Thunes, K. H.; Skartveit, J.; Gjerde, I.; Starý, Josef; Solhoy, T.; Fjellberg, A.; Kobro, S.; Nakahara, S.; zur Strassen, R.; Vierbergen, G.; Szadziewski, R.; Hagan, D. V.; Grogan Jr., W. L.; Jonassen, T.; Aakra, K.; Anonby, J.; Greve, L.; Aukema, B.; Heller, K.; Michelsen, V.; Haenni, J.-P.; Emeljanov, A. F.; Douwes, P.; Berggren, K.; Franzen, J.; Disney, R. H. L.; Prescher, S.; Johanson, K. A.; Mamaev, B.; Podenas, S.; Andersen, S.; Gaimari, S. D.; Nartshuk, E.; Soli, G. E. E.; Papp, L.; Midtgaard, F.; Andersen, A.; von Tschirnhaus, M.; Bächli, G.; Olsen, K. M.; Olsvik, H.; Földvári, M.; Raastad, J. E.; Hansen, L. O.; Djursvoll, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2004), s. 65-90 ISSN 0785-8760 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : arthropod community * Scots pine * canopies Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.298, year: 2004

  8. Pretreatment PSA predicts for biochemical disease free survival in patients treated with post-prostatectomy external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, C.H.; Kelly, M.; Rich, T.A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To assess the outcome and determine prognostic factors for patients treated with external beam radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: Forty-four patients were treated after prostatectomy with radiotherapy between March 1988 and October 1993. All patients were free from clinically or radiographically suspicious local or distant disease. One patient underwent neoadjuvant hormonal therapy, but no other patients received hormonal therapy prior to radiation. Pre-radiotherapy PSA and follow-up PSA data were available in all patients. Four patients had undetectable PSA ( 7, and 11% had nodal involvement. Survival was analyzed using the life table method. Actuarial freedom from biochemical (BCM) failure, defined as a rise of greater than 10% or an undetectable PSA becoming detectable, was the primary endpoint studied. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients had a detectable PSA return to undetectable levels after XRT. The actuarial five year freedom from biochemical failure for all patients was 24%. A significant difference in BCM disease free survival was seen for patients irradiated with a pre-XRT PSA ≤2.7 versus a pre-XRT PSA >2.7 (p=0.0001). Sixty percent of the former group were BCM disease free versus 0% in the latter. Biochemical disease free survival was not affected by preoperative PSA level, presence of undetectable PSA after surgery, surgery to radiation interval, seminal vesicle invasion, clinical stage, pathologic stage, Gleasons grade, or total dose. There were no symptomatic or clinically suspicious local failures, and there were no grade 3, 4, or 5 acute or late complications. There were 69% grade 1 and 2 acute reactions and one grade 2 late complication. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy for patients with a PSA of ≤2.7 after prostatectomy was effective in biochemically controlling 60% of the patients with four years median follow up. To our knowledge these data represent the longest follow-up for this patient

  9. Use of cone-beam computed tomography in diagnosing and treating endodontic treatment failure: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT as a complementary imaging modality applies to various clinical situations that with conventional two-dimensional radiographs alone may pose diagnostic challenges. These challenges include but are not limited to locating missed canals in endodontic retreatment and diagnosing the presence of lesions such as resorption, periapical bone defects, root fractures, and perforations. In this study, we present a case of an asymptomatic apical periodontitis that was incidentally found on a panoramic radiograph. Analyses based on panoramic and periapical radiographs and clinical examinations were insufficient for definitive diagnosis, which necessitated the use of CBCT. The CBCT scan allowed identification of the cause of the apical disease, an unfilled mesiolingual canal in previously root canal treated left mandibular second molar, as well as the extent of the lesion. We also explore the diagnostic challenges in using traditional two-dimensional radiographs only, the challenges in locating root canals in mandibular second molars, and risks and benefits in using CBCT.

  10. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  11. Outcomes of Patients With Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Treated With Bexxar With or Without External-Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kristy; Byer, Gracie; Morris, Christopher G.; Kirwan, Jessica M.; Lightsey, Judith; Mendenhall, Nancy P.; Hoppe, Bradford S.; Lynch, James; Olivier, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy and toxicity of external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to sites of bulky lymphadenopathy in patients with chemotherapy-refractory low-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) immediately before receiving Bexxar (tositumomab and 131 I) vs. in patients receiving Bexxar alone for nonbulky disease. Methods and Materials: Nineteen patients with chemotherapy-refractory NHL were treated with Bexxar at our institution (University of Florida, Gainesville, FL) from 2005 to 2008. Seventeen patients had Grade 1–2 follicular lymphoma. Ten patients received a median of 20 Gy in 10 fractions to the areas of clinical involvement, immediately followed by Bexxar (EBRT + Bexxar); 9 patients received Bexxar alone. The median tumor sizes before EBRT + Bexxar and Bexxar alone were 4.8 cm and 3.3 cm, respectively. All 5 patients with a tumor diameter >5 cm were treated with EBRT + Bexxar. A univariate analysis of prognostic factors for progression-free survival (PFS) was performed. Results: The median follow-up was 2.3 years for all patients and 3.1 years for 12 patients alive at last follow-up. Of all patients, 79% had a partial or complete response; 4 of the 8 responders in the EBRT + Bexxar group achieved a durable response of over 2 years, including 3 of the 5 with tumors >5 cm. Three of 9 patients treated with Bexxar alone achieved a durable response over 2 years. Actuarial estimates of 3-year overall survival and PFS for EBRT + Bexxar and Bexxar alone were 69% and 38% and 62% and 33%, respectively. The median time to recurrence after EBRT + Bexxar and Bexxar alone was 9 months. Having fewer than 4 involved lymph-node regions was associated with superior PFS at 3 years (63% vs. 18%). There was no Grade 4 or 5 complications. Conclusions: Adding EBRT immediately before Bexxar produced PFS equivalent to that with Bexxar alone, despite bulkier disease. Hematologic toxicity was not worsened. EBRT combined with Bexxar adds a safe and effective therapeutic

  12. Winter survival of Scots pine seedlings under different snow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domisch, Timo; Martz, Françoise; Repo, Tapani; Rautio, Pasi

    2018-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict increased air temperatures and precipitation, particularly at high latitudes, and especially so during winter. Soil temperatures, however, are more difficult to predict, since they depend strongly on the fate of the insulating snow cover. 'Rain-on-snow' events and warm spells during winter can lead to thaw-freeze cycles, compacted snow and ice encasement, as well as local flooding. These adverse conditions could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climatic changes on forest seedling growth. In order to study the effects of different winter and snow conditions on young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings, we conducted a laboratory experiment in which 80 1-year-old Scots pine seedlings were distributed between four winter treatments in dasotrons: ambient snow cover (SNOW), compressed snow and ice encasement (ICE), flooded and frozen soil (FLOOD) and no snow (NO SNOW). During the winter treatment period and a 1.5-month simulated spring/early summer phase, we monitored the needle, stem and root biomass of the seedlings, and determined their starch and soluble sugar concentrations. In addition, we assessed the stress experienced by the seedlings by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence, electric impedance and photosynthesis of the previous-year needles. Compared with the SNOW treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were lower in the FLOOD and NO SNOW treatments where the seedlings had almost died before the end of the experiment, presumably due to frost desiccation of aboveground parts during the winter treatments. The seedlings of the ICE treatment showed dead needles and stems only above the snow and ice cover. The results emphasize the importance of an insulating and protecting snow cover for small forest tree seedlings, and that future winters with changed snow patterns might affect the survival of tree seedlings and thus forest productivity.

  13. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Helle, Peter A.; Koper, Peter C.M.; Jansen, Peter P.; Hanssens, Patrick E.J.; Boeken Kruger, Cornelis G.G.; Putten, Wim L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In our center interstitial radiation has played an important role in the treatment of bladder cancer patients for over 40 years. Radium needles, that were initially used, were replaced by caesium needles in 1983, whereas the afterloading iridium wire technique was adopted in 1989. Patients with solitary tumors (T1, T2 and T3) with a surface diameter of < 5 cm are considered for interstitial radiation. In this study we report on the results of the afterloading iridium wire technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: From May 1989 to September 1993 interstitial radiation using iridium wires was part of the treatment in 46 patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (37 T2, 9 T3). The mean age was 67 years. After transurethral resection of all visible tumor (if possible), in most cases 40 Gy (20 x 2.0 Gy, midplane dose) external beam radiation was delivered to the true pelvis, followed by 30 Gy interstitial radiation using iridium-192 wires covering the tumor area in the bladder. Results: After a median follow-up of 26 months, bladder relapses occurred in 7 patients. In 5 of them the tumor relapsed in the initial area, in 1 patient elsewhere in the bladder and in 1 patient tumor recurred in and outside the initial site. Recurrence was superficial (T1) in 4 patients. A relapse in the urethra was found once. Metastases developed in 13 patients, in 8 without bladder relapse. During the observation period 17 patients died, 13 due to bladder cancer. The actuarial bladder relapse-free survival at 4 years was 74% and 82% for T2 and T3 tumors, respectively. The actuarial distant metastases-free survival was 65% for both categories. No serious toxicity was recorded. Conclusion: In a selected group of patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer transurethral resection in combination with external beam and interstitial radiation provides an excellent opportunity to preserve the bladder with a high chance of success. Development of

  14. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, Jillian R.; Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali; Ketonen, Leena; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Boehling, Nicholas S.; Khatua, Soumen; Adesina, Adekunle; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem

  15. Start codon targeted (scot polymorphism reveals genetic diversity in european old maize (zea mays l. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vivodík

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize (Zea mays L. is one of the world's most important crop plants following wheat and rice, which provides staple food to large number of human population in the world. It is cultivated in a wider range of environments than wheat and rice because of its greater adaptability. Molecular characterization is frequently used by maize breeders as an alternative method for selecting more promising genotypes and reducing the cost and time needed to develop hybrid combinations. In the present investigation 40 genotypes of maize from Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Slovakia and Yugoslavia were analysed using 20 Start codon targeted (SCoT markers. These primers produced total 114 fragments across 40 maize genotypes, of which 86 (76.43% were polymorphic with an average of 4.30 polymorphic fragments per primer and number of amplified fragments ranged from 2 (SCoT 45 to 8 (SCoT 28 and SCoT 63. The polymorphic information content (PIC value ranged from 0.374 (ScoT 45 to 0.846 (SCoT 28 with an average of 0.739. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. The hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the maize genotypes were divided into two main clusters. Unique maize genotype (cluster 1, Zuta Brzica, originating from Yugoslavia separated from others. Cluster 2 was divided into two main clusters (2a and 2b. Subcluster 2a contained one Yugoslavian genotype Juhoslavanska and subcluster 2b was divided in two subclusters 2ba and 2bb. The present study shows effectiveness of employing SCoT markers in analysis of maize, and would be useful for further studies in population genetics, conservation genetics and genotypes improvement.

  16. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency: two pathogenic mutations, V133E and C456F, in Japanese siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X Q; Fukao, T; Watanabe, H; Shintaku, H; Hirayama, K; Kassovska-Bratinova, S; Kondo, N; Mitchell, G A

    1998-01-01

    Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; EC 2.8.3.5; locus symbol OXCT) is the key enzyme of ketone body utilization. Hereditary SCOT deficiency (MIM 245050) causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We developed a transient expression system for mutant SCOT cDNAs, using immortalized SCOT-deficient fibroblasts. This paper describes and characterizes three missense mutations in two SCOT-deficient siblings from Japan. They are genetic compounds who inherited the mutation C456F (c1367 G-->T) from their mother. Their paternal allele contains two mutations in cis, T58M (c173 C-->T) and V133E (c398T-->A). Expression of SCOT cDNAs containing either V133E or C456F produces no detectable SCOT activity, whereas T58M is functionally neutral. T58M is a rare sequence variant not detected in 100 control Japanese alleles. In fibroblasts from the proband (GS02), in whom immunoblot demonstrated no detectable SCOT peptide, we measured an apparent residual SCOT activity of 20-35%. We hypothesize that the high residual SCOT activity in homogenates may be an artifact caused by use of the substrate, acetoacetyl-CoA by other enzymes. Expression of mutant SCOT cDNAs more accurately reflects the residual activity of SCOT than do currently available assays in cell or tissue homogenates.

  17. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijnmaalen, Arendjan; Helle, Peter A.; Koper, Peter C.M.; Jansen, Peter P.; Hanssen, Patrick E.; Kruger, Cornelis G.G. Boeken; Putten, Wim L.J. van

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the results of transurethral resection (TUR), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and interstitial radiation (IRT) with iridium-192, using the afterloading technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: From May 1989 until September 1995, 66 patients with primary, solitary muscle invasive bladder cancer were treated with TUR, EBRT, and IRT, aiming at bladder preservation. According to the protocol, in three patients low-dose EBRT was applied, whereas 63 patients received high-dose EBRT. Immediately prior to IRT, 42 patients underwent a lymphnode dissection, and in 16 cases a partial cystectomy was performed. For IRT, two to five catheters were used and IRT was started within 24 h after surgery. The majority of patients received 30 Gy of IRT, with a mean dose rate of .58 Gy/h. In three patients, additional EBRT was applied following IRT. Follow-up consisted of regular cystoscopies, mostly done during joint clinics of urologist and radiation oncologist, with urine cytology routinely performed. The median follow-up period was 26 months. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for the determination of survival rates. Results: In seven patients, a bladder relapse developed. The probability of remaining bladder relapse free at 5 years was 88%. The bladder was preserved in 98% of the surviving patients. Metastases developed in 16 patients, and the probability of remaining metastasis free at 5 years was 66%. The cumulative 5-year overall and bladder and distant relapse free survival were 48% and 69%, respectively. Acute toxicity was not serious in the majority of cases; surgical correction of a persisting vesicocutaneous fistula was necessary in two patients, whereas a wound toilet had to be performed in another patient. Serious late toxicity (bladder, RTOG Grade 3) was experienced by only one patient. Conclusions: Interstitial radiation preceded by TUR and EBRT, in a selected group of patients with muscle invasive bladder

  18. Dose-response characteristics of low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Rex; Tucker, Susan L.; Lee, Andrew K.; Crevoisier, Renaud de; Dong Lei; Kamat, Ashish; Pisters, Louis; Kuban, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: In this era of dose escalation, the benefit of higher radiation doses for low-risk prostate cancer remains controversial. For intermediate-risk patients, the data suggest a benefit from higher doses. However, the quantitative characterization of the benefit for these patients is scarce. We investigated the radiation dose-response relation of tumor control probability in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with radiotherapy alone. We also investigated the differences in the dose-response characteristics using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) definition vs. an alternative biochemical failure definition. Methods and materials: This study included 235 low-risk and 387 intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients treated with external beam radiotherapy without hormonal treatment between 1987 and 1998. The low-risk patients had 1992 American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage T2a or less disease as determined by digital rectal examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of ≤10 ng/mL, and biopsy Gleason scores of ≤6. The intermediate-risk patients had one or more of the following: Stage T2b-c, PSA level of ≤20 ng/mL but >10 ng/mL, and/or Gleason score of 7, without any of the following high-risk features: Stage T3 or greater, PSA >20 ng/mL, or Gleason score ≥8. The logistic models were fitted to the data at varying points after treatment, and the dose-response parameters were estimated. We used two biochemical failure definitions. The ASTRO PSA failure was defined as three consecutive PSA rises, with the time to failure backdated to the mid-point between the nadir and the first rise. The second biochemical failure definition used was a PSA rise of ≥2 ng/mL above the current PSA nadir (CN + 2). The failure date was defined as the time at which the event occurred. Local, nodal, and distant relapses and the use of salvage hormonal therapy were also failures. Results: On the basis of the

  19. Development concepts of a Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT) using ORiN technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Jun; Masamune, Ken; Iseki, Hiroshi; Muragaki, Yoshihiro

    2018-02-23

    Currently, networking has not progressed in the treatment room. Almost every medical device in the treatment room operates as a stand-alone device. In this project, we aim to develop a networked operating room called "Smart Cyber Operating Theater (SCOT)". Medical devices are connected using Open Resource interface for the Network (ORiN) technology. In this paper, we describe the concept of the SCOT project. SCOT is integrated using the communication interface ORiN, which was originally developed for industry. One feature of ORiN is that the system can be constructed flexibly. ORiN creates abstracts of the same type of devices and increases the robustness of the system for device exchange. By using ORiN technology, we are developing new applications, such as decision-making navigation or a precision guided treatment system.

  20. Microstructures and wear properties of surface treated Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr–0.35O alloy by electron beam melting (EBM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zijin; Liu, Yong; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Weidong; Guo, Wei; Tang, Huiping; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Gum metal was firstly modified via electron beam melting method. • The surface hardness and the wear resistance of TNTZO alloys are significantly increased through EBM process. • The phase constitutions and microstructural features of EBM treated TNTZO alloys are sensitive to the processing parameters. • The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy is discussed. - Abstract: Ti–36Nb–2Ta–3Zr–0.35O (wt.%) (TNTZO, also called gum metal) alloy was surface treated by electron beam melting (EBM), in order to improve wear properties. The microstructures and phase constitutions of the treated surface were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The results showed that the martensitic phase and dendrites were formed from the β phase alloy after the EBM treatment, and microstructures in the surface changed with the processing parameters. Compared with the untreated TNTZO alloy, the surface modified TNTZO alloys exhibited higher nano-hardness, 8.0 GPa, and the wear loss was also decreased apparently. The samples treated at a scanning speed of 0.5 m/s exhibited the highest wear resistance due to the fast cooling rate and the precipitation of acicular α″ phase. The relationship between the wear property and the surface microstructure of TNTZO alloy was discussed.

  1. A non-destructive approach for assessing decay in preservative treated wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machek, L.; Edlund, M.L.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Militz, H.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the suitability of the non-destructive vibration-impulse excitation technique to assess the attack of preservative-treated wood in contact with the ground. Small stakes (10×5×100 mm3) of treated and untreated Scots pine sapwood were exposed to decay in laboratory-scale

  2. SU-F-T-432: Magnetic Field Dose Effects for Various Radiation Beam Geometries for Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Partial Breast Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim-Reinders, S [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Physics (Canada); Keller, B; McCann, C; Sahgal, A; Lee, J; Kim, A [Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Department of Radiation Oncology (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated partial breast irradiation (HPBI) is being used at our clinic to treat inoperable breast cancer patients who have advanced disease. We are investigating how these patients could benefit from being treated in an MRI-linac, where real-time daily MRI tumor imaging and plan adaptation would be possible. As a first step, this study evaluates the dosimetric impact of the magnetic field for different radiation beam geometries on relevant OARs. Methods: Five patients previously treated using HPBI were selected. Six treatment plans were generated for each patient, evaluating three beam geometries (VMAT, IMRT, 3DCRT) with and without B{sub 0}=1.5 T. The Monaco TPS was used with the Elekta MRI-Linac beam model, where the magnetic field is orthogonal to the radiation beam. All plans were re-scaled to the same isocoverage with a prescription of 40Gy/5 to the PTV. Plans were evaluated for the effect of the magnetic field and beam modality on skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}, lung V{sub 2} {sub 0} and mean heart dose. Results: Averaged over all patients, skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}for 3DCRT was higher than VMAT and IMRT (by +22% and +21%, with B{sub 0}-ON). The magnetic field caused larger increases in skin V{sub 3} {sub 0}for 3DCRT (+8%) than VMAT (+3%) and IMRT (+4%) compared with B{sub 0}-OFF. With B{sub 0}-ON, 3DCRT had a markedly lower mean heart dose than VMAT (by 538cGy) and IMRT (by 562cGy); for lung V{sub 2} {sub 0}, 3DCRT had a marginally lower dose than VMAT (by −2.2%) and IMRT (also −2.2%). The magnetic field had minimal effect on the mean heart dose and lung V{sub 2} {sub 0} for all geometries. Conclusion: The decreased skin dose in VMAT and IMRT can potentially mitigate the effects of skin reactions for HPBI in an MRI-linac. This study illustrated that more beam angles may result in lower skin toxicity and better tumor conformality, with the trade-off of elevated heart and lung doses. We are receiving funding support from Elekta.

  3. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  4. Evaluation of the antibiotic activity and genetic mutation of microorganisms in the effluent treated with the electron-beam from waste-water treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Hun; Nam, Ji Hyun; Shin, Ji Hye; Yun, Seo Yeon; Cho, Young Cheol; Oh, Kyoung hee

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the residual concentrations and activities of antibiotics after UV or gamma-ray treatments were estimated, and the effect of irradiation of UV, gamma-ray, or electron beam was estimated on the survivability and less mutagenic effect on bacteria. The changes of bacterial communities and radiation resistant population in the effluent treated with UV and electron-beam were analyzed. The gamma-ray irradiation was more effective than UV in degradation of antibiotics. The extent of mutagenicity of electron-beam irradiation was less than those of UV or gamma-ray irradiations. The application of election-beam to the wastewater treatment system showed the high efficiency of destroying and removal effects on bacterial cells. The selective increase in population of radiation resistant bacteria was not observed. These results indicate that the application of ionizing radiation to the processes of wastewater treatment system will be suitable than UV irradiation because of its degradability of variable antibiotics, high removal rate of harmful bacteria, less mutagenicity of bacteria, and low selective effect on radiation resistant bacteria

  5. Muscle invasive bladder cancer treated by transurethral resection, followed by external beam radiation and interstitial iridium-192

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Wijnmaalen (Arendjan); P.A. Helle (Peter); P.C.M. Koper (Peter); P.P. Jansen (Peter); P. Hanssens (Patrick); C.G.G. Boeken Kruger (Cornelis); W.L.J. van Putten (Wim)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate the results of transurethral resection (TUR), external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and interstitial radiation (IRT) with iridium-192, using the afterloading technique in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: From May 1989 until September

  6. SU-F-T-81: Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, L; Fan, J; Eldib, A; Price, R; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Treating nose skin with an electron beam is of a substantial challenge due to uneven nose surfaces and tissue heterogeneity, and consequently could have a great uncertainty of dose accuracy on the target. This work explored the method using Monte Carlo (MC)-based energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), which would be delivered with a photon MLC in a standard medical linac (Artiste). Methods: The traditional treatment on the nose skin involves the usage of a bolus, often with a single energy electron beam. This work avoided using the bolus, and utilized mixed energies of electron beams. An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. A clinical case of the nose skin, which was previously treated with a single 9 MeV electron beam, was replanned with the MERT method. The resultant dose distributions were compared with the plan previously clinically used. The dose volume histogram of the MERT plan is calculated to examine the coverage of the planning target volume (PTV) and critical structure doses. Results: The target coverage and conformality in the MERT plan are improved as compared to the conventional plan. The MERT can provide more sufficient target coverage and less normal tissue dose underneath the nose skin. Conclusion: Compared to the conventional treatment technique, using MERT for the nose skin treatment has shown the dosimetric advantages in the PTV coverage and conformality. In addition, this technique eliminates the necessity of the cutout and bolus, which makes the treatment more efficient and accurate.

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Resorbable Bacterial Cellulose Membranes Treated by Electron Beam Irradiation for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jun An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cellulose (BC is an excellent biomaterial with many medical applications. In this study, resorbable BC membranes were prepared for guided bone regeneration (GBR using an irradiation technique for applications in the dental field. Electron beam irradiation (EI increases biodegradation by severing the glucose bonds of BC. BC membranes irradiated at 100 kGy or 300 kGy were used to determine optimal electron beam doses. Electron beam irradiated BC membranes (EI-BCMs were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, and using wet tensile strength measurements. In addition, in vitro cell studies were conducted in order to confirm the cytocompatibility of EI-BCMs. Cell viabilities of NIH3T3 cells on 100k and 300k EI-BCMs (100 kGy and 300 kGy irradiated BC membranes were significantly greater than on NI-BCMs after 3 and 7 days (p < 0.05. Bone regeneration by EI-BCMs and their biodegradabilities were also evaluated using in vivo rat calvarial defect models for 4 and 8 weeks. Histometric results showed 100k EI-BCMs exhibited significantly larger new bone area (NBA; % than 300k EI-BCMs at 8 weeks after implantation (p < 0.05. Mechanical, chemical, and biological analyses showed EI-BCMs effectively interacted with cells and promoted bone regeneration.

  8. Four different Phytophthora species that are able to infect Scots pine seedlings in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate susceptibility of young Scots pine seedlings to four Phytophthora species: Phytophthora cactorum, Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora pini; seven-day-old seedlings of Scots pine (15 seedlings per experiment were infected using agar plugs of the respective species. Control group also consisted of 15 seedlings and was inoculated with sterile agar plugs. Results unambiguously show that after 4.5 days, all seedlings show clear signs of infection and display severe symptoms of tissue damage and necrosis. Moreover, three and two seedlings in the P. cactorum and P. cambivora infected seedlings groups, respectively, collapsed. The length of largest necrosis measured 13.4±3.90 mm and was caused by P. cactorum. To rule out any putative contamination or infection by secondary pathogens, re-isolations of pathogens from infection sites were performed and were positive in 100% of plated pieces of infected seedlings. All re-isolations were, however, negative in the case of the control group. Detailed microscopic analyses of infected tissues of young seedlings confirmed the presence of numerous Phytophthora species inside and on the surface of infected seedlings. Therefore, our results suggest Phytophthora spp. and mainly P. cactorum and P. cambivora as aggressive pathogens of Scots pine seedlings and highlight a putative involvement of these species in the damping off of young Scots pine seedlings frequently observed in forest nurseries.

  9. Scottish Classroom Voices: A Case Study of Teaching and Learning Scots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoba, Jo Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Research in multilingual classrooms demonstrates education as a key site within which social and linguistic values are shaped. This study extends such research by investigating language use in a Scottish primary classroom. Scots is widely spoken throughout Scotland, figuring in a 2003 Scottish Parliament report as one of two indigenous heritage…

  10. Early field performance of drought-stressed scots pine (pinus sylvestris l.) seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulac, S.; Clcek, E.; Tasdemir, U.

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) has a large natural distribution throughout the world, including semi-arid areas of Turkey, where it is being used for afforestation. Determining the drought resistance of Scots pine provenances can increase the success of afforestation efforts in semi-arid regions. In the first stage of this study, water-stress treatments were applied to ten provenances of one-year-old Scots pine seedlings in their second vegetation period (between April and November). The diameter and height of the seedlings were evaluated in the nursery in order to determine their morphology. The four drought-stress treatments consisted of once-weekly irrigation (IR1), twice-weekly irrigation (IR2-Control), biweekly irrigation (IR3) and open field conditions (IR4). Later, the water-stressed seedlings were planted in a semi-arid district in Bayburt, Turkey, and their survival and growth performances were evaluated over a five-year period. The nursery study showed that drought stress and provenance as well as the interaction of the two significantly affected the morphological characteristics of the seedlings. Under water-stress conditions, the best growth performance was found in the Dokurcun, Degirmendere and Dirgine provenance seedlings. Water-stress and provenance factors and their interaction also affected the open field performance of the seedlings, where the Degirmendere, Dirgine and Dokurcun provenances again exhibited the best performance. Consequently, these Scots pine provenances can be recommended for afforestation sites having conditions similar to those of the study site. (author)

  11. Genetic relationship and diversity among coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) accessions revealed through SCoT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, M K; Sabana, A A; Rachana, K E; Rahman, Shafeeq; Jerard, B A; Karun, Anitha

    2015-12-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is one of the important palms grown both as a homestead and plantation crop in countries and most island territories of tropical regions. Different DNA-based marker systems have been utilized to assess the extent of genetic diversity in coconut. Advances in genomics research have resulted in the development of novel gene-targeted markers. In the present study, we have used a simple and novel marker system, start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT), for its evaluation as a potential marker system in coconut. SCoT markers were utilized for assessment of genetic diversity in 23 coconut accessions (10 talls and 13 dwarfs), representing different geographical regions. Out of 25 SCoT primers screened, 15 primers were selected for this study based on their consistent amplification patterns. A total of 102 scorable bands were produced by the 15 primers, 88 % of which were polymorphic. The scored data were used to construct a similarity matrix. The similarity coefficient values ranged between 0.37 and 0.91. These coefficients were utilized to construct a dendrogram using the unweighted pair group of arithmetic means (UPGMA). The extent of genetic diversity observed based on SCoT analysis of coconut accessions was comparable to earlier findings using other marker systems. Tall and dwarf coconut accessions were clearly demarcated, and in general, coconut accessions from the same geographical region clustered together. The results indicate the potential of SCoT markers to be utilized as molecular markers to detect DNA polymorphism in coconut accessions.

  12. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  13. Evaluation of the sealing properties and TMA study of multilayer PA/PE film treated with e-beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Angel V.; Gargalaka Junior, Joao; Wiebeck, Helio

    2007-01-01

    Multilayer films are widely used in the food industry as thermoforming as well as non thermoforming vacuum packaging. In this study a PA6/LDPE multilayer film underwent E-beam radiation and its sealing properties were evaluated over 3 years after the film was irradiated. Packaging materials have been widely processed by ionizing radiation in order to improve their chemical and physical properties and also for sterilization purposes. Basically, flexible packaging manufacturers apply specific radiation doses to promote cross-linking and scission of the polymeric chains and thus obtain alterations in certain properties. While enhancing a specific property, significant losses may result in others. We examined the effects of E-beam radiation on the sealing properties of the multilayer film irradiated with doses up to 127 kGy. Results showed that as doses go up, the sealing strength goes down. The TMA study shows that the softening/melting temperatures of the LDPE layer (sealing layer) varies according to the irradiation doses and helps explain the results of the sealing strength tests. (author)

  14. A study on repainting strategies for treating moderately moving targets with proton pencil beam scanning at the new Gantry 2 at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenklusen, S M; Pedroni, E; Meer, D

    2010-01-01

    Treating moving targets using a scanning gantry for proton therapy is a promising but very challenging, not yet clinically demonstrated treatment modality. The interference of organ motion with the sequence of the beam delivery produces uncontrolled dose inhomogeneities within the target. One promising approach to overcome this difficulty is to increase the speed of scanning in order to apply the dose repeatedly (so-called repainting). To obtain sufficiently high scanning speeds a new, technologically improved gantry-Gantry 2-has been designed and is currently under construction at PSI. As there are many possible repainting strategies, the way repainting will be implemented on Gantry 2 will depend on the result of a careful analysis of the various treatment delivery strategies available. To achieve this aim, and prior to the start of experimental work with Gantry 2, simulations of dose distribution errors due to organ motion under various beam delivery strategies were investigated. The effects of motion on the dose distribution were studied for moderate motion amplitudes (5 mm) for spherical target volumes in a homogeneous medium and with homogeneous dose. In total over 200 000 dose distributions have been simulated and analyzed and selected results are discussed. From the obtained results we are confident to be able to treat moderately moving targets on Gantry 2 using repainted pencil-beam spot scanning. Continuous line scanning seems to be the most elegant solution; it provides higher repainting rates and produces superior results but is probably more difficult to realize. For larger motion amplitudes, continuous line scanning still shows good results, but we plan anyways to use a gating system for these cases, not only to reduce the inhomogeneity within the target volume but also to reduce safety margins.

  15. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) markers for DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized tritordeums and their respective parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, Sandra; Ferreira, Luciana; Carvalho, Ana; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Martín, António; Lima-Brito, José Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    Hexaploid tritordeum (H(ch)H(ch)AABB; 2n = 42) results from the cross between Hordeum chilense (H(ch)H(ch); 2n = 14) and cultivated durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (AABB; 2n = 28). Morphologically, tritordeum resembles the wheat parent, showing promise for agriculture and wheat breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) polymorphism is a recently developed technique that generates gene-targeted markers. Thus, we considered it interesting to evaluate its potential for the DNA fingerprinting of newly synthesized hexaploid tritordeums and their respective parents. In this study, 60 SCoT primers were tested, and 18 and 19 of them revealed SCoT polymorphisms in the newly synthesized tritordeum lines HT27 and HT22, respectively, and their parents. An analysis of the presence/absence of bands among tritordeums and their parents revealed three types of polymorphic markers: (i) shared by tritordeums and one of their parents, (ii) exclusively amplified in tritordeums, and (iii) exclusively amplified in the parents. No polymorphism was detected among individuals of each parental species. Three SCoT markers were exclusively amplified in tritordeums of lines HT22 and HT27, being considered as polyploidization-induced rearrangements. About 70% of the SCoT markers of H. chilense origin were not transmitted to the allopolyploids of both lines, and most of the SCoTs scored in the newly synthesized allopolyploids originated from wheat, reinforcing the potential use of tritordeum as an alternative crop.

  16. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  17. Comparison of oxidation resistance of copper treated by beam-line ion implantation and plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Quanzhang; Li Liuhe; Hu Tao; Xin Yunchang; Fu, Ricky K.Y.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Cai Xun; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Copper which has many favorable properties such as low cost, high thermal and electrical conductivity, as well as easy fabrication and joining is one of the main materials in lead frames, interconnects, and foils in flexible circuits. Furthermore, copper is one of the best antibacterial materials. However, unlike aluminum oxide or chromium oxide, the surface copper oxide layer does not render sufficient protection against oxidation. In this work, in order to improve the surface oxidation resistance of Cu, Al and N were introduced into copper by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) and beam-line ion implantation (BII). The implantation fluences of Al and N were 2 x 10 17 ions cm -2 and 5 x 10 16 ions cm -2 , respectively. The implanted and untreated copper samples were oxidized in air at 260 deg. C for 1 h. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate that both implantation methods can enhance the oxidation resistance of copper but to different extent. PIII is superior to BII in enhancing the oxidation resistance of copper. The effects and possible mechanisms are discussed.

  18. Hybrid IMRT plans-concurrently treating conventional and IMRT beams for improved breast irradiation and reduced planning time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Charles S.; Urie, Marcia M.; Fitzgerald, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a hybrid intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) technique as a class solution for treatment of the intact breast. Methods and materials: The following five plan techniques were compared for 10 breast patients using dose-volume histogram analysis: conventional wedged-field tangents (Tangents), forward-planned field-within-a-field tangents (FIF), IMRT-only tangents (IMRT tangents), conventional open plus IMRT tangents (4-field hybrid), and conventional open plus IMRT tangents with 2 anterior oblique IMRT beams (6-field hybrid). Results: The 4-field hybrid and FIF achieved dose distributions better than Tangents and IMRT tangents. The volume of tissue outside the planning target volume receiving ≥110% of prescribed dose was largest for IMRT tangents (average 158 cc) and least for 6-field hybrid (average 1 cc); the FIF and 4-field hybrid were comparable (average 15 cc). Heart volume ≥30 Gy averaged 13 cc for all techniques, except Tangents, for which it was 32 cc. Average total lung volume ≥20 Gy was 7% for all. Contralateral breast doses were < 3% for all. Planning time for hybrid techniques was significantly less than for conventional FIF technique. Conclusions: The 4-field hybrid technique is a viable class solution. The 6-field hybrid technique creates the most conformal dose distribution at the expense of more normal tissue receiving low dose

  19. Pattern of failures in gastric cancer patients with lymph node involvement treated by surgery, intraoperative and external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glehen, O.; Peyrat, P.; Beaujard, A.C.; Chapet, O.; Romestaing, P.; Sentenac, I.; Francois, Y.; Vignal, J.; Gerard, J.P.; Gilly, F.N.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: High local failure rates in gastric cancer have been reported, up to 67%. To achieve a better local control, we evaluated intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in association with surgery for gastric cancer patients with lymph node involvement. We report here the analysis of the patterns of failure for patients involved in this IORT protocol. Material and methods: Forty-two positive lymph node (N+) gastric cancer patients were operated on (31 total, three subtotal and eight extended gastrectomies) with IORT procedure between 1985 and 1997 (33 males, nine females, mean age 61.3 years). IORT was focused on coeliac area (mean dose 15 Gy), followed by EBRT (46 Gy) in 36 patients. Ten patients were pN1 and 32 were pN2. A concurrent systemic chemotherapy (five Fluoro-Uracil and Cisplatinum) was performed in 14 patients. Results: One patient died postoperatively. Actuarial pN+ 10 year survival rate was 44.8%. The 5 year actuarial local control and disease-free survival rates were 78.8 and 47.5%, respectively. As far as patterns of failure were explored, 5 patients have a local coeliac recurrence (12%) and 12 have distant metastases with no evidence of coeliac recurrence. Conclusion: This retrospective analysis suggests a potential effect of IORT and/or EBRT in promoting local control and long-term survival in gastric cancer patients with lymph node involvement

  20. Androgen deprivation does predict bNED survival in unfavorable prostate cancer PTS treated with external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Cooperative groups have investigated the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy combined with radiation therapy in prostate cancer pts with variable prerx prognostic indicators. This report describes an objective means of selecting pts for adjuvant hormonal therapy by examining bNED survival for groups of pts with specific prognostic indicators treated with adjuvant hormones (RT+H) vs matched controls treated with radiation therapy alone (RT). In addition, this report shows the 5-yr bNED survival for pts selected by this method for RT+H vs RT alone. Further, bNED survival is assessed multivariately according to treatment (RT+H vs RT) and predetermined prognostic treatment and prerx covariates. Materials and Methods: From (10(88)) to (12(94)), 684 T1-T3 NXM0 pts with known prerx PSA level were treated at Fox Chase Cancer Center. 568 of those pts were treated with RT alone while 116 were treated with RT+H. Table 1 lists the patient distributions for each of the putative prognostic factors indicative of bNED survival. We compare actuarial bNED survival rates according to treatment group within each of the prognostic groups. bNED survival is also compared for the two treatment groups using 107 RT+H pts and 107 matched (by stage, grade, and prerx PSA) controls randomly selected from the RT alone group. bNED survival for the 214 pts is then analyzed multivariately using stepwise Cox regression to determine independent predictors of outcome. Covariates considered for entry into the model included stage, grade, prerx PSA, treatment (RT vs RT+H), and center of prostate dose. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥1.5 ngm/ml and rising on two consective determinations. The median follow-up is 30 mos (2 to 90 mos). Results: Table 1 presents three-year bNED actuarial survival rates according to treatment group for prerx PSA, gleason score, and stage groups. It is apparent that the T2C/T3, gleason 7-10, and the prerx PSA > 15 ngm/ml groups of pts benefit from hormonal

  1. SU-E-T-632: Preliminary Study On Treating Nose Skin Using Energy and Intensity Modulated Electron Beams with Monte Carlo Based Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L; Eldib, A; Li, J; Price, R; Ma, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Uneven nose surfaces and air cavities underneath and the use of bolus present complexity and dose uncertainty when using a single electron energy beam to plan treatments of nose skin with a pencil beam-based planning system. This work demonstrates more accurate dose calculation and more optimal planning using energy and intensity modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) delivered with a pMLC. Methods: An in-house developed Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculation/optimization planning system was employed for treatment planning. Phase space data (6, 9, 12 and 15 MeV) were used as an input source for MC dose calculations for the linac. To reduce the scatter-caused penumbra, a short SSD (61 cm) was used. Our previous work demonstrates good agreement in percentage depth dose and off-axis dose between calculations and film measurement for various field sizes. A MERT plan was generated for treating the nose skin using a patient geometry and a dose volume histogram (DVH) was obtained. The work also shows the comparison of 2D dose distributions between a clinically used conventional single electron energy plan and the MERT plan. Results: The MERT plan resulted in improved target dose coverage as compared to the conventional plan, which demonstrated a target dose deficit at the field edge. The conventional plan showed higher dose normal tissue irradiation underneath the nose skin while the MERT plan resulted in improved conformity and thus reduces normal tissue dose. Conclusion: This preliminary work illustrates that MC-based MERT planning is a promising technique in treating nose skin, not only providing more accurate dose calculation, but also offering an improved target dose coverage and conformity. In addition, this technique may eliminate the necessity of bolus, which often produces dose delivery uncertainty due to the air gaps that may exist between the bolus and skin

  2. Pretreatment Endorectal Coil Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings Predict Biochemical Tumor Control in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Combination Brachytherapy and External-Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, Nadeem; Afaq, Asim; Akin, Oguz; Pei Xin; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett; Hricak, Hedvig; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the utility of endorectal coil magenetic resonance imaging (eMRI) in predicting biochemical relapse in prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2008, 279 men with intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer underwent eMRI of their prostate before receiving brachytherapy and supplemental intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Endorectal coil MRI was performed before treatment and retrospectively reviewed by two radiologists experienced in genitourinary MRI. Image-based variables, including tumor diameter, location, number of sextants involved, and the presence of extracapsular extension (ECE), were incorporated with other established clinical variables to predict biochemical control outcomes. The median follow-up was 49 months (range, 1–13 years). Results: The 5-year biochemical relapse-free survival for the cohort was 92%. Clinical findings predicting recurrence on univariate analysis included Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 3.6, p = 0.001), PSA (HR 1.04, p = 0.005), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (HR 4.1, p = 0.002). Clinical T stage and the use of androgen deprivation therapy were not correlated with biochemical failure. Imaging findings on univariate analysis associated with relapse included ECE on MRI (HR 3.79, p = 0.003), tumor size (HR 2.58, p = 0.04), and T stage (HR 1.71, p = 0.004). On multivariate analysis incorporating both clinical and imaging findings, only ECE on MRI and Gleason score were independent predictors of recurrence. Conclusions: Pretreatment eMRI findings predict for biochemical recurrence in intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with combination brachytherapy and external-beam radiotherapy. Gleason score and the presence of ECE on MRI were the only significant predictors of biochemical relapse in this group of patients.

  3. Impact of a rectal and bladder preparation protocol on prostate cancer outcome in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggio, A.; Bresciani, S.; Di Dia, A.; Miranti, A.; Poli, M.; Stasi, M. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Medical Physic Department, Candiolo (Italy); Gabriele, D. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Radiotherapy Department, Candiolo (Italy); University of Sassari, Division of Radiation Oncology, Sassari (Italy); Garibaldi, E.; Delmastro, E.; Gabriele, P. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Radiotherapy Department, Candiolo (Italy); Varetto, T. [Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Nuclear Medicine Department, Candiolo (Italy)

    2017-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that a rectal and bladder preparation protocol is associated with an increase in prostate cancer specific survival (PCSS), clinical disease free survival (CDFS) and biochemical disease free survival (BDFS). From 1999 to 2012, 1080 prostate cancer (PCa) patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). Of these patients, 761 were treated with an empty rectum and comfortably full bladder (RBP) preparation protocol, while for 319 patients no rectal/bladder preparation (NRBP) protocol was adopted. Compared with NRBP patients, patients with RBP had significantly higher BDFS (64% vs 48% at 10 years, respectively), CDFS (81% vs 70.5% at 10 years, respectively) and PCSS (95% vs 88% at 10 years, respectively) (log-rank test p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) indicated for all treated patients and intermediate high-risk patients that the Gleason score (GS) and the rectal and bladder preparation were the most important prognostic factors for PCSS, CDFS and BDFS. With regard to high- and very high-risk patients, GS, RBP, prostate cancer staging and RT dose were predictors of PCSS, CDFS and BDFS in univariate analysis (UVA). We found strong evidence that rectal and bladder preparation significantly decreases biochemical and clinical failures and the probability of death from PCa in patients treated without daily image-guided prostate localization, presumably since patients with RBP are able to maintain a reproducibly empty rectum and comfortably full bladder across the whole treatment compared with NRPB patients. (orig.) [German] Pruefung der Hypothese, dass ein Rektum-Blasen-Vorbereitungsprotokoll mit einer Zunahme des prostatakarzinomspezifischen Ueberlebens (PCSS), des klinisch krankheitsfreien Ueberlebens (CDFS) und des biochemisch krankheitsfreien Ueberlebens (BDFS) verbunden ist. Von 1999 bis 2012 erhielten 1080 Patienten mit Prostatakarzinom eine 3-dimensional geplante Strahlentherapie. Bei 761 Patienten wurde ein

  4. Evaluation of Robustness to Setup and Range Uncertainties for Head and Neck Patients Treated With Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malyapa, Robert [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland); Lowe, Matthew [Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (United Kingdom); Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J. [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland); Weber, Damien C. [University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Albertini, Francesca, E-mail: francesca.albertini@psi.ch [Centre for Proton Radiotherapy, PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of head and neck plans for treatment with intensity modulated proton therapy to range and setup errors, and to establish robustness parameters for the planning of future head and neck treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated were evaluated in terms of robustness to range and setup errors. Error bar dose distributions were generated for each plan, from which several metrics were extracted and used to define a robustness database of acceptable parameters over all analyzed plans. The patients were treated in sequentially delivered series, and plans were evaluated for both the first series and for the combined error over the whole treatment. To demonstrate the application of such a database in the head and neck, for 1 patient, an alternative treatment plan was generated using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach and plans of differing numbers of fields. Results: The robustness database for the treatment of head and neck patients is presented. In an example case, comparison of single and multiple field plans against the database show clear improvements in robustness by using multiple fields. A comparison of sequentially delivered series and an SIB approach for this patient show both to be of comparable robustness, although the SIB approach shows a slightly greater sensitivity to uncertainties. Conclusions: A robustness database was created for the treatment of head and neck patients with intensity modulated proton therapy based on previous clinical experience. This will allow the identification of future plans that may benefit from alternative planning approaches to improve robustness.

  5. Evaluation of Robustness to Setup and Range Uncertainties for Head and Neck Patients Treated With Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyapa, Robert; Lowe, Matthew; Bolsi, Alessandra; Lomax, Antony J.; Weber, Damien C.; Albertini, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of head and neck plans for treatment with intensity modulated proton therapy to range and setup errors, and to establish robustness parameters for the planning of future head and neck treatments. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated were evaluated in terms of robustness to range and setup errors. Error bar dose distributions were generated for each plan, from which several metrics were extracted and used to define a robustness database of acceptable parameters over all analyzed plans. The patients were treated in sequentially delivered series, and plans were evaluated for both the first series and for the combined error over the whole treatment. To demonstrate the application of such a database in the head and neck, for 1 patient, an alternative treatment plan was generated using a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) approach and plans of differing numbers of fields. Results: The robustness database for the treatment of head and neck patients is presented. In an example case, comparison of single and multiple field plans against the database show clear improvements in robustness by using multiple fields. A comparison of sequentially delivered series and an SIB approach for this patient show both to be of comparable robustness, although the SIB approach shows a slightly greater sensitivity to uncertainties. Conclusions: A robustness database was created for the treatment of head and neck patients with intensity modulated proton therapy based on previous clinical experience. This will allow the identification of future plans that may benefit from alternative planning approaches to improve robustness.

  6. Observations on the effects of acid rain treatment on needle surfaces of scots pine and Norway spruce seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turunen, M.; Huttunen, S.; Back, J.

    1994-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings were subjected to acid rain treatment at pH 3, pH 4 and pH 7 in a field experiment during 1986-1989. SEM+EDS, TEM, and measurements of wax quantity were used to detect changes in needle surfaces. After 5 weeks at pH 3 and pH 4 acid rain treatment, CaSO 4 -crystallites were observed on visibly undamaged pine and spruce needle surfaces. Direct acid rain damage in conjunction with CaSO 4 -crystallites was observed only occasionally in wax structures. Two-month-old pine needles had 50% less wax in early August after exposure at pH 3 and pH 4 than water controls. The occurrence of CaSO 4 -crystallites on acid rain-treated needle surfaces, and more abundant deposition of Ca oxalate crystallites in the inner walls of epi- and hypodermal cells could be involved with acid rain-induced calcium leaching. Calcium sulphate is probably a result of the disturbed wax and cuticle biosynthesis resulting in undeveloped, permeable cuticles. At the end of experiment, no CaSO 4 -crystallites were seen on needle surfaces. Soil analysis revealed an increase in the soluble Ca concentrations at pH 3. (orig.)

  7. Urodynamic changes at 18 months post-therapy in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Do, Viet; Herschorn, Sender; DeBoer, Gerrit; Danjoux, Cyril; Morton, Gerard; Cheng, Chun Hung; Barak, Inna; Preiner, John

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on urodynamics at 18 months post-therapy, using urodynamic study, in prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive external beam RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 17 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were accrued into a single-arm prospective study. Fifteen of 17 patients completed scheduled multichannel video-urodynamic study at baseline as well as 3 and 18 months after RT. Baseline quantitative urodynamic parameters were compared with those at 18 months post-RT to assess the nature and extent of urodynamic change brought about by RT. These quantitative changes were further correlated to the change in self-assessed qualitative urinary function measured by International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), Quality of Life assessment index (QoL), and urinary functional inquiry. Results: The statistically significant quantitative changes detected by the urodynamic study at 18 months post-RT were decrease in bladder capacity and bladder volume at first sensation in both the supine and upright position, and reduction in bladder volume at desire to void in the supine position. In our cohort, the mean reduction in bladder capacity was 100 mL in the supine position and 54 mL in the upright position. No statistically significant change was observed with regard to pressure, maximum flow rate, voided volume, or postvoid residual volume. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant change in bladder compliance, bladder instability, or bladder outlet obstruction. No statistically significant change in self-assessed qualitative urological function was observed between baseline and 18 months post-RT, measured by the 3 parameters (IPSS, QoL, and urinary frequency over 24 h). Conclusions: This is the first quantitative study that prospectively evaluated the effect of RT on urodynamics in prostate cancer patients receiving definitive RT. The statistically significant changes at 18 months post-RT were

  8. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkova, P Yu; Geras'kin, S A; Horemans, N; Makarenko, E S; Saenen, E; Duarte, G T; Nauts, R; Bondarenko, V S; Jacobs, G; Voorspoels, S; Kudin, M

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multivariate NIR studies of seed-water interaction in Scots Pine Seeds (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Lestander, Torbjörn

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes seed-water interaction using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multivariate regression models and Scots pine seeds. The presented research covers classification of seed viability, prediction of seed moisture content, selection of NIR wavelengths and interpretation of seed-water interaction modelled and analysed by principal component analysis, ordinary least squares (OLS), partial least squares (PLS), bi-orthogonal least squares (BPLS) and genetic algorithms. The potenti...

  10. Vegetation diversity of the Scots pine stands in different forest sites in the Turawa Forest District

    OpenAIRE

    Stefańska-Krzaczek, Ewa; Pech, Paweł

    2014-01-01

    The utility of phytocenotic indices in the diagnosis and classification of forest sites might be limited because of vegetation degeneration in managed forests. However, even in secondary communities it may be possible to determine indicator species, although these may differ from typical and well known plant indicators. The aim of this work was to assess the vegetation diversity of Scots pine stands in representative forest site types along a moisture and fertility gradient. In total ...

  11. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A [Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, V N Sukachev Institute of Forest, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, V A [Siberian State Technological University, Krasnoyarsk, 660049 (Russian Federation); Soja, A J, E-mail: GAIvanova@ksc.krasn.r [National Institute of Aerospace, Resident at NASA Langley Research Center, MS 420, Hampton, VA 23681-2199 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  12. The frequency of forest fires in Scots pine stands of Tuva, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, G A; Kukavskaya, E A; Ivanov, V A; Soja, A J

    2010-01-01

    Forest fires resulting from long periods of drought cause extensive forest ecosystem destruction and can impact on the carbon balance and air quality and feed back to the climate system, regionally and globally. Past fire frequency is reconstructed for Tuvan Scots pine stands using dendrochronology and statistics. Central Tuvan Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stands are subject to annual fire regimes; however high intensity fires are rare but they are responsible for most of the damage. Low, medium, and high severity fires have shaped the multi-story Scots pine communities, locally and regionally. Fire type and frequency are directly related to weather and climate and are also dependent on anthropogenic influences. The primary dry period, which promotes fire ignition and spread, in Tuva occurs in April and May. In some years, the precipitation deficit combined with high air temperatures induces long periods of drought. Unlike the typical surface fire regime, forest fires that burn during these extreme droughts often become crown fires that result in substantial forest damage and carbon release. The mean fire interval (MFI) is found to be 10.4 years in Balgazyn stands, and the landscape-scale MFI is 22.4 years. High severity, stand-replacing crown fires have a longer MFI. The warmer and dryer weather that is predicted by global climate models is evident in Tuva, and we believe that these changes in weather and climate have resulted in increased fire intensity and severity, rather than fire frequency in the Tuvan region.

  13. Analysis, pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of different fractions of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Forestry residues consisting of softwood are a major lignocellulosic resource for production of liquid biofuels. Scots pine, a commercially important forest tree, was fractionated into seven fractions of chips: juvenile heartwood, mature heartwood, juvenile sapwood, mature sapwood, bark, top parts, and knotwood. The different fractions were characterized analytically with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to dilute-acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification. Results All fractions were characterized by a high glucan content (38-43%) and a high content of other carbohydrates (11-14% mannan, 2-4% galactan) that generate easily convertible hexose sugars, and by a low content of inorganic material (0.2-0.9% ash). The lignin content was relatively uniform (27-32%) and the syringyl-guaiacyl ratio of the different fractions were within the range 0.021-0.025. The knotwood had a high content of extractives (9%) compared to the other fractions. The effects of pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification were relatively similar, but without pretreatment the bark fraction was considerably more susceptible to enzymatic saccharification. Conclusions Since sawn timber is a main product from softwood species such as Scots pine, it is an important issue whether different parts of the tree are equally suitable for bioconversion processes. The investigation shows that bioconversion of Scots pine is facilitated by that most of the different fractions exhibit relatively similar properties with regard to chemical composition and susceptibility to techniques used for bioconversion of woody biomass. PMID:24641769

  14. SCoT marker for the assessment of genetic diversity in saudi arabian date palm cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurainy, F.A.; Tarroum, M.

    2015-01-01

    Different types of molecular markers based on DNA have been used for the assessment of genetic diversity in the plant species. Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) marker has recently become the marker of choice in genetic diversity studies. SCoT marker was used for the assessment of genetic diversity in Saudi Arabian date palm cultivars. The percentage of polymorphic loci (PPL) at population level ranged from 3.28 to 13.11 with an average of 7.10. The Neis gene diversity (h) and Shannons Information index (I) were 0.033 and 0.046, respectively. However, at cultivar level, PPL, Neis gene diversity (h) and Shannons Information index (I) were 42.62, 0.090 and 0.155, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 48% of variation within the populations, whereas 52% was found among the populations. A hierarchical analysis of molecular variance revealed level of genetic differentiation among populations (52% of total variance, P = 0.001), consistent with the gene differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.631). Unweighted pair group method of arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the SCoT marker data divided the six cultivars and their populations into five main clusters at 0.95 genetic similarity coefficient level. (author)

  15. Melancholia and Conviviality in Modern Literary Scots: Sanghas, Sengas and Shairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the visions of Scottish identity projected in twenty-first century, post-devolution Scots literature, and seeks to read them against Paul Gilroy’s 'Postcolonial Melancholia' (2005 which examines the protean identities of post-imperial Britain. Gilroy looks particularly at social and artistic manifestations of racial and cultural inequality, although conceding that there is also room for a ‘postcolonial conviviality’ that celebrates diversity. His critique of this ‘Britain’ is, however, selectively constructed, making only passing reference to the constituent nations of the United Kingdom, and no space is devoted to an evaluation of post-colonial Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. As yet, no comparable analysis is forthcoming for these ‘home nations’, so this paper attempts to outline the ways in which Scottish—and particularly Scots—literature may provide relevant comparable cultural commentary. Focus is given here to literature written in Scots because the choice to write in Scots is strongly politically motivated and speaks immediately to the question of cultural inequality and loss. Specific attention is paid to Matthew Fitt’s B'ut n Ben A-Go-Go' (2000, Suhayl Saadi’s 'Psychoraag' (2004, and Anne Donovan’s 'Buddha Da' (2003, which various engage with questions of personal and national identity as their main characters take part in their personal journeys.

  16. Growth and Survival Variation among Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Gülcü

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree height, basal diameter, and survival were examined in thirteen-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. at two exotic sites of the species in Southern part of Turkey. Variations within provenance and among provenances and relations among the traits were estimated to compare Scots pine provenance and two other native species. Averages of tree height and basal diameter were 350 cm and 52.7 mm in Aydogmus site and 385 cm and 51.2 mm in Kemer site, respectively. There were large differences within and among provenances for the characters. Sites were similar (p>0.05 for the characters, while there were significant differences (p≤0.05 among provenances within site according to results of variance analysis (ANOVA. Scots pine provenances were higher and had more thickness than that of black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani A. Rich. which were natural species of the region. There were positive and significant (p<0.05 correlations between height and basal diameter in the species. Average survivals were 56% and 35% of the provenances in the sites. They were 71% and 11% in black pine and 53% in Taurus cedar for the sites respectively.

  17. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the measurements was based on a correlation analysis and a hybrid emission algorithm describing both de novo and pool emissions. During the measurement period May–August 2007, the monthly medians of daytime emissions were 200, 290, 180, and 200 μg m−2 h−1. The emissions were partly light dependent, probably due to de novo biosynthesis. The emission potential for both de novo and pool emissions exhibited a decreasing summertime trend. The ratio of the de novo emission potential to the total emission potential varied between 30 % and 46 %. Although the monthly changes were not significant, the ratio always differed statistically from zero, suggesting that the role of de novo biosynthesis was observable. Given the uncertainties in this study, we conclude that more accurate estimates of the contribution of de novo emissions are required for improving monoterpene emission algorithms for Scots pine dominated forests.

  18. An imaging informatics-based system to support animal studies for treating pain in spinal cord injury utilizing proton-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Gridley, Daila S.; Mao, Xiao W.; Kotha, Nikhil

    2015-03-01

    In previous years we demonstrated an imaging informatics system designed to support multi-institutional research focused on the utilization of proton radiation for treating spinal cord injury (SCI)-related pain. This year we will demonstrate an update on the system with new modules added to perform image processing on evaluation data using immunhistochemistry methods to observe effects of proton therapy. The overarching goal of the research is to determine the effectiveness of using the proton beam for treating SCI-related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The research is a joint collaboration between three major institutes, University of Southern California (data collection/integration and image analysis), Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach (patient subject recruitment), and Loma Linda University and Medical Center (human and preclinical animal studies). The system that we are presenting is one of its kind which is capable of integrating a large range of data types, including text data, imaging data, DICOM objects from proton therapy treatment and pathological data. For multi-institutional studies, keeping data secure and integrated is very crucial. Different kinds of data within the study workflow are generated at different stages and different groups of people who process and analyze them in order to see hidden patterns within healthcare data from a broader perspective. The uniqueness of our system relies on the fact that it is platform independent and web-based which makes it very useful in such a large-scale study.

  19. The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) in patients treated with external beam radiation therapy: Evaluation and optimization in patients at higher risk of relapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, Schuyler; Schipper, Matthew; Blas, Kevin; Lee, Vivien; Sabolch, Aaron; Olson, Karin; Sandler, Howard M.; Feng, Felix Y.; Hamstra, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) was developed to predict freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) following radical prostatectomy (RP). Its utility following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has not been externally evaluated. Methods: A retrospective study of 612 patients treated with dose-escalated EBRT at University of Michigan Medical Center. Results: Compared to the derivation cohort, EBRT treated patients had higher-risk disease (28% with CAPRA of 6–10 vs. 5%, respectively). A total of 114 patients (19%) had BF with 5-year BF ranging from 7% with CAPRA 0–3 to 35% with CAPRA 7–10. For RT patients the risk of BF at 5-year was similar to 4 surgical cohorts for CAPRA scores 0–2 but lower for all CAPRA scores ⩾ 3. The difference favoring RT increased with increasing CAPRA score reaching a 27–50% absolute improved at 5-years for CAPRA scores of 6–10. On multivariate analysis each CAPRA point increased the risk of BF (p < 0.0001) while Gleason pattern 5 in the biopsy also increased BF (p = 0.01) and long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) significantly reduced the risk of BF (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Compared to surgical series the risk of BF was lower with dose-escalated EBRT with the greatest difference at the highest CAPRA scores.

  20. Hemoglobin levels do not predict biochemical outcome for localized prostate cancer treated with neoadjuvant androgen-suppression therapy and external-beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, Howard Huaihan; Ludgate, Charles; Pickles, Tom; Paltiel, Chuck M.Sc.; Agranovich, Alex; Berthelet, Eric; Duncan, Graeme; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Kwan, Winkle; Lim, Jan; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether hemoglobin (Hb) levels affect outcome in men with localized prostate adenocarcinoma (LPA) treated with neoadjuvant androgen-suppression therapy (NAST) and external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 563 men with LPA treated with NAST (median: 5.3 months) and EBRT who had Hb levels during treatment were retrospectively reviewed. Patient, tumor, and treatment variables, including the following Hb variables, were subjected to univariate and multivariable analyses to identify factors that predict biochemical control (bNED) and overall survival (OS): pre-EBRT Hb, Hb nadir during EBRT, and change in Hb from pre-EBRT to nadir during EBRT. Results: Median PSA follow-up was 4.25 years. Forty-nine percent of men were anemic during EBRT, with a median Hb of 13.4 g/dL, and 68% experienced a decline in Hb from pre-EBRT to during EBRT of median 0.6 g/dL. Five-year Nadir + 2 bNED and OS rates were similar for anemic and nonanemic patients during EBRT. High percent-positive biopsies, PSA and Gleason score, and use of AA monotherapy predicted worse bNED. High stage and age predicted worse OS. Hb variables were not predictive of bNED or OS. Conclusions: Anemia is a common side effect of NAST and is usually mild. Hb levels, however, do not predict biochemical control or survival

  1. SU-F-J-191: Dosimetric Evaluation of a Left Chestwall Patient Treated with a Compact Proton Pencil Beam Gantry Utilizing Daily Setup CBCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynard, M; Chen, K; Rosen, L; Wu, H [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the robustness of the gradient technique for treating a multi-isocenter left chest wall patient with a compact proton pencil beam gantry. Both CBCT and stereoscopic imaging are used to facilitate daily treatment setup. Methods: To treat the elongated chest wall planning target volume (PTV) with the compact PBS system, a 28 fraction (5040 CcGE) treatment plan was created using two fields with gradient matching technique. Daily table shifts between treatment field isocenters were obtained from the record and verify system for each treatment fraction. Copies of the initial treatment plan were made for each fraction and the field isocenter coordinates for each plan copy were adjusted to reflect daily table shifts. Doses were re-calculated for each fraction, summed, and compared against the initial plan. Results: The table shifts (average and range) were 2.2 (−5.1–+3.9), 3.0 (−6.0–+4.0) and 3.0 (−10.1–+1.9) millimeters in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior and right-left directions, respectively. Dose difference to the PTV, heart and ipsilateral lung were evaluated. The percentage of the PTV receiving the prescription dose decreased from 94.6% to 89.1%. The D95 of the PTV increased from 99.6% to 99.9%. The maximum dose in PTV increased from 106.6% to 109.2% and V105 increased from 1.0% to 16.5%. The V20 of the ipsilateral lung increased from 18.5% to 21.0%. The mean heart dose difference was negligible. Conclusion: Observed dose differences to lung and heart tissues due to daily setup variations remained acceptably low while maintaining sufficient dose coverage to the PTV. This initial case study demonstrates the robustness of the gradient technique to treat a large target, multi-isocenter plan with a compact proton pencil beam gantry equipped with CBCT and stereoscopic imaging modalities.

  2. The planning target volume margins detected by cone-beam CT in head and neck cancer patients treated by image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun; Chen Hong; Zhang Guoqiao; Chen Fei; Zhang Li

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the planning target volume margins of head and neck cancers treated by image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Methods: 464 sets cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images before setup correction and 126 sets CBCT images after correction were obtained from 51 head and neck cancer patients treated by IGRT in our department. The systematic and random errors were evaluated by either online or offline correction through registering the CBCT images to the planning CT. The data was divided into 3 groups according to the online correction times. Results: The isocenter shift were 0.37 mm ± 2.37 mm, -0.43 mm ± 2.30 mm and 0.47 mm ± 2.65 mm in right-left (RL), anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions respectively before correction, and it reduced to 0.08 mm ± 0.68 mm, -0.03 mm ± 0.74 mm and 0.03 mm ± 0.80 mm when evaluated by 126 sets corrected CBCT images. The planning target volume (PTV) margin from clinical target volume (CTV) before correction were: 6.41 mm, 6.15 mm and 7.10 mm based on two parameter model, and it reduced to 1.78 mm, 1.80 mm and 1.97 mm after correction. The PTV margins were 3.8 mm, 3.8 mm, 4.0 mm; 4.0 mm, 4.0 mm, 5.0 mm and 5.4 mm, 5.2 mm, 6.1 mm in RL, AP and SI respectively when online-correction times were more than 15 times, 11-15 times, 5-10 times. Conclusions: CBCT-based on online correction reduce the PTV margin for head and neck cancers treated by IGRT and ensure more precise dose delivery and less normal tissue complications. (authors)

  3. Know your limits? Climate extremes impact the range of Scots pine in unexpected places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio Camarero, J; Gazol, Antonio; Sancho-Benages, Santiago; Sangüesa-Barreda, Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    Although extreme climatic events such as drought are known to modify forest dynamics by triggering tree dieback, the impact of extreme cold events, especially at the low-latitude margin ('rear edge') of species distributional ranges, has received little attention. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of one such extreme cold event on a population of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) along the species' European southern rear-edge range limit and to determine how such events can be incorporated into species distribution models (SDMs). A combination of dendrochronology and field observation was used to quantify how an extreme cold event in 2001 in eastern Spain affected growth, needle loss and mortality of Scots pine. Long-term European climatic data sets were used to contextualize the severity of the 2001 event, and an SDM for Scots pine in Europe was used to predict climatic range limits. The 2001 winter reached record minimum temperatures (equivalent to the maximum European-wide diurnal ranges) and, for trees already stressed by a preceding dry summer and autumn, this caused dieback and large-scale mortality. Needle loss and mortality were particularly evident in south-facing sites, where post-event recovery was greatly reduced. The SDM predicted European Scots pine distribution mainly on the basis of responses to maximum and minimum monthly temperatures, but in comparison with this the observed effects of the 2001 cold event at the southerly edge of the range limit were unforeseen. The results suggest that in order to better forecast how anthropogenic climate change might affect future forest distributions, distribution modelling techniques such as SDMs must incorporate climatic extremes. For Scots pine, this study shows that the effects of cold extremes should be included across the entire distribution margin, including the southern 'rear edge', in order to avoid biased predictions based solely on warmer climatic scenarios. © The Author 2015. Published by

  4. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  5. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi, E-mail: fukumitsun@yahoo.co.jp [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira [Department of Otolaryngology, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Sakurai, Hideyuki [Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30-83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22-82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4-89.6 GyE over 30-64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  6. Outcome of T4 (International Union Against Cancer Staging System, 7th edition) or Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Carcinoma Treated With Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Kanemoto, Ayae; Hashii, Haruko; Ohkawa, Ayako; Moritake, Takashi; Tsuboi, Koji; Tabuchi, Keiji; Wada, Tetsuro; Hara, Akira; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical features, prognostic factors, and toxicity of treatment for unresectable carcinomas of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NCPS) treated with proton beam therapy (PBT). Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients (13 men, 4 women) with unresectable carcinomas of the NCPS who underwent PBT at University of Tsukuba between 2001 and 2007 were analyzed. The patients' median age was 62 years (range, 30–83 years). The tumors were located in the nasal cavity in 3 patients, the frontal sinus in 1, the ethmoid sinus in 9, and the maxillary sinus in 4. The clinical stage was Stage IVA in 5 cases, IVB in 10, and recurrent in 2. The tumors were deemed unresectable for medical reasons in 16 patients and because of refusal at a previous hospital 4 months earlier in 1 patient. All the patients received PBT irradiation dose of 22–82.5 GyE and a total of 72.4–89.6 GyE over 30–64 fractions (median 78 GyE over 36 fractions) with X-ray, with attention not exceeding the delivery of 50 GyE to the optic chiasm and brainstem. Results: The overall survival rate was 47.1% at 2 years and 15.7% at 5 years, and the local control rate was 35.0% at 2 years and 17.5% at 5 years. Invasion of the frontal or sphenoid sinus was a prognostic factor for overall survival or local control. Late toxicity of more than Grade 3 was found in 2 patients (brain necrosis in 1 and ipsilateral blindness in 1); however, no mortal adverse effects were observed. Conclusion: Proton beam therapy enabled a reduced irradiation dose to the optic chiasm and brainstem, enabling the safe treatment of unresectable carcinomas in the NCPS. Superior or posterior extension of the tumor influenced patient outcome.

  7. Differential response of Scots pine seedlings to variable intensity and ratio of red and far-red light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Abdur; Ranade, Sonali Sachin; Strand, Åsa; García-Gil, M R

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the response to increasing intensity of red (R) and far-R (FR) light and to a decrease in R:FR ratio in Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) seedling. The results showed that FR high-irradiance response for hypocotyl elongation may be present in Scots pine and that this response is enhanced by increasing light intensity. However, both hypocotyl inhibition and pigment accumulation were more strongly affected by the R light compared with FR light. This is in contrast to previous reports in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In the angiosperm, A. thaliana R light shows an overall milder effect on inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and on pigment biosynthesis compared with FR suggesting conifers and angiosperms respond very differently to the different light regimes. Scots pine shade avoidance syndrome with longer hypocotyls, shorter cotyledons and lower chlorophyll content in response to shade conditions resembles the response observed in A. thaliana. However, anthocyanin accumulation increased with shade in Scots pine, which again differs from what is known in angiosperms. Overall, the response of seedling development and physiology to R and FR light in Scots pine indicates that the regulatory mechanism for light response may differ between gymnosperms and angiosperms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) for evaluating the genetic relationship of Dendrobium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangguo; He, Refeng; Yang, Sai; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Mengying; Lu, Jiangjie; Wang, Huizhong

    2015-08-10

    Two molecular marker systems, start codon targeted (SCoT) and target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP), were used for genetic relationship analysis of 36 Dendrobium species collected from China. Twenty-two selected SCoT primers produced 337 loci, of which 324 (96%) were polymorphic, whereas 13 TRAP primer combinations produced a total of 510 loci, with 500 (97.8%) of them being polymorphic. An average polymorphism information content of 0.953 and 0.983 was detected using the SCoT and TRAP primers, respectively, showing that a high degree of genetic diversity exists among Chinese Dendrobium species. The partition of clusters in the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram and principal coordinate analysis plot based on the SCoT and TRAP markers was similar and clustered the 36 Dendrobium species into four main groups. Our results will provide useful information for resource protection and will also be useful to improve the current Dendrobium breeding programs. Our results also demonstrate that SCoT and TRAP markers are informative and can be used to evaluate genetic relationships between Dendrobium species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship Between Local Recurrence and Radiotherapy Treatment Volume for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Treated With External Beam Radiotherapy and Function Preservation Surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickie, Colleen I., E-mail: Colleen.dickie@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Griffin, Anthony M. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Parent, Amy L. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N. [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Svensson, Jon [AngliaRuskin University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S. [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Musculoskeletal Oncology Unit, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B.; O' Sullivan, Brian [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To examine the geometric relationship between local recurrence (LR) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) volumes for soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients treated with function-preserving surgery and RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 768 (7.8%) STS patients treated with combined therapy within our institution from 1990 through 2006 developed an LR. Thirty-two received preoperative RT, 16 postoperative RT, and 12 preoperative RT plus a postoperative boost. Treatment records, RT simulation images, and diagnostic MRI/CT data sets of the original and LR disease were retrospectively compared. For LR location analysis, three RT target volumes were defined according to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 29 as follows: (1) the gross tumor or operative bed; (2) the treatment volume (TV) extending 5 cm longitudinally beyond the tumor or operative bed unless protected by intact barriers to spread and at least 1-2 cm axially (the TV was enclosed by the isodose curve representing the prescribed target absorbed dose [TAD] and accounted for target/patient setup uncertainty and beam characteristics), and (3) the irradiated volume (IRV) that received at least 50% of the TAD, including the TV. LRs were categorized as developing in field within the TV, marginal (on the edge of the IRV), and out of field (occurring outside of the IRV). Results: Forty-nine tumors relapsed in field (6.4% overall). Nine were out of field (1.1% overall), and 2 were marginal (0.3% overall). Conclusions: The majority of STS tumors recur in field, indicating that the incidence of LR may be affected more by differences in biologic and molecular characteristics rather than aberrations in RT dose or target volume coverage. In contrast, only two patients relapsed at the IRV boundary, suggesting that the risk of a marginal relapse is low when the TV is appropriately defined. These data support the accurate delivery of optimal RT volumes in the most precise way using advanced

  10. The Relationship Between Local Recurrence and Radiotherapy Treatment Volume for Soft Tissue Sarcomas Treated With External Beam Radiotherapy and Function Preservation Surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, Colleen I.; Griffin, Anthony M.; Parent, Amy L.; Chung, Peter W.M.; Catton, Charles N.; Svensson, Jon; Ferguson, Peter C.; Wunder, Jay S.; Bell, Robert S.; Sharpe, Michael B.; O’Sullivan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the geometric relationship between local recurrence (LR) and external beam radiotherapy (RT) volumes for soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) patients treated with function-preserving surgery and RT. Methods and Materials: Sixty of 768 (7.8%) STS patients treated with combined therapy within our institution from 1990 through 2006 developed an LR. Thirty-two received preoperative RT, 16 postoperative RT, and 12 preoperative RT plus a postoperative boost. Treatment records, RT simulation images, and diagnostic MRI/CT data sets of the original and LR disease were retrospectively compared. For LR location analysis, three RT target volumes were defined according to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements 29 as follows: (1) the gross tumor or operative bed; (2) the treatment volume (TV) extending 5 cm longitudinally beyond the tumor or operative bed unless protected by intact barriers to spread and at least 1–2 cm axially (the TV was enclosed by the isodose curve representing the prescribed target absorbed dose [TAD] and accounted for target/patient setup uncertainty and beam characteristics), and (3) the irradiated volume (IRV) that received at least 50% of the TAD, including the TV. LRs were categorized as developing in field within the TV, marginal (on the edge of the IRV), and out of field (occurring outside of the IRV). Results: Forty-nine tumors relapsed in field (6.4% overall). Nine were out of field (1.1% overall), and 2 were marginal (0.3% overall). Conclusions: The majority of STS tumors recur in field, indicating that the incidence of LR may be affected more by differences in biologic and molecular characteristics rather than aberrations in RT dose or target volume coverage. In contrast, only two patients relapsed at the IRV boundary, suggesting that the risk of a marginal relapse is low when the TV is appropriately defined. These data support the accurate delivery of optimal RT volumes in the most precise way using advanced

  11. Effects of perineural invasion on biochemical recurrence and prostate cancer-specific survival in patients treated with definitive external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Luke C; Narang, Amol K; Gergis, Carol; Radwan, Noura A; Han, Peijin; Marciscano, Ariel E; Robertson, Scott P; He, Pei; Trieu, Janson; Ram, Ashwin N; McNutt, Todd R; Griffith, Emily; DeWeese, Theodore A; Honig, Stephanie; Singh, Harleen; Greco, Stephen C; Tran, Phuoc T; Deville, Curtiland; DeWeese, Theodore L; Song, Daniel Y

    2018-03-15

    Perineural invasion (PNI) has not yet gained universal acceptance as an independent predictor of adverse outcomes for prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We analyzed the prognostic influence of PNI for a large institutional cohort of prostate cancer patients who underwent EBRT with and without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). We, retrospectively, reviewed prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT from 1993 to 2007 at our institution. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS), with secondary endpoints of metastasis-free survival (MFS), prostate cancer-specific survival (PCSS), and overall survival (OS). Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were constructed for all survival endpoints. Hazard ratios for PNI were analyzed for the entire cohort and for subsets defined by NCCN risk level. Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated for all survival endpoints after stratification by PNI status, with significant differences computed using the log-rank test. Of 888 men included for analysis, PNI was present on biopsy specimens in 187 (21.1%). PNI was associated with clinical stage, pretreatment PSA level, biopsy Gleason score, and use of ADT (all P<0.01). Men with PNI experienced significantly inferior 10-year BFFS (40.0% vs. 57.8%, P = 0.002), 10-year MFS (79.7% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.001), and 10-year PCSS (90.9% vs. 95.9%, P = 0.009), but not 10-year OS (67.5% vs. 77.5%, P = 0.07). On multivariate analysis, PNI was independently associated with inferior BFFS (P<0.001), but not MFS, PCSS, or OS. In subset analysis, PNI was associated with inferior BFFS (P = 0.04) for high-risk patients and with both inferior BFFS (P = 0.01) and PCSS (P = 0.05) for low-risk patients. Biochemical failure occurred in 33% of low-risk men with PNI who did not receive ADT compared to 8% for low-risk men with PNI treated with ADT (P = 0.01). PNI was an independently significant predictor of adverse survival

  12. Prognostic Value of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With Surgical Resection and Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Multicentric Long-Term Outcome Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Montero, Angel; Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Carmen [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Cuervo, Miguel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); San Julian, Mikel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); and others

    2014-01-01

    Background: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy). Results: From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03). Conclusion: This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy.

  13. Prognostic Value of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With Surgical Resection and Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Multicentric Long-Term Outcome Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Felipe A.; Sole, Claudio V.; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Montero, Angel; Polo, Alfredo; Gonzalez, Carmen; Cuervo, Miguel; San Julian, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy). Results: From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03). Conclusion: This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy

  14. Comparison of the outcome and morbidity for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated by high-dose-rate brachytherapy plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Fumin; Wang Yuming; Wang Chongjong; Huang Hsuanying; Chiang Pohui

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the survival, gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity for localized or locally advanced prostate cancer treated by high-dose-rate-brachytherapy (HDR-BT) plus external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) versus EBRT alone at a single institute in Taiwan. Eighty-eight patients with T1c-T3b prostate cancer consecutively treated by EBRT alone (33 patients) or HDR-BT+EBRT (55 patients) were studied. The median dose of EBRT was 70.2 Gy in the EBRT group and 50.4 Gy in the HDR-BT group. HDR-BT was performed 2-3 weeks before EBRT, with 12.6 Gy in three fractions over 24 h. Five patients (15.2%) in the EBRT group and seven (12.7%) in the HDR-BT group developed a biochemical relapse. The 5-year actuarial biochemical relapse-free survival rates were 65.0% in the EBRT group and 66.7% in the HDR-BT group (P=0.76). The 5-year actuarial likelihood of late ≥Grade 2 and ≥Grade 3 GI toxicity in the EBRT versus HDR-BT group was 62.8 versus 7.7% (P<0.001) and 19.6 versus 0% (P=0.001), respectively. In a multivariate analysis, the only predictor for late GI toxicity was the mode of RT. The 5-year actuarial likelihood of late ≥Grade 2 and ≥Grade 3 GU toxicity in the EBRT versus HDR-BT group was 14.8 versus 15.9% (P=0.86) and 3.6 versus 8.5% (P=0.40), respectively. The addition of HDR-BT before EBRT with a reduced dose from the EBRT produces a comparable survival outcome and GU toxicity but a significantly less GI toxicity for prostate cancer patients. (author)

  15. Under-utilisation of high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost in men with intermediate-high risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Wee Loon; Evans, Sue M; Millar, Jeremy L

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) boost with definitive external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in prostate cancer (CaP) management. The study population comprised men with intermediate-high risk CaP captured in the population-based Prostate Cancer Outcome Registry Victoria (PCOR-Vic), treated with EBRT from January 2010 to December 2015. The primary outcome is the proportion of men who received HDR-BT boost. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effect of patient-, tumour- and treatment-factors on the likelihood of HDR-BT use. Medicare Benefit Schedule (MBS) data was accessed to evaluate the Australia-wide pattern of HDR-BT use. One thousand eight hundred and six patients were included in this study - 886 (49%) intermediate-risk, and 920 (51%) high-risk CaP patients. Overall, only 124 (7%) patients had EBRT + HDR-BT - 47 (5%) intermediate-risk and 77 (8%) high-risk CaP patients (P = 0.01). There is higher proportion of patients who had HDR-BT in public institutions (7% public vs. 3% private, P = 0.005) and in metropolitan centres (9% metropolitan vs. 2% regional, P Victorian men with CaP. The decline in HDR-BT use was also observed nationally. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of the Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Long-Term Followup of Large Periapical Lesions Treated by Endodontic Surgery: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shekhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case report is to present two cases where cone beam computed tomography (CBCT was used for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and followup of large periapical lesions in relation to maxillary anterior teeth treated by endodontic surgery. Periapical disease may be detected sooner using CBCT, and their true size, extent, nature, and position can be assessed. It allows clinician to select the most relevant views of the area of interest resulting in improved detection of periapical lesions. CBCT scan may provide a better, more accurate, and faster method to differentially diagnose a solid (granuloma from a fluid-filled lesion or cavity (cyst. In the present case report, endodontic treatment was performed for both the cases followed by endodontic surgery. Biopsy was done to establish the confirmatory histopathological diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Long-term assessment of the periapical healing following surgery was done in all the three dimensions using CBCT and was found to be more accurate than IOPA radiography. It was concluded that CBCT was a useful modality in making the diagnosis and treatment plan and assessing the outcome of endodontic surgery for large periapical lesions.

  17. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of the Diagnosis, Treatment Planning, and Long-Term Followup of Large Periapical Lesions Treated by Endodontic Surgery: Two Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Vijay; Shashikala, K.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to present two cases where cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and followup of large periapical lesions in relation to maxillary anterior teeth treated by endodontic surgery. Periapical disease may be detected sooner using CBCT, and their true size, extent, nature, and position can be assessed. It allows clinician to select the most relevant views of the area of interest resulting in improved detection of periapical lesions. CBCT scan may provide a better, more accurate, and faster method to differentially diagnose a solid (granuloma) from a fluid-filled lesion or cavity (cyst). In the present case report, endodontic treatment was performed for both the cases followed by endodontic surgery. Biopsy was done to establish the confirmatory histopathological diagnosis of the periapical lesions. Long-term assessment of the periapical healing following surgery was done in all the three dimensions using CBCT and was found to be more accurate than IOPA radiography. It was concluded that CBCT was a useful modality in making the diagnosis and treatment plan and assessing the outcome of endodontic surgery for large periapical lesions. PMID:23762646

  18. An imaging informatics-based system utilizing DICOM objects for treating pain in spinal cord injury patients utilizing proton beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.; Chun, Sophia; Gridley, Daila S.

    2014-03-01

    Many US combat personnel have sustained nervous tissue trauma during service, which often causes Neuropathic pain as a side effect and is difficult to manage. However in select patients, synapse lesioning can provide significant pain control. Our goal is to determine the effectiveness of using Proton Beam radiotherapy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI) related neuropathic pain as an alternative to invasive surgical lesioning. The project is a joint collaboration of USC, Spinal Cord Institute VA Healthcare System, Long Beach, and Loma Linda University. This is first system of its kind that supports integration and standardization of imaging informatics data in DICOM format; clinical evaluation forms outcomes data and treatment planning data from the Treatment planning station (TPS) utilized to administer the proton therapy in DICOM-RT format. It also supports evaluation of SCI subjects for recruitment into the clinical study, which includes the development, and integration of digital forms and tools for automatic evaluation and classification of SCI pain. Last year, we presented the concept for the patient recruitment module based on the principle of Bayesian decision theory. This year we are presenting the fully developed patient recruitment module and its integration to other modules. In addition, the DICOM module for integrating DICOM and DICOM-RT-ION data is also developed and integrated. This allows researchers to upload animal/patient study data into the system. The patient recruitment module has been tested using 25 retrospective patient data and DICOM data module is tested using 5 sets of animal data.

  19. Diverging Drought Resistance of Scots Pine Provenances Revealed by Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Seidel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With recent climate changes, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forests have been affected by die-off events. Assisted migration of adapted provenances mitigates drought impacts and promotes forest regeneration. Although suitable provenances are difficult to identify by traditional ecophysiological techniques, which are time consuming and invasive, plant water status can be easily assessed by infrared thermography. Thus, we examined the stress responses of 2-year-old potted Scots pine seedlings from six provenances (Bulgaria, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, and Spain based on two thermal indices (crop water stress index and stomatal conductance index. Both indices were derived from infrared images during a six-week drought/control treatment in a greenhouse in the summer of 2013. The pines were monitored during the stress and subsequent recovery period. After controlling for fluctuating environmental conditions, soil moisture or treatment-specific water supply was the most important driver of drought stress. The stress magnitude and response to soil water deficit depended on provenance. Under moderate drought conditions, pines from western and eastern Mediterranean provenances (Bulgaria, France, and Spain expressed lower stress levels than those from both continental provenances (Germany and Poland. In pines from the Spanish and Bulgarian provenances, the stress level differences were significantly lower than in continental pines. Moreover, pines from continental provenances were less resilient (showed less recovery after the stress period than Mediterranean pines. Under extreme drought, all provenances were equally stressed with almost no significant differences in their thermal indices. Provenance-specific differences in drought resistance, which are associated with factors such as summer precipitation at the origin of Scots pine seedlings, may offer promising tracks of adaptation to future drought risks.

  20. Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leski, Tomasz; Aucina, Algis; Skridaila, Audrius; Pietras, Marcin; Riepsas, Edvardas; Rudawska, Maria

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, we report the effect of Scots pine genotypes on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) community and growth, survival, and foliar nutrient composition of 2-year-old seedlings grown in forest bare-root nursery conditions in Lithuania. The Scots pine seeds originated from five stands from Latvia (P1), Lithuania (P2 and P3), Belarus (P4), and Poland (P5). Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa were identified: Suillus luteus and Suillus variegatus (within the Suilloid type), Wilcoxina mikolae, Tuber sp., Thelephora terrestris, Cenococcum geophilum, and Russuloid type. The fungal species richness varied between five and seven morphotypes, depending on seed origin. The average species richness and relative abundance of most ECM morphotypes differed significantly depending on pine origin. The most essential finding of our study is the shift in dominance from an ascomycetous fungus like W. mikolae in P2 and P4 seedlings to basidiomycetous Suilloid species like S. luteus and S. variegatus in P1 and P5 seedlings. Significant differences between Scots pine origin were also found in seedling height, root dry weight, survival, and concentration of C, K, Ca, and Mg in the needles. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient revealed that survival and nutritional status of pine seedlings were positively correlated with abundance of Suilloid mycorrhizas and negatively linked with W. mikolae abundance. However, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only survival and magnesium content in pine needles were significantly correlated with abundance of ECM fungi, and Suilloid mycorrhizas were a main significant predictor. Our results may have implications for understanding the physiological and genetic relationship between the host tree and fungi and should be considered in management decisions in forestry and ECM fungus inoculation programs.

  1. The correlation between the ASTRO consensus panel definition of biochemical failure and clinical outcome for patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience treating patients with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if the ASTRO Consensus Panel definition of biochemical failure (BF) following radiation therapy correlates with clinical distant metastases free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and local control (LC). Methods and Materials: Between 1/1/87 and 12/31/92, 568 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital (median total dose 66.6 Gy; range: 60-70.4 Gy). Biochemical failure was defined as three consecutive increases in post-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) after achieving a nadir. Biochemical failure was recorded as the time midway between the nadir and the first rising PSA. Five-year actuarial rates of clinical DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were calculated for patients who were biochemically controlled (BC) versus those who failed biochemically. Median follow-up was 56 months (range: 24-118 months). Results: Five-year actuarial rates of DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were significantly greater in patients who were biochemically controlled versus those who were not (p < 0.001). In patients who were BC, the 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were 99%, 99%, 98%, and 99% respectively. For patients who failed biochemically, the 5-year actuarial rates of DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were 74%, 64%, 89%, and 86% respectively. When stratifying by pretreatment PSA, Gleason score, and T stage these differences remained significant for DMFS, DFS, and CSS. The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that BC was the single most important predictor of clinical outcome for DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC. Pretreatment PSA and Gleason score were also independent predictors of outcome for DMFS and DFS. Conclusions: The ASTRO Consensus Panel definition of BF following radiation therapy correlates well with clinical DMFS, DFS

  2. The correlation between the astro consensus panel definition of biochemical failure and clinical outcome for patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Matter, Richard C.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The ASTRO Consensus Panel on PSA After Radiation Therapy recently recommended a definition of biochemical failure (BF) following treatment of prostate cancer with radiation therapy. We reviewed our institution's experience treating patients with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if the Consensus Panel definition correlates with clinical distant metastases free survival (DMFS), disease free survival (DFS), cause specific survival (CSS), and local control (LC) rates for a large group of patients from the PSA era. Methods And Materials: Between 1/1/87 and 12/31/92, 653 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. Of these patients, 568 had a minimum follow-up of 2 years and constitute the study population. The median pre-treatment PSA and Gleason score was 11 ng/ml and 6, respectively. The median dose to the prostate using megavoltage RT was 66.6 Gy (range: 60-70.4 Gy) using a four field or arc technique. No patient received hormonal therapy either prior to, during, or after radiotherapy unless local or distant failure was documented. Pre-treatment and post-treatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Biochemical failure was defined as three consecutive increases in post-treatment PSA after achieving a nadir. Biochemical failure was recorded as the time midway between the nadir and first increase in PSA. Five year actuarial rates of DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were calculated for patients who were biochemically controlled (BC) versus those who failed biochemically. Results: Median follow-up was 56 months (range: 24-118 months). The overall 5 year actuarial rates of DMFS, DFS, CSS, and LC were significantly better in patients who were biochemically controlled versus those who were not (p< 0.001). The median time to DM within the BF group was 21 months (range: 2-112 months). When stratifying by pre-treatment PSA, Gleason score, and T stage, these

  3. Mistletoe (Viscum album) infestation in the Scots pine stimulates drought-dependent oxidative damage in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Salih; Ilhan, Veli; Turkoglu, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    This study sought to contribute to the understanding of the detrimental effect of the mistletoe (Viscum albumL.), a hemiparasitic plant, on the mortality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestrisL.). Fieldwork was conducted in the town of Kelkit (Gumushane province, Turkey) from April to October in 2013. Pine needles of similar ages were removed from the branches of mistletoe-infested and noninfested Scots pine plants, then transported to the laboratory and used as research materials. The effects of the mistletoe on the Scots pine during infestation were evaluated by determining the levels of water, electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA, being a product of lipid peroxidation) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion (O2 (-•)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical ((•)OH). In addition, the activities of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) were measured in the same samples. The highest level of drought stress was found in summer (especially in August) as a result of the lowest water content in the soil and the highest average temperature occurring in these months. The drought stress induced by mistletoe infestation caused a regular decrease in water content, while it increased the levels of EL, MDA and ROS (H2O2, O2 (-•)and(•)OH). The infestation also stimulated the activities of CAT and POX, with the exception of SOD. On the other hand, in August, when the drought conditions were the harshest, the levels of EL and MDA, which are two of the most important indicator parameters for oxidative stress, as well as the levels of H2O2and(•)OH, which are two of the ROS leading to oxidative stress, reached the highest values in both infested and noninfested needles, whereas the O2 (-•)level decreased. For the same period and needles, CAT activity increased, while SOD activity decreased. Peroxidase activity, however, did not exhibit a significant change. Our findings indicate

  4. Structural and climatic determinants of demographic rates of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vayreda, Jordi; Retana, Javier

    2011-06-01

    The demographic rates of tree species typically show large spatial variation across their range. Understanding the environmental factors underlying this variation is a key topic in forest ecology, with far-reaching management implications. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) covers large areas of the Northern Hemisphere, the Iberian Peninsula being its southwestern distribution limit. In recent decades, an increase in severe droughts and a densification of forests as a result of changes in forest uses have occurred in this region. Our aim was to use climate and stand structure data to explain mortality and growth patterns of Scots pine forests across the Iberian Peninsula. We used data from 2392 plots dominated by Scots pine, sampled for the National Forest Inventory of Spain. Plots were sampled from 1986 to 1996 (IFN2) and were resampled from 1997 to 2007 (IFN3), allowing for the calculation of growth and mortality rates. We fitted linear models to assess the response of growth and mortality rates to the spatial variability of climate, climatic anomalies, and forest structure. Over the period of approximately 10 years between the IFN2 and IFN3, the amount of standing dead trees increased 11-fold. Higher mortality rates were related to dryness, and growth was reduced with increasing dryness and temperature, but results also suggested that effects of climatic stressors were not restricted to dry sites only. Forest structure was strongly related to demographic rates, suggesting that stand development and competition are the main factors associated with demography. In the case of mortality, forest structure interacted with climate, suggesting that competition for water resources induces tree mortality in dry sites. A slight negative relationship was found between mortality and growth, indicating that both rates are likely to be affected by the same stress factors. Additionally, regeneration tended to be lower in plots with higher mortality. Taken together, our results

  5. Features of Scots pine radial growth in conditions of provenance trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Sergey; Kuzmina, Nina

    2013-04-01

    Provenance trial of Scots pine in Boguchany forestry of Krasnoyarsk krai is conducted on two different soils - dark-grey loam forest soil and sod-podzol sandy soil. Complex of negative factors for plant growth and development appears in dry conditions of sandy soil. It could results in decrease of resistance to diseases. Sandy soils in different climatic zones have such common traits as low absorbing capacity, poorness of elemental nutrition, low microbiological activity and moisture capacity, very high water permeability. But Scots pine trees growing in such conditions could have certain advantages and perspectives of use. In the scope of climate change (global warming) the study of Scots pine growth on sandy soil become urgent because of more frequent appearance of dry seasons. Purpose of the work is revelation of radial growth features of Scots pine with different origin in dry conditions of sandy soil and assessment of external factors influence. The main feature of radial growth of majority of studied pine provenances in conditions of sandy soil is presence of significant variation of increment with distinct decline in 25-years old with loss of tree rings in a number of cases. The reason of it is complex of factors: deficit of June precipitation and next following outbreak of fungal disease. Found «frost rings» for all trees of studied clymatypes in 1992 are the consequence of temperature decline from May 21 to June 2 - from 23 down to 2 degree Celsius. Perspective climatypes with biggest radial increments and least sensitivity to fungal disease were revealed. Eniseysk and Vikhorevka (from Krasnoyarsk krai and Irkutsk oblast)provenances of pine have the biggest radial increments, the least sensitivity to Cenangium dieback and smallest increments decline. These climatypes are in the group of perspective provenances and in present time they are recommended for wide trial in the region for future use in plantation forest growing. Kandalaksha (Murmansk oblast

  6. Preliminary comp arison of helical tomotherapy and mixed beams of unmodulated electrons and intensity modulated radiation therapy for treating superficial cancers of the parotid gland and nasal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasi, Olivier; Fontenot, Jonas D; Fields, Robert S; Gibbons, John P; Hogstrom, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    To investigate combining unmodulated electron beams with intensity-modulated radiation therapy to improve dose distributions for superficial head and neck cancers, and to compare mixed beam plans with helical tomotherapy. Mixed beam and helical tomotherapy dose plans were developed for two patients with parotid gland tumors and two patients with nasal cavity tumors. Mixed beam plans consisted of various weightings of a enface electron beam and IMRT, which was optimized after calculation of the electron dose to compensate for heterogeneity in the electron dose distribution within the target volume. Helical tomotherapy plans showed dose conformity and homogeneity in the target volume that was equal to or better than the mixed beam plans. Electron-only plans tended to show the lowest doses to normal tissues, but with markedly worse dose conformity and homogeneity than in the other plans. However, adding a 20% IMRT dose fraction (i.e., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to the electron plan restored target conformity and homogeneity to values comparable to helical tomotherapy plans, while maintaining lower normal tissue dose. Mixed beam treatments offer some dosimetric advantages over IMRT or helical tomotherapy for target depths that do not exceed the useful range of the electron beam. Adding a small IMRT component (e.g., IMRT:electron weighting = 1:4) to electron beam plans markedly improved target dose homogeneity and conformity for the cases examined in this study

  7. Damages and causes of death in plantations with containerised seedlings of Scots pine and Norway spruce in the central of Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumburg, Jan

    2000-07-01

    In 1972, 94 forest areas were planted with containerised seedlings, 83 with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 11 with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), in the central of Sweden. In the first season after planting, 99% of the Scots pine and 98% of the Norway spruce seedlings survived. Three seasons after plantation, 67% of Scots pine and 62% of Norway spruce were alive. The most common type of known damages causing mortality were mammals and insects. Vegetation was registered as the cause of mortality at some occasions in Scots pine plantations, whereas vegetation never was considered as the cause of death in Norway spruce plantations. The average size of the scarification patches were 0.25 m{sup 2} and 0.4 m{sup 2} in Scots pine and Norway spruce respectively. In Scots pine plantations there were 1600 planted seedlings ha{sup -1} and in Norway spruce there were 1550 ha{sup -1}. After the third growing season, the numbers of main crop plants, including naturally regenerated hardwood and softwood plants, were 1500 ha{sup -1} for Scots pine and 1350 ha{sup -1} for Norway spruce. The studied plantings had been approved if the recommended number of seedlings had been planted. As there always is some mortality among planted seedlings, in the present study 35-40%, this phenomenon has to be taken into consideration when dimensioning the number of seedlings which are to be planted.

  8. “A Significant Part of an Insignificant Identity”: the Re-Articulation of North-East Scots between Tradition and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Барбара Лоестер

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Britain the conflict between the national standard and regional languages and varieties, or rather those perceived to be ‘only’ a dialect, is still going strong and Scots plays a peculiar role in it. It is recognised and afforded a certain level of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages (ECRML. While related to English, Scots has a number of regional varieties and it stands in competition with other varieties of English within Scotland. North-East Scots (NE Scots, also known as ‘the Doric’, in particular occupies a rather special place within the sphere of Scots. While research has often focused on the perceived status of urban versus rural Scots, this paper examines the attitudes towards NE Scots with regard to identity construction as displayed by its speakers in rural areas and small towns in the North-East. Another focal point is the use of the regional variety as a perceived act of resistance against the ostensible dominance of English. Within the mind of its speakers what kind of identity do they feel they have - a largely local/regional, a national Scottish, a British one or something entirely different? The analysis of interview data highlights that respondents’ statements and their actual linguistic behaviour reinforce the affirmation of their regional identity; the extent to which this occurs will also be investigated.

  9. A prospective quality-of-life study in men with clinically localized prostate carcinoma treated with radical prostatectomy, external beam radiotherapy, or interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. Robert; Hall, M. Craig; McQuellon, Richard P.; Case, L. Douglas; McCullough, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and changes in HRQOL during the first year after 3 different treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Ninety men with T1-T2 adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated with curative intent between May 1998 and June 1999 and completed a quality-of-life Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire before treatment (T0) and 1 month (T1), 3 months (T3), and 12 months (T12) after treatment. Forty-four men were treated with permanent source interstitial brachytherapy (IB), 23 received external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and 23 men were treated with radical prostatectomy (RP). The mean age of the entire study population was 65.9 years (median 67, range 42-79). The mean pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level of the entire study population was 6.81 ng/mL (median 6.25, range 1.33-19.6). The Gleason score was ≤6 in 65 (72%) of 90. The repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on all quality-of-life and urinary outcome measures. Results: A comparison of the demographic characteristics of the 3 treatment groups demonstrated significant differences. The men treated with RP were significantly younger than the men in either the IB or EBRT group (median age 61.0 RP, 67.1 IB, 68.8 EBRT; p=0.0006). The men in the IB group were more likely to have a Gleason score of ≤6 than the EBRT group (Gleason score ≤6, 86% IB and 48% EBRT; p=0.015). The mean score (standard deviation) at T0, T1, T3, and T12 for the FACT-P questionnaire for each group was as follows: IB 138.4 (17.0), 120.5 (21.7), 130.0 (18.4), and 138.5 (14.2); EBRT 137.1 (12.1), 129.5 (21.0), 134.4 (19.2), and 136.9 (15.6); and RP 138.3 (14.7), 117.7 (18.3), 134.4 (17.8), and 140.4 (14.9), respectively. Statistically significant differences over time were observed for the FACT-P in the IB and RP groups (p<0.0001), but not for the EBRT group (p

  10. Unification of a common biochemical failure definition for prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy or external beam radiotherapy with or without androgen deprivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitch, Dwight L.; McGrath, Samuel; Martinez, Alvaro A.; Vicini, Frank A.; Kestin, Larry L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Minimal data are available regarding selection of an optimal biochemical failure (BF) definition for patients treated with brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), and combinations of these treatments with or without androgen deprivation (AD). We retrospectively analyzed our institution's experience treating localized prostate cancer in an attempt to determine a BF definition that could be applied for these various treatment modalities. Methods and Materials: A total of 2376 patients with clinical stage T1-T3 N0 M0 prostate cancer were treated with conventional dose (median, 66.6 Gy) EBRT (n = 1201), high-dose (median, 75.6 Gy) adaptive radiation therapy (n = 465), EBRT + high-dose-rate brachytherapy boost (n 416), or brachytherapy alone (n = 294) between 1987 and 2003. A total of 496 patients (21%) received neoadjuvant AD with radiation therapy. There were 21924 posttreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements. Multiple BF definitions were tested for their sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (+PV), and negative PV (-PV) in predicting subsequent clinical failure (CF) (any local failure or distant metastasis), overall survival (OS), and cause-specific survival (CSS). Median follow-up was 4.5 years. The date of BF was the date BF criteria were met (e.g., date of third rise). Results: A total of 290 patients (12%) experienced CF at a median interval of 3.6 years (range, 0.2-15.2 years). The 5- and 10-year CF rates were 12% and 26%, respectively. Three consecutive rises yielded a 46% sensitivity and 84% specificity for predicting CF. The 10-year CF for those 475 patients who experienced three rises (BF) was 37% vs. 17% for those patients who did not meet these criteria (biochemically controlled [BC]). For all patients, the following definitions were superior to three rises for predicting CF for both +PV, and -PV: n + 1 (≥1 ng/mL above nadir), n + 2, n + 3, threshold 2 (any PSA ≥2.0 ng/mL at or after nadir), threshold 3

  11. Does prostate brachytherapy treat the seminal vesicles? A dose-volume histogram analysis of seminal vesicles in patients undergoing combined PD-103 prostate implantation and external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Gaildon, Mohamoud; Stone, Nelson N.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Combined brachytherapy of the prostate and external beam irradiation (EBRT) of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) is becoming a popular treatment for high-risk prostate cancer. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) analysis of the SV in patients undergoing this treatment was performed to determine the dose distribution to the SV and the adequacy of this treatment in patients with potential SV involvement. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five consecutive patients were treated with a Pd-103 implant of the prostate alone and 45 Gy of EBRT to the prostate and SV. Attempts were not made to implant the SV but seeds were routinely placed at the junction of the prostate and SV. All patients underwent CT-based post implant dosimetric analysis 1 month after implantation. As part of this analysis, DVH were generated for the prostate and total SV volume (SVT). In addition, the SV was divided into 6-mm-thick volumes identified as SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 starting from the junction of the prostate and SV and extending distally. DVH were also generated for these structures. Delivered dose was defined as the D90 (dose delivered to 90% of the organ on DVH). Results: The median volumes in cc of the prostate, SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 were 34.33, 9.75, 2.7, 3.48, 2.92, 3.18, and 1.96 respectively. The SVT contained from 0-9 seeds (median 2). There was little dose delivered to the SVT and SV volumes from the implanted prostate. The median D90 values for the prostate, SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5 were 8615 cGy, 675 cGy, 3100 cGy, 1329 cGy, 553 cGy, 246 cGy, and 67 cGy, respectively. The dose delivered to the prostate covered small percentages of SV. The percents of SV volumes covered by the prostate D90 were 11, 35, 3.3, 0, 0, and 0 for SVT, SV1, SV2, SV3, SV4, and SV5, respectively. Conclusions: DVH analysis of the SV reveals that dose generated from an implanted prostate contributes little to the SV. Those patients at high risk for SV involvement may be under treated

  12. The role of radiotherapy in the management of extrahepatic bile duct cancer: an analysis of 145 consecutive patients treated with intraluminal and/or external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Tadashi; Saitou, Hiroya; Takamura, Akio; Nojima, Takayuki; Okushiba, Shun-Ichi

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of high dose radiotherapy and to evaluate its role in the management of extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD) cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1991, 145 consecutive patients with EHBD cancer were treated by low dose rate intraluminal 192 Ir irradiation (ILRT) either alone or in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Among the primarily irradiated, 77 patients unsuitable for surgical resection, 54 were enrolled in radical radiotherapy, and 23 received palliative radiotherapy. Fifty-nine received postoperative radiotherapy, and the remaining 9 preoperative radiotherapy. The mean radiation dose was 67.8 Gy, ranging from 10 to 135 Gy. Intraluminal 192 Ir irradiation was indicated in 103 patients, and 85 of them were combined with EBRT. Expandable metallic biliary endoprosthesis (EMBE) was used in 32 primarily irradiated patients (31 radical and 1 palliative radiotherapy) after the completion of radiotherapy. Results: The 1-, 3-, and 5-year actuarial survival rates for all 145 patients were 55%, 18%, and 10%, for the 54 patients treated by radical radiotherapy (mean 83.1 Gy), 56%, 13%, and 6% [median survival time (MST) 12.4 months], and for the 59 patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy (mean 61.6 Gy), 73%, 31%, and 18% (MST 21.5 months), respectively. Expandable metallic biliary endoprosthesis was useful for the early establishment of an internal bile passage in radically irradiated patients and MST of 14.9 months in these 31 patients was significantly longer than that of 9.3 months in the remaining 23 patients without EMBE placement (p < 0.05). Eighteen patients whose surgical margins were positive in the hepatic side bile duct(s) showed significantly better survival compared with 15 patients whose surgical margins were positive in the adjacent structure(s) (44% vs. 0% survival at 3 years, p < 0.001). No survival benefit was obtained in patients given palliative or preoperative radiotherapy

  13. Outcomes and toxicities in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or brachytherapy and supplemental external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlussel Markovic, Emily; Buckstein, Michael; Stone, Nelson N; Stock, Richard G

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the cancer control outcomes and long-term treatment-related morbidity of brachytherapy as well as combination brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. A retrospective review was conducted in a prospectively collected database of patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer who were treated either with brachytherapy or brachytherapy and EBRT, with or without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), in the period 1990-2014. Urinary and erectile dysfunction symptoms were measured using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), the Mount Sinai erectile function scale and the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Cancer control endpoints included biochemical failure and development of distant metastases. All statistical analyses were carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier actuarial methods and compared using log-rank tests. Cox regression multivariate analyses were used to test the effect of multiple variables on treatment outcomes. A total of 902 patients were identified, with a median follow-up of 91 months. Of these, 390 received brachytherapy and 512 received combination therapy with EBRT. In patients with one intermediate-risk factor, the addition of EBRT did not significantly affect freedom from biochemical failure or distant metastases. Among patients with two or three intermediate-risk factors, added EBRT did not improve freedom from biochemical failure. Significant differences in late toxicity between patients treated with brachytherapy vs combination brachytherapy and EBRT were identified including urge incontinence (P actuarial methods showed that patients receiving combination therapy more frequently experienced loss of potency, as measured by the Mount Sinai erectile function scale (P = 0.040). Brachytherapy monotherapy results in equal biochemical and distant control in both patients with

  14. The effect of neodymium on the microcracks generated on the Al–17.5Si alloy surface treated by high current pulsed electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Liang; Gao, Bo, E-mail: gaob@smm.neu.edu.cn; Zhu, Guanglin; Hao, Yi; Sun, Shuchen; Tu, Ganfeng

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: SEM results demonstrate that microcracks are remarkably removed from the Al–17.5Si alloy surface after HCPEB treatment due to Nd element, and they decrease in length at high pulse number, showing a decrease in the stress concentration in the primary Si phase during the cooling process of HCPEB, as shown in Fig. 1. Therefore, the microcrack elimination is attributed to reducing the stress concentration. - Highlights: • The main highlights in this paper are summarized as follows: (1) After adding rare earth Nd, the microcracks are remarkably removed from an Al–17.5Si alloy surface by HCPEB, resulting in an improved corrosion resistance of the alloy surface. (2) A site-fixed observation of SEM is first proposed in HCPEB-treated technology, and a microcrack evolution with increasing pulsed numbers is observed for alloy surfaces using this method. (3) The elimination mechanism of microcracks with rare earth Nd is first presented in the present work. (4) Compound modification of rare earth Nd and HCPEB technology on the Al–17.5Si alloy is first investigated. - Abstract: In the present work, the effect of Nd on the microcracks generated on an Al–17.5Si alloy surface by a high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) was investigated. By a newly proposed site-fixed observation, the propagation of microcracks with increasing pulsed numbers first increases and then decreases due to the Nd element. The crack density decreases from 0.0669 mm/mm{sup 2} of 5 pulses to 0.00687 mm/mm{sup 2} of 50 pulses. EPMA analysis results indicate that Nd is uniformly distributed on the HCPEB-treated alloy surface. Nano-silicon particles and nano-Al cellular structures were formed by TEM observation, showing grain refinement of the alloy surface. The microcrack elimination is attributed to a decrease in the stress concentration in the primary Si phase during the cooling process of HCPEB. The electrochemical measurement shows that the corrosion current density

  15. Interfractional and intrafractional errors assessed by daily cone-beam computed tomography in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Heming; Lin Hui; Feng Guosheng

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study was to assess interfractional and intrafractional errors and to estimate appropriate margins for planning target volume (PTV) by using daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) guidance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Daily pretreatment and post-treatment CBCT scans were acquired separately after initial patient setup and after the completion of each treatment fraction in 10 patients treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Online corrections were made before treatment if any translational setup error was found. Interfractional and intrafractional errors were recorded in the right-left (RL), superior-inferior (SI) and anterior-posterior (AP) directions. For the translational shifts, interfractional errors >2 mm occurred in 21.7% of measurements in the RL direction, 12.7% in the SI direction and 34.1% in the AP direction, respectively. Online correction resulted in 100% of residual errors ≤2 mm in the RL and SI directions, and 95.5% of residual errors ≤2 mm in the AP direction. No residual errors >3 mm occurred in the three directions. For the rotational shifts, a significant reduction was found in the magnitudes of residual errors compared with those of interfractional errors. A margin of 4.9 mm, 4.0 mm and 6.3 mm was required in the RL, SI and AP directions, respectively, when daily CBCT scans were not performed. With daily CBCT, the margins were reduced to 1.2 mm in all directions. In conclusion, daily CBCT guidance is an effective modality to improve the accuracy of IMRT for NPC. The online correction could result in a 70-81% reduction in margin size. (author)

  16. Dosimetric comparison to the heart and cardiac substructure in a large cohort of esophageal cancer patients treated with proton beam therapy or Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Xu, Cai; Yang, Jinzhong; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lin, Steven H

    2017-10-01

    To compare heart and cardiac substructure radiation exposure using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with mid- to distal esophageal cancer who received chemoradiation therapy. We identified 727 esophageal cancer patients who received IMRT (n=477) or PBT (n=250) from March 2004 to December 2015. All patients were treated to 50.4Gy with IMRT or to 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalents with PBT. IMRT and PBT dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the whole heart, atria, ventricles, and four coronary arteries were compared. For PBT patients, passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT; n=237) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT; n=13) DVHs were compared. Compared with IMRT, PBT resulted in significantly lower mean heart dose (MHD) and heart V5, V10, V20, V30, and V40as well as lower radiation exposure to the four chambers and four coronary arteries. Compared with PSPT, IMPT resulted in significantly lower heart V20, V30, and V40 but not MHD or heart V5 or V10. IMPT also resulted in significantly lower radiation doses to the left atrium, right atrium, left main coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, but not the left ventricle, right ventricle, left anterior descending artery, or right coronary artery. Factors associated with lower MHD included PBT (Pheart and cardiac substructures than IMRT. Long-term studies are necessary to determine how this cardiac sparing effect impacts the development of coronary artery disease and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Elderly Men With Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Treated With Brachytherapy With or Without External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Akash; Chen, M.-H.; Moran, Brian J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Dosoretz, Daniel; Salenius, Sharon; Katin, Michael; Ross, Rudi; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical factors associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), adjusting for comorbidity, in elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with brachytherapy alone or in conjunction with external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The study cohort comprised 1,978 men of median age 71 (interquartile range, 66-75) years with intermediate-risk disease (Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 20 ng/mL or less, tumor category T2c or less). Fine and Gray's multivariable competing risks regression was used to assess whether prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), age, treatment, year of brachytherapy, PSA level, or tumor category was associated with the risk of PCSM. Results: After a median follow-up of 3.2 (interquartile range, 1.7-5.4) years, the presence of CVD was significantly associated with a decreased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI 0.04-0.99; p = 0.05), whereas an increasing PSA level was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCSM (adjusted hazard ratio 1.14; 95% CI 1.02-1.27; p = 0.02). In the absence of CVD, cumulative incidence estimates of PCSM were higher (p = 0.03) in men with PSA levels above as compared with the median PSA level (7.3 ng/mL) or less; however, in the setting of CVD there was no difference (p = 0.27) in these estimates stratified by the median PSA level (6.9 ng/mL). Conclusions: In elderly men with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, CVD status is a negative predictor of PCSM and affects the prognostic capacity of pretreatment PSA level. These observations support the potential utility of prerandomization stratification by comorbidity to more accurately assess prognostic factors and treatment effects within this population.

  18. No evidence for depletion of carbohydrate pools in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, A; Pirkebner, D; Florian, C; Oberhuber, W

    2012-01-01

    The physiological mechanisms leading to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) decline in the dry inner alpine valleys are still unknown. Testing the carbon starvation hypothesis, we analysed the seasonal course of mobile carbohydrate pools (NSC) of Scots pine growing at a xeric and a dry-mesic site within an inner alpine dry valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) during 2009, which was characterised by exceptional soil dryness. Although, soil moisture content dropped to ca. 10% at both sites during the growing season, NSC concentrations rose in all tissues (branch, stem, root) until the end of July, except in needles, where maxima were reached around bud break. NSC concentrations were not significantly different in the analysed tissues at the xeric and the dry-mesic site. At the dry-mesic site, NSC concentrations in the aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher during the period of radial growth. An accumulation of NSC in roots at the end of July indicates a change in carbon allocation after an early cessation in aboveground growth, possibly due to elevated belowground carbon demand. In conclusion, our results revealed that extensive soil dryness during the growing season did not lead to carbon depletion. However, even though carbon reserves were not exhausted, sequestration of carbohydrate pools during drought periods might lead to deficits in carbon supply that weaken tree vigour and drive tree mortality. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  19. Persistence of ectomycorrhizas by Thelephora terrestris on outplanted Scots pine seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Hilszczańska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thelephora terrestris (Erhr. Fr. is a very common ectomycorrhizal symbiont (ECM in conifer trees, however the role of this ubiquitous fungus in nurseries and Scots pine plantations is still unknown. It is described as tolerant of high nitrogen availability and therefore was taken into consideration as an important ECM partner of seedlings, particularly after replanting on post agricultural land. In laboratory the seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. were inoculated with T. terrestris (Tt/IBL/2 or not inoculated (control and grown in containers in two different regimes of nitrogen fertilization (4g N x kg-1 and 6 g N x kg-1. Next year these seedlings were outplanted in post agricultural land and 6 months later, the number and identity of some mycorrhizas were studied. It was found, that mycorrhizal abundance was higher in the inoculated treatments than in non-inoculated ones. PCR RFLP analysis confirmed share of two different isolates of Thelephora engaged in mycorrhizal symbiosis. Part of mycorrhizas had the same pattern of RFLP as the isolate used to inoculation. Similar results were obtained in second year of experimental study in the field what confirmed the persistence of artificially introduced T. terrestris in post agricultural soil as an important component of the ECM community.

  20. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2013-10-01

    The frost hardiness (FH) of mycorrhizal [ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] and non-mycorrhizal (NM) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings was studied to assess whether mycorrhizal symbiosis affected the roots' tolerance of below-zero temperatures. ECM (Hebeloma sp.) and NM seedlings were cultivated in a growth chamber for 18 weeks. After 13 weeks' growth in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) conditions, a half of the ECM and NM seedlings were moved into a chamber with short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimate. After exposures to a range of below-zero temperatures, the FH of the roots was assessed by means of the relative electrolyte leakage test. The FH was determined as the inflection point of the temperature-response curve. No significant difference was found between the FH of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal roots in LDHT (-8.9 and -9.8 °C) or SDLT (-7.5 and -6.8 °C). The mycorrhizal treatment had no significant effect on the total dry mass, the allocation of dry mass among the roots and needles or nutrient accumulation. The mycorrhizal treatment with Hebeloma sp. did not affect the FH of Scots pine in this experimental setup. More information is needed on the extent to which mycorrhizas tolerate low temperatures, especially with different nutrient contents and different mycorrhiza fungi.

  1. Indications on continued nitrogen uptake in Scots pine roots after clear-felling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrektson, A.; Valinger, E.; Leijon, B.; Sjoegren, H.; Sonesson, J.

    1997-11-01

    A study was performed in a 150 years old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand situated on a sandy moor in northern Sweden. Two plots were to be compared, and in June 1993 one was clear-felled. Even if reduced with approximately 50%, a significant fine root (diameter < 2 mm) growth was noticed at least up to one year after the clear-felling. For medium roots (diameters 2-4 and 4-6 mm) nitrogen content in root-wood and root-bark samples from the clear-felling, as compared to the reference plot, were 30-50% higher two months after the clear-felling. The difference did not increase in later comparisons. N-content in bark and wood buttress did not differ during the period studied, except for a higher percentage in bark at the clear-felling after two summers. This was believed to be a result of decomposition. The results indicate a maintained physiological activity in the stump-root system of Scots pine at least for one year at this site. An active uptake of N in roots of cut trees may influence leaching after clear-felling, the forage value of roots, and root decomposition rate and also maintain root competition with standing trees after thinning. 40 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs

  2. Are Scots pine forest edges particularly prone to drought-induced mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buras, Allan; Schunk, Christian; Zeiträg, Claudia; Herrmann, Corinna; Kaiser, Laura; Lemme, Hannes; Straub, Christoph; Taeger, Steffen; Gößwein, Sebastian; Klemmt, Hans-Joachim; Menzel, Annette

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is expected to exacerbate the frequency of drought-induced tree mortality world-wide. To better predict the associated change of species composition and forest dynamics on various scales and develop adequate adaptation strategies, more information on the mechanisms driving the often observed patchiness of tree die-back is needed. Although forest-edge effects may play an important role within the given context, only few corresponding studies exist. Here, we investigate the regional die-back of Scots pine in Franconia, Germany, after a hot and dry summer in 2015, thereby emphasizing possible differences in mortality between forest edge and interior. By means of dendroecological investigations and close-range remote sensing, we assess long-term growth performance and current tree vitality along five different forest-edge distance gradients. Our results clearly indicate a differing growth performance between edge and interior trees, associated with a higher vulnerability to drought, increased mortality rates, and lower tree vitality at the forest edge. Prior long-lasting growth decline of dead trees compared to live trees suggests depletion of carbon reserves in course of a long-term drought persisting since the 1990s to be the cause of regional Scots pine die-back. These findings highlight the forest edge as a potential focal point of forest management adaptation strategies in the context of drought-induced mortality.

  3. Climate influences the leaf area/sapwood area ratio in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencuccini, M; Grace, J

    1995-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the leaf area/sapwood area ratio in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is influenced by site differences in water vapor pressure deficit of the air (D). Two stands of the same provenance were selected, one in western Scotland and one in eastern England, so that effects resulting from age, genetic variability, density and fertility were minimized. Compared with the Scots pine trees at the cooler and wetter site in Scotland, the trees at the warmer and drier site in England produced less leaf area per unit of conducting sapwood area both at a stem height of 1.3 m and at the base of the live crown, whereas stem permeability was similar at both sites. Also, trees at the drier site had less leaf area per unit branch cross-sectional area at the branch base than trees at the wetter site. For each site, the average values for leaf area, sapwood area and permeability were used, together with values of transpiration rates at different D, to calculate average stem water potential gradients. Changes in the leaf area/sapwood area ratio acted to maintain a similar water potential gradient in the stems of trees at both sites despite climatic differences between the sites.

  4. Silvicultural interpretation of natural vegetation dynamics in ageing Scots pine stands for their conversion into mixed broadleaved stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kint, V.; Geudens, G.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Lust, N.

    2006-01-01

    In many West-European regions there is principal consensus on the conversion of homogeneous even-aged Scots pine plantations into mixed broadleaved stands. In recent years, interest is growing for conversion management in which managers try to maximise the use of natural processes by steering or

  5. Presence of Nitrosospiral cluster 2 bacteria corresponds to N transformation rates in nine acid Scots pine forest soils.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugroho, R. Adi; Roling, W.F.M.; Laverman, A.M.; Zoomer, R.; Verhoef, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between environmental factors and the presence of ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB), and its consequences for the N transformation rates were investigated in nine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest soils. In general, the diversity in AOB appears to be strikingly low compared to

  6. Improved recruitment and early growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings after fire and soil scarification.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, M.G.; Ouden, den J.

    2004-01-01

    The success of seedling recruitment of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is strongly dependent on soil surface properties, such as humus depth and moisture content. In an undisturbed forest floor, seedlings are seldom able to become established due to the high incidence of desiccation in the organic

  7. Chemical composition of needles and cambial activity of stems of Scots pine trees affected by air pollutants in Polish forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciech Dmuchowski; Ewa U. Kurczynska; Wieslaw Wloch

    1998-01-01

    The impact of environmental pollution is defined for the chemical composition of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles and cambial activity in the tree stems in Polish forests. The research investigated 20-year-old trees growing in two areas in significantly different levels of pollution. The highly polluted area was located near the Warsaw...

  8. Dynamics and stratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods in the organic layer of a Scots pine forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Kniese, J.P.; Bedaux, J.J.M.; Verhoef, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses the abundance, biomass and microstratification of functional groups of micro- and mesoarthropods inhabiting the organic layers of a Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.). An experiment using stratified litterbags, containing organic material of four degradation stages, i.e.,

  9. Net ecosystem productivity and its environmental controls in a mature Scots pine stand in north-western Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziemblinska, K.; Urbaniak, M.; Chojnicki, B. H.; Black, T. A.; Niu, S.; Olejnik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 228, nov (2016), s. 60-72 ISSN 0168-1923 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Scots pine * eddy covariance * environmental controls * net ecosystem productivity * southern Finland Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  10. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren del Río

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in

  11. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miren del Río, M.P.; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Pretzsch, Hans; Löf, Magnus; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in Scots pine stands

  12. A review of thinning effects on Scots pine stands: From growth and yield to new challenges under global change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miren del Río, M.P.; Bravo-Oviedo, Andrés; Pretzsch, Hans; Löf, Magnus; Ruiz-Peinado, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out since long in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather the knowledge about the thinning effects on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the framework of climate change. Area of study: The review covered studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Aim of the study: Thinning experiments in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands have been carried out for many years in different regions of its distribution. The aim of this paper is to gather knowledge regarding the effects of thinning on Scots pine stands, from the effects on growth and yield to the provision of ecosystem services in the context of climate change. Area of study: The review covers studies from different regions of the distribution area of Scots pine Material and methods: We reviewed the effect of thinning on four aspects: growth and yield, stability against snow and wind, response to drought, and ecosystem services. Main results: Heavy thinning involves a loss in volume yield, although the magnitude depends on the region, site and stand age. Thinning generally does not affect dominant height while the positive effect on tree diameter depends on the thinning regime. The stability of the stand against snow and wind is lower after the first thinning and increases in the long term. The impact of extreme droughts on tree growth is lower in thinned stands, which is linked to a better capacity to recover after the drought. Thinning generally reduces the wood quality, litter mass, and stand structural diversity, while having neutral or positive effects on other ecosystem services, although these effects can vary depending on the thinning regime. However, scarce information is available for most of the ecosystem services. Research highlight: Existing thinning experiments in Scots pine stands

  13. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, L.; Voet, H. van der; Nijs, R. de; Horenblas, S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  14. Influence of Scots pine encroachment into alpine grassland in the quality and stability of soil organic matter aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carlos; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Benito, Marta; José Fernández, María; Rubio, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Ecotone areas are dynamic zones potentially suitable for detecting ecosystem sensitivity to climate change effects. Climate change scenarios proposed by IPCC predict a temperature increase in Mediterranean areas with the consequent altitudinal advance of Scots pine treeline (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the extent of grassland-shrubland areas. Therefore, variations in physical, chemical and biological properties of soils due to plant dynamics are expected. We present a study located in the grassland-forest ecotone of Scots pine on a Mediterranean mountain in Central Spain, considering three different vegetation types: high mountain grassland-shrubland, shrubland-Scots pine high mountain forest and Scots pine mountain forest. We worked on the hypothesis that different plant species compositions influence both the size distribution and aggregate protection of the organic carbon (C), as a result of the different quality of C inputs to the soil from different vegetation types. To test this assumption, topsoil samples were firstly separated into four aggregate fractions (6-2 mm, 2-0.250 mm, 0.250-0.053 mm and centrifuging and decanting the supernatants; and thirdly, different iPOM (coarse iPOM and fine iPOM) and mineral associated soil organic C were released from each remaining aggregate fraction by sonication at 300 J ml-1 and further quantified by wet sieving. We expect differences between light fraction, different iPOM and mineral associated soil organic C from the different aggregates fractions obtained among vegetation types as a result of different quality and quantity organic matter inputs to the soil. Thus, we will be able to predict (i) the evolution of protected soil organic matter with the encroachment of Scots pine on Mediterranean mountains due to climate change effects, (ii) the rate of macroaggregate formation and degradation in those vegetation areas, and (iii) whether they will behave as source or sink of atmospheric C.

  15. Investigation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity of Diospyros Germplasms Using SCoT Molecular Markers in Guangxi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Libao; Liang, Qingzhi; He, Xinhua; Luo, Cong; Chen, Hu; Qin, Zhenshi

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about genetic diversity and relationships among germplasms could be an invaluable aid in diospyros improvement strategies. This study was designed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship of local and natural varieties in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China using start codon targeted polymorphism (SCoT) markers. The accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms belonging to four species Diospyros kaki Thunb, D. oleifera Cheng, D. kaki var. silverstris Mak, and D. lotus Linn were collected from different eco-climatic zones in Guangxi and were analyzed using SCoT markers. Results indicated that the accessions of 95 diospyros germplasms could be distinguished using SCoT markers, and were divided into three groups at similarity coefficient of 0.608; these germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together; of these, the degree of genetic diversity of the natural D. kaki var. silverstris Mak population was richest among the four species; the geographical distance showed that the 12 natural populations of D. kaki var. silverstris Mak were divided into two groups at similarity coefficient of 0.19. Meanwhile, in order to further verify the stable and useful of SCoT markers in diospyros germplasms, SSR markers were also used in current research to analyze the genetic diversity and relationship in the same diospyros germplasms. Once again, majority of germplasms that belong to the same species were clustered together. Thus SCoT markers were stable and especially useful for analysis of the genetic diversity and relationship in diospyros germplasms. The molecular characterization and diversity assessment of diospyros were very important for conservation of diospyros germplasm resources, meanwhile for diospyros improvement.

  16. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbour, Salma K., E-mail: jabbousk@cinj.rutgers.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Kim, Sinae [Division of Biometrics, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Haider, Syed A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Xu, Xiaoting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Soochow (China); Wu, Alson [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph [Division of Medical Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Langenfeld, John [Division of Surgery, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes.

  17. Reduction in Tumor Volume by Cone Beam Computed Tomography Predicts Overall Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Chemoradiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabbour, Salma K.; Kim, Sinae; Haider, Syed A.; Xu, Xiaoting; Wu, Alson; Surakanti, Sujani; Aisner, Joseph; Langenfeld, John; Yue, Ning J.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Zou, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to evaluate whether tumor response using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) performed as part of the routine care during chemoradiation therapy (CRT) could forecast the outcome of unresectable, locally advanced, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: We manually delineated primary tumor volumes (TV) of patients with NSCLC who were treated with radical CRT on days 1, 8, 15, 22, 29, 36, and 43 on CBCTs obtained as part of the standard radiation treatment course. Percentage reductions in TV were calculated and then correlated to survival and pattern of recurrence using Cox proportional hazard models. Clinical information including histologic subtype was also considered in the study of such associations. Results: We evaluated 38 patients with a median follow-up time of 23.4 months. The median TV reduction was 39.3% (range, 7.3%-69.3%) from day 1 (D1) to day 43 (D43) CBCTs. Overall survival was associated with TV reduction from D1 to D43 (hazard ratio [HR] 0.557, 95% CI 0.39-0.79, P=.0009). For every 10% decrease in TV from D1 to D43, the risk of death decreased by 44.3%. For patients whose TV decreased ≥39.3 or <39.3%, log-rank test demonstrated a separation in survival (P=.02), with median survivals of 31 months versus 10 months, respectively. Neither local recurrence (HR 0.791, 95% CI 0.51-1.23, P=.29), nor distant recurrence (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.57-1.08, P=.137) correlated with TV decrease from D1 to D43. Histologic subtype showed no impact on our findings. Conclusions: TV reduction as determined by CBCT during CRT as part of routine care predicts post-CRT survival. Such knowledge may justify intensification of RT or application of additional therapies. Assessment of genomic characteristics of these tumors may permit a better understanding of behavior or prediction of therapeutic outcomes

  18. Influence of tree provenance on biogenic VOC emissions of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäenpää, Minna; Magsarjav, Narantsetseg; Ghimire, Rajendra; Markkanen, Juha-Matti; Heijari, Juha; Vuorinen, Martti; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2012-12-01

    Resin-storing plant species such as conifer trees can release substantial amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere under stress circumstances that cause resin flow. Wounding can be induced by animals, pathogens, wind or direct mechanical damage e.g. during harvesting. In atmospheric modelling of biogenic VOCs, actively growing vegetation has been mostly considered as the source of emissions. Root systems and stumps of resin-storing conifer trees could constitute a significant store of resin after tree cutting. Therefore, we assessed the VOC emission rates from the cut surface of Scots pine stumps and estimated the average emission rates for an area with a density of 2000 stumps per ha. The experiment was conducted with trees of one Estonian and three Finnish Scots pine provenances covering a 1200 km gradient at a common garden established in central Finland in 1991. VOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes and less than 0.1% of the total emission was sesquiterpenes. α-Pinene (7-92% of the total emissions) and 3-carene (0-76% of the total emissions) were the dominant monoterpenes. Proportions of α-pinene and camphene were significantly lower and proportions of 3-carene, sabinene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene higher in the southernmost Saaremaa provenance compared to the other provenances. Total terpene emission rates (standardised to +20 °C) from stumps varied from 27 to 1582 mg h-1 m-2 when measured within 2-3 h after tree cutting. Emission rates decreased rapidly to between 2 and 79 mg h-1 m-2 at 50 days after cutting. The estimated daily terpene emission rates on a hectare basis from freshly cut stumps at a cut tree density of 2000 per ha varied depending on provenance. Estimated emission ranges were 100-710 g ha-1 d-1 and 137-970 g ha-1 d-1 in 40 and in 60 year-old forest stands, respectively. Our result suggests that emission directly from stump surfaces could be a significant source of monoterpene emissions for a few weeks after

  19. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yao; Markkanen, Tiina; Aurela, Mika; Mammarella, Ivan; Thum, Tea; Tsuruta, Aki; Yang, Huiyi; Aalto, Tuula

    2017-09-01

    The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris) on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland) flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET) showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD) increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET) was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The model deficiencies exist

  20. Characterization of genetic diversity in chickpea using SSR markers, Start Codon Targeted Polymorphism (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-Derived Polymorphism (CDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajibarat, Zahra; Saidi, Abbas; Hajibarat, Zohreh; Talebi, Reza

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the genetic diversity among 48 genotypes of chickpea comprising cultivars, landraces and internationally developed improved lines genetic distances were evaluated using three different molecular marker techniques: Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR); Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) and Conserved DNA-derived Polymorphism (CDDP). Average polymorphism information content (PIC) for SSR, SCoT and CDDP markers was 0.47, 0.45 and 0.45, respectively, and this revealed that three different marker types were equal for the assessment of diversity amongst genotypes. Cluster analysis for SSR and SCoT divided the genotypes in to three distinct clusters and using CDDP markers data, genotypes grouped in to five clusters. There were positive significant correlation (r = 0.43, P SSR markers. These results suggest that efficiency of SSR, SCOT and CDDP markers was relatively the same in fingerprinting of chickpea genotypes. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report of using targeted DNA region molecular marker (CDDP) for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea in comparison with SCoT and SSR markers. Overall, our results are able to prove the suitability of SCoT and CDDP markers for genetic diversity analysis in chickpea for their high rates of polymorphism and their potential for genome diversity and germplasm conservation.

  1. Environmental pollution changes in membrane lipids, antioxidants and vitality of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł M. Pukacki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were carried out on pollen grains of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. collected from trees at 1.5, 3, 4 km and control, 20 km from the Luboń factory producing mineral fertilisers. The percentage of germination of pollen formed close to the pollution source was ca 20% lower compared to the control pollen. Lowered vitality of the pollen was effected in changes of the structure of cytoplasmic membranes. Pollen from the polluted area contained ca 15% less total phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine and phosphatytidylinositol and had a lower content of soluble proteins and less of low molecular antioxidants, such as thiols and ascorbic acid. Composition of total fatty acid in phospholipids fractions showed a significant reduction in the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Pollen originating from the polluted area and stored at -30°C showed considerably stronger degradation of cytoplasmic membranes than control.

  2. Chronic radiation exposure as an ecological factor: Hypermethylation and genetic differentiation in irradiated Scots pine populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, P.Yu.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Horemans, N.; Makarenko, E.S.; Saenen, E.; Duarte, G.T.; Nauts, R.; Bondarenko, V.S.; Jacobs, G.; Voorspoels, S.; Kudin, M.

    2018-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic changes were investigated in chronically irradiated Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) populations from territories that were heavily contaminated by radionuclides as result of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In comparison to the reference site, the genetic diversity revealed by electrophoretic mobility of AFLPs was found to be significantly higher at the radioactively contaminated areas. In addition, the genome of pine trees was significantly hypermethylated at 4 of the 7 affected sites. - Highlights: • Chronic radiation exposure changes the genetic structure of plant populations. • Genomes of irradiated pines are hypermethylated. • The level of hypermethylation does not depend on annual dose. - These results indicate that even relatively low levels of chronic radiation exposure can influence on the genetic characteristics and the methylation status of natural pine populations and that it should be considered as an important ecological factor reflecting the anthropogenic impact on ecosystems.

  3. Study of needle morphometric indices in Scots pine in the remote period after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, E.S.; Geras'kin, S.A.; Oudalova, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological effects in Scots pine populations experiencing chronic radiation exposure at doses up to 130 mGy per year as a result of the Chernobyl accident were studied in 2011 and 2013, using needle indices as endpoints. No relationships between the length, the mass of needles and the asymmetry in weight of paired needles and radiation exposure were revealed. The frequency of necrotic needles increases with the level of radiation exposure; however, the significance of these effects in different years was different. The index of fluctuating asymmetry in needle length significantly increases at annual doses of 90 and 130 mGy and correlates with the absorbed dose as well as 137 Cs and 90 Sr radionuclide activities in soils and cones at the study sites. The findings obtained are consistent with an international recommendation to consider radiation exposure of 100 mGy.y -1 as a margin for biota safety in chronic irradiation. (authors)

  4. Wood anatomical parameters of lowland European oak and Scots pine as proxies for climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanzategui, Daniel; Heußner, Karl-Uwe; Wazny, Tomasz; Helle, Gerd; Heinrich, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring based temperature reconstructions from the temperate lowlands worldwide are largely missing due to diffuse climate signals so far found in tree-ring widths. This motivated us to concentrate our efforts on the wood anatomies of two common European tree species, the European oak (Quercus robur) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We combined core samples of living trees with archaeological wood from northern Germany and Poland. We measured approx. 46,000 earlywood oak vessels of 34 trees covering the period AD 1500 to 2016 and approx. 7.5 million pine tracheid cells of 41 trees covering the period AD 1300 to 2010. First climate growth analyses indicate that both oak earlywood vessel and pine tracheid parameters contain climate signals which are different and more significant than those found in tree-ring widths. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed at EGU for the first time.

  5. Relations between Scots pine needle element concentrations and decreased needle longevity along pollution gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamppu, Jukka; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Deceased needle longevity was related to increased heavy metal concentrations. - Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoots were sampled along transects near one urban pollution source and two smelters. Needle Mg, P and K concentrations decreased from the second to the fourth age class linearly with needle survival along the urban pollution gradient. Still, over 80% of the average concentration of these nutrients remained in the fourth needle age class. Decreased needle longevity was closely related to the increased heavy metal concentrations near the smelters. Near the urban pollution source, it was related to the increased annual needle mass and the increased needle nutrient concentrations. Decreased Mn accumulation along with needle age was detected near all pollution sources. Leaching of Mn from needles and especially from soil as a cause of decreased needle concentrations is discussed

  6. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren M. Grüning

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15N net uptake capacity of fine roots as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth (Lymantria monacha L. or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  7. Defoliating Insect Mass Outbreak Affects Soil N Fluxes and Tree N Nutrition in Scots Pine Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüning, Maren M; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; L-M-Arnold, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Biotic stress by mass outbreaks of defoliating pest insects does not only affect tree performance by reducing its photosynthetic capacity, but also changes N cycling in the soil of forest ecosystems. However, how insect induced defoliation affects soil N fluxes and, in turn, tree N nutrition is not well-studied. In the present study, we quantified N input and output fluxes via dry matter input, throughfall, and soil leachates. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of mass insect herbivory on tree N acquisition (i.e., organic and inorganic 15 N net uptake capacity of fine roots) as well as N pools in fine roots and needles in a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over an entire vegetation period. Plots were either infested by the nun moth ( Lymantria monacha L.) or served as controls. Our results show an increased N input by insect feces, litter, and throughfall at the infested plots compared to controls, as well as increased leaching of nitrate. However, the additional N input into the soil did not increase, but reduce inorganic and organic net N uptake capacity of Scots pine roots. N pools in the fine roots and needles of infested trees showed an accumulation of total N, amino acid-N, protein-N, and structural N in the roots and the remaining needles as a compensatory response triggered by defoliation. Thus, although soil N availability was increased via surplus N input, trees did not respond with an increased N acquisition, but rather invested resources into defense by accumulation of amino acid-N and protein-N as a survival strategy.

  8. FREE AMINO ACID COMPOSITION IN SCOTS PINE TISSUES UNDER STRESS IMPACT IN RHIZOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudachkova N.E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The free amino acid content in the needles and the inner bark of stems and roots of 8-13-ages self-sawn trees of Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Siberia in experimental and natural conditions was compared. The experiments imitated an influence of long-seasonal or permafrost, soil drought and root hypoxia, concomitant flooding. The aim of the investigation was to expose the adaptive changes of these metabolites composition under stress impact. All of types of stress influences changed the total free amino acid content in the tissues of different morphological tree parts: the cooling of root system caused a deposit of free amino acids in overground tree part, the water deficit stimulated an accumulation of free amino acids in root inner bark, the flooding decreased the amino acid content in all tissues. The ratio in a group of amino acids with glutamic acid as metabolic precursor (-aminobutyric (GABA, proline, arginine, citrulline and ornithine changed under different stress impact. The cold stress in rhizosphere caused GABA accumulation in the needles and stem but not in the roots in the period of soil thawing. The moderate moisture deficit had not an influence on GABA content, the flooding caused GABA accumulation only in new needles. The maximal exceeding above control were marked for the sum of arginine and its metabolic precursors citrulline and ornithine. The group of these compounds may be considered as stress metabolites for scots pine, but specificity of depositing of these amino acids at water stress requires additional proofs. Since the proline accumulation was showed in separate times in the different tissues under all of investigated stressors impact, the specificity of proline as indicator of water stress in scots pine tissues is debatable. The disturbance of donor-acceptor connections in experiment with cooling resulted to the amino acid accumulation in stem inner bark, in experiment with drought – in root inner bark.

  9. Impact of climate change on radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in North-western Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopatin E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When adapting forest management practices to a changing environment, it is very important to understand the response of an unmanaged natural forest to climate change. The method used to identify major climatic factors influencing radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine along a latitudinal gradient in north-western Russia is dendroclimatic analysis. A clear increasing long-term trend was identified in air temperature and precipitation. During the last 20 years, all meteorological stations experienced temperature increases, and 40 years ago precipitation began to increase. This is shown by the radial increment of Siberian spruce and Scots pine. Therefore, climate change could partly explain the increased forest productivity. The total variance explained by temperature varied from 22% to 41% and precipitation from 19% to 38%. The significant climatic parameters for radial increment in Komi Republic were identified, and the relation between temperature and precipitation in explained variance changes over time for Siberian spruce.

  10. Juvenile wood volume and its proportion to stem volume vs. selected biometric features of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Tomczak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether there is a correlation between breast height diameter, tree height and stem total volume of Scots pines, on the one hand, and volume and proportion of juvenile wood, on the other. The investigations comprised pure pine stands of the IInd, IIIrd, IVth and Vth age classes developed in conditions of fresh mixed coniferous forest. A distinct curvilinear correlation was found between volume and proportion of juvenile wood in tree stems and breast height diameter, height and stem total volume. Because of high values of determination coefficients (R2, which characterised the above-mentioned correlations, it seems appropriate to use these regularities to assess the quality of the timber raw material regarding the proportions of its volume and juvenile wood in stems of Scots pine trees.

  11. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  12. Long-term dynamics of monoterpene synthase activities, monoterpene storage pools and emissions in boreal Scots pine

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Ghirardo, Andrea; Juurola, Eija; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Zimmer, Ina; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Bäck, Jaana

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal variations in monoterpene emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) are well documented, and emissions are often shown to follow the incident temperatures due to effects on compound volatility. Recent studies have indicated a link between monoterpene emissions and physiological drivers such as photosynthetic capacity during needle development. The complex interplay between the dynamic changes in the biosynthetic capacity to produce monoterpenes and the temperature-dependent evapor...

  13. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker reveals genetic diversity of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Kumar, Shrawan; Tandon, Pramod

    2013-10-15

    Genetic variability in the wild genotypes of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. collected from different parts of Northeast India, was analyzed using a Start Codon Targeted (SCoT) marker system. A total of sixty individuals comprising of six natural populations were investigated for the existing natural genetic diversity. One hundred and thirty two (132) amplicons were produced by SCoT marker generating 96.21% polymorphism. The PIC value of the SCoT marker system was 0.78 and the Rp values of the primers ranged between 4.43 and 7.50. The percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp) ranging from 25% to 56.82%, Nei's gene diversity (h) from 0.08 to 0.15 with mean Nei's gene diversity of 0.28, and Shannon's information index (I) values ranging from 0.13 to 0.24 with an average value of 0.43 were recorded. The gene flow value (0.37) and the diversity among populations (0.57) demonstrated higher genetic variation among the populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed 43.37% of variation within the populations, whereas 56.63% variation was recorded among the populations. Cluster analysis also reveals high genetic variation among the genotypes. Present investigation suggests the effectiveness of SCoT marker system to estimate the genetic diversity of D. nobile and that it can be seen as a preliminary point for future research on the population and evolutionary genetics of this endangered orchid species of medicinal importance. © 2013.

  14. Potential of Start Codon Targeted (SCoT Markers to Estimate Genetic Diversity and Relationships among Chinese Elymus sibiricus Accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Elymus sibiricus as an important forage grass and gene pool for improving cereal crops, that is widely distributed in West and North China. Information on its genetic diversity and relationships is limited but necessary for germplasm collection, conservation and future breeding. Start Codon Targeted (SCoT markers were used for studying the genetic diversity and relationships among 53 E. sibiricus accessions from its primary distribution area in China. A total of 173 bands were generated from 16 SCoT primers, 159 bands of which were polymorphic with the percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB of 91.91%. Based upon population structure analysis five groups were formed. The cluster analysis separated the accessions into two major clusters and three sub-clusters, similar to results of principal coordinate analysis (PCoA. The molecular variance analysis (AMOVA showed that genetic variation was greater within geographical regions (50.99% than between them (49.01%. Furthermore, the study also suggested that collecting and evaluating E. sibiricus germplasm for major geographic regions and special environments broadens the available genetic base and illustrates the range of variation. The results of the present study showed that SCoT markers were efficient in assessing the genetic diversity among E. sibiricus accessions.

  15. Long-term trends in radial growth of Siberian spruce and Scots pine in Komi Republic (northwestern Russia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopatin, E. (Univ. of Joensuu (Finland)); Kolstroem, T. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)); Spiecker, H. (Univ. of Freiburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    Komi is situated on the eastern boundary of the European part of Russia, in the boreal region where large areas of natural forest still exist. Using radial growth measurements it was possible to attain positive long-term trends of growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Siberian spruce (Picea obovata) in the Komi Republic. Increases in the radial growth of Siberian spruce in the forest-tundra were 134% and in the northern taiga zone 35% over successive 50-year periods from 1901 to 1950 and from 1951 to 2000. Respectively, in the middle taiga zone a 76% increase in radial growth was found (over 100 years), whilst in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The increase in radial growth of Scots pine in the northern taiga zone was 32%. In the middle taiga zone the radial growth increase in Scots pine was 55% and in the southern taiga zone the changes were not statistically significant. The long-term growth trends of Komi were compared with those in other parts of Europe. (orig.)

  16. Genetic variation, population structure and linkage disequilibrium in Switchgrass with ISSR, SCoT and EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Wang, Xiaoli; Huang, Linkai; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Xinquan; Zhang, Lexin

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate genetic variation, population structure, and the extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD), 134 switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) samples were analyzed with 51 markers, including 16 ISSRs, 20 SCoTs, and 15 EST-SSRs. In this study, a high level of genetic variation was observed in the switchgrass samples and they had an average Nei's gene diversity index (H) of 0.311. A total of 793 bands were obtained, of which 708 (89.28 %) were polymorphic. Using a parameter marker index (MI), the efficiency of the three types of markers (ISSR, SCoT, and EST-SSR) in the study were compared and we found that SCoT had a higher marker efficiency than the other two markers. The 134 switchgrass samples could be divided into two sub-populations based on STRUCTURE, UPGMA clustering, and principal coordinate analyses (PCA), and upland and lowland ecotypes could be separated by UPGMA clustering and PCA analyses. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r 2 of 0.035 across all 51 markers, indicating a trend of higher LD in sub-population 2 than that in sub-population 1 ( P  < 0.01). The population structure revealed in this study will guide the design of future association studies using these switchgrass samples.

  17. Susceptibility of hornbeam and Scots pine woods to destruction by the subterranean termite Reticulitermes lucifugus ROSSI, 1792 (Blattodea: Isoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski Adam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests of the degree of damage to Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus woods by the termite Reticulitermes lucifugus. Both wood species are classified as “susceptible to destruction by termites” in the EN 350-2:2000 standard. The procedures described in the ASTM D 3345-08 standard (2009 were applied in the experiments. During laboratory coercion tests, wood samples from these two species were damaged to a degree between light attack and moderate attack with penetration. Recent Scots pine sapwood was damaged to a heavy degree. The results can be associated with the much higher density of hornbeam wood as compared to Scots pine sapwood. The mortality rate of the termites in the test containers with both wood species was similar and low, no greater than 10%. In the light of the results, the classification of the susceptibility of native wood species to termite feeding, as stated in the EN 350-2:2000 standard, appears to be oversimplified.

  18. Afforestation in Serbia in the period 1961-2007 with special reference to Austrian pine and Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of afforestation in Serbia is high because only in this way the forest area can be increased and brought to the level which corresponds to the demands of the population. This is also indicated by the content of some documents, such as 'Professional base for the design of the National Forest Action Programme', which emphasises this problem from the very beginning. Special significance is assigned to afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, which are most frequently applied in the afforestation of the most unfavourable terrains. This study analyses the scope of afforestation over the period 1961-2007, the percentage of Austrian pine and Scots pine and the relationship of the afforested areas, and generates the forecasts of the changes in the future period. In this way, the socialeconomic significance of afforestation can be assessed from the aspect of satisfying the objectives of forest policy, and particularly of afforestation with Austrian pine and Scots pine, as the specific tree species.

  19. Effects of drought and irrigation on ecosystem functioning in a mature Scots pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbertin, Matthias; Brunner, Ivano; Egli, Simon; Eilmann, Britta; Graf Pannatier, Eisabeth; Schleppi, Patrick; Zingg, Andreas; Rigling, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is expected to increase temperature and reduce summer precipitation in Switzerland. To study the expected effects of increased drought in mature forests two different approaches are in general possible: water can be partially or completely removed from the ecosystems via above- or below-canopy roofs or water can be added to already drought-prone ecosystems. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. In our study water was added to a mature 90-year old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest with a few singe pubescent oaks (Quercus pubescens Willd.), located in the valley bottom of the driest region of Switzerland (Valais). In Valais, Scots pines are declining, usually with increased mortality rates following drought years. It was therefore of special interest to study here how water addition is changing forest ecosystem functioning. The irrigation experiment started in the summer of 2003. Out of eight 0.1 ha experimental plots, four were randomly selected for irrigation, the other four left as a control. Irrigation occurred during rainless nights between April and October, doubling the annual rainfall amount from 650 to 1300 mm. Irrigation water, taken from a near-by irrigation channel, added some nutrients to the plots, but nutrients which were deficient on the site, e.g. nitrogen and phosphorus, were not altered. Tree diameter, tree height and crown width were assessed before the start of the irrigation in winter 2002/2003 and after 7 years of the experiment in 2009/2010. Tree crown transparency (lack of foliage) and leaf area index (LAI) were annually assessed. Additionally, tree mortality was annually evaluated. Mycorrhizal fruit bodies were identified and counted at weekly intervals from 2003 until 2007. Root samples were taken in 2004 and 2005. In 2004 and 2005 wood formation of thirteen trees was analysed in weekly or biweekly intervals using the pinning method. These trees were felled in 2006 for stem, shoot and needle growth analysis

  20. Frost hardiness of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine under two fertilization treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anna; Lehto, Tarja; Repo, Tapani

    2015-07-01

    Survival and functioning of mycorrhizal associations at low temperatures are not known well. In an earlier study, ectomycorrhizas did not affect the frost hardiness of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) roots, but here we studied whether differential nutrient availability would change the result and additionally, alter frost hardiness aboveground. The aim in this experiment was to compare the frost hardiness of roots and needles of mycorrhizal (Hebeloma sp.) and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine seedlings raised using two fertilization treatments and two cold-hardening regimes. The fertilization treatments were low (LF) and high (HF) application of a complete nutrient solution. Three hundred mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal seedlings were cultivated in growth chambers in four blocks for 16 weeks. For the first 9 weeks, the seedlings grew in long-day and high-temperature (LDHT) with low fertilization and then they were raised for 3 weeks in LDHT with either low or high fertilization. After this, half of the plants in each treatment combination remained in LDHT, and half were transferred to short-day and low-temperature (SDLT) conditions to cold acclimatize. The frost hardiness of the roots and needles was assessed using controlled freezing tests followed by electrolyte leakage tests (REL). Mycorrhizal roots were slightly more frost hardy than non-mycorrhizal roots, but only in the growing-season conditions (LDHT) in low-nutrient treatment. In LDHT and LF, the frost hardiness of the non-mycorrhizal roots was about -9 °C, and that of the non-mycorrhizal HF roots and the mycorrhizal roots in both fertilization levels was about -11 °C. However, no difference was found in the roots within the SDLT regime, and in needles, there was no difference between mycorrhizal and fertilization treatments. The frost hardiness of needles increased by SDLT treatment, being -8.5 and -14.1 °C in LDHT and SDLT, respectively. The dry mass of roots, stems, and needles was lower in LF than in

  1. Possibilities of the chemical analysis of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.

    1999-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is a good bio indicator. This species is widely distributed in Europe, including Latvia, is easily identified, and is used in bio indication studies. It is known that the concentrations of most elements in needles change with time. These changes are connected to the processes involved in the uptake, transportation, storage and retranslocation of the elements. Scots pine keeps their needles for several years (3 to 4 years) and are suitable for the study of time related processes. The chemical composition of pine needles is used for the study the deposition and impact of air pollutants. Coniferous needles are covered with epicuticular wax, which act as a trap for airborne deposits. A comparison of chemical composition of pine needles that were unwashed and washed with chloroform made it possible to distinguish which elements were on the needles and to evaluate the character of pollution. The most important stage of the analysis of pine needles is sampling. Nutrient concentrations in the needles of coniferous trees have been shown to vary with the needle age and tree age, the phase of the annual physiological cycle, availability of nutrients in the soil and needle position within the crown. It is very important to take representative sample for the analysis. In the current work the trace element concentrations of the single needle were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) and total reflection X-ray spectrometry (TXRF). The results of analysis showed that concentration of some elements depends from the position of needle within branch for the same needle age class. The concentrations of trace elements in the single needles within main shoot were more or less constant compare with other order shoots at given needle age class. Some higher variations in the elemental concentrations between single needles were observed in the tip part of main shoot. The actual distribution of the elements within a needle has

  2. Evaluation of toxicity and removal of color in textile effluent treated with electron beam; Avaliacao da toxicidade e remocao da cor de um efluente textil tratado com feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, Aline Viana de

    2015-07-01

    The textile industry is among the main activities Brazil, being relevant in number of jobs, quantity and diversity of products and mainly by the volume of water used in industrial processes and effluent generation. These effluents are complex mixtures which are characterized by the presence of dyes, surfactants, metal sequestering agents, salts and other potentially toxic chemicals for the aquatic biota. Considering the lack of adequate waste management to these treatments, new technologies are essential in highlighting the advanced oxidation processes such as ionizing radiation electron beam. This study includes the preparation of a standard textile effluent chemical laboratory and its treatment by electron beam from electron accelerator in order to reduce the toxicity and intense staining resulting from Cl. Blue 222 dye. The treatment caused a reduction in toxicity to exposed organisms with 34.55% efficiency for the Daphnia similis micro crustacean and 47.83% for Brachionus plicatilis rotifer at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The Vibrio fischeri bacteria obtained better results after treatment with a dose of 5 kGy showing 57.29% efficiency. Color reduction was greater than 90% at a dose of 2.5 kGy. This experiment has also carried out some preliminary tests on the sensitivity of the D. similis and V. fischeri organisms to exposure of some of the products used in this bleaching and dyeing and two water reuse simulations in new textile processing after the treating the effluent with electron beam. (author)

  3. Positive results of three-dimensional planning Co60 beam through distinctive examples of location depending on the type treated in the oncology unit Pinar del Rio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazco, Julio

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this work is presented through case studies discussed in our institution, which has brought several advantages to use Planning Three-dimensional beam and cobalt 60 Theraplan Plus System, showing thus qualitative and quantitative (clinical case of lung cancer) that have achieved by the use of this new tool. To illustrate the above 5 clinical cases are chosen belonging to 5 different sites (endometrium, prostate, lung, pineal gland and brainstem) and are presented in each case the advantages provided by using the Tridimensional Planning System. (Author)

  4. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a stress-induced multifunctional O-methyltransferase with pinosylvin methyltransferase activity from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiron, H; Drouet, A; Claudot, A C; Eckerskorn, C; Trost, M; Heller, W; Ernst, D; Sandermann, H

    2000-12-01

    Formation of pinosylvin (PS) and pinosylvin 3-O-monomethyl ether (PSM), as well as the activities of stilbene synthase (STS) and S-adenosyl-1-methionine (SAM):pinosylvin O-methyltransferase (PMT), were induced strongly in needles of Scots pine seedlings upon ozone treatment, as well as in cell suspension cultures of Scots pine upon fungal elicitation. A SAM-dependent PMT protein was purified and partially characterised. A cDNA encoding PMT was isolated from an ozone-induced Scots pine cDNA library. Southern blot analysis of the genomic DNA suggested the presence of a gene family. The deduced protein sequence showed the typical highly conserved regions of O-methyltransferases (OMTs), and average identities of 20-56% to known OMTs. PMT expressed in Escherichia coli corresponded to that of purified PMT (40 kDa) from pine cell cultures. The recombinant enzyme catalysed the methylation of PS, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-CoA and quercetin. Several other substances, such as astringenin, resveratrol, 5-OH-ferulic acid, catechol and luteolin, were also methylated. Recombinant PMT thus had a relatively broad substrate specificity. Treatment of 7-year old Scots pine trees with ozone markedly increased the PMT mRNA level. Our results show that PMT represents a new SAM-dependent OMT for the methylation of stress-induced pinosylvin in Scots pine needles.

  5. Modelling the effect of low soil temperatures on transpiration by Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Stähli, Manfred; Gustafsson, David; Bishop, Kevin

    2006-06-01

    For ecosystem modelling of the Boreal forest it is important to include processes associated with low soil temperature during spring-early summer, as these affect the tree water uptake. The COUP model, a physically based SVAT model, was tested with 2 years of soil and snow physical measurements and sap flow measurements in a 70-year-old Scots pine stand in the boreal zone of northern Sweden. During the first year the extent and duration of soil frost was manipulated in the field. The model was successful in reproducing the timing of the soil warming after the snowmelt and frost thaw. A delayed soil warming, into the growing season, severely reduced the transpiration. We demonstrated the potential for considerable overestimation of transpiration by the model if the reduction of the trees' capacity to transpire due to low soil temperatures is not taken into account. We also demonstrated that the accumulated effect of aboveground conditions could be included when simulating the relationship between soil temperature and tree water uptake. This improved the estimated transpiration for the control plot and when soil warming was delayed into the growing season. The study illustrates the need of including antecedent conditions on root growth in the model in order to catch these effects on transpiration. The COUP model is a promising tool for predicting transpiration in high-latitude stands.

  6. Aluminium effects on pyridine nucleotide redox state in roots of Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lorenc-Plucińska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After prolonged (3-9 weeks hydroponic treatment of Scots pine seedlings with different concentrations (0.5-4.0 mM of Al (AI(N033, the levels of pyridine nucleotides were determined in root homogenates. After 3 weeks of Al stress, a significant decrease of the anabolic reduction charge (ARC: NADPH/(NADP+ + NADPH and an increase of the redox status (NAD(PH/NAD(P+, catabolic reduction charge (CRC: NADH/(NAD+ + NADH and phosphorylation capacity expressed as NADP+/NAD+ ratio was found in the 4.0 mM Al treatment. After 6 weeks, Al at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0 mM induced an enhancement of the NADH level and a reduction of NADPH level, but the redox ratios were not changed significantly. After 9 weeks treatment with Al concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, decreases of the relative level of NADP+, NADPH and NADH and increases of NAD+ were found. Consequently, the CRC, NAD(PH/NAD(P+ and NADP+/NAD+ ratios reached a minimum and ARC a maximum as compared to previous measurements.

  7. Determination of metals in scots pine (Pinus Sylvestris) needles and soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludborzs, A.; Viksna, A.

    2000-01-01

    Current report is the finding to apply two modern and powerful methods of microanalysis - Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry - for the analysis of biological and geological materials. For some of the measurements Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used as an arbitrary method. The goal of the research project is to find possible relationships between metals content in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) needles and the soil samples, which have been taken under the trees. The objectives of the work are analysis of both needles and soils, pH measurements of the soil samples, and handling of a simplified metal speciation analysis in the soil samples. For statistical reliability of the project, seven pine trees from different locations in Latvia have been chosen as the analysis objects. Samples of 20 different age class needles have been collected from the trees and 21 soil sample has been sampled under the trees. K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Pb, and Cd content have been analysed in both samples of the needles and the soils. The obtained measurement data have been processed according to the aim of the project. Relevant questions about causal differences of metal concentrations in different age classes of needles, about subtle working principles of the plant's root system, about the role of some elements in the plant's living processes still remain unanswered. (author)

  8. The O-methyltransferase PMT2 mediates methylation of pinosylvin in Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasela, Tanja; Lim, Kean-Jin; Pietiäinen, Milla; Teeri, Teemu H

    2017-06-01

    Heartwood extractives are important determinants of the natural durability of pine heartwood. The most important phenolic compounds affecting durability are the stilbenes pinosylvin and its monomethylether, which in addition have important functions as phytoalexins in active defense. A substantial portion of the synthesized pinosylvin is 3-methoxylated but the O-methyltransferase responsible for this modification has not been correctly identified. We studied the expression of the stilbene pathway during heartwood development as well as in response to wounding of xylem and UV-C treatment of needles. We isolated and enzymatically characterized a novel O-methyltransferase, PMT2. The methylated product was verified as pinosylvin monomethylether using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses. The PMT2 enzyme was highly specific for stilbenes as substrate, in contrast to caffeoyl-CoA O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) and PMT1 that were multifunctional. Expression profile and multifunctional activity of CCoAOMT suggest that it might have additional roles outside lignin biosynthesis. PMT1 is not involved in the stilbene pathway and its biological function remains an open question. We isolated a new specific O-methyltransferase responsible for 3-methoxylation of pinosylvin. Expression of PMT2 closely follows stilbene biosynthesis during developmental and stress induction. We propose that PMT2 is responsible for pinosylvin methylation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), instead of the previously characterized methyltransferase, PMT1. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Elevated temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

    2007-09-15

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO{sub 2} concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO{sub 2} levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO{sub 2} and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO{sub 2} and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Harmful effects of atmospheric nitrous acid on the physiological status of Scots pine trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakugawa, Hiroshi; Cape, J. Neil

    2007-01-01

    An open top chamber experiment was carried out in the summer of 2003 to examine the effect of nitrous acid (HONO) gas on the physiological status of Scots pine saplings (Pinus sylvestris). Four-year-old pine trees were exposed to two different levels of HONO gas (at ca. 2.5 ppb and 5.0 ppb) and a control (filtered air) from early evening to early morning (18:00-6:00), in duplicate open top chambers. Significant decreases in the ratios of chlorophylls a to b, an increase in the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and a reduction of maximum yield of PS II (F v /F m ) in pine needles were also observed after the 2 months' fumigation. Cation contents of pine needles were also decreased by the fumigation with HONO gas. The results could be explained by the harmful effects of OH radicals, generated from photolysis of HONO gas, and/or aqueous phase HONO (NO 2 - /HONO), on the photosynthetic capacity of pine needles. - Exposure to HONO affects photosynthesis and nutrient status of pine trees

  11. Effects of soil copper and nickel on survival and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Tiina Maileena

    2004-11-01

    The contribution of soil Cu and Ni pollution to the poor vitality and growth rate of Scots pine growing in the vicinity of a Cu-Ni smelter was investigated in two manipulation experiments. In the first manipulation, Cu-Ni smelter-polluted soil cores were transported from a smelter-pollution gradient to unpolluted greenhouse conditions. A 4-year-old pine seedling was planted in each core and cultivated for a 17-month period. In the second manipulation, pine seedlings from the same lot were cultivated for the same 17-month period in a quartz sand medium containing increasing doses of copper sulfate, nickel sulfate, and a combination of both. The variation in the biomass growth of the seedlings grown in the smelter-polluted soil cores was very similar to that of mature pine stands growing along the same smelter-pollution gradient in the field. In addition, the rate of Cu and Ni exposure explained a high proportion of the biomass growth variation, and had an effect on the Ca, K, and Mg status of the seedlings. According to the lethal threshold values determined on the basis of the metal sulfate exposure experiments, both the Cu and Ni content of the 0.5 km smelter-polluted soil cores were high enough to cause the death of most of the seedlings. The presence of Cu seemed to increase Ni toxicity.

  12. The inflow of Cs-137 in soil with root litter and root exudates of Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcheglov, Alexey; Tsvetnova, Olga; Popova, Evgenia

    2017-04-01

    In the model experiment on evaluation of Cs-137 inflow in the soil with litter of roots and woody plants root exudates on the example of soil and water cultures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was shown, that through 45 days after the deposit Cs-137 solution on pine needles (specific activity of solution was 3.718*106 Bk) of the radionuclide in all components of model systems has increased significantly: needles, small branches and trunk by Cs-137 surface contamination during the experiment; roots as a result of the internal distribution of the radionuclide in the plant; soil and soil solution due to the of receipt Cs-137 in the composition of root exudates and root litter. Over 99% of the total reserve of Cs-137 accumulated in the components of the soil and water systems, accounted for bodies subjected to external pollution (needles and small branches) and soil solution, haven't been subjected to surface contamination. At the same contamination of soil and soil solution by Cs-137 in the model experiment more than a> 99.9% was due to root exudates

  13. Predicting moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine by microwave scanning of sawn timber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, J.; Hagman, O.; Fjellner, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the possibility of calibrating a prediction model for the moisture content and density distribution of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) using microwave sensors. The material was initially of green moisture content and was thereafter dried in several steps to zero moisture content. At each step, all the pieces were weighed, scanned with a microwave sensor (Satimo 9,4GHz), and computed tomography (CT)-scanned with a medical CT scanner (Siemens Somatom AR.T.). The output variables from the microwave sensor were used as predictors, and CT images that correlated with known moisture content were used as response variables. Multivariate models to predict average moisture content and density were calibrated using the partial least squares (PLS) regression. The models for average moisture content and density were applied at the pixel level, and the distribution was visualized. The results show that it is possible to predict both moisture content distribution and density distribution with high accuracy using microwave sensors. (author)

  14. Retention of seed trees fails to lifeboat ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in harvested Scots pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, Kerstin; Lindahl, Björn D; Dahlberg, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Fennoscandian forestry has in the past decades changed from natural regeneration of forests towards replantation of clear-cuts, which negatively impacts ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) diversity. Retention of trees during harvesting enables EMF survival, and we therefore expected EMF communities to be more similar to those in old natural stands after forest regeneration using seed trees compared to full clear-cutting and replanting. We sequenced fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicons to assess EMF communities in 10- to 60-year-old Scots pine stands regenerated either using seed trees or through replanting of clear-cuts with old natural stands as reference. We also investigated local EMF communities around retained old trees. We found that retention of seed trees failed to mitigate the impact of harvesting on EMF community composition and diversity. With increasing stand age, EMF communities became increasingly similar to those in old natural stands and permanently retained trees maintained EMF locally. From our observations, we conclude that EMF communities, at least common species, post-harvest are more influenced by environmental filtering, resulting from environmental changes induced by harvest, than by the continuity of trees. These results suggest that retention of intact forest patches is a more efficient way to conserve EMF diversity than retaining dispersed single trees. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Elevated temperature and CO2 concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO 2 concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO 2 concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO 2 levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO 2 and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO 2 and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO 2 concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  17. Mitigation of solid waste and reuse of effluent from paint and varnish automotive and industrial treated by irradiation at electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Fernando C.; Ribeiro, Marcia A.; Duarte, Celina Lopes; Minamidani, Pedro T.; Guzella, Catia C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most representative industrial segments is the polymeric coatings for house paint, automotive, industrial, marine, maintenance, and repainting markets. The general consumption of paint market in 2010 was 438,364 10 3 gallons of paint, in Brazil. However, when produce paints and varnishes, various kinds of solid wastes and liquid effluent are generated. The present research focus on the effluent from resins, water base paint and paint for electrophoresis, automotive industry, and general industrial coatings. The goal of this study is to use ionizing radiation to destroy the pollutants allowing the use of part of effluent as reuse water, and the rest discarded within the specified requirements. Actual industrial effluent samples were irradiated at Electron beam Accelerator applying absorbed doses of 10 kGy, 30 kGy and 50 kGy. The results, in this preliminary stage, showed a reduction of organic compounds and suspended solids. (author)

  18. Electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V: Microstructure, texture and mechanical behavior of the as-built and heat-treated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formanoir, Charlotte de; Michotte, Sébastien; Rigo, Olivier; Germain, Lionel; Godet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM), a powder bed additive layer manufacturing process, was used to produce Ti–6Al–4V specimens, whose microstructure, texture, and tensile properties were fully characterized. The microstructure, analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM/EBSD and X-ray diffraction, consists in fine α lamellae. Numerical reconstruction of the parent β phase highlighted the columnar morphology of the prior β grains, growing along the build direction upon solidification of the melt pool. The presence of grain boundary α GB along the boundaries of these prior β grains is indicative of the diffusive nature of the β→α phase transformation. Texture analysis of the reconstructed high temperature β phase revealed a strong <001> pole in the build direction. For mechanical characterization, tensile specimens were produced using two different build themes and along several build orientations, revealing that vertically built specimens exhibit a lower yield strength than those built horizontally. The effect of post processing, either mechanical or thermal, was extensively investigated. The influence of surface finish on tensile properties was clearly highlighted. Indeed, mechanical polishing induced an increase in ductility – due to the removal of critical surface defects – as well as a significant increase of the apparent yield strength – caused by the removal of a ~150 µm rough surface layer that can be considered as mechanically inefficient and not supporting any tensile load. Thermal post-treatments were performed on electron beam melted specimens, revealing that subtransus treatments induce very moderate microstructural changes, whereas supertransus treatments generate a considerably different type of microstructure, due to the fast β grain growth occurring above the transus. The heat treatments investigated in this work had a relatively moderate impact on the mechanical properties of the parts.

  19. Electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V: Microstructure, texture and mechanical behavior of the as-built and heat-treated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formanoir, Charlotte de, E-mail: cdeforma@ulb.ac.be [4MAT, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Michotte, Sébastien; Rigo, Olivier [Sirris, T-ADD, 20 rue Auguste Piccard, 6041 Gosselies (Belgium); Germain, Lionel [Laboratoire d' Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNR /Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (' LabEx DAMAS' ), Université de Lorraine (France); Godet, Stéphane [4MAT, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Avenue F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    Electron Beam Melting (EBM), a powder bed additive layer manufacturing process, was used to produce Ti–6Al–4V specimens, whose microstructure, texture, and tensile properties were fully characterized. The microstructure, analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM/EBSD and X-ray diffraction, consists in fine α lamellae. Numerical reconstruction of the parent β phase highlighted the columnar morphology of the prior β grains, growing along the build direction upon solidification of the melt pool. The presence of grain boundary α{sub GB} along the boundaries of these prior β grains is indicative of the diffusive nature of the β→α phase transformation. Texture analysis of the reconstructed high temperature β phase revealed a strong <001> pole in the build direction. For mechanical characterization, tensile specimens were produced using two different build themes and along several build orientations, revealing that vertically built specimens exhibit a lower yield strength than those built horizontally. The effect of post processing, either mechanical or thermal, was extensively investigated. The influence of surface finish on tensile properties was clearly highlighted. Indeed, mechanical polishing induced an increase in ductility – due to the removal of critical surface defects – as well as a significant increase of the apparent yield strength – caused by the removal of a ~150 µm rough surface layer that can be considered as mechanically inefficient and not supporting any tensile load. Thermal post-treatments were performed on electron beam melted specimens, revealing that subtransus treatments induce very moderate microstructural changes, whereas supertransus treatments generate a considerably different type of microstructure, due to the fast β grain growth occurring above the transus. The heat treatments investigated in this work had a relatively moderate impact on the mechanical properties of the parts.

  20. Assessment of genetic diversity in Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp) accessions using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwe, David Okeh; Afiukwa, Celestine Azubike; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Ogbu, Kenneth Idika; Ojuederie, Omena Bernard; Ude, George Nkem

    2017-11-17

    Assessment of genetic diversity of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (cowpea) accessions using informative molecular markers is imperative for their genetic improvement and conservation. Use of efficacious molecular markers to obtain the required knowledge of the genetic diversity within the local and regional germplasm collections can enhance the overall effectiveness of cowpea improvement programs, hence, the comparative assessment of Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and Start codon targeted (SCoT) markers in genetic diversity of V. unguiculata accessions from different regions in Nigeria. Comparative analysis of the genetic diversity of eighteen accessions from different locations in Nigeria was investigated using ISSR and SCoT markers. DNA extraction was done using Zymogen Kit according to its manufacturer's instructions followed by amplifications with ISSR and SCoT and agarose gel electrophoresis. The reproducible bands were scored for analyses of dendrograms, principal component analysis, genetic diversity, allele frequency, polymorphic information content, and population structure. Both ISSR and SCoT markers resolved the accessions into five major clusters based on dendrogram and principal component analyses. Alleles of 32 and 52 were obtained with ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Numbers of alleles, gene diversity and polymorphic information content detected with ISSR were 9.4000, 0.7358 and 0.7192, while SCoT yielded 11.1667, 0.8158 and 0.8009, respectively. Polymorphic loci were 70 and 80 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Both markers produced high polymorphism (94.44-100%). The ranges of effective number of alleles (Ne) were 1.2887 ± 0.1797-1.7831 ± 0.2944 and 1.7416 ± 0.0776-1.9181 ± 0.2426 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. The Nei's genetic diversity (H) ranged from 0.2112 ± 0.0600-0.4335 ± 0.1371 and 0.4111 ± 0.0226-0.4778 ± 0.1168 in ISSR and SCoT, respectively. Shannon's information index (I) from ISSR and SCoT were 0

  1. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  2. Late morbidity profiles in prostate cancer patients treated to 79-84 Gy by a simple four-field coplanar beam arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chism, Derek B.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Pinover, Wayne H.; Mitra, Raj K.; Hanks, Gerald E.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the frequency and magnitude of late GI and GU morbidity in prostate cancer patients treated to high dose levels with a simple three-dimensional conformal technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 156 intermediate- and high-risk patients were treated between January 1, 1992 and February 28, 1999 with a simple four-field three-dimensional conformal technique to 79-84 Gy. All patients were treated with a four-field conformal technique; the prostate received 82 Gy and the seminal vesicles and periprostatic tissue 46 Gy. GI and GU toxicity was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Morbidity Grading Scale and compared using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Results: The late Grade 2 GI complication rate was 9% and 38% at 3 years for patients treated with and without rectal blocking, respectively (p=0.0004). No Grade 3 late GI complications developed. The rate of Grade 2 late GU complications was 5%, 8%, and 12% at 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. The Grade 3 late GU complication rate was 2% at 36 months. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The treatment method described is a simple four-field conformal technique that can be easily implemented in the general radiation community. A dose of 79-84 Gy can be safely delivered to the prostate, with a 9% rate of late Grade 2 GI, 12% rate of late Grade 2 GU, and 2% rate of late Grade 3 GU complications

  3. Long-term development of experimental mixtures of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth. in northern Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Mason

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Caledonian pinewoods of northern Scotland are a priority conservation habitat in Europe which are dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris, but varying proportions of a number of broadleaved species such as silver birch (Betula pendula can occur in these forests. Better understanding of the dynamics of mixed Scots pine-birch stands would be helpful in informing current initiatives to restore and increase the area of the pinewood ecosystem. Some evidence is provided by two experiments established in the 1960s which compared plots of pure Scots pine and pure birch with two treatments where the two species were mixed in 3:1 and 1:1 ratios. Some fifty years later, Scots pine was the more vigorous of the two species in these experiments, being both taller and significantly larger in diameter. The highest basal area was generally found in the pure Scots pine plots and the values in the mixed plots tended to be intermediate between those of the two component species. Examination of the growth in the mixed plots showed a slight, but non-significant, tendency towards overyielding. This appeared to be due to Scots pine growth being better than predicted, while that of birch was slightly less than predicted. These results suggest that in these mixtures, which are composed of two light demanding species, the main mechanism driving long-term performance is competition for light and there is little evidence of any complementary effect. These results suggest that any strategy seeking to increase the long-term representation of broadleaves such as birch in the Caledonian pinewoods will need to create discrete blocks that are large enough to withstand the competitive pressures exerted by the pine.

  4. An analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Ziaja, Ellen L.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: We reviewed our institution's experience in treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to determine if previously analyzed clinical and treatment related prognostic factors affected outcome when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Materials and methods: Between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 1991, 470 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated with external beam RT using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment. After achieving nadir, if two consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Prognostic factors, including the total number of days in treatment, the method of diagnosis, a history of any pretreatment transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and the type of boost were analyzed. Results: Median follow-up was 48 months. No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), history of any pretreatment TURP, history of diagnosis by TURP, or boost techniques. Patients diagnosed by TURP had a significant improvement in the overall rate of biochemical control (P < 0.03) compared to transrectal/transperineal biopsy. The 5-year actuarial rates were 58 versus 39%, respectively. This improvement was not evident when pretreatment PSA, T stage, or Gleason score were controlled for. On multivariate analysis, no variable was associated with outcome. When analysis was limited to a more favorable group of patients (T1/T2 tumors, pretreatment PSA ≤20 ng/ml and Gleason score <7), none of these variables were significantly predictive of biochemical control when controlling for pretreatment PSA, T stage and Gleason score. Conclusions: No significant effect of treatment time, overall time, pretreatment

  5. Effects of treatment with vermicompost on the some morphological and physiological characteristics of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Atik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, effects of vermicompost treatment tried to be determined on some morphological and physiological seedling quality characteristics of one – year Scots pines. Experiments were set according to random plots experimental design including 14 trials with 3 repetitions. With this aim, seeds obtained from seven different sites (origins of mixed Scots pine stands which naturally grow in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey were used in the experiments. At the end of the vegetation period, important physiologic and morphologic parameters of seedlings in the plots, SH, RCD, TDW, RDW and total N rate were detected. After that, RI, V and QI rates, each of which is also important rational indicator in seedlings for height, root collar diameter and weight balance, were calculated with the help of morphological data. Effects of VC treatment were found to be statistically significant on all the development parameters measured in seedlings in seven origin groups. It was determined in all morphologic parameters that the best development rate was observed in Goktepe originating seedlings in both VC treatment and control groups while Geyikgolu originating seedlings showed the least development performance. It was observed from the correlation analysis that there is a positive relation between morphologic and physiologic quality criteria. It was also determined according to the results of multivariable regression analysis that elevation of the sites where seedlings were picked up was more effective on the development of seedling development than the aspect of the sites. Results of the study were found to be convenient with the related literature and showed that VC treatment contributed positively to the development of Scots pine seedlings taken from seven different origins.

  6. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, J., E-mail: jjbenedi@tal.upv.e [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cambero, M.I. [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain); Ortuno, C. [Grupo de Analisis y Simulacion de Procesos Agroalimentarios, Departamento Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera S/n, E46022 Valencia (Spain); Cabeza, M.C.; Ordonez, J.A.; Hoz, L. de la [Departamento de Nutricion, Bromatologia y Tecnologia de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation (R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz (R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation (R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose (R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  7. Modeling and optimization of sensory changes and shelf-life in vacuum-packaged cooked ham treated by E-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedito, J.; Cambero, M.I.; Ortuno, C.; Cabeza, M.C.; Ordonez, J.A.; Hoz, L. de la

    2011-01-01

    The E-beam irradiation of vacuum-packaged RTE cooked ham was carried out to establish the dose required to achieve the food safety objective (FSO) and to minimize changes in selected sensory attributes. Cooked ham was irradiated with doses ranging 1-4 kGy. After the treatment, the microbial inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, the shelf-life of the product and some sensory attributes (appearance, odor, and flavor) were determined. The inactivation of L. monocytogenes was satisfactorily described by a first-order kinetics equation (R2=0.99). The influence of the irradiation dose on appearance, odor, and flavor was modeled through Gompertz (R2=0.99, for appearance) and Activation/Inactivation (R2=0.99, for odor and flavor) equations. A model was also developed to determine the shelf-life of irradiated cooked ham depending on the irradiation dose (R2>0.91). The dose that maximized the scores of the sensory attributes was 0.96 kGy resulting in an acceptable sensory quality for 80 days. It is possible to apply up to 2 kGy to ensure microbial safety, while provoking no significant changes in the above mentioned sensory attributes.

  8. Long-Term Outcomes for Patients with Prostate Cancer Having Intermediate and High-Risk Disease, Treated with Combination External Beam Irradiation and Brachytherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dattoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception remains that brachytherapy-based regimens are inappropriate for patients having increased risk of extracapsular extension (ECE. Methods. 321 consecutive intermediate and high-risk disease patients were treated between 1/92 and 2/97 by one author (M. Dattoli and stratified by NCCN guidelines. 157 had intermediate-risk; 164 had high-risk disease. All were treated using the combination EBRT/brachytherapy ± hormones. Biochemical failure was defined using PSA >0.2 and nadir +2 at last followup. Nonfailing patients followup was median 10.5 years. Both biochemical data and original biopsy slides were independently rereviewed at an outside institution. Results. Overall actuarial freedom from biochemical progression at 16 years was 82% (89% intermediate, 74% high-risk with failure predictors: Gleason score (=.01 and PSA (=.03. Hormonal therapy did not affect failure rates (=.14. Conclusion. This study helps to strengthen the rationale for brachytherapy-based regimens as being both durable and desirable treatment options for such patients. Prospective studies are justified to confirm these positive results.

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Factory Effects on the Amino Acid and Nitrogen Content in the Needles of Scots Pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenija Kupsinskiene

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to evaluate the content of amino acids in the needles of Pinus sylvestris growing in the area affected by a nitrogen fertilizer factory and to compare them with other parameters of needles, trees, and sites. Three young-age stands of Scots pine were selected at a distance of 0.5 km, 5 km, and 17 km from the factory. Examination of the current-year needles in winter of the year 2000 revealed significant (p

  10. A comparative study of set up variations and bowel volumes in supine versus prone positions of patients treated with external beam radiation for carcinoma rectum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, K R; Menon, Smrithy S; Beena, K; Holla, Raghavendra; Kumar, R Rajaneesh; Dinesh, M

    2014-01-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of patient positioning on the set up variations to determine the planning target volume (PTV) margins and to evaluate the clinical relevance volume assessment of the small bowel (SB) within the irradiated volume. During the period of months from December 2011 to April 2012, a computed tomography (CT) scan was done either in supine position or in prone position using a belly board (BB) for 20 consecutive patients. All the patients had histologically proven rectal cancer and received either post- or pre-operative pelvic irradiation. Using a three-dimensional planning system, the dose-volume histogram for SB was defined in each axial CT slice. Total dose was 46-50 Gy (2 Gy/fraction), delivered using the 4-field box technique. The set up variation of the study group was assessed from the data received from the electronic portal imaging device in the linear accelerator. The shift along X, Y, and Z directions were noted. Both systematic and random errors were calculated and using both these values the PTV margin was calculated. The systematic errors of patients treated in the supine position were 0.87 (X-mm), 0.66 (Y-mm), 1.6 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 1.3 (X-mm), 0.59 (Y-mm), 1.17 (Z-mm). The random errors of patients treated in the supine positions were 1.81 (X-mm), 1.73 (Y-mm), 1.83 (Z-mm) and in prone position were 2.02 (X-mm), 1.21 (Y-mm), 3.05 (Z-mm). The calculated PTV margins in the supine position were 3.45 (X-mm), 2.87 (Y-mm), 5.31 (Z-mm) and in the prone position were 4.91 (X-mm), 2.32 (Y-mm), 5.08 (Z-mm). The mean volume of the peritoneal cavity was 648.65 cm 3 in the prone position and 1197.37 cm 3 in the supine position. The prone position using BB device was more effective in reducing irradiated SB volume in rectal cancer patients. There were no significant variations in the daily set up for patients treated in both supine and prone positions.

  11. Acute skin toxicity-related, out-of-pocket expenses in patients with breast cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy: a descriptive, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnur, Julie B; Graff Zivin, Joshua; Mattson, David M K; Green, Sheryl; Jandorf, Lina H; Wernicke, A Gabriella; Montgomery, Guy H

    2012-12-01

    Acute skin toxicity is one of the most common side effects of breast cancer radiotherapy. To date, no one has estimated the nonmedical out-of-pocket expenses associated with this side effect. The primary aim of the present descriptive, exploratory study was to assess the feasibility of a newly developed skin toxicity costs questionnaire. The secondary aims were to: (1) estimate nonmedical out-of-pocket costs, (2) examine the nature of the costs, (3) explore potential background predictors of costs, and (4) explore the relationship between patient-reported dermatologic quality of life and expenditures. A total of 50 patients (mean age = 54.88, Stage 0-III) undergoing external beam radiotherapy completed a demographics/medical history questionnaire as well as a seven-item Skin Toxicity Costs (STC) questionnaire and the Skindex-16 in week 5 of treatment. Mean skin toxicity costs were $131.64 (standard error [SE] = $23.68). Most frequently incurred expenditures were new undergarments and products to manage toxicity. Education was a significant unique predictor of spending, with more educated women spending more money. Greater functioning impairment was associated with greater costs. The STC proved to be a practical, brief measure which successfully indicated specific areas of patient expenditures and need. Results reveal the nonmedical, out-of-pocket costs associated with acute skin toxicity in the context of breast cancer radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify individual costs associated with this treatment side effect, as well as the first to present a scale specifically designed to assess such costs. In future research, the STC could be used as an outcome variable in skin toxicity prevention and control research, as a behavioral indicator of symptom burden, or as part of a needs assessment.

  12. The longitudinal distribution of elements in developing and aging scots pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viksna, A.; Helmisaari, H.S.; Standzenieks, P.; Lindgren, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Needle or leaf nutrient concentrations are commonly used for analysing tree nutritional status for e.g. estimating possible nutrient deficiencies or unbalances. The practise used e.g. in northern Europe is to sample needles during the dormant period from either the current or in some cases several needle age classes from a fixed position of a number of trees in a stand. The sampled needles are then dried and ground for nutrient analysis. The sampling aims to minimise the spatial and temporal variation in needle nutrient concentrations for estimating the availability of nutrients in soil through needle analysis. It is well known that the concentrations of different nutrients vary in needles with the phase of the annual physiological cycle (Fife and Nambiar 1982, 1984), needle age (Florence and Chuoung 1974, Madgwick et al. 1983) and sampling position (Helmisaari 1992). The samples analysed are usually bulk samples of a large number of needles, and the results are mean concentrations representing an age class in a stand. There is little information on how different needles vary in nutrient concentrations, and even less on how nutrient concentrations vary within individual needles. The import and export of elements to and from needles varies according to the developmental phase of needles, and is likely to affect the element concentrations in different parts of the needles. Accordingly, the elemental concentrations measured in different parts of the needles may give an insight into the transport pattern of an element and its potential mobility. Up to now, very few studies report needle element concentrations in different parts of the needles, e.g. tip, base and middle (Giertych et al. 1997), or in different parts of the leaf phloem (Eschrich et al. 1988). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of different elements along the length of single Scots pine needles of different age and during different stages of needle physiological cycle. The scanning

  13. Study of needles morphometric indexes in Scots pine trees in 25 years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarenko, E.S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Oudalova, A.A. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249030, Obninsk, Russia, Kievskoe shosse 109 km (Russian Federation); Obninsk Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, 249032, Obninsk, Russia, Studgorodok, 1 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Long-term observations of coniferous tree populations within areas contaminated after radiation accidents provide unique information on biological consequences in plant populations from chronic radiation exposure. Many studies have been performed in a near zone of the Chernobyl NPP where in the primary period after the accident non-human biota was exposed to high doses, and dose rates essentially exceed natural radiation background up to now. Of special interest, however, are biological effects in plant and animal populations inhabiting territories with less pronounced exposure levels. Pine is especially important species for investigation in the field of environment radiation protection since it is included in the ICRP reference plants and animals list as one of the most radiosensitive plant species. The aim of this work was to estimate biological effects of chronic radiation impact for pine trees using needle indexes as test-functions. Study-sites are situated in the Bryansk Region of Russia contaminated after the Chernobyl accident. Scots pine populations under study have been growing in the radioactively contaminated areas over 20 years. In 2011 and 2013 samples of 2-years old needle were collected at 6 study-sites. {sup 137}Cs activities in soils at the time of sampling were from 1.57 to 96.9 kBq/kg. Estimated annual doses to pine tree crowns were calculated in a range of 7-130 mGy. Length and weight of the needles were measured, and necrosis rank was determined. Developmental disturbances were estimated via indexes of fluctuating asymmetry calculation for length (FA{sub L}) and weight (FA{sub W}) characteristics. Needle length of the Scots pine from study-sites ranged from 64.8 to 80.2 mm. Needle weight ranged from 18.2 to 30.5 mg, and was higher at radioactively contaminated sites in comparison to reference populations. Correlation of morphometric parameters and radiation impact was, however, statistically insignificant. Normal needle appeared with frequency

  14. The true distribution and accumulation of radiocaesium in stem of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.; Goor, F.; Riesen, T.

    2002-01-01

    The radial and vertical distributions of radiocaesium, potassium and calcium were determined in two Scots pine stands (17 and 58 yr old) similarly affected by the Chernobyl fallout. For both age classes, concentrations are always the lowest in the stemwood, highest in the inner bark and intermediary levels were observed for the outer bark. Due to the cumulative character of its biomass, however, stemwood is a long-term major reservoir of 137 Cs. With tree development, changes in the 137 Cs radial distribution are well described by variations in the sap ascent pattern and reveal an important transfer between tree rings. It is shown that, both the biomass evolution and knowledge of the evolution of the 137 Cs radial gradient are important to predicting 137 Cs accumulation in wood with time. According to the common transfer factor (TF) approach, one would expect a decrease in radiocaesium accumulation with time (from 0.0047±0.0013 to 0.0035±0.0008 m 2 kg -1 for the 17 and 58 yr old trees, respectively). With the wood immobilisation potential (WIP) approach, it was, however, clearly shown that additional annual uptake was highest for the older stand (3.12±0.23 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the 58-year-old stand compared to 1.99±0.30 Bq cm -3 yr -1 for the younger stand). Following the WIP approach, it was moreover possible to distinguish between the 137 Cs incorporated via the root uptake process and a possible lasting effect of interception. It is shown that, whereas for the younger stand (5 yr old at the time of the accident) root uptake contributed exclusively to the wood contamination, the former process explained only 48% of the measured total 137 Cs content in the wood of the older tree

  15. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  16. Long-term nitrogen additions and the intrinsic water-use efficiency of boreal Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John; Wallin, Göran; Linder, Sune; Lundmark, Tomas; Näsholm, Torgny

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen fertilization nearly always increases productivity in boreal forests, at least in terms of wood production, but it is unclear how. In a mature (80 yrs. old) Scots pine forest in northern Sweden, we tested the extent to which nitrogen fertilization increased intrinsic photosynthetic water-use efficiency. We measured δ13C both discretely, in biweekly phloem sampling, and continuously, by monitoring of bole respiration. The original experiment was designed as a test of eddy covariance methods and is not therefore strictly replicated. Nonetheless, we compared phloem contents among fifteen trees from each plot and stem respiration from four per plot. The treatments included addition of 100 kg N/ha for eight years and a control. Phloem contents have the advantage of integrating over the whole canopy and undergoing complete and rapid turnover. Their disadvantage is that some have observed isotopic drift with transport down the length of the stem, presumably as a result of preferential export and/or reloading. We also measured the isotopic composition of stem respiration from four trees on each plot using a Picarro G1101-I CRDS attached to the vent flow from a continuous gas-exchange system. We detected consistent differences in δ13C between the treatments in phloem contents. Within each treatment, the phloem δ13C was negatively correlated with antecedent temperature (R2= 0.65) and no other measured climate variable. The isotopic composition of stem CO2 efflux will be compared to that of phloem contents. However, when converted to intrinsic water-use efficiency, the increase amounted to only about 4%. This is a small relative to the near doubling in wood production. Although we were able to detect a clear and consistent increase in water-use efficiency with N-fertilization, it constitutes but a minor cause of the observed increase in wood production.

  17. Model analysis of the effects of atmospheric drivers on storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Storage water use is an indirect consequence of the interplay between different meteorological drivers through their effect on water flow and water potential in trees. We studied these microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation and vapour pressure deficit (VPD were the main atmospheric drivers of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed. VPD was determined to be one of the main drivers of these differences. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought. The daily minimum tree water content was lower in periods of high VPD, but the reserves were not completely depleted after the first day of high VPD, due to refilling during the night.

    Nevertheless, the tree water content deficit was a third important factor influencing storage water use. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water content

  18. Drought impact on wood formation and antioxidant protection of Scots pine cambial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Sudachkova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of drought on the 8-9-year-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. was simulated in the field by isolating trees from precipitation. The biochemical changes typical of water stress wеre compared with the structural changes of the annual rings of wood. The samples of the current and last year needles, cambium and adjoining layers of xylem and phloem of stems and roots were analyzed. In the needles, the content of chlorophyll a and b and carotenoids were determined. The contents of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde (MDA, the activity of enzymes, realizing antioxidant protection: superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase, glutathione reductase and content of sugars and starch were determined in tissues of xylem, phloem and cambium. It was shown that drought reduces the weight of the needles, the chlorophyll content and the width of the annual wood rings. In moderate drought in the cambial zone oxidative stress was developed and also protection system against free radicals was activated, which resulted in a high SOD activity and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide due to the activity of peroxidase reduction. As a result, the division processes in cambial zone and cells extension growth were inhibited and the width of annual wood rings decreased due to reduction in the number and size of tracheids. It was found that decrease in growth was not due to deficit of carbohydrates for the process xylogenesis. Water deficit increases the concentration of low molecular weight carbohydrates in the tissues, which, due to the inhibition of division and extension cambial derivatives are only partially used for thickening tracheid cell walls. As a result, abnormal tracheides with reduced size of cells and lumens and thickened cell walls were formed. Abundance of soluble carbohydrates was deposited as a reserve pool in the root phloem in the form of starch. The stock function of root phloem was increased under water deficit conditions.

  19. Morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles under industrial pollution impact of Krasnoyarsk city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Skripal’shchikova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes of morphological and anatomical characteristics of Scots pine needles as well as their fluctuating asymmetry (FA were studied in pine stands under the influence of industrial emissions of Krasnoyarsk. Observations were made in forest-steppe zone on windward pine forest edges in the conditions of long-term anthropogenic effect. Background site was pine stand 100 km from the city outside the direction of wind pollution. The investigations were carried out in 2013–2014 in pure pine stands of grass type, V–VI class of age. For every model tree the needle lengths in pairs were measured, as well as the cross section area of needle, area of central cylinder and conducting bindles areas and the number of resin canals. Indices of fluctuating asymmetry were calculated by method of Palmer and Strobeck (1986. The content of copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt, aluminum, cadmium, lead, fluorine and sulfur were analyzed in needle samples in parallel. The dimensions of needles and its internal structure elements showed the tendency to decrease under the influence of urban industrial emissions in comparison with background sites. On the other hand, there were adaptations of morphological and anatomical parameters of physiologically active needles to the changing environment through a compensatory mechanism. Fluctuating asymmetry indices of needles parameters were found to vary both in technogenic conditions and background ones. The variations were caused by abiotic factors of habitats and levels of technogenic loadings in these stands. Correlation analysis revealed relations between concentrations of heavy metals, aluminum and fluorine and morphological and anatomical characteristics of needles and FA indices. The most unfavorable effects were produced by high concentrations of lead and fluorine.

  20. Provenance variations of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Southern PART of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulcu, S.; Bilir, N.

    2015-01-01

    Tree height, basal diameter, stem form, number, angle and diameter of branches were assessed in eight-year-old provenance test established by 30 seed sources of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) at Aydogmus and Kemer experimental sites of Southern part of Turkey. Growth of the provenances was also compared to two native species (Taurus cedar- Cedrus libani A. Rich and Black pine-Pinus nigra Arnold.) of the region. Variations within provenance and among provenances, and relations among the traits were estimated. There were large differences (p <= 0.05) within provenance and among provenances for the traits, while sites showed similar (0.05 <= p) performance for tree height and stem form. For instance, average of tree height was 181 cm and varied between 138.3 cm and 229.8 cm in provenances of Aydogmus site, it was 184 cm and ranged from 130 cm to 246.1 cm in that of Kemer site. Averages of tree height of a provenance were 144.4 cm in Aydogmus and 194.5 cm in Kemer. Individual tree height of the provenance varied between 69 cm and 267 cm, and ranged from 51 cm to 280 cm in sites. Averages of tree height were 143.2 cm in Black pine 145.6 cm in Taurus cedar which were natural species of the region. There were mostly positive and significant (p <= 0.05) correlations among the traits. Results of the study were discussed for new plantations and breeding of the species. (author)

  1. Controls of evapotranspiration and CO2 fluxes from scots pine by surface conductance and abiotic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianshan Zha

    Full Text Available Evapotranspiration (E and CO2 flux (Fc in the growing season of an unusual dry year were measured continuously over a Scots pine forest in eastern Finland, by eddy covariance techniques. The aims were to gain an understanding of their biological and environmental control processes. As a result, there were obvious diurnal and seasonal changes in E, Fc , surface conductance (gc , and decoupling coefficient (Ω, showing similar trends to those in radiation (PAR and vapour pressure deficit (δ. The maximum mean daily values (24-h average for E, Fc , gc , and Ω were 1.78 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -11.18 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 6.27 mm s(-1, and 0.31, respectively, with seasonal averages of 0.71 mmol m(-2 s(-1, -4.61 µmol m(-2 s(-1, 3.3 mm s(-1, and 0.16. E and Fc were controlled by combined biological and environmental variables. There was curvilinear dependence of E on gc and Fc on gc . Among the environmental variables, PAR was the most important factor having a positive linear relationship to E and curvilinear relationship to Fc , while vapour pressure deficit was the most important environmental factor affecting gc . Water use efficiency was slightly higher in the dry season, with mean monthly values ranging from 6.67 to 7.48 μmol CO2 (mmol H2O(-1 and a seasonal average of 7.06 μmol CO2 (μmol H2O(-1. Low Ω and its close positive relationship with gc indicate that evapotranspiration was sensitive to surface conductance. Mid summer drought reduced surface conductance and decoupling coefficient, suggesting a more biotic control of evapotranspiration and a physiological acclimation to dry air. Surface conductance remained low and constant under dry condition, supporting that a constant value of surface constant can be used for modelling transpiration under drought condition.

  2. Analysis of Scots pine climatypes growth dynamics in the provenance trial in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kuzmina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of 83 Scots pine climatypes by height growth at the age of 37 years in the provenance trial was done. Three groups of climatypes were distinguished as: fast-growing, moderate-growing and slow-growing. The research at the age of 20–25 revealed 13 climatypes of 27 from the fast-growing group as candidates to breed-populations. These climatypes are from Krasnoyarsk Krai, Irkutsk Oblast, Kemerovo Oblast, Murmansk Oblast, Karelia, and the Republic of Komi. At the age of 37 years they confirm the status of perspective climatypes in height growth, survival, and resistance to fungal pathogens as it was noted earlier (Kuzmina, Kuzmin, 2007, 2008. The average height of trees of these climatypes exceeds control height by 32 %. The moderate-growing group consists of 18 climatypes, five of them are candidates to breed-populations. The intensity of their growth was reduced but average height is at the level of control average value. The third group has the largest number of climatypes. After the inventory in 2013 two climatypes previously marked as perspective were added into the third group. Last years the intensity of their growth was significantly reduced because of disease caused by cenangium dieback at the 22–24 years old. So the rank status of studied climatypes in different age periods is significantly changeable because of different reaction to ecological factors. The analysis of annual height increments growth confirms that objective conclusions about selection of perspective climatypes could be possible only after 25 years old of pine.

  3. Total vs. internal element concentrations in Scots pine needles along a sulphur and metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Pasi; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Different methods should be used for foliar analyses of trees used as bioindicators of pollution, than those analyses used in nutritional studies of trees. - Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni) pollution on the element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) foliage along an airborne sulphur and metal pollution gradient. Emphasis was put on determining the contribution of air-borne particles that have accumulated on needle surfaces to the total foliage concentrations. A comparison of two soil extraction methods was carried out in order to obtain a reliable estimate of plant-available element concentrations in the soil. Element concentrations in the soil showed only a weak relationship with internal foliar concentrations. There were no clear differences between the total and internal needle S concentrations along the gradient, whereas at the plot closest to the metal smelter complex the total Cu concentrations in the youngest needles were 1.3-fold and Ni concentrations over 1.6-fold higher than the internal needle concentrations. Chloroform-extracted surface wax was found to have Ni and Cu concentrations of as high as 3000 and 600 μg/g of wax, respectively. Our results suggest that bioindicator studies (e.g. monitoring studies) may require different foliar analysis techniques from those used in studies on the nutritional status of trees

  4. The Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score predicts biochemical recurrence in intermediate-risk prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) dose escalation or low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Vimal; Delouya, Guila; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Larrivée, Sandra; Taussky, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    To study the prognostic value of the University of California, San Francisco Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment (CAPRA) score to predict biochemical failure (bF) after various doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or permanent seed low-dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy (PB). We retrospectively analysed 345 patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer, with PSA levels of 10-20 ng/mL and/or Gleason 7 including 244 EBRT patients (70.2-79.2 Gy) and 101 patients treated with LDR PB. The minimum follow-up was 3 years. No patient received primary androgen-deprivation therapy. bF was defined according to the Phoenix definition. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the differences between CAPRA groups. The overall bF rate was 13% (45/345). The CAPRA score, as a continuous variable, was statistically significant in multivariate analysis for predicting bF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-1.72, P = 0.006). There was a trend for a lower bF rate in patients treated with LDR PB when compared with those treated by EBRT ≤ 74 Gy (HR 0.234, 95% CI 0.05-1.03, P = 0.055) in multivariate analysis. In the subgroup of patients with a CAPRA score of 3-5, CAPRA remained predictive of bF as a continuous variable (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.01-2.27, P = 0.047) in multivariate analysis. The CAPRA score is useful for predicting biochemical recurrence in patients treated for intermediate-risk prostate cancer with EBRT or LDR PB. It could help in treatment decisions. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  5. Functional vision is improved in the majority of patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for choroid metastases: a multivariate analysis of 188 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoler, Shari B.; Shields, Carol L.; Corn, Benjamin W.; De Potter, Patrick; Hyslop, Terry; Curran, Walter J.; Shields, Jerry A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Metastatic deposits are the most common intraocular malignancies, and their incidence may be as high as 4-12% in patients with solid tumors. We evaluated the efficacy of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in the palliation of posterior uveal metastases in terms of functional vision, tumor response, and globe preservation. Pre-radiotherapy tumor and patient characteristics which correlate best with vision restoration and preservation were identified. Patients and Methods: 483 consecutive patients (pts) (578 eyes) were diagnosed with intraocular metastatic disease between 1972-1995. Of these, 233 eyes (188 pts) had lesions of the posterior uveal tract and received EBRT. Pts with metastatic deposits from solid tumors were selected for analysis. Best corrected visual acuity (VA) was documented pre- and post-EBRT in 155 eyes. Visual function was 'excellent' if VA≤ (20(50)); 'navigational' if (20(60))-(20(200)); and 'legally blind' if ≥ (20(400)). Most patients received 30.0-40.0 Gy in 2.0-3.0 Gy fractions to the posterior or entire globe. Median follow up time was 5.8 mo (0.7-170.0) from the start of EBRT. Results: 57% ((89(155))) of all evaluable eyes had improved visual function or maintained at least navigational vision following EBRT. Specifically, 43% maintained ((46(69))) or achieved ((21(86))) excellent vision, and 26% maintained ((15(39))) or achieved ((7(47))) navigational vision. 36% of blind eyes regained useful vision. 93% ((217(233))) experienced no clinical evidence of tumor progression and globe preservation rate was 98%. The following characteristics were predictive of improvement to or maintenance of excellent vision on univariate analysis: excellent vision (vs navigational or legally blind) prior to EBRT (p 0.001), age < 55 yrs (p = 0.004), Caucasian race (vs African-American/Hispanic) (p 0.003), duration of symptoms < 3.25 mo. (p 0.03), bilateral metastases (vs unilateral) (p = 0.02), tumor base diameter < 15 mm (p < 0.001), and tumor

  6. SU-F-T-123: The Simulated Effect of the Breath-Hold Reproducibility Treating Locally-Advanced Lung Cancer with Pencil Beam Scanned Proton Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, J [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Perrin, R [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Persson, G F; Engelholm, S A [Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lomax, A [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Department of Physics, ETH, Zürich (Switzerland); Josipovic, M; Rosenschöld, AF [Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Weber, D C [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); University of Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Munck, P

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The breath-hold (BH) technique has been suggested to mitigate motion and reduce target coverage degradation due to motion effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inter-BH residual motion on the dose distribution for pencil beam scanned (PBS) proton therapy of locally-advanced lung cancer patients. Methods: A dataset of visually-guided BH CT scans was acquired (10 scans per patient) taken from five lung cancer patients: three intra-fractionally repeated CT scans on treatment days 2,16 and 31, in addition to the day 0 planning CT scan. Three field intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plans were constructed on the planning CT scan. Dose delivery on fraction 2, 16 and 31 were simulated on the three consecutive CT scans, assuming BH duration of 20s and soft tissue match. The dose was accumulated in the planning CT using deformable image registration, and scaled to simulate the full treatment of 66Gy(RBE) in 33 fractions. Results: The mean dose to the lungs and heart, and maximum dose to the spinal cord and esophagus were within 1% of the planned dose. The CTV V95% decreased and the inhomogeneity (D5%–D95%) increased on average 4.1% (0.4–12.2%) and 5.8% (2.2–13.4%), respectively, over the five patient cases. Conclusion: The results showed that the BH technique seems to spare the OARs in spite of inter-BH residual motion. However, small degradation of target coverage occurred for all patients, with 3/5 patients having a decrease in V95% ≤1%. For the remaining two patients, where V95% decreased up to 12%, the cause could be related to treatment related anatomical changes and, as in photon therapy, plan adaptation may be necessary to ensure target coverage. This study showed that BH could be a potential treatment option to reliably mitigate motion for the treatment of locally-advanced lung cancer using PBS proton therapy.

  7. Association between pretreatment retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration and life prognosis in patients with HCC treated by proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumoto, Masashi; Oshiro, Yoshiko; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Fukumitsu, Nobuyoshi; Abei, Masato; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Ohnishi, Kayoko; Numajiri, Haruko; Tsuboi, Koji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Child-Pugh score is often used to judge the outcome of radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The retention rate of indocyanine green 15 min after administration (ICG R15) can also be used to predict prognosis after liver resection. We evaluated the utility of ICG R15 for prediction of outcomes after proton beam therapy (PBT) for HCC. Methods and materials: A retrospective evaluation was performed in 250 patients who received PBT between 2002 and 2007. The patients (178 males and 72 females) had a median age of 71 years (range: 43–88). Child-Pugh categories were A (score 5–6), B (7–9), and C (10–15) in 197, 51, and 2 patients, respectively. ICG scores were 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40 and ⩾40 in 27, 99, 59, 28 and 37 patients, respectively; including 26, 92, 45, 16 and 18 Child-Pugh A patients and 1, 8, 14, 11, and 17 Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Survival times from the start of PBT were compared between Child-Pugh A and B patients, and among each ICG group. Results: The median survival times were 61 months (95% CI: 50–72 months) in all patients, and 64 and 20 months in Child-Pugh A and B patients, respectively (p = 0.001), The 3-year survival rates were 72%, 72%, 75%, 63%, and 26% in patients with ICG scores of 0–<10, 10–<20, 20–<30, 30–<40, and ⩾40 (p = 0.001); 70%, 75%, 77%, 65%, and 38% in these respective groups in Child-Pugh A patients (p = 0.02); and 100%, 57%, 67%, 36%, and 14% in Child-Pugh B patients (p = 0.173, not significant). Multivariate analysis showed that low ICG R15 and the absence of portal vein tumor thrombus were associated with good survival. Conclusions: Pretreatment ICG R15 is a useful prognostic factor for prediction of outcome of PBT in HCC patients, especially in those with Child-Pugh A liver function

  8. Influence of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine stand and growth dynamics in a mixed managed forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primicia, I.; Artázcoz, R.; Imbert, J.B.; Puertas, F.; Traver, M.C.; Castillo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: We analysed the effects of thinning intensity and canopy type on Scots pine growth and stand dynamics in a mixed Scots pine-beech forest. Area of the study: Western Pyrenees. Material and methods: Three thinning intensities were applied in 1999 (0, 20 and 30% basal area removed) and 2009 (0, 20 and 40%) on 9 plots. Within each plot, pure pine and mixed pine-beech patches are distinguished. All pine trees were inventoried in 1999, 2009 and 2014. The effects of treatments on the tree and stand structure variables (density, basal area, stand and tree volume), on the periodic annual increment in basal area and stand and tree volume, and on mortality rates, were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Main Results: The enhancement of tree growth was mainly noticeable after the second thinning. Growth rates following thinning were similar or higher in the moderate than in the severe thinning. Periodic stand volume annual increments were higher in the thinned than in the unthinned plots, but no differences were observed between the thinned treatments. We observed an increase in the differences of the Tree volume annual increment between canopy types (mixed < pure) over time in the unthinned plots, as beech crowns developed. Research highlights: Moderate thinning is suggested as an appropriate forest practice at early pine age in these mixed forests, since it produced higher tree growth rates than the severe thinning and it counteracted the negative effect of beech on pine growth observed in the unthinned plots. (Author)

  9. Carbon dioxide exchange above a 30-year-old Scots pine plantation established on organic-soil cropland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohila, A.; Laurila, T.; Aurela, M.; Tuovinen, J.-P.; Aro, L.; Laine, J.; Kolari, P.; Minkkinen, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the boreal zone, large areas of natural mires have been drained and used for agriculture, resulting in net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and increased nitrous oxide emissions but decreased methane emissions. However, due to structural changes in agriculture, a substantial area of cropland on organic soil has been afforested. In order to estimate the carbon balance of afforested organic-soil cropland, we measured CO 2 and water vapour (H 2 O) fluxes during year above a Scots pine plantation (Pinus sylvestris) in the middle-boreal zone, using the micrometeorological eddy covariance method. We observed CO 2 uptake by the Scots pine stand from late April to mid-October with a daily average net uptake from May to the beginning of October. However, there were also periods of daily net efflux. High ecosystem respiration rates continued throughout the winter (mean winter respiration 0.036 mg CO 2 m -2 s-1). As an annual average, the 30-year-old pine stand was a small source of CO 2 (+50 g m -2 a -1 ) to the atmosphere, showing that the CO 2 sequestration into the ecosystem was able to compensate for most of the carbon that was released by heterotrophic respiration from the drained soil. (orig.)

  10. INTERACTIONS OF ELEVATED CO2, NH3 AND O-3 ON MYCORRHIZAL INFECTION, GAS-EXCHANGE AND N-METABOLISM IN SAPLINGS OF SCOTS PINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PEREZSOBA, M; DUECK, TA; PUPPI, G; KUIPER, PJC

    Four-year-old saplings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were exposed for 11 weeks in controlled-environment chambers to charcoal-filtered air, or to charcoal-filtered air supplemented with NH3 (40 mu g m(-3)), O-3 (110 mu g m(-3) during day/ 40 mu g m(-3) during night) or NH3 + O-3. All

  11. Growth, aboveground biomass, and nutrient concentration of young Scots pine and lodgepole pine in oil shale post-mining landscapes in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Tatjana; Tilk, Mari; Pärn, Henn; Lukjanova, Aljona; Mandre, Malle

    2011-12-01

    The investigation was carried out in 8-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) plantations on post-mining area, Northeast Estonia. The aim of the study was to assess the suitability of lodgepole pine for restoration of degraded lands by comparing the growth, biomass, and nutrient concentration of studied species. The height growth of trees was greater in the Scots pine stand, but the tree aboveground biomass was slightly larger in the lodgepole pine stand. The aboveground biomass allocation to the compartments did not differ significantly between species. The vertical distribution of compartments showed that 43.2% of the Scots pine needles were located in the middle layer of the crown, while 58.5% of the lodgepole pine needles were in the lowest layer of the crown. The largest share of the shoots and stem of both species was allocated to the lowest layer of the crown. For both species, the highest NPK concentrations were found in the needles and the lowest in the stems. On the basis of the present study results, it can be concluded that the early growth of Scots pine and lodgepole pine on oil shale post-mining landscapes is similar.

  12. Short-term exposure to atmospheric ammonia does not affect frost hardening of needles from three- and five-year-old Scots pine trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, J.M A M; van Hasselt, P.R; van Eerden, L.J.M.; Dueck, T.A.

    The effect of atmospheric ammonia on frost hardening of needles from 3- and 5-year-old Scots pine trees was investigated. Trees were exposed to various concentrations of NH(3) during different hardening stages under laboratory conditions and in experiments with open-top chambers under a natural

  13. There is no direct relationship between N-status and frost hardiness in needles of NH3-exposed Scots pine seedlings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, JMAM; Venema, JH; Van Hasselt, PR

    2000-01-01

    The effect of short-term atmospheric ammonia deposition on frost hardening of needles of three-month-old seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied. Plants were frost hardened under short day and moderate temperature conditions in the laboratory during exposure to gaseous NH3

  14. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Helen S; Watson, Tony; Emery, Jon D; Lee, Amanda J; Murchie, Peter

    2011-08-25

    The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia). In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%). 133 (24.6%) Scots and 83 (15.4%) Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2%) Scots and 190 (35.2%) Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p behaviour (p behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content validity of the questionnaire and its value as a future research tool in the Scottish population.

  15. Learning from the social construction of environmental indicators: From the retrospective to the pro-active use of SCOT in technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Darnmann, Sven; Lentsch, Justus

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the challenges, advantages and limitations of the pro-active use of the social construction of technology (SCOT) to improve the methods applied in the development of technology for use by a broad range of actors. Our example is the development of environmental indicators...

  16. Health-related quality of life and treatment outcomes for men with prostate cancer treated by combined external-beam radiotherapy and hormone therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashine, Katsuyoshi; Azuma, Kouji; Koizumi, Takahiro; Sumiyoshi, Yoshiteru

    2005-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) is important when considering the treatment options for prostate cancer. From 1992 to 1998, 57 patients were treated by radiotherapy plus hormone therapy (median age, 79 years; median prostate-specific antigen concentration, 15.0 ng/ml; median radiotherapy dosage, 60 Gy). General HR-QOL was measured by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Prostate Cancer QOL Questionnaire, and a newly developed disease-specific QOL survey was used to assess urinary and bowel functions. QOL was also measured in a control group of patients admitted for prostate biopsy. The general HR-QOL scores in the radiation group ranged from 70.0 to 91.3, with sexual problems showing the lowest (i.e., worst) score (38.5). Compared with the control group, the scores in the radiation group were worse for physical function and sexual problems. For disease-specific QOL, the radiation group had worse urinary function than controls, but were more satisfied with their urinary function. There was no difference between the radiation group and controls in satisfaction with bowel function. When the control group was subdivided at into two groups: age 75 years or less, and age over 75 years, the QOL score in the radiation group was the same as that in the subgroup aged over 75 years. In subgroups of the radiation patients, according to survey period, there was no difference between the first and last surveys in longitudinal HR-QOL evaluations. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 67.6% and 41.6%, respectively, and the 5- and 10-year cause-specific survival rates were 97.9% and 94.7%. The combination of radiotherapy and hormone therapy has a good outcome and patients do not experience poor HR-QOL, except for sexual problems. Moreover, the disease-specific QOL is good, especially for urinary bother. (author)

  17. Vaginal dose point reporting in cervical cancer patients treated with combined 2D/3D external beam radiotherapy and 2D/3D brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerveld, Henrike; Pötter, Richard; Berger, Daniel; Dankulchai, Pittaya; Dörr, Wolfgang; Sora, Mircea-Constantin; Pötter-Lang, Sarah; Kirisits, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Traditionally, vaginal dose points have been defined at the vaginal source level, thus not providing dose information for the entire vagina. Since reliable vaginal dose volume/surface histograms are unavailable, a strategy for comprehensive vaginal dose reporting for combined EBRT and BT was established and investigated. Material and methods: An anatomical vaginal reference point was defined at the level of the Posterior–Inferior Border of Symphysis (PIBS), plus two points ±2 cm (mid/introitus vagina). For BT extra points were selected for the upper vagina at 12/3/6/9 o’clock, at the vaginal surface and 5 mm depth. A vaginal reference length (VRL) was defined from ring centre to PIBS. Fifty-nine patients treated for cervical cancer were included in this retrospective feasibility study. Results: The method was applicable to all patients. Total EQD2 doses at PIBS and ±2 cm were 36.7 Gy (3.1–68.2), 49.6 Gy (32.1–89.6) and 4.3 Gy (1.0–46.6). At the vaginal surface at ring level doses were respectively 266.1 Gy (67.6–814.5)/225.9 Gy (61.5–610.5) at 3/9 o’clock, and 85.1 Gy (55.4–140.3)/72.0 Gy (49.1–108.9) at 12/6 o’clock. Mean VRL on MRI was 5.6 cm (2.0–9.4). Conclusions: With this novel system, a comprehensive reporting of vaginal doses is feasible. The present study has demonstrated large dose variations between patients observed in all parts of the vagina, resulting from different contributions from EBRT and BT

  18. A comparative study of quality of life in patients with localized prostate cancer treated at a single institution: Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy or external beam + high dose rate brachytherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, Joelle; Morton, Gerard; Zhang, Liying; Deabreu, Andrea; D’Alimonte, Laura; Elias, Evelyn; Musunuru, Hima Bindu; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ravi, Ananth; Chung, Hans; Cheung, Patrick; Loblaw, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of life (QOL) in patients treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) alone or high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy + hypofractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and materials: Patient self-reported QOL was prospectively measured among patients from two sequential phase 2 clinical trials: 1-SABR 35 Gy/5 fractions/5 weeks, 2–15 Gy HDR 1 fraction, followed by EBRT 37.5 Gy/15 fractions/3 weeks. The expanded prostate cancer index composite was assessed at baseline and q6 monthly up to 5 years. Urinary, bowel and sexual domains were analyzed. A minimally clinical important change (MCIC) was defined as 0.5*standard deviation of the baseline for each domain. Fisher exact test and general linear mixed model were used (p < 0.05). Results: 84 and 123 patients were treated on the SABR and HDR boost studies, with a median follow up of 51 and 61 months respectively. There was a significant difference in MCIC between treatments in the urinary function and bother (p < 0.0001), the bowel function (p = 0.0216) and the sexual function (p = 0.0419) and bother (p = 0.0290) domains in favor of the SABR group. Of patients who reported no problem with their sexual function at baseline, 7% and 23% respectively considered it to be a moderate to big problem on follow up (p = 0.0077). Conclusion: Patients treated with HDR-boost reported deterioration of QOL particularly in sexual domains in comparison with SABR

  19. Genetic Diversity and Association of EST-SSR and SCoT Markers with Rust Traits in Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haidong; Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Bing; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Huang, Linkai; Jiang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xinchun; Peng, Yan; Ma, Xiao; Yan, Yanhong

    2016-01-08

    Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), is a well-known perennial forage species; however, rust diseases have caused a noticeable reduction in the quality and production of orchardgrass. In this study, genetic diversity was assessed and the marker-trait associations for rust were examined using 18 EST-SSR and 21 SCoT markers in 75 orchardgrass accessions. A high level of genetic diversity was detected in orchardgrass with an average genetic diversity index of 0.369. For the EST-SSR and SCoT markers, 164 and 289 total bands were obtained, of which 148 (90.24%) and 272 (94.12%) were polymorphic, respectively. Results from an AMOVA analysis showed that more genetic variance existed within populations (87.57%) than among populations (12.43%). Using a parameter marker index, the efficiencies of the EST-SSR and SCoT markers were compared to show that SCoTs have higher marker efficiency (8.07) than EST-SSRs (4.82). The results of a UPGMA cluster analysis and a STRUCTURE analysis were both correlated with the geographic distribution of the orchardgrass accessions. Linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed an average r² of 0.1627 across all band pairs, indicating a high extent of linkage disequilibrium in the material. An association analysis between the rust trait and 410 bands from the EST-SSR and SCoT markers using TASSEL software revealed 20 band panels were associated with the rust trait in both 2011 and 2012. The 20 bands obtained from association analysis could be used in breeding programs for lineage selection to prevent great losses of orchardgrass caused by rust, and provide valuable information for further association mapping using this collection of orchardgrass.

  20. Chemodiversity of a Scots pine stand and implications for terpene air concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2012-02-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 48 yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ significantly between trees

  1. Seasonal dynamics of mobile carbohydrates and stem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) exposed to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Tree growth requires a continuous supply of carbon as structural material and as a source for metabolic energy. To detect whether intra-annual stem growth is related to changes in carbon allocation, we monitored seasonal dynamics of shoot and radial growth and concentrations of mobile carbohydrates (NSC) in above- and belowground organs of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The study area is situated within an inner Alpine dry environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria), which is characterized by recurring drought periods at the start of the growing season in spring and limited water holding capacity of nutrient deficient, shallow stony soils. Shoot elongation was monitored on lateral branches in the canopy and stem radius changes were continuously followed by electronic band dendrometers. Daily radial stem growth and tree water deficit (ΔW) were extracted from dendrometer records. ΔW is regarded a reliable measure of drought stress in trees and develops when transpirational water loss from leaves exceeds water uptake by the root system. Daily radial stem growth and ΔW were related to environmental variables and determination of NSC was performed using specific enzymatic assays. Results revealed quite early culmination of aboveground growth rates in late April (shoot growth) and late May (radial growth), and increasing accumulation of NSC in coarse roots in June. NSC content in roots peaked at the end of July and thereafter decreased again, indicating a shift in carbon allocation after an early cessation of aboveground stem growth. ΔW was found to peak in late summer, when high temperatures prevailed. That maximum growth rates of aboveground organs peaked quite before precipitation increased during summer is related to the finding that ΔW and radial stem growth were more strongly controlled by the atmospheric environment, than by soil water content. We conclude that as a response to the seasonal development of ΔW a shift in carbon allocation from aboveground

  2. Genetic processes in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchma, Oleksandra

    2010-01-01

    As immobile organisms, plants have to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions and make use of different adaptive mechanisms to survive and reproduce successfully under stress. It is often difficult to detect the organism s or population s response to stress factors due to slow changes of environmental conditions or delayed reactions of plants. From this point of view, the investigation of reactions under extreme environmental change offer unique opportunities to study adaptation mechanisms. Areas with a strong anthropogenic impact on the environment represent ideal places for research on adaptation or selection processes. For many decades, ionizing radiation is well known as a strong damaging and stress factor. Radiation exposure causes heavy damages of the DNA. This leads to a decrease in fitness in the present generation and inheritable mutations which reveal their effects in later generations. On the other hand, radiation exposure activates adaptation processes to ensure survival. The investigation of the influence of radiation at different levels of life organization from the DNA level to the population level can help to elucidate response mechanisms to changing environments. After the accident in 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the surrounding territories were contaminated with high amounts of radioactive material. The exclusion zone became a natural laboratory for the investigation of effects of radiation on the biocenosis. Pinus sylvestris is one of the most wildly used species in radiation research due to its very high sensitivity to radiation exposure and dominance in forest ecosystems of the exclusion zone. Nuclear microsatellites (SSRs) and AFLP markers were investigated in order to study mutation rates and selection processes under the influence of radiation in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) of different age and irradiation conditions collected in the Chernobyl exclusion zone and control areas. The results of this study show that a

  3. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  4. Re-analysis of clinical and treatment related prognostic factors on outcome using biochemical control as an end-point in patients with prostate cancer treated with external beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaja, Ellen L.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Vicini, Frank A.; Dmuchowski, Carl F.; Brabbins, Donald S.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Hollander, Jay; Matter, Richard C.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Prostate specific antigen (PSA) has been established as the most important prognostic factor for prostate cancer. We reviewed our experience treating patients with clinically localized prostate cancer with external beam irradiation (RT) to evaluate if previously defined clinical and treatment related prognostic factors remain valid when biochemical control was used as an end-point to evaluate results. Methods and Materials: Between 1/87 and 12/91, 480 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer received external beam irradiation (RT) using localized prostate fields at William Beaumont Hospital. The median dose to the prostate was 66.6 Gy (range 58 - 70.4 Gy) using a 4 field or arc technique. Pre- and post-treatment serum PSA levels were recorded. Biochemical control was defined as PSA nadir ≤ 1.5 ng/ml within 1 year of treatment completion. After achieving nadir, if 2 consecutive increases of PSA were noted, the patient was scored a failure at the time of the first increase. Patients (pts) were divided into 3 groups according to total number of days on treatment: ≤ 49 days (≤ 7 weeks)- 21 pts; 50-63 days (8-9 weeks)- 429 pts; and ≥ 64 days (≥ 9 weeks)- 15 pts. Patients were also divided into groups with respect to the method of diagnosis: TURP (81 pts), or other means (399 pts). Patients were further divided into 2 groups: 1) if they had ever had a pre-treatment TURP (170 pts) or 2) if they had not (310 pts). Patients were divided into 2 groups according to boost technique: bilateral arcs (459 pts) or 4 field box (21 pts). Patients were also divided into groups according to total RT dose: ≤ 70 Gy (421 pts) or > 70 Gy (59 pts). Patients were further subdivided into 3 dose groups: 70 Gy (59 pts). Results: Median follow-up is 48 months (range 3 - 112 months). No statistically significant difference in rates of biochemical control were noted for treatment time, overall time (date of biopsy to completion of RT), or treatment time divided into

  5. Intense electron and ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Molokovsky, Sergey Ivanovich

    2005-01-01

    Intense Ion and Electron Beams treats intense charged-particle beams used in vacuum tubes, particle beam technology and experimental installations such as free electron lasers and accelerators. It addresses, among other things, the physics and basic theory of intense charged-particle beams; computation and design of charged-particle guns and focusing systems; multiple-beam charged-particle systems; and experimental methods for investigating intense particle beams. The coverage is carefully balanced between the physics of intense charged-particle beams and the design of optical systems for their formation and focusing. It can be recommended to all scientists studying or applying vacuum electronics and charged-particle beam technology, including students, engineers and researchers.

  6. Response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drought on plant functioning has received considerable attention in recent years, however our understanding of the response of carbon and water coupling to drought in terrestrial ecosystems still needs to be improved. A severe soil moisture drought occurred in southern Finland in the late summer of 2006. In this study, we investigated the response of water use efficiency to summer drought in a boreal Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris on the daily time scale mainly using eddy covariance flux data from the Hyytiälä (southern Finland flux site. In addition, simulation results from the JSBACH land surface model were evaluated against the observed results. Based on observed data, the ecosystem level water use efficiency (EWUE; the ratio of gross primary production, GPP, to evapotranspiration, ET showed a decrease during the severe soil moisture drought, while the inherent water use efficiency (IWUE; a quantity defined as EWUE multiplied with mean daytime vapour pressure deficit, VPD increased and the underlying water use efficiency (uWUE, a metric based on IWUE and a simple stomatal model, is the ratio of GPP multiplied with a square root of VPD to ET was unchanged during the drought. The decrease in EWUE was due to the stronger decline in GPP than in ET. The increase in IWUE was because of the decreased stomatal conductance under increased VPD. The unchanged uWUE indicates that the trade-off between carbon assimilation and transpiration of the boreal Scots pine forest was not disturbed by this drought event at the site. The JSBACH simulation showed declines of both GPP and ET under the severe soil moisture drought, but to a smaller extent compared to the observed GPP and ET. Simulated GPP and ET led to a smaller decrease in EWUE but a larger increase in IWUE because of the severe soil moisture drought in comparison to observations. As in the observations, the simulated uWUE showed no changes in the drought event. The

  7. Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and long-term results for patients with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Silva, Maria Leticia Gobo; Castro, Douglas Guedes; Maia, Maria Conte

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the influence of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (NAAD) and report the long term biochemical control rates according to the Phoenix Consensus Conference, and prognostic factors of intermediate- (IR) and high-risk (HR) prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods and materials: between March, 1997 and June, 2005, 184 patients considered IR or HR were treated with localized radiotherapy and HDR-BT at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Patient's age, Gleason score, clinical stage, initial PSA value, risk group for biochemical failure, presence of NAAD, doses of radiotherapy and HDR-BT were evaluated. Results: median age and follow-up were 70 years old (range, 47-83) and 74.5 months (range, 24-123 months), respectively. Patients considered IR were 91 (49.4%) and HR 93 (50.6%). Ninety-nine (53.8%) patients had no NAAD. The overall survival at 5 years was 93.6%. The 5-year actuarial biochemical control rates for all patients, IR and HR were 83.4%, 86.2% and 78.8%, respectively, p0.076. On univariate analysis the prognostic factors related to better biochemical control were Gleason score 45 Gy (p= 0.011) and HDR-BT dose > 20 Gy (p< 0.001). On multivariate analysis no statistical significant predictive factor related to biochemical control was found. Conclusions: the role of NAAD for IR and HR prostate cancer is still to be defined. HDR-BT combined to external radiotherapy is a successful form of treatment for these patients, with our results comparable to published data. (author)

  8. The growth of Scots pine and the availability of nutrients in old Finnish liming experiments on drained peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieminen, M.; Paetilae, A.

    1994-01-01

    Liming (with applications of 1000 to 8000 kg/ha) had no long- term (1929-1985) effect on the growth of Scots pine on drained oligotrophic peatlands. Liming plus NPK fertilization had a variable effect on the growth of stands. The same treatment could result in a very different response in different experimental areas. Both liming alone and liming plus NPK fertilization increased the calcium, magnesium and nitrogen contents of peat and decreased the C/Nratio and acidity. Liming plus fertilization decreased needle boron and manganese and increased calcium and nitrogen concentrations. The results of peat and needle analysis indicated that the changes in nitrogen availability to trees caused by liming have not been sufficient enough to affect tree growth. It was also concluded that boron deficiency was the main reason for the lowered yield. (26 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.) (author)

  9. Changes in the Essential Oil Composition in the Needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. Under Anthropogenic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta Judzentiene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF, a cement factory (CF, and an oil refinery (OR. Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005. Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles.

  10. Proportion of knotty wood in stems of 28-year old lodgepole and Scots pine in experimental plantation in Zvirgzde, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons Aris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, alien tree species are planted to maximize yield from a stand by increasing productivity and decreasing environmental risks. In Eastern Europe, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia might be used as a source of biomass and industrial wood; however, before any recommendations are given, possible gains of the novel species should be scrupulously evaluated. In this study, we compared volume and proportion of knotty stemwood (VKN of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris from first generation seed orchards and provenances of alien lodgepole pine [Fort Nelson (58°38’ N, 122°41’ W and Summit Lake (54°24› N, 122°37› W] at the age of 27 years growing in central Latvia. We also assessed the relationships between VKN and several morphometric parameters.

  11. Effect of raw wood supply system on the wood paying capability of a kraft pulp mill using Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahl, O. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland), Dept. of Forest Products Technology), Email: olli.dahl@tkk.fi; Jylhae, P. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland)), Email: paula.jylha@metla.fi; Laitila, J. (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Joensuu (Finland)), Email: juha.laitila@metla.fi; Kaerhae, K. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi

    2009-07-01

    Integration of energy wood procurement into that of pulpwood is seen as a means for reducing the high procurement costs of small-diameter wood harvested from first thinnings. In the deepest mode of integration, pulp and energy fractions are separated from each other in the debarking drum of the pulp mill. In the present paper, the competitiveness of the conventional supply chain based on cut-to-length harvesting was compared to the supply systems based on the harvesting of loose whole trees and whole-tree bundling, in the cases of three Scots pine-dominated first-thinning stands using wood paying capability (WPC) of a kraft pulp mill as a decisive criterion. Furthermore, the competitiveness of first thinnings as raw material sources for a pulp mill was evaluated by using intermediate thinnings as s reference. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of morphometric indexes in the second generation of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Sergeevna Makarenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. A series of morphometric indexes was studied in Scots pine trees, which are the second generation of trees severely exposed at the Chernobyl accident in doses of 4-5, 10-20 and 80-100 Gy. Materials and methods. Variability of length and mass of needles, curvature of sprouts, tree height and trunk circumference were studied in 2011-2014. Results. Needle gigantism, one of the typical radiomorphoses, was observed in 2012 and 2013 in all groups of trees. Curved sprouts were discovered more often in a reference group. Tree height and trunk circumference in groups of 4-5 and 10-20 Gy were significantly higher than in the reference group. Conclusion. The trees of the second generation of severely exposed pines can be characterized with needle gigantism and stimulation of growth processes (circumference of the trunk, height of the tree at doses of 4-5 Gy and 10-20 Gy.

  13. Soil carbon and nitrogen budget in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, T.; Bergmann, C.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Litterfall, bio- and necromass of the forest floor vegetation, decomposition of recent organic material, soil respiration and humus stocks were examined in 3 Scots pine stands along an air pollution gradient in eastern Germany. One site, Rosea, received heavy deposition loads from chemical industries and brown coal fired power plants. The site Taura received moderate air pollution due to lower deposition of coarse and calcium rich dust particles; the third site, Neuglobsow was afforested and represents a low polluted control site. High nitrogen loads and increased pH value due to Ca deposition caused shifts in the vegetation structure, and higher biomass production of the forest floor vegetation, whereas needle litter production was not impacted. Simultaneously, decomposition rates of the recently harvested forest floor vegetation decreased with increasing pollutant loads, but needle litter and soil organic matter decomposition rates did not differ between the sites. Consequently, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks increased with increasing pollutant input. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. “It may be verifyit that thy wit is thin”: Interpreting Older Scots Flyting through Hip Hop Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Flynn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to demystify the tradition of Older Scots flyting—a form of poetic invective unique to the late medieval Scottish court. Hip Hop battle raps provide a modern venue for exploring the motivations and potential rewards for engaging in this sort of technical poetic contest. The two forms, though culturally and historically distant, both exhibit analogous rhetorical techniques, which make this comparison possible. Each form is concerned with poetic identity—this is evident through each poet’s identification with specific communities or classes; while the concern with demonstrating superior technical skill is also essential to these invectives and is often highlighted through the manipulation of traditional forms and tropes. As an extension of this comparison, we hope to recover something of the tone and purpose of the medieval tradition, namely, that the poets who engaged in these public invectives were actually amicable rivals competing for increased court status and wealth.

  15. Manufacture of Autologous CD34+ Selected Grafts in the NIAID-Sponsored HALT-MS and SCOT Multicenter Clinical Trials for Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keever-Taylor, Carolyn A; Heimfeld, Shelly; Steinmiller, Kaitlyn C; Nash, Richard A; Sullivan, Keith M; Czarniecki, Christine W; Granderson, Tomeka C; Goldstein, Julia S; Griffith, Linda M

    2017-09-01

    To ensure comparable grafts for autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored Investigational New Drug protocols for multiple sclerosis (HALT-MS) and systemic sclerosis (SCOT), a Drug Master File approach to control manufacture was implemented, including a common Master Production Batch Record and site-specific standard operating procedures with "Critical Elements." We assessed comparability of flow cytometry and controlled rate cryopreservation among sites and stability of cryopreserved grafts using hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from healthy donors. Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells, Apheresis-CD34+ Enriched, for Autologous Use (Auto-CD34 + HPC) graft specifications included ≥70% viable CD34 + cells before cryopreservation. For the 2 protocols, 110 apheresis collections were performed; 121 lots of Auto-CD34 + HPC were cryopreserved, and 107 of these (88.4%) met release criteria. Grafts were infused at a median of 25 days (range, 17 to 68) post-apheresis for HALT-MS (n = 24), and 25 days (range, 14 to 78) for SCOT (n = 33). Subjects received precryopreservation doses of a median 5.1 × 10 6 viable CD34 + cells/kg (range, 3.9 to 12.8)  for HALT-MS and 5.6 × 10 6 viable CD34 + cells/kg (range, 2.6 to 10.2) for SCOT. Recovery of granulocytes occurred at a median of 11 days (range, 9 to 15) post-HCT for HALT-MS and 10 days (range, 8 to 12) for SCOT, independent of CD34 + cell dose. Subjects received their last platelet transfusion at a median of 9 days (range, 6 to 16) for HALT-MS and 8 days (range, 6 to 23) for SCOT; higher CD34 + /kg doses were associated with faster platelet recovery. Stability testing of cryopreserved healthy donor CD34 + HPCs over 6 months of vapor phase liquid nitrogen storage demonstrated consistent 69% to 73% recovery of viable CD34 + cells. Manufacturing of Auto-CD34 + HPC for the HALT-MS and SCOT protocols was comparable across all sites and

  16. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  17. Testing phenotypic trade-offs in the chemical defence strategy of Scots pine under growth-limiting field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villari, Caterina; Faccoli, Massimo; Battisti, Andrea; Bonello, Pierluigi; Marini, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    Plants protect themselves from pathogens and herbivores through fine-tuned resource allocation, including trade-offs among resource investments to support constitutive and inducible defences. However, empirical research, especially concerning conifers growing under natural conditions, is still scarce. We investigated the complexity of constitutive and induced defences in a natural Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand under growth-limiting conditions typical of alpine environments. Phenotypic trade-offs at three hierarchical levels were tested by investigating the behaviour of phenolic compounds and terpenoids of outer bark and phloem. We tested resource-derived phenotypic correlations between (i) constitutive and inducible defences vs tree ring growth, (ii) different constitutive defence metabolites and (iii) constitutive concentration and inducible variation of individual metabolites. Tree ring growth was positively correlated only with constitutive concentration of total terpenoids, and no overall phenotypic trade-offs between different constitutive defensive metabolites were found. At the lowest hierarchical level tested, i.e., at the level of relationship between constitutive and inducible variation of individual metabolites, we found that different compounds displayed different behaviours; we identified five different defensive metabolite response types, based on direction and strength of the response, regardless of tree age and growth rate. Therefore, under growth-limiting field conditions, Scots pine appears to utilize varied and complex outer bark and phloem defence chemistry, in which only part of the constitutive specialized metabolism is influenced by tree growth, and individual components do not appear to be expressed in a mutually exclusive manner in either constitutive or inducible metabolism. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Perineural invasion and Gleason 7-10 tumors predict increased failure in prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml treated with conformal external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Al-Saleem, Tahseen; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been well established that prostate cancer patients with pretreatment PSA<10 ng/ml enjoy excellent bNED control when treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. This report identifies predictors of failure for patients with pretreatment PSA <10 ng/ml. These predictors are then used to define favorable and unfavorable prognostic subgroups of patients for which bNED control is compared. Methods and Materials: Between 3/87 and 11/94, 266 patients with T1-T3NXM0 prostate cancer and pretreatment PSA values <10 ng/ml were treated with definitive external beam radiation therapy. Median central axis dose and median follow-up for the entire group was 72 Gy (63-79 Gy) and 48 months (2-120 months). Predictors of bNED control were evaluated univariately using Kaplan-Meier methodology and the log-rank test and multivariately using Cox proportional hazards modeling. Covariates considered were pretreatment PSA, palpation stage, Gleason score, presence of perineual invasion (PNI) and central axis dose. Independent predictors based on multivariate results were then used to stratify the patients into two prognostic groups for which bNED control was compared. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥ 1.5 ng/ml and rising on two consecutive determinations. Results: Univariate analysis according to pretreatment and treatment factors for bNED control demonstrates a statistically significant improvement in 5-year bNED control for patients with Gleason score 2-6 vs. 7-10, patients without evidence of perineural invasion (PNI) vs. those with PNI, and patients with palpation stage T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that Gleason score (p = 0.0496), PNI (p = 0.0008) and palpation stage (p = 0.0153) are significant independent predictors of bNED control. Based on these factors, patients are stratified into a more favorable prognosis group (Gleason 2-6, no PNI, and stage T1/T2AB, n = 172) and a less favorable prognosis group (Gleason 7-10 or PNI or T2C

  19. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  20. Relationships between grade determining properties of Spanish scots and laricio pine structural timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In a. sample made up of 3312 boards of scots pine (pinus sylvestris and 3318 boards of laricio pine pinus nigra Van Saltzmannii, both of Spanish provenance, and ranging in size from 100x40x2500 mm to 200x70x4500 mm, previously tested in accordance with the procedure set forth in UNE EN 408 standard, the relationships between the grade determining properties considered in the UNE EN 338 standard (bending strength, global and local modulus of elasticity in bending, density are studied. In addition to these variables, the modulus of elasticity was also considered, calculated by means of the measuring of the transmission speed of an ultrasonic pulse generated by a Sylvatest device. The global modulus of elasticity calculated by measuring the deformation at the neutral axis seems to be the best predictor of the ultimate bending strength, while the local modulus of elasticity proves to be difficult to obtain, and has a lower predictive quality, and so its elimination is suggested. The need to consider one single testing procedure to determine the global modulus of elasticity is also analyzed, along with the convenience of carrying out further studies regarding the use of ultrasonic techniques in order to predict the modulus of elasticity, due to the fact that the systems available are not sufficiently precise.

    En una muestra compuesta por 3.312 piezas de madera aserrada de pino laricio (pimis nigra y 3.318 piezas de pino silvestre (pinus sylvestris de procedencia española y con dimensiones que varían entre 100x40x2.500 mm y 200x70x4.500 mm, previamente ensayada a flexión de acuerdo con el procedimiento descrito en la norma UNE EN 408, se analizan las relaciones existentes entre las propiedades indicadoras establecidas en la norma UNE EN 338 (resistencia última a flexión, módulos de elasticidad global y local en flexión, densidad. Adicionalmente a estas variables se determinó también el módulo de elasticidad obtenido mediante la medici

  1. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1990-12-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation and to treat two particular examples

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  3. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  4. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  5. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oker-Blom, P.; Kellomaki, S.; Smolander, H.

    1983-01-01

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  6. A questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour: Assessing content validity in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Amanda J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the content validity of a questionnaire to measure melanoma risk, knowledge and protective behaviour in a convenience sample of Scots and Australians. Australia has the highest melanoma incidence worldwide but has developed a culture of skin cancer avoidance with a long history of skin cancer primary prevention campaigns of proven effectiveness. Scotland has lower incidence, but has shown a greater rate of increase between 1985 and 2007. There is an urgent need in Scotland, therefore, to identify those groups at greatest risk and provide them with effective preventative advice. Method A self-administered postal survey was completed by four groups formed from convenience samples in two geographical locations (Northeast Scotland and Western Australia. In univariate analysis scores on personal risk, level of concern, protective behaviour, and knowledge were compared by nationality, previous skin cancer diagnosis and personally knowing someone with melanoma. Multivariate linear regression analysis modelled the influence of potential predictor variables upon each of the scores. Results 540 people completed the questionnaire, 273 Scots (50.6%. 133 (24.6% Scots and 83 (15.4% Australians previously had melanoma or non-melanoma skin cancer, whilst 120 (22.2% Scots and 190 (35.2% Australians personally knew someone with melanoma. Australians had higher knowledge (p , level of concern (p and protective behaviour (p scores than the Scottish. Australian nationality was the strongest independent predictor of a higher knowledge score (p , followed by a previous skin cancer diagnosis (p = 0.003, personal knowledge of someone with melanoma (p = 0.011, female gender (p = 0.005 and higher education status (p (R2 = 0.163. Conclusion The questionnaire detected higher levels of knowledge and skin cancer protective behaviours in Australians than in Scottish people. This was expected and supports the content

  7. Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Galiano, Lucía; Mencuccini, Maurizio; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2013-10-01

    Drought-induced defoliation has recently been associated with the depletion of carbon reserves and increased mortality risk in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). We hypothesize that defoliated individuals are more sensitive to drought, implying that potentially higher gas exchange (per unit of leaf area) during wet periods may not compensate for their reduced photosynthetic area. We measured sap flow, needle water potentials and whole-tree hydraulic conductance to analyse the drought responses of co-occurring defoliated and nondefoliated Scots pines in northeast Spain during typical (2010) and extreme (2011) drought conditions. Defoliated Scots pines showed higher sap flow per unit leaf area during spring, but were more sensitive to summer drought, relative to nondefoliated pines. This pattern was associated with a steeper decline in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance with drought and an enhanced sensitivity of canopy conductance to soil water availability. Near-homeostasis in midday water potentials was observed across years and defoliation classes, with minimum values of -2.5 MPa. Enhanced sensitivity to drought and prolonged periods of near-zero gas exchange were consistent with low levels of carbohydrate reserves in defoliated trees. Our results support the critical links between defoliation, water and carbon availability, and their key roles in determining tree survival and recovery under drought. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  9. Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimbault, C [LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Bambade, P [LAL, Univ Paris-Sud, IN2P3/CNRS, Orsay (France); Moenig, K [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Schulte, D [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2007-09-15

    In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.

  10. Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbault, C; Mönig, K; Schulte, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.

  11. Interactions between canopy cover density and regeneration cores of older saplings in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchi, M.; Nocentini, S.; Ducci, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This paper provides an analysis of growth and survival of twenty–year–old Scots pine saplings in relation to canopy cover density (CCD) gradients, from dense (D–CCD), sparse (S–CCD), and gap (G–CCD) situations. Area of study: Aladag (Bolu) in northern Turkey. Material and methods: Sparse canopy cover density (S–CCD), dense canopy cover density (D–CCD) and gap canopy (G–CCD) were chosen within ten different strip sample plots (10 × 50 m) with sapling regeneration cores. Those regeneration cores were divided into two portions (individuals at the edge and middle of the regeneration cores) and from each portion three individuals was were obtained from a sample. The growth relationships of individual saplings were calculated with stem analyses. Honowski Light Factor (HLF) (ratio of Terminal sprout length (T) to Lateral sprout length (L)) was used to present growth potential measure of seedlings. Main results: The largest sapling regeneration cores were found in the G–CCD followed by S–CCD, and finally D–CCD, all tested for significance with Kruskal–Wallis Test. Compared with saplings in the middle of regeneration cores (crop saplings), those at the edge were always reduced in terms of mean height. Significant difference was only found between the ‘Main Crop’ and the ‘Edge 1’ of the regeneration cores for G–CCD suggesting that sapling regeneration cores are more typical under G–CCD conditions. HLF ratios were greater than 1 with high growth potentials for both CCD gradients (G–CCD and S–CCD) and there were no significant variations between G–CCD and S–CCD for main crop and edges. The thinning after 12–14 years increased sapling growth. However, under D–CCD, growth had virtually ceased. Research highlights: Naturally occurring Scots pine saplings are suppressed by a dense canopy. However, they are tolerant of shade to the extent that they can survive over relatively long time–periods (10–12 years) and

  12. Regulation of gene expression for defensins and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings by necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria alternata (Fr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrunyk Nataliya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Damping-off disease in pine seedling, caused by fungi and oomycetes (Fusarium, Alternaria, Botrytis, Phytophthora and other species, is one of the most dangerous diseases in conifer nurseries and greenhouses worldwide. Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic pathogen, which causes early blight in higher plants and results in massive economic losses in agro-industry as well as in forestry. Pine seedlings that lack strong lignificated and suberized cell walls at early stages of their growth are vulnerable to damping-off disease. So, triggering the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, such as phytoalexins, anticipins and pathogenesis-related (PR proteins, is the main defense strategy to confine pathogens at early stages of pine ontogenesis. Defensins and lipid transfer proteins are members of two PR-protein families (PR-12 and PR-14 respectively and possess antimicrobial activities in vitro through contact toxicity, and the involvement in defense signalling. In this work, we describe the changes in the expression levels of four defensin genes and lipid transfer protein in Scots pine seedlings infected with A. alternata. The expression levels of PsDef1 and PsDef2 increased at 48 h.p.i. (hours post inoculation. The levels of PsDef4 transcripts have increased after 6 and 24 hours. Notably, at 48 h.p.i., the level of PsDef4 transcripts was decreased by 1.2 times compared to control. The level of PsDef3 transcripts was reduced at all three time points. On the other hand, the level of PsLTP1 transcripts increased at 6 h and 48 h.p.i.; while at 24 h.p.i., it decreased by 20% when compared to the control sample. Our results suggest that defensins and lipid transfer protein are involved in the defense response of young Scots pine to necrotrophic pathogen. Thus, those genes can be used as the molecular markers in forestry selection and development of the ecologically friendly remedies for coniferous seedlings cultivation in greenhouses and nurseries.

  13. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  14. Beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed. (author)

  15. Radiation and shielding around beam absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Maas, R.

    1978-12-01

    During operational conditions it is anticipated that a fair amount of the total available beam power is dumped in either the slit system on one of the beam dumps. Thses beam absorbers therefore become strong radioactive sources. The radiation level due to the absorption of a 100 kW electron beam is estimated and the problem of residual activity is treated. Proposed shielding materials are discussed. (C.F.)

  16. Uranium distribution and cycling in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on a revegetated U-mining heap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Yves; Schmidt, Peter; Hees, May van; Wannijn, Jean; Bree, Peter van; Rufyikiri, Gervais; Vandenhove, Hildegarde

    2005-01-01

    We determined the uranium distribution in soil and its allocation in compartments of 35-year-old Scots pine developed on a revegetated U-mining heap. The processes controlling the dynamics of U recycling were identified and further quantified in terms of annual fluxes. As pine developed, an acid humus layer emerged leading to weathering of the alkaline mining debris but this had little effect on U mobility in the soil profile. Increased U mobility mainly involved a translocation of U to metal-humus chelates in surface layers. The root compartment accounted for 99.3% of the U budget in tree, thus serving as an effective barrier which restricts U uptake. The current root uptake and transfer of U to upper parts of the tree amounted to about 3 g ha -1 y -1 , i.e. less than 0.03% of the current NH 4 -exchangeable U pool in the soil (0-30 cm). Allocation and translocation pattern made it clear that a dominant fraction of the translocated U moves passively with the ascent xylem sap, most likely as a soluble complex, and steadily accumulates in the needles. Consequently, 97% of the U annual uptake is returned to the soil through litterfall. At the studied site, the risk of U dissemination due to biomass turnover or trunk harvest was low when considered in relation to the current 'exemption level' for U

  17. CHRONIC IRRADIATION OF SCOTS PINE TREES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS) IN THE CHERNOBYL EXCLUSION ZONE: DOSIMETRY AND RADIOBIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    To identify effects of chronic internal and external radiation exposure for components of terrestrial ecosystems, a comprehensive study of Scots pine trees in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone was performed. The experimental plan included over 1,100 young trees (up to 20 years old) selected from areas with varying levels of radioactive contamination. These pine trees were planted after the 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mainly to prevent radionuclide resuspension and soil erosion. For each tree, the major morphological parameters and radioactive contamination values were identified. Cytological analyses were performed for selected trees representing all dose rate ranges. A specially developed dosimetric model capable of taking into account radiation from the incorporated radionuclides in the trees was developed for the apical meristem. The calculated dose rates for the trees in the study varied within three orders of magnitude, from close to background values in the control area (about 5 mGy y{sup -1}) to approximately 7 Gy y{sup -1} in the Red Forest area located in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant site. Dose rate/effect relationships for morphological changes and cytogenetic defects were identified and correlations for radiation effects occurring on the morphological and cellular level were established.

  18. Relationship between the light environment and carbohydrates in needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) on a dune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klõšeiko, J.

    2003-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation transmitted through the canopy (FPAR) on a forested dune was measured at different locations with a ceptometer, and the correlations of carbohydrates in Scots pine needles with FPAR were studied. The hypothesis was that the sucrose content is relatively stable in different light environments and the main effect of the location on the dune is expressed on the glucose content in needles assuming that glucose regulates the balance between the light environment and nutritional conditions influencing the carbohydrate production and demand processes in trees. The contents of the investigated carbohydrates did not correlate with the FPAR, which was significantly elevated at the higher locations on the dune (500 per cent on top) relative to the locations on the foot. The concentrations of hexoses varied substantially between the individual branches or trees from the same plots and between plots, while sucrose levels on single plots were relatively constant. Analysis of variance indicated the effect of the location on the concentrations of sucrose and excess bound fructose, and on the total content of carbohydrates in current-year needles in which the investigated parameters were positively correlated with the respective parameters in one-year-old needles. The results indicate that the content of carbohydrates does not directly depend on the light environment on the dune, though the large variance in the content of hexoses possibly requires increasing the number of samples on each plot to reveal the differences in needles between the locations on the dune

  19. Distribution of 137Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Holiaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of 137Cs selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of 137Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research, detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of 137Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of 137Cs: d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.55 (Am(ω = 0.63 ± 0.08; 0.55 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 0.95 (Am(ω = 1.01 ± 0.04; 0.95 < d(ω1.3m ≤ 1.0 (Am(ω = 2.1 ± 0.5.

  20. The variability of Scots pine from Piekielna Góra as expressed by morphological and anatomical traits of needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Bobowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-year old needles were collected from 30 standing Scots pine trees on Piekielna Góra. These needles were analysed in respect to 13 morphological and anatomical traits. The data so obtained was subjected to a whole range of multi-trait analytical methods in an attempt to determine the variability among the randomly chosen trees. Multivariate analysis of variance and canonical analysis were done as well as calculation of Mahalanobis distances between each pair of trees and their significance was tested by the Hotelling T2 statistics. Aminimum spanning tree was constructed on the basis of the shortest Mahalanobis distances, while a dendrogram (cluster analysis was compiled on the basis of Euclidean distances. It was found that in spite of the fact that the studied population sample of pines did not form internal, significantly differentiated groups, the variability among particular trees was large and depended on the given trait. The number of resin canals best differentiated the studied trees, while the Marcet coefficient did not significantly differentia­te any pair of trees.

  1. Variability of morphological needle traits of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. among populations from mountain and lowland regions of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabiszak Bartosz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska, which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations

  2. Improving the quality and impact of public health social media activity in Scotland during 2016: #ScotPublicHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Douglas Graham

    2017-06-07

    Social media, including Twitter, potentially provides a route to communicate public health messages to a large audience. Simple measures can boost onward broadcast to other users ('retweeting'). This study compares the impact of a structured programme of social media activity in Scotland during 2016 (using #ScotPublicHealth hashtag) with previous years. The Twitter search function was used to identify tweets between 2014 and 2016 inclusive. The first three tweets from each Twitter user were selected for each period. The number of retweets was used as a measure of impact. The quality of tweets was assessed by recording use of image, weblink (uniform resource locator or URL), mention of another Twitter user and/or hashtag, each of which have been shown to boost number of retweets. The percentage of tweets with an image, URL and/or mention of another Twitter user increased during the period of study. The percentage of tweets retweeted during Scottish Public Health conferences increased from 43% in 2014 to 70% in 2016. The volume of tweeting also increased. The quality and impact of tweets sent by the Scottish Public Health community was higher during 2016 than previous years. Conference tweeting remains an area for improvement. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Actinobacteria possessing antimicrobial and antioxidant activities isolated from the pollen of scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) grown on the Baikal shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Voytsekhovskaya, Irina V; Rebets, Yuriy V; Tokovenko, Bogdan T; Penzina, Tatyana A; Gornostay, Tatyana G; Adelshin, Renat V; Protasov, Eugenii S; Luzhetskyy, Andriy N; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2016-10-01

    Isolated ecosystems existing under specific environmental conditions have been shown to be promising sources of new strains of actinobacteria. The taiga forest of Baikal Siberia has not been well studied, and its actinobacterial population remains uncharacterized. The proximity between the huge water mass of Lake Baikal and high mountain ranges influences the structure and diversity of the plant world in Siberia. Here, we report the isolation of eighteen actinobacterial strains from male cones of Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) growing on the shore of the ancient Lake Baikal in Siberia. In addition to more common representative strains of Streptomyces, several species belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, and Micromonospora were isolated. All isolated strains exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities. We identified several strains that inhibited the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans but did not hinder the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several isolates were active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The high proportion of biologically active strains producing antibacterial and specific antifungal compounds may reflect their role in protecting pollen against phytopathogens.

  4. Superresolution beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of a Gaussian beam (GB) into a symmetrical higher order TEMp0 Laguerre Gaussian beam (LGB) intensity distribution of which is further rectified and transformed into a Gaussian intensity distribution in the plane of a converging...

  5. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.

  6. Coherent beam-beam effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Keil, E.

    1979-06-01

    The stability of the coherent beam-beam effect between rigid bunches is studied analytically and numerically for a linear force by evaluating eigenvalues. For a realistic force, the stability is investigated by following the bunches for many revolutions. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Emittance growth due to beam-gas scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1992-06-01

    The effect of beam-gas scattering on beam emittance is examined by deriving the beam distribution function. The distribution function is found by treating the beam-gas scattering as a filtered Poisson process and calculating the cumulants of the distribution. (author)

  8. Increase of apatite dissolution rate by Scots pine roots associated or not with Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp in open-system flow microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale; Uroz, Stéphane; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Tosheva, Zornitza; Kies, Antoine

    2013-04-01

    The release of nutritive elements through apatite dissolution represents the main source of phosphorus, calcium, and several micronutrients (e.g., Zn, Cu) for organisms in non-fertilized forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to quantify, for the first time, the dissolution rate of apatite grains by tree roots that were or were not associated with a mineral weathering bacterial strain, and by various acids known to be produced by tree roots and soil bacterial strains in open-system flow microcosms. In addition, we explored whether the mobilization of trace elements (including rare earth elements) upon apatite dissolution was affected by the presence of trees and associated microorganisms. The dissolution rate of apatite by Scots pine plants that were or were not inoculated with the strain Burkholderia glathei PML1(12)Rp, and by inorganic (nitric) and organic (citric, oxalic and gluconic) acids at pH 5.5, 4.8, 3.8, 3.5, 3.0, and 2.0 was monitored in two controlled experiments: "plant-bacteria interaction" and "inorganic and organic acids". Analyses of the outlet solutions in the "plant-bacteria interaction" experiment showed that Scots pine roots and B. glathei PML1(12)Rp produced protons and organic acids such as gluconate, oxalate, acetate, and lactate. The weathering budget calculation revealed that Scots pines (with or without PML1(12)Rp) significantly increased (factor > 10) the release of Ca, P, As, Sr, Zn, U, Y, and rare earth elements such as Ce, La, Nd from apatite, compared to control abiotic treatment. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed traces of apatite dissolution in contact of roots. Most dissolved elements were taken up by Scots pine roots, i.e., approximately 50% of Ca, 70% of P, 30% of As, 70% of Sr, 90% of Zn, and 100% of U, Y, and rare earth elements. Interestingly, no significant additional effect due to the bacterial strain PML1(12)Rp on apatite dissolution and Scots pine nutrition and growth was observed. The "inorganic

  9. Impact of warming, moderate nitrogen addition and bark herbivory on BVOC emissions and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Häikiö, Elina; Kasurinen, Anne

    2018-04-10

    The changing climate will expose boreal forests to rising temperatures, increasing soil nitrogen (N) levels and an increasing risk of herbivory. The single and interaction effects of warming (+2 °C increase), moderate N addition (30 kg ha-1 year-1) and bark herbivory by large pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) on growth and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were studied in growth chambers over 175 days. In addition, warming and N addition effects on shoot net photosynthesis (Pn) were measured. Nitrogen addition increased both shoot and root dry weights, whereas warming, in combination with herbivory, reduced stem height growth. Warming together with N addition increased current-year shoot Pn, whereas N effects on previous-year shoot Pn were variable over time. Warming decreased non-oxygenated monoterpene (MT) emissions in June and increased them in July. Of individual MT compounds, α-pinene, δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and terpinolene were among the most frequently responsive compounds in warming treatments in the May-July period. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed only from warming treatments in July. Moderate N addition increased oxygenated monoterpenes in May, and MTs in June and September. However, N addition effect on MTs in June was clearer without warming than with warming. Bark herbivory tended to increase MT emissions in combination with warming and N addition 3 weeks after the damage caused by weevils. Of individual compounds in other BVOC blends, herbivory increased the emissions of methyl-benzene, benzene and hexanal in July. Hence, though both warming and N addition have a potential to change BVOC emissions from Scots pines, the N effect may also be partly cancelled by warming. Furthermore, herbivory pressure in combination with climate warming and N addition may, at least periodically, increase BVOC release to the atmosphere from young Scots pine seedlings.

  10. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  11. Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S

    2016-01-01

    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  12. Multivariate Correlation between Analysis Data on Dissolved Organic Material from Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris Chips and their Autohydrolysis Pre-Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joni Lehto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemometric techniques were used to establish the relationship between the autohydrolysis conditions prior to pulping and the chemical compositions of the soluble organic materials removed from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris wood chips. The aqueous chip pre-treatments (autohydrolysis were administered at 130 °C and 150 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, and the hydrolysates obtained were characterized in terms of total carbohydrates (various mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides together with uronic acid side groups, volatile acids (acetic and formic acids, lignin, and furans (furfural and 5-(hydroxymethylfurfural. Based on the analytical data gathered, a relatively accurate model for pine chip autohydrolysis was developed.

  13. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  14. The influence of drought on the water uptake by Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L. at different positions in the tree stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boczoń Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Periodically occurring drought is typical for the climate of Poland. In habitats supplied exclusively with rain water, tree stands are frequently exposed to the negative effects of water deficit in the soil. The aim of this study was to examine the water uptake and consumption of two individual Scots pine trees under drought conditions. The trees were located at different positions within the stand and at the time of study were over 150 years old. Soil moisture, availability of soil water and the quantity of water uptake by the individual trees were examined by measuring the water velocity inside the trunks (Thermal Dissipation Probe method.

  15. An introduction to beam physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berz, Martin; Wan, Weishi

    2015-01-01

    The field of beam physics touches many areas of physics, engineering, and the sciences. In general terms, beams describe ensembles of particles with initial conditions similar enough to be treated together as a group so that the motion is a weakly nonlinear perturbation of a chosen reference particle. Particle beams are used in a variety of areas, ranging from electron microscopes, particle spectrometers, medical radiation facilities, powerful light sources, and astrophysics to large synchrotrons and storage rings such as the LHC at CERN. An Introduction to Beam Physics is based on lectures given at Michigan State University’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, the online VUBeam program, the U.S. Particle Accelerator School, the CERN Academic Training Programme, and various other venues. It is accessible to beginning graduate and upper-division undergraduate students in physics, mathematics, and engineering. The book begins with a historical overview of methods for generating and accelerating beams, high...

  16. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  17. Soil respiration shifts as drought-induced tree substitution advances from Scots pine to Holm oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Josep; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Poyatos, Rafael; Janssens, Ivan A.; Lloret, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    There is more and more evidences that the current global warming trend and the increase of frequency and intensity of drought events during the last decades in the Northern hemisphere are currently producing an increment of drought-induced forest die-off events, being the Mediterranean region one of the most affected areas. This drought-induced mortality could lead in a vegetation shift with unpredicted consequences in carbon pools, where soils are the most determinant factor in this carbon balance as they contain over two-thirds of carbon on forest ecosystems. There are several uncertainties related on the interaction between soil, environmental conditions and vegetation shifts that could modify their capability to be net carbon sinks or sources in a warming context. We studied soil respiration and its heterotrophic (RH) and autotrophic (Ra) (split in fine roots [Rr] and mycorrhizal respiration [Rs]) components in a mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) are suffering from drought-induced die-off and replaced by Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) as the dominant tree species. Soil respiration fluxes and its fractions were measured every two weeks during one year at four stages of the substitution process (non defoliated pines [NDP], defoliated pines [DFP], dead pines [DP] and Holm oak [HO]), using the mesh exclusion method. The aims were (i) to describe soil respiration fluxes in a drought-induced secondary successional process, (ii) to test whether the changes in vegetation affected soil respiration fluxes and (iii) to determine the influence of environmental and abiotic variables on the different soil respiration fractions. Total soil respiration was 10.10±6.17 TC ha-1 y-1, RH represented the 67% of the total, Ra represented the 34% of the total, and Rr and Rs were the 22 and 12%, respectively. Significant differences were found in total soil respiration and RH between NDP and HO, being lower in HO than in NDP (34% in total and 48% in RH). No

  18. Ozone fumigation under dark/light conditions of Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaval, Eva; Jud, Werner; Hansel, Armin

    2015-04-01

    Norway Spruce (Picea abies) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent dominating tree species in the northern hemisphere. Thus, the understanding of their ozone sensitivity in the light of the expected increasing ozone levels in the future is of great importance. In our experiments we investigated the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of 3-4 year old Norway Spruce and Scots Pine seedlings under ozone fumigation (50-150 ppbv) and dark/light conditions. For the experiments the plants were placed in a setup with inert materials including a glass cuvette equipped with a turbulent air inlet and sensors for monitoring a large range of meteorological parameters. Typical conditions were 20-25°C and a relative humidity of 70-90 % for both plant species. A fast gas exchange rate was used to minimize reactions of ozone in the gas phase. A Switchable-Reagent-Ion-Time-of-Flight-MS (SRI-ToF-MS) was used to analyze the VOCs at the cuvette outlet in real-time during changing ozone and light levels. The use of H3O+ and NO+ as reagent ions allows the separation of certain isomers (e.g. aldehydes and ketones) due to different reaction pathways depending on the functional groups of the molecules. Within the Picea abies experiments the ozone loss, defined as the difference of the ozone concentration between cuvette inlet and outlet, remained nearly constant at the transition from dark to light. This indicates that a major part of the supplied ozone is depleted non-stomatally. In contrast the ozone loss increased by 50 % at the transition from dark to light conditions within Pinus sylvestris experiments. In this case the stomata represent the dominant loss channel. Since maximally 0.1% of the ozone loss could be explained by gas phase reactions with monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, we suggest that ozone reactions on the surface of Picea abies represent the major sink in this case and lead to an light-independent ozone loss. This is supported by the fact that we detected

  19. Coherent instabilities of proton beams in accelerators and storage rings - experimental results, diagnosis and cures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, W.

    1977-01-01

    The author discusses diagnosis and cure of proton beam instabilities in accelerators and storage rings. Coasting beams and bunched beams are treated separately and both transverse and longitudinal instabilities are considered. (B.D.)

  20. Changes in the essential oil composition in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) under anthropogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzentiene, Asta; Stikliene, Aida; Kupcinskiene, Eugenija

    2007-03-21

    Unfavorable anthropogenic factors, such as air pollution, lead to biochemical responses in trees. Changes in the amounts of secondary metabolites may be early indicators of invisible injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate composition of the essential oils in the needles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the areas affected by pollutant emissions of main factories in Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory (NFF), a cement factory (CF), and an oil refinery (OR). Totally, 14 pine stands were examined along transects from the factories (July 2005). Volatile components of the needles were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Over 70 components of the essential oils were identified in current-year and 1-year-old needles. Along the CF transect for current-year needles, the percentage of diterpenes was decreasing with the increasing pH of the pine bark (r = -0.582; p essential oils in the needles allowed us to distinguish the most contrasting stands according to the concentration of air pollutants. Current-year needles were more effective as indicators of the effects of pollution than 1-year-old needles in the case of the NFF and the OR transects, and both-aged needles were equally valuable in the case of the CF transect. The changes detected in the proportions of components of the essential oils in the needles of the trees affected by the industrial emissions may play a significant role in modifying the susceptibility of the pine stands to the biotic factors, and also may alter emissions of terpenes from the stands to the atmosphere.

  1. Trace elements in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi growing in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudawska, Maria; Leski, Tomasz

    2005-01-01

    The trace metal contents in fruiting bodies of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, symbiotic partners of Scots pine, were studied on three sites situated in west-central Poland. Elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 123 samples of 16 species. The study explored the differences in metal accumulation in relation to site, fungal species, age and part of the fruiting body and results were related to metal content in soil and plant material (roots and needles). Soil analysis revealed that results were obtained under environmental conditions not subject to strong anthropogenic pressure. Median metal concentrations did not differ disparately between sites, although the concentrations of each of the tested metals in the individual species varied to a large extent. Extremely high levels of Al with a large bioconcentration factor (BCF) were found in sporocarps of Thelephora terrestris. The spread between the highest and the lowest concentration (max/min) was very wide in Al, Cd and Pb and these elements may be considered to be absorbed preferentially by fruiting bodies of some species whereas Fe, Mn and Zn, with relatively low values of max/min, are normally absorbed by the majority of fungi. There was no clear relationship between caps and stipes in metal content. However, a tendency to higher metal concentration in the caps was observed. The metal content in young and older fruiting bodies of five different fungi was species dependent. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by plant and mushrooms, bioconcentration factors (BCFs) were calculated. In plant material (roots and needles), highest values of BCFs were noted for essential metals, like Zn and Mn. Lead showed a definite exclusion pattern (BCF below 1). In fruiting bodies of tested fungi, especially in Amanita muscaria, cadmium was the most intensively accumulated metal. Lead was excluded by plants but was accumulated or excluded by fungi depending on the species. The

  2. Gap fraction based estimation of LAI in Scots pine stands subjected to experimental removal of branches and stems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenberg, P.; Nilson, T.; Smolander, H.; Voipio, P.

    2003-01-01

    We compared estimates of leaf area index obtained by the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyzer (LAI PCA ) to direct estimates of LAI ('true' LAI) obtained through allometric relationships. This was done for two Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands, where LAI was gradually reduced by removing branches and whole trees. LAI (defined on a hemisurface area basis) decreased from 2.24 to 0.50 in the branch removal experiment and from 1.58 to 0.29 in the tree removal experiment. The aim of the study was to analyse the variation in the ratio of the LAI-2000 estimate to the true LAI (LAI PCA /LAI) with changes in stand structure and total leaf area. In the tree removal plot, which had a smaller proportion of woody (branch) area, LAI PCA /LAI remained fairly stable (0.63-0.69) and was smaller than that in the branch removal plot, where LAI PCA /LAI increased from 0.76 to 1.16 along with the decrease in leaf area and a subsequent increase in woody (stem) area. The ratio of LAI PCA to the plant area index (PAI) differed less between plots but remained higher in the branch removal plot (increasing from 0.56 to 0.69) than in the tree removal plot, where it varied between 0.55 and 0.60. Results were analysed with the help of a theoretical canopy radiation model, which can be inverted to give LAI based on the gap fraction values measured by the LAI-2000 and stand structural parameters. Model-inverted LAI agreed well with directly measured LAI, suggesting that the model is a useful tool for correcting bias in the LAI-2000 estimates because of grouping of leaf area and the contribution of woody area. (author)

  3. Artificial recharge of groundwater through sprinkling infiltration: impacts on forest soil and the nutrient status and growth of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöjd, Pekka; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Smolander, Aino; Derome, John; Lumme, Ilari; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2009-05-01

    We studied the chemical changes in forest soil and the effects on Scots pine trees caused by continuous sprinkling infiltration over a period of two years, followed by a recovery period of two years. Infiltration increased the water input onto the forest soil by a factor of approximately 1000. After one year of infiltration, the pH of the organic layer had risen from about 4.0 to 6.7. The NH(4)-N concentration in the organic layer increased, most probably due to the NH(4) ions in the infiltration water, as the net N mineralization rate did not increase. Sprinkling infiltration initiated nitrification in the mineral soil. Macronutrient concentrations generally increased in the organic layer and mineral soil. An exception, however, was the concentration of extractable phosphorus, which decreased strongly during the infiltration period and did not show a recovery within two years. The NO(3)-N and K concentrations had reverted back to their initial level during the two-year recovery period, while the concentrations of Ca, Mg and NH(4)-N were still elevated. Nutrient concentrations in the pine needles increased on the infiltrated plots. However, the needle P concentration increased, despite the decrease in plant-available P in the soil. Despite the increase in the nutrient status, there were some visible signs of chlorosis in the current-year needles after two years of infiltration. The radial growth of the pines more than doubled on the infiltrated plots, which suggests that the very large increase in the water input onto the forest floor had no adverse effect on the functioning of the trees. However, a monitoring period of four years is not sufficient for detecting potential long term detrimental effects on forest trees.

  4. Gastric antral vascular ectasia and its clinical correlates in patients with early diffuse systemic sclerosis in the SCOT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Emily W; Mayes, Maureen D; Sharif, Roozbeh; Assassi, Shervin; Machicao, Victor I; Hosing, Chitra; St Clair, E William; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Forman, Stephen; Mineishi, Shin; Phillips, Kristine; Seibold, James R; Bredeson, Christopher; Csuka, Mary Ellen; Nash, Richard A; Wener, Mark H; Simms, Robert; Ballen, Karen; Leclercq, Sharon; Storek, Jan; Goldmuntz, Ellen; Welch, Beverly; Keyes-Elstein, Lynette; Castina, Sharon; Crofford, Leslie J; Mcsweeney, Peter; Sullivan, Keith M

    2013-04-01

    To describe the prevalence and clinical correlates of endoscopic gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE; "watermelon stomach") in early diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc). Subjects with early, diffuse SSc and evidence of specific internal organ involvement were considered for the Scleroderma: Cyclophosphamide Or Transplant (SCOT) trial. In the screening procedures, all patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patients were then categorized into those with or without endoscopic evidence of GAVE. Demographic data, clinical disease characteristics, and autoantibody data were compared using Pearson chi-square or Student t tests. Twenty-three of 103 (22.3%) individuals were found to have GAVE on endoscopy. Although not statistically significant, anti-topoisomerase I (anti-Scl70) was detected less frequently among those with GAVE (18.8% vs 44.7%; p = 0.071). Similarly, anti-RNP antibodies (anti-U1 RNP) showed a trend to a negative association with GAVE (0 vs 18.4%; p = 0.066). There was no association between anti-RNA polymerase III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had significantly more erythema or vascular ectasias in other parts of the stomach (26.1% vs 5.0%; p = 0.003). Endoscopic GAVE was present on screening in almost one-fourth of these highly selected patients with early and severe diffuse SSc. While anti-Scl70 and anti-U1 RNP trended toward a negative association with GAVE, there was no correlation between anti-RNA Pol III and GAVE. Patients with GAVE had a higher frequency of other gastric vascular ectasias outside the antrum, suggesting that GAVE may represent part of the spectrum of the vasculopathy in SSc.

  5. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  7. Quantum beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Present state and future prospect are described on quantum beams for medical use. Efforts for compactness of linac for advanced cancer therapy have brought about the production of machines like Accuray's CyberKnife and TOMOTHERAPY (Tomo Therapy Inc.) where the acceleration frequency of X-band (9-11 GHz) is used. For cervical vein angiography by the X-band linac, a compact hard X-ray source is developed which is based on the (reverse) Compton scattering through laser-electron collision. More intense beam and laser are necessary at present. A compact machine generating the particle beam of 10 MeV-1 GeV (laser-plasma accelerator) for cancer therapy is also developed using the recent compression technique (chirped-pulse amplification) to generate laser of >10 TW. Tokyo University is studying for the electron beam with energy of GeV order, for the laser-based synchrotron X-ray, and for imaging by the short pulse ion beam. Development of advanced compact accelerators is globally attempted. In Japan, a virtual laboratory by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), a working group of universities and research facilities through the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, started in 2001 for practical manufacturing of the above-mentioned machines for cancer therapy and for angiography. Virtual Factory (Inc.), a business venture, is to be stood in future. (N.I.)

  8. A Sinner or a Saint: the image of Mary, Queen of Scots in the works of Friedrich Schiller, Juliusz Słowacki and Stefan Zweig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkov Andrey Sergeevich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The artistic image of Mary, Queen of Scots in the works of F. Schiller, J. Słowacki and S. Zweig are researched in the article. The Queen’s life, character, inner world and psychological portrait appear on the pages of the classicists’ works in the context of the era she lived. The turbulent historical processes that took place in England and Scotland at the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Early Modern Period led to the phenomenon of Mary Stuart’s personality. Obviously the creativity of the authors whose works were dedicated to Mary I of Scotland was influenced by the experience learned from the lessons of their time. It was reflected in the classicists’ analyses and description of the past. Romanticistsof the 19th century, F. Schiller and J. Słowacki, interpreted the personality of Mary Stuart in the sinner/saint dichotomy, but S. Zweig at the historic break in the 30s of the 20th century departed from the unilateralism of such an approach. In his romanced biography of Mary, Queen of Scots he tells about the rises and falls of his heroine. S. Zweig presents Mary I of Scotland as a wonderful, passionate and suffering woman, who even 400 years after her death inspires and excites peoples’ minds and hearts.

  9. Association of FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene FTL2 expression with growth rhythm in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avia, Komlan; Kärkkäinen, Katri; Lagercrantz, Ulf; Savolainen, Outi

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of the timing of bud set, an important trait in conifers, is relevant for adaptation and forestry practice. In common garden experiments, both Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) show a latitudinal cline in the trait. We compared the regulation of their bud set biology by examining the expression of PsFTL2, a Pinus sylvestris homolog to PaFTL2, a FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (FT/TFL1)-like gene, the expression levels of which have been found previously to be associated with the timing of bud set in Norway spruce. In a common garden study, we analyzed the relationship of bud phenology under natural and artificial photoperiods and the expression of PsFTL2 in a set of Scots pine populations from different latitudes. The expression of PsFTL2 increased in the needles preceding bud set and decreased during bud burst. In the northernmost population, even short night periods were efficient to trigger this expression, which also increased earlier under all photoperiodic regimes compared with the southern populations. Despite the different biology, with few limitations, the two conifers that diverged 140 million yr ago probably share an association of FTL2 with bud set, pointing to a common mechanism for the timing of growth cessation in conifers. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Effects of Reforestation and Site Preparation Methods on Early Growth and Survival of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L. in South-Eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aleksandrowicz-Trzcińska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful tree regeneration is a key process in ensuring forest sustainability and one of the most crucial investments made in silviculture. This study compared the effects of three reforestation methods (planting, direct seeding, and natural regeneration and three mechanical site preparation methods (double mould-board forest plough (FP; active plough (AP; and forest mill (FM on biometric parameters, survival, and density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in the first 4 years of growth in a clear-cut area in south-eastern Poland. Planted seedlings were higher, thicker in root collar, and had higher survival rates after the fourth growing season than trees from natural regeneration and direct seeding. Site preparation methods did not affect the density of planted seedlings. After natural regeneration and direct seeding, seedling density was lower and less homogeneous (plots with no seedlings in FM soil preparation in comparison to other methods. The survival of pines in all reforestation methods was not affected significantly by site preparation methods. Our results indicate that the best mechanical site preparation method for planting is FM, as this is the one that least disturbs the soil environment. For direct seeding the best results were achieved after AP preparation. Natural regeneration of Scots pine was most effective after FP use, and in relatively wet years also after AP use.

  11. Importance of beam-beam tune spread to collective beam-beam instability in hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Lihui; Shi Jicong

    2004-01-01

    In hadron colliders, electron-beam compensation of beam-beam tune spread has been explored for a reduction of beam-beam effects. In this paper, effects of the tune-spread compensation on beam-beam instabilities were studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation in model lattices of Tevatron and Large Hodron Collider. It was found that the reduction of the tune spread with the electron-beam compensation could induce a coherent beam-beam instability. The merit of the compensation with different degrees of tune-spread reduction was evaluated based on beam-size growth. When two beams have a same betatron tune, the compensation could do more harm than good to the beams when only beam-beam effects are considered. If a tune split between two beams is large enough, the compensation with a small reduction of the tune spread could benefit beams as Landau damping suppresses the coherent beam-beam instability. The result indicates that nonlinear (nonintegrable) beam-beam effects could dominate beam dynamics and a reduction of beam-beam tune spread by introducing additional beam-beam interactions and reducing Landau damping may not improve the stability of beams

  12. Beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abell, D; Adelmann, A; Amundson, J; Dragt, A; Mottershead, C; Neri, F; Pogorelov, I; Qiang, J; Ryne, R; Shalf, J; Siegerist, C; Spentzouris, P; Stern, E; Venturini, M; Walstrom, P

    2006-01-01

    We describe some of the accomplishments of the Beam Dynamics portion of the SciDAC Accelerator Science and Technology project. During the course of the project, our beam dynamics software has evolved from the era of different codes for each physical effect to the era of hybrid codes combining start-of-the-art implementations for multiple physical effects to the beginning of the era of true multi-physics frameworks. We describe some of the infrastructure that has been developed over the course of the project and advanced features of the most recent developments, the interplay betwen beam studies and simulations and applications to current machines at Fermilab. Finally we discuss current and future plans for simulations of the International Linear Collider

  13. Changes in biochemical disease-free survival rates as a result of adoption of the consensus conference definition in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennis, Ronald D.; Malyszko, Bozena K.; Heitjan, Daniel F.; Rubin, Mark A.; O'Toole, Kathleen M.; Schiff, Peter B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The optimal definition of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after definitive radiotherapy remains elusive. Different institutions have developed their own definitions, and a consensus conference (CC) sponsored by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology has recently proposed another definition. This study compares the definition previously used at our institution with the definition proposed by the CC. Methods: Two hundred and eight patients were treated for localized prostate cancer with conformal external-beam radiotherapy between 1989-1993 at our institution and followed for at least 24 months. Patients were categorized as failures according to our institutional definition and the CC definition. Our definition (CPMC) required two increases in serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) over at least a 3-month period with a final value of at least 1 ng/ml or a single value resulting in clinical intervention. The CC definition required three consecutive increases in PSA. This was modified to also consider those patients with one or two increases leading to clinical intervention as failures. Differences in the failure rates between the two definitions were evaluated and factors influencing these differences were explored. In an additional analysis, CC was modified such that patients with one or two PSA increases were censored at the time of the PSA prior to the increases (CC-II), rather than at the last PSA (CC). The median follow-up time was 31 months. Results: There were 36 fewer failures according to CC (n = 96) compared with CPMC (n = 132) (p < 0.001). Twenty cases called failures by CPMC subsequently had a decrease in PSA ('false failures'). The other 16 patients have had two increases in PSA, but are awaiting their next follow-up visit to obtain a third PSA ('pending failures'). Analysis of factors predicting 'pending failures' showed Gleason score to be the sole predictor of this change in status in multivariate analysis (p = 0

  14. Genetic diversity analysis among male and female Jojoba genotypes employing gene targeted molecular markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikrujam, Monika; Kumar, Jatin; Agrawal, Veena

    2015-09-01

    To detect genetic variations among different Simmondsia chinensis genotypes, two gene targeted markers, start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism and CAAT box-derived polymorphism (CBDP) were employed in terms of their informativeness and efficiency in analyzing genetic relationships among different genotypes. A total of 15 SCoT and 17 CBDP primers detected genetic polymorphism among 39 Jojoba genotypes (22 females and 17 males). Comparatively, CBDP markers proved to be more effective than SCoT markers in terms of percentage polymorphism as the former detecting an average of 53.4% and the latter as 49.4%. The Polymorphic information content (PIC) value and marker index (MI) of CBPD were 0.43 and 1.10, respectively which were higher than those of SCoT where the respective values of PIC and MI were 0.38 and 1.09. While comparing male and female genotype populations, the former showed higher variation in respect of polymorphic percentage and PIC, MI and Rp values over female populations. Nei's diversity (h) and Shannon index (I) were calculated for each genotype and found that the genotype "MS F" (in both markers) was highly diverse and genotypes "Q104 F" (SCoT) and "82-18 F" (CBDP) were least diverse among the female genotype populations. Among male genotypes, "32 M" (CBDP) and "MS M" (SCoT) revealed highest h and I values while "58-5 M" (both markers) was the least diverse. Jaccard's similarity co-efficient of SCoT markers ranged from 0.733 to 0.922 in female genotypes and 0.941 to 0.746 in male genotype population. Likewise, CBDP data analysis also revealed similarity ranging from 0.751 to 0.958 within female genotypes and 0.754 to 0.976 within male genotype populations thereby, indicating genetically diverse Jojoba population. Employing the NTSYS (Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system) Version 2.1 software, both the markers generated dendrograms which revealed that all the Jojoba genotypes were clustered into two major groups, one group consisting of

  15. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat many types of cancer. it is a local treatment, where a machine aims radiation at your cancer. Learn more about different types of external beam radiation therapy, and what to expect if you're receiving treatment.

  16. Four-way rf beam separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil, V.K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for separating a continuous beam of relativistic particles into four pulsed beams is investigated theoretically. The separation is periodic with period 2π/#betta# so that each of the four beams consists of current pulses of duration π/#betta#. The separation is accomplished by a series of rf cavities in the beam line. The cavities operate in the TM 110 and have frequencies, #betta#, 3#betta#, 5#betta#, 7#betta#, etc. The transverse momentum imparted to the beam particles results in a time-dependent displacement of the beam centroid at a position downstream of the cavity array. The mathematical limitations imposed by truncating a Fourier series are discussed, and an expression derived for the necessary phase and amplitude of each cavity. The rf induced by the beam in the cavities is treated in detail, and does not appear to be a serious problem

  17. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  18. Analytical treatment of the nonlinear electron cloud effect and the combined effects with beam-beam and space charge nonlinear forces in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we treat first some nonlinear beam dynamics problems in storage rings, such as beam dynamic apertures due to magnetic multipoles, wiggles, beam-beam effects, nonlinear space charge effect, and then nonlinear electron cloud effect combined with beam-beam and space charge effects, analytically. This analytical treatment is applied to BEPC II. The corresponding analytical expressions developed in this paper are useful both in understanding the physics behind these problems and also in making practical quick hand estimations. (author)

  19. Applied biomechanics to evaluate the properties of laser beam treated orthopedic implants; Biomêcanica aplicada na avaliação de propriedades de implantes ortopédicos metálicos tratados por feixe laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieretti, Eurico Felix

    2016-07-01

    Laser beam marking is used to ensure biomaterials’ identification and traceability. The texturing imparts greater adhesion to the surfaces of implantable medical devices. The aim of this work was to evaluate the surface behaviour of the austenitic stainless steel ABNT NBR ISO 5832-1 marked and textured by optical fiber laser beam using selected parameters, changing the pulse frequency; in face of its biomechanical behaviour, through tests of tensile strength, fatigue and wear; verify the localized corrosion susceptibility by electrochemical tests in a solution that simulates the body fluids; and analyze microstructural changes. The treatments performed altered the biomaterials roughness and their micro hardness as a function of the increase of the pulse frequency. The microstructure and chemical composition of the surfaces underwent changes that directly affected the passive layer of the stainless steels, triggering the corrosion process. This effect was evidenced by SVET, XPS and characterization of electronic properties of the passive film by the Mott-Schottky technique. These two types of laser treatments increased the surfaces' magnetic susceptibility. The parameters used for the marking and texturing did not induce a decrease in the cellular viability of the samples, as no cytotoxicity was showed even after prolonged incubation. This biomaterial was adequate on the biomechanical tests, since the laser treatments, under the conditions used, did not induce the formation of surface tensions of magnitude capable of leading the fatigue fracture, indicating infinite fatigue life; the region of fracture by tension could not be related to the laser marking. The wear volume decreased as a function of the increase in micro hardness produced by the increase of the pulse frequency in the texturing. The visual character of the markings and texturing was assured after the majority of the tests performed. (author)

  20. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized.

  1. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.; Lockner, T.R.

    1981-11-01

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  2. Long term changes in atmospheric N and S throughfall deposition and effects on soil solution chemistry in a Scots pine forest in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxman, Andries W; Peters, Roy C J H; Roelofs, Jan G M

    2008-12-01

    In a Scots pine forest the throughfall deposition and the chemical composition of the soil solution was monitored since 1984. (Inter)national legislation measures led to a reduction of the deposition of nitrogen and sulphur. The deposition of sulphur has decreased by approximately 65%. The total mineral-nitrogen deposition has decreased by ca. 25%, which is mainly due to a reduction in ammonium-N deposition (-40%), since nitrate-N deposition has increased (+50%). The nitrogen concentration in the upper mineral soil solution at 10 cm depth has decreased, leading to an improved nutritional balance, which may result in improved tree vitality. In the drainage water at 90 cm depth the fluxes of NO3(-) and SO4(2-) have decreased, resulting in a reduced leeching of accompanying base cations, thus preserving nutrients in the ecosystem. It may take still several years, however, before this will meet the prerequisite of a sustainable ecosystem.

  3. Logging residue removal after thinning in boreal forests: long-term impact on the nutrient status of Norway spruce and Scots pine needles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiro, Jukka; Kukkola, Mikko; Saarsalmi, Anna; Tamminen, Pekka; Helmisaari, Heljä-Sisko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare how conventional stem harvesting (CH) and whole-tree harvesting (WTH) in the first, and in some cases also in the second, thinning affect the needle nutrient status of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) stands in Finland. A series of 12 long-term field experiments was studied. The experiments were established during 1978-86. The effects of logging residue removal after thinnings on the needle nutrient concentrations were generally minor and without any overall trends, but there were differences between experiments. Trees tend to maintain their current needle nutrient concentrations at the same level by re-utilizing the nutrients stored in the older tissues and by changing C allocation in the whole tree. Thus, needle analysis should be combined with stem growth data in order to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of WTH on the nutrient status of trees.

  4. Beam divergence scaling in neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.J.T.

    1976-01-01

    One of the main considerations in the design of neutral beam injectors is to monimize the divergence of the primary ion beam and hence maximize the beam transport and minimize the input of thermal gas. Experimental measurements of the divergence of a cylindrical ion beam are presented and these measurements are used to analyze the major components of ion beam divergence, namely: space charge expansion, gas-ion scattering, emittance and optical aberrations. The implication of these divergence components in the design of a neutral beam injector system is discussed and a method of maximizing the beam current is described for a given area of source plasma

  5. Dynamical chaos and beam-beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrailev, F.M.

    1990-01-01

    Some aspects of the nonlinear dynamics of beam-beam interaction for simple one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of round and flat beams are discussed. The main attention is paid to the stochasticity threshold due to the overlapping of nonlinear resonances. The peculiarities of a round beam are investigated in view of using the round beams in storage rings to get high luminosity. 16 refs.; 7 figs

  6. Analysis of the effect of volume on the bending strength of the Spanish scot and laricio pine timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the XX century it has been recognized that the bending strength of timber is affected by the size of the specimen. In the present work the influence of depth (h and thickness (t on the characteristic bending strength (fk of both Scot (Pinus sylvestris and Laricio (Pinus nigra pine Spanish grown timber is assessed. 1.733 pieces of both species ranging in size from 100x40x2500 mm to 200x70x4.500 mm and especially sampled for this work, have been tested for bending in accordance with UNE EN 408 standard. In both species, the influence of depth and thickness on the characteristic bending strength of timber is highly significative but different between them and lead to conclude that the effect of the species is also significative and thus that the proposition of general values should be done cautiously, avoiding extrapolations. It is also concluded that, for both species, the effect of thickness seems to be highly significative and thus shouldn’t be ignored by the European standards. Finally, the convenience of revising the present depth factor considered in UNE EN 384 and UNE ENV 1995-1-1 standards is also suggested.

    Desde principios del siglo XX se conoce que la resistencia a la flexión de un elemento estructural viene afectada por su volumen. En el presente trabajo se analiza la influencia de la altura (h y del espesor (t de la sección de la pieza en la resistencia característica a flexión (fk de la madera de pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris y pino laricio (Pinus nigra de procedencia española. 1.733 vigas de tamaño variable entre 100x40x2500 mm y 200x70x4.500 mm, muestreadas especialmente para este trabajo, fueron ensayadas flexión de acuerdo con la norma UNE EN 408. La influencia de la altura de la sección y del espesor sobre la resistencia característica a flexión en ambas especies de madera resulta ser significativa aunque distinta entre ellas, lo que lleva a concluir que

  7. Beyond annual budgets: carbon flux at different temporal scales in fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, C.; Czimczik, C.I.; Schulze, E.D.

    2002-01-01

    Along four chronosequences of fire-prone Siberian Scots pine forests we compared net primary production (NPP) and two different mass-based estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP C and NEP S ). NEP C quantifies changes in carbon pools along the chronosequences, whereas NEP S estimates the short-term stand-level carbon balance in intervals between fires. The chronosequences differed in the mean return interval of surface fires (unburned or moderately burned, 40 yr; heavily burned, 25 yr) and site quality (lichen versus Vaccinium type). Of the Vaccinium type (higher site quality) only a moderately burned chronosequence was studied. NEP C was derived from the rate of changes of two major carbon pools along the chronosequence time axes: (1) decomposition of old coarse woody debris (CWD) left from the previous generation after stand-replacing fire, and (2) accumulation of new carbon in biomass, CWD and soil organic layer by the regenerating stand. Young stands of all chronosequences were losing carbon at rates of -4 to -19 mol C/m 2 /yr (-48 to -228 g C/m 2 /yr). Depending on initial CWD pools and site-specific accumulation rates the stands became net carbon sinks after 12 yr (Vaccinium type) to 24 yr (lichen type) following the stand-replacing fire and offset initial carbon losses after 27 and 70 yr, respectively. Highest NEP C was reached in the unburned chronosequence (10.8 mol C/m 2 /yr or 130 g C/m 2 /yr). Maximum NEP C in the burned chronosequences ranged from 1.8 to 5.1 mol C/m 2 /yr (22 to 61 g C/m 2 /yr) depending on site quality and fire regime. Around a stand age of 200 yr NEP C was 1.6 ± 0.6 mol C/m 2 /yr (19 ± 7 g C/m 2 /yr) across all chronosequences. NEP S represents the current stand-level carbon accumulation in intervals between recurring surface fires and can be viewed as a mass-based analogue of net ecosystem exchange measured with flux towers. It was estimated based on measurements of current woody NPP, modelled decomposition of measured CWD

  8. The HartX-synthesis: An experimental approach to water and carbon exchange of a Scots pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhofer, Ch.; Gay, L. W.; Granier, A.; Joss, U.; Kessler, A.; Köstner, B.; Siegwolf, R.; Tenhunen, J. D.; Vogt, R.

    1996-03-01

    In May 1992 during the interdisciplinary measurement campaign HartX (Hartheim eXperiment), several independent estimates of stand water vapor flux were compared at a 12-m high Scots pine ( Pinus silvestris) plantation on a flat fluvial terrace of the Rhine close to Freiburg, Germany. Weather during the HartX period was characterized by ten consecutive clear days with exceptionally high input of available energy for this time of year and with a slowly shifting diurnal pattern in atmospheric variables like vapor pressure deficit. Methods utilized to quantify components of stand water flux included porometry measurements on understory graminoid leaves and on pine needles and three different techniques for determining individual tree xylem sap flow. Micrometeorological methods included eddy covariance and eddy covariance energy balance techniques with six independent systems on two towers separated by 40 m. Additionally, Bowen ratio energy balance estimates of water flux were conducted and measurements of the gradients in water vapor, CO2, and trace gases within and above the stand were carried out with an additional, portable 30 m high telescoping mast. Biologically-based estimates of overstory transpiration were obtained by up-scaling tree sap flow rates to stand level via cumulative sapwood area. Tree transpiration contributed between 2.2 and 2.6 mm/day to ET for a tree leaf area index (LAI) of 2.8. The pine stand had an understory dominated by sedge and grass species with overall average LAI of 1.5. Mechanistic canopy gas exchange models that quantify both water vapor and CO2 exchange were applied to both understory and tree needle ecosystem compartments. Thus, the transpiration by graminoid species was estimated at approximately 20% of total stand ET. The modelled estimates for understory contribution to stand water flux compared well with micrometeorologically-based determinations. Maximum carbon gain was estimated from the canopy models at approximately 425 mmol

  9. Beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    The main part of this thesis consists of 15 published papers, in which the numerical Beam Propagating Method (BPM) is investigated, verified and used in a number of applications. In the introduction a derivation of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is presented to connect the beginning of the soliton papers with Maxwell's equations including a nonlinear polarization. This thesis focuses on the wide use of the BPM for numerical simulations of propagating light and particle beams through different types of structures such as waveguides, fibers, tapers, Y-junctions, laser arrays and crystalline solids. We verify the BPM in the above listed problems against other numerical methods for example the Finite-element Method, perturbation methods and Runge-Kutta integration. Further, the BPM is shown to be a simple and effective way to numerically set up the Green's function in matrix form for periodic structures. The Green's function matrix can then be diagonalized with matrix methods yielding the eigensolutions of the structure. The BPM inherent transverse periodicity can be untied, if desired, by for example including an absorptive refractive index at the computational window edges. The interaction of two first-order soliton pulses is strongly dependent on the phase relationship between the individual solitons. When optical phase shift keying is used in coherent one-carrier wavelength communication, the fiber attenuation will suppress or delay the nonlinear instability. (orig.)

  10. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  11. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  12. Electron beam treatment of industrial wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Bumsoo; Kim, JinKyu; Kim, Yuri

    2004-01-01

    For industrial wastewater with low impurity levels such as contaminated ground water, cleaning water and etc., purification only with electron beam is possible, but it should be managed carefully with reducing required irradiation doses as low as possible. Also for industrial wastewater with high impurity levels such as dyeing wastewater, leachate and etc., purification only with electron beam requires high amount of doses and far beyond economies. Electron beam treatment combined with conventional purification methods such as coagulation, biological treatment, etc. is suitable for reduction of non-biodegradable impurities in wastewater and will extend the application area of electron beam. A pilot plant with electron beam for treating 1,000 m 3 /day of wastewater from dyeing industries has constructed and operated continuously since Oct 1998. Electron beam irradiation instead of chemical treatment shows much improvement in removing impurities and increases the efficiency of biological treatment. Actual plant is under consideration based upon the experimental results. (author)

  13. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy

  14. Treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by elctron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hidehiko; Sugiyama, Masashi; Shimizu, Ken.

    1988-01-01

    Part of the results was presented on the investigation of treatment of supernatant from sewage sludge by combination of electron beam irradiation and microbiological treatment. Supernatant is electron-beam irradiated after microbiologically treated, and then treated microbiologically again. Based this method, by irradiation of 10 kGy, chemical oxygen demand (COD) in supernatant can be decreased lower than 30 ppm. Moreover, electron-beam irradiation induces remarkable decolorization and deodorization. (author)

  15. Scots seek soft path

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, T.

    1979-01-01

    Energy policy is discussed, with particular reference to Scotland. The plans for nuclear power are analyzed in comparison with developments in coal mining, use of oil and gas and other possible energy sources such as wind and wave power. Arguments against the development of nuclear power are raised on grounds of economics, employment potential, and problems of waste disposal. (U.K.)

  16. SCOT and Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise

    2011-01-01

    The current attention to climate change and resource deficiency as well as how to overcome these issues by governing and enabling sustainable transition request a need for looking into factors that enables or restricts the dissemination of energy saving technology. In this article, I will therefore...... will look at interpretive flexibility among the groups, and I will give special attention to how the environmental aspect of energy efficiency is perceived by the different groups. I will also look into how the dynamics between the groups may affect the social group(s) of consumers. The relevant social...... groups will be identified by ‘following the actor’ and further by ‘rolling the snowball’ (Bijker and Law, 1992). I believe that applying a social-constructivist view on the evolvement and spreading of energy efficient technology will result in an understanding of enabling and restricting factors...

  17. Proton Beam Writing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Csige, I.; Baradacs, E.

    2005-01-01

    that of not-treated samples was enough to fully develop the radiation damaged structures. Proton beam micromachined channels in negative tone resist materials Tilted structures are very interesting for various applications, such as photonic crystals and gas/liquid handling on chips. The fabrication of thick tilted structures is a challenging task for the conventional (optical and electron beam) lithographic technologies. X-ray lithography has been proved capable to produce tilted structures of very fine resolution but at a very high cost due to the required delicate mask. The use of proton beam irradiation has already been proved very successful to the patterning of thick resist films with very high aspect ratio and vertical sidewalls [6]. Proton Beam Writing (PBW) is promising for the fabrication of tilted structures due to the fact that the proton beam does not broaden significantly (e.g. a 2MeV proton beam allows the patterning of 50 μm thick resist films). PBW is a direct write method, i.e. it is a maskless process which is an obvious advantage for research applications. In the present work the Atomki microprobe facility has been used to write long tilted structures by 2MeV protons. For the formation of the structures, two exposures have been carried out at +20 deg and -20 deg using a goniometer stage sample holder. The tilted structures were resolved in the negative tone resist materials SU-8 and ADEPR (an aqueous base developable chemically amplified resist). The length of the microchannels was varied between 100 μm and 1000 μm, the wall thickness was 10 μm. By applying the developed methodology it was possible to resolve the desired layout through the whole length of the channel. (author)

  18. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  19. Multi-disciplinary data organization and visualization models for clinical and pre-clinical studies: A case study in the application of proton beam radiosurgery for treating spinal cord injury related pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sneha K.; Liu, Brent J.

    2016-03-01

    An increasing adoption of electronic medical records has made information more accessible to clinicians and researchers through dedicated systems such as HIS, RIS and PACS. The speed and the amount at which information are generated in a multi-institutional clinical study make the problem complicated compared to day-to-day hospital workflow. Often, increased access to the information does not translate into the efficient use of that information. Therefore, it becomes crucial to establish models which can be used to organize and visualize multi-disciplinary data. Good visualization in turn makes it easy for clinical decision-makers to reach a conclusion within a small span of time. In a clinical study involving multi-disciplinary data and multiple user groups who need access to the same data and presentation states based on the stage of the clinical trial or the task are crucial within the workflow. Therefore, in order to demonstrate the conceptual system design and system workflow, we will be presenting a clinical trial based on application of proton beam for radiosurgery which will utilize our proposed system. For demonstrating user role and visualization design purposes, we will be focusing on three different user groups which are researchers involved in patient enrollment and recruitment, clinicians involved in treatment and imaging review and lastly the principle investigators involved in monitoring progress of clinical study. Also datasets for each phase of the clinical study including preclinical and clinical data as it related to subject enrollment, subject recruitment (classifier), treatment (DICOM), imaging, and pathological analysis (protein staining) of outcomes.

  20. Simple beam profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelbart, W.; Johnson, R. R.; Abeysekera, B. [ASD Inc. Garden Bay, BC (Canada); Best Theratronics Ltd Ottawa Ontario (Canada); PharmaSpect Ltd., Burnaby BC (Canada)

    2012-12-19

    An inexpensive beam profile monitor is based on the well proven rotating wire method. The monitor can display beam position and shape in real time for particle beams of most energies and beam currents up to 200{mu}A. Beam shape, position cross-section and other parameters are displayed on a computer screen.

  1. Crystalline beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Ions in a storage ring are confined to a mean orbit by focusing elements. To a first approximation these may be described by a constant harmonic restoring force: F = -Kr. If the particles in the frame moving along with the beam have small random thermal energies, then they will occupy a cylindrical volume around the mean orbit and the focusing force will be balanced by that from the mutual repulsion of the particles. Inside the cylinder only residual two-particle interactions will play a significant role and some form of ordering might be expected to take place. The results of some of the first MD calculations showed a surprising result: not only were the particles arranged in the form of a tube, but they formed well-defined layers: concentric shells, with the particles in each shell arranged in a hexagonal lattice that is characteristic of two-dimensional Coulomb systems. This paper discusses the condense layer structure

  2. Industrial applications or electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    Industrial use of electron beams began in the 1950's with the crosslinking of polyethylene film and wire insulation. Today the number of electron beam Processing Systems installed for industrial applications throughout the world has grown to more than six hundred stations in over 35 countries. Total installed power is now approaching 40 megawatts (over 8 million tons of products per year). Electron beam is now utilized by many major industries including plastics, automotive, rubber goods, wire and cable, electrical insulation, semiconductor, medical, packaging, or pollution control. The principal effect of high-energy electrons is to produce ions in the materials treated, resulting in the liberation of orbital electrons. As a result, the original molecule is modified and the ree radicals combine to form new molecules with new chemical reactions or dis organisation od the DNA chains of living organisms (insects, fungus, microorganisms, etc.). (Author) 8 refs

  3. Beam-Beam Interaction Studies at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaumann, Michaela; Alemany Fernandez, R

    2011-01-01

    The beam-beam force is one of the most important limiting factors in the performance of a collider, mainly in the delivered luminosity. Therefore, it is essential to measure the effects in LHC. Moreover, adequate understanding of LHC beam-beam interaction is of crucial importance in the design phases of the LHC luminosity upgrade. Due to the complexity of this topic the work presented in this thesis concentrates on the beam-beam tune shift and orbit effects. The study of the Linear Coherent Beam-Beam Parameter at the LHC has been determined with head-on collisions with small number of bunches at injection energy (450 GeV). For high bunch intensities the beam-beam force is strong enough to expect orbit effects if the two beams do not collide head-on but with a crossing angle or with a given offset. As a consequence the closed orbit changes. The closed orbit of an unperturbed machine with respect to a machine where the beam-beam force becomes more and more important has been studied and the results are as well ...

  4. Beam halo in high-intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangler, T.P.

    1993-01-01

    In space-charge dominated beams the nonlinear space-charge forces produce a filamentation pattern, which in projection to the 2-D phase spaces results in a 2-component beam consisting of an inner core and a diffuse outer halo. The beam-halo is of concern for a next generation of cw, high-power proton linacs that could be applied to intense neutron generators for nuclear materials processing. The author describes what has been learned about beam halo and the evolution of space-charge dominated beams using numerical simulations of initial laminar beams in uniform linear focusing channels. Initial results are presented from a study of beam entropy for an intense space-charge dominated beam

  5. Beam-beam issues in asymmetric colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    We discuss generic beam-beam issues for proposed asymmetric e + - e - colliders. We illustrate the issues by choosing, as examples, the proposals by Cornell University (CESR-B), KEK, and SLAC/LBL/LLNL (PEP-II)

  6. Analysis of the rate of maturogenesis of a traumatized Cvek′s stage 3 anterior tooth treated with platelet-rich fibrin as a regenerative tool using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography: An original case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Viola Solomon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deal with the regeneration of pulp-like tissue, more idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. The regeneration of this pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible only when the canal is effectively disinfected. Though there are various procedures for treating open apex ranging from Ca(OH 2 apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate apexification and surgical approach, regeneration of tissues has always taken superior hand over the repair of tissues. The mechanics behind the regenerative endodontic procedures is that despite the tooth being necrotic, some pulp tissue can survive apically which under favorable conditions proliferate to aid in the process of regeneration. In the past 2 decades, an increased understanding of the physiological roles of platelets in wound healing and after tissue injury has led to the idea of using platelets as therapeutic tools in the field regenerative endodontics. In the present case report with an open apex, high sterilization protocol is followed using triple antibiotic paste as intra-canal medicament, followed which platelet rich fibrin is used as the regenerative material of choice. Over an 18-month follow-up period, clinically patient is asymptomatic and radiographically there is complete regression of the periapical lesion and initiation of the root end closure.

  7. Analysis of the rate of maturogenesis of a traumatized Cvek's stage 3 anterior tooth treated with platelet-rich fibrin as a regenerative tool using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography: an original case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Raji Viola; Faizuddin, Umrana; Guniganti, Sushma Shravani; Waghray, Shefali

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative endodontic procedures are biologically based procedures which deal with the regeneration of pulp-like tissue, more idealistically the pulp-dentin complex. The regeneration of this pulp-dentin complex in an infected necrotic tooth with an open apex is possible only when the canal is effectively disinfected. Though there are various procedures for treating open apex ranging from Ca(OH) 2 apexification, mineral trioxide aggregate apexification and surgical approach, regeneration of tissues has always taken superior hand over the repair of tissues. The mechanics behind the regenerative endodontic procedures is that despite the tooth being necrotic, some pulp tissue can survive apically which under favorable conditions proliferate to aid in the process of regeneration. In the past 2 decades, an increased understanding of the physiological roles of platelets in wound healing and after tissue injury has led to the idea of using platelets as therapeutic tools in the field regenerative endodontics. In the present case report with an open apex, high sterilization protocol is followed using triple antibiotic paste as intra-canal medicament, followed which platelet rich fibrin is used as the regenerative material of choice. Over an 18-month follow-up period, clinically patient is asymptomatic and radiographically there is complete regression of the periapical lesion and initiation of the root end closure.

  8. Production of an {sup 15}O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Akram, E-mail: mohammadi.akram@qst.go.jp; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-21

    In advanced ion therapy, the {sup 15}O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an {sup 15}O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable {sup 16}O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors’ group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of {sup 15}O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of {sup 15}O fragments. The highest production rate of {sup 15}O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the {sup 15}O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the {sup 16}O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is

  9. Production of an 15O beam using a stable oxygen ion beam for in-beam PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Akram; Yoshida, Eiji; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inaniwa, Taku; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yamaya, Taiga

    2017-03-01

    In advanced ion therapy, the 15O ion beam is a promising candidate to treat hypoxic tumors and simultaneously monitor the delivered dose to a patient using PET imaging. This study aimed at production of an 15O beam by projectile fragmentation of a stable 16O beam in an optimal material, followed by in-beam PET imaging using a prototype OpenPET system, which was developed in the authors' group. The study was carried out in three steps: selection of the optimal target based on the highest production rate of 15O fragments; experimental production of the beam using the optimal target in the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Chiba (HIMAC) secondary beam course; and realization of in-beam PET imaging for the produced beam. The optimal target evaluations were done using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS. The fluence and mean energy of the secondary particles were simulated and the optimal target was selected based on the production rate of 15O fragments. The highest production rate of 15O was observed for a liquid hydrogen target, 3.27% for a 53 cm thick target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u. Since liquid hydrogen is not practically applicable in the HIMAC secondary beam course a hydrogen-rich polyethylene material, which was the second optimal target from the simulation results, was selected as the experimental target. Three polyethylene targets with thicknesses of 5, 11 or 14 cm were used to produce the 15O beam without any degrader in the beam course. The highest production rate was measured as around 0.87% for the 11 cm thick polyethylene target from the 16O beam of 430 MeV/u when the angular acceptance and momentum acceptance were set at ±13 mrad and ±2.5%, respectively. The purity of the produced beam for the three targets were around 75%, insufficient for clinical application, but it was increased to 97% by inserting a wedge shape aluminum degrader with a thickness of 1.76 cm into the beam course and that is sufficiently high. In-beam PET imaging was also

  10. Chemical disease-free survival in localized carcinoma of prostate treated with external beam irradiation: comparison of American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology Consensus or 1 ng/mL as endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Carlos A.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Lockett, Mary Ann

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To compare postirradiation biochemical disease-free survival using the American Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus or elevation of postirradiation prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level beyond 1 ng/mL as an endpoint and correlate chemical failure with subsequent appearance of clinically detected local recurrence or distant metastasis. Methods and Materials: Records of 466 patients with histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with irradiation alone between January 1987 and December 1995 were analyzed; 339 patients were treated with bilateral 120 deg. arc rotation and, starting in 1992, 117 with three-dimensional conformal irradiation. Doses were 68-77 Gy in 1.8 to 2 Gy daily fractions. Minimum follow-up is 4 years (mean, 5.5 years; maximum, 9.6 years). A chemical failure was recorded using the ASTRO Consensus or when postirradiation PSA level exceeded 1 ng/mL at any time. Clinical failures were determined by rectal examination, radiographic studies, and, when clinically indicated, biopsy. Results: Six-year chemical disease-free survival rates using the ASTRO Consensus according to pretreatment PSA level for T1 tumors were: ≤4 ng/mL, 100%; 4.1-20 ng/mL, 80%; and >20 ng/mL, 50%. For T2 tumors the rates were: ≤4 ng/mL, 91%; 4.1-10 ng/mL, 81%; 10.1-20 ng/mL, 55%; 20.1-40 ng/mL, 63%; and >40 ng/mL, 46%. When postirradiation PSA levels higher than 1 ng/mL were used, the corresponding 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates for T1 tumors were 92% for pretreatment PSA levels of ≤4 ng/mL, 58-60% for levels of 4.1-20 ng/mL, and 30% for levels >20 ng/mL. For T2 tumors, the 6-year chemical disease-free survival rates were 78% in patients with pretreatment PSA levels of 4-10 ng/mL, 45% for 10.1-40 ng/mL, and 25% for >40 ng/mL. Of 167 patients with T1 tumors, 30 (18%) developed a chemical failure, 97% within 5 years from completion of radiation therapy; no patient has developed a local recurrence or distant

  11. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  12. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  13. Active beam spectroscopy for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hellermann, M.; Giroud, C.; Jaspers, R.; Hawkes, N.C.; Mullane, M.O.; Zastrow, K.D.; Krasilnikov, A.; Tugarinov, S.; Lotte, P.; Malaquias, A.; Rachlew, E.

    2003-01-01

    The latest status of 'Active Beam' related spectroscopy aspects as part of the ITER diagnostic scenario is presented. A key issue of the proposed scheme is based on the concept that in order to achieve the ultimate goal of global data consistency, all particles involved, that is, intrinsic and seeded impurity ions as well as helium ash ions and bulk plasma ions and also the plasma background data (e.g. magnetic and electric fields, electron density and temperature profiles) need to be addressed. A further sensible step in this direction is the decision of exploiting both a dedicated low-energy, low-power diagnostic beam (DNB, 2.2 MW 100 keV/amu) as well as the high-power, high-energy heating beams (HNB, 17 MW 500 keV/amu) for maximum diagnostic information. The authors report some new aspects referring to the use of DNB for motional Stark effect (MSE) where the main idea is to treat both beams (HNB and DNB) as potential diagnostic tools with complementary roles. The equatorial ports for the DNB promise excellent spatial resolution, however, the angles are less favourable for a polarimetric MSE exploitation. HNB can be used as probe beam for diagnosing slowing-down fusion alpha with a birth energy of 3,5 MeV

  14. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R [Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  15. SU-E-J-266: Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Inter-Scan and Inter-Observer Tumor Volume Variability Assessment in Patients Treated with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y; Aileen, C; Kozono, D; Killoran, J; Wagar, M; Lee, S; Hacker, F; Aerts, H; Lewis, J; Mak, R

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of volume changes on CBCT during SBRT for NSCLC may provide a useful radiological marker for radiation response and adaptive treatment planning, but the reproducibility of CBCT volume delineation is a concern. This study is to quantify inter-scan/inter-observer variability in tumor volume delineation on CBCT. Methods: Twenty earlystage (stage I and II) NSCLC patients were included in this analysis. All patients were treated with SBRT with a median dose of 54 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions. Two physicians independently manually contoured the primary gross tumor volume on CBCTs taken immediately before SBRT treatment (Pre) and after the same SBRT treatment (Post). Absolute volume differences (AVD) were calculated between the Pre and Post CBCTs for a given treatment to quantify inter-scan variability, and then between the two observers for a given CBCT to quantify inter-observer variability. AVD was also normalized with respect to average volume to obtain relative volume differences (RVD). Bland-Altman approach was used to evaluate variability. All statistics were calculated with SAS version 9.4. Results: The 95% limit of agreement (mean ± 2SD) on AVD and RVD measurements between Pre and Post scans were −0.32cc to 0.32cc and −0.5% to 0.5% versus −1.9 cc to 1.8 cc and −15.9% to 15.3% for the two observers respectively. The 95% limit of agreement of AVD and RVD between the two observers were −3.3 cc to 2.3 cc and −42.4% to 28.2% respectively. The greatest variability in inter-scan RVD was observed with very small tumors (< 5 cc). Conclusion: Inter-scan variability in RVD is greatest with small tumors. Inter-observer variability was larger than inter-scan variability. The 95% limit of agreement for inter-observer and inter-scan variability (∼15–30%) helps define a threshold for clinically meaningful change in tumor volume to assess SBRT response, with larger thresholds needed for very small tumors. Part of the work was funded by a Kaye

  16. A symplectic coherent beam-beam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    We consider a simple one-dimensional model to study the effects of the beam-beam force on the coherent dynamics of colliding beams. The key ingredient is a linearized beam-beam kick. We study only the quadrupole modes, with the dynamical variables being the 2nd-order moments of the canonical variables q, p. Our model is self-consistent in the sense that no higher order moments are generated by the linearized beam-beam kicks, and that the only source of violation of symplecticity is the radiation. We discuss the round beam case only, in which vertical and horizontal quantities are assumed to be equal (though they may be different in the two beams). Depending on the values of the tune and beam intensity, we observe steady states in which otherwise identical bunches have sizes that are equal, or unequal, or periodic, or behave chaotically from turn to turn. Possible implications of luminosity saturation with increasing beam intensity are discussed. Finally, we present some preliminary applications to an asymmetric collider. 8 refs., 8 figs

  17. Calculation of ballistic focusing of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrelin, V.T.; Syresin, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of ions passing from the homogeneous magnetic field into a conical one is treated analytically in paraxial approximation. Further ions transform into neutral particles at the recharging target which is placed in the conical area of field. The optimal conditions for maximum compression of the beams of neutral particles are investigated. An influence of the initial angular spread on the beam compression is analysed. The computation results together with the those of analytical treatment are presented

  18. Antihydrogen Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Yasunori; Doser, Michael; Pérez, Patrice

    2018-03-01

    Why does our universe consist purely of matter, even though the same amount of antimatter and matter should have been produced at the moment of the Big Bang 13.8 billion years ago? One of the most potentially fruitful approaches to address the mystery is to study the properties of antihydrogen and antiprotons. Because they are both stable, we can in principle make measurement precision as high as we need to see differences between these antimatter systems and their matter counterparts, i.e. hydrogen and protons. This is the goal of cold antihydrogen research. To study a fundamental symmetry-charge, parity, and time reversal (CPT) symmetry-which should lead to identical spectra in hydrogen and antihydrogen, as well as the weak equivalence principle (WEP), cold antihydrogen research seeks any discrepancies between matter and antimatter, which might also offer clues to the missing antimatter mystery. Precision tests of CPT have already been carried out in other systems, but antihydrogen spectroscopy offers the hope of reaching even higher sensitivity to violations of CPT. Meanwhile, utilizing the Earth and antihydrogen atoms as an experimental system, the WEP predicts a gravitational interaction between matter and antimatter that is identical to that between any two matter objects. The WEP has been tested to very high precision for a range of material compositions, but no such precision test using antimatter has yet been carried out, offering hope of a telltale inconsistency between matter and antimatter. In this Discovery book, we invite you to visit the frontiers of cold antimatter research, focusing on new technologies to form beams of antihydrogen atoms and antihydrogen ions, and new ways of interrogating the properties of antimatter.

  19. Maximizing peatland forest regeneration success at lowest cost to the atmosphere. Effects of soil preparation on Scots pine seedling vitality and GHG emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, M.

    2013-06-01

    This dissertation investigated the impacts of soil preparation after clearcutting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest on thick-peated soil from silvicultural and climatic standpoints. Three growing seasons after outplanting, mounding most effectively secured seedling survival, growth, and vitality through improved soil aeration of the planting spot. However, other presumed benefits of mounding to seedlings such as warmer soil temperatures and faster organic matter decomposition were not confirmed here. Regeneration in scalps was unsuccessful due to waterlogged soil. Importantly when scalping, only the humus layer should be scraped off without creating depressions in the peat. Seedling tolerance to desiccated as well as waterlogged peat soil over one growing season was remarkable in controlled conditions. The impact of drought, however, was more immediate and severe as root and shoot growth, fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi, and root hydraulic conductance were reduced. Nevertheless, maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency (expressed as variable to maximal chlorophyll fluorescence, Fv/Fm) especially in current-year needles despite harsh drought seemed to indicate a potential for seedling recovery. Polyamine analysis also revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Wet-stressed seedlings, on the other hand, exhibited few signs of suffering. It was also demonstrated how the experimental environment a controlled versus field setting influences seedling tolerance to stress. The differing moisture levels within comparable microsites dry vs. wet scalps and ditch vs. inverted mounds had little influence on seedling growth and condition although physiological upset (i.e., Fv/Fm) was evident within scalps. Namely, the wetter the soil was, the lower Fv/Fm was. The fear of soil preparation accelerating GHG emissions, particularly CO{sub 2}, from peat into the atmosphere

  20. The intracellular Scots pine shoot symbiont Methylobacterium extorquens DSM13060 aggregates around the host nucleus and encodes eukaryote-like proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskimäki, Janne J; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Ihantola, Emmi-Leena; Halonen, Outi; Frank, A Carolin

    2015-03-24

    Endophytes are microbes that inhabit plant tissues without any apparent signs of infection, often fundamentally altering plant phenotypes. While endophytes are typically studied in plant roots, where they colonize the apoplast or dead cells, Methylobacterium extorquens strain DSM13060 is a facultatively intracellular symbiont of the meristematic cells of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot tips. The bacterium promotes host growth and development without the production of known plant growth-stimulating factors. Our objective was to examine intracellular colonization by M. extorquens DSM13060 of Scots pine and sequence its genome to identify novel molecular mechanisms potentially involved in intracellular colonization and plant growth promotion. Reporter construct analysis of known growth promotion genes demonstrated that these were only weakly active inside the plant or not expressed at all. We found that bacterial cells accumulate near the nucleus in intact, living pine cells, pointing to host nuclear processes as the target of the symbiont's activity. Genome analysis identified a set of eukaryote-like functions that are common as effectors in intracellular bacterial pathogens, supporting the notion of intracellular bacterial activity. These include ankyrin repeats, transcription factors, and host-defense silencing functions and may be secreted by a recently imported type IV secretion system. Potential factors involved in host growth include three copies of phospholipase A2, an enzyme that is rare in bacteria but implicated in a range of plant cellular processes, and proteins putatively involved in gibberellin biosynthesis. Our results describe a novel endophytic niche and create a foundation for postgenomic studies of a symbiosis with potential applications in forestry and agriculture. All multicellular eukaryotes host communities of essential microbes, but most of these interactions are still poorly understood. In plants, bacterial endophytes are found inside

  1. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-01-01

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization

  2. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  3. Literature in Focus Beta Beams: Neutrino Beams

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    By Mats Lindroos (CERN) and Mauro Mezzetto (INFN Padova, Italy) Imperial Press, 2009 The beta-beam concept for the generation of electron neutrino beams was first proposed by Piero Zucchelli in 2002. The idea created quite a stir, challenging the idea that intense neutrino beams only could be produced from the decay of pions or muons in classical neutrino beams facilities or in future neutrino factories. The concept initially struggled to make an impact but the hard work by many machine physicists, phenomenologists and theoreticians over the last five years has won the beta-beam a well-earned position as one of the frontrunners for a possible future world laboratory for high intensity neutrino oscillation physics. This is the first complete monograph on the beta-beam concept. The book describes both technical aspects and experimental aspects of the beta-beam, providing students and scientists with an insight into the possibilities o...

  4. Simple computer model for the nonlinear beam--beam interaction in ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, J.C.; Month, M.; Peierls, R.F.

    1979-03-01

    The beam--beam interaction for two counter-rotating continuous proton beams crossing at an angle can be simulated by a 1-dimensional nonlinear force. The model is applicable to ISABELLE as well as to the ISR. Since the interaction length is short compared with the length of the beam orbit, the interaction region is taken to be a point. The problem is then treated as a mapping with the remainder of the system taken to be a rotation of phase given by the betatron tune of the storage ring. The evolution of the mean square amplitude of a given distribution of particles is shown for different beam--beam strengths. The effect of round-off error with resulting loss of accuracy for particle trajectories is discussed. 3 figures

  5. Nonlinear dynamics for charges particle beams with a curved axis in the matrix - recursive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymnikov, A D [University of St Petersburg, (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Process

    1994-12-31

    In this paper a new matrix and recursive approach has been outlined for treating nonlinear optics of charged particle beams. This approach is a new analytical and computational tool for designers of optimal beam control systems. 9 refs.

  6. Nonlinear dynamics for charges particle beams with a curved axis in the matrix - recursive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dymnikov, A.D. [University of St Petersburg, (Russian Federation). Institute of Computational Mathematics and Control Process

    1993-12-31

    In this paper a new matrix and recursive approach has been outlined for treating nonlinear optics of charged particle beams. This approach is a new analytical and computational tool for designers of optimal beam control systems. 9 refs.

  7. Nonlinear dynamics for charges particle beams with a curved axis in the matrix - recursive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dymnikov, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper a new matrix and recursive approach has been outlined for treating nonlinear optics of charged particle beams. This approach is a new analytical and computational tool for designers of optimal beam control systems. 9 refs

  8. Foil focusing of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Jr., Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-26

    When an intense relativistic electron beams (IREB) passes through a grounded metal foil, the transverse electric field due to the beam space charge is locally shorted out, and the beam is focused by the magnetic field of its current. The effect can be treated as focusing by a thin lens with first order aberration. Expressions for the focal length and aberration coefficient of the equivalent thin lens are developed in this note. These are then applied to practical examples representative of IREB research at Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  9. Neutron beams. Tracks analysis, imaging and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepy, G.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal neutron beams can supply informations about the arrangement of atoms and molecules and about their movement inside the matter. This article treats of the preparation of thermal neutron beams and of the applications that use their penetration and matter activation properties: 1 - thermal neutrons production; 2 - basic properties of thermal neutrons: neutrons scattering, absorbing materials, activating materials, transparent materials, preparation of a neutron beam; 3 - tracks measurement by activation: activation method, measurement of marine pollution by heavy elements, historical evolution of glass composition; 4 - neutron radiography: neutronography, neutronoscopy: viscosity measurement; 5 - cancer treatment. (J.S.)

  10. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    laminated float glass beam is constructed and tested in four-point bending. The beam consist of 4 layers of glass laminated together with a slack steel band glued onto the bottom face of the beam. The glass parts of the tested beams are \\SI{1700}{mm} long and \\SI{100}{mm} high, and the total width of one...

  11. Telecommunication using muon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    Telecommunication is effected by generating a beam of mu mesons or muons, varying a property of the beam at a modulating rate to generate a modulated beam of muons, and detecting the information in the modulated beam at a remote location

  12. Safe LHC beam commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uythoven, J.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy stored in magnets and beams, safety operation of the LHC is essential. The commissioning of the LHC machine protection system will be an integral part of the general LHC commissioning program. A brief overview of the LHC Machine Protection System will be given, identifying the main components: the Beam Interlock System, the Beam Dumping System, the Collimation System, the Beam Loss Monitoring System and the Quench Protection System. An outline is given of the commissioning strategy of these systems during the different commissioning phases of the LHC: without beam, injection and the different phases with stored beam depending on beam intensity and energy. (author)

  13. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  14. The beam dump tunnels

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    In these images workers are digging the tunnels that will be used to dump the counter-circulating beams. Travelling just a fraction under the speed of light, the beams at the LHC will each carry the energy of an aircraft carrier travelling at 12 knots. In order to dispose of these beams safely, a beam dump is used to extract the beam and diffuse it before it collides with a radiation shielded graphite target.

  15. Ion beam diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  16. Reaction of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Scots pine fine roots along a deposition gradient of air pollutants in eastern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muenzenberger, B.; Schminke, B.; Strubelt, F.; Huettl, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    Based on an ecosystematic approach within the comprehensive SANA (regeneration of the atmosphere above the new federal states) project the influence of industrial air pollutants (SO 2 , NO x ) (alkaline fly ashes) on the vitality of mycorrhizal, mycorrhizal frequency, and on parameters of root growth such as root biomass and necromass and distribution of different root classes in the soil horizons was investigated. The studies were conducted in three comparable Scots pine ecosystems in eastern Germany which were exposed to different deposition loads of air pollutants during the time of the former German Democratic Republic. Site specific differences were obtained for all parameters investigated. The reference plot Neuglobsow (background deposition) revealed the highest number of vital mycorrhizal, highest mycorrhizal frequency, and largest biomass of finest roots in the humus layer. At the impact-site Roesa and Taura (heavy and moderate deposition) located near Halle/Bitterfeld and Leipzig, the number of vital mycorrhizae was reduced and the life-span of mycorrhizae of reduced vitality was elongated. Finest root biomass and necromass of the humus layer were also lower at these plots as compared to Neuglobsow. At Neuglobsow a higher turnover of mycorrhizae and finest roots of the humus layer is assumed. The reduced growth of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal finest roots at the two pollution impacted sites Roesa and Taura is seen as an adaptation mechanism of the root system to high nutrient inputs. 14 refs., 4 figs

  17. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contamination of environment in the road surroudings - impact of road salting on Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegrová, Jitka; Steiner, Oliver; Goessler, Walter; Tanda, Stefan; Anděl, Petr

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive overview of the influence of transport on the environment is presented in this study. The complex analysis of soil and needle samples provides an extensive set of data, which presents elemental contamination of the environment near roads. Traffic pollution (including winter road treatment) has a significant negative influence on our environment. Besides sodium and chlorine from winter maintenance many other elements are emitted into the environment. Three possible sources of contamination are assumed for environmental contamination evaluation: car emission, winter maintenance and abrasion from breaks and clutches. The chemical analysis focused on the description of samples from inorganic point of view. The influence of the contamination potential on the sodium and chlorine content in the samples of 1st year-old and 2nd year-old needles of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is discussed. Additional soil samples were taken from each sampling site and analyzed to get insight in the sodium and chlorine distribution. Statistical evaluation was used for interpretation of complex interaction patterns between element concentrations in different aged needles based on localities character including distance from the road and element concentration in soils. This species of needles were chosen because of its heightened sensitivity towards salinization. The study was conducted in different parts of the Czech Republic. The resulting database is a source of valuable information about the influence of transport on the environment.

  19. Impact of needle age on the response of respiration in Scots pine to long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha, T.; Ryyppo, A.; Kellomaki, S.; Wang, K-Y.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of needle age, elevated carbon dioxide and temperature on needle respiration in Scots pine was studied during a four-year period. Results showed that respiration rates and specific leaf area decreased in elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration relative to ambient conditions, but increased in elevated temperature and when elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and elevated temperature were combined. Starch and soluble sugar concentrations for a given needle age increased in elevated carbon dioxide, but decreased slightly under combined elevated temperature and elevated carbon dioxide conditions. Respiration rate and specific leaf area were highest in current year needles in all treatment modes. All treatment modes enhanced the difference in respiration between current year and older needles relative to ambient conditions. Carbohydrate concentration or specific leaf area remained unchanged in response to any treatment. Under ambient conditions the temperature coefficient of respiration increased slightly in elevated carbon dioxide regardless of age, however, there was significant decline at elevated temperature as well as when both carbon dioxide concentration and temperature were elevated, indicating acclimation of respiration to temperature. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Distribution of "1"3"7Cs activity concentration in wood scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Zhytomyr Polissya after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golyaka, D.M.; Levchuk, S.Je.; Protsak, V.P.; Kashparov, V.O.

    2017-01-01

    Using the calculated values for wood samples (relative diameter, height and relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs) selected in different parts of the profile tree stems, statistical and graphical interpretation of the regularity of the distribution of "1"3"7Cs in the wood of model trees of Scots pine were performed. In the research detected observation uniformity of samples in the studied profiles stems for the relative activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs, calculated on the base of the ratio of the activity concentration of tree rings for certain years to their median at height of 1.3 m. Three intervals of the relative diameters for stem wood of model trees at height of 1.3 m of the study stand were obtained, that is characterized by significant difference on the activity concentration of "1"3"7Cs: d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,55 (Am(omega) = 0,63 +- 0,08), 0,55 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 0,95 Am(omega) = 1,01 +- 0,04), 0,95 < d(omega)_1_,_3_m <= 1,0 (Am(omega) = 2,1 +- 0,5).

  1. Injuries to Scots pine mycorrhizas and chemical gradients in forest soil in the environment of a pulp mill in Central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holopaininen, T.; Heinonen-Tanski, H.; Halonen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence and condition of Scots pine mycorrhizas were studied at different distances from a pulp mill in Central Finland. The chemical analyses of the soil humus layer in the vicinity of the mill revealed increased levels of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphur and calcium but unaltered concentrations of phosphorus and magnesium. Higher nitrate levels and nitrification were clearly detected at some sites which had recently been limed. Significant decreases in root ramification index and number of living mycorrhizas were found in a 0-0.6 km zone surrounding the factory but these parameters increased with increasing distance. Within a 2 km zone around the mill there were abundant Cenococcum geophilus and Paxilus involutus-type mycorrhizas while lowered frequencies of several other mycorrhizal types were detected. An ultrastructural study revealed changes in several types of mycorrhizas, the clearest of which were increased tannin deposition in cortical cells, intracellular growth of hyphae in cortical cells and the appearance of electron dense accumulations in the vacuoles of the funal cells. The ultrastructural changes observed were distributed at least to a distance of 3 km from the mill and occurred in the roots of trees that had only a slight loss of needle mass. Nitrogen deposition is suspected to be the primary cause of root decline but atmospheric SO 2 through the tree crown is also likely to be a contributing factor. 37 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Two dimensional simulation of ion beam-plasm interaction | Echi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid plasma simulation is a model in which different components of the plasma are treated differently. In this work the ions are treated as particles while the electrons are treated as a neutralizing background fluid through which electric signals may propagate. Deuterium ion beams incident on the tritium plasma interact ...

  3. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, R.F.; Slinker, S.P.; Lampe, M.; Joyce, G.; Ottinger, P.

    1992-01-01

    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li +3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed

  4. Beam diagnostics for low energy beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Harasimowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-energetic ion and antimatter beams are very attractive for a number of fundamental studies. The diagnostics of such beams, however, is a challenge due to low currents down to only a few thousands of particles per second and significant fraction of energy loss in matter at keV beam energies. A modular set of particle detectors has been developed to suit the particular beam diagnostic needs of the ultralow-energy storage ring (USR at the future facility for low-energy antiproton and ion research, accommodating very low beam intensities at energies down to 20 keV. The detectors include beam-profile monitors based on scintillating screens and secondary electron emission, sensitive Faraday cups for absolute intensity measurements, and capacitive pickups for beam position monitoring. In this paper, the design of all detectors is presented in detail and results from beam measurements are shown. The resolution limits of all detectors are described and options for further improvement summarized. Whilst initially developed for the USR, the instrumentation described in this paper is also well suited for use in other low-intensity, low-energy accelerators, storage rings, and beam lines.

  5. Smart E-Beam for Defect Identification & Analysis in the Nanoscale Technology Nodes: Technical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankush Oberai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical beam has been the veteran inspector of semiconductor wafer production house, ever since the birth of integrated circuit (IC. As technology and market place raise the bar on chip density, Moore’s law stretches to the limit. Due to its inherent physical limitations, the optical method just cannot see the measuring rod of silicon industry getting recalibrated to finer nano-scales. Electron Beam Inspection (EBI, by virtue of its high resolution, has started to rule the nodes at 10 nm and below. As the geometries shrink, defects can reside deep within the structures. EBI can find those tiny defects, which otherwise go scot-free with optical tools. However, EBI suffers the handicap of poor performance and low throughput. It is therefore essential to complement EBI by judiciously crafting out the methods for getting the desired performance, a subject matter to which, this article is committed to. The research torchlights the critical EBI throughput problem to round-up “care-areas”. Such guided and focused inspection augments throughput, thereby positioning EBI as the industrial grade candidate in finer nanometer segment. Besides gearing up to current trends, the smart EBI school of thought is inspirational, to fuel the aspirations for 1 nanometer scale.

  6. Alien Species: The Discursive Othering of Grey Squirrels, Glasgow Gaelic, Shetland Scots and the Gay Guys in the Shag Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, John E.

    2013-01-01

    "Nativeness" has been recognised for two decades now as a problematic concept within applied linguistics, yet other areas of language analysis have been slow to question it, with some continuing to treat it as a primordial fact of nature. This paper briefly examines the history of the "native speaker" and the shifts in thinking…

  7. Studies of the beam-beam interaction for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnagopal, S.; Furman, M.A.; Turner, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have used the beam-beam simulation code CBI to study the beam-beam interaction for the LHC. We find that for nominal LHC parameters, and assuming only one bunch per beam, there are no collective (coherent) beam-beam instabilities. We have investigated the effect of sweeping one of the beams around the other (a procedure that could be used as a diagnostic for head-on beam-beam collisions). We find that this does not cause any problems at the nominal current, though at higher currents there can be beam blow-up and collective beam motion. consequence of quadrupole collective effects

  8. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A; Laird, J S; Bardos, R A; Legge, G J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T; Sekiguchi, H [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1994-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Time-Dependent Propagation of High-Energy Laser Beams through the Atmosphere: II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fleck, J

    1976-01-01

    ...; in particular, noncoplanarity should benefit multipulse more than cw beams. The methods of treating nonhorizontal winds hydrodynamically for cw and multipulse steady-state sources are discussed...

  11. Beam Dynamics and Beam Losses - Circular Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2016-01-01

    A basic introduction to transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics as well as the most relevant beam loss mechanisms in circular machines will be presented in this lecture. This lecture is intended for physicists and engineers with little or no knowledge of this subject.

  12. Electron beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.; Alberti, S.; Hogge, J.P.; Tran, M.Q.; Tran, T.M.

    1997-10-01

    Electron beam instabilities occurring in a gyrotron electron beam can induce an energy spread which might significantly deteriorate the gyrotron efficiency. Three types of instabilities are considered to explain the important discrepancy found between the theoretical and experimental efficiency in the case of quasi-optical gyrotrons (QOG): the electron cyclotron maser instability, the Bernstein instability and the Langmuir instability. The low magnetic field gradient in drift tubes of QOG makes that the electron cyclotron maser instability can develop in the drift tube at very low electron beam currents. Experimental measurements show that with a proper choice of absorbing structures in the beam tunnel, this instability can be suppressed. At high beam currents, the electrostatic Bernstein instability can induce a significant energy spread at the entrance of the interaction region. The induced energy spread scales approximately linearly with the electron beam density and for QOG one observes that the beam density is significantly higher than the beam density of an equivalent cylindrical cavity gyrotron. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  13. Proton-beam radiation therapy dosimetry standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, K.P.

    1995-01-01

    Beams of protons have been used for radiation therapy applications for over 40 years. In the last decade the number of facilities treating patients and the total number of patients being treated has begun go grow rapidly. Due to the limited and experimental nature of the early programs, dosimetry protocols tended to be locally defined. With the publication of the AAPM Task Group 20 report open-quotes Protocol for Dosimetry of Heavy Charged Particlesclose quotes and the open-quotes European Code of Practice for Proton-Beam Dosimetryclose quotes the practice of determining dose in proton-beam therapy was somewhat unified. The ICRU has also recently commissioned a report on recommendations for proton-beam dosimetry. There have been three main methods of determining proton dose; the Faraday cup technique, the ionization chamber technique, and the calorimeter technique. For practical reasons the ionization chamber technique has become the most widely used. However, due to large errors in basic parameters (e.g., W-value) is also has a large uncertainty for absolute dose. It has been proposed that the development of water calorimeter absorbed dose standards would reduce the uncertainty in absolute proton dose as well as the relative dose between megavoltage X-ray beams and proton beams. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  14. Successful Beam-Beam Tuneshift Compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishofberger, Kip Aaron [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The performance of synchrotron colliders has been limited by the beam-beam limit, a maximum tuneshift that colliding bunches could sustain. Due to bunch-to-bunch tune variation and intra-bunch tune spread, larger tuneshifts produce severe emittance growth. Breaking through this constraint has been viewed as impossible for several decades. This dissertation introduces the physics of ultra-relativistic synchrotrons and low-energy electron beams, with emphasis placed on the limits of the Tevatron and the needs of a tuneshift-compensation device. A detailed analysis of the Tevatron Electron Lens (TEL) is given, comparing theoretical models to experimental data whenever possible. Finally, results of Tevatron operations with inclusion of the TEL are presented and analyzed. It is shown that the TEL provides a way to shatter the previously inescapable beam-beam limit.

  15. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  16. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  17. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  18. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashkin, S.

    1974-01-01

    Practical aspects of the application of low-energy accelerators to research in beam-foil spectroscopy are discussed, and the kinds of equipment and associated costs are described in some detail. Some typical beam-foil experiments, emphasizing the most recent studies, are treated so as to show how relatively simple facilities can be used to produce physics of great interest

  19. Ash fertilization in a clear cut and in a Scots pine stand in central Sweden. Effects on soil-water and soil chemistry coupled to laboratory leachings of six ash products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, Eva; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.; Jansson, Gunnar; Loevgren, Linnea

    1999-01-01

    An experiment with six different ash products was performed in a two-year old clear cut in central Sweden during 1995-98. Two of the ash products were also applied in a nearby 70 year old Scots pine stand. Five of the ash products originated from ash generated by the same boiler. Effects on soil-water and soil chemistry were monitored in the field. The leaching properties of the ash products were tested on the laboratory according to two methods, a column test and a shaking test

  20. Effects of heavy metals and some biotic factors on ectomycorrhizal Scots pine in northern Finland; Effekter av tungmetaller och naagra biotiska faktorer paa tall och dess ektomykorrhiza i norra Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahonen-Jonnarth, U.

    1996-04-01

    In this work, nickel and copper exposure on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) was studied experimentally under field conditions. The significance of some biotic factors was also studied. We wanted to test whether the understorey lichen layer has a protective role against nickel exposure, and whether it has any effects on pine seedlings. Effects of defoliation, simulating sawfly grazing, were also examined, since the reduced photosynthesis can be assumed to affect root growth and ectomycorrhiza negatively. Ectomycorrhizal colonization has been found to decrease in pinyon pine due to defoliation. 19 refs

  1. Modeling soil CO2 production and transport to investigate the intra-day variability of surface efflux and soil CO2 concentration measurements in a scots pine forest (Pinus Sylvestris, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Stéphanie; Wylock, Christophe; Haut, Benoît; Maier, Martin; Longdoz, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Aimed:The main aim of this study is to improve the mechanistic understanding of soil CO2 efflux (Fs), especially its temporal variation at short-time scales, by investigating, through modeling, which underlying process among CO2 production and its transport up to the atmosphere is responsible for observed intra-day variation of Fs and soil CO2 concentration [CO2].Methods:In this study, a measurement campaign of Fs and vertical soil [CO2] profiles was conducted in a Scots Pine Forest soil in H...

  2. Advanced electron beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    After 100 years from the time of discovery of electron, we now have many applications of electron beam in science and technology. In this report, we review two important applications of electron beam: electron microscopy and pulsed-electron beam. Advanced electron microscopy techniques to investigate atomic and electronic structures, and pulsed-electron beam for investigating time-resolved structural change are described. (author)

  3. Beam Dynamics for ARIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Beam dynamics issues are assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator being designed for flash radiography of large explosively driven hydrodynamic experiments. Special attention is paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. It is concluded that a radiographic quality beam will be produced possible if engineering standards and construction details are equivalent to those on the present radiography accelerators at Los Alamos.

  4. Crossed beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolder, K.T.

    1976-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can only be properly understood if one has a detailed knowledge of interactions involving atoms, molecules, ions, electrons or photons. In the laboratory these processes are often studied by preparing beams of two types of particle and observing the reactions which occur when the beams intersect. Some of the more interesting of these crossed beam experiments and their results are discussed. Proposals to extend colliding beam techniques to high energy particle physics are also outlined. (author)

  5. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This volume presents a systematic coverage of aberrations. It analyzes the geometrical aberrations and treats the spherical and chromatic aberrations in great detail. The coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration have been computed for a series of electrostatic and magnetic lenses and are listed in table form. The book also covers space charge and its effect on highly focused electron beams

  6. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads

  7. Effect of beam arrangement on oral cavity dose in external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Vincent W.C.; Yang Zhining; Zhang Wuzhe; Wu Lili; Lin Zhixiong

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the oral cavity dose between the routine 7-beam intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) beam arrangement and 2 other 7-beam IMRT with the conventional radiotherapy beam arrangements in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Ten NPC patients treated by the 7-beam routine IMRT technique (IMRT-7R) between April 2009 and June 2009 were recruited. Using the same computed tomography data, target information, and dose constraints for all the contoured structures, 2 IMRT plans with alternative beam arrangements (IMRT-7M and IMRT-7P) by avoiding the anterior facial beam and 1 conventional radiotherapy plan (CONRT) were computed using the Pinnacle treatment planning system. Dose-volume histograms were generated for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and oral cavity from which the dose parameters and the conformity index of the PTV were recorded for dosimetric comparisons among the plans with different beam arrangements. The dose distributions to the PTVs were similar among the 3 IMRT beam arrangements, whereas the differences were significant between IMRT-7R and CONRT plans. For the oral cavity dose, the 3 IMRT beam arrangements did not show significant difference. Compared with IMRT-7R, CONRT plan showed a significantly lower mean dose, V30 and V-40, whereas the V-60 was significantly higher. The 2 suggested alternative beam arrangements did not significantly reduce the oral cavity dose. The impact of varying the beam angles in IMRT of NPC did not give noticeable effect on the target and oral cavity. Compared with IMRT, the 2-D conventional radiotherapy irradiated a greater high-dose volume in the oral cavity.

  8. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  9. The physics of high current beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    An outline is presented of paraxial charged particle optics in the presence of self-fields arising from the space-charge and current carried by the beam. Solutions of the envelope equations for beams with finite emittance are considered for a number of specific situations, with the approximation that the density profile of the beam is uniform with a sharp edge, so that the focusing remains linear. More realistic beams are then considered, and the problems of matching, emittance growth and stability are discussed. An attempt is made to emphasize physical principles and physical ideas rather than to present the detailed mathematical techniques required for specific problems. The approach is a tutorial one, and several 'exercises' are included in the text. Most of the material is treated in more depth in the author's forthcoming book. (author)

  10. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm 2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10 -7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  11. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  12. Beams 92: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, D.; Cooperstein, G.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Ion beam papers; electron beam, bremsstrahlung, and diagnostics papers; radiating Z- pinch papers; microwave papers; electron laser papers; advanced accelerator papers; beam and pulsed power applications papers; pulsed power papers; and these papers have been indexed separately elsewhere

  13. High energy beam cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Herr, H.; Linnecar, T.; Millich, A.; Milss, F.; Rubbia, C.; Taylor, C.S.; Meer, S. van der; Zotter, B.

    1980-01-01

    The group concerned itself with the analysis of cooling systems whose purpose is to maintain the quality of the high energy beams in the SPS in spite of gas scattering, RF noise, magnet ripple and beam-beam interactions. Three types of systems were discussed. The status of these activities is discussed below. (orig.)

  14. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, different Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaa, N.; Williams, J.; Song, W.; Vanhatalo, A.; Bäck, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2012-04-01

    Cuvette based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four chemotypes of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and one chemotype of Norway spruce (Picea abies) as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition as well as in emission strength were observed between the different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ3-carene. The "no- Δ3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive organic gas, was the dominant species accounting for more than 35 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by ß-phellandrene (~34%). Myrcene emission rates ranged from 0.8 up to 24 µg/g (dw)/h. α-farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with measured average emission rates of 318 ng/g (dw)/h. In the high Δ3-carene chemotype, which is the most studied in Hyytiälä, Δ3-carene was more than 48 % of the total monoterpene emission. The mean Δ3-carene emission rate, circa 609 ng/g (dw)/h reported here is consistent with the previously reported value during the same season. The terpene emission from spruce was dominated by limonene (35%), ß-phellandrene (15%), α-pinene (14 %) and eucalyptol (9%). Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.549 up to 12.2 µg/g (dw)/h. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes) from all studied plant species varied from 230 ng/g (dw)/h up to 66 µg/g (dw)/h. The total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ3-carene, ß-pinene and ß-myrcene) measured during the campaign varied in mixing ratio from a few ppt to over one ppb. The most abundant biogenic VOCs measured above the canopy were α-pinene and Δ3-carene and these two compounds together contributed more than 50% of the total monoterpenes. The diel cycles of isoprenoid mixing ratios

  15. Diel cycles of isoprenoids in the emissions of Norway spruce, four Scots pine chemotypes, and in Boreal forest ambient air during HUMPPA-COPEC-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Branch enclosure based emission rates of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes from four Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris and one Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as the ambient mixing ratios of monoterpenes were determined during the HUMPPA-COPEC 2010 summer campaign. Differences in chemical composition and in emission strength were observed between the different trees, which confirmed that they represented different chemotypes. The chemotypes of Scots pine can be classified according to species with high, no and intermediate content of Δ-3-carene. The "non-Δ-3-carene" chemotype was found to be the strongest emitter of monoterpenes. From this chemotype, β-myrcene, a very reactive monoterpene, was the dominant species accounting for more than 32 % of the total emission rates of isoprenoids followed by β-phellandrene (~27%. Myrcene fluxes ranged from 0.8 to 24 μg g−1 (dw h−1. α-Farnesene was the dominant sesquiterpene species, with average emission rates of 318 ng g−1 (dw h−1. In the high Δ-3-carene chemotype, more than 48% of the total monoterpene emission was Δ-3-carene. The average Δ-3-carene emission rate (from chemotype 3, circa 609 ng g−1 (dw h−1 reported here is consistent with the previously reported summer season value. Daily maximum temperatures varied between 20 and 35 °C during the measurements. The monoterpene emissions from spruce were dominated by limonene (35%, β-phellandrene (15%, α-pinene (14% and eucalyptol (9%. Total spruce monoterpene emissions ranged from 0.55 up to 12.2 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Overall the total terpene flux (monoterpenes + sesquiterpenes from all studied tree species varied from 230 ng g−1 (dw h−1 up to 66 μg g−1 (dw h−1. Total ambient monoterpenes (including α-pinene, Δ-3-carene, β-pinene and β-myrcene measured during the campaign

  16. Beam-beam interaction working group summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The limit in hadron colliders is understood phenomenologically. The beam-beam interaction produces nonlinear resonances and makes the transverse tunes amplitude dependent. Tune spreads result from the latter, and as long as these tune spreads do not overlap low order resonances, the lifetime and performance is acceptable. Experience is that tenth and sometimes twelfth order resonances must be avoided, and the hadron collider limit corresponds roughly to the space available between resonances of that and lower order when operating near the coupling resonance. The beam-beam interaction in e + e - colliders is not understood well. This affects the performance of existing colliders and could lead to surprises in new ones. For example. a substantial amount of operator tuning is usually required to reach the performance limit given above, and this tuning has to be repeated after each major shutdown. The usual interpretation is that colliding beam performance is sensitive to small lattice errors, and these are being reduced during tuning. It is natural to ask what these errors are, how can a lattice be characterized to minimize tuning time, and what aspects of a lattice should receive particular attention when a new collider is being designed. The answers to this type of question are not known, and developing ideas for calculations, simulations and experiments that could illuminate the details of the beam-beam interaction was the primary working group activity

  17. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  18. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkosalo, Tapio; Heikkinen, Juha; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 1-3 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013) before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only. We analyzed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence. The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 2013-2014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global climate models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  19. Fluorescence measurements show stronger cold inhibition of photosynthetic light reactions in Scots pine compared to Norway spruce as well as during spring compared to autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapio eLinkosalo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the photosynthetic activity of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst in relation to air temperature changes from March 2013 to February 2014. We measured the chlorophyll fluorescence of approximately 50 trees of each species growing in southern Finland. Fluorescence was measured 13 times per week. We began by measuring shoots present in late winter (i.e., March 2013 before including new shoots once they started to elongate in spring. By July, when the spring shoots had achieved similar fluorescence levels to the older ones, we proceeded to measure the new shoots only.We analysed the data by fitting a sigmoidal model containing four parameters to link sliding averages of temperature and fluorescence. A parameter defining the temperature range over which predicted fluorescence increased most rapidly was the most informative with in describing temperature dependence of fluorescence.The model generated similar fluorescence patterns for both species, but differences were observed for critical temperature and needle age. Down regulation of the light reaction was stronger in spring than in autumn. Pine showed more conservative control of the photosynthetic light reactions, which were activated later in spring and more readily attenuated in autumn. Under the assumption of a close correlation of fluorescence and photosynthesis, spruce should therefore benefit more than pine from the increased photosynthetic potential during warmer springs, but be more likely to suffer frost damage with a sudden cooling following a warm period. The winter of 20132014 was unusually mild and similar to future conditions predicted by global warming models. During the mild winter, the activity of photosynthetic light reactions of both conifers, especially spruce, remained high. Because light levels during winter are too low for photosynthesis, this activity may translate to a net carbon loss due to respiration.

  20. Individual variability of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. by the drought resistance features in forest-steppe pine forests of south Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tikhonova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The drought resistance of trees in the Scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. populations was studied under forest steppe conditions of southern Siberia. We found large differences amongthe treesin the time and rate of needles dehydration. In the populations of the more arid growing conditions (Shira, Balgazyn the rate of loss 50 % of the water was three to four times lower than in the population of the more favorable conditions for growth (Minusinsk. It has been established that the variability of water-holding capacity of needles from individual trees in populations varies from high to very high levels. On the contrary, for the water absorption capacity of needles characteristically has variability, as within population and between them. Is marked a great assessment reliability of water holding capacity of the needles under the pooled analysis of absolute and relative indicators of dynamics of the needles degradration. We investigated the correlation of needles’ water retention signs with a height and heterozygosity of trees. It was found that under more favorable conditions of the growth the large part of sample are the trees with a direct connection between heterozygosity and drought resistance of tree and in the worst conditions – with a reverse. The correlations of water-holding capacity of needles with the height of the tree are ambiguous: in the Minusinsk sample, the most of drought-resistant trees are characterized by better growth, in Balgazyn population – conversely. Some dwarf individuals from the Balgazyn and Shira populations in terms of drought tolerance are at same level as the typical trees, among the less drought-resistant trees found as dwarfs, and typical trees. It was concluded that there are trees in populations with different strategies to adaptation to the moisture deficit.

  1. The role of defoliation and root rot pathogen infection in driving the mode of drought-related physiological decline in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguadé, D; Poyatos, R; Gómez, M; Oliva, J; Martínez-Vilalta, J

    2015-03-01

    Drought-related tree die-off episodes have been observed in all vegetated continents. Despite much research effort, however, the multiple interactions between carbon starvation, hydraulic failure and biotic agents in driving tree mortality under field conditions are still not well understood. We analysed the seasonal variability of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in four organs (leaves, branches, trunk and roots), the vulnerability to embolism in roots and branches, native embolism (percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC)) in branches and the presence of root rot pathogens in defoliated and non-defoliated individuals in a declining Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population in the NE Iberian Peninsula in 2012, which included a particularly dry and warm summer. No differences were observed between defoliated and non-defoliated pines in hydraulic parameters, except for a higher vulnerability to embolism at pressures below -2 MPa in roots of defoliated pines. No differences were found between defoliation classes in branch PLC. Total NSC (TNSC, soluble sugars plus starch) values decreased during drought, particularly in leaves. Defoliation reduced TNSC levels across tree organs, especially just before (June) and during (August) drought. Root rot infection by the fungal pathogen Onnia P. Karst spp. was detected but it did not appear to be associated to tree defoliation. However, Onnia infection was associated with reduced leaf-specific hydraulic conductivity and sapwood depth, and thus contributed to hydraulic impairment, especially in defoliated pines. Infection was also associated with virtually depleted root starch reserves during and after drought in defoliated pines. Moreover, defoliated and infected trees tended to show lower basal area increment. Overall, our results show the intertwined nature of physiological mechanisms leading to drought-induced mortality and the inherent difficulty of isolating their contribution under field conditions. © The

  2. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) based reconstruction of 130 years of water table fluctuations in a peatland and its relevance for moisture variability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkevičiūtė, Marija; Edvardsson, Johannes; Pukienė, Rūtilė; Taminskas, Julius; Stoffel, Markus; Corona, Christophe; Kibirkštis, Gintautas

    2018-03-01

    Continuous water-table (WT) measurements from peatlands are scarce and - if existing at all -very short. Consequently, proxy indicators are critically needed to simulate hydrological changes in peatlands over longer time periods. In this study, we demonstrate that tree-ring width (TRW) records of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing in the Čepkeliai peatland (southern Lithuania) can be used as a proxy to reconstruct hydrological variability in a raised bog environment. A two-step modelling procedure was applied to extend existing measurements and to develop a new and longer peatland WT time series. To this end, we used instrumental WT measurements extending back to 2002, meteorological records, a P-PET (difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration) series covering the period 1935-2014, so as to construct a tree-ring based time series of WT fluctuations at the site for the period 1870-2014. Strongest correlations were obtained between average annual WT measured at the bog margin and total P-PET over 7 years (r = 0.923, p runoff since CE 1812 (r = 0.39, p < 0.00001, 1870-2014). We conclude that peatlands can act both as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases in case that hydrological conditions change, but that hydrological lags and complex feedbacks still hamper our understanding of several processes affecting the hydrology and carbon budget in peatlands. We therefore call for the development of further proxy records of water-table variability in peatlands to improve our understanding of peatland responses to climatic changes.

  3. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  4. Tissue localization of u.v.-B-screening pigments and of chalcone synthase mRNA in needles of Scots pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnitzler, J.P.; Jungblut, T.P.; Heller, W.; Köfferlein, M.; Hutzler, P.; Heinzmann, U.; Schmelzer, E.; Ernst, D.; Langebartels, C.; Sandermann, H. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Epidermal tissue was isolated from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles by enzymatic digestion in order to study tissue distribution of u.v.-B-screening pigments. Up to 90% of the needle content of a group of diacylated flavonol glycosides that were structurally closely related was found in the epidermal layer. Among these metabolites, 3'',6''-di-para-coumaroyl-isoquercitrin and 3'',6''-di-para-coumaroyl-astragalin were the main u.v.-B-induced compounds in cotyledons and primary needles, respectively. However, catechin and astragalin (kaempferol 3-glucoside), two non-acylated flavonoid metabolites, were only observed in total needle extracts, and at levels independent of u.v.-B treatment. According to this metabolite distribution, the mRNA of chalcone synthase, the key enzyme to flavonoids, was found in epidermal and mesophyll as well as vascular tissues. The major alkaliextractable wall-bound phenolic metabolites, astragalin, 4-coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, a minor component of the cell wall, were also found exclusively in the epidermal layer. These compounds were not stimulated by u.v.-B irradiation within the experimental period. Staining of needle cross sections and epidermal layer preparations with Naturstoffreagenz A confirmed the specific localization of wall-bound astragalin in the outer wall of the epidermal layer. Model calculations of u.v.-B absorptions at 300 nm of soluble and cell-wall-bound metabolites of the epidermal layer revealed an almost complete shielding of the mesophyll tissue from u.v.-B radiation

  5. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  6. Neutron capture therapy beams at the MIT Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.R.; Clement, S.D.; Harling, O.K.; Zamenhof, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Several neutron beams that could be used for neutron capture therapy at MITR-II are dosimetrically characterized and their suitability for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme and other types of tumors are described. The types of neutron beams studied are: (1) those filtered by various thicknesses of cadmium, D2O, 6Li, and bismuth; and (2) epithermal beams achieved by filtration with aluminum, sulfur, cadmium, 6Li, and bismuth. Measured dose vs. depth data are presented in polyethylene phantom with references to what can be expected in brain. The results indicate that both types of neutron beams are useful for neutron capture therapy. The first type of neutron beams have good therapeutic advantage depths (approximately 5 cm) and excellent in-phantom ratios of therapeutic dose to background dose. Such beams would be useful for treating tumors located at relatively shallow depths in the brain. On the other hand, the second type of neutron beams have superior therapeutic advantage depths (greater than 6 cm) and good in-phantom therapeutic advantage ratios. Such beams, when used along with bilateral irradiation schemes, would be able to treat tumors at any depth in the brain. Numerical examples of what could be achieved with these beams, using RBEs, fractionated-dose delivery, unilateral, and bilateral irradiation are presented in the paper. Finally, additional plans for further neutron beam development at MITR-II are discussed

  7. EUROv Super Beam Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, Marcos

    2011-01-01

    Neutrino Super Beams use conventional techniques to significantly increase the neutrino beam intensity compared to the present neutrino facilities. An essential part of these facilities is an intense proton driver producing a beam power higher than a MW. The protons hit a target able to accept the high proton beam intensity. The produced charged particles are focused by a system of magnetic horns towards the experiment detectors. The main challenge of these projects is to deal with the high beam intensity for many years. New high power neutrino facilities could be build at CERN profiting from an eventual construction of a high power proton driver. The European FP7 Design Study EUROv, among other neutrino beams, studies this Super Beam possibility. This paper will give the latest developments in this direction.

  8. Beam electron microprobe

    CERN Document Server

    Stoller, D; Muterspaugh, M W; Pollock, R E

    1999-01-01

    A beam profile monitor based on the deflection of a probe electron beam by the electric field of a stored, electron-cooled proton beam is described and first results are presented. Electrons were transported parallel to the proton beam by a uniform longitudinal magnetic field. The probe beam may be slowly scanned across the stored beam to determine its intensity, position, and size. Alternatively, it may be scanned rapidly over a narrow range within the interior of the stored beam for continuous observation of the changing central density during cooling. Examples of a two dimensional charge density profile obtained from a raster scan and of a cooling alignment study illustrate the scope of measurements made possible by this device.

  9. Seasonal patterns of ascorbate in the needles of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees: Correlation analyses with atmospheric O3 and NO2 gas mixing ratios and meteorological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, Kristine; Jaeger, Lutz; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    In the present field study the role of ascorbate in scavenging the harmful atmospheric trace gases O 3 and NO 2 was examined. For this purpose ascorbate contents were determined in needles of adult Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) during three consecutive years. Ascorbate contents were correlated with ambient tropospheric O 3 and NO 2 concentrations and with meteorological parameters. The results showed a strong correlation of atmospheric O 3 but not of atmospheric NO 2 concentrations with the apoplastic content of ascorbate during the seasonal course. Ascorbate contents in needle extracts did not correlate with ambient trace gas concentrations. In the apoplastic space, but not in needle extracts ascorbate contents correlate highly significantly with global radiation. From these results it is assumed that apoplastic ascorbate in Scots pine needles is adapted to the actual atmospheric O 3 concentration to mediate immediate detoxification of O 3 , while the atmospheric O 3 concentration itself is largely dependent on light intensity. - Contents of apoplastic but not symplastic ascorbate correlate significantly with atmospheric ozone concentrations

  10. Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seán Gerard Brosnahan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brad Patterson, Tom Brooking, and Jim McAloon, Unpacking the Kist: The Scots in New Zealand. McGill-Queen's Studies in Ethnic History Series, No. 2.33. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. Pp. 412. ISBN 978-0-7735-4190-0. CAD $100.00.

  11. Bolt beam propagation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokair, I. R.

    BOLT (Beam on Laser Technology) is a rocket experiment to demonstrate electron beam propagation on a laser ionized plasma channel across the geomagnetic field in the ion focused regime (IFR). The beam parameters for BOLT are: beam current I(sub b) = 100 Amps, beam energy of 1--1.5 MeV (gamma =3-4), and a Gaussian beam and channel of radii r(sub b) = r(sub c) = 1.5 cm. The N+1 ionization scheme is used to ionize atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere. This scheme utilizes 130 nm light plus three IR lasers to excite and then ionize atomic oxygen. The limiting factor for the channel strength is the energy of the 130 nm laser, which is assumed to be 1.6 mJ for BOLT. At a fixed laser energy and altitude (fixing the density of atomic oxygen), the range can be varied by adjusting the laser tuning, resulting in a neutralization fraction axial profile of the form: f(z) = f(sub 0) e(exp minus z)/R, where R is the range. In this paper we consider the propagation of the BOLT beam and calculate the range of the electron beam taking into account the fact that the erosion rates (magnetic and inductive) vary with beam length as the beam and channel dynamically respond to sausage and hose instabilities.

  12. Geometrical theory of nonlinear phase distortion of intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, J.A.; Hunt, J.T.; Speck, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Phase distortion arising from whole beam self-focusing of intense laser pulses with arbitrary spatial profiles is treated in the limit of geometrical optics. The constant shape approximation is used to obtain the phase and angular distribution of the geometrical rays in the near field. Conditions for the validity of this approximation are discussed. Geometrical focusing of the aberrated beam is treated for the special case of a beam with axial symmetry. Equations are derived that show both the shift of the focus and the distortion of the intensity distribution that are caused by the nonlinear index of refraction of the optical medium. An illustrative example treats the case of beam distortion in a Nd:Glass amplifier

  13. Craft Stick Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karplus, Alan K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this exercise is to provide a phenomenological 'hands-on' experience that shows how geometry can affect the load carrying capacity of a material used in construction, how different materials have different failure characteristics, and how construction affects the performance of a composite material. This will be accomplished by building beams of a single material and composite beams of a mixture of materials (popsicle sticks, fiberboard sheets, and tongue depressors); testing these layered beams to determine how and where they fail; and based on the failure analysis, designing a layered beam that will fail in a predicted manner. The students will learn the effects of lamination, adhesion, and geometry in layered beam construction on beam strength and failure location.

  14. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  15. Beam induced RF heating

    CERN Document Server

    Salvant, B; Arduini, G; Assmann, R; Baglin, V; Barnes, M J; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Berrig, O; Bracco, C; Bravin, E; Bregliozzi, G; Bruce, R; Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cattenoz, G; Caspers, F; Claudet, S; Day, H; Garlasche, M; Gentini, L; Goddard, B; Grudiev, A; Henrist, B; Jones, R; Kononenko, O; Lanza, G; Lari, L; Mastoridis, T; Mertens, V; Métral, E; Mounet, N; Muller, J E; Nosych, A A; Nougaret, J L; Persichelli, S; Piguiet, A M; Redaelli, S; Roncarolo, F; Rumolo, G; Salvachua, B; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Shaposhnikova, E; Tavian, L; Timmins, M; Uythoven, J; Vidal, A; Wenninger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M

    2012-01-01

    After the 2011 run, actions were put in place during the 2011/2012 winter stop to limit beam induced radio frequency (RF) heating of LHC components. However, some components could not be changed during this short stop and continued to represent a limitation throughout 2012. In addition, the stored beam intensity increased in 2012 and the temperature of certain components became critical. In this contribution, the beam induced heating limitations for 2012 and the expected beam induced heating limitations for the restart after the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) will be compiled. The expected consequences of running with 25 ns or 50 ns bunch spacing will be detailed, as well as the consequences of running with shorter bunch length. Finally, actions on hardware or beam parameters to monitor and mitigate the impact of beam induced heating to LHC operation after LS1 will be discussed.

  16. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  17. A contemporary guide to beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.; Hirata, Kohji

    1992-09-01

    A methodological discussion is given for single particle beam dynamics in circular machines. The discussions are introductory, but (or, even therefore) we avoid to rely on too much simplified concepts. We treat things from a very general and fundamental point of view, because this is the easiest and rightest way to teach how to simulate particle motion and how to analyze its results. We give some principles of particle tracking free from theoretical prejudices. We also introduce some transparent methods to deduce the necessary information from the tracking: many of the traditional beam-dynamics concepts can be abstracted from them as approximate quantities which are valid in certain limiting cases

  18. A contemporary guide to beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, E.; Hirata, Kohji.

    1992-08-01

    A methodological discussion is given for single particle beam dynamics in circular machines. The discussions are introductory, but (or, even therefore) we avoid to rely on too much simplified concepts. We treat things from a very general and fundamental point of view, because this is the easiest and rightest way to teach how to simulate particle motion and how to analyze its results. We give some principles of particle tracking free from theoretical prejudices. We also introduce some transparent methods to deduce the necessary information from the tracking: many of the traditional beam-dynamics concepts can be abstracted from them as approximate quantities which are valid in certain limiting cases. (author)

  19. Time domain simulations of beam-loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1989-09-01

    We present the results of computer simulations of high current beam loading in a proton storage ring. The model integrates the differential equation for gap voltage, and iterates the difference equations for particle longitudinal motion. The effects of cavity fields on the bunch shape and of the fundamental component of the beam on the cavity are treated in a self-consistent manner. The simulation model is applied to verify the dipole-quadrupole hybrid Robinson instability criterion, which differs from the dipole-mode criterion

  20. Impact loads on beams on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.S.V.; Prasad, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Quite often, complex structural components are idealised as beams in engineering analysis and design. Also, equations governing the responses of shallow shells are mathematically equivalent to the equations governing the responses of beams on elastic foundations. Hence with possible applications in several technical disciplines, the behaviour of beams on elastic foundations subjected to impact loads is studied in detail in the present investigation both analytically and experimentally. The analytical methods include analysis and energy method. The effect of foundation parameters (stiffness, and damping constants) on the dynamic responses of the beam-foundation system has been analysed. In modal analysis, the free-vibration equation has been solved by replacing the applied impulse by suitable initial conditions and the solution has been obtained as the linear combination of an infinite sequence of discrete eigen-vectors. In the energy method, the beam-foundation system is treated to be under forced vibrations and the forcing function has been obtained using the Hertz's law of impact. In the case of free-free end conditions of the beam, the rigid body modes and the elastic modes have been superposed to obtain the total response. The responses predicted using modal analysis are higher than those obtained using energy method. From the present study it is observed that model analysis is preferable to energy method. (Auth.)

  1. HIBP primary beam detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    A position measuring detector was fabricated for the Heavy Ion Beam Probe. The 11 cm by 50 cm detector was a combination of 15 detector wires in one direction and 63 copper bars - .635 cm by 10 cm to measure along an orthogonal axis by means of a current divider circuit. High transmission tungsten meshes provide entrance windows and suppress secondary electrons. The detector dimensions were chosen to resolve the beam position to within one beam diameter

  2. Who needs hyperon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Hyperon beams can provide new interesting information about hadron structure and their strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. The dependence of hadron interactions on strangeness and baryon number is not understood, and data from hyperon beams can provide new clues to paradoxes which arise in the interpretation of data from conventional beams. Examples of interesting data are total and differential cross sections, magnetic moments and values of Gsub(A)/Gsub(V) for weak semileptonic decays. (author)

  3. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  4. Particle beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, N.L.

    1982-01-01

    A particle beam accelerator is described which has several electrodes that are selectively short circuited together synchronously with changes in the magnitude of a DC voltage applied to the accelerator. By this method a substantially constant voltage gradient is maintained along the length of the unshortened electrodes despite variations in the energy applied to the beam by the accelerator. The invention has particular application to accelerating ion beams that are implanted into semiconductor wafers. (U.K.)

  5. Neutral beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    A neutral beam generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange partially neutralizes the high energy beam, is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are identified. (U.K.)

  6. Chilled beam application guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, David; Gräslund, Jonas; Hogeling, Jaap; Lund Kristiansen, Erik; Reinikanen, Mika; Svensson, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Chilled beam systems are primarily used for cooling and ventilation in spaces, which appreciate good indoor environmental quality and individual space control. Active chilled beams are connected to the ventilation ductwork, high temperature cold water, and when desired, low temperature hot water system. Primary air supply induces room air to be recirculated through the heat exchanger of the chilled beam. In order to cool or heat the room either cold or warm water is cycled through the heat exchanger.

  7. Mechanical beam isolator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.F.; Vann, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Back-reflections from a target, lenses, etc. can gain energy passing backwards through a laser just like the main beam gains energy passing forwards. Unless something blocks these back-reflections early in their path, they can seriously damage the laser. A Mechanical Beam Isolator is a device that blocks back-reflections early, relatively inexpensively, and without introducing aberrations to the laser beam

  8. Instability of compensated beam-beam collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Autin, B.; Chen, Pisin.

    1989-01-01

    The beam-beam disruption phenomena in linear colliders are increasingly seen as a source of serious problems for these machines. A plasma compensation scheme, in which the motion of the plasma electrons in the presence of the colliding beams provides neutralizing charge and current densities, has been proposed and studied. But natural alternative to this scheme is to consider the overlapping of nearly identical high energy e + and e/sup /minus// bunches, and the collision of two such pairs - in other words, collision of two opposing relativistic positronium plasmas. It should be noticed that while the luminosity for all collisions is increased by a factor of four in this scheme, the event rate for e + e/sup /minus// collisions is only increased by a factor of two. The other factor of two corresponds to the addition of e + e + and e/sup /minus//e/sup /minus// collisions to the interaction point. This beam compensation scheme, which has been examined through computer simulation by Balakin and Solyak in the Soviet Union, promises full neutralization of beam charges and currents. These numerical investigations have shown that plasma instabilities exist in this nominally neutral system. Although the implementation of this idea seems technically daunting, the potential benefits (beamstrahlung and disruption suppression, relaxation of final focus system constraints) are such that we should consider the physics of these collisions further. In the remainder of this paper, we theoretically analyze the issues of stability and bunch parameter tolerances in this scheme. 11 refs

  9. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  10. Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This treatise covers all aspects of the design and the daily operations of a beam diagnostic system for a large particle accelerator. A very interdisciplinary field, it involves contributions from physicists, electrical and mechanical engineers and computer experts alike so as to satisfy the ever-increasing demands for beam parameter variability for a vast range of operation modi and particles. The author draws upon 40 years of research and work, most of them spent as the head of the beam diagnostics group at GSI. He has illustrated the more theoretical aspects with many real-life examples that will provide beam instrumentation designers with ideas and tools for their work.

  11. Electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.M.

    1974-01-01

    Electron-beam equipment is considered along with fixed and mobile electron-beam guns, questions of weld environment, medium and nonvacuum welding, weld-joint designs, tooling, the economics of electron-beam job shops, aspects of safety, quality assurance, and repair. The application of the process in the case of individual materials is discussed, giving attention to aluminum, beryllium, copper, niobium, magnesium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium, metal alloys, superalloys, and various types of steel. Mechanical-property test results are examined along with the areas of application of electron-beam welding

  12. Neutral beam program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The structure of the beam injection program for the Doublet-3 device is discussed. The design considerations for the beam line and design parameters for the Doublet-3 ion souce are given. Major components of the neutral beam injector system are discussed in detail. These include the neutralizer, magnetic shielding, reflecting magnets, vacuum system, calorimeter and beam dumps, and drift duct. The planned location of the two-injector system for Doublet-3 is illustrated and site preparation is considered. The status of beamline units 1 and 2 and the future program schedule are discussed

  13. Beam diagnostics on ARGUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacQuigg, D.R.; Speck, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Performance of laser fusion targets depends critically on the characteristics of the incident beam. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of the light incident on the target varies significantly with power, with choice of beam spatial profile and with location of spatial filters. On each ARGUS shot we photograph planes in the incident beams which are equivalent to the target plane. Array cameras record the time integrated energy distributions and streak cameras record the temporal behavior. Computer reduction of the photographic data provides detailed spatial energy distributions, and instantaneous power on target vs. time. Target performance correlates with the observed beam characteristics

  14. Beam front accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiser, M.

    1982-01-01

    An intense relativistic electron beam cannot propagate in a metal drift tube when the current exceeds the space charge limit. Very high charge density and electric field gradients (10 2 to 10 3 MV/m) develop at the beam front and the electrons are reflected. When a neutral gas or a plasma is present, collective acceleration of positive ions occur, and the resulting charge neutralization enables the beam to propagate. Experimental results, theoretical understanding, and schemes to achieve high ion energies by external control of the beam front velocity will be reviewed

  15. GANIL beam profile detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribouillard, C.

    1997-01-01

    In the design phase of GANIL which started in 1977, one of the priorities of the project management was equipping the beamlines with a fast and efficient system for visualizing the beam position, thus making possible adjustment of the beam transport lines optics and facilitating beam control. The implantation of some thirty detectors was foreseen in the initial design. The assembly of installed detectors (around 190) proves the advantages of these detectors for displaying all the beams extracted from GANIL: transfer and transport lines, beam extracted from SISSI, very high intensity beam, secondary ion beams from the production target of the LISE and SPEG spectrometers, different SPIRAL project lines. All of these detectors are based on standard characteristics: - standard flange diameter (DN 160) with a standard booster for all the sensors; - identical analog electronics for all the detectors, with networking; - unique display system. The new micro-channel plate non-interceptive detectors (beam profile and ion packet lengths) make possible in-line control of the beam quality and accelerator stability. (author)

  16. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GuineaPig and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam background hitting the vertex detector.

  17. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  18. Long-term effects of drought on tree-ring growth and carbon isotope variability in Scots pine in a dry environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeeva, Galina; Treydte, Kerstin; Bugmann, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Schaub, Marcus; Siegwolf, Rolf; Saurer, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Drought frequency is increasing in many parts of the world and may enhance tree decline and mortality. The underlying physiological mechanisms are poorly understood, however, particularly regarding chronic effects of long-term drought and the response to increasing temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). We combined analyses of radial growth and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in tree rings in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest over the 20th century to elucidate causes of tree mortality in one of the driest parts of the European Alps (Pfynwald, Switzerland). We further compared trees that have recently died with living trees in a 10-year irrigation experiment, where annual precipitation was doubled. We found a sustained growth increase and immediate depletion of δ13C values for irrigated trees, indicating higher stomatal conductance and thus indeed demonstrating that water is a key limiting factor for growth. Growth of the now-dead trees started declining in the mid-1980s, when both mean temperature and VPD increased strongly. But growth of these trees was reduced to some extent already several decades earlier, while intrinsic water-use efficiency derived from δ13C values was higher. This indicates a more conservative water-use strategy compared with surviving trees, possibly at the cost of low carbon uptake and long-term reduction of the needle mass. We observed reduced climatic sensitivity of raw tree-ring δ13C for the now-dead in contrast to surviving trees, indicating impaired stomatal regulation, although this difference between the tree groups was smaller after detrending the data. Higher autocorrelation and a lower inter-annual δ13C variability of the now-dead trees further indicates a strong dependence on (low) carbon reserves. We conclude that the recent increase in atmospheric moisture demand in combination with insufficient soil water supply was the main trigger for mortality of those trees that were weakened by long

  19. Environmental impact assessment and monetary ecosystem service valuation of an ecosystem under different future environmental change and management scenarios; a case study of a Scots pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Deckmyn, Gaby; Giot, Olivier; Campioli, Matteo; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Verheyen, Kris; Rugani, Benedetto; Achten, Wouter; Verbeeck, Hans; Dewulf, Jo; Muys, Bart

    2016-05-15

    For a sustainable future, we must sustainably manage not only the human/industrial system but also ecosystems. To achieve the latter goal, we need to predict the responses of ecosystems and their provided services to management practices under changing environmental conditions via ecosystem models and use tools to compare the estimated provided services between the different scenarios. However, scientific articles have covered a limited amount of estimated ecosystem services and have used tools to aggregate services that contain a significant amount of subjective aspects and that represent the final result in a non-tangible unit such as 'points'. To resolve these matters, this study quantifies the environmental impact (on human health, natural systems and natural resources) in physical units and uses an ecosystem service valuation based on monetary values (including ecosystem disservices with associated negative monetary values). More specifically, the paper also focuses on the assessment of ecosystem services related to pollutant removal/generation flows, accounting for the inflow of eutrophying nitrogen (N) when assessing the effect of N leached to groundwater. Regarding water use/provisioning, evapotranspiration is alternatively considered a disservice because it implies a loss of (potential) groundwater. These approaches and improvements, relevant to all ecosystems, are demonstrated using a Scots pine stand from 2010 to 2089 for a combination of three environmental change and three management scenarios. The environmental change scenarios considered interannual climate variability trends and included alterations in temperature, precipitation, nitrogen deposition, wind speed, Particulate matter (PM) concentration and CO2 concentration. The addressed flows/ecosystem services, including disservices, are as follows: particulate matter removal, freshwater loss, CO2 sequestration, wood production, NOx emissions, NH3 uptake and nitrogen pollution/removal. The monetary

  20. Observations of the beam-beam interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1985-11-01

    The observed complexity of the beam-beam interaction is the subject of this paper. The varied observations obtained from many storage rings happen to be sufficiently similar that a prescription can be formulated to describe the behavior of the luminosity as a function of beam current including the peak value. This prescription can be used to interpret various methods for improving the luminosity. Discussion of these improvement methods is accompanied with examples from actual practice. The consequences of reducing the vertical betatron function (one of the most used techniques) to near the value of the bunch length are reviewed. Finally, areas needing further experimental and calculational studies are pointed out as they are uncovered

  1. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  2. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  3. Three-beam double stimulated Raman scatterings: Cascading configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, B. Jayachander; Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-03-01

    Two-beam stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) has been used in diverse label-free spectroscopy and imaging applications of live cells, biological tissues, and functional materials. Recently, we developed a theoretical framework for the three-beam double SRS processes that involve pump, Stokes, and depletion beams, where the pump-Stokes and pump-depletion SRS processes compete with each other. It was shown that the net Stokes gain signal can be suppressed by increasing the depletion beam intensity. The theoretical prediction has been experimentally confirmed recently. In the previous scheme for a selective suppression of one SRS by making it compete with another SRS, the two SRS processes occur in a parallel manner. However, there is another possibility of three-beam double SRS scheme that can be of use to suppress either Raman gain of the Stokes beam or Raman loss of the pump beam by depleting the Stokes photons with yet another SRS process induced by the pair of Stokes and another (second) Stokes beam. This three-beam double SRS process resembles a cascading energy transfer process from the pump beam to the first Stokes beam (SRS-1) and subsequently from the first Stokes beam to the second Stokes beam (SRS-2). Here, the two stimulated Raman gain-loss processes are associated with two different Raman-active vibrational modes of solute molecule. In the present theory, both the radiation and the molecules are