WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam transport energy

  1. Low energy beam transport system developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H− beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H− beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H− beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H− beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed

  2. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  3. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  4. Pxie low energy beam transport commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, L; Andrews, R; Carneiro, J -P; Hanna, B; Scarpine, V; Shemyakin, A; D'Arcy, R; Wiesner, C

    2015-01-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator (a.k.a. PXIE) is under construction. It includes a 10 mA DC, 30 KeV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to ~25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source and LEBT, which includes 3 solenoids, several clearing electrodes/collimators and a chopping system, have been built, installed, and commissioned to full specification parameters. This report presents the outcome of our commissioning activities, including phase-space measurements at the end of the beam line under various neutralization schemes obtained by changing the electro...

  5. Low energy beam transport for HIDIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O. E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Pozimski, J.; Jakob, A.; Lakatos, A

    2001-05-21

    Low energy beam transport (LEBT) for a heavy ion inertial fusion (HIDIF, I. Hofmann and G. Plass, Report of the European Study Group on Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion for the Period 1995-1998) facility suffers from high space charge forces and high ion mass. Space charge compensation reduces the necessary focusing force of the lenses and the radius of the beam in the LEBT, and therefrom the emittance growth due to aberrations and self fields is reduced. Gabor lenses (D. Gabor, Nature 160 (1947)) providing a stable space charge cloud for focusing and combine strong cylinder symmetric focusing with partly space charge compensation and low emittance growth. A high tolerance against source noise and current fluctuations and reduced investment costs could be other possible advantages. The proof of principle has already been demonstrated (J.A. Palkovic, Measurements on a Gabor lens for Neutralizing and Focusing a 30 keV Proton beam, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1989; J. Pozimski, P. Gross, R. Doelling and T. Weis, First experimental studies of a Gabor plasma-lens in Frankfurt, Proceedings of the 3rd EPAC Conference, Berlin, 1992). To broaden the experiences and to investigate the realisation of a LEBT concept for the HIDIF injector an experimental program using two Gabor lenses for independent variation of beam radius and envelope angel at RFQ injection was started. Therefrom the first experimental results using a double Gabor lens (DGPL) LEBT system for transporting an high perveance Xe{sup +} beam are presented and the results of numerical simulations are shown.

  6. Molecular Ion Beam Transportation for Low Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development of steady state intense boron ion sources for 100's of electron-volt ion implanters has been in progress for the past five years. Current density limitation associated with extracting and transporting low energy ion beams result in lower beam currents that in turn adversely affects the process throughput. The transport channel with electrostatic lenses for decaborane (B10H14) and carborane (C2B10H12) ion beams transportation was developed and investigated. The significant increase of ion beam intensity at the beam transport channel output is demonstrated. The transport channel simulation, construction and experimental results of ion beam transportation are presented.

  7. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Haitao, E-mail: ren@frib.msu.edu; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M.; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  8. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M.; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  9. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper

  10. Spheromak Energy Transport Studies via Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, H S; Hill, D N; Wood, R D; Jayakumar, J; Pearlstein, L D

    2008-02-11

    Results from the SSPX spheromak experiment provide strong motivation to add neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. Such auxiliary heating would significantly advance the capability to study the physics of energy transport and pressure limits for the spheromak. This LDRD project develops the physics basis for using NBI to heat spheromak plasmas in SSPX. The work encompasses three activities: (1) numerical simulation to make quantitative predictions of the effect of adding beams to SSPX, (2) using the SSPX spheromak and theory/modeling to develop potential target plasmas suitable for future application of neutral beam heating, and (3) developing diagnostics to provide the measurements needed for transport calculations. These activities are reported in several publications.

  11. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  12. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  13. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described

  14. Beam dynamics simulations of post low energy beam transport section in RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Hyunchang, E-mail: hcjin@ibs.re.kr; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Hong, In-Seok [Institute for Basic Science, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness) heavy ion accelerator of the rare isotope science project in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams to be used for various science programs. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams which are generated by an isotope separation on-line system with a wide range of nuclei and charges will be transported through the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to transport many kinds of rare isotope beams stably to the RFQ, the post LEBT should be devised to satisfy the requirement of the RFQ at the end of post LEBT, simultaneously with the twiss parameters small. We will present the recent lattice design of the post LEBT in the RAON accelerator and the results of the beam dynamics simulations from it. In addition, the error analysis and correction in the post LEBT will be also described.

  15. Design study of low-energy beam transport for multi-charge beams at RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Qiang, Ji; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-12-01

    The Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON) at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) is being designed to simultaneously accelerate beams with multiple charge states. It includes a driver superconducting (SC) linac for producing 200 MeV/u and 400 kW continuous wave (CW) heavy ion beams from protons to uranium. The RAON consists of a few electron cyclotron resonance ion sources, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, a CW 81.25 MHz, 500 keV/u radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport system, the SC linac, and a charge-stripper system. The LEBT system for the RISP accelerator facility consists of a high-voltage platform, two 90° dipoles, a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB), solenoids, electrostatic quadrupoles, a velocity equalizer, and a diagnostic system. The ECR ion sources are located on a high-voltage platform to reach an initial beam energy of 10 keV/u. After extraction, the ion beam is transported through the LEBT system to the RFQ accelerator. The generated charge states are selected by an achromatic bending system and then bunched by the MHB in the LEBT system. The MHB is used to achieve a small longitudinal emittance in the RFQ by generating a sawtooth wave with three harmonics. In this paper, we present the results and issues of the beam dynamics of the LEBT system.

  16. Transport of intense proton beam in the presence of subdominant species in a low energy beam transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, P. Sing; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V. S.

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of space-charge-dominated low energy proton beam in the presence of H2+ and H3+ beams has been studied in a solenoid based transport system using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method. Multispecies envelope equation and random search technique have been used to transport and match the primary beam considering two options. The PIC simulation shows the formation of hollow distribution of H2+ and H3+ beams around the proton beam in the first case where the waist of the proton beam is formed in between the solenoids and it is absent in the second case where the beam size is kept large in between the solenoids. Separation of hollow distribution appears more distinct as the proton fraction is increased and is almost independent of the combination of H2+ and H3+ beams for a given proton fraction. This effect helps to reject the unwanted species more effectively. The evolution of rms size and emittance of the proton beam has been studied in the presence of a circular aperture using KV and Gaussian distributions for the species in both the cases.

  17. Beam monitor system for high-energy beam transportation at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) provides ion beams for radiotherapy of cancers and for other basic researches. High-energy beam transport lines deliver the beams to three treatment rooms and two experiment rooms with the aid of 41 beam monitor units. Each monitor unit consists of a wire grid as a profile monitor, or a combined unit in which the wire grid and a parallel plate ionization chamber are united for an additional measurement of a beam intensity. They are operated in a mixed gas of 80% Ar and 20% CO2. The gas gain of the wire grid achieves about 8000 at an applied voltage of -2700 V. Dynamic ranges of the wire gird and the parallel plate ionization chamber were measured to be 8x105 and 1x106 in test using ion beams, respectively. A control system of these monitor units offers easy operation, so that operators are almost free from miss-operations. The monitor units are interlocked with a system which protects patients from the undesired irradiation. Five wire grids are used for continuously monitoring the beam during treatments, which play a role in keeping qualities of the treatments. The monitor system has been designed to meet requirements for medical uses, and works in a stable and reliable manner and satisfies the requirements. (author)

  18. Beam monitor system for high-energy beam transportation at HIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Torikoshi, M; Takada, E; Kanai, T; Yamada, S; Ogawa, H; Okumura, K; Narita, K; Ueda, K; Mizobata, M

    1999-01-01

    Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) provides ion beams for radiotherapy of cancers and for other basic researches. High-energy beam transport lines deliver the beams to three treatment rooms and two experiment rooms with the aid of 41 beam monitor units. Each monitor unit consists of a wire grid as a profile monitor, or a combined unit in which the wire grid and a parallel plate ionization chamber are united for an additional measurement of a beam intensity. They are operated in a mixed gas of 80% Ar and 20% CO sub 2. The gas gain of the wire grid achieves about 8000 at an applied voltage of -2700 V. Dynamic ranges of the wire gird and the parallel plate ionization chamber were measured to be 8x10 sup 5 and 1x10 sup 6 in test using ion beams, respectively. A control system of these monitor units offers easy operation, so that operators are almost free from miss-operations. The monitor units are interlocked with a system which protects patients from the undesired irradiation. Five wire grids are use...

  19. High-speed screen beam-profile-monitor system for high-energy beam-transport line at the HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A screen monitor system was developed for beam profile monitors at the new High-Energy Beam-Transport (HEBT) section out the HIMAC. This monitor consists of the very thin fluorescent screen and the high-speed CCD camera. In addition to perform high-speed and high-resolution, this monitor does not almost destroy the beam. (author)

  20. High-Energy Beam Transport in the Hanford FMIT Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) for the Hanford Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility's Linear Accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power continuous duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread. Both periodic and nonperiodic systems have been designed to transport and shape the beam as required by the liquid lithium target. An energy spreader system distributes the Bragg Peak within the lithium. A beam spreader and a beam stop have been provided for tune-up purposes. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostics techniques and non-interceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports

  1. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam diagnostic components for both the transfer and the high-energy beamlines perform well except for some of the scanners whose noise pick-up has become a problem, especially at low beam intensities. This noise pick-up is primarily due to deterioration of the bearings in the scanner. At some locations in the high-energy beamlines, scanners were replaced by harps as the scanners proved to be practically useless for the low-intensity beams required in the experimental areas. The slits in the low-energy beamline, which are not water-cooled, have to be repaired at regular intervals because of vacuum leaks. Overheating causes the ceramic feedthroughs to deteriorate resulting in the vacuum leaks. Water-cooled slits have been ordered to replace the existing slits which will later be used in the beamlines associated with the second injector cyclotron SPC2. The current-measurement system will be slightly modified and should then be much more reliable. 3 figs

  2. Scheme for Low Energy Beam Transport with a Non-Neutralized Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A typical Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) design relies on dynamics with nearly complete beam space charge neutralization over the entire length of the LEBT. This paper argues that, for a beam with modest perveance and uniform current density distribution when generated at the source, a downstream portion of the LEBT can be un-neutralized without significant emittance growth.

  3. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2016-02-17

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  4. Selected List of Low Energy Beam Transport Facilities for Light-Ion, High-Intensity Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Prost, Lionel R

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a list of Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) facilities for light-ion, high-intensity accelerators. It was put together to facilitate comparisons with the PXIE LEBT design choices. A short discussion regarding the importance of the beam perveance in the choice of the transport scheme follows.

  5. Space charge compensation in the Linac4 low energy beam transport line with negative hydrogen ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerio-Lizarraga, Cristhian A., E-mail: cristhian.alfonso.valerio.lizarraga@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Lallement, Jean-Baptiste; Lettry, Jacques; Scrivens, Richard [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Leon-Monzon, Ildefonso [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Culiacan (Mexico); Midttun, Øystein [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-02-15

    The space charge effect of low energy, unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the trapping of ions or electrons into the beam potential. This has been studied for the 45 keV negative hydrogen ion beam in the CERN Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport using the package IBSimu [T. Kalvas et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02B703 (2010)], which allows the space charge calculation of the particle trajectories. The results of the beam simulations will be compared to emittance measurements of an H{sup −} beam at the CERN Linac4 3 MeV test stand, where the injection of hydrogen gas directly into the beam transport region has been used to modify the space charge compensation degree.

  6. An ESQ lens system for low energy beam transport experiments on the SSC test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A low-energy beam transport system is designed with the aim of transporting a 30 mA, 35 kV H- beam from a volume source and focusing it into an RFQ. The characteristics of the beam from the source are determined analyzing the emittance data. The behavior of the beam through the LEBT is studied using simulation codes. The system parameters are optimized so that the LEBT has a very modest contribution to the emittance growth (here a factor of about 1.5) and the emittance budget of the linac section is maintained

  7. Design and Optimization of Low Energy Beam Transport for TAC Proton Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kisoglu, H F; Sultansoy, S; Yilmaz, M

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a low energy beam transport (LEBT) channel for the proton linac section of the Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) has been designed by using TRAVEL code. Commonly used LEBT including two focusing solenoid magnets will transport and match the H- beam from a volume source to RFQ. In the beam dynamics simulations of such a LEBT line, 95% space-charge compensation (SCC) has been considered in this study. We aimed to find out the determination of our RFQ parameters that gives the best possible beam quality using beam collimator as an alternative way. In this way, we have acquired the best possible beam quality on RFQ input plane as well as optimizing the LEBT line.

  8. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  9. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.

  10. Development of a low-energy beam transport system at KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Sato, Yoichi; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute has developed a heavy ion accelerator for fast neutron radiography [1]. To meet the requirements for fast neutron generation, we have developed an accelerator system that consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), medium-energy beam transport system, and drift tube linac. In this paper, we present the development of the LEBT system as a part of the heavy ion accelerator system, which operates from the ECR-IS to the RFQ entrance.

  11. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The H− magnetron source provides about 100 mA H− beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H− beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H− beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H− beam from optically pumped polarized ion source

  12. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raparia, D; Alessi, J; Atoian, G; Zelenski, A

    2016-02-01

    The H(-) magnetron source provides about 100 mA H(-) beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H(-) beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H(-) beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H(-) beam from optically pumped polarized ion source. PMID:26932107

  13. Space charge compensation on the low energy beam transport of Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)733270; Scrivens, Richard; Jesus Castillo, Santos

    Part of the upgrade program in the injector chains of the CERN accelerator complex is the replacement of the the proton accelerator Linac2 for the brand new Linac4 which will accelerate H$^-$ and its main goal is to increase the beam intensity in the next sections of the LHC accelerator chain. The Linac4 is now under commissioning and will use several ion sources to produce high intensity unbunched H$^-$ beams with different properties, and the low energy beam transport (LEBT) is the system in charge of match all these different beams to the Radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The space charge forces that spread the beam ions apart of each other and cause emittance growth limits the maximum intensity that can be transported in the LEBT, but the space charge of intense unbunched ion beams can be compensated by the generated ions by the impact ionization of the residual gas, which creates a source of secondary particles inside the beam pipe. For negative ion beams, the effect of the beam electric field is to ex...

  14. Lattice design of medium energy beam transport line for n spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 1 GeV H- injector linac is being designed at RRCAT for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS). The front-end of the injector linac will consist of Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which will accelerate the H- beam from 50 keV to 3 MeV. The beam will be further accelerated in superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSRs). A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line will be used to transport the beam from the exit of RFQ to the input of SSR. The main purpose of MEBT is to carry out beam matching from RFQ to SSR, and beam chopping. In this paper, we describe the optimization criteria for the lattice design of MEBT. The optimized lattice element parameters are presented for zero and full (15 mA) current case. Beam dynamics studies have been carried out using an envelope tracing code Trace-3D. Required beam deflection angle due to the chopper housed inside the MEBT for beam chopping has also been estimated. (author)

  15. Development of microwave ion source and low energy beam transport system for high current cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, V.S., E-mail: pandit@vecc.gov.in; Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Yadav, R.C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.; Nandi, C.; Pal, G.; Thakur, S.K.

    2013-12-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source and a low energy beam transport system have been developed to study the high intensity proton beam injection into a 10 MeV, 5 mA compact cyclotron. We have extracted proton beam more than 10 mA at 80 kV as measured by the DCCT after the extraction and a well collimated beam of 7 mA (through 1 cm × 1 cm slit) at the faraday cup 1.5 m away from the source. The transport of protons from the ion source in the presence of H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} species has been studied using PIC simulations through our transport line which consists of two solenoids. We have also installed a small dipole magnet with similar field as that of the cyclotron along with vacuum chamber, spiral inflector and few diagnostic elements at the end of the beam line. In the preliminary testing of inflection, we achieved 1 mA beam on the faraday cup at the exit of inflector with ∼60% transmission efficiency.

  16. Experiments with low energy ion beam transport into toroidal magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U

    2016-01-01

    The stellarator-type storage ring for accumulation of multi- Ampere proton and ion beams with energies in the range of $100~AkeV$ to $1~AMeV$ is designed at Frankfurt university. The main idea for beam confinement with high transversal momentum acceptance was presented in EPAC2006. This ring is typically suited for experiments in plasma physics and nuclear astrophysics. The accumulator ring with a closed longitudinal magnetic field is foreseen with a strength up to $6-8~T$. The experiments with two room temperature 30 degree toroids are needed. The beam transport experiments in toroidal magnetic fields were first described in EPAC2008 within the framework of a proposed low energy ion storage ring. The test setup aims on developing a ring injection system with two beam lines representing the main beam line and the injection line. The primary beam line for the experiments was installed and successfully commissioned in 2009. A special diagnostics probe for \\textit{"in situ"} ion beam detection was installed.This...

  17. Design of the low energy beam transport line between CARIBU and the EBIS charge breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed to breed radioactive beams from the CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at ATLAS. The EBIS-CB will replace the existing ECR charge breeder to increase the intensity and improve the purity of reaccelerated radioactive ion beams. The EBIS-CB is in the final stage of off-line commissioning. Currently, we are developing a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system to transfer CARIBU beams to the EBIS-CB. As was originally planned, an RFQ cooler-buncher will precede the EBIS-CB. Recently, it was decided to include a multi-reflection time-of-flight (MR-TOF) mass-spectrometer following the RFQ. MR-TOF is a relatively new technology used to purify beams with a mass-resolving power up to 3×105 as was demonstrated in experiments at CERN/ISOLDE. Very high purity singly-charged radioactive ion beams will be injected into the EBIS for charge breeding and due to its inherent properties, the EBIS-CB will maintain the purity of the charge bred beams. Possible contamination of residual gas ions will be greatly suppressed by achieving ultra-high vacuum in the EBIS trap. This paper will present and discuss the design of the LEBT and the overall integration of the EBIS-CB into ATLAS

  18. Simulations of the high energy beam transport section (HEBT) at FRANZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) currently under construction will deliver a proton beam of up to 20 mA constant current with energies between 1.8 MeV and 2.2 MeV. This facility aims at exploring proton- and neutron-induced reactions of astrophysical interest. The high proton flux is well suited for studying nuclear reactions related to the nucleosynthesis of the p-nuclei, which might yield hints on the physics of type Ia supernovae. Furthermore, FRANZ will offer the opportunity to measure radiative neutron capture reactions for unstable branch point nuclei of the s-process. We will present the current status of the beam line up to the BaF2 calorimeter. This contribution focuses on simulations to optimise beam transport and phase space distribution with respect to an optimised beam spot size.

  19. Simulations of the high energy beam transport section (HEBT) at FRANZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ole; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Reifarth, Rene; Schmidt, Stefan; Schwarz, Malte; Sonnabend, Kerstin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) currently under construction will deliver a proton beam of up to 20 mA constant current with energies between 1.8 MeV and 2.2 MeV. This facility aims at exploring proton- and neutron-induced reactions of astrophysical interest. The high proton flux is well suited for studying nuclear reactions related to the nucleosynthesis of the p-nuclei, which might yield hints on the physics of type Ia supernovae. Furthermore, FRANZ will offer the opportunity to measure radiative neutron capture reactions for unstable branch point nuclei of the s-process. We will present the current status of the beam line up to the BaF{sub 2} calorimeter. This contribution focuses on simulations to optimise beam transport and phase space distribution with respect to an optimised beam spot size.

  20. Influence of convective energy transport on the local temperature distribution during laser beam welding; Einfluss des konvektiven Energietransportes auf die lokale Temperaturverteilung beim Laserstrahlschweissen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahrle, A.

    2000-07-01

    The following topics are covered: general introduction to laser beam welding, geometrical aspects, materials dependence, temperature distribution, convective energy transport, laser beam welding modelling, simulation models, numerical treatment.

  1. Simulation of Beam Envelop Transport in Medium Energy of Ion Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation of beam envelop transport in medium energy of ion accelerator (Tandem) using beam particle optic laboratory program of version 1.1.1 has been carried out. The accelerated ion beam are hydrogen and nitrogen ion, which leave the SNICS ion source within X and Y direction of initial radius of 1 cm respectively and having vertical and horizontal degree of emittance of 16.4 π mm mRad respectively. The simulation is completed twice, i.e. for negative ion is made on low energy of accelerator and for positive ion is arranged on medium energy of accelerator. To keep the beam envelop radius of simulation result of low energy simulation, the fitting program is used with four einzel lenses. two bending magnet and one electrostatic quadrupole. On the first einzel lens the obtained focus length is 70 cm, the bending magnetic field as 3.378 kG, the angle of bending as 30o and the curvature radius as 0.533 m. On the second einzel lens the obtained focus length is 24 cm with bending beam angle as 90o, the bending magnetic field obtained as 3.89 kG and the obtained curvature radius is 0.457 m. The beam envelop is then entered into einzel lens with focus length of 30 cm and it then focused by using electrostatic quadrupole with coefficient quadrupole 54.25 and -89.51 and electrode length of 0.07 m. Before the beam envelop entered accelerator tube, it pass the einzel lens with focus length of 26 cm. To accelerate positive ion of the beam envelop simulation at medium energy the -1.5 MV voltage of accelerator tube is used, then the beam passes through a bending magnet and a magnetic quadrupole. Beam envelop transport by using fitting method obtained a bending magnet 15o and a magnetic field strength 3.997 kG. While at the electrode length of 0.14 m of quadrupole magnetic doublet, it was obtained the magnetic field strengths of 3.2 kG and -3.4 kG. (author)

  2. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y., E-mail: yangyao@impcas.ac.cn; Lu, W.; Fang, X. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Sun, L. T.; Hu, Q.; Cao, Y.; Feng, Y. C.; Zhang, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2014-02-15

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18–24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper.

  3. Studies on low energy beam transport for high intensity high charged ions at IMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sun, L T; Hu, Q; Cao, Y; Lu, W; Feng, Y C; Fang, X; Zhang, X Z; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2014-02-01

    Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source with Advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is an advanced fully superconducting ECR ion source at IMP designed to be operational at the microwave frequency of 18-24 GHz. The existing SECRAL beam transmission line is composed of a solenoid lens and a 110° analyzing magnet. Simulations of particle tracking with 3D space charge effect and realistic 3D magnetic fields through the line were performed using particle-in-cell code. The results of the beam dynamics show that such a low energy beam is very sensitive to the space charge effect and significantly suffers from the second-order aberration of the analyzing magnet resulting in large emittance. However, the second-order aberration could be reduced by adding compensating sextupole components in the beam line. On this basis, a new 110° analyzing magnet with relatively larger acceptance and smaller aberration is designed and will be used in the design of low energy beam transport line for a new superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL-II. The features of the analyzer and the corresponding beam trajectory calculation will be detailed and discussed in this paper. PMID:24593453

  4. Space charge dominated beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider beam transport systems where space charge forces are comparable in strength with the external focusing force. Space charge then plays an important role for beam transmission and emittance growth. We use the envelope model for matching and the generalized field energy equations to study emittance growth. Analytic results are compared with numerical simulation. (orig.)

  5. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raparia, D., E-mail: raparia@bnl.gov; Alessi, J.; Atoian, G.; Zelenski, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11786 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The H{sup −} magnetron source provides about 100 mA H{sup −} beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H{sup −} beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H{sup −} beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H{sup −} beam from optically pumped polarized ion source.

  6. Electron beam optics design of variable energy beam transport line for a tunable infra-red free electron laser at RRCAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variable energy electron beam transport line has been designed to transport a 15-25 MeV electron beam from the injector linac to the undulator of a tuneable infra-red free electron laser (IR-FEL) being built at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology ( RRCAT). Beam optics of this transport line, which uses a dog-leg type bend, has been designed to match the twiss parameters of the beam to that of the undulator as per FEL design requirements and keep the beam envelop within acceptable limits through out the transport line. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of design of electron beam optics from the linac to the undulator. (author)

  7. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle- in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design. (authors)

  8. Design of the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line for the rare ion beam project at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a 24 m long MEBT line connecting the accelerator LINAC 3 with LINAC 4 of the VECC-RIB project is presented. The design goal is to achieve a optimal solution for the transport of heavy ion beams, emerging from LINAC 3 with the mean energy of 414 KeV/u and q/A ≥ 1/14 so that the beam is well matched both in transverse and longitudinal direction at the entry of the LINAC 4. A charge stripper is placed before LINAC 4 in order to achieve higher charge to mass ratio (q/A ≥ 1/7). The presence of the charge stripper requires that the alpha and beta parameters of the beam both in X and Y plane should be very small at the charge stripper so that emittance blow up is less. The restrictions of space in the site compel us to make the line about 14 m long before it can be bent in a 90 degree achromatic bend. As we are using a charge stripper, mass dispersion must be high at the intermediate focal point between the two dipole magnets of the achromatic bend to select the desired ion species for acceleration in the subsequent acceleration stages. This rather long length (∼ 24 m) of the beam line requires two rebunchers to match the beam longitudinally at the entry of the LINAC 4. In this paper, the step by step procedure of achieving various requirements, viz, minimization of alpha and beta at the stripper, achromatic bend with appreciable mass dispersion in between the bending magnets and beam matching at LINAC 4 could be effectively met. (author)

  9. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Gozzo, A.; Lega, L.; Ciavola, G.

    2014-02-01

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  10. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  11. Review of energy confinement and local transport scaling results in neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years, tokamak neutral beam injection experiments have evolved from the brute force study of the effects of global discharge characteristics (I/sub p/, anti n/sub e/, P/sub heat/, etc.) on energy confinement to the appreciation that there are effects more subtle, yet controllable, that may influence confinement dramatically. While this evolution from first to second generation experiments is derived from an empirical understanding of low and high energy confinement modes and how to achieve them operationally, the underlying physics is still unknown. Several theories with different physical bases appear to describe the global scaling of the low confinement mode discharges quite well. On the other hand, little agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally deduced values of local transport coefficients. While it is known operationally how to achieve any one of several types of high confinement mode discharges, here too, the underlying physics of the transport associated with these modes is poorly understood

  12. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and the Linac in the radioactive ion beam facility at VECC, Kolkata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dechoudhury; Vaishali Naik; Manas Mondal; Hemendra Kumar Pandey; Avik Chatterjee; Dirtha Sanyal; Debasis Bhowmick; Alok Chakrabarti

    2010-09-01

    The design of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line comprising of a re-buncher and four quadrupoles, two upstream and the other two downstream of the re-buncher, has been presented. The design was done to ensure almost 100% transport of heavy-ion beams of about 99 keV/u energy from RFQ having a / not less than 1/14 through the re-buncher and then through IH Linac of about 0.6 m length in which beam would be accelerated to about 185 keV/u. The re-buncher has been designed to operate at 37.8 MHz, the resonating frequency of both the RFQ and the IH Linac. The entire beam line has been installed and recently O5+ beam from RFQ has been transported through the re-buncher and subsequently accelerated in the IH Linac successfully.

  13. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined

  14. Tranverse-field focussing beam transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transverse-Field Focussing (TFF) beam transport and accelerator system developed at LBL is useful for negative-ion -based neutral beam injection due to its unique differential pumping and neutron shielding properties. We have tested the first module of our TFF system transporting H- beams up to 80 keV beam energy. The testing addressed the most crucial physics and engineering issues involved in the principles of a TFF system including beam compression and differential gas pumping. At optimum perveance, the present design will transport 4 A/m of H- beam at 80 keV beam energy

  15. Design of the Prototype Low Energy Beam Transport Line for the Spallation Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) prototype low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system is discussed. This LEBT must transfer 35 mA of H- current from the ion source outlet aperture to the entrance of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). The plasma generator is a radio frequency-driven multicusp source, operated at 6% duty factor (1 ms, 60 Hz). The entire LEBT configuration is electrostatic, with a high-voltage extraction gap followed by two sets of einzel lenses. The second einzel lens will be split into four quadrants to permit the application of transverse steering and beam chopping fields. The H- ion source emits a gas flow into the LEBT that must be efficiently pumped to reduce stripping losses of the H- ions. Therefore, an efficient electrode design is incorporated to reduce the gas pressure between the electrodes. Alignment requirements and related issues will also be discussed

  16. Orbit Error Correction on the High Energy Beam Transport Line at the KHIMA Accelerator System

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chawon; Hahn, Garam; An, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    For the purpose of treatment of various cancer and medical research, the synchrotron based medical machine under the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project have been conducted and is going to treat the patient at the beginning of 2018. The KHIMA synchrotron is designed to accelerate and extract the carbon ion (proton) beam with various energy range, 110 up to 430 MeV/u (60 up to 230 MeV). A lattice design and beam optics studies for the High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) line at the KHIMA accelerator system have been carried out with WinAgile and the MAD-X codes. Because the magnetic eld errors and the mis-alignments introduce to the deviations from the design parameters, these error sources should be treated explicitly and the sensitivity of the machine's lattice to di erent individual error sources is considered. Various types of errors which are static and dynamic one have been taken into account and have been consequentially corrected with a dedicated correction algorithm by using the MAD-X pr...

  17. High Temperature Superconducting Magnets for Efficient Low Energy Beam Transport Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, M; Johnson, R P; Nipper, J H

    2013-01-01

    Modern ion accelerators and ion implantation systems need very short, highly versatile, Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) systems. The need for reliable and continuous operation requires LEBT designs to be simple and robust. The energy efficiency of available high temperature superconductors (HTS), with efficient and simple cryocooler refrigeration, is an additional attraction. Innovative, compact LEBT systems based on solenoids designed and built with high-temperature superconductor will be developed using computer models and prototyped. The parameters will be chosen to make this type of LEBT useful in a variety of ion accelerators, ion implantation systems, cancer therapy synchrotrons, and research accelerators, including the ORNL SNS. The benefits of solenoids made with HTS will be evaluated with analytical and numerical calculations for a two-solenoid configuration, as will be used in the SNS prototype LEBT that will replace the electrostatic one at SNS, and a single solenoid configuration, as was proposed...

  18. Control And Transport Of Intense Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H

    2004-01-01

    The transport of intense beams for advanced accelerator applications with high-intensity beams such as heavy-ion inertial fusion, spallation neutron sources, and intense light sources requires tight control of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses low energy, high current electron beams to model the transport physics of intense space-charge-dominated beams, employs real-time beam characterization and control in order to optimize beam quality throughout the strong focusing lattice. We describe in this dissertation the main beam control techniques used in UMER, which include optimal beam steering by quadrupole scans, beam rotation correction using a skew corrector, rms envelope matching and optimization, empirical envelope matching, beam injection, and phase space reconstruction using a tomographic method. Using these control techniques, we achieved the design goals for UMER. The procedure is not only indispensable for optimum beam transport over l...

  19. Computational study of transport and energy deposition of intense laser-accelerated proton beams in solid density matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    With intense proton beams accelerated by high power short pulse lasers, solid targets are isochorically heated to become partially-ionized warm or hot dense matter. In this regime, the thermodynamic state of the matter significantly changes, varying the proton stopping power where both bound and free electrons contribute. Additionally, collective beam-matter interaction becomes important to the beam transport. We present self-consistent hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results of proton beam transport and energy deposition in solid-density matter, where the individual proton stopping and the collective effects are taken into account simultaneously with updates of stopping power in the varying target conditions and kinetic motions of the beam in the driven fields. Broadening of propagation range and self-focusing of the beam led to unexpected target heating by the intense proton beams, with dependence on the beam profiles and target conditions. The behavior is specifically studied for the case of an experimentally measured proton beam from the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP laser transporting through metal foils. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contracts No. DE-NA0002034 and No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by the U.S. AFOSR under Contract FA9550-14-1-0346.

  20. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  1. Energy Transport Effects in Flaring Atmospheres Heated by Mixed Particle Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Zharkov, Sergei; Macrae, Connor; Druett, Malcolm; Scullion, Eamon

    2016-07-01

    We investigate energy and particle transport in the whole flaring atmosphere from the corona to the photosphere and interior for the flaring events on the 1st July 2012, 6 and 7 September 2011 by using the RHESSI and SDO instruments as well as high-resolution observations from the Swedish 1-metre Solar Telescope (SST3) CRISP4 (CRisp Imaging Spectro-polarimeter). The observations include hard and soft X-ray emission, chromospheric emission in both H-alpha 656.3 nm core and continuum, as well as, in the near infra-red triplet Ca II 854.2 nm core and continuum channels and local helioseismic responses (sunquakes). The observations are compared with the simulations of hard X-ray emission and tested by hydrodynamic simulations of flaring atmospheres of the Sun heated by mixed particle beams. The temperature, density and macro-velocity variations of the ambient atmospheres are calculated for heating by mixed beams and the seismic response of the solar interior to generation of supersonic shocks moving into the solar interior. We investigate the termination depths of these shocks beneath the quiet photosphere levels and compare them with the parameters of seismic responses in the interior, or sunquakes (Zharkova and Zharkov, 2015). We also present an investigation of radiative conditions modelled in a full non-LTE approach for hydrogen during flare onsets with particular focus on Balmer and Paschen emission in the visible, near UV and near IR ranges and compare them with observations. The links between different observational features derived from HXR, optical and seismic emission are interpreted by different particle transport models that will allow independent evaluation of the particle transport scenarios.

  2. Beam dynamics and design studies of a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system for 1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) at IPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low energy beam transport is an important subsystem of a linear accelerator system. It is used to match the ion beam parameters delivered by an ECR ion source with the beam acceptance of RFQ. It also check the emittance growth of the beam, provides space charge neutralization, and focuses the ion beam. A LEBT system comprised of two solenoids is designed at IPR that will act as an interface between the ECR ion source and the RFQ delivering 50 KeV, 1 mA deuteron beam to RFQ which in turn will accelerate the ion beam up to 1 MeV energy at the resonant frequency of 352 MHz. The LEBT parameters are optimized to maximize the beam transmission through the RFQ using particle-in-cell code-Tracewin for the beam dynamics and the space charge compensation studies for the 4D Gaussian beam distribution at the maximum transmission efficiency. The simulation results as well as the optimized LEBT design is presented in the paper. (author)

  3. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low energy beam in a beam transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C L Srivastava; S V L S Rao; P Singh

    2007-10-01

    A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam transport lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of -uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in the paper.

  4. Electromagnetic design and development of a combined function horizontal and vertical dipole steerer magnet for medium energy beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line is required to match the optical functions between the RFQ and SRF cavities/DTL cavities.The primary function of the MEBT lines is to keep the emittance growth of the output beam as low as possible in a highly space charge environment at low energies. The transverse focusing of the beam is achieved by strong focusing quadrupoles and the longitudinal dynamics is achieved by the buncher cavities. The Dipole Steerers serve the function of a control element to achieve the desired transverse beam position. To minimize the emittance growth high magnetic field rigidity is required in a highly constrained longitudinal space for these corrector magnets. The design and development of an air-cooled dipole steerer magnet has been done for an integral dipole field of 2.1mT-m in a Good Field Region (GFR) of 23 mm diameter with Integral Field homogeneity better than 0.5%. Electromagnetic field simulations were done using 3D-FEM simulation software OPERA. Error sensitivity studies have been carried out to specify the manufacturing tolerances to estimate and minimize the beam transmission loss due to likely misalignments and rotation of the magnet. A combined function dipole corrector magnet has been designed and fabricated at the Control Instrumentation Division, BARC. This paper discusses measurement results of a combined function dipole steerer for MEBT line for Proton (H+) beam at 2.5 MeV. (author)

  5. Negative ion beam formation, transport and acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The BNL Neutral Beam Development Group is working on the development of negative ion based neutral beam systems, using high current density surface plasma sources of the magnetron and hollow cathode discharge (HCD) type. With the magnetron source, the plan is to transport a 2A D/sup -/ beam through a bending magnet before acceleration to 200 keV. In experiments with a pulsed magnetron, 0.4A of H/sup -/ was transported through a 90/sup 0/, n = 1, bending magnet with 80% transmission. With the lower operating pressure in the HCD source, close coupled acceleration will be applied. The MEQALAC, RFQ, and a dc accelerating scheme with periodic quadrupole focusing are considered for reaching higher energies. A preliminary experiment was performed with quadrupole beam transport and a 3.8 mA beam was transported through a series of twelve quadrupoles, with 3 mm apertures and a total length of 7.2 cm.

  6. Electron stripping processes of H- ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, I. N.

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H- Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H- ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H- beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H- ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H- ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  7. Electron stripping processes of H− ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H− Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H− ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H− beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H− ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H− ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line

  8. Design of a high-current low-energy beam transport line for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaolong; Wang, Junrun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jianyi; Xia, Li; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Yanyan; Jiang, Bing; Huang, Zhiwu; Ma, Zhanwen; Wei, Zheng; Qian, Xiangping; Xu, Dapeng; Lan, Changlin; Yao, Zeen

    2016-03-01

    An intense D-T/D-D neutron generator is currently being developed at the Lanzhou University. The Cockcroft-Walton accelerator, as a part of the neutron generator, will be used to accelerate and transport the high-current low-energy beam from the duoplasmatron ion source to the rotating target. The design of a high-current low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line and the dynamics simulations of the mixed beam were carried out using the TRACK code. The results illustrate that the designed beam line facilitates smooth transportation of a deuteron beam of 40 mA, and the number of undesired ions can be reduced effectively using two apertures.

  9. Design of a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper for the JAERI/KEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium-energy beam-transport line (MEBT) plays an important role in reducing beam loss in the JAERI/KEK project. A MEBT was designed two years ago, with good beam matching and lower beam loss. To further reduce beam loss during the transient time of the chopper to meet the new requirement from the DTL, a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper has been designed. The 3.5 m long transport line consists of nine quadrupole magnets, three bunchers and four chopper/anti-chopper cavities. It accomplishes two tasks: matching the beam from the RFQ to the acceptance of the DTL and chopping the beam to produce gaps for injection into the rapid-cycling ring, which follows the linac. A RF Chopper and an anti-chopper have been adopted in the lattice, resulting in a clean chopping effect and no beam losses during the transient time. Details of the beam dynamics analysis are given

  10. Design of a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper for the JAERI/KEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medium-energy beam-transport line (MEBT) plays an important role in reducing beam loss in the JAERI/KEK project. A MEBT was designed two years ago, with good beam matching and lower beam loss. To further reduce beam loss during the transient time of the chopper to meet the new requirement from the DTL, a medium-energy beam-transport line with an anti-chopper has been designed. The 3.5 m long transport line consists of nine quadrupole magnets, three bunchers and four chopper/anti-chopper cavities. It accomplishes two tasks: matching the beam from the RFQ to the acceptance of the DTL and chopping the beam to produce gaps for injection into the rapid-cycling ring, which follows the linac. An RF Chopper and an anti-chopper have been adopted in the lattice, resulting in a clean chopping effect, and no beam losses during the transient time. Details of the beam dynamics analysis are given. (author)

  11. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-02-01

    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.

  12. HZE beam transport in multilayered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-perturbative analytic solution of the high charge and energy (HZE) Green's function is used to implement a computer code for laboratory ion beam transport in multiple-layered materials. The code is established to operate on the Langley nuclear fragmentation model used in space engineering applications. Computational procedures are established to generate linear energy transfer (LET) distributions for a specified ion beam and target for comparison with experimental measurement. Comparison with 56Fe ion with Pb-Al and Pb-(CH2 x) targets shows reasonable agreement. (author)

  13. High-intensity low energy beam transport design studies for the new injector linac of the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GSI will replace the Wideroe prestripper linac by an RFQ and IH-type accelerator presently under construction. The new prestripper linac should deliver beam intensities to fill up the heavy ion synchrotron SIS to the space charge limits for all ions. In case of uranium the new injector has to deliver 15 emA U4+. One of the two existing ion-source terminals has already been rebuilt for installation of the high current sources of CHORDIS- and MEVVA-type. Therefore, investigations of high-current beam transport have been made in the existing LEBT. For that, additional beam diagnostic elements have been installed: beam transformers, emittance measurement devices, residual gas ion spectrometer. The measured beam properties, e.g. transverse emittance, degree of space charge compensation, support the design of the future LEBT. According to the various requirements two layouts of the new LEBT have been studied so far. (author)

  14. The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lopez, J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison No. 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: fjgl@us.es; Ortega-Feliu, I.; Morilla, Y.; Ferrero, A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avda. Thomas A. Edison No. 7, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2008-04-15

    The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla.

  15. The new Cyclone 18/9 beam transport line at the CNA (Sevilla) for high energy PIXE applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron system at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla, Spain) is commonly used to create short life radioisotopes for PET applications. Besides, an external beam transport line has been recently installed in one of the target ports with two major purposes: to study the effects of 18 MeV protons irradiation on the behaviour of electronic devices for space applications and to complement the analysis of materials using our 3 MV tandem accelerator with the PIXE measurements at high energy. In this work, the main elements of our beamline will be briefly described and the first PIXE application will be presented. The usual PIXE, in the analysis of archaeological metallic objects, using around 3 MeV protons requires having a shiny area. Our purpose is to obtain a deeper determination of the bulk composition bombarding with 18 MeV protons through the corroded samples surfaces, without polishing the ancient object. To check this methodology high energy PIXE has been performed on two fibulae of the Later Bronze Age and First Iron Age, coming from the area around Sevilla

  16. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV/u proton/deuteron low energy beam transport beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton/deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum.

  17. Use of a wire scanner for monitoring residual gas ionization in Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility 20 keV∕u proton∕deuteron low energy beam transport beam line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainas, B; Eliyahu, I; Weissman, L; Berkovits, D

    2012-02-01

    The ion source end of the Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility accelerator consists of a proton∕deuteron ECR ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) beam line. An observed reduction of the radio frequency quadrupole transmission with increase of the LEBT current prompted additional study of the LEBT beam properties. Numerous measurements have been made with the LEBT bream profiler wire biased by a variable voltage. Current-voltage characteristics in presence of the proton beam were measured even when the wire was far out of the beam. The current-voltage characteristic in this case strongly resembles an asymmetric diodelike characteristic, which is typical of Langmuir probes monitoring plasma. The measurement of biased wire currents, outside the beam, enables us to estimate the effective charge density in vacuum. PMID:22380317

  18. Proton Beam Energy Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Marus, Lauren A.; Engle, J.W.; John, K. D.; Birnbaum, E. R.; Nortier, F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) is actively engaged in the development of isotope production technologies that can utilize its 100 MeV proton beam. Characterization of the proton beam energy and current is vital for optimizing isotope production and accurately conducting research at the IPF. Motivation In order to monitor beam intensity during research irradiations, aluminum foils are interspersed in experimental stacks. A theoretical yield of 22Na from...

  19. High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed

  20. Extraction and low energy beam transport from a surface ion source at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Ames, F.; Bricault, P.; Lassen, J.; Laxdal, A.; Mjos, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large fraction of radioactive beams produced and delivered at TRIUMF's isotope separator and accelerator facility, ISAC, are using either a surface ion source or a resonant ionization laser ion source, which share a common design. To characterize the operation of the ion sources, simulations were performed to determine the ion beam optics and beam envelope properties of the extracted beam. Furthermore ion-optics calculations were performed to determine the transmission parameters through the mass separator magnet. Emittances are measured in the ISAC low energy beam line right after the mass separator. The recent addition of a channeltron to the Allison emittance meter scanner now allows us to measure emittances for ion beams with intensities as low as 105 ions/s. This is particularly useful for establishing high resolution, high throughput mass separator tunes for radioactive isotope beams. This paper discusses emittance measurements of low intensity beams, typical emittance scans for the surface ion source and the resonant laser ionized source for different source parameters. The observed results are compared to the simulations and discussed.

  1. The separated-sector cyclotron: beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic components that were ordered for the rest of the proposed beamlines at the NAC have been delivered. Design and manufacture of a special harp for the beam swinger has commenced. The Faraday cups and slits in the transfer beamline were replaced by water-cooled versions, owing to the decision to transport beams of higher intensity than initially specified. A prototype water-cooled slit for use in the low-energy beamline emittance measurement system has been installed, replacing the previous uncooled slit, to meet the requirement to measure the emittance of high-intensity beams. Software to automate the emittance measurement procedure is being developed. The method of calibration and alignment of the beamline scanners has been improved resulting in a more accurate measurement of the beam position. Software is being developed to regulate the beam current on the neutron therapy target. Current measurement from the target is used as feedback to regulate the aperture of a slit-system in the low-energy transfer beamline. This procedure will be implemented as soon as final tests have been carried out during the next scheduled shutdown. 3 figs

  2. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ninad Shrikrishna

    2009-08-25

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He{sup +} and mixed p, H{sup 2+}, H{sup 3+} beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was

  3. Investigations on transport and storage of high ion beam intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of this thesis the intense low energy ion beam transport was investigated. Especially, the beam transport in toroidal magnetic field configurations was discussed, as it may allow the accumulation of high intensive beams in the future. One of the specific tasks is to design an injection system that can be used for the proposed low energy accumulator ring. A simulation code (TBT) was written to describe the particle motion in curved segments. Particle in Cell techniques were utilized to simulate a multi particle dynamics. A possibility of reading an external data file was made available so that a measured distribution can be used to compare simulation results with measured ones. A second order cloud in cell method was used to calculate charge density and in turn to solve Poisson's equation. Further simulations were performed to study the self field effects on beam transport. Experiments were performed to compare the simulation results and gain practical experience. The preparatory experiments consisted of building and characterization of the ion source in a first step. Along with the momentum spectrometer and emittance scanner the beam properties were studied. Low mass ion beams He+ and mixed p, H2+, H3+ beams were analyzed. In the second stage, beams were transported through a solenoid and the phase space distribution was measured as a function of the magnetic field for different beam energies. The phase-space as distributions measured in a first stage were simulated backward and then again forward transported through the solenoid. The simulated results were then compared with the measured distribution. The LINTRA transport program was used. The phase-space distribution was further simulated for transport experiments in a toroidal magnetic field. The transport program that was used to simulate the beam in the toroid was also used to design the injection system. The injection system with its special field configurations was designed to perform

  4. Neutral Beam Driven Neoclassical Transport in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlberg, W. A.; Shaing, K. C.; Callen, J. D.

    2002-11-01

    We re-examine the particle and heat flows driven by neutral beam injection in tokamak plasmas. These appear as inward pinches for co-injection and outward for counter injection. We derive the parallel friction and heat friction forces exerted on the thermal species by the energetic beam ions by extending the early analysis of Callen, et al. [1], which are then used as external forces in the moments formulation of neoclassical transport in NCLASS [2]. NCLASS is based on the multiple species treatment of Hirshman and Sigmar [3]. Of particular interest is the ion energy flux driven by the heat friction term. It scales as the beam energy, while the particle and electron heat terms scale as the thermal plasma temperature. In NSTX the high beam energy to plasma temperature ratio may lead to a net negative ion heat flux with strong co-injection. Limtations to the theory, such as the large fast ion orbit size relative to the radius of the flux surface, are discussed. Comparisons are made with earlier works by Hinton and Kim [4] and Stacey [5], who evaluated only the beam-thermal friction. [1] J.D. Callen, et al, 5th IAEA, Tokyo (1974), Vol 1, 645 [2] W.A. Houlberg, K.C. Shaing, S.P. Hirshman, M.C. Zarnstorff, Phys. Plasmas 4 (1997) 3230 [3] S.P. Hirshman, D.J. Sigmar, Nucl. Fusion 21 (1981) 1079 [4] F.L. Hinton, Y.-B. Kim, Phys. Fluids B 5 (1993) 3012 [5] W.M. Stacey, Phys. Fluids B 5 (1993) 4505

  5. Studies on the transport and on the focusing of intense, high-energetic heavy ion beams for the production of high energy density in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measurement place for the production of hot, dense plasmas by the bombardment of matter with intense, high-energetic ion beams, was constructed, erected and taken into operation at the Society for Heavy Ion Research (GSI) in Darmstadt. A focusing system consisting of five quadrupole and one dipole magnet was calculated at the II. Physical Institute of the JLU in Giessen and erected at the high-temperature (HT) measuring place. The ion-optical properties of this system were in the framework of this thesis studied and optimized. Especially connection between the operational mode of the heavy-ion synchrotron SIS, the beam transport to the HT measuring place, and the focusing properties were elaborated. by this it succeeded to produce the calculated circular focusing area with a radius of 145 μm. A new procedure for the determination of the entrance beam parameters and, based on this, an optimization of the adjustment of the beam guiding system was tested. For the study of the interaction of the ion beams with the hot, dense target plasma stopped ions are excellently suited. For the determination of the energy loss and the charge change of such ions a spectrometer was constructed and its component erected. On the base of beam tests at the Z6 measuring place for the spectrometer at the HT measurement place a high-current-pulsed quadrupole doublet was constructed and erected. For the separation of the single charge states two classical dipole magnets in the spectrometer are foreseen

  6. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  7. Low-energy beam line at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toprek, D.; Formanoy, I.; Brandenburg, S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the redesign of the low-energy beam line at KVI. Redesigned and properties of the optical elements of the transport beam line is done by using the code COSY INFINITY in the third-order of approximation. The effects of fringe fields of the optical elements are also taken into acc

  8. Final beam transport in the reactor chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam transport in heavy ion fusion (HIF) accelerators is discussed. The qualitative features of transport effects are presented. The basic transport effects associated with HIF beam are space charge effects, atomic physics effects, zero-order plasma effects, and plasma instabilities. In the case of HIF, very high intensity of HIF beam is required, and its own electric repulsion does not keep the beam converging. The number of beams required for supplying the demand power at a target can be estimated. The beam charge deposited on a target pellet produces electrostatic potential, and the electrostatic repulsion prevents the beam to reach on the target. The upper limit of the gas pressure is determined by small angle Coulomb scattering. Since unneutralized beam has the pinching force, the electrostatic kink mode (wiggle mode) should be considered in the pressure region where beam neutralization does not occur. Two-stream instability, filamentation instability and self-pinched transport are considered. As a conclusion of this paper, the new first choice for HIF transport is to use ballistic transport in moderate vacuum. (Kato, T.)

  9. Plasma diagnostics of discharge channels for neutralized ion beam transport

    OpenAIRE

    Niemann, Christoph

    2002-01-01

    Most of the future accelerators will be high intensity machines delivering mega-watt beams for applications such as spallation neutron production, muon colliders, neutrino factories, nuclear-waste transmutation or inertial confinement fusion energy (IFE). Especially in the field of heavy ion driven inertial confinement fusion, where space charge dominated multi kilo-ampere beams have to be transported over several meters through a reactor chamber to a mm-size target, some kind of beam neutral...

  10. Transport line for beam generated by ITEP Bernas ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A joint research and development program is underway to investigate beam transport systems for intense steady-state ion sources for ion implanters. Two energy extremes of MeV and hundreds of eV are investigated using a modified Bernas ion source with an indirectly heated cathode. Results are presented for simulations of electrostatic systems performed to investigate the transportation of ion beams over a wide mass range: boron to decaborane

  11. Transport of 3D space charge dominated beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the theoretical analysis and the computer code design for the intense pulsed beam transport. Intense beam dynamics is a very important issue in low-energy high-current accelerators and beam transport systems. This problem affects beam transmission and beam qualities. Therefore, it attracts the attention of the accelerator physicists worldwide. The analysis and calculation for the intense beam dynamics are very complicated, because the state of particle motion is dominated not only by the applied electromagnetic fields, but also by the beam-induced electromagnetic fields (self-fields). Moreover, the self-fields are related to the beam dimensions and particle distributions. So, it is very difficult to get the self-consistent solutions of particle motion analytically. For this reason, we combine the Lie algebraic method and the particle in cell (PIC) scheme together to simulate intense 3D beam transport. With the Lie algebraic method we analyze the particle nonlinear trajectories in the applied electromagnetic fields up to third order approximation, and with the PIC algorithm we calculate the space charge effects to the particle motion. Based on the theoretical analysis, we have developed a computer code, which calculates beam transport systems consisting of electrostatic lenses, electrostatic accelerating columns, solenoid lenses, magnetic and electric quadruples, magnetic sextupoles, octopuses and different kinds of electromagnetic analyzers. The optimization calculations and the graphic display for the calculated results are provided by the code. (authors)

  12. A Parallel 3D Model for The Multi-Species Low Energy Beam Transport System of the RIA Prototype ECR Ion Source Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The driver linac of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) requires a great variety of high intensity, high charge state ion beams. In order to design and to optimize the low energy beamline optics of the RIA front end,we have developed a new parallel three-dimensional model to simulate the low energy, multi-species ion beam formation and transport from the ECR ion source extraction region to the focal plane of the analyzing magnet. A multisection overlapped computational domain has been used to break the original transport system into a number of each subsystem, macro-particle tracking is used to obtain the charge density distribution in this subdomain. The three-dimensional Poisson equation is solved within the subdomain and particle tracking is repeated until the solution converges. Two new Poisson solvers based on a combination of the spectral method and the multigrid method have been developed to solve the Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates for the beam extraction region and in the Frenet-Serret coordinates for the bending magnet region. Some test examples and initial applications will also be presented

  13. Transport of a relativistic electron beam through hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the author describes the transport properties of an electron beam through vacuum and through hydrogen gas with pressure ranging from 25 to 1000 Pa. Maximum beam energy and current are 0.8 MeV and 6 kA, respectively. The pulse length is around 150 ns. A description is given of the experimental device. Also the diagnostics for probing the beam and the plasma, produced by the beam, are discussed, as well as the data acquisition system. The interaction between the beam and hydrogen gas with a pressure around 200 Pa is considered. A plasma with density around 1019 m-3 is produced within a few nanoseconds. Measurements yield the atomic hydrogen temperature, electron density, beam energy loss, and induced plasma current and these are compared with the results of a model combining gas ionization and dissociation, and turbulent plasma heating. The angular distribution of the beam electrons about the magnetic field axis is discussed. (Auth.)

  14. EFFECT BY RADIATIVE ENERGY TRANSPORT IN PUSHER LAYER AND TRANSPORT PROPERTY OF FUEL ON NONUNIFORM IMPLOSION OF TARGET IRRADIATED BY ION BEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, K.; Aoki, T.

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain a high pressure to compress DT fuel in target for ICF, momenta of pusher and fuel itself are converted to impulse. Compressibility of fuel depends strongly on its equation of state. Target is usually not illuminated by energy driver in spherically symmetric way. Nonuniform implosion decreases severely the rate of fuel compression. Radiative energy transport in pusher layer homogenizes profile of nonuniform pressure which is originated by a nonuniform deposition of driver en...

  15. Generation and transport of laser accelerated ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the LIGHT- Project (Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport) is performed at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH Darmstadt. Within this project, intense proton beams are generated by laser acceleration, using the TNSA mechanism. After the laser acceleration the protons are transported through the beam pipe by a pulsed power solenoid. To study the transport a VORPAL 3D simulation is compared with CST simulation. A criterion as a function of beam parameters was worked out, to rate the importance of space charge. Furthermore, an exemplary comparison of the solenoid with a magnetic quadrupole-triplet was carried out. In the further course of the LIGHT-Project, it is planned to generate ion beams with higher kinetic energies, using ultra-thin targets. The acceleration processes that can appear are: RPA (Radiation Pressure Acceleration) and BOA (Break-Out Afterburner). Therefore the transport of an ion distribution will be studied, as it emerges from a RPA acceleration.

  16. Beam Transport in Toroidal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N; Meusel, O; Ratzinger, U

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a storage ring with toroidal magnetic field was presented in the two previous EPAC conferences. Here we report the first results of experiments performed with beam transport in toroidal magnetic fields and details of the injection system. The beam transport experiments were carried out with 30 degree toroidal segments with an axial magnetic field of 0.6T. The multi turn injection system relies on a transverse injection coil together with an electric kicker system.

  17. Developement of a large proton accelerator for innovative researches; development of low energy high current beam transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, In Soo; Namkung, Won; Cho, M. H.; Kim, K. N.; Kim, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, K. H.; Shim, K. Y. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    We have designed the beam transport system to connect the ion source and the RFQ. In this design, we have finalized the positions of solenoids and various beam diagnostic device. We have finalize the physical and mechanical designs of solenoids, and these designs are already adopted to produce the actual solenoids. We have also studied about EPICS, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System, to control a stepper motor as a tuner of the RFQ designed for KOMACEPICS is a real time control system for a large scale system such as accelerators and tokamaks. The purpose of this thesis is to establish a test system based on the EPICS. A Sun UtraSPARC 5 workstation is used as the Operator Interface(OPI) console, and a VME chassis contained a Motorola MVME162 single board computer is used as the Input/Output Controller(IOC). A stepper motor controller is connected to the IOC via an RS-232C as a field bus. The EPICS base, extensions, and the real time OS vxWorks are installed on the workstation. The real time OS image can be downloaded to the IOC via the FTP when the test station is started. We have installed an IOC application as a device and driver support layer for the serial communication with an RS-232C on the workstation. We have designed the IOC database configuration files and a graphic user interface style OPI panel which was programmed by the MEDM. With this OPI, we can control the stepper motor using EPICS. 17 refs., 33 figs., 9 tabs. (Author)

  18. LINAC4 low energy beam measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, L M; Lallement, J B; Lombardi, A M; Midttun, O; Posocco, P; Scrivens, R

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a 160 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H−), which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac (Linac2) as linear injector for the CERN accelerators. The low energy part, comprising a 45 keV Low Energy Beam Transport system (LEBT), a 3 MeV Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) is being assembled in a dedicated test stand for pre-commissioning with a proton beam. During 2011 extensive measurements were done after the source and after the LEBT with the aim of preparing the RFQ commissioning and validating the simulation tools, indispensable for future source upgrades. The measurements have been thoroughly simulated with a multi-particle code, including 2D magnetic field maps, error studies, steering studies and the generation of beam distribution from measurements. Emittance, acceptance and transmission measurements will be presented and compared to the results of the simulations.

  19. Light ion beam transport research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of light ion beams through low-pressure background gas is under investigation at NRL in support of the light-ion ICF program at Sandia National Laboratories. Scaling experiments and the field solver/orbit code ATHETA have been used to design and construct a focusing, extraction applied-B diode for transport experiments. An active anode source has been developed to provide a high proton fraction in the ion beam and a fast ion turn-on time. A very sensitive Zeeman diagnostic is being developed to determine the net current distribution in the beam/transport system. Both analytical and numerical techniques using several codes are being applied to transport modeling, leading to the capability of full system studies. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 10 refs

  20. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  1. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  2. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  3. Beam transport and bunch compression at TARLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksoy, Avni, E-mail: avniaksoy@ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Lehnert, Ulf [HZDR, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-10-21

    The Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) will operate two InfraRed Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3–250 μm. The facility will consist of an injector fed by a thermionic triode gun with two-stage RF bunch compression, two superconducting accelerating ELBE modules operating at continuous wave (CW) mode and two independent optical resonator systems with different undulator period lengths. The electron beam will also be used to generate Bremsstrahlung radiation. In this study, we present the electron beam transport including beam matching to the undulators and the shaping of the longitudinal phase space using magnetic dispersive sections.

  4. Beam transport and bunch compression at TARLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) will operate two InfraRed Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3–250 μm. The facility will consist of an injector fed by a thermionic triode gun with two-stage RF bunch compression, two superconducting accelerating ELBE modules operating at continuous wave (CW) mode and two independent optical resonator systems with different undulator period lengths. The electron beam will also be used to generate Bremsstrahlung radiation. In this study, we present the electron beam transport including beam matching to the undulators and the shaping of the longitudinal phase space using magnetic dispersive sections

  5. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  6. Air transportation energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    The energy efficiency of air transportation, results of the recently completed RECAT studies on improvement alternatives, and the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Research Program to develop the technology for significant improvements in future aircraft were reviewed.

  7. Beam handling and transport solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maggiore, M.; Cirrone, G.A.P.; Carpinelli, M.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, Francesco; Scuderi, Valentina; Tramontana, A.

    Melville : AIP, 2013 - (Margarone, D.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.), s. 34-43 ISBN 978-0-7354-1171-5. - (AIP Conference Proceedings. 1546). [MEDical and Multidisciplinary Application s at ELI (ELIMED) Workshop and Panel /2./. Catania (IT), 18.10.2012-19.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279 Grant ostatní: ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; OPVK 3 Laser Zdroj(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : particle beams * laser -target interactions * hadrontherapy Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  8. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  9. Neutralization of low energy broad ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of a low energy broad ion beam space charge and current compensation and ion-beam plasma (IBP), which would be created in transport space of the beam. The beam had cylindrical symmetry. The continuous uniform and hole tube like ion beams are used in the experiments. Different channels of electron appearing have been investigated for cases of neutralization due to secondary γ-electrons from the target and by electrons from glow cathode-neutralizer with metal or dielectric target. Results of neutralizing electrons energy distributions function measurements are presented as well as dependences of electron temperature and self-consisted plasma potential vs. beam parameters, ambient gas pressure, neutralizer parameters. Role of the thermoelectrons and dependence of IBP parameters on neutralizer area, location and potential are discussed. Significant role in neutralization of spatial collisional processes has been revealed even in neutralization by thermocathode. On the base of the experimental results self-consistent theoretical model have been developed, which describes the behavior of intense ion beam passing through the neutral gas at low pressure within conductive walls. The collisionless approach is used which means absence of collisional relaxation of the beam. This theory is used to derive the plasma potential and electron temperature within the beam

  10. Performance test results of ion beam transport for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral beam injector is built at IPR to heat the plasma of SST-1 and its upgrade. It delivers a maximum beam power of 1.7 MW for 55 kV Hydrogen beam or 80 kV Deuterium beam. At lower beam voltage, the delivered power falls to 500 kW at 30 kV Hydrogen beam which is adequate to heat SST-1 plasma ions to ∼ 1 keV. Process of acceleration of ions to the required beam voltage, conversion of ions to neutrals and removal of un-neutralized ions and the beam diagnostic systems occupy a large space. The consequence is that linear extent of the neutral beam injector is at least a few meters. Also, port access provides a very narrow duct. Even a very good injector design and fabrication practices keep beam divergence at a very low but finite value. The result is beam transport becomes an important issue. Since a wide area beam is constructed by hundreds of beam lets, it becomes essential they be focused in such a way that beam transport loss is minimized. Horizontal and vertical focal lengths are two parameters, in addition to beam divergence, which give a description of the beam transport. We have obtained these two parameters for our injector by using beam transport code; making several hundred simulation runs by varying optical parameters of the beam. The selected parameters set has been translated into the engineering features of the extractor grid set of the ion source. Aperture displacement technique is used to secure the horizontal beam focusing at 5.4 m. Combination of both aperture displacement and inclining of two grid halves to ∼ 17 mrad are secured for vertical beam focusing at 7 m from earth grid of the ion source. The gaps between the design, engineered and performance tested values usually arise due to lack of exercising control over fabrication processes or due to inaccuracies in the assumption made in the model calculations of beam optics and beam transport. This has been the case with several injectors, notably with JET injector. To overcome this

  11. Optics of beam transport in the NSLS uv-FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NSLS-FEL is designed as a single pass FEL to generate radiation 1 mJ per pulse (10 psec) in 10-4 bandwidth, with continuously tunable wavelength in the range 100--300 nm. A superconducting, recirculating linac provides electron beams of energy 20 MeV to 260 MeV at 4π mm mrad normalized rms emittance with less than 0.1% momentum spread and 2 mm rms bunch length. The optics in this machine is seriously restricted by the requirement to not degrade the electron beam quality. We present a lattice design for the transport lines to be used in beam injection, linac focussing and recirculations. These beam lines are tuned to be linearly achromatic and isochronous, to avoid beam breakup in the cavities, and to minimize second order distortions of the emittance. Special transport lines are designed that allow rapid switching of the electron beam to drive two different FEL wigglers. This provides the capability for up to four simultaneous, high power, independently energy tuned laser beam

  12. Energy and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, James; Banister, David; Edwards, Phil; Prentice, Andrew M; Roberts, Ian

    2007-09-22

    We examine the links between fossil-fuel-based transportation, greenhouse-gas emissions, and health. Transport-related carbon emissions are rising and there is increasing consensus that the growth in motorised land vehicles and aviation is incompatible with averting serious climate change. The energy intensity of land transport correlates with its adverse health effects. Adverse health effects occur through climate change, road-traffic injuries, physical inactivity, urban air pollution, energy-related conflict, and environmental degradation. For the world's poor people, walking is the main mode of transport, but such populations often experience the most from the harms of energy-intensive transport. New energy sources and improvements in vehicle design and in information technology are necessary but not sufficient to reduce transport-related carbon emissions without accompanying behavioural change. By contrast, active transport has the potential to improve health and equity, and reduce emissions. Cities require safe and pleasant environments for active transport with destinations in easy reach and, for longer journeys, public transport that is powered by renewable energy, thus providing high levels of accessibility without car use. Much investment in major road projects does not meet the transport needs of poor people, especially women whose trips are primarily local and off road. Sustainable development is better promoted through improving walking and cycling infrastructures, increasing access to cycles, and investment in transport services for essential needs. Our model of London shows how increased active transport could help achieve substantial reductions in emissions by 2030 while improving population health. There exists the potential for a global contraction and convergence in use of fossil-fuel energy for transport to benefit health and achieve sustainability. PMID:17868817

  13. Present status of design, installation and testing of electron gun and low energy beam transport line of electron Linac at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key component of ANURIB (Advanced National Facility of Unstable and Rare Isotope Beams) project at VECC is a 2 mA, 30/50 MeV continuous-wave superconducting electron linear accelerator (e-Linac). The e-Linac has two sections - a 10 MeV Injector and an Accelerator section for further accelerating the beam to 30/50 MeV. The Injector comprises a 300 kV de thermionic electron gun with gridded cathode modulated at 650 MHz, low energy beam transport (LEBT) line and an injector cryo-module (ICM) that houses one 9-cell beta=1, 1.3 GHz niobium elliptical cavity. As an alternative to the 300 kV gun, a capture cryo-module (CCM) having two single-cell beta=1, 1.3 GHz niobium cavities that will allow the electron gun to be operated at 100 kV is also being developed. The CCM will pre-accelerate the beam from the gun prior to injection in the ICM. The e-Linac has been jointly designed with TRIUMF Canada. The ICM is being built by TRIUMF whereas the front-end of the injector is being built indigenously at VECC. Till the Rajarhat site for ANURIB is getting ready, an e-Linac test area is being setup at VECC Salt Lake campus. The Injector is being installed here and will be later moved to the new campus. The electron gun and several components of the LEBT line up to the CCM have been installed. Alignment and vacuum tests have also been completed. The LEBT line consists of steering magnets, solenoid magnets, diagnostics chamber and a room temperature 1.3 GHz buncher. Solenoid magnets are under fabrication and steering magnets have been procured. A dipole magnet and rf- deflector cavity for characterization of time structure of the beam has been designed and will be added to the LEBT line. In this report, the detail design of the various components and magnets along with present status of installation of the Injector will be presented. (author)

  14. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. C.; Hu, P. S.

    1991-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 11 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes - highway, air, water, rail, pipeline - is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from seven other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet automobiles, Federal standards, fuel economies, and household data. Chapter 4 is a new addition to the data book series, containing information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. The last chapter, Chapter 5, covers each of the nonhighway modes: air, water, pipeline, and rail, respectively.

  15. Internally shielded beam transport and support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to environmental concerns, the Advanced Photon Source has a policy that disallows any exposed lead within the facility. This creates a real problem for the beam transport system, not so much for the pipe but for the flexible coupling (bellows) sections. A complete internally shielded x-ray transport system, consisting of long transport lines joined by flexible coupling sections, has been designed for CARS sector 14 to operate either at high vacuum or as a helium flight tube. It can effectively shield against air scattering of wiggler or undulator white beam with proper placement of apertures, collimators, and masks for direct beam control. The system makes use of male- and female-style fittings that create a labyrinth allowing for continuous shielding through the flexible coupling sections. These parts are precision machined from a ternary hypereutectic lead alloy (cast under 15 inches of head pressure to assure a pinhole-free casting) then pressed into either end (rotatable vacuum flanges) of the bellows assembly. The transport pipe itself consists of a four part construction using a stepped transition ring (Z-ring) to connect an inner tube to the vacuum flange and also to a protective and supportive outer tube. The inner tube is wrapped with 1/16 double-prime pure lead sheet to a predetermined thickness following the shape of the stepped transition ring for continuous shielding. This design has been prototyped and radiation tested. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  16. Energy and transportation(*)

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation...

  17. Self-pinched transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    beam transport in the reactor chamber of a heavy-ion-driven inertial-confinement-fusion energy system will also be discussed

  18. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.;

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  19. High energy beam manufacturing technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological progress continues to enable us to utilize ever widening ranges of physical and chemical conditions for material processing. The increasing cost of energy, raw materials and environmental control make implementation of advanced technologies inevitable. One of the principal avenues in the development of material processing is the increase of the intensity, accuracy, flexibility and stability of energy flow to the processing site. The use of different forms of energy beams is an effective way to meet these sometimes incompatible requirements. The first important technological applications of high energy beams were welding and flame cutting. Subsequently a number of different kinds of beams have been used to solve different problems of part geometry control and improvement of surface characteristics. Properties and applications of different specific beams were subjects of a number of fundamental studies. It is important now to develop a generic theory of beam based manufacturing. The creation of a theory dealing with general principles of beam generation and beam-material interaction will enhance manufacturing science as well as practice. For example, such a theory will provide a format approach for selection and integration of different kinds of beams for a particular application. And obviously, this theory will enable us to integrate the knowledge bases of different manufacturing technologies. The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells, as well as a number of more technical, although less exciting, publications demonstrate both the feasibility and effectiveness of the generic approach to the description of beam oriented technology. Without any attempt to compete with Wells, we still hope that this volume will contribute to the creation of the theory of beam oriented manufacturing

  20. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  1. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  2. Intense low energy positron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, K.G.; Jacobsen, F.M.

    1993-12-31

    Intense positron beams are under development or being considered at several laboratories. Already today a few accelerator based high intensity, low brightness e{sup +} beams exist producing of the order of 10{sup 8} {minus} 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec. Several laboratories are aiming at high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams with intensities greater than 10{sup 9} e{sup +}/sec and current densities of the order of 10{sup 13} {minus} 10{sup 14} e{sup +} sec{sup {minus}} {sup 1}cm{sup {minus}2}. Intense e{sup +} beams can be realized in two ways (or in a combination thereof) either through a development of more efficient B{sup +} moderators or by increasing the available activity of B{sup +} particles. In this review we shall mainly concentrate on the latter approach. In atomic physics the main trust for these developments is to be able to measure differential and high energy cross-sections in e{sup +} collisions with atoms and molecules. Within solid state physics high intensity, high brightness e{sup +} beams are in demand in areas such as the re-emission e{sup +} microscope, two dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation, low energy e{sup +} diffraction and other fields. Intense e{sup +} beams are also important for the development of positronium beams, as well as exotic experiments such as Bose condensation and Ps liquid studies.

  3. Beam-beam studies for the High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ohmi, K; Zimmermann, F

    2011-01-01

    LHC upgrades are being considered both towards higher luminosity (HL-LHC) and towards higher energy (HE-LHC). In this paper we report initial studies of the beam-beam effects in the HE-LHC [1]. The HE-LHC aims at beam energies of 16.5 TeV, where the transverse emittance decreases due to synchrotron radiation with a 2-hour damping time. As a result of this emittance, shrinkage the beam-beam parameter increases with time, during a physics store. The beam-beam limit in the HE-LHC is explored using computer simulations.

  4. High energy ion beam mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations have been made on the parameters which can be used to control the mixing profiles, and the width of intermixed layers in film-substrate systems being irradiated by high energy heavy ion beams. The samples were irradiated by ion beams of Au, Cu, and Si with energies of 1.5 to 3 MeV. Typical examples of the RBS spectra are presented and discussions are made on the extent of contribution of binary collisions on the interfacial mixing. The experimental and simulation results show that the interfacial mixing is dominated by the binary collisions. (author)

  5. Ion collective acceleration and high current beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of investigation of high-current beam (HCB) transport in vacuum channels with dielectric walls (VCDW) are presented. It is shown, that HCB transport can be realized not only in rectilinear dielectric channels, but also in curvili also in curvilitear oges. In particular, it proved to be possible to bend the beam with parameters 50 kA, 400 keV by 90 deg. A problem of negative ion intense beam production is considered. It is shown, that in magnetic insulation diodes hydrogen ion currents of about several kA are obtained at current densities 10 A/cm2. Results of collective ion acceleration in VCDW are given. Two regions with different physical mechanisms of ion acceleration should be distinguished. In the first region (''plasma''), corresponding to HCB motion in VCDW ion generation and their acceleration in quasipotential field of HCB up to the energy of the order of electrons or less takes place. In the second region (''beam''), corresponding to joint motion of ''extracted'' ions and HCB electrons, ion acceleration takes place in the fields of waves, which can be excited due to the mechanism of two-beam instability type. Considerable contribution can also be made by stochastic mechanism of ion acceleration

  6. High-powered pulsed-ion-beam acceleration and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of research on intense ion beam acceleration and transport is reviewed. The limitations imposed on ion beam transport by space charge effects and methods available for neutralization are summarized. The general problem of ion beam neutralization in regions free of applied electric fields is treated. The physics of acceleration gaps is described. Finally, experiments on multi-stage ion acceleration are summarized

  7. Transport of radioactive ion beams and related safety issues: The 132Sn+ case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of intense radioactive ion beam currents requires a careful design in order to limit the beam losses, the contamination and thus the dose rates. Some investigations based on numerical models and calculations have been performed in the framework of the SPIRAL 2 project to evaluate the performance of a low energy beam transport line located between the isotope separation on line (ISOL) production cell and the experiment areas. The paper presents the results of the transverse phase-space analysis, the beam losses assessment, the resulting contamination, and radioactivity levels. They show that reasonable beam transmission, emittance growth, and dose rates can be achieved considering the current standards

  8. Is LEP beam-beam limited at its highest energy?

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, D; Meddahi, Malika; Verdier, A

    1999-01-01

    The operation of LEP at 45.6 GeV was limited by beam-beam effects and the vertical beam-beam parameter xy never exceeded 0.045. At the highest energy of 94.5 GeV, the increased damping allows higher beam-beam parameters xy . Values above 0.07 in the vertical plane averaged over four experiments have been obtained frequently with peak values up to 0.075 in a single experiment. Although the maximum intensity in LEP is presently limited by technical considerations, some observations indicate that the beam-beam limit is close and the question of the maximum possible values can be raised. These observations are shown in this paper and possible consequences are presented. The optimum operation of LEP in the neighbourhood of the beam-beam limit is discussed.

  9. Suppression of space-charge effects in transport through an RFQ using an annular beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High intensity proton linacs (HIPLs) have severe space-charge issues that can lead to emittance blow-up and the production of beam halos, both of which lead to limitations in the operable beam current. Hollow or annular beams are known to have a small spacecharge force (for a given current). Here we present preliminary studies on the production of such annular beams in the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line, and the subsequent transport of such a beam through a Radio- Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). We show, using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, that such an annular beam experiences a smaller emittance blow-up as well as reduced beam halo. Starting with an nns normalized emittance of 0.2 πmn-mrad, after transport through the RFQ the emittance blows up to 0.39 πmm-mrad for a Gaussian beam, but only to 0.26 πmm-mrad for an annular beam. Similarly, the halo parameter for the annular beam is only 0.4 as compared to 1.4 for the Gaussian beam. Thus, annular beams suffer lesser deterioration due to space-charge forces in transport through the RFQ, and may therefore be a better choice for HIPLs. (author)

  10. Linac4 Low Energy Beam Measurements with Negative Hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Scrivens, R; Crettiez, O; Dimov, V; Gerard, D; Granemann Souza, E; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Lallement, J B; Lettry, J; Lombardi, A; Midttun, O; Pasquino, C; Raich, U; Riffaud, B; Roncarolo, F; Valerio-Lizarraga, C A; Wallner, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zickler, T

    2014-01-01

    Linac4, a 160 MeV normal-conducting H- linear accelerator, is the first step in the upgrade of the beam intensity available from the LHC proton injectors at CERN. The Linac4 Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) line from the pulsed 2 MHz RF driven ion source, to the 352 MHz RFQ has been built and installed at a test stand, and has been used to transport and match to the RFQ a pulsed 14 mA H- beam at 45 keV. A temporary slit-and-grid emittance measurement system has been put in place to characterize the beam delivered to the RFQ. In this paper a description of the LEBT and its beam diagnostics is given, and the results of beam emittance measurements and beam transmission measurements through the RFQ are compared with the expectation from simulations.

  11. High-current negative-ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The requirements for transporting high-current, negative-ion beams are presented with particular emphasis on applications involving negative-hydrogen-ion beams. In addition to the usual matching and steering problems, particular attention must be paid to beam emittance growth in the transport system. Depending on the application, a number of approaches have been developed using both magnetic and electric lenses. I discuss the design considerations for transporting and matching these beams to radiofrequency quadrupole accelerators, and present a survey of the various types of beamlines now used for negative-ion beams

  12. Enhancing the accelerated beam current in the booster synchrotron by optimizing the transport line beam propagation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saini R S; Tyagi Y; Ghodke A D; Puntambekar T A

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present the results of transverse beam emittance and twiss parameter measurement of an electron beam, delivered by a 20 MeV microtron which is used as a pre-injector system for a booster synchrotron in the Indus Accelerator Facility at RRCAT Indore. Based on these measured beam parameters, beam optics of a transport line was optimized and its results are alsodiscussed in this paper. This beam transport line is used to transport the electron beam from the 20MeV microtron to the booster synchrotron. The booster synchrotron works as a main injector for Indus-1 and Indus-2 synchrotron radiation facilities. To optimize the beam optics of a transport linefor proper beam transmission through the line as well as to match the beam twiss parameters at the beam injection point of another accelerator, it is necessary to know the transverse beam emittance and twiss parameters of the beam coming from the first one. A MATLAB-based GUI program has been developed to calculate the beam emittance and twiss parameters, using quadrupole scanmethod. The measured parameters have been used for beam transport line optimization and twiss parameters matching at booster injection point. After this optimization, an enhancement of ∼50% beam current has been observed in the booster synchrotron.

  13. The Booster Application Facility (BAF) Beam Transport Line of BNL-AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental facility, to irradiate materials with energetic ion beams, has been proposed to be built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The BAF facility will mainly consist of the AGS-Booster slow extraction, of a beam transport line, and a target room. The beam transport line will transport the slow extracted beam of the AGS-Booster to the target location for the irradiation of various materials and specimens. A variety of ion beams like (p, 28Si, 56Fe, 63Cu, 197Au) in the energy range of 0.04 to 3.07 GeV/nucleon will be transported by the BAF line which is designed to provide variable beam spot sizes on the BAF target with sizes varying from 2.0 cm to 20.0 cm in diameter. The beam spot sizes will include 95% of the beam intensity with the beam distributed normally (Gaussian) on the target area. It is also possible by introducing magnetic octupoles at specified locations along the beam transport line, to modify the distribution on the BAF target and provide well confined beams with rectangular cross section and with uniform distribution on the target

  14. Micro computer aided beam transport for the SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improvement of the beam transport system for the SF cyclotron is described. The system was designed to handle on-line alignment of the beam extracted from the SF cyclotron onto the optical axis of the transport line. It also enables to measure the beam emittance. The measurement of the emittance parameters is in particular necessary to calculate the beam optics. The calculation has been modified to become easy to handle. With the help of the computer-aided on-line beam profile measurement system, the operation of the beam transport system is very subservient to shorten the beam-tuning time and to improve the beam-transmission efficiency and the quality. (author)

  15. High intensity proton beam transportation through fringe field of 70 MeV compact cyclotron to beam line targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Li, Ming; Wei, Sumin; Xing, Jiansheng; Hu, Yueming; Johnson, Richard R.; Piazza, Leandro; Ryjkov, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    From the stripping points, the high intensity proton beam of a compact cyclotron travels through the fringe field area of the machine to the combination magnet. Starting from there the beams with various energy is transferred to the switching magnet for distribution to the beam line targets. In the design of the extraction and transport system for the compact proton cyclotron facilities, such as the 70 MeV in France and the 100 MeV in China, the space charge effect as the beam crosses the fringe field has not been previously considered; neither has the impact on transverse beam envelope coupled from the longitudinal direction. Those have been concerned much more with the higher beam-power because of the beam loss problem. In this paper, based on the mapping data of 70 MeV cyclotron including the fringe field by BEST Cyclotron Inc (BEST) and combination magnet field by China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), the beam extraction and transport are investigated for the 70 MeV cyclotron used on the SPES project at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (INFN-LNL). The study includes the space charge effect and longitudinal and transverse coupling mentioned above, as well as the matching of beam optics using the beam line for medical isotope production as an example. In addition, the designs of the ±45° switching magnets and the 60° bending magnet for the extracted beam with the energy from 35 MeV to 70 MeV have been made. Parts of the construction and field measurements of those magnets have been done as well. The current result shows that, the design considers the complexity of the compact cyclotron extraction area and fits the requirements of the extraction and transport for high intensity proton beam, especially at mA intensity levels.

  16. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  17. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  18. Energy recovery transport design for PKU FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimei Wang; Yu-Chiu Chao; KUI Zhao; Xiangyang Lu; Jiejia Zhuang; Chuyu Liu; Zhenchao Liu; Jiaer Chen

    2007-06-25

    A free-electron laser based on superconducting linac is under construction in Peking University(PKU). To increase FEL output power, energy recovery is chosen as one of the most potential and popular way. The design of beam transport system for energy recovery is presented, which is suitable for Peking University construction area. Especially, a chicane structure is chosen to change path length at +/-18 degree and R56 in the arc is adjusted for fully bunch compression.

  19. Third-order TRANSPORT: A computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSPORT has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version of TRANSPORT is a first-, second-, and third-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. This report discusses the following topics on TRANSPORT: Mathematical formulation of TRANSPORT; input format for TRANSPORT; summaries of TRANSPORT elements; preliminary specifications; description of the beam; physical elements; other transformations; assembling beam lines; operations; variation of parameters for fitting; and available constraints -- the FIT command

  20. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meusel, O., E-mail: o.meusel@iap.uni-frankfurt.de; Droba, M.; Noll, D.; Schulte, K.; Schneider, P. P.; Wiesner, C. [IAP, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt D-60438 (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed.

  1. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusel, O; Droba, M; Noll, D; Schulte, K; Schneider, P P; Wiesner, C

    2016-02-01

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed. PMID:26932109

  2. Beam transport and space charge compensation strategies (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of intense ion beams is affected by the collective behavior of this kind of multi-particle and multi-species system. The space charge expressed by the generalized perveance dominates the dynamical process of thermalisation, which leads to emittance growth. To prevent changes of intrinsic beam properties and to reduce the intensity dependent focusing forces, space charge compensation seems to be an adequate solution. In the case of positively charged ion beams, electrons produced by residual gas ionization and secondary electrons provide the space charge compensation. The influence of the compensation particles on the beam transport and the local degree of space charge compensation is given by different beam properties as well as the ion beam optics. Especially for highly charged ion beams, space charge compensation in combination with poor vacuum conditions leads to recombination processes and therefore increased beam losses. Strategies for providing a compensation-electron reservoir at very low residual gas pressures will be discussed

  3. LATTICE/hor ellipsis/a beam transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LATTICE is a computer program that calculates the first order characteristics of synchrotrons and beam transport systems. The program uses matrix algebra to calculate the propagation of the betatron (Twiss) parameters along a beam line. The program draws on ideas from several older programs, notably Transport and Synch, adds many new ones and incorporates them into an interactive, user-friendly program. LATTICE will calculate the matched functions of a synchrotron lattice and display them in a number of ways, including a high resolution Tektronix graphics display. An optimizer is included to adjust selected element parameters so the beam meets a set of constraints. LATTICE is a first order program, but the effect of sextupoles on the chromaticity of a synchrotron lattice is included, and the optimizer will set the sextupole strengths for zero chromaticity. The program will also calculate the characteristics of beam transport systems. In this mode, the beam parameters, defined at the start of the transport line, are propagated through to the end. LATTICE has two distinct modes: the lattice mode which finds the matched functions of a synchrotron, and the transport mode which propagates a predefined beam through a beam line. However, each mode can be used for either type of problem: the transport mode may be used to calculate an insertion for a synchrotron lattice, and the lattice mode may be used to calculate the characteristics of a long periodic beam transport system

  4. Development of a transverse beam emittance and Twiss parameters measurement system for transport line-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Transport Line-1 (TL-1) in Indus Accelerator Complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore is being used to transport 20 MeV, 30 mA beam from the injector Microton exit point to the Booster Synchrotron where energy of electron beam is raised from 20 MeV to 450 MeV for injection into Indus-1 storage ring and 550 MeV to Indus-2 storage ring. It is important to measure the transverse beam emittance and Twiss parameters at Microton beam exit point for beam optics optimization in the transport line and to judge the beam quality. A transverse emittance and Twiss parameters measurement system using quadrupole scan method has been developed and tested. The system uses the electron beam images from the existing scintillator based beam profile monitor installed in TL-1 for beam size measurement. We have developed MATLAB codes that can extract transverse beam size and estimate transverse beam emittance. This paper describes the measurement method, software and some initial results obtained using this system. (author)

  5. Experimental study of the transport limits of intense heavy ion beams in the HCX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program to explore heavy-ion beam transport at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linac driver for fusion energy production. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high space-charge intensity (line charge density up to ∼ 0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment also contributes to the practical baseline knowledge of intense beam manipulations necessary for the design, construction and operation of a heavy ion driver for inertial fusion. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and beam steering, matching, image charges, halo, electron cloud effects, and longitudinal bunch control. We first present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through the first ten electrostatic transport quadrupoles, measured with optical beam-imaging and double-slit phase-space diagnostics. This includes studies at two different radial fill factors (60% and 80%), for which the beam transverse distribution was characterized in detail. Additionally, beam energy measurements will be shown. We then discuss the first results of beam transport through four pulsed room-temperature magnetic quadrupoles (located downstream of the electrostatic quadrupoles), where the beam dynamics become more sensitive to the presence of secondary electrons

  6. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  7. Magnetic fields for transporting charged beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of charged particle beams requires magnetic fields that must be shaped correctly and very accurately. During the last 20 years or so, many studies have been made, both analytically and through the use of computer programs, of various magnetic shapes that have proved to be useful. Many of the results for magnetic field shapes can be applied equally well to electric field shapes. A report is given which gathers together the results that have more general significance and would be useful in designing a configuration to produce a desired magnetic field shape. The field shapes studied include the fields in dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, octupoles, septum magnets, combined-function magnets, and electrostatic septums. Where possible, empirical formulas are proposed, based on computer and analytical studies and on magnetic field measurements. These empirical formulas are often easier to use than analytical formulas and often include effects that are difficult to compute analytically. In addition, results given in the form of tables and graphs serve as illustrative examples. The field shapes studied include uniform fields produced by window-frame magnets, C-magnets, H-magnets, and cosine magnets; linear fields produced by various types of quadrupoles; quadratic and cubic fields produced by sextupoles and octupoles; combinations of uniform and linear fields; and septum fields with sharp boundaries

  8. Parton distributions with high energy proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunities for using high energy proton beams to advance our current knowledge in parton distributions are discussed. Highlights from some Fermilab dimuon production experiments with 800 GeV proton beams are presented. Possible future directions are discussed

  9. Use achromatic beam line for Hall C beam energy measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several different methods to measure accelerator beam energy, for example, from frequency spectrum measurement and calculation of orbit length from accurate measurement of magnetic field in a reference dipole magnet from high precision floating wire analogue, and from detecting the synchrotron radiation emitted from kicker magnets. In this report an achromatic spectrometer method combined with calibrating a reference magnet and determining the deflection angle of spectrometer is proposed. The similar method will be used to measure beam energy in Bates Linear Accelerator Center, a 10-3 accuracy of beam energy measurement is expected

  10. Determination of the LEP beam energy

    CERN Document Server

    Torrence, E

    2000-01-01

    This article describes the determination of the LEP beam energy above the production threshold for W boson pairs. A brief overview of the magnetic extrapolation method is presented which is currently used to determine the LEP beam energy to a relative precision of 2*10/sup -4 /. A new method for beam energy measurements based on an in-line energy spectrometer is presented, and current developments in the commissioning of this device are outlined. (2 refs).

  11. Ballistic-neutralized chamber transport of intense heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of intense heavy ion beams propagating in an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor chamber are presented. The ballistic-neutralized transport scheme studied uses 4 GeV Pb+1 ion beams injected into a low-density, gas-filled reactor chamber and the beam is ballistically focused onto an ICF target before entering the chamber. Charge and current neutralization of the beam is provided by the low-density background gas. The ballistic-neutralized simulations include stripping of the beam ions as the beam traverses the chamber as well as ionization of the background plasma. In addition, a series of simulations are presented that explore the charge and current neutralization of the ion beam in an evacuated chamber. For this vacuum transport mode, neutralizing electrons are only drawn from sources near the chamber entrance

  12. Beam energy online measurement of BEPCII LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shao-Zhe; Chi, Yun-Long

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes beam energy online measurement of BEPCII linac, presents the calculation formula and some of the results. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring beam positions in the horizontal direction with three beam position monitors (BPM) eliminating the effect of orbit fluctuation, which is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in the end of this paper.

  13. Transportation energy use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum, C.; Meyers, S.; Sathaye, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents data on passenger travel and freight transport and analysis of the consequent energy use in Mexico during the 1970--1971 period. We describe changes in modal shares for passenger travel and freight transport, and analyze trends in the energy intensity of different modes. We look in more detail at transportation patterns, energy use, and the related environmental problems in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area, and also discuss policies that have been implemented there to reduce emissions from vehicles.

  14. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  15. A reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2014-07-01

    A hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic electrons by plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport case.

  16. Optimizing the COSY Beam Transport to the Time of Flight (TOP) Spectrometer and beam Properties near the Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosy Juelich is a cooler synchrotron and storage ring with a proton momentum range 270 to 3300 MeV/c. It has been conceived to deliver high percision beams for medium energy physics. For that purpose, electron and stochasd phase space cooling is available at COSY. At the present the beam is used at three internal and three external target places. The beam line to the Time Of Flight spectrometer (TOF) consists of four sections. The first section I matches the COSY beam properties to following sections to transport the beam in an economic way to the target area. In the next two sections, II and lit, the beam is handled almost without losses. The last section is used to fit the beam to the experiment requirements. The optimization of beam lines for extracted particles from accelerator facilities requires the knowledge of beam parameters, A method for phase space measurement depends on the thin lenses approximation is developed at COSY. This method depends on imaging by quadrupole lenses of the beam profiles at arbitrary positions along the beam axis on a multi wire chamber. The emittances of the extracted COSY beam, without phase space cooling, were determined by the imaging method at several energies. The emittances were determined to be around 3 π [mm mrad]. The waist positions, and the beam extensions in horizontal and vertical planes were determined. It Is found out that the waist positions are rather independent of the beam energy. To get a beam spot on the target of radius less than 1 mm. and to decrease the halo near the TOF spectrometer the beam was successfully limited in emittance with the upstream dipoles far away from the target, Some properties of the beam were investigated and optimized In me target region with the help of veto counters (scintillator rings), a start detector and a strip hodoscope. Near the target 98% of the beam intensity passes through the 2 mm central hole of the veto detector. Also measurement of the beam position and a fine

  17. Application of graphical design method to beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A graphical design method in which a partical beam with initial divergence can realize waist to waist transport in both X and Y planed simultaneously by means of quadrupole doublet is presented. Graphical mathod and transport matrix as well as charts can be used so that a quick design can be carried out to save computer time considerably. A concrete example of the beam is given to demonstrate the practical application of the theory mentioned above

  18. Energy Beam Highways Through the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    1996-01-01

    The emergence of Energy Beam Flight Transportation Systems could dramatically change the way we travel in the 21st Century. A framework for formulating 'Highways of Light' and the top level architectures that invoke radically new Space Power Grid infrastructure, are introduced. Basically, such flight systems, hereafter called Lightcraft, would employ off-board energy beam sources (either laser or microwave) to energize on-board dependent 'motors' -- instead of the traditional autonomous 'engines' with their on-board energy sources (e.g., chemical fuels). Extreme reductions in vehicle dry mass appear feasible with the use of off-board power and a high degree of on-board artificial intelligence. Such vehicles may no longer need airports for refueling (since they require no propellant), and could possibly pick up travelers at their homes -- before motoring over to one of many local boost stations, for the flight out. With off-board power, hyper-energetic acceleration performance and boost-glide trajectories become feasible. Hypersonic MS airbreathing propulsion can enable boosts up to twice escape velocity, which will cut trip times to the moon down to 5.5 hours. The predominant technological, environmental and social factors that will result from such transportation systems will be stressed. This presentation first introduces the remote source siting options for the space power system infrastructure, and then provides three representative laser/microwave Lightcraft options (derived from historical Case Studies): i.e., 'Acorn', 'Toy Top', and 'Disc.' Next the gamut of combined-cycle engine options developed for these Lightcraft are examined -- to illuminate the 'emerging technologies' that must be harnessed to produce flight hardware. Needed proof-of concept experiments are identified, along with the Macro-Level Issues that can springboard these revolutionary concepts into hardware reality.

  19. Fokker-Planck/Transport model for neutral beam driven tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of nonlinear Fokker-Planck models to the study of beam-driven plasmas is briefly reviewed. This evolution of models has led to a Fokker-Planck/Transport (FPT) model for neutral-beam-driven Tokamaks, which is described in detail. The FPT code has been applied to the PLT, PDX, and TFTR Tokamaks, and some representative results are presented

  20. Transport of intense proton beams in an induction linac by solenoid lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the proposed proton induction linac at NSWC, a 100 A and 3 μs proton beam is accelerated to 5 MeV through a series of accelerating gaps. This beam can be effectively focused by solenoid lenses in this low energy regime and can be transported by adjusting the focusing strength in each period. For the transport channel design to reduce the number of independently controlled lenses, a theory of matched beams in the space-charge dominated regime has been developed. This study can be applied to cost efficient designs of induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion and free electron lasers

  1. Transport of intense proton beams in an induction linac by solenoid lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkung, W.; Choe, J. Y.; Uhm, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    In the proposed proton induction linac at NSWC, a 100 A and 3 μs proton beam is accelerated to 5 MeV through a series of accelerating gaps. This beam can be effectively focused by solenoid lenses in this low energy regime and can be transported by adjusting the focusing strength in each period. For the transport channel design to reduce the number of independently controlled lenses, a theory of matched beams in the space-charge dominated regime has been developed. This study can be applied to cost efficient designs of induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion and free electron lasers.

  2. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  3. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2008-09-29

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  4. Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy

    OpenAIRE

    Panasenko, Dmitriy

    2010-01-01

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, ...

  5. Current neutralization in ballistic transport of light ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense light ion beams are being considered as drivers to ignite fusion targets in the Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). Ballistic transport of these beams from the diode to the target is possible only if the beam current is almost completely neutralized by plasma currents. This paper summarizes related work on relativistic electron beam and heavy ion beam propagation and describes a simple simulation model (DYNAPROP) which has been modified to treat light ion beam propagation. DYNAPROP uses an envelope equation to treat beam dynamics and uses rate equations to describe plasma and conductivity generation. The model has been applied both to the high current, 30 MeV Li+3 beams for LMF as well as low current, 1.2 MeV proton beams which are currently being studied on GAMBLE B at the Naval Research Laboratory. The predicted ratio of net currents to beam current is ∼0.1--0.2 for the GAMBLE experiment and ∼0.01 for LMF. The implications of these results for LMF and the GAMBLE experiments art discussed in some detail. The simple resistive model in DYNAPROP has well-known limitations in the 1 torr regime which arise primarily from the neglect of plasma electron transport. Alternative methods for treating the plasma response are discussed

  6. The application of Monte Carlo method to electron and photon beams transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a Monte Carlo method to study a transport in matter of electron and photon beams is presented, especially for electrons with energies up to 18 MeV. The SHOWME Monte Carlo code, a modified version of GEANT3 code, was used on the CONVEX C3210 computer at Swierk. It was assumed that an electron beam is mono directional and monoenergetic. Arbitrary user-defined, complex geometries made of any element or material can be used in calculation. All principal phenomena occurring when electron beam penetrates the matter are taken into account. The use of calculation for a therapeutic electron beam collimation is presented. (author). 20 refs, 29 figs

  7. Study of beam transport lines for a biomedical research facility at CERN based on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, D; Garonna, A; Peach, K

    2014-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN has been proposed to provide ion beams with magnetic rigidities up to 6.7 T.m for biomedical research, in parallel to its continued operation for LHC and SPS fixed target physics experiments. In the context of this project, two beamlines are proposed for transporting the extracted beam to future experimental end-stations: a vertical beamline for specific low-energy radiobiological research, and a horizontal beamline for radiobiology and medical physics experimentation. This study presents a first linear-optics design for the delivery of 1–5mm FWHM pencil beams and 5 cm 5 cm homogeneous broad beams to both endstations. High field uniformity is achieved by selection of the central part of a strongly defocused Gaussian beam, resulting in low beam utilisation.

  8. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  9. Transport of an intense pulsed proton beam through wall-stabilized plasma channel at Nagaoka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of an intense pulsed proton beam has been experimentally investigated through a wall-stabilized plasma channel (1-m long) in the Nagaoka ETIGO-I. Proton beam of energy of 800-keV is injected into the plasma channel. The transport efficiency increases with increasing channel current or decreasing channel pressure, being in good agreement with the existing theory. Changing the timing between channel current and LIB injection, we have found that there exists a good timing for the LIB injection. In some cases, no transport takes place probably due to some plasma instabilities. (author)

  10. Neutralized transport of high intensity beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. A converging ion beam at the exit of the final focus magnetic system is injected into a neutralized drift section. The neutralization is provided by a metal arc source and an RF plasma source. Effects of a ''plasma plug'', where electrons are extracted from a localized plasma in the upstream end of the drift section, and are then dragged along by the ion potential, as well as the ''volumetric plasma'', where neutralization is provided by the plasma laid down along the ion path, are both studied and their relative effects on the beam spot size are compared. Comparisons with 3-D PIC code predictions will also be presented

  11. High Current Beam Transport to SIS18

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, S; Dahl, L; Glatz, J; Groening, L; Yaramishev, S

    2004-01-01

    The optimized transversal and longitudinal matching of space charged dominated ion beams to SIS18 is essential for a loss free injection. This paper focuses on the beam dynamics in the transfer line (TK) from the post-stripper accelerator to the SIS18. Transverse beam emittance measurements at different positions along the TK were done. Especially, the different foil stripping modes were investigated. A longitudinal emittance measurement set-up was commissioned at the entry to the TK. It is used extensively to tune all the rebunchers along the UNILAC. An addition, a test bench is in use for measurements of longitudinal bunch profiles, which enables to monitor for the final debunching to SIS18. Multi particle simulations by means of PARMILA allow a detailed analysis of experimental results for different ion currents.

  12. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group carries out research in two broad areas: the computation of charged particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods and advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Important improvements in the state of the art are believed to be possible in both of these areas. In addition, applications of these methods are made to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. The Lie algebraic method of computing and analyzing beam transport handles both linear and nonlinear beam elements. Tests show this method to be superior to the earlier matrix or numerical integration methods. It has wide application to many areas including accelerator physics, intense particle beams, ion microprobes, high resolution electron microscopy, and light optics. With regard to the area of electromagnetic fields and beam cavity interactions, work is carried out on the theory of beam breakup in single pulses. Work is also done on the analysis of the high frequency behavior of longitudinal and transverse coupling impedances, including the examination of methods which may be used to measure these impedances. Finally, work is performed on the electromagnetic analysis of coupled cavities and on the coupling of cavities to waveguides

  13. Beam collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed high field solenoid was used in a laser-proton acceleration experiment to collimate and transport the proton beam that was generated at the irradiation of a flat foil by a high intensity laser pulse. 1012 particles at an energy of 2.3 MeV could be caught and transported over a distance of more than 240 mm. Strong space charge effects occur, induced by the high field of the solenoid that forces all co-moving electrons down the the solenoid's axis, building up a strong negative space charge that interacts with the proton beam. This leads to an aggregation of the proton beam around the solenoid's axis and therefore to a stronger focusing effect. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications like post-acceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  14. Emittance growth and space-charge compensation in the transport of intense ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the GSI transport experiment was the study of the periodic beam transport at space-charge dominated and at partially compensated ion beams. For this purpose a periodic transport channel was constructed which consisted of 6 periods with each two alternatingly poled magnetic quadrupoles. Faraday cups and beam transformers were available for current measurements. At the entrance and the end of the channel the emittances were measured in both transverse planes. The measurements were performed with Ar1+ ions and an energy of 190 keV. The ion currents lied between some μA and 5 mA. The quantity of the rms emittance could be varied from 0.5 mm.mrad to 15 mm.mrad. In agreement with the theoretical considerations the measurement results show that the compensation of the space charge of an ion beam sets on successively. (orig./HSI)

  15. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Amato, A. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Giove, D. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Korn, G.; Krasa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Leanza, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell' Universitá 2 - 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Marchese, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Milluzzo, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Petringa, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Via Messina 829 - 95100 Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser–Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  16. Experimental investigations of plasma lens focusing and plasma channel transport of heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final focusing of ion beams and propagation in a reactor chamber are crucial questions for heavy ion beam driven Fusion. An alternative solution to ballistic quadrupole focusing, as it is proposed in most reactor studies today, is the utilization of the magnetic field produced by a high current plasma discharge. This plasma lens focusing concept relaxes the requirements for low emittance and energy spread of the driver beam significantly and allows to separate the issues of focusing, which can be accomplished outside the reactor chamber, and of beam transport inside the reactor. For focusing a tapered wall-stabilized discharge is proposed, a concept successfully demonstrated at GSI, Germany. For beam transport a laser pre-ionized channel can be used

  17. Beam dynamics in high energy particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Wolski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Particle accelerators are essential tools for scientific research in fields as diverse as high energy physics, materials science and structural biology. They are also widely used in industry and medicine. Producing the optimum design and achieving the best performance for an accelerator depends on a detailed understanding of many (often complex and sometimes subtle) effects that determine the properties and behavior of the particle beam. Beam Dynamics in High Energy Particle Accelerators provides an introduction to the concepts underlying accelerator beam line design and analysis, taking an approach that emphasizes the elegance of the subject and leads into the development of a range of powerful techniques for understanding and modeling charged particle beams.

  18. In-beam production and transport of radioactive 17F at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam currents of radioactive 17F(T1/2 = 65s) as high as 2 x 106 s-1 have been produced at the ATLAS facility and delivered to target for nuclear physics research. The d(16O, 17F)n and p(17O,17F)n reaction were used to produce the 17F in the energy range of 65-110 MeV with 17F intensities of up to 250 pnA. The target employed is a liquid nitrogen cooled H2 gas cell, with HAVAR windows, operating at up to 8 x 104 Pa pressure. A new beam optics geometry consisting of a superconducting solenoid immediately after the production target followed by a single superconducting resonator has significantly improved the total capture efficiency of the transport system. The superconducting solenoid captures the highly divergent secondary beam and refocuses it to improve the beam match into the remainder of the transport system. A single superconducting resonator then ''debunches'' the beam, reducing the energy spread by a factor of four. The beam energy can also be varied, using the resonant cavity, without changing the primary beam energy. Detailed discussion of the results, comparison to calculations, and further possible improvements will be presented

  19. High Energy Transport Code HETC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics contained in the High Energy Transport Code (HETC), in particular the collision models, are discussed. An application using HETC as part of the CALOR code system is also given. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  20. Alternative energy in oil transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A few percent of the oil are used to cover own needs as an energy sources in the oil transportation processes. In the terminals, pumping and pigging stations, valves for production of electricity by the generators and turbo-generators the organic fuel are used. The transporation, storage and incineration of organic fuel facilities creates a number of environmental problems and reduces the total energy efficiency of the oil transportation processes

  1. Narrow beam dosimetry for high-energy hadrons and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, M; Ulrici, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10°— 400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formula should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in case of accidental exposures to high-energy beams.

  2. TRANSPORT - a computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSPORT is a computer program for first-order and second-order matrix multiplication, intended for the design of static-magnetic beam-transport systems. It has been in existence in various versions since 1963. The first part of the report is a user's manual, and supersedes the earlier report CERN 73-16. The second part is a reproduction of the Fermilab document 'TRANSPORT appendix', by the same authors, which describes the theory of charged-particle beam optics and the applications of transformation matrices for numerical computation of beam trajectories and properties, as applied in the program. (orig.)

  3. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp [Graduate school of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  4. Dust particle diffusion in ion beam transport region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, N.; Okajima, Y.; Romero, C. F.; Kuwata, Y.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2016-02-01

    Dust particles of μm size produced by a monoplasmatron ion source are observed by a laser light scattering. The scattered light signal from an incident laser at 532 nm wavelength indicates when and where a particle passes through the ion beam transport region. As the result, dusts with the size more than 10 μm are found to be distributed in the center of the ion beam, while dusts with the size less than 10 μm size are distributed along the edge of the ion beam. Floating potential and electron temperature at beam transport region are measured by an electrostatic probe. This observation can be explained by a charge up model of the dust in the plasma boundary region.

  5. Ion Beam Energy Calibration Method for Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam energy calibration methods, i e : nuclear reaction method, magnetic field method and calorimeter method were elaborated and studied from its advantage and disadvantage in this paper. Ion beam energy calibration method for accelerator using the method of magnetic field on 3 MV Tandem Accelerator have been carried out at Tiara, JAERI, Japan. The result showed that the energy of ion beam current is 43.56 keV. The result of study conclude that nuclear reaction method generally used to calibrate ion beam energy at the accelerator of energy larger than 2 MeV, calorimetric method for the accelerator electron including linac, magnetic field method for all particle type of accelerator. (author)

  6. Physics Design Considerations of Diagnostic X Beam Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y J; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Paul, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Diagnostic X (D-X) transport system would extract the beam from the downstream transport line of the second- axis of the Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrodynamic Test facility (DARHT-II) and transport this beam to the D-X firing point via four branches of the beamline in order to provide four lines of sight for x-ray radiography. The design goal is to generate four DARHT-II-like x-ray pulses on each line of sight. In this paper, we discuss several potential beam quality degradation processes in the passive magnet lattice beamline and indicate how they constrain the D-X beamline design parameters, such as the background pressure, the pipe size, and the pipe material

  7. Effect of voltage ramping for time-of-flight bunching on light ion beam transport efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multimodular light ion inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system directs 10--30 MJ of ion energy from 10 to 30 intense ion-beam diodes onto a target for implosion. Each beam is focused and transported over a distance of a few meters from the ion diode to the target. This standoff allows for packing the pulsed power generators around the target chamber, for isolation of the diode hardware form the target explosion, and for power compression by time-of-flight (TOF) bunching. The Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF) has been proposed for the study of high-gain, high-yield ICF targets. Bunching factors of α= 2--3 are being considered for LMF. The light-ion transport schemes which have been studied most extensively include ballistic transport, and wire-guided transport. Transport efficiency, ηt, has been calculated previously for all three systems as a function of beam microdivergence, diode radius, and focal distance. In those studies a monoenergetic beam was assumed. Work is presently underway to evaluate the effect that voltage ramping for TOF bunching has on ηt for each of the transport schemes. The bunching factor, number of modules, and total ion energy available to drive the target will be varied to establish their effect on ηt. Available results will be presented

  8. Practical Beam Transport for the Planet Formation Imager (PFI)

    CERN Document Server

    Mozurkewich, David; Ireland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Planet Formation Imager (PFI) is a future kilometric-baseline infrared interferometer to image the complex physical processes of planet formation. Technologies that could be used to transport starlight to a central beam-combining laboratory in PFI include free-space propagation in air or vacuum, and optical fibres. This paper addresses the design and cost issues associated with free-space propagation in vacuum pipes. The signal losses due to diffraction over long differential paths are evaluated, and conceptual beam transport designs employing pupil management to ameliorate these losses are presented and discussed.

  9. TRANSPORT: a computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRANSPORT is a first- and second-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. It has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version, described in the manual given, includes both first- and second-order fitting capabilities. TRANSPORT will step through the beam line, element by element, calculating the properties of the beam or other quantities, described below, where requested. Therefore one of the first elements is a specification of the phase space region occupied by the beam entering the system. Magnets and intervening spaces and other elements then follow in the sequence in which they occur in the beam line. Specifications of calculations to be done or of configurations other than normal are placed in the same sequence, at the point where their effect is to be made

  10. TRANSPORT: a computer program for designing charged particle beam transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.L.; Rothacker, F.; Carey, D.C.; Iselin, C.

    1977-05-01

    TRANSPORT is a first- and second-order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of static-magnetic beam transport systems. It has been in existence in various evolutionary versions since 1963. The present version, described in the manual given, includes both first- and second-order fitting capabilities. TRANSPORT will step through the beam line, element by element, calculating the properties of the beam or other quantities, described below, where requested. Therefore one of the first elements is a specification of the phase space region occupied by the beam entering the system. Magnets and intervening spaces and other elements then follow in the sequence in which they occur in the beam line. Specifications of calculations to be done or of configurations other than normal are placed in the same sequence, at the point where their effect is to be made.

  11. CSRe 分子离子研究装置低能传输线物理设计%Design of Low Energy Beam Transport System for CSRe Molecular Ion Research Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严晓军; 姚泽恩; 夏佳文; 张小虎; 张金泉; 杨建成; 卢小龙

    2014-01-01

    The design of a low energy beam transport system for CSRe molecular ion research facility was presented .The electric field distribution of the 150 kV high voltage accelerator was simulated by Poisson/Superfish code .The results show that the electric field strengths of various region spaces were far lower than the value of breakdown electric field . The transmission of the molecular ion beam from the ion source was simulated by Beampath in the high voltage accelerator .The beam envelope indicates that the electric field of acceleration section has a strong focusing effect on the molecular ion beam ,and the beam size is small at the end of the accelerate tube .The Trace-3D code was used to design the magnetic analysis system with high resolution and the matching section for injecting into RFQ accelerator . Finally , through the simulation , the molecular ion beam with the mass number of 150 was analyzed and the injection matching of the RFQ accelerator by one triplet quadrupoles was achieved .%本文完成了CSRe分子离子研究装置低能传输线的物理设计。采用 Poisson/Superfish软件对150 kV倍压型高压加速器的电场分布进行了模拟,结果显示,加速器各区域空间电场强度均远低于击穿电场强度限值。利用Beampath程序对离子源引出的分子离子束在高压加速器中的传输进行了模拟,束流包络显示,加速区电场对分子离子束具有较强的聚焦作用,加速管出口束斑尺寸较小。采用T race-3D程序设计了高分辨能力的磁分析系统和 RFQ加速器的注入匹配段。通过Beampath程序的模拟,分析出了质量数为150的分子离子束,并由三单元四极透镜实现了分析束流与直线加速器 RFQ的注入匹配。

  12. Compressed beam directed particle nuclear energy generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the generation of energy from the fusion of atomic nuclei which are caused to travel towards each other along collision courses, orbiting in common paths having common axes and equal radii. High velocity fusible ion beams are directed along head-on circumferential collision paths in an annular zone wherein beam compression by electrostatic focusing greatly enhances head-on fusion-producing collisions. In one embodiment, a steady radial electric field is imposed on the beams to compress the beams and reduce the radius of the spiral paths for enhancing the particle density. Beam compression is achieved through electrostatic focusing to establish and maintain two opposing beams in a reaction zone

  13. An ion beam transport design optimization in a medium range ion implanter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improvement of the transport beam focusing model in an ion implanter system has been achieved, with the definition of the main optical elements used and their parameters effect on charged particles. The equations of motion of charged particles and matrices in each optical element have been derived, with consideration of the motion in different planes. In the first assumption, the four-dimensional beam ellipsoid, the beam transport is accomplished in zero order (drift space and dipole) and first order (quadrupole and magnet). In the second assumption, the particle distribution is normal in the area of its space coordinates. Calculations of the emittance and brightness factors of the ion beam are found to be more affected by the energy of charged particles. The emittance and brightness have constant normalized values. A comparison and evaluation was made of the location and the effect of the designed parameters for each optical element within the available ion implantation design system. (author)

  14. A Particle In Cell code development for high current ion beam transport and plasma simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N

    2016-01-01

    A simulation package employing a Particle in Cell (PIC) method is developed to study the high current beam transport and the dynamics of plasmas. This package includes subroutines those are suited for various planned projects at University of Frankfurt. In the framework of the storage ring project (F8SR) the code was written to describe the beam optics in toroidal magnetic fields. It is used to design an injection system for a ring with closed magnetic field lines. The generalized numerical model, in Cartesian coordinates is used to describe the intense ion beam transport through the chopper system in the low energy beam section of the FRANZ project. Especially for the chopper system, the Poisson equation is implemented with irregular geometries. The Particle In Cell model is further upgraded with a Monte Carlo Collision subroutine for simulation of plasma in the volume type ion source.

  15. High-intensity ion sources for accelerators with emphasis on H- beam formation and transport (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper lays out the fundamental working principles of a variety of high-current ion sources for accelerators in a tutorial manner, and gives examples of specific source types such as dc discharge-driven and rf-driven multicusp sources, Penning-type, and electron cyclotron resonance-based sources while discussing those principles, pointing out general performance limits as well as the performance parameters of specific sources. Laser-based, two-chamber, and surface-ionization sources are briefly mentioned. Main aspects of this review are particle feed, ionization mechanism, beam formation, and beam transport. Issues seen with beam formation and low-energy transport of negative hydrogen-ion beams are treated in detail.

  16. Diagnostics of the H- ion beam on light emission in transport channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One experimentally studied the possibility of nondisturbing diagnostics of 2 MeV energy H- beam on the basis of light emission within the transport channel. One studied the nature of light emission of gas targets and monitoring procedure for H- ion beam parameters based on it. The light emission is recorded by two photomultipliers. It was determined that the spatial distribution and the intensity of luminescence did not vary within the whole range of working gas pressure variation. One made a conclusion that the optical image of H- ion beam at H2, He and N2 gas targets within the pressure variation range (10-6 - 10-3 Torr) was formed at direct contact of target atoms or molecules with ions. One estimated the potential capabilities of beam profiling meter on the basis of light emission within transport channel

  17. Computer simulations for intense continuous beam transport in electrostatic lens systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-Song; L(U) Jian-Qin

    2008-01-01

    A code LEADS based on the Lie algebraic analysis for the continuous beam dynamics with space charge effect in beam transport has been developed.The program is used for the simulations of axial-symmetric and unsymmetricalintense continuous beam in the channels including drift spaces.electrostatic lenses and DC electrostatic accelerating tubes.In order to get the accuracy required,all elements are divided into many small segments,and the electric field in the segments is regarded as uniform field,and the dividing points are treated as thin lenses.Iteration procedures are adopted in the program to obtain self-consistent solutions.The code can be used in the designs of low energy beam transport systems,electrostatic accelerators and ion implantation machines.

  18. Photon and dilepton production at the Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research and beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider using coarse-grained microscopic transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Stephan; van Hees, Hendrik; Bleicher, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    We present calculations of dilepton and photon spectra for the energy range Elab=2 A to35 A GeV which will be available for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Proton and Anti-Proton Research (FAIR). The same energy regime will also be covered by phase II of the beam-energy scan at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC-BES). Coarse-grained dynamics from microscopic transport calculations of the Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD) model is used to determine temperature and chemical potentials, which allows for the use of dilepton and photon-emission rates from equilibrium quantum-field-theory calculations. The results indicate that nonequilibrium effects, the presence of baryonic matter, and the creation of a deconfined phase might show up in specific manners in the measurable dilepton invariant-mass spectra and in the photon transverse-momentum spectra. However, as the many influences are difficult to disentangle, we argue that the challenge for future measurements of electromagnetic probes will be to provide a high precision with uncertainties much lower than in previous experiments. Furthermore, a systematic study of the whole energy range covered by CBM at FAIR and RHIC-BES is necessary to discriminate between different effects, which influence the spectra, and to identify possible signatures of a phase transition.

  19. Study on the beam transport from the Bio-Nano ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam transport of N+ ion and C60+ ion in the Bio-Nano ECRIS with min-B configuration was investigated based on the ion beam profiles. The N+ beam could be focused under the low-beam current conditions. Also the C60+ beam could be focused in spite of the large space-charge effect which will lead the divergence of the beam. We confirmed that our beam transport system works well even for the C60+ ion beam. We estimated the highest C60+ beam current with the focused beam profile by comparing the N+ ion beam.

  20. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of the VENUS Ion Beam Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Damon; Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude; Qiang, Ji

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the linac driver of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The high-intensity heavy ion beams required by the RIA driver linac present significant challenges for the design and simulation of an ECR extraction and low energy ion beam transport system. Extraction and beam formation take place in a strong (up to 3T) axial magnetic field, which leads to significantly different focusing properties for the different ion masses and charge states of the extracted beam. Typically, beam simulations must take into account the contributions of up to 30 different charge states and ion masses. Two three-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes developed for other purposes, IMPACT and WARP, have been adapted in order to model intense, multi-species DC beams. A discussion of the differences of these codes and the advantages of each in the simulation of the low energy beam transport system of an ECR ion source is given. D...

  1. Magnetic transport channel for high-energy linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy linacs, as proposed for future linear colliders, are a severe challenge to the magnetic transport system. The large number of magnets and the low beam emittance require tolerances on the displacement jitter in the submicron region. By choosing a low phase advance per cell, mounting the magnets two by two on rigid girders, and fixing all girders within one betatron wavelength on one beam, the tolerances are considerably relieved. The tolerances on one beam are now a few microns, and between beams they are some tens of microns

  2. LTRACK: Beam-transport calculation including wakefield effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LTRACK is a first-order beam-transport code that includes wakefield effects up to quadrupole modes. This paper will introduce the readers to this computer code by describing the history, the method of calculations, and a brief summary of the input/output information. Future plans for the code will also be described

  3. Documentation for TRACE: an interactive beam-transport code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRACE is an interactive, first-order, beam-dynamics computer program. TRACE includes space-charge forces and mathematical models for a number of beamline elements not commonly found in beam-transport codes, such as permanent-magnet quadrupoles, rf quadrupoles, rf gaps, accelerator columns, and accelerator tanks. TRACE provides an immediate graphic display of calculative results, has a powerful and easy-to-use command procedure, includes eight different types of beam-matching or -fitting capabilities, and contains its own internal HELP package. This report describes the models and equations used for each of the transport elements, the fitting procedures, and the space-charge/emittance calculations, and provides detailed instruction for using the code

  4. Thermal energy storage and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausz, W.

    1980-01-01

    The extraction of thermal energy from large LWR and coal fired plants for long distance transport to industrial and residential/commercial users is analyzed. Transport of thermal energy as high temperature water is shown to be considerably cheaper than transport as steam, hot oil, or molten salt over a wide temperature range. The delivered heat is competitive with user-generated heat from oil, coal, or electrode boilers at distances well over 50 km when the pipeline operates at high capacity factor. Results indicate that thermal energy storage makes meeting of even very low capacity factor heat demands economic and feasible and gives the utility flexibility to meet coincident electricity and heat demands effectively.

  5. Emittance measurements of low-energy beam line at KVI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toprek, D; Formanoy, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this paper is represented the results of beam profile measurements of He-3(+) beam delivered from ECR ion source at KVI. The beam emittance is estimated by varying quadrupole method. The estimated values for the beam emittance at the different profile grid locations along the transport beam line

  6. Transportation economics and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Sobh, Ali

    The overall objective of this research is to study the impacts of technology improvement including fuel efficiency increment, extending the use of natural gas vehicle and electric vehicles on key parameters of transportation. In the first chapter, a simple economic analysis is used in order to demonstrate the adoption rate of natural gas vehicles as an alternative fuel vehicle. The effect of different factors on adoption rate of commuters is calculated in sensitivity analysis. In second chapter the VMT is modeled and forecasted under influence of CNG vehicles in different scenarios. The VMT modeling is based on the time series data for Washington State. In order to investigate the effect of population growth on VMT, the per capita model is also developed. In third chapter the effect of fuel efficiency improvement on fuel tax revenue and greenhouse emission is examined. The model is developed based on time series data of Washington State. The rebound effect resulted from fuel efficiency improvement is estimated and is considered in fuel consumption forecasting. The reduction in fuel tax revenue and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as two outcomes of lower fuel consumption are computed. In addition, the proper fuel tax rate to restitute the revenue is suggested. In the fourth chapter effective factors on electric vehicles (EV) adoption is discussed. The constructed model is aggregated binomial logit share model that estimates the modal split between EV and conventional vehicles for different states over time. Various factors are incorporated in the utility function as explanatory variables in order to quantify their effect on EV adoption choices. The explanatory variables include income, VMT, electricity price, gasoline price, urban area and number of EV stations.

  7. Beam instability during high-current heavy-ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In driver system for heavy ion inertial fusion, beam dynamics is investigated by particle-in-cell simulations during final beam bunching. The particle simulations predict that the beam is transported with the localized transverse charge distribution induced by the strong space charge effect. The calculation results also show that the emittance growth during the longitudinal bunch compression for various particle distributions at the initial conditions and with two types of transverse focusing model, which are a continuous focusing and an alternating gradient focusing lattice configurations. (author)

  8. Influence of target requirements on the production, acceleration, transport, and focusing of ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Mark, J.W.K.; Meeker, D.J.; Judd, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    We have calculated the energy gain of ion-driven fusion targets as a function of input energy, ion range, and focal spot radius. For heavy-ion drivers a given target gain, together with final-lens properties, determines a 6-D phase space volume which must exceed that occupied by the ion beam. Because of Liouville's theorem and the inevitability of some phase space dilutions, the beams's 6-D volume will increase between the ion source and the target. This imposes important requirements on accelerators and on transport and focusing systems.

  9. Influence of target requirements on the production, acceleration, transport, and focusing of ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the energy gain of ion-driven fusion targets as a function of input energy, ion range, and focal spot radius. For heavy-ion drivers a given target gain, together with final-lens properties, determines a 6-D phase space volume which must exceed that occupied by the ion beam. Because of Liouville's theorem and the inevitability of some phase space dilutions, the beams's 6-D volume will increase between the ion source and the target. This imposes important requirements on accelerators and on transport and focusing systems

  10. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barter, Garrett; Reichmuth, David; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Peterson, Meghan; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Guzman, Katherine Dunphy; Edwards, Donna M.; Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a system dynamics based model of the supply-demand interactions between the USlight-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through the year2050. An important capability of our model is the ability to conduct parametric analyses. Others have reliedupon scenario-based analysis, where one discrete set of values is assigned to the input variables and used togenerate one possible realization of the future. While these scenarios can be illustrative of dominant trendsand tradeoffs under certain circumstances, changes in input values or assumptions can have a significantimpact on results, especially when output metrics are associated with projections far into the future. Thistype of uncertainty can be addressed by using a parametric study to examine a range of values for the inputvariables, offering a richer source of data to an analyst.The parametric analysis featured here focuses on a trade space exploration, with emphasis on factors thatinfluence the adoption rates of electric vehicles (EVs), the reduction of GHG emissions, and the reduction ofpetroleum consumption within the US LDV fleet. The underlying model emphasizes competition between13 different types of powertrains, including conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), conventional hybrids(HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles(BEVs).We find that many factors contribute to the adoption rates of EVs. These include the pace of technologicaldevelopment for the electric powertrain, battery performance, as well as the efficiency improvements inconventional vehicles. Policy initiatives can also have a dramatic impact on the degree of EV adoption. Theconsumer effective payback period, in particular, can significantly increase the market penetration rates ifextended towards the vehicle lifetime.Widespread EV adoption can have noticeable impact on petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas

  11. Electron density measurements during ion beam transport on Gamble II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-sensitivity laser interferometry was used to measure the electron density created when an intense proton beam (100 kA, 1 MeV, 50 ns) from the Gamble II generator was transported through low-pressure gas as part of a project investigating Self-Pinched Transport (SPT) of intense ion beams. This measurement is non-perturbing and sufficiently quantitative to allow benchmarking of codes (particularly IPROP) used to model beam-gas interaction and ion-beam transport. Very high phase sensitivity is required for this measurement. For example, a 100-kA, 1-MeV, 10-cm-radius proton beam with uniform current density has a line-integrated proton density equal to nbL = 3 x 1013 cm-2. An equal electron line-density, neL = nbL, (expected for transport in vacuum) will be detected as a phase shift of the 1.064 microm laser beam of only 0.05degree, or an optical path change of 1.4 x 10-4 waves (about the size of a hydrogen atom). The time-history of the line-integrated electron density, measured across a diameter of the transport chamber at 43 cm from the input aperture, starts with the proton arrival time and decays differently depending on the gas pressure. The gas conditions included vacuum (10-4 Torr air), 30 to 220 mTorr He, and 1 Torr air. The measured densities vary by three orders of magnitude, from 1013 to 1016 cm-2 for the range of gas pressures investigated. In vacuum, the measured electron densities indicate only co-moving electrons (neL approximately nbL). In He, when the gas pressure is sufficient for ionization by beam particles and SPT is observed, neL increases to about 10 nbL. At even higher pressures where electrons contribute to ionization, even higher electron densities are observed with an ionization fraction of about 2%. The diagnostic technique as used on the SPT experiment will be described and a summary of the results will be given. The measurements are in reasonable agreement with theoretical predictions from the IPROP code

  12. Energy-transport models for spin transport in ferromagnetic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Jüngel, Ansgar; Shpartko, Polina; Zamponi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Explicit energy-transport equations for the spinorial carrier transport in ferromagnetic semiconductors are calculated from a general spin energy-transport system that was derived by Ben Abdallah and El Hajj from a spinorial Boltzmann equation. The novelty of our approach are the simplifying assumptions leading to explicit models which extend both spin drift-diffusion and semiclassical energy-transport equations. The explicit models allow us to examine the interplay between the spin and charg...

  13. Beam collimation and transport of quasineutral laser-accelerated protons by a solenoid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports about controlling laser-accelerated proton beams with respect to beam divergence and energy. The particles are captured by a pulsed high field solenoid with a magnetic field strength of 8.6 T directly behind a flat target foil that is irradiated by a high intensity laser pulse. Proton beams with energies around 2.3 MeV and particle numbers of 1012 could be collimated and transported over a distance of more than 300 mm. In contrast to the protons the comoving electrons are strongly deflected by the solenoid field. They propagate at a submillimeter gyroradius around the solenoid's axis which could be experimentally verified. The originated high flux electron beam produces a high space charge resulting in a stronger focusing of the proton beam than expected by tracking results. Leadoff particle-in-cell simulations show qualitatively that this effect is caused by space charge attraction due to the comoving electrons. The collimation and transport of laser-accelerated protons is the first step to provide these unique beams for further applications such as postacceleration by conventional accelerator structures.

  14. Fluidic energy harvesting beams in grid turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh-Yazdi, A. H.; Goushcha, O.; Elvin, N.; Andreopoulos, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Much of the recent research involving fluidic energy harvesters based on piezoelectricity has focused on excitation through vortex-induced vibration while turbulence-induced excitation has attracted very little attention, and virtually no previous work exists on excitation due to grid-generated turbulence. The present experiments involve placing several piezoelectric cantilever beams of various dimensions and properties in flows where turbulence is generated by passive, active, or semi-passive grids, the latter having a novel design that significantly improves turbulence generation compared to the passive grid and is much less complex than the active grid. We experimentally show for the first time that the average power harvested by a piezoelectric cantilever beam placed in decaying isotropic, homogeneous turbulence depends on mean velocity, velocity and length scales of turbulence as well as the electromechanical properties of the beam. The output power can be modeled as a power law with respect to the distance of the beam from the grid. Furthermore, we show that the rate of decay of this power law closely follows the rate of decay of the turbulent kinetic energy. We also introduce a forcing function used to model approximately the turbulent eddies moving over the cantilever beam and observe that the feedback from the beam motion onto the flow is virtually negligible for most of the cases considered, indicating an effectively one-way interaction for small-velocity fluctuations.

  15. Thermal Transport in NCS Plasmas with Counter Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, B. W.; Casper, T. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Gohil, P.; Lohr, J.; Petty, C. C.; Synakowski, E.; Austin, M. E.; McKee, G. R.; Rettig, C. L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D have investigated internal transport barrier (ITB) formation with neutral beams injected in the counter-current direction, assisted by early ECH during current ramp up. For counter injection the v_torBT term for radial force balance adds to the nabla p term to determine E× B flow shear. Compared to ITB plasmas with co-current injection, characteristics with counter injection at similar beam power are: (a) broader profiles of T_I, T_e, n_e, and ω_tor within a larger barrier radius, (b) reduced profile gradients in the barrier region, and (c) about a factor of 2 higher Z_eff ( ~4) from the carbon impurity. In this paper profile evolution and results of transport analysis will be compared with co-injection plasmas.

  16. Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transverse centroid oscillations are analyzed for a beam in a solenoid transport lattice. Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by both mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on the properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering, and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields, respectively. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid oscillations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.

  17. Transport studies of LPA electron beam towards the FEL amplification at COXINEL

    CERN Document Server

    Khojoyan, M; Labat, M; Loulergue, A; Marcouillé, O; Marteau, F; Sharma, G; Couprie, M E

    2016-01-01

    Laser Plasma Acceleration (LPA) [1] is an emerging concept enabling to generate electron beams with high energy, high peak current and small transverse emittance within a very short distance. The use of LPA can be applied to the Free Electron Laser (FEL) [2] case in order to investigate whether it is suitable for the light amplification in the undulator. However, capturing and guiding of such beams to the undulator is very challenging, because of the large divergence and high energy spread of the electron beams at the plasma exit, leading to large chromatic emittances. A specific beam manipulation scheme was recently proposed for the COXINEL (Coherent X-ray source inferred from electrons accelerated by laser) setup, which makes an advantage from the intrinsically large chromatic emittance of such beams [3]. The electron beam transport is studied using two simulation codes: a SOLEIL in-house one and ASTRA [4]. The influence of the collective effects on the electron beam performance is also examined.

  18. Internal flows and energy circulation in light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review optical phenomena associated with the internal energy redistribution which accompany propagation and transformations of monochromatic light fields in homogeneous media. The total energy flow (linear-momentum density, Poynting vector) can be divided into a spin part associated with the polarization and an orbital part associated with the spatial inhomogeneity. We give a general description of the internal flows in the coordinate and momentum (angular spectrum) representations for both nonparaxial and paraxial fields. This enables one to determine local densities and integral values of the spin and orbital angular momenta of the field. We analyse patterns of the internal flows in standard beam models (Gaussian, Laguerre–Gaussian, flat-top beam, etc), which provide an insightful picture of the energy transport. Emphasis is given to the singular points of the flow fields. We describe the spin–orbit and orbit–orbit interactions in the processes of beam focusing and symmetry breakdown. Finally, we consider how the energy flows manifest themselves in the mechanical action on probing particles and in the transformations of a propagating beam subjected to a transverse perturbation. (review article)

  19. Space-charge dominated beam transport in magnetic quadrupoles with large aperture ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This memo summarizes the results of calculations of the usable aperture ratio for short period, magnetic quadrupoles for both ILSE magnet designs and the more general, heavy-ion fusion (HIF) ''driver'' case. From both analytic decomposition of the magnetic field in a periodic lattice and particle code simulations of beam transport, we find that fringe field nonlinearities and associated emittance growth become quite large when the beam radius ab exceeds one-quarter or so of the half-lattice period L. For ILSE, there are a number of magnet designs which can transport the specified line charge without any significant difficulties, primarily because the ratio ab/L is of order 0.1 or less. For larger sized beams such as one might employ in the low energy part of a driver, there are problems with properly matching the beam to the transport lattice in both the macroscopic and microscopic sense as ab/L exceeds 0.2. For even larger aperture ratios, particle loss can occur, with the threshold in beam radius roughly scaling inversely with σo, the single particle phase advance per lattice period

  20. ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE GANIL BEAM ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CASANDJIAN, JM; MITTIG, W; BEUNARD, R; GAUDARD, L; LEPINESZILY, A; VILLARI, ACC; AUGER, G; BIANCHI, L; CUNSOLO, A; FOTI, A; LICHTENTHALER, R; PLAGNOL, E; SCHUTZ, Y; SIEMSSEN, RH; WIELECZKO, JP

    1993-01-01

    The energy of the GANIL cyclotron beam was measured on-line during the Pb-208 + Pb-208 elastic scattering experiment ''Search for Color van der Waals Force in the Pb-208 + Pb-208 Mott scattering'' with an absolute precision of 7 x 10(-5) at approximately 1.0 GeV, which represents an improvement of o

  1. Superintense ion beam with high energy density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, Vadim; Dudnikova, Galina

    2008-04-01

    The energy density of ion beam accumulated in a storage ring can be increased dramatically with using of space charge compensation as was demonstrated in experiments [1]. The intensity of said superintense beam can be far greater than a space charge limit without space charge compensation. The model of secondary plasma build up with secondary ion-electron emission as a source of delayed electrons has been presented and discussed. This model can be used for explanation of bunched beam instability with electron surviving after gap, for prediction of e-cloud generation in coasting and long bunches beam, and can be important for pressure rise in worm and cold sections of storage rings. A fast desorption by ion of physically adsorbed molecules can explain a ``first pulse Instability''. Application of this model for e-p instability selfstabilization and superintense circulating beam accumulation is considered. Importance of secondary plasma for high perveance ion beam stabilization in ion implantation will be considered. Preliminary results of simulation of electron and ion accumulation will be presented. [1]. Belchenko et al., Xth International Particle Accelerator Conference, Protvino, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.

  2. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator

  3. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  4. Energy Absorption Capacity of Composite Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arivalagan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Local buckling may occur in the compression flange of rectangular hollow-section beams under cyclic repeated loadingarising from earthquakes. Once a local mechanism forms, residual strength rapidly reduces within a few cycles. This is trueeven for compact sections under static bending. This paper aims to study the experimental behaviour and ultimate momentcapacity of unfilled and concrete-filled rectangular hollow sections subjected to cyclic reversible loading. Two types offiller material were used - normal mix concrete and fly ash concrete. The effect of filler materials, section slenderness, loaddeflectionresponse, moment-strain behaviour, first cycle peak load, ductility, stiffness degradation and energy absorption ofconcrete –filled RHS beams are studied.

  5. Dynamics and transport of laser-accelerated particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of beam transport elements in the context of the steadily growing field of laser-driven particle acceleration. The first topic is the examination of the free vacuum expansion of an electron beam at high current density. It could be shown that particle tracking codes which are commonly used for the calculation of space charge effects will generate substantial artifacts in the regime considered here. The artifacts occurring hitherto predominantly involve insufficient prerequisites for the Lorentz transformation, the application of inadequate initial conditions and non negligible retardation artifacts. A part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a calculation approach which uses a more adequate ansatz calculating space charge effects for laser-accelerated electron beams. It can also be used to validate further approaches for the calculation of space charge effects. The next elements considered are miniature magnetic quadrupole devices for the focusing of charged particle beams. General problems involved with their miniaturization concern distorting higher order field components. If these distorting components cannot be controlled, the field of applications is very limited. In this thesis a new method for the characterization and compensation of the distorting components was developed, which might become a standard method when assembling these permanent magnet multipole devices. The newly developed characterization method has been validated at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) electron accelerator. Now that we can ensure optimum performance, the first application of permanent magnet quadrupole devices in conjunction with laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. The experiment was carried out at the Z-Petawatt laser system at Sandia National Laboratories. A promising application for laser-accelerated electron beams is the FEL in a university-scale size. The first discussion of all relevant aspects

  6. Dynamics and transport of laser-accelerated particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Stefan

    2010-04-19

    The subject of this thesis is the investigation and optimization of beam transport elements in the context of the steadily growing field of laser-driven particle acceleration. The first topic is the examination of the free vacuum expansion of an electron beam at high current density. It could be shown that particle tracking codes which are commonly used for the calculation of space charge effects will generate substantial artifacts in the regime considered here. The artifacts occurring hitherto predominantly involve insufficient prerequisites for the Lorentz transformation, the application of inadequate initial conditions and non negligible retardation artifacts. A part of this thesis is dedicated to the development of a calculation approach which uses a more adequate ansatz calculating space charge effects for laser-accelerated electron beams. It can also be used to validate further approaches for the calculation of space charge effects. The next elements considered are miniature magnetic quadrupole devices for the focusing of charged particle beams. General problems involved with their miniaturization concern distorting higher order field components. If these distorting components cannot be controlled, the field of applications is very limited. In this thesis a new method for the characterization and compensation of the distorting components was developed, which might become a standard method when assembling these permanent magnet multipole devices. The newly developed characterization method has been validated at the Mainz Microtron (MAMI) electron accelerator. Now that we can ensure optimum performance, the first application of permanent magnet quadrupole devices in conjunction with laser-accelerated ion beams is presented. The experiment was carried out at the Z-Petawatt laser system at Sandia National Laboratories. A promising application for laser-accelerated electron beams is the FEL in a university-scale size. The first discussion of all relevant aspects

  7. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report summarizes research activities carried out in 1988 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation of heavy ion beams and the investigation of hot dense plasmas produced by these beams. Its initial motivation and its long-term goal is the feasibility of inertial confinement fusion by intense heavy ion beams. Two outstanding events deserve to be mentioned explicity, the Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion Conference held in Darmstadt and organized by GSI end of June and the first heavy ion beam injected into the new SIS facility in November. The former event attracted more than hundred scientists for three days to the 4th Conference in this field. This symposium showed the impressive progress since the last conference in Washington two years ago. In particular the first beams in MBE-4 at LBL and results of beam plasma interaction experiments at GSI open new directions for future investigations. The ideas for non-Lionvillean injection into storage rings presented by Carlo Rubbia will bring the discussion of driver scenarios into a new stage. The latter event is a milestone for both machine and target experiments. It characterizes the beginning of the commissioning phase for the new SIS/ESR facility which will be ready for experiments at the end of this year. The commissioning of SIS is on schedule and first experiments can start at the beginning of 1990. A status report of the accelerator project is included. Theoretical activities were continued as in previous years, many of them providing guide lines for future experiments, in particular for the radiation transport aspects and for beam-plasma interaction. (orig.)

  8. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: Charged Particle Beam Transport and the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields and Beam-Cavity Interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates

  9. Transport of laser accelerated proton beams and isochoric heating of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acceleration of intense proton and ion beams by ultra-intense lasers has matured to a point where applications in basic research and technology are being developed. Crucial for harvesting the unmatched beam parameters driven by the relativistic electron sheath is the precise control of the beam. We report on recent experiments using the PHELIX laser at GSI, the VULCAN laser at RAL and the TRIDENT laser at LANL to control and use laser accelerated proton beams for applications in high energy density research. We demonstrate efficient collimation of the proton beam using high field pulsed solenoid magnets, a prerequisite to capture and transport the beam for applications. Furthermore we report on two campaigns to use intense, short proton bunches to isochorically heat solid targets up to the warm dense matter state. The temporal profile of the proton beam allows for rapid heating of the target, much faster than the hydrodynamic response time thereby creating a strongly coupled plasma at solid density. The target parameters are then probed by X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) to reveal the density and temperature of the heated volume. This combination of two powerful techniques developed during the past few years allows for the generation and investigation of macroscopic samples of matter in states present in giant planets or the interior of the earth.

  10. Energy recovery in high energy neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to heat the plasma of thermonuclear fusion experiments, is to inject high energy (50 to 100 KeV per nucleon), neutral particles (hydrogen or deuterium). Neutral beam elaboration consists in ion production and acceleration, neutralisation by charge exchange on gas target, disposal of unneutralized ions. But, in the case of positive ion based neutral beam injection, the neutralisation efficiency is limited to 50% at 100 KeV, and decreases rapidly with energy. The energy recovery is a new method for disposing of the unneutralized ions: these are electrostatically decelerated and collected on electrodes which are polarized at low voltage, close to the ion source potential. An energy recovery system was studied and experimented with positive ion beams of 50 and 100 KeV. In the framework of a french-japanese collaboration, we measured a relative power reduction of about 20%, with 100 KeV, 1,5 MW deuterium beams. We have also studied theoretically an energy recovery system for negative ion beams, which will be utilized at high energy (1 MeV). A relative power reduction of 20% can be expected in the best conditions

  11. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution. No...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy...... single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  12. Transportation Energy Efficiency Trends, 1972--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, D.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fan, Y. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The US transportation sector, which remains 97% dependent on petroleum, used a record 22.8 quads of energy in 1993. Though growing much more slowly than the economy from 1975 to 1985, energy use for transportation is now growing at nearly the same rate as GDP. This report describes the analysis of trends in energy use and energy intensity in transportation into components due to, (1) growth in transportation activity, (2) changes in energy intensity, and (3) changes in the modal structure of transportation activities.

  13. The ELIMED transport and dosimetry beamline for laser-driven ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Scuderi, V.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Amico, A.; Candiano, G.; De Luca, G.; Gallo, G.; Giordanengo, S.; Guarachi, L. Fanola; Korn, G.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Marchese, V.; Marchetto, F.; Margarone, D.; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Pulvirenti, S.; Rizzo, D.; Sacchi, R.; Salamone, S.; Sedita, M.; Vignati, A.

    2016-09-01

    A growing interest of the scientific community towards multidisciplinary applications of laser-driven beams has led to the development of several projects aiming to demonstrate the possible use of these beams for therapeutic purposes. Nevertheless, laser-accelerated particles differ from the conventional beams typically used for multiscipilinary and medical applications, due to the wide energy spread, the angular divergence and the extremely intense pulses. The peculiarities of optically accelerated beams led to develop new strategies and advanced techniques for transport, diagnostics and dosimetry of the accelerated particles. In this framework, the realization of the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical and multidisciplinary applications) beamline, developed by INFN-LNS (Catania, Italy) and that will be installed in 2017 as a part of the ELIMAIA beamline at the ELI-Beamlines (Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines) facility in Prague, has the aim to investigate the feasibility of using laser-driven ion beams for multidisciplinary applications. In this contribution, an overview of the beamline along with a detailed description of the main transport elements as well as the detectors composing the final section of the beamline will be presented.

  14. Numerical simulations of self-pinched transport of intense ion beams in low-pressure gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-pinched transport of intense ion beams in low-pressure background gases is studied using numerical simulations and theoretical analysis. The simulations are carried out in a parameter regime that is similar to proton beam experiments being fielded on the Gamble II pulsed power generator [J. D. Shipman, Jr., IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-18, 243 (1971)] at the Naval Research Laboratory. Simulation parameter variations provide information on scaling with background gas species, gas pressure, beam current, beam energy, injection angles, and boundaries. The simulation results compare well with simple analytic scaling arguments for the gas pressure at which the effective net current should peak and with estimates for the required confinement current. The analysis indicates that the self-pinched transport of intense proton beams produced on Gamble II (1.5 MeV, 100 kA, 3 cm radius) is expected to occur at gas pressures between 30 and 80 mTorr of He or between 3 and 10 mTorr of Ar. The significance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion is discussed. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. Energy verification in Ion Beam Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Moser, F; Dorda, U

    2011-01-01

    The adoption of synchrotrons for medical applications necessitates a comprehensive on-line verification of all beam parameters, autonomous of common beam monitors. In particular for energy verification, the required precision of down to 0.1MeV in absolute terms, poses a special challenge regarding the betatron-core driven 3rd order extraction mechanism which is intended to be used at MedAustron [1]. Two different energy verification options have been studied and their limiting factors were investigated: 1) A time-of-flight measurement in the synchrotron, limited by the orbit circumference information and measurement duration as well as extraction uncertainties. 2) A calorimeter-style system in the extraction line, limited by radiation hardness and statistical fluctuations. The paper discusses in detail the benefits and specific aspects of each method.

  16. The expert system OPTRAN (Ver 1.0) and its application to beam transportation line design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expert system OPTRAN (Ver 1.0) used for beam transportation line design is introduced. The knowledge storage and reasoning principle, of which the intelligence part of OPTRAN are composed, have been described in detail. By using OPTRAN (Ver 1.0), the design of a beam transportation line for extracted ion beam of Cyclone 30 was completed

  17. Energy Production Demonstrator for Megawatt Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Pronskikh, Vitaly S; Novitski, Igor; Tyutyunnikov, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary study of the Energy Production Demonstrator (EPD) concept - a solid heavy metal target irradiated by GeV-range intense proton beams and producing more energy than consuming - is carried out. Neutron production, fission, energy deposition, energy gain, testing volume and helium production are simulated with the MARS15 code for tungsten, thorium, and natural uranium targets in the proton energy range 0.5 to 120 GeV. This study shows that the proton energy range of 2 to 4 GeV is optimal for both a natU EPD and the tungsten-based testing station that would be the most suitable for proton accelerator facilities. Conservative estimates, not including breeding and fission of plutonium, based on the simulations suggest that the proton beam current of 1 mA will be sufficient to produce 1 GW of thermal output power with the natU EPD while supplying < 8% of that power to operate the accelerator. The thermal analysis shows that the concept considered has a problem due to a possible core meltdown; however...

  18. Study on the transport of a relativistic electron beam in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong-bo; Zhu, Shao-ping; He, X. T.

    2016-03-01

    In the fast ignition scheme, in order to deliver enough energy (10kJ) into the pellet in 10ps, the ignition laser beam should reach the intensity of I 0 ∼ 1020 W/cm 2 if the coupling from the laser to the core plasma is about 20% for a well-collimated beam. However, studies have shown that the electron divergence increases with the laser intensity. Of particular importance is the possibility of collimating the fast electron beams with the size of the compressed core. In this work, we will introduce two ways to obtain the collimated electrons: 1) collimate fast electrons in specially engineered targets with the spontaneously generated magnetic field during its transportation; 2) collimate fast electrons with imposed magnetic field.

  19. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhengzheng, E-mail: liuz@frib.msu.edu; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-11

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR), to be implemented upstream of each FRIB cryomodule, as part of the direct loss monitoring system to fulfill the needs of machine protection. - Highlights: • Traditional BLM is not effective for beam loss monitoring at FRIB low energy linac segments. • We developed LMR to intercept a small portion of beam loss and output voltage signals. • We made a prototype LMR and demonstrated its functionality to monitor small beam losses. • The LMR is very sensitive for small beam losses and is independent of beam current. • The LMR is especially useful for loss monitoring at low energy ion/proton accelerators.

  20. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR), to be implemented upstream of each FRIB cryomodule, as part of the direct loss monitoring system to fulfill the needs of machine protection. - Highlights: • Traditional BLM is not effective for beam loss monitoring at FRIB low energy linac segments. • We developed LMR to intercept a small portion of beam loss and output voltage signals. • We made a prototype LMR and demonstrated its functionality to monitor small beam losses. • The LMR is very sensitive for small beam losses and is independent of beam current. • The LMR is especially useful for loss monitoring at low energy ion/proton accelerators

  1. Study on the beam transport from the Bio-Nano ECRIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, T. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Minezaki, H.; Yoshida, Y. [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Oshima, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Toyo University, 2100, Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Racz, R.; Biri, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Muramatsu, M.; Kitagawa, A. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Asaji, T. [Tateyama Machine Co., Ltd., 30 Shimonoban, Toyama-shi, Toyama 930-1305 (Japan); Kato, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    The beam transport of N{sup +} ion and C{sub 60}{sup +} ion in the Bio-Nano ECRIS with min-B configuration was investigated based on the ion beam profiles. The N{sup +} beam could be focused under the low-beam current conditions. Also the C{sub 60}{sup +} beam could be focused in spite of the large space-charge effect which will lead the divergence of the beam. We confirmed that our beam transport system works well even for the C{sub 60}{sup +} ion beam. We estimated the highest C{sub 60}{sup +} beam current with the focused beam profile by comparing the N{sup +} ion beam.

  2. Error analysis in post linac to driver linac transport beam line of RAON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of magnet errors in the beam transport line connecting the post linac to the driver linac (P2DT) in the Rare Isotope Accelerator in Korea (RAON). The P2DT beam line is bent by 180-degree to send the radioactive Isotope Separation On-line (ISOL) beams accelerated in Linac-3 to Linac-2. This beam line transports beams with multi-charge state 132Sn45,46,47. The P2DT beam line includes 42 quadrupole, 4 dipole and 10 sextupole magnets. We evaluate the effects of errors on the trajectory of the beam by using the TRACK code, which includes the translational and the rotational errors of the quadrupole, dipole and sextupole magnets in the beam line. The purpose of this error analysis is to reduce the rate of beam loss in the P2DT beam line. The distorted beam trajectories can be corrected by using six correctors and seven monitors.

  3. Beam transport of PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam transport is one of the most important problems in the linac to be used as the injector for the B-FACTORY accelerators. A basic problem of the beam transport is how to correct transport parameters immediately when a klystron becomes off. This is studied with the PF (Positron Factory) 2.5-GeV linac. (author)

  4. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. In ERLs, the decelerated beam cancels the beam loading effects of the accelerated beam with high repetition rate. Therefore, ERLs can, in principle, accelerate very high average currents with only modest amounts of RF power. So the efficiency of RF power to beam is much higher. Furthermore, the energy of beam to dump is lower, so it will reduce dump radiation. With the successful experiments in large maximum-to-injection energy ratio up to 51:1 and high power FEL up to 14kW, the use of ERL, especially combining with superconducting RF technology, provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in MW FEL, synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices and so on. The 3+1/2 DC-SC photo injector and two 9cell TESLA superconducting cavity for IR SASE FEL in PKU provides a good platform to achieve high average FEL with Energy Recovery. The work of this thesis is on Beam line design and Beam dynamics study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser for Peking University. It is the upgrade of PKU facility, which is under construction. With ERL, this facility can work in CW mode, so it can operate high average beam current without RF power constraint in main linac and generate high average FEL power. Moreover, it provides a test facility to study the key technology in ERL. System parameters are optimized for PKU ERL-FEL. The oscillation FEL output power is studied with different bunch charge, transverse emittance, bunch length and energy spread. The theory of optimal RF power and Qext with ERL and without ERL is analyzed and applied to PKU injector and linac including microphonic effect. pace charge effect in the injector and merger is studied for beam energy

  5. Beam Line Design and Beam Physics Study of Energy Recovery Linac Free Electron Laser at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guimei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China)

    2011-12-31

    energy at ~5MeV. Simulation shows that in the 3+1/2 DC- C injector, there is a region the beam could be over focused by RF electromagnetic field and the transverse emittance in the transport line up to linac will increase instantly due to over focusing. In order to eliminate this effect on beam emittance, several solutions are investigated to avoid over focusing. This result is very important for beam loading experiment for low bunch charge operation. Meanwhile, different merger structures are compared in terms of error sensitivity and emittance increase with space charge effect. In recirculation beam line, a new symmetric 180{degree} arc structure is designed. It fulfills the achromatic condition and adjustable bunch compression. These two parameters are controlled by different Quads knob. With this novel structure, the recirculation lattice can achieve path length adjustment, bunch compression and decompression in a large range. With beamline error, the beam central orbit will deviate from the designed trajectory. An orbit correction system is optimized, which balances between cost and performance of orbit after correction at design level. Different methods are used to estimate its robustness. The BBU instability, especially multi-pass BBU imposed a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation gives the harmful HOMs and predicts that the threshold average current in this machine is much higher than the possible operation current. This work is based on the existing facility in PKU, so it provides guidelines for the facility operation and upgrade in the future. The theoretical analysis of ERL requirement and FEL requirement on beam transport line and beam property paves the way for future ERL research.

  6. Environmental friendly energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally, acceptable working fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA rising vegetable oils as base stocks and as innovative additive packages. While much of the research has been made in the field of alternative environmentally, friendly energy, transport media, the thermal stability of vegetable based stock is still a challenging area. This work concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. Oven and oil bath test methods were employed in this study. This paper tabled mineral and vegetable oil physical test results and presents thermal stability of oil blends. (Author)

  7. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  8. Faraday Cup - it is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    A Faraday Cup is used to measure beam intensities at low energy beams. An electrically isolated metallic electrode intercepts the beam and captures all its charges. These charges are integrated using an current sensitive amplifier. When the beam impinges onto the electrode surface low energy electrons are liberated. In order to prevent these electrons from escaping the cup and thus falsifying the measurement, a repeller electrode with negative potential pushes the electrons back onto the electrode.

  9. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Bel...

  10. Aspects on the optimal photon beam energy for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The selection of optimal photon beam energy is investigated both for realistic clinical bremsstrahlung beams and for monoenergetic photon beams. The photon energies covered in this investigation range from 60Co to bremsstrahlung and monoenergetic beams with maximum energies up to 50 MeV. One head and neck tumor and an advanced cervix tumor are investigated and the influence of beam direction is considered. It is shown that the use of optimized intensity modulated photon beams significantly reduces the need of beam energy selection. The most suitable single accelerator potential will generally be in the range 6-15 MV for both superficially located and deep-seated targets, provided intensity-modulated dose delivery is employed. It is also shown that a narrow penumbra region of a photon beam ideally should contain low-energy photons (≤4 MV), whereas the gross tumor volume, particularly when deep-seated targets are concerned, should be irradiated by high-energy photons. The regions where low photon energies are most beneficial are where organs at risk are laterally close to the target volume. The situation is completely changed when uniform or wedged beams are used. The selection of optimal beam energy then becomes a very important task in line with the experience from traditional treatment techniques. However, even with a large number of uniform beam portals, the treatment outcome is substantially lower than with a few optimized intensity-modulated beams. (orig.)

  11. Heavy ion beam transport and focusing with an insulator guide in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the key issues on the heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion is an efficient transport and beam focusing. To get a fine focusing on the fuel pellet, neutralization of the space change of an incident beam is required. The space charge of beam has to be neutralized for the fine focusing. In this paper, we propose to employ an insulator tube guide, through which a heavy ion beam is transported and focused. We confirm that the beam space charge is effectively neutralized by electrons emitted from the insulator beam guide and the ion beam fine focusing is realized. This result shows a possibility of a good beam focusing by the insulator beam guide. (author)

  12. Electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrostatic energy analyzers for high energy charged particle beams emitted from extended large-size objects as well as from remote point sources are proposed. Results of the analytical trajectory solutions in ideal cylindrical field provide focusing characteristics for both configurations. The instruments possess of simple compact design, based on an ideal cylindrical field with entrance window arranged in the end-boundary between electrodes and can be used for measurements in space technologies, plasma and nuclear physics

  13. The effects of magnetic fringe fields on beam dynamics in a beam transport line of a terahertz FEL source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Han [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Xiong, Yongqian, E-mail: yqxiong@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China); Pei, Yuanji [National Synchrotron Radiation laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230029, Anhui (China)

    2014-11-11

    The transport line used in a terahertz FEL device has to transport electron beam through the entire system efficiently and meet the requirements of the beam parameters at the undulator entrance. Due to space limitations, the size of the magnets (five quadrupoles and two bending magnets) employed in the transport line was limited, and some devices were densely packed. In this paper, analyses of the effect of fringe fields and magnetic interference of magnets are presented. 3D models of these magnets are built and their linear optical properties are compared with those obtained by hard edge models. The results indicated that the effects of these factors are significant and they would cause a mismatch of the beam at the exit of the transport line under the preliminary lattice design. To solve this problem, the beam was re-matched using the particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  14. Transverse Centroid Oscillations in Solenoidially Focused Beam Transport Lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S M; Wootton, C J; Lee, E P

    2008-08-01

    Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable 'alignment functions' and 'bending functions' that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.

  15. Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Steven M.; Wootton, Christopher J.; Lee, Edward P.

    2008-08-01

    Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable"alignment functions" and"bending functions" that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalignments of the solenoids and dipole steering elements. The alignment and bending functions depend only on properties of the ideal lattice in the absence of errors and steering and have associated expansion amplitudes set by the misalignments and steering fields. Applications of this formulation are presented for statistical analysis of centroid deviations, calculation of actual lattice misalignments from centroid measurements, and optimal beam steering.

  16. Beam structure and transverse emittance studies of high-energy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A visual diagnostic technique has been developed to monitor and study ion-beam structure, shape, and size along a transport line. In this technique, a commercially available fluorescent screen is used in conjunction with a video camera. The visual representation of the beam structure is digitized enhanced through false-color coding, and displayed on a TV monitor for on-line viewing. The digitized information is stored for further off-line processing (e.g.,extraction of beam profiles). An optional wire grid placed upstream of the fluor screen adds the capability of measuring transverse emittance (or angular spread). This technique allows real-time observation of the beam response to parameter changes (e.g., evolution of the beam structure, shifts in the beam intensity at various spatial locations within the beam perimeter, and shifts in the beam center and position)

  17. Design and beam transport simulations of a multistage collector for the Israeli EA-FEM

    CERN Document Server

    Tecimer, M; Efimov, S; Gover, A; Sokolowski, J

    2001-01-01

    A four stage asymmetric type depressed collector has been designed for the Israeli mm-wave FEM that is driven by a 1.4 MeV, 1.5 A electron beam. After leaving the interaction section the spent beam has an energy spread of 120 keV and 75 pi mm mrad normalized beam emittance. Simulations of the beam transport system from the undulator exit through the decelerator tube into the collector have been carried out using EGUN and GPT codes. The latter has also been employed to study trajectories of the primary and scattered particles within the collector, optimizing the asymmetrical collector geometry and the electrode potentials at the presence of a deflecting magnetic field. The estimated overall system and collector efficiencies reach 50% and 70%, respectively, with a beam recovery of 99.6%. The design is aimed to attain millisecond long pulse operation and subsequently 1 kW average power. Simulation results are implemented in a mechanical design that leads to a simple, cost efficient assembly eliminating ceramic i...

  18. Current status of a low-energy photon transport benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scattered-energy spectra of monochronized synchrotron-radiation photons toward 90 deg C by samples (C, Cu, Pb) were measured using high-purity Ge detectors. The incident photons were in a linearly polarised beam of 20, 30 and 40 keV. To investigate the validity of the EGS4 code regarding photon transport in the keV region, we performed systematic comparisons of measurements and EGS4. EGS4 calculations were performed in default status and with improvements of low-energy photon transport (linearly polarised photon scattering, Doppler broadening, L-X and K-X). The measurement and calculations were compared in absolute values. Both the intensity and the shape of the peaks were compared. EGS4 calculations with improvements in low-energy photon transport agreed well with the measurements. (authors)

  19. Transoptr-a second order beam transport design code with automatic internal optimization and general constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second order beam transport design code with parametric optimization is described. The code analyzes the transport of charged particle beams through a user defined magnet system. The magnet system parameters are varied (within user defined limits) until the properties of the transported beam and/or the system transport matrix match those properties requested by the user. The code uses matrix formalism to represent the transport elements and optimization is achieved using the variable metric method. Any constraints that can be expressed algebraically may be included by the user as part of his design. Instruction in the use of the program is given. (auth)

  20. Energy transport in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of energy transport in laser produced plasmas is of great interest both because it tests and develops understanding of several aspects of basic plasma physics and also because it is of central importance in major applications of laser produced plasmas including laser fusion, the production of intense X-ray sources, and X-ray lasers. The three sections cover thermal electrons (energy transport in one dimension, plane targets and lateral transport from a focal spot, thermal smoothing, thermal instabilities), hot electrons (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport from a focal spot) and radiation (preheating in one dimension, lateral transport and smoothing, instabilities). (author)

  1. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is...... possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  2. 76 FR 59186 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface... Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee (RETAC... discussion of emerging issues and concerns regarding the transportation by rail of energy...

  3. Transport Sector Energy 2010; Transportsektorns energianvaendning 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-04-15

    Today, transport accounts for a quarter of Sweden's energy consumption which consists almost exclusively of fossil fuels. But with the increasing demands for reduced emissions of greenhouse gases, the sector's conversion to other fuels or energy sources will have a major impact the next years. This situation is expected to expand the requirements for statistics of energy consumption of the transport sector. The publication is divided into two parts. Chapter 2 describes the official energy statistics for the transport sector and Chapter 3 presents a breakdown of energy use in passenger and freight services for the respective modes.

  4. The Device to Measure Currents in External Beam Transportation Lines of the DC-72 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gulbekyan, G G; Gall, A; Kalagin, I V; Timoshenko, G N; Pachadzhiev, K K

    2002-01-01

    The present work is devoted to the development of a device to measure ion currents in external beam transportation lines of the DC-72 cyclotron, which is being created for the Cyclotron Centre of the Slovak Republic. The device is based on a Faraday cup. As possible constructive materials for the Faraday cup, Al, Cu, Fe, W and C were considered from the point of view of both the residual radiation and heating by the proton beam of the 3 kW power. Based on the calculations performed. It was suggested to use aluminium. The results of calculations of the temperature distribution in cylindrical and conic cups have been presented, both for a proton energy of 30 MeV at a beam power of 3 kW, and for a proton energy of 72 MeV at a beam power of 2.5 kW. Also presented are the results of calculation of the construction with permanent magnets that create sufficient magnetic field to eliminate the influence of secondary electrons emission on the current measurement accuracy. As a result, a sketch of the device constructi...

  5. Intense ion beam transport in magnetic quadrupoles: Experiments on electron and gas effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-ion induction linacs for inertial fusion energy and high-energy density physics have an economic incentive to minimize the clearance between the beam edge and the aperture wall. This increases the risk from electron clouds and gas desorbed from walls. We have measured electron and gas emission from 1 MeV K+ incident on surfaces near grazing incidence on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at LBNL. Electron emission coefficients reach values >100, whereas gas desorption coefficients are near 104. Mitigation techniques are being studied: A bead-blasted rough surface reduces electron emission by a factor of 10 and gas desorption by a factor of 2. We also discuss the results of beam transport (of 0.03-0.18 A K+) through four pulsed room-temperature magnetic quadrupoles in the HCX at LBNL. Diagnostics are installed on HCX, between and within quadrupole magnets, to measure the beam halo loss, net charge and expelled ions, from which we infer gas density, electron trapping, and the effects of mitigation techniques. A coordinated theory and computational effort has made significant progress towards a self-consistent model of positive-ion beam and electron dynamics. We are beginning to compare experimental and theoretical results

  6. Neutralization and transport of high-current proton beams in a two-stage linear induction accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkowski, Cz.; Kerslick, G. S.; Nation, J. A.; Ivers, J.

    1992-03-01

    Experimental results on the propagation and transport efficiency of a 1 MV, 5 kA, 50 ns annular proton beam through a two-stage linear induction accelerator are presented. The beam is generated in a magnetically insulated diode and propagates with high-efficiency along a 0.6 T axial magnetic field to a second accelerating gap located 30 cm downstream. The second accelerating gap increases the beam energy to 1.3 MeV. A full-cusp geometry provides the magnetic insulation in both the diode and the second gap. We report in this paper an 86% (±5%) transport efficiency and an increase of 1.6° in the beam divergence for propagation through the post acceleration gap.

  7. Lie map for the nonlinear transport of continuous intense beams in the axial-symmetric electrostatic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqin Lü; Xiaosong Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Nonlinear transport of intense continuous beam in the axial-symmetric electrostatic fields is analyzed with the Lie algebraic method.The K-V particle distribution is adopted in the analysis. The results obtained can be used in the calculations of the intense continuous beam dynamics in the beam optical systems consisting of drift spaces, electrostatic lenses, and DC electrostatic accelerating tubes. A com-puter code has been designed for practical simulations. To meet the needs of accurate calculation, all the elements are divided into many small segments, the electric fields in each segment are regarded as uniform fields, and the dividing points are treated as thin lenses. Iter-ation procedures are adopted in the code to obtain self-consistent solutions. The code can be used to design low energy dc beam transport systems, electrostatic accelerators, and ion implantation machines.

  8. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy C.

    1998-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 18 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. This edition of the Data Book has 11 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy Chapter 3 - emissions; Chapter 4 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 5 - highway vehicles; Chapter 6 - Light vehicles; Chapter 7 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 8 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 9 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 10 - household vehicles; and Chapter 11 - nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm)

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1999-09-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 19 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm).

  12. Three-dimensional transport theory: An analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem, III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a method for obtaining analytical solutions and numerical results for three-dimensional one-speed neutron transport problems in a half-space containing a variety of source shapes which emit neutrons mono-directionally in the direction away from the surface. Thus this paper is a supplement to Williams [Williams, M.M.R., 2009, Three-dimensional transport theory: an analytical solution for the internal beam searchlight problem I. Annals of Nuclear Energy 36, 767-783]. For example, we consider a point source, a ring source and a disk source, and calculate the surface scalar flux as a function of the radial co-ordinate when the source is at a fixed distance from the surface. The results are in full agreement with the work of Ganapol and Kornreich [Ganapol, B.D., Kornreich, D.E., this issue. Three-dimensional transport theory: an analytical solution for the internal beam searchlight problem II. Annals of Nuclear Energy]. Diffusion theory results are also included.

  13. Comparison of experimental data and three-dimensional simulations of ion beam neutralization from the Neutralized Transport Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutralized Transport Experiment at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to study the final focus and neutralization of high perveance ion beams [E. Henestroza, S. Eylon, P. Roy, S. Yu, A. Anders, F. Bieniosek, W. Greenway, B. Logan, R. MacGill, D. Shuman et al., Phys. Rev. ST-Accel. Beams 7, 083501 (2004)]. Preformed plasmas in the last meter before the target of the scaled experiment provide a source of electrons which neutralize the ion current and prevent the space-charge-induced spreading of the beam spot. Neutralized Transport Experiment physics issues are discussed and experimental data are analyzed and compared with three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. Along with detailed target images, 4D phase-space data at the entrance of the neutralization region have been acquired. These data are used to provide a more accurate beam distribution with which to initialize the simulation. Previous treatments have used various idealized beam distributions which lack the detailed features of the experimental ion beam images. Simulation results are compared with experimental measurements for K+ ion beams (∼250 keV) with dimensionless perveance of (1-7)x10-4. In both simulation and experiment, the deduced beam charge neutralization is encouraging for heavy ion fusion and high energy density physics applications

  14. Gas-breakdown effects associated with the self-pinched transport of intense light-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-pinched transport (SPT) of intense light-ion beams is being considered for delivering energy to a high-gain, high-yield inertial confinement fusion target. Proton beam SPT experiments are underway on the Gamble II generators at the Naval Research Laboratory. The physics of SPT in low-pressure gas is being analyzed with analytic theory and numerical simulations. A 1-D theory estimates the net current fraction necessary for stable transport as a function of gas density for a given beam profile. SPT simulations using the 3-D hybrid particle-in-cell (PIC) code IPROP determine the beam profile. Important to both theory and simulations is the inclusion of gas-breakdown physics. A comparison between the theory and the self-consistent simulations using IPROP is made. Additional SPT simulations have been carried out using the 2-D hybrid PIC code SOLENZ which assumes a pre-ionized plasma. This simulation model enables the investigation of long time scale beam propagation issues. A comparison between IPROP and SOLENZ will be presented. SOLENZ simulations with the Gamble I beam parameters demonstrate SPT but point to the need to study the injection conditions to improve beam confinement. Simulations examining beam-to-wall distance and injection conditions will be presented

  15. Matrix method and program design of intense beam transport in quadrupole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is very difficult to calculate the nonlinear transport of a intense beam,because the particle trajectories depend on the electric potentials excited by the particle beams, and the electric potentials of the beams depend on the particle trajectories and the particle distributions in the phase spaces. So, it is necessary to solve the problem by iterations to get self-consistent solutions. We use transport matrix method to analyze the transportation in quadrupole magnet of non-intense pulsed beam and intense pulsed beam respectively, and write a computer code for the pulsed beam transporting in quadrupole magnet. The self-consistent solution can obtained by using iteration calculation method. During the calculation, the result can be shown by the prompt graph. (authors)

  16. Electrons in a positive-ion beam with solenoid or quadrupole magnetic transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) is used to study beam transport and accumulation of electrons in quadrupole magnets and the Neutralized Drift-Compression Experiment (NDCX) to study beam transport through and accumulation of electrons in magnetic solenoids. We find that both clearing and suppressor electrodes perform as intended, enabling electron cloud densities to be minimized. Then, the measured beam envelopes in both quadrupoles and solenoids agree with simulations, indicating that theoretical beam current transport limits are reliable, in the absence of electrons. At the other extreme, reversing electrode biases with the solenoid transport effectively traps electrons; or, in quadrupole magnets, grounding the suppressor electrode allows electron emission from the end wall to flood the beam, in both cases producing significant degradation in the beam

  17. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, M., E-mail: marcus.moser@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, C. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Carli, W. [Beschleunigerlabor MLL, 85478 Garching (Germany); Peeper, K.; Reichart, P.; Urban, B.; Vallentin, T. [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Dollinger, G., E-mail: guenther.dollinger@unibw.de [Universität der Bundeswehr München, Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Department für Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, 85577 Neubiberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction.

  18. Transport of a high brightness proton beam through the Munich tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic requirement for ion microprobes with sub-μm beam focus is a high brightness beam to fill the small phase space usually accepted by the ion microprobe with enough ion current for the desired application. We performed beam transport simulations to optimize beam brightness transported through the Munich tandem accelerator. This was done under the constraint of a maximum ion current of 10 μA that is allowed to be injected due to radiation safety regulations and beam power constrains. The main influence of the stripper foil in conjunction with intrinsic astigmatism in the beam transport on beam brightness is discussed. The calculations show possibilities for brightness enhancement by using astigmatism corrections and asymmetric filling of the phase space volume in the x- and y-direction

  19. Beam profile analysis using the CCD camera with cameralink in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had measured a beam position and beam size by the analog video camera system with the fluorescence plate in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line. It was difficult to estimate the seasonal change of the beam position and size quantitatively. We started building up the digital beam profile acquisition system which used a digital CCD camera with the external trigger synchronous capturing function in 2007. In the accelerator parameter tuning between operation cycles, it is necessary to understand the change of a beam orbit and shape from latest cycle quickly in limited tuning time. Thus, we need both information of real-time picture images for visual confirmation and computing real-time analysis results of beam position and size. In this case, the LED light for reading the scale on the fluorescence plate becomes a background noise for a calculation of the beam profile analysis. We improved the analysis program of beam position and size in order to separates the LED light and beam light from a captured image. By this improvement, the reproducibility and adjustment accuracy of orbital steering have been improved. We will report the program flow and the details from an image capture to a beam profile analysis. (author)

  20. Transport Energy Impact Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.

    2015-05-13

    Presented at the Sustainable Transportation Energy Pathways Spring 2015 Symposium on May 13, 2015, this presentation by Jeff Gonder of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides information about NREL's transportation energy impact analysis of connected and automated vehicles.

  1. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant

  2. Extraction characteristics of a low-energy ion beam system with a remote plasma chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez, M. R., E-mail: mrvasquez@coe.upd.edu.ph [Department of Mining, Metallurgical, and Materials Engineering, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    Low-energy argon beams were extracted from a dual-chamber ion source system. The first chamber is a quartz cylinder where dense inductively coupled plasmas were produced using 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) power. The discharge was driven into an adjacent chamber which acts as a reservoir for ion beam extraction using a dual-electrode extractor configuration. Extraction of ions from the second chamber with energies in the 100 eV range was achieved while minimizing fluctuations induced by the rf signal. A custom-built retarding potential analyzer was used to analyze the effectiveness of ion beam transport using the remote plasma chamber. Well-defined beams were extracted between 60 and 100 V extraction potentials at 50–100 W rf powers. An increase in rf power resulted in an increase in average ion energy, increase in ion current density while the energy spread remains constant.

  3. Heavy ion beam transport through liquid lithium first wall ICF reactor cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis addresses the critical issue of the final transport of a heavy ion beam in an inertial confinement fusion reactor. The beam must traverse the reaction chamber from the final focusing lens to the target without being disrupted. This requirement has a strong impact on the reactor design. It is essential to the development of ICF fusion reactor technology, that the restrictions placed on the reactor engineering parameters by final beam transport consideration be understood early on

  4. High-field superconducting window-frame beam-transport magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The window-frame design for high-field superconducting beam-transport magnets was first applied to two, 2-m-long, 4-T modules of an 80 bending magent which has operated for nine years in the primary proton beam line at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). The design of two 1.5-m long, 7.6-cm cold-bore superconducting windowframe magnets, described in this paper, intended for the external proton beam transport system at the AGS incorporated evolutionary changes. These magnets generated a maximum aperture field of 6.8 T with a peak field in the dipole coil of 7.1 T. Measured fields are very accurate and are compared to values calculated using the computer programs LINDA and POISSON. Results of quench-propagation studies demonstrate the excellent thermal stability of the magnets. The magnets quench safely without energy extraction at a maximum current density, J = 130 kA/cm2 in the superconductor, corresponding to J = 57.6 kA/cm2 overall the conductor at B = 6.7 T

  5. Advanced Finite Element Discretizations for High-Energy Ion Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dominant continuous slowing-down energy loss process coupled with the small (but nonnegligible) straggling poses a significant challenge for deterministic numerical solution when incident beams are monoenergetic or have discontinuous energy spectra. Such spectra broaden very slowly with depth into the target material. Advanced space-energy discretization methods are consequently necessary to achieve numerical robustness. Finite element solutions to this problem were investigated using two general families of discontinuous trial functions, one linear and the other nonlinear. The two families were numerically tested, and results are shown for 1.7-GeV protons incident on a W target. Results from quadratic and exponential-quadratic discontinuous trial functions are in excellent agreement with Monte Carlo results. It is found that very high order finite element schemes are necessary for monoenergetic charged-particle beam transport

  6. Transportation energy data book: edition 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFarlin, D.N. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 16 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares U.S. transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high- occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data on environmental issues relating to transportation.

  7. Beam Emittance Measurements for the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator Radio-Frequency Quadrupole

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze, M. E.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Lysenko, W. P.; Rybarcyk, L. J.; Schneider, J. D.; Smith, Jr., Norman Austin; You, L. M.

    2000-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a 100% duty factor (CW) linac that delivers >100 mA of H+ beam at 6.7 MeV. The 8-m-long, 350-MHz RFQ structure accelerates a dc, 75-keV, 110-mA H+ beam from the LEDA injector with >90% transmission. LEDA [1,2] consists of a 75-keV proton injector, 6.7-MeV, 350-MHz CW RFQ with associated high-power and low-level rf systems, a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and high-power (670-kW CW) beam stop. The beam...

  8. Numerical Studies of Electromagnetic Instabilities in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Lee, Wei-li

    2005-01-01

    In intense charged particle beams with large energy anisotropy, free energy is available to drive transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instabilities. Such slow-wave transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be described by the so-called Darwin model, which neglects the fast-wave portion of the displacement current. The Weibel instability may also lead to an increase in the longitudinal velocity spread, which would make the focusing of the beam difficult and impose a limit on the minimum spot size achievable in heavy ion fusion experiments. This paper reports the results of recent numerical studies of the Weibel instability using the Beam Eigenmode And Spectra (bEASt) code for space-charge-dominated, low-emittance beams with large tune depression. To study the nonlinear stage of the instability, the Darwin model is being developed and incorporated into the Beam Equilibrium Stability and Transport(BEST) code.

  9. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Walnum

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we analyze energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from passenger car transport using an energy chain analysis. The energy chain analysis consists of three parts: the net direct energy use, the energy required for vehicle propulsion; the gross direct chain, which includes the net direct energy consumption plus the energy required to produce it; and, finally, the indirect energy chain, which includes the energy consumption for production, maintenance and operation of infrastructure plus manufacturing of the vehicle itself. In addition to energy consumption, we also analyze emissions of greenhouse gases measured by CO2-equivalents. We look at the trade-offs between energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to see whether some drivetrains and fuels perform favourable on both indicators. Except for the case of electric cars, where hydropower is the only energy source in the Norwegian context, no single car scores favourably on both energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

  10. CSR effect at XFEL-to-storage ring beam transport line, SPring-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 300-meter long beam transport line will be built from the XFEL C-band linac to the existing 8 GeV storage ring at the SPring-8. The beam transport line is supposed to deliver femtosecond electron bunches with high peak current, being composed of 14 bending magnets and quadrupoles. Current status of the transport line construction plan is briefly presented. Since Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) could degrade a beam quality in such a transport line with multiple bends, tracking simulation on the effect has been employed to analyze the effect in the transport line. As a result, it was found that the CSR effect would not be negligible unless some modification would be made to either an electron bunch distribution or a lattice of the beam transport line. The numerical result on the CSR effect as well as a proposal to compress femtosecond bunches by positively utilizing CSR effect is shown. (author)

  11. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiwei; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Kireev, Victor V.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  12. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  13. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kireev Victor V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  14. Ion beam transport and focus for LMF using an achromatic solenoidal lens system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light ion LMF (Laboratory Microfusion Facility) requires an ion beam transport length for bunching and standoff to be about four meters from the diode to the target. The baseline LMF transport scheme uses an achromatic two lens system consisting of the diode (a self-field lens) and a solenoidal lens. Charge and current neutralization are provided by a background gas. A detailed analysis of this system is presented here. The effects of additional magnetic fields are examined, including those produced by non-zero net currents, applied B effects near the diode, and diamagnetic effects in the solenoidal lens. Instabilities are analyzed including the filamentation instability, the two-stream instability (beam ions, plasma electrons), the plasma two-stream instability (plasma electrons, plasma ions), and the ion acoustic instability. Scattering in the foil and gas are shown to be negligible. Gas breakdown processes are analyzed in detail, including ion impact ionization, electron avalanching, and ohmic heating. Special diode requirements are examined, including voltage accuracy, energy spread, and aiming tolerances. The neutral gas and gas pressure are chosen to satisfy several constraints, one being that the net current must be small, and another being that the filamentation instability should be avoided. With the present choice of 1 Torr He, it is concluded that the complete achromatic lens system appears to be viable, simple, and efficient transport and focusing system for LMF

  15. Power supplies for IRFEL beam transport line magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRFEL) is being developed at RRCAT. Current regulated, dc power supplies are required for various electromagnets in its beam transport line. These are rated for 13 A and 15 V (maximum) with output current stability of ±100 ppm. In all, 60 power supplies have been developed, including the spare ones. In order to facilitate timely development of these power supplies, uniform power converter scheme for all power supplies has been followed and all associated low- power electronics, e.g. sensing, fault handling, auxiliary power sources, handling remote interface have been standardized. The topology used in these power supplies is two-switch forward converter operating with variable frequency PWM (VFPWM) control in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz. After the design, simulation studies, prototype development and rigorous testing of the prototype at RRCAT, the bulk production, testing and evaluation was carried out with the involvement of industry. This paper describes power supply design principles, highlights its salient features, shares the development experience and discusses the test results. (author)

  16. Energy Loss of High Intensity Focused Proton Beams Penetrating Metal Foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuffey, C.; Qiao, B.; Kim, J.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Evans, M.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Stephens, R. B.; Chen, S. N.; Fuchs, J.; Nilson, P. M.; Canning, D.; Mastrosimone, D.; Foord, M. E.

    2014-10-01

    Shortpulse-laser-driven intense ion beams are appealing for applications in probing and creating high energy density plasmas. Such a beam isochorically heats and rapidly ionizes any target it enters into warm dense matter with uncertain transport and stopping properties. Here we present experimental measurements taken with the 1.25 kJ, 10 ps OMEGA EP BL shortpulse laser of the proton and carbon spectra after passing through metal foils. The laser irradiated spherically curved C targets with intensity 4×1018 W/cm2, producing proton beams with 3 MeV slope temperature and a sharp low energy cutoff at 5 MeV which has not been observed on lower energy, shorter pulse intense lasers. The beam either diverged freely or was focused to estimated 1016 p +/cm2 ps by a surrounding structure before entering the metal foils (Al or Ag and a Cu tracer layer). The proton and ion spectra were altered by the foil depending on material and whether or not the beam was focused. Transverse proton radiography probed the target with ps temporal and 10 micron spatial resolution, indicating an electrostatic field on the foil may also have affected the beam. We present complementary particle-in-cell simulations of the beam generation and transport to the foils. This work was supported by the DOE/NNSA National Laser User Facility program, Contract DE-SC0001265.

  17. Structural design of beam transport system in SGIII facility target area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • SGIII target area beam transport system claims stability, accuracy and cleanliness. • Vibrational stability of mirrors and laser beams is mainly analyzed. • The accuracy relies on adjustable kinematic mounts and low-stress clamping. • The cleanliness is established in structural design, fabrication and operation. - Abstract: Beam transport system in ShenGuangIII (SGIII) facility target area brings 48 laser beams from main laser output to final optics assemblies (FOAs). This paper will present a summary of structural design of SGIII target area beam transport system, which include 276 transport mirrors and nearly 3000 m beam enclosures. The key performance of the beam transport system structural design includes stability, accuracy and cleanliness. To ensure the vibrational stability requirement, the beam transport system is located on stable platforms comprised of switchyard steel space frame and experimental area steel reinforced concrete building. The high fundamental frequency of the transport mirror system and vibrational isolation from thin tubes are designed to decrease the vibration response of the mirrors. An analytical method is proposed to evaluate the structural design on the drifting error of each laser beam obtained by accounting the dynamic responses of each optical elements of laser beam. The adjusting and fast replacement online requirements are satisfied by the structural design of line replaceable units (LRUs), the adjustable kinematic mounts, and the low-stress clamping of mirror mounts. The cleanliness is established in the process of designing, fabrication, and operation simultaneously. Testing results of the beam transport system that has been installed indicate that the structural design satisfies the performance requirements of the facility

  18. Electron beam energy QA - a note on measurement tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Juergen; Nyflot, Matthew J; Smith, Wade P; Wottoon, Landon S; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R G; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A

    2016-01-01

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high-energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6-18 MeV) and eight Varian (6-22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calcu-lated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ± 15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ± 2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ± 6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies. PMID:27074488

  19. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    OpenAIRE

    Muchnoi, N.; Schreiber, H. J.; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitiv...

  20. Forward-peaked beam transport in media with randomly fluctuating properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of charged particles in media characterized by highly forward-peaked scatter, which results in slow spatial and angular relaxation with increasing depth, is an old and difficult problem. The most significant early advance was due to Fermi, who obtained an approximate but accurate solution to the Fokker-Planck equation describing the transport of cosmic rays.This solution, and a generalized one that incorporated energy dependence, was subsequently adopted in electron transport studies and to this day forms the centerpiece of dose calculations in radiation therapy applications. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the subject of highly forward-peaked transport from the point of view of asymptotic theory, in particular in an attempt to improve on Fermi's solution. While Fermi's solution for the spatial spreading of an initially collimated pencil beam in a purely scattering medium is known to be accurate, as given by the scalar flux φ (x, y, z), the transverse integrated solution φ(x), however, is not so accurate. Fermi's solution is a constant function of depth, when in fact it is easily argued that φ(x) should increase with depth. The first attempts at improving this solution used an asymptotic development that neglected backscattering and assumed the angular distribution remained peaked about the original beam direction, thereby restricting solution to small depths, i.e., to σtrT much-gt 1, where a, is the transport cross section (neglecting absorption) and T the lateral dimension. The asymptotic expansion in Ref. 5 was able to predict only the O(σtrx) correction to the (constant) Fermi solution, while a slightly different scaling in Ref. 6 also gave the quadratic correction. Subsequently, Borgers and Larsen used a different method to generate an asymptotic expansion for φ(x) and showed that the scalar flux is given by

  1. Plasma thermal energy transport: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on the transport across the magnetic field of electron thermal energy are reviewed (Alcator, Frascati Torus). In order to explain the experimental results, a transport model is described that reconfirmed the need to have an expression for the local diffusion coefficient with a negative exponent of the electron temperature

  2. Compact Measurement Station for Low Energy Proton Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Yildiz, H; Oz, S; Yasatekin, B; Turemen, G; Ogur, S; Sunar, E; Aydin, Y A; Dimov, V A; Unel, G; Alacakir, A

    2016-01-01

    A compact, remote controlled, cost efficient diagnostic station has been developed to measure the charge, the profile and the emittance for low energy proton beams. It has been installed and tested in the proton beam line of the Project Prometheus at SANAEM of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority.

  3. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  4. Electron Beam-Blip Spectroscopic Diagnostics of the Scrape-off-Layer Parallel Transport in C-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osin, Dmitry; Thompson, Matthew; Garate, Eusebio; TAE Team

    2015-11-01

    C-2 is a microscopically stable, high-performance field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high plasma temperatures with significant fast ion population and record lifetimes were achieved by a combination of tangential neutral beam injection, electrically biased plasma guns at the ends and wall conditioning. FRC confinement depends on the properties of both the open and closed field lines, therefore, understanding the electron transport in the scrape-of-layer (SOL) is critical. To study parallel heat conduction in SOL, a high-energy pulsed electron beam (e-beam) was injected on-axis into C-2 to produce a heat pulse, which causes a fast rise and slower decay of the electron temperature, Te, in the SOL. The heat-blip was observed by means of He-jet spectroscopy. A small fraction of the total deposited e-beam energy is necessary to explain the measured Te increase. The electron thermal conductivity along the magnetic field lines can be inferred from the Te decay. Experiments suggest that a high energy e-beam pulse can serve as a direct diagnostic of heat transport in the SOL.

  5. Transportation energy data book: Edition 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 15 is a statistical compendium. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. Purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter I compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  6. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  7. Transportation energy trends and issues through 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeCicco, J.M. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Controlling transportation energy use looms as a serious challenge for the United States in the 21st century. Demand for transportation services is steadily growing, driven by increasing population, economic activity, and incomes. Few forces presently constrain growth in travel by the energy-intensive modes of automobile, truck, and air transportation. In contrast to other sectors of the economy, transportation energy efficiency improvements are nearly stagnant. Efficiency increases are now absent in highway modes; aircraft efficiency is improving, but not enough to offset rising air travel. Transportation is also the most oil-dependent sector of the economy as well as the country`s most rapidly growing source of greenhouse gas emissions. A conservative forecast indicates US transportation energy consumption rising from 23 Quads in 1990 to roughly 36 Quads by 2030; less conservative assumptions push the total to 43 Quads by 2030. Yet opportunities exist for efficiency improvements to counter a substantial portion of this growth. The most promising options are technological, with potential long-term efficiency improvements of threefold for light vehicles, twofold for aircraft, and 65 percent for heavy trucks. Combined with system efficiency changes to help limit growth of the energy-intensive modes, transportation energy use might be cut to 19 Quads by 2030. Pursuing cost-effective strategies to move the system toward such reduced energy intensiveness would be clearly valuable for the economy and environment. This paper examines these trends and options, and offers suggestions for policies that could lead to reductions in transportation energy use and its associated problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and oil dependence risks. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  9. Energy Chain Analysis of Passenger Car Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Hans Jakob Walnum; Morten Simonsen

    2011-01-01

    Transport makes up 20 percent of the World’s energy use; in OECD countries this has exceeded 30 percent. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that the global energy consumption will increase by 2.1 percent annually, a growth rate that is higher than for any other sector. The high energy consumption means that transportation accounts for nearly 30 percent of CO 2 emission in OECD countries and is also one of the main sources of regional and local air pollution. In this article, we...

  10. Beam halo monitoring at J-PARC 3-50 beam transport line using long air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3 long-type Air Ionization Chambers (AICs) have been installed along 350BT which is the beam transport from the 3GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) to the Main Ring synchrotron (MR) to monitor beam losses. 3-50BT collimators are used to remove beam halo components outside the emittance larger than 54[πmm · mrad] for horizontal and 60[πmm · mrad] for vertical plane, at present operations. By measuring the beam loss induced radiations from the 3-50BT collimators, the beam halo components have been monitoring on line. Details of the system, calibration results, and resolution of the system will be described in this paper. (author)

  11. High-resolution mass separator and 60 m beam transport line for the radioactive nuclear beam facility at INS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high resolution on-line isotope separator (ISOL) followed by a long beam transport line is under testing at INS, as a pilot radioactive beam facility for the E-arena of the Japanese Hadron Project. The ISOL has a unique feature in its high voltage potential configuration; it has two separation stages and both are electrically insulated from the ground. This feature is effective to eliminate impurities as well as to perform high resolution mass separation while keeping the injection beam velocity to the post accelerator constant. The design concept and present status of performance tests are reported. (author)

  12. Computer control of 500 MeV beam transport line at KEK, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests for computer control of 500 MeV beam transport line of KEK proton synchrotron were done. Analog data of the beam transport magnets are taken by the satellite computer S-2, and the magnet currents are adjusted by the pulse train outputs from this computer. Data from profile monitors are taken by the satellite computer S-0 through a high-speed process input/output controller. These data are displayed on a graphic display terminal, and can see conditions of the beam transport line on the screen and adjust the magnet current by typing in the value to be set. (author)

  13. Beam transport system selection on the accelerator LU-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently at the NSC KIPT the upgrading of the linear accelerator LU-10, designed for radiation processing of materials and products within the range of about 10 MeV, is started. For the accelerator operation time be used more efficiently it is supposed to design the second beam output onto the target. Possible variants of the second channel have been considered. The beam characteristics and beam losses are calculated with taking into account the desired parameters of the beam at the accelerating section output. Analysis of some channel variants by various criteria has been performed. The most effective version is chosen

  14. Probing the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy with high-energy radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, B A

    2003-01-01

    Central collisions induced by high energy radioactive beams can be used as a novel means to obtain crucial information about the high density ({\\rm HD}) behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy. This information is critical for understanding several key issues in astrophysics. Within an isospin-dependent hadronic transport model using phenomenological equations of state ({\\rm EOS}) for dense neutron-rich matter, we investigate several experimental probes of the HD behavior of nuclear symmetry energy, such as, the $\\pi^-$ to $\\pi^+$ ratio, neutron-proton differential flow and its excitation function. Measurements of these observables will provide the first terrestrial data to constrain stringently the HD behaviour of nuclear symmetry energy and thus also the {\\rm EOS} of dense neutron-rich matter.

  15. Beam-beam interaction in high energy linear electron-positron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of high energy electron and positron beams in a linear collider has been investigated using a macroparticle Monte Carlo method based on a Cloud-In-Cells plasma simulation scheme. Density evolutions, luminosities, energy and angular distributions for electrons (positrons) and synchrotron photons are calculated. Beside beams with a symmetric transverse profile also flat beams are considered. A reasonably good agreement to alternative computer calculations as well as to an analytical approximation for the energy spectrum of synchrotron photons has been obtained. (author)

  16. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  17. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Muhammad Zubair, E-mail: mzubairkhan-um76@yahoo.com [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Department of Physics, Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan); Ling, Yap Seong; San, Wong Chiow [Plasma Technology Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device.

  18. Study on electron beam in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam emission was investigated in a low energy plasma focus device (2.2 kJ) using copper hollow anode. Faraday cup was used to estimate the energy of the electron beam. XR100CR X-ray spectrometer was used to explore the impact of the electron beam on the target observed from top-on and side-on position. Experiments were carried out at optimized pressure of argon gas. The impact of electron beam is exceptionally notable with two different approaches using lead target inside hollow anode in our plasma focus device

  19. Characterization of low energy radioactive beams using direct reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.G.; Fraser, M.A.; Bildstein, V.;

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a new technique to determine the beam structure of low energy radioactive beams using coincidence events from a direct reaction. The technique will be described and tested using Geant4 simulations. We use the technique to determine for the first time the width, divergence and energy...... of an accelerated radioactive beam produced at ISOLDE. We use data from an experiment with an 11Be beam incident on a deuteron target producing 10Be from a (d,t) reaction. The T-REX Si detector array was used for particle detection, but the technique is applicable for other setups....

  20. Energy transition in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the European framework, France has committed to a 20% reduction of its GHG emission by 2020 compared with 1990, and reaching the 'factor 4' by 2050. The 2005 POPE Act (the French Energy Policy Guidance Act) makes climate change a priority of the energy policy, setting out a 3% yearly reduction of our country's GHG emissions. This means combining energy efficiency and restraint, as is highlighted by the first chapter of the 'energy transition road-map'. Energy is a major component of transport. Designing its transition requires us to question the very organisation of our society: materials and their usage, the means of transport to favour and the infrastructures to implement, costs for competitiveness, the organisation of work and commuting... At a global scale, needs for mobility are increasing, as is the urgent need to deal with environmental problems. There are huge emerging markets for public transport, increasingly efficient and smart cars, information and transmission networks, infrastructures, the organisation of transport... However, France has all the assets to become a world leader in carbon-free transport. Succeeding in this change means organising the service to meet the needs of all, people, businesses, transport operators and industry, starting this transition right away. Policies must clearly define objectives and the means of achieving them through coordinated actions within a long term approach. The ESEC formulates a set of proposals in this direction

  1. Focal spot size predictions for beam transport through a gas-filled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results from calculations of focal spot size for beam transport through a gas-filled reactor are summarized. In the converging beam mode, we find an enlargement of the focal spot due to multiple scattering and zeroth order self-field effects. This enlargement can be minimized by maintaining small reactors together with a careful choice of the gaseous medium. The self-focused mode, on the other hand, is relatively insensitive to the reactor environment, but is critically dependent upon initial beam quality. This requirement on beam quality can be significantly eased by the injection of an electron beam of modest current from the opposite wall

  2. Beam control and diagnostic functions in the NIF transport spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam control and diagnostic systems are required to align the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser prior to a shot as well as to provide diagnostics on 192 beam lines at shot time. A design that allows each beam's large spatial filter lenses to also serve as objective lenses for beam control and diagnostic sensor packages helps to accomplish the task at a reasonable cost. However, this approach also causes a high concentration of small optics near the pinhole plane of the transport spatial filter (TSF) at the output of each beam. This paper describes the optomechanical design in and near the central vacuum vessel of the TSF

  3. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2007-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 26 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2008-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 27 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL

    2006-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 25 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 - energy; Chapter 3 - highway vehicles; Chapter 4 - light vehicles; Chapter 5 - heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 - alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 - fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 - household vehicles; and Chapter 9- nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 - transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 - greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 - criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  7. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2009-06-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with U.S Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program and the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; and Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  8. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 29 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  9. Transportation Energy Data Book. Edition 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 33 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  10. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 31 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  11. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2013-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 32 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  12. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2011-07-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 30 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  13. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2005-03-08

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 24'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  14. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2003-10-24

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis, under the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--highway vehicles; Chapter 4--light vehicles; Chapter 5--heavy vehicles; Chapter 6--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7--fleet vehicles; Chapter 8--household vehicles; and Chapter 9--nonhighway modes; Chapter 10--transportation and the economy; Chapter 11--greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12--criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  15. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Susan E [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc., Clinton, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 34 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicle Technologies Office. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the Data Book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest edition of the Data Book is available to a larger audience via the Internet (cta.ornl.gov/data). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2 energy; Chapter 3 highway vehicles; Chapter 4 light vehicles; Chapter 5 heavy vehicles; Chapter 6 alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 7 fleet vehicles; Chapter 8 household vehicles; Chapter 9 nonhighway modes; Chapter 10 transportation and the economy; Chapter 11 greenhouse gas emissions; and Chapter 12 criteria pollutant emissions. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the reader s convenience.

  16. Which energy for the 21 century transports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO2 by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  17. Inward energy transport in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaked electron temperature profiles are observed in the DIII-D tokamak during electron cyclotron heating despite the fact that >75% of the input power is deposited significantly off axis. Power balance analysis indicates a net inward flow of energy for electrons. An inward energy flow is not compatible with diffusive or critical gradient models. A time-dependent perturbation technique is employed to estimate the conductive loss and the nondiffusive part of the energy transport. The nondiffusive component of the transport appears only at radii smaller than that of the heating location

  18. Alpha-particle diagnostics with high energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the feasibility of alpha-particle diagnostics using a high energy neutral beam on the R-tokamak, a planned device at IPP-Nagoya, Japan, for reacting plasma experiments. In this method, injected neutral particles neutralize alpha particles so as to escape from the magnetically confined plasma through double charge exchange processes, He++ + A0 -- → He0 + A++. Requirements for a probing beam are dis cussed from viewpoints of penetration of an injected beam in the plasma and a neutralization efficiency of alpha particles in a wide velocity range. Either a Li0 beam or a He0 beam in the ground state, produced from a negative ion beam is suitable. A method to neutralize a He- beam into the ground state through an auto-detachment process is proposed. (author)

  19. Piezoelectric energy harvester having planform-tapered interdigitated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Rick A.; Sumali, Hartono

    2011-05-24

    Embodiments of energy harvesters have a plurality of piezoelectric planform-tapered, interdigitated cantilevered beams anchored to a common frame. The plurality of beams can be arranged as two or more sets of beams with each set sharing a common sense mass affixed to their free ends. Each set thus defined being capable of motion independent of any other set of beams. Each beam can comprise a unimorph or bimorph piezoelectric configuration bonded to a conductive or non-conductive supporting layer and provided with electrical contacts to the active piezoelectric elements for collecting strain induced charge (i.e. energy). The beams are planform tapered along the entirety or a portion of their length thereby increasing the effective stress level and power output of each piezoelectric element, and are interdigitated by sets to increase the power output per unit volume of a harvester thus produced.

  20. Transport and Measurements of High-Current Electron Beams from X pinches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, Alexey V.; Mingaleev, Albert R.; Romanova, Vera M.; Tarakanov, Vladimir P.; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A.; Pikuz, Sergey A.; Blesener, Isaac C.; Kusse, Bruce R.; Hammer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Generation of electron beams is an unavoidable property of X-pinches and other pulsed-power-driven pinches of different geometry. Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups with different geometry's are discussed. Of particular interest is the partially neutralized nature of the beam propagating from the X-pinch to a diagnostic system. Two scenarios of electron beam propagation from X-pinch to Faraday cup are analyzed by means of computer simulation using the PIC-code KARAT. The first is longitudinal neutralization by ions extracted from plasma at an output window of the X-pinch diode; the second is the beam transport through a plasma background between the diode and a diagnostic system.

  1. Transport and Measurements of High-Current Electron Beams from X pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generation of electron beams is an unavoidable property of X-pinches and other pulsed-power-driven pinches of different geometry. Some issues concerning high-current electron beam transport from the X pinch to the diagnostic system and measurements of the beam current by Faraday cups with different geometry's are discussed. Of particular interest is the partially neutralized nature of the beam propagating from the X-pinch to a diagnostic system. Two scenarios of electron beam propagation from X-pinch to Faraday cup are analyzed by means of computer simulation using the PIC-code KARAT. The first is longitudinal neutralization by ions extracted from plasma at an output window of the X-pinch diode; the second is the beam transport through a plasma background between the diode and a diagnostic system.

  2. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21 is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2-energy; Chapter 3-greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4-criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5-transportation and the economy; Chapter 6-highway vehicles; Chapter 7-light vehicles; Chapter 8-heavy vehicles; Chapter 9-alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10-fleet vehicles; Chapter 11-household vehicles; and Chapter 12-nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience

  3. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    1994-05-01

    Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. Each of the major transportation modes is treated in separate chapters or sections. Chapter 1 compares US transportation data with data from other countries. Aggregate energy use and energy supply data for all modes are presented in Chapter 2. The highway mode, which accounts for over three-fourths of total transportation energy consumption, is dealt with in Chapter 3. Topics in this chapter include automobiles, trucks, buses, fleet vehicles, federal standards, fuel economies, and high-occupancy vehicle lane data. Household travel behavior characteristics are displayed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains information on alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles. Chapter 6 covers the major nonhighway modes: air, water, and rail. The last chapter, Chapter 7, presents data environmental issues relating to transportation.

  4. Transportation Energy Data Book (Edition 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-10-09

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 20'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  5. Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2001-09-13

    The ''Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 21'' is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of Transportation Technologies in the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the data book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize transportation activity, and presents data on other factors that influence transportation energy use. The purpose of this document is to present relevant statistical data in the form of tables and graphs. The latest editions of the Data Book are available to a larger audience via the Internet (www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb.htm). This edition of the Data Book has 12 chapters which focus on various aspects of the transportation industry. Chapter 1 focuses on petroleum; Chapter 2--energy; Chapter 3--greenhouse gas emissions; Chapter 4--criteria pollutant emissions; Chapter 5--transportation and the economy; Chapter 6--highway vehicles; Chapter 7--light vehicles; Chapter 8--heavy vehicles; Chapter 9--alternative fuel vehicles; Chapter 10--fleet vehicles; Chapter 11--household vehicles; and Chapter 12--nonhighway modes. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include detailed source information for some tables, measures of conversion, and the definition of Census divisions and regions. A glossary of terms and a title index are also included for the readers convenience.

  6. Transport of evanescent electron beam in vacuum section with plasma disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase electron beam current transported in the vacuum section, it is proposed to create transversal plasma disks. Numerical checking of this idea has been made. It is shown that without the disks virtual cathode is formed, reflecting significant part of the beam electrons, whereas the section loaded with a number of disks passes the whole beam. Experimental checking of this section with the accelerator of direct operation KOVCHEG has been made, and its operational capability is confirmed

  7. Lie algebraic analysis for the nonlinear transport of intense bunched beam in electrostatic quadrupoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhuo; L(U) Jian-Qin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear transport of intense bunched beams in electrostatic quadrupoles is analyzed using the Lie algebraic method, and the results are briefly presented of the linear matrix approximation and the second order correction of particle trajectory in the state space. Beam having K-V distribution and Gaussian distribution approximation are respectively considered. A brief discussion is also given of the total effects of the quadrupole and the space charge forces on the evolution of the beam envelope.

  8. Parametric Study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (∼80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  9. 78 FR 58383 - Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Renewal of Rail Energy Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY... the Surface Transportation Board (Board) intends to renew the charter of the Rail Energy... transportation by rail of energy resources, including, but not necessarily limited to, coal and biofuels (such...

  10. Australian Science and Technology with Relevance to Beamed Energy Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although Australia has no Beamed Energy Propulsion programs at the present time, it is accomplishing significant scientific and technological activity that is of potential relevance to Beamed Energy Propulsion (BEP). These activities include: continual upgrading and enhancement of the Woomera Test Facility, Which is ideal for development and test of high power laser or microwave systems and the flight vehicles they would propel; collaborative development and test, with the US and UK of hypersonic missiles that embody many features needed by beam-propelled flight vehicles; hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems that embody inlet-engine-nozzle features needed for beam-riding agility by air breathing craft; and research on specially conditioned EM fields that could reduce beamed energy lost during atmospheric propagation

  11. Evaluation of beam energy fluctuation caused by phase noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stability of RF signal sources is quite important for accelerators which have to provide very high quality beams. The RF sources for XFELs, for example, have to satisfy the integrated phase fluctuation less than several tens femtoseconds. The SSB noises of RF reference signal dominate the short-term instabilities of the RF phase of the carrier RF. This phase modulation finally results in the beam energy fluctuation. This presentation gives a quantitative evaluation of the beam energy fluctuations in an electron linear accelerator caused by phase noises comparing a theoretical analysis and experimental results: A simple model, which represents actual RF phase transmission in transmission lines of an electron linac, was introduced to understand how phase noises result the relative phase deference between a beam bunch and accelerating RF fields. In the experiments, we measured the enhanced beam energy fluctuations by modulating the phase of the reference RF signals with an external signal. (author)

  12. ILC Beam Energy Measurement by means of Laser Compton Backscattering

    CERN Document Server

    Muchnoi, N; Viti, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered $\\gamma$-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of $10^{-4}$ or bette...

  13. Development of multi-bunch beam energy compensation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to compensate for beam loading effects in a multi-bunch beam is under development at Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) in KEK. In this paper we describe the rf high power test for ΔT energy compensation by using the SLED cavities. In this ΔT (early injection and amplitude modulation) energy compensation method, the input waveform into accelerating structure is changed by controlling the rf phase and combining the rf-power from two klystrons with a 3 dB hybrid combiner to compensate multi-bunch beam energy for various beam currents. In this test, an arbitrary waveform was generated by changing the rotating speed of the each klystron phase into the opposite direction and the beam test will be done soon. (author)

  14. Analyzer of energy spectra of a magnetized relativistic electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyzer of magnetized REB instant energy spectrum is described. The analyzer operation principle is based on the application of a sharp change of the direction of force lines of a magnetic field which is non-adiabatic for the beam electrons. The analyzer design is described, the main factors effecting the energy resolution are considered. The analyzer serviceability is examined in the course of experiments on plasma heating using a heavy-current microsecond REB at the GOL-3 device. The analyzer energy resolution which does not exceed 10% at 0.8 MeV energy and 20% at 0.3 MeV is determined. Beam energy spectra are obtained in one of the regimes of beam interaction with plasma. The efficiency of beam interaction with plasma determined using the analyzer achieves 30%. 10 refs.; 7 figs

  15. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 μm precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  16. Effect of polarization on transport of particles in air by optical vortex beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments on transport of spherical particles in air by optical vortex beam show that the speed of transport depends drastically on light polarization. There is a clear correlation between the speed of particle transport in a pipeline formed by cross-polarized vortices: a horizontally polarized beam moves particles faster than a vertically polarized one. To elucidate this effect we demonstrate, both in theory and experiments, that a radial shift of particles away from the vortex axis due to gravity results in polarization dependence of the laser intensity absorbed by the particle and thus determines the speed of transport. The results demonstrate an additional degree of freedom to control particle transport by varying the polarization of the driving vortex beams. (paper)

  17. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report summarizes the results of research carried out in 1986 within the framework of the program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams' which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./HSI)

  18. Structuring of silicon with low energy focused ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebiker, P.W.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Muehle, R. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The defect production in silicon induced by focused ion beam irradiation as a function of energy and projectile mass has been investigated and compared to the measured sputter yield. The aim was to find optimal beam parameters for the structuring of semiconductors with a minimum amount of defects produced per removed atom. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Collaborative Research: Instability and transport of laser beam in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey Arnold [New Mexico Consortium; Lushnikov, Pavel [University of New Mexico

    2014-11-18

    Our goal was to determine the onset of laser light scattering due to plasma wave instabilities. Such scatter is usually regarded as deleterious since laser beam strength is thereby diminished. While this kind of laser-plasma-instability (LPI) has long been understood for the case of coherent laser light, the theory of LPI onset for a laser beam with degraded coherence is recent. Such a laser beam fills plasma with a mottled intensity distribution, which has large fluctuations. The key question is: do the exceptionally large fluctuations control LPI onset or is it controlled by the relatively quiescent background laser intensity? We have answered this question. This is significant because LPI onset power in the former case is typically small compared to that of the latter. In addition, if large laser intensity fluctuations control LPI onset, then nonlinear effects become significant for less powerful laser beams than otherwise estimated.

  20. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ''real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS

  1. Six tesla analyzing magnet for heavy-ion beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting analyzer magnet for particle beam deflection has been designed and is being fabricated for use at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). This six tesla magnet will provide 450 of deflection for the heavy-ion beams from the ATLAS tandem electrostatic accelerator and together with its twin will replace the existing conventional 900 analyzer magnet which will become inadequate when ATLAS is completed

  2. Stable two-plane focusing for emittance-dominated sheet-beam transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, B. E.; Earley, L. M.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Russell, S. J.; Potter, J. M.; Ferguson, P.; Humphries, S.

    2005-06-01

    Two-plane focusing of sheet electron beams will be an essential technology for an emerging class of high-power, 100 to 300 GHz rf sources [Carlsten et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 33, 85 (2005), ITPSBD, 0093-3813, 10.1109/TPS.2004.841172]. In these devices, the beam has a unique asymmetry in which the transport is emittance dominated in the sheet’s thin dimension and space-charge dominated in the sheet’s wide dimension. Previous work has studied the stability of the transport of beams in the emittance-dominated regime for both wiggler and periodic permanent magnet (PPM) configurations with single-plane focusing, and has found that bigger envelope scalloping occurs for equilibrium transport, as compared to space-charge dominated beams [Carlsten et al., this issue, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 062001 (2005), PRABFM, 1098-4402]. In this paper, we describe the differences in transport stability when two-plane focusing is included. Two-plane wiggler focusing degrades the transport stability slightly, whereas two-plane PPM focusing greatly compromises the transport. On the other hand, single-plane PPM focusing can be augmented with external quadrupole fields to provide weak focusing in the sheet’s wide dimension, which has stability comparable to two-plane wiggler transport.

  3. Urban transport energy consumption: Belgrade case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half of the global population now lives in towns and cities. At the same time, transport has become the highest single energy-consuming human activity. Hence, one of the major topics today is the reduction of urban transport demand and of energy consumption in cities. In this article we focused on the whole package of instruments that can reduce energy consumption and transport demand in Belgrade, a city that is currently at a major crossroad. Belgrade can prevent a dramatic increase in energy consumption and CO2 emissions (and mitigate the negative local environmental effects of traffic congestion, traffic accidents and air pollution, only if it: 1 implements a more decisive strategy to limit private vehicles use while its level of car passenger km (PKT is still relatively low; 2 does not try to solve its transport problems only by trying to build urban road infrastructure (bridges and ring roads; and 3 if it continues to provide priority movement for buses (a dominant form of public transport, while 4 at the same time developing urban rail systems (metro or LRT with exclusive tracks, immune to the traffic congestion on urban streets. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  4. Processes leading to enhanced energy deposition by particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Range shortening of electron and proton beams due to target temperature and density effects is calculated. The effect on target hydrodynamics is calculated for a proton beam. The effect of the penetration of an electron beam self magnetic field into the target is shown to cause effective range shortening. Enhanced energy deposition by a pinched electron beam in a foil target is studied numerically and experimentally. The target expansion velocity measured by laser flash photography is used to determine the enhancement factor. Bremsstrahlung measurements are used to study the electron trajectories

  5. Unprecedented intensity of a low-energy positron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugenschmidt, C. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, ZWEFRM II/E21, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Christoph.Hugenschmidt@frm2.tum.de; Loewe, B.; Mayer, J.; Piochacz, C.; Pikart, P.; Repper, R.; Stadlbauer, M.; Schreckenbach, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, ZWEFRM II/E21, Lichtenbergstrasse 1, 85747 Garching (Germany)

    2008-08-11

    A new in-pile {gamma}-converter and Pt-moderator was recently installed at the neutron induced positron source NEPOMUC. The intensity of the moderated positron beam is unprecedented and amounts to (9.0{+-}0.8)x10{sup 8} moderated positrons per second at an energy of 1 keV. Hence, the beam facility NEPOMUC provides the world highest intensity of a monoenergetic positron beam reported so far. Up to now, no degradation of the positron yield has been observed for several weeks of operation. Thus, the long-term stability of the positron beam enables experiments with high reliability.

  6. The application of Monte Carlo method to electron and photon beams transport; Zastosowanie metody Monte Carlo do analizy transportu elektronow i fotonow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zychor, I. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    The application of a Monte Carlo method to study a transport in matter of electron and photon beams is presented, especially for electrons with energies up to 18 MeV. The SHOWME Monte Carlo code, a modified version of GEANT3 code, was used on the CONVEX C3210 computer at Swierk. It was assumed that an electron beam is mono directional and monoenergetic. Arbitrary user-defined, complex geometries made of any element or material can be used in calculation. All principal phenomena occurring when electron beam penetrates the matter are taken into account. The use of calculation for a therapeutic electron beam collimation is presented. (author). 20 refs, 29 figs.

  7. Cross-Beam Energy Transfer Driven by Incoherent Laser Beams with Frequency Detuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, A.; Myatt, J. F.; Short, R. W.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Seka, W.

    2015-11-01

    In the direct-drive method of the inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the coupling of laser energy to target plasmas is strongly influenced by the effect of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) between multiple driving laser beams. The laser -plasma interaction (LPI) model of CBET is based on the nonparaxial laser light propagation coupled with the low-frequency ion-acoustic-domain plasma response. Common ion waves driven by multiple laser beams play a very important role in CBET. The effect of the frequency detuning (colors) in the driving laser beams is studied and it is shown to significantly reduce the level of common ion waves and therefore the level of CBET. The differences between the LPI-based CBET model and the ray-based CBET model used in hydrocodes are discussed. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  8. An online, energy-resolving beam profile detector for laser-driven proton beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzkes, J; Zeil, K; Kraft, S D; Karsch, L; Sobiella, M; Rehwald, M; Obst, L; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Schramm, U

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a scintillator-based online beam profile detector for the characterization of laser-driven proton beams is presented. Using a pixelated matrix with varying absorber thicknesses, the proton beam is spatially resolved in two dimensions and simultaneously energy-resolved. A thin plastic scintillator placed behind the absorber and read out by a CCD camera is used as the active detector material. The spatial detector resolution reaches down to ∼4 mm and the detector can resolve proton beam profiles for up to 9 proton threshold energies. With these detector design parameters, the spatial characteristics of the proton distribution and its cut-off energy can be analyzed online and on-shot under vacuum conditions. The paper discusses the detector design, its characterization and calibration at a conventional proton source, as well as the first detector application at a laser-driven proton source. PMID:27587116

  9. High energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a high energy particle transport code NMTC/JAM, which is an upgraded version of NMTC/JAERI97. The applicable energy range of NMTC/JAM is extended in principle up to 200 GeV for nucleons and mesons by introducing the high energy nuclear reaction code JAM for the intra-nuclear cascade part. For the evaporation and fission process, we have also implemented a new model, GEM, by which the light nucleus production from the excited residual nucleus can be described. According to the extension of the applicable energy, we have upgraded the nucleon-nucleus non-elastic, elastic and differential elastic cross section data by employing new systematics. In addition, the particle transport in a magnetic field has been implemented for the beam transport calculations. In this upgrade, some new tally functions are added and the format of input of data has been improved very much in a user friendly manner. Due to the implementation of these new calculation functions and utilities, consequently, NMTC/JAM enables us to carry out reliable neutronics study of a large scale target system with complex geometry more accurately and easily than before. This report serves as a user manual of the code. (author)

  10. Tuning the transport gap of functionalized graphene via electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate a novel method to tune the energy gap ϵ1 between the localized states and the mobility edge of the valence band in chemically functionalized graphene by changing the coverage of fluorine adatoms via electron-beam irradiation. From the temperature dependence of the electrical transport properties we show that ϵ1 in partially fluorinated graphene CF0.28 decreases upon electron irradiation up to a dose of 0.08 C cm−2. For low irradiation doses (−2) partially fluorinated graphene behaves as a lightly doped semiconductor with impurity bands close to the conduction and valence band edges, whereas for high irradiation doses (>0.2 C cm−2) the electrical conduction takes place via Mott variable range hopping. (paper)

  11. Simulation of the generation and long distance transport of proton beams at LULI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Dale; Cuneo, Michael; Campbell, Robert; Mehlhorn, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    High current, energetic protons are produced by irradiating thin metal foils with intense lasers[1]. At LULI[2], the current and energy of these protons as well as that of their accompanying electron cloud have been measured using magnetized and filtered Faraday cups. Here, the laser plasma interaction produced relativistic electrons at the critical surface. These electrons were transported through a 10-μm Au foil and created a space charge cloud that accelerates protons contaminants on the back side. The energetic protons and electrons drift several centimeters before reaching the Faraday cup. Self-consistent electromagnetic simulations of this process using a hybrid code are presented with comparisons to data. The neutralization of the high quality proton beam by the electron cloud is then studied. 1. R. Snavely et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2945 (2000). 2. M. Hegelich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 085002 (2002).

  12. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  13. Characterization of different beam shapes for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the analysis of different beam shapes for piezoelectric energy harvesters. The theory is based on the well-established Rayleigh–Ritz method for piezoelectric compound structures. It is validated by experiments with triangular-shaped and rectangular-shaped beams. It turns out that triangular-shaped beams are more effective than rectangular-shaped ones in terms of curvature homogeneity independent of the proof mass. This effect is opposed by the adverse mass distribution and the increased stiffness of triangular-shaped beams. Therefore, the overall efficiency is only weakly influenced by the beam shape. Nevertheless triangular-shaped beams drastically outperform rectangular ones in terms of tolerable excitation amplitude and maximum output power

  14. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  15. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, K. (comp.)

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  16. Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume $n$ cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analyzed.

  17. Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Falessi, Matteo V.; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-10-01

    > In this paper we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analysed.

  18. Simulation of high-intense beam transport in electrostatic accelerating column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢小龙; 姚泽恩; 张宇; 徐大鹏; 陈尚文; 王俊润; 黄智武; 马占文; 王伟

    2015-01-01

    An electrostatic accelerating column was designed and fabricated by Lanzhou University for an intense D-T/D-D neutron generator. In order to achieve a neutron yield of 5.0 × 1012 n/s, a deuteron beam of 30 mA, accelerated to 400 kV, and transported in the electrostatic accelerating column smoothly are required. One particle-in-cell code BEAMPATH was used to simulate the beam transport, and the IONB1.0 code was used to simulate the intense beam envelopes. Emittance growths due to space charge effect and spherical aberration were analyzed. The simulation results show that the accelerating column can transport deuteron beam of 30 mA smoothly and the requirement for the neutron generator is satisfied.

  19. Plasma neutralization models for intense ion beam transport in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed based on the assumption of long charge bunches (lb >> rb). Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The analytical predictions for the degree of ion beam charge and current neutralization also agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The model predicts very good charge neutralization (>99%) during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration τb is much longer than the electron plasma period 2π/ωp, where ωp = (4πe2np/m)1/2 is the electron plasma frequency, and np is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. The analytical formulas derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes, and provide scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters

  20. Experimental determination of beam loss point in transport line-2 of Indus Accelerator Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation field in the Indus-1 SRS Experimental hall during 550 MeV electron beam injection into Transport Line-3 (TL-3)/Indus-2 was found to be higher than during 450 MeV beam injection to Transport line -2 (TL-2)/Indus-1. Experimental investigation was carried out to find out the location of beam loss. For the investigation, Ion chamber based detectors viz direct reading dosimeters (passive detectors) and beam loss monitors (active) were used. The beam loss point was observed near Sputter Ion Pump-5 (SIP-5) of TL-2, in Indus-1 area. The result was confirmed by induced activity profile measurements of the transport lines (TL-2/TL-3) during shut down. In order to reduce the radiation level in Indus-1 hall, two tenth value layers of lead shielding was put near TL2. Later on, correction in the beam optics by beam dynamics section reduced the beam losses at SIP-5 location, thereby reducing the radiation fields in Indus-1 hall substantially. The paper describes the measurement and the results in detail. (author)

  1. Transport of the beam phase spaces with centro-symmetric configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinbao, C.; Xi, X.

    1983-05-01

    A transport theory of the beam phase spaces with centro-symmetric polygonal configuration x+Z/sub i/chi' +- ..cap alpha../sub i/ = 0 (i = 1,2,..., n) and beam phase spaces defined by centrosymmetric smooth convex close curve f(x, x'; a, b, c...) = 0 have been developed. Some fundamental transport properties of such beam phase spaces are discussed. The formulas of the beam envelop are obtained in the object space as well as in the image space after passing through the field region for both beam phase spaces with centro-symmetric polygonal configuration and those defined by centro-symmetric smooth convex close curve. Finally, detailed calculations are carried out for some typical examples, such as the acceptance phase space of a quadrupole, in order to show the practical application of the theory.

  2. OoTran, an object-oriented program for charged-particle beam transport design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OoTran program is a new object-oriented program for charged-particle beam transport computation. Using a simple menu interface, the user builds his beam line with magnetic and electric elements taken from a standard library. The program computes the beam transport using a well-known first-order matrix formalism and displays 'in real time' the computed beam envelope. The menu editor provides functions to interactively modify the beam line. Ootran is written in C++ and uses two object libraries: OOPS, the Object-Oriented Program Support Class Library, which is a collection of classes similar to those of Smalltalk-80; and InterViews, a C++ graphical-interface toolkit based on the X-Window system. OoTran is running on DECstation 3100, VAXstation 2000 and SUN 3, with the ULTRIX and SUN OS operating systems. (orig.)

  3. Design of the magnetic field system for Beijing intense slow positron beam transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A slow positron beam with intensity of 106 e+/s produced by the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPC) is transported by the 100 Gauss magnetic field system with the oscillation less that 10%. In this paper, the distributions of magnetic field at target chamber, sample chamber and Penning-Trap storage are calculated systematically, and the parameters of solenoidal coils and steering coils are calculated respectively. The correction coils are designed to compensate the affect induced by the geomagnetic field and the bent tube. Results of electron beam experiment show that the positron beams are transported to sample chamber with the beam spot size basically unchanged, and the magnetic field distributions satisfy to the requirement of the slow positron beam system

  4. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chaurize, S. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seiya, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sullivan, T. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Triplett, A. K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  5. Channeling of high energy beams in nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Chesnokov, Yu A; Guidi, V; Scandale, Walter; Chesnokov, Yu. A.

    2003-01-01

    We present simulations of particle beam channeling in carbon nanotubes and evaluate the possibilities for experimental observation of channeling effect in straight and bent nanotubes at IHEP and LNF. Different particle species are considered: protons of 1.3 and 70 GeV, and positrons of 0.5 GeV. Predictions are made for the experiments, with analysis of requirements on the quality of nanosamples and resolution of the experimental set-up. Based on Monte Carlo simulations, the capabilities of nanotube channeling technique for particle beam steering are discussed.

  6. Anomalous broadening of energy distributions in photoemitted electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Vincenzo

    1996-06-01

    Photoemission is widely used to generate electron beams with an energy spread lower than by thermoemission. However, when a photocathode is illuminated by a multimode laser this feature is lost and an electron beam with several eV of energy spread is produced. We have developed an explanation for this anomalous behavior pointing out its origin in the combined effect of charge relaxation, taking place within the beam, together with the modulation of the laser power imposed by laser modes. The model permits a correct interpretation overall experimental evidences.

  7. Uncorrelated Energy Spread and Longitudinal Emittance of a Photoinjector Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Z; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Stupakov, G.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2005-05-25

    Longitudinal phase space properties of a photoinjector beam are important in many areas of high-brightness beam applications such as bunch compression, transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchange, and high-gain free-electron lasers. In this paper, we discuss both the rf and the space charge contributions to the uncorrelated energy spread of the beam generated from a laser-driven rf gun. We compare analytical expressions for the uncorrelated energy spread and the longitudinal emittance with numerical simulations and recent experimental results.

  8. Beam Emittance Measurements for the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator Radio-Frequency Quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Schulze, M E; Lysenko, W P; Rybarcyk, L J; Schneider, J D; Smith, H V; You, L M

    2000-01-01

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a 100% duty factor (CW) linac that delivers >100 mA of H+ beam at 6.7 MeV. The 8-m-long, 350-MHz RFQ structure accelerates a dc, 75-keV, 110-mA H+ beam from the LEDA injector with >90% transmission. LEDA [1,2] consists of a 75-keV proton injector, 6.7-MeV, 350-MHz CW RFQ with associated high-power and low-level rf systems, a short high-energy beam transport (HEBT) and high-power (670-kW CW) beam stop. The beam emittance is inferred from wire scanner measurements of the beam profile at a single location in the HEBT. The beam profile is measured as a function of the magnetic field gradient in one of the HEBT quadrupoles. As the gradient is changed the spot size passes through a transverse waist. Measurements are presented for peak currents between 25 and 100 mA.

  9. Panorama 2009 - transport energies: advantages and disadvantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 98% of all transport fuels are petroleum-based, but there has been a multiplication of alternative energies driven by high motor fuel prices and the need to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Many pathways are contenders in the quest to choose replacements for petroleum-based motor fuels. What are the pros and cons of the energy sources under consideration for use in the near or distant future?

  10. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sou...

  11. Low-impedance plasma systems for generation of high-current low-energy electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, A. V.

    2006-12-01

    The results of experimental investigation and numerical modeling of the generation of low-energy (tens of keV) high-current (up to tens of kA) electron beams in a low-impedance system consisting of a plasma-filled diode with a long plasma anode, an auxiliary hot cathode, and an explosive emission cathode. The low-current low-voltage beam from the auxiliary cathode in an external longitudinal magnetic field is used to produce a long plasma anode, which is simultaneously the channel of beam transportation by residual gas ionization. The high-current electron beam is formed from the explosive emission cathode placed in the preliminarily formed plasma. Numerical modeling is performed using the KARAT PIC code.

  12. Measurements of absorbed energy distributions in water from pulsed electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of the use of a holographic interferometer to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from pulsed electron beams, together with a brief description of the interferometer and the technique of generating a hologram are presented. The holographic interferometer is used to measure the energy deposition as a function of depth in water from various pulsed beams of monoenergetic electrons in the energy range from 1.0 to 2.5 MeV. These results are compared to those computed by using a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, ETRAN-15, for the same electron energies. After the discrepancies between the measured and computed results are evaluated, reasonable agreement is found between the measured and computed absorbed energy distributions as a function of depth in water. An evalutation of the response of the interferometer as a function of electron intensities is performed. A comparison among four energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with pulsed electron beams from a Febetron accelerator, model 705, is presented. These pulsed beams were produced by the same vacuum diode with the same charging voltage. The results indicate that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam is not always constant. A comparison of the energy deposition curves that result from the irradiation of water with electron pulses from different vacuum diodes but the same charging voltage is presented. These results indicate again that the energy distribution of the electrons in the pulsed beam may vary between vacuum diodes. These differences would not be realized by using a totally absorbing metal calorimeter and Faraday Cup

  13. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  14. CSR routine for low energy electron beam in GPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General Particle Tracer (GPT) is a particle tracking code, which includes 3D space charge effect based on nonequidistant multigrid Poisson solver or point-to-point method. It is used to investigate beam dynamics in ERL and FEL injectors. We have developed a new routine to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in GPT based on the formalism of Sagan. The routine can calculate 1D-wake functions for arbitrary beam trajectories as well as CSR shielding effect. In particular, the CSR routine does not assume ultrarelativistic electron beam and is therefore applicable at low beam energies in the injector. Energy loss and energy spread caused by CSR effect were checked for a simple circular orbit, and compared with analytic formulas. (author)

  15. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  16. Compact 180 deg magnetic energy analyzer for relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compact, 180 deg deflection magnetic energy analyzer has been designed and used to measure the energy spectrum of the beam produced by the Tesla Transformer-Pulse forming line type Relativistic Electron Beam (REB) generator being used in the FEL experiments that are currently underway at Institute for Plasma Research. Relativistic electron beams have been used in many applications ranging from free-electron lasers to virtual cathode oscillators and other high power microwave devices. In all these cases, it is required that the electron beam is propagated without considerable loss across a drift region and it is also imperative that accurate energy measurements are required for dependable estimates and analysis regarding the output parameters of the system. In the case of a free-electron laser, the output wavelength of the FEL has a strong dependence on the beam energy and hence it is important to determine as accurately as possible, the energy of the electron beam in order to accurately estimate the FEL radiation frequency

  17. Preparation of a beam quality indicator for effective energy determinations of continuum beams: establishment of traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Matsubayashi, M; Kobayashi, H

    1999-01-01

    A new beam quality indicator (BQI) was designed and fabricated to determine effective energies of beams extracted from neutron radiography facilities. Performances of the five new BQIs were compared with the original BQI which was recently proposed and tested by various beams. Non-filtered thermal neutrons, filtered thermal neutrons, and cold neutrons from a guide tube were used in the performance test program. The new BQIs were also examined by four different detection systems using a combination of a Gd converter and a X-ray film, a neutron imaging plate, a cooled charge coupled device camera, and a silicon intensified target tube camera.

  18. Energy harvesting from controlled buckling of piezoelectric beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. H.; Karami, M. Amin

    2015-11-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented that can generate electricity from the weight of passing cars or crowds. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric beam, which buckles when the device is stepped on. The energy harvester can have a horizontal or vertical configuration. In the vertical (direct) configuration, the piezoelectric beam is vertical and directly sustains the weight of the vehicles or people. In the horizontal (indirect) configuration, the vertical weight is transferred to a horizontal axial force through a scissor-like mechanism. Buckling of the beam results in significant stresses and, thus, large power production. However, if the beam’s buckling is not controlled, the beam will fracture. To prevent this, the axial deformation is constrained to limit the deformations of the beam. In this paper, the energy harvester is analytically modeled. The considered piezoelectric beam is a general non-uniform beam. The natural frequencies, mode shapes, and the critical buckling force corresponding to each mode shape are calculated. The electro-mechanical coupling and the geometric nonlinearities are included in the model. The design criteria for the device are discussed. It is demonstrated that a device, realized with commonly used piezoelectric patches, can generate tens of milliwatts of power from passing car traffic. The proposed device could also be implemented in the sidewalks or integrated in shoe soles for energy generation. One of the key features of the device is its frequency up-conversion characteristics. The piezoelectric beam undergoes free vibrations each time the weight is applied to or removed from the energy harvester. The frequency of the free vibrations is orders of magnitude larger than the frequency of the load. The device is, thus, both efficient and insensitive to the frequency of the force excitations.

  19. Upgrade of Beam Energy Measurement System at BEPC-II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M N; Krasnov, A A; Muchnoi, N Yu; Pyata, E E; Mamoshkina, E V; Harris, F A

    2015-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance and profit for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. Many advanced techniques and precise instruments are employed to realize the highly accurate measurement of positron/electron beam energy. During five year's running period, in order to meet the requirement of data taking and improve the capacity of measurement itself, the upgradation of system is continued, which involve the component reformation of laser and optics subsystem, replacement of view-port of the laser to vacuum insertion subsystem, the purchase of electric cooling system for high purity germanium detector, and the improvement of data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrading of system guarantees the smooth and efficient measuring of beam energy at BEPC-II and accommodates the accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III.

  20. Thermo-mechanical modelling of high energy particle beam impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Scapin, M; Dallocchio, A

    2010-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in LHC in a single beam is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a copper component due to the impact with a 7 TeV proton beam generated by LHC. The case study represents an accidental case consequent to an abnormal release of the beam, in which 8 bunches irradiate the target directly. The energy delivered on the component is calculated using the FLUKA code and then used as input in the numerical simulations, that are carried out via the FEM code LS-DYNA. ...

  1. On the propagation of a low energy oxygen ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positive ion beams, in the range from about tens eV to several hundred eV are frequently used in RIE and RIBE etching systems. The experimental limitations in this energy range are severe and there are still many unsolved problems. Optimal ion beam focusing and maximum current beam at the substrate target are assured by the adequate ion beam neutralization. The electrons from the target plasma and also the secondary ones resulted from the ion-grid and ion-neutral interactions form a negative space charge that is involved in the ion beam neutralization. After the extraction, both the angular divergence and damping of the beam are essential to settle the position of the substrate. The beam angular divergence is established by the ion trajectories in the extraction region and also is strongly influenced by the ion beam neutralization. The shape and thickness of the space charge near the grid, which in turn is determined by the beam intensity, grid characteristics and target plasma parameters is necessary to be investigated. Positive ion bombardment plays an important role in the plasma treatments of polymers. This was the reason that investigations about the surface modifications of polymers in a positive oxygen ion beam-low density plasma (IB-LDP) system were carried out by our group [2-6]. In such system the electrons of the low-density target plasma neutralize the positive space charge of the beam and also that brought by the beam onto the polymer (insulator) surface. Results concerning the investigations of the IB-LDP system, in oxygen, by Langmuir probe method, in different experimental conditions are given in the present paper. They are compared with those obtained by using Monte Carlo method for elementary processes (ion charge transfer, electronic ionisation) in 'particle in cell' numerical simulation. (authors)

  2. Advanced methods for the computation of particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Progress report, July 1993--August 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group has been carrying out long-term research work in the general area of Dynamical Systems with a particular emphasis on applications to Accelerator Physics. This work is broadly divided into two tasks: the computation of charged particle beam transport and the computation of electromagnetic fields and beam-cavity interactions. Each of these tasks is described briefly. Work is devoted both to the development of new methods and the application of these methods to problems of current interest in accelerator physics including the theoretical performance of present and proposed high energy machines. In addition to its research effort, the Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory Group is actively engaged in the education of students and postdoctoral research associates. Substantial progress in research has been made during the past year. These achievements are summarized in the following report

  3. Numerical simulation program of multicomponent ion beam transport from ECR ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lei; SONG Ming-Tao; CAO Yun; ZHAO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Zi-Min; LI Xue-Qian; LI Jia-Cai

    2004-01-01

    In order to research multi-component ion beam transport process and improve transport efficiency, a special simulating program for ECR beam is becoming more and more necessary. We have developed a program written by Visual Basic to be dedicated to numerical simulation of the highly charged ion beam and to optimization of beam dynamics in transport line. In the program the exchange of electrons between highly charged ions and low chargedions or neutral atoms (residual gas in transport line) is taken into account, adopting classical molecular over-barrier model and Monte Carlo method, so the code can easily give the change of charge state distribution along the transmission line. The main advantage of the code is the ability to simultaneously simulate a large quantity of ions with different masses and charge states, and particularly, to simulate the loss of highly charged ions and the increase of low charged ions due to electron exchange in the whole transport process. Some simulations have been done to study the transmission line of LECR3[1] which is an ECR ion source for highly charged ion beam at IMP. Compared with experimental results, the simulations are considered to be successful.

  4. Energy Absorption Capacity of Composite Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Arivalagan; Kandasamy

    2009-01-01

    Local buckling may occur in the compression flange of rectangular hollow-section beams under cyclic repeated loadingarising from earthquakes. Once a local mechanism forms, residual strength rapidly reduces within a few cycles. This is trueeven for compact sections under static bending. This paper aims to study the experimental behaviour and ultimate momentcapacity of unfilled and concrete-filled rectangular hollow sections subjected to cyclic reversible loading. Two types offiller material we...

  5. Effect of supersonic molecular-beam injection on edge fluctuation and particle transport in Heliotron J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, L., E-mail: l-zang@center.iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kasajima, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Kenmochi, N. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohshima, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Sha, M.; Nagasaki, K.; Kado, S.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Shi, N.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Nishino, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-04-15

    Edge fluctuation in a supersonic molecular-beam injection (SMBI) fueled plasma has been measured using an electrostatic probe array. After SMBI, the plasma stored energy (W{sub p}) temporarily decreased then started to increase. The local plasma fluctuation and fluctuation induced particle transport before and after SMBI have been analyzed. In a short duration (∼4 ms) just after SMBI, the density fluctuation of broad-band low frequency increased, and the probability density function (PDF) changed from a nearly Gaussian to a positively skewed non-Gaussian one. This suggests that intermittent structures were produced due to SMBI. Also the fluctuation induced particle transport was greatly enhanced during this short duration. About 4 ms after SMBI, the low frequency broad-band density fluctuation decreased, and the PDF returned to a nearly Gaussian shape. Also the fluctuation induced particle transport was reduced. Compared with conventional gas puff, W{sub p} degradation window is very short due to the short injection period of SMBI. After this short degradation window, fluctuation induced particle transport was reduced and W{sub p} started the climbing phase. Therefore, the short period of the influence to the edge fluctuation might be an advantage of this novel fueling technique. On the other hand, although their roles are not identified at present, coherent MHD modes are also suppressed as well by the application of SMBI. These MHD modes are thought to be de-exited due to a sudden change of the edge density and/or excitation conditions.

  6. PHENIX Experiment Results from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan Program

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The PHENIX Experiment at RHIC has conducted a beam energy scan at several collision energies in order to search for signatures of the QCD critical point and the onset of deconfinement. PHENIX has conducted measurements of transverse energy production, muliplicity fluctuations, the skewness and kurtosis of net charge distributions, Hanbury-Brown Twiss correlations, charged hadron flow, and energy loss. The data analyzed to date show no significant indications of the presence of the critical point.

  7. Closing summary for inertial confinement fusion, diodes and beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress since BEAMS'83 has been very encouraging. The experiments and theories are of significantly higher quality than we have seen in the past. The problems that have been identified in our fields are now being solved. Scientific comradery is improving and more scientists from different countries are working to complement their associates on similar projects in other countries. The papers presented at this conference have been much more substantial scientifically than in the past and indicate the maturation of our discipline

  8. Modeling the quasistatic energy transport between nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panasyuk, George Y; Yerkes, Kirk L

    2015-12-01

    We consider phononic energy transport between nanoparticles mediated by a quantum particle. The nanoparticles are considered as thermal reservoirs described by ensembles of finite numbers of harmonic oscillators within the Drude-Ullersma model having, in general, unequal mode spacings Δ(1) and Δ(2), which amount to different numbers of atoms in the nanoparticles. The quasistatic energy transport between the nanoparticles on the time scale t∼1/Δ(1,2) is investigated using the generalized quantum Langevin equation. We find that double degeneracy of system's eigenfrequencies, which occurs in the case of identical nanoparticles, is removed when the mode spacings become unequal. The equations describing the dynamics of the averaged eigenmode energies are derived and solved, and the resulting expression for the energy current between the nanoparticles is obtained and explored. Unlike the case when the thermodynamic limit is assumed resulting in time-independent energy current, finite-size effects result in temporal behavior of the energy current that evinces reversibility features combined with decay and possesses peculiarities at time moments t=2πn/Δ(1)+2πm/Δ(2) for non-negative integers n and m. When Δ(1,2)→0, an expression for the heat current obtained previously under assumption of the thermodynamic limit is reproduced. The energy current between two platinum nanoparticles mediated by a carbon oxide molecule is considered as an application of the developed model. PMID:26764663

  9. Study of absorbed dose distribution to high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depth absorbed dose distribution by electron beams was studied. The influence of the beam energy, the energy spread, field size and design characteristics of the accelerator was relieved. Three accelerators with different scattering and collimation systems were studied leading todifferent depth dose distributions. A theoretical model was constructed in order to explain the increase in the depth dose in the build-up region with the increase of the energy. The model utilizes a three-dimensional formalism based on the Fermi-Eyges multiple scattering theory, with the introduction of modifications that takes into account the criation of secondary electrons. (Author)

  10. Electron beam pumping of CdZnSe quantum well laser structures using a variable energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trager-Cowan, C.; Bagnall, D. M.; McGow, F.; McCallum, W.; O'Donnell, K. P.; Smith, P. C.; Wright, P. J.; Cockayne, B.; Prior, K. A.; Mullins, J. T.; Horsburgh, G.; Cavenett, B. C.

    1996-02-01

    In this paper we present experimental results on electron beam pumping of MBE and MOVPE lasers with CdZnSe single quantum wells. Laser emission in the gree and blue occurs under pulsed excitation, with threshold power densities typically less than 2 kW/cm 2 at low temperatures. Threshold curves obtained at different electron beam energies show that there is an optimum electron beam energy for wells at a given depth below the surface. This suggests that it is possible to match the electron beam energy to a given structure. Results are broadly consistent with Monte Carlo calculations of the depth dependence of the energy deposition of the electron beam.

  11. Crossed-beam energy transfer in direct-drive implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seka, W; Edgell, D H; Michel, D T; Froula, D H; Goncharov, V N; Craxton, R S; Divol, L; Epstein, R; Follett, R; Kelly, J H; Kosc, T Z; Maximov, A V; McCrory, R L; Meyerhofer, D D; Michel, P; Myatt, J F; Sangster, T C; Shvydky, A; Skupsky, S

    2012-05-22

    Direct-drive-implosion experiments on the OMEGA laser [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] have showed discrepancies between simulations of the scattered (non-absorbed) light levels and measured ones that indicate the presence of a mechanism that reduces laser coupling efficiency by 10%-20%. This appears to be due to crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET) that involves electromagnetic-seeded, low-gain stimulated Brillouin scattering. CBET scatters energy from the central portion of the incoming light beam to outgoing light, reducing the laser absorption and hydrodynamic efficiency of implosions. One-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations including CBET show good agreement with all observables in implosion experiments on OMEGA. Three strategies to mitigate CBET and improve laser coupling are considered: the use of narrow beams, multicolor lasers, and higher-Z ablators. Experiments on OMEGA using narrow beams have demonstrated improvements in implosion performance.

  12. Large-Angle Bending Transport of Microparticles by Acoustic Half-Bessel Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yixiang; Xu, Shengjun; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2014-01-01

    Conventional microparticle transports by light or sound are realized along a straight line. Recently, this limit has been overcome in optics as the growing up of the self-accelerating Airy beams, which are featured by many peculiar properties, e.g., bending propagation, diffraction-free and self-healing. However, the bending angles of Airy beams are rather small since they are only paraxial solutions of the two-dimensional (2D) Helmholtz equation. Here we propose a novel micromanipulation by using acoustic Half-Bessel beams, which are strict solutions of the 2D Helmholtz equation. Compared with that achieved by Airy beams, the bending angle of the particle trajectory attained here is much steeper (exceeding 90o). The large-angle bending transport of microparticles, which is robust to complex scattering environment, enables a wide range of applications from the colloidal to biological sciences.

  13. Measuring the electron beam energy in a magnetic bunch compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Kirsten

    2010-09-15

    Within this thesis, work was carried out in and around the first bunch compressor chicane of the FLASH (Free-electron LASer in Hamburg) linear accelerator in which two distinct systems were developed for the measurement of an electron beams' position with sub-5 {mu}m precision over a 10 cm range. One of these two systems utilized RF techniques to measure the difference between the arrival-times of two broadband electrical pulses generated by the passage of the electron beam adjacent to a pickup antenna. The other system measured the arrival-times of the pulses from the pickup with an optical technique dependent on the delivery of laser pulses which are synchronized to the RF reference of the machine. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two techniques are explored and compared to other available approaches to measure the same beam property, including a time-of-flight measurement with two beam arrival-time monitors and a synchrotron light monitor with two photomultiplier tubes. The electron beam position measurement is required as part of a measurement of the electron beam energy and could be used in an intra-bunch-train beam-based feedback system that would stabilize the amplitude of the accelerating field. By stabilizing the accelerating field amplitude, the arrival-time of the electron beam can be made more stable. By stabilizing the electron beam arrival-time relative to a stable reference, diagnostic, seeding, and beam-manipulation lasers can be synchronized to the beam. (orig.)

  14. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  15. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichuli, P; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Korepanov, S; Mishagin, V; Smirnov, A; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction. PMID:26628137

  16. Radiation degradation of marine polysaccharides by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation degradations of marine polysaccharides by both gamma Co-60 and electron beam irradiations are investigated. Polysaccharides and oligosaccharides can be produced by degradation of corresponding polysaccharides including marine polysaccharides such as alginates, chitin chitosan and carrageenan. The viscosity of alginate, chitosan and carrageenan solution decreases markedly with increase of the low energy electron beam irradiation time and the beam current. Furthermore, the viscosity is reduced sharply in short time for polysaccharide solution with low concentration, for instance carrageenan solution of 1%. (author)

  17. Beam Intensity and Energy Control for the SPIRAL2 Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Jamet, C.; André, T.; Ducoudret, B.; Doutressoulles, C.; Le Coz, W.; Ledu, G.; Leloir, S.; Loret, S.

    2012-01-01

    TUPB029 - ISBN 878-3-95450-122-9 International audience The first part of the SPIRAL2 facility, which entered last year in the construction phase at GANIL in France, consists of an ion source, a deuteron and a proton source, a RFQ and a superconducting linear accelerator delivering high intensities, up to 5 mA and 40 MeV for the deuteron beams. Diagnostic developments have been done to control both beam intensity and energy by non-interceptive methods at the linac exit. The beam current...

  18. Energy gain and spectral tailoring of ion beams using ultra-high intensity laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Swantusch, Marco; Cerchez, Mirela; Spickermann, Sven; Auorand, Bastian; Wowra, Thomas; Boeker, Juergen; Willi, Oswald

    2015-11-01

    The field of laser driven ion acceleration over the past decade has produced a huge amount of research. Nowadays, several multi-beam facilities with high rep rate system, e.g. ELI, are being developed across the world for different kinds of experiments. The study of interaction dynamics of multiple beams possessing ultra-high intensity and ultra-short pulse duration is of vital importance. Here, we present the first experimental results on ion acceleration using two ultra-high intensity beams. Thanks to the unique capability of Arcturus laser at HHU Düsseldorf, two almost identical, independent beams in laser parameters such as intensity (>1020 W/cm2), pulse duration (30 fs) and contrast (>1010), could be accessed. Both beams are focused onto a 5 μm thin Ti target. While ensuring spatial overlap of the two beams, at relative temporal delay of ~ 50 ps (optimum delay), the proton and carbon ion energies were enhanced by factor of 1.5. Moreover, strong modulation in C4+ions near the high energy cut-off is observed later than the optimum delay for the proton enhancement. This offers controlled tailoring of the spectral content of heavy ions.

  19. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  20. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  1. Impurity transport during neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ohmically heated ISX-B discharges, both the intrinsic iron impurity ions and small amounts of argon introduced as a test gas accumulate at the center of the plasma. But during certain beam-heated discharges, it appears that this accumulation does not take place. These results may reflect the conclusion of Stacey and Sigmar that momentum transferred from the beams to the plasma can inhibit inward impurity transport

  2. Intense heavy-ion beam transport with electric and magnetic quadrupoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Accelerator and Fusion Research Center; Barnard, J.J.; Cable, M.D.; Deadrick, F.J.; Eylon, S.; Nelson, M.B.; Sangster, T.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hopkins, H.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    As part of the small induction recirculator development at LLNL, the authors are testing an injector and transport line that delivers 4 {micro}s beams of potassium with repetition rates up to 10 Hz at a nominal current of 2 mA. The normalized K-V equivalent emittance of the beams is near 0.02 {pi} mm-mrad and is mostly determined by the temperature of the source (0.1 eV). K{sup +} ions generated at 80 keV in a Pierce diode are matched to an alternating gradient transport line by seven electric quadrupoles. Two additional quads have been modified to serve as two-axis steerers. The matching section is followed by a transport section comprised of seven permanent magnet quadrupoles. Matching to this section is achieved by adjusting the voltages on the electric quadrupoles to voltages calculated by an envelope matching code. Measurements of beam envelope parameters are made at the matching section entrance and exit as well as at the end of the permanent magnet transport section. Beam current waveforms along the experiment are compared with results from a one-dimension longitudinal dynamics code. Initial experiments show particle loss occurring at the beam head as a result of overtaking. The apparatus is also being used for the development of non or minimally intercepting diagnostics for future recirculator experiments. These include capacitive monitors for determining beam line-charge density and position in the recirculator; flying wire scanners for beam position; and gated TV scanners for measuring beam profiles and emittance.

  3. U.S. heavy ion beam science towards inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress in the U.S heavy-ion fusion (HIF) program is reported in modeling and measurements of intense space-charge-dominated heavy ion and electron beams. Measurements of the transport of a well-matched and aligned high current (0.2A) 1.0 MeV potassium ion beam through 10 electric quadrupoles, with a fill factor of 60%, shows no emittance growth within experimental measurement uncertainty, as expected from the simulations. Another experiment shows that passing a beam through an aperture can reduce emittance to near the theoretical limits, and that plasma neutralization of the beam's space-charge can greatly reduce the focal spot radius. Measurements of intense beamlet current density, emittance, charge-state purity, and energy spread from a new, high-brightness, Argon plasma source for HIF experiments are described. New theory and simulations of neutralization of intense beam space charge with plasma in various focusing chamber configurations indicate that near-emittance-limited beam focal spot sizes can be obtained even with beam perveance an order of magnitude higher than in earlier HIF focusing experiments. (author)

  4. Analysis of different design options for the beam target of the energy amplifier demonstration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal fluid dynamic analysis of different design options of a high intensity proton beam target has been performed for the 80 MW Demonstration Facility of the Energy Amplifier proposed by C. Rubbia (EADF), presently under development in Italy by Ansaldo, CRS4, ENEA and INFN. The present machine is driven by a 600 MeV proton accelerator at a current varying from about 2 to 6 mA during the fuel cycle. Two options have been considered: (i) a 'windowless' design, where the free surface of the spallation material (liquid Pb-Bi eutectic) is the interface with the void of the beam transport line, and (ii) a 'window' design, where a physical separation is made by means of a 9Cr 1Mo V Nb martensitic steel hemispherical window. Both designs have advantages and drawbacks. The beam window is a delicate element whose lifetime is at present moment difficult to assess, since it is affected by the combined action of liquid metal corrosion, radiation damage (induced by protons and high energy neutrons interactions) and thermal fatigue (induced by stress cycling due to beam trips and beam interruptions). The windowless option is less sensible to radiation damage, but its design is more complex for the presence of a free surface flow and of Pb-Bi vapours in the beam pipe. (author)

  5. Unifying Points, Beams, and Paths in Volumetric Light Transport Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Křivánek, Jaroslav; Georgiev, Iliyan; Hachisuka, Toshiya;

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently computing light transport in participating media in a manner that is robust to variations in media density, scattering albedo, and anisotropy is a difficult and important problem in realistic image synthesis. While many specialized rendering techniques can efficiently resolve subsets of...

  6. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the activities of the GSI Darmstadt (FRG) during 1985 concerning inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams. Short communications and abstracts are presented concerning a Z-pinch experiment, heavy ion pumped lasers and X-ray spectroscopy, the study of ion-ion collisions, a RFQ development and beam transport studies, accelerator theory, targets for SIS/ESR experiments, the rayleigh-Taylor instability, studies on the equation of state for matter under high pressure, as well as the development of computer codes. (HSI)

  7. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-Up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  8. High Energy Beam Impacts on Beam Intercepting Devices: Advanced Numerical Methods and Experimental Set-up

    CERN Document Server

    Bertarelli, A; Carra, F; Cerutti, F; Dallocchio, A; Mariani, N; Timmins, M; Peroni, L; Scapin, M

    2011-01-01

    Beam Intercepting Devices are potentially exposed to severe accidental events triggered by direct impacts of energetic particle beams. State-of-the-art numerical methods are required to simulate the behaviour of affected components. A review of the different dynamic response regimes is presented, along with an indication of the most suited tools to treat each of them. The consequences on LHC tungsten collimators of a number of beam abort scenarios were extensively studied, resorting to a novel category of numerical explicit methods, named Hydrocodes. Full shower simulations were performed providing the energy deposition distribution. Structural dynamics and shock wave propagation analyses were carried out with varying beam parameters, identifying important thresholds for collimator operation, ranging from the onset of permanent damage up to catastrophic failure. Since the main limitation of these tools lies in the limited information available on constitutive material models under extreme conditions, a dedica...

  9. Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP): Considerations for Beaming High Energy-Density Electromagnetic Waves Through the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to determine the feasibility of employing beamed electromagnetic energy for vehicle propulsion within and outside the Earth's atmosphere was co-funded by NASA and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency that began in June 2010 and culminated in a Summary Presentation in April 2011. A detailed report entitled "Beamed-Energy Propulsion (BEP) Study" appeared in February 2012 as NASA/TM-2012-217014. Of the very many nuances of this subject that were addressed in this report, the effects of transferring the required high energy-density electromagnetic fields through the atmosphere were discussed. However, due to the limitations of the length of the report, only a summary of the results of the detailed analyses were able to be included. It is the intent of the present work to make available the complete analytical modeling work that was done for the BEP project with regard to electromagnetic wave propagation issues. In particular, the present technical memorandum contains two documents that were prepared in 2011. The first one, entitled "Effects of Beaming Energy Through the Atmosphere" contains an overview of the analysis of the nonlinear problem inherent with the transfer of large amounts of energy through the atmosphere that gives rise to thermally-induced changes in the refractive index; application is then made to specific beamed propulsion scenarios. A brief portion of this report appeared as Appendix G of the 2012 Technical Memorandum. The second report, entitled "An Analytical Assessment of the Thermal Blooming Effects on the Propagation of Optical and Millimeter- Wave Focused Beam Waves For Power Beaming Applications" was written in October 2010 (not previously published), provides a more detailed treatment of the propagation problem and its effect on the overall characteristics of the beam such as its deflection as well as its radius. Comparisons are then made for power beaming using the disparate electromagnetic wavelengths of 1.06 microns and 2

  10. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered γ-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10-4 or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  11. ILC beam energy measurement by means of laser Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchnoi, N. [Budker Inst. for Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Schreiber, H.J.; Viti, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    A novel, non-invasive method of measuring the beam energy at the International Linear Collider is proposed. Laser light collides head-on with beam particles and either the energy of the Compton scattered electrons near the kinematic end-point is measured or the positions of the Compton backscattered {gamma}-rays, the edge electrons and the unscattered beam particles are recorded. A compact layout for the Compton spectrometer is suggested. It consists of a bending magnet and position sensitive detectors operating in a large radiation environment. Several options for high spatial resolution detectors are discussed. Simulation studies support the use of an infrared or green laser and quartz fiber detectors to monitor the backscattered photons and edge electrons. Employing a cavity monitor, the beam particle position downstream of the magnet can be recorded with submicrometer precision. Such a scheme provides a feasible and promising method to access the incident beam energy with precisions of 10{sup -4} or better on a bunch-to-bunch basis while the electron and positron beams are in collision. (orig.)

  12. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.; Ball, Millicent, J.

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  13. Control of Halo-Chaos in Beam Transport Network via Neural Network Adaptation with Time-Delayed Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jin-Qing; LUO Xiao-Shu; HUANG Guo-Xian

    2006-01-01

    Subject of the halo-chaos control in beam transport networks (channels) has become a key concerned issue for many important applications of high-current proton beam since 1990'. In this paper, the magnetic field adaptive control based on the neuralnetwork with time-delayed feedback is proposed for suppressing beam halo-chaos in the beam transport network with periodic focusing channels. The envelope radius of high-current proton beam is controlled to reach the matched beam radius by suitably selecting the control structure and parameter of the neural network, adjusting the delayed-time and control coefficient of the neural network.

  14. Space-charge transport limits of ion beams in periodic quadrupole focusing channels

    CERN Document Server

    Lund, S M; Lund, Steven M.; Chawla, Sugreev R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been empirically observed in both experiments and particle-in-cell simulations that space-charge-dominated beams suffer strong growth in statistical phase-space area (degraded quality) and particle losses in alternating gradient quadrupole transport channels when the undepressed phase advance sigma_0 increases beyond about 85 degrees per lattice period. Although this criterion has been used extensively in practical designs of strong focusing intense beam transport lattices, the origin of the limit has not been understood. We propose a mechanism for the transport limit resulting from classes of halo particle resonances near the core of the beam that allow near-edge particles to rapidly increase in oscillation amplitude when the space-charge intensity and the flutter of the matched beam envelope are both sufficiently large. When coupled with a diffuse beam edge and/or perturbations internal to the beam core that can drive particles outside the edge, this mechanism can result in large and rapid halo-drive...

  15. A MATLAB-based interface for the beam-transport system of an AMS facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J.M., E-mail: jm_gomez@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), University of Seville (Spain); Dpto. de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, University of Seville (Spain); Gómez-Morilla, I. [Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Maschinenwesen, Professur für Magnetofluiddynamik (Germany); Enamorado-Báez, S.M.; Moreno-Suárez, A.I.; Pinto-Gómez, A.R. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), University of Seville (Spain)

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility located at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain). We determine the beam transport through the optical system using the transfer matrix formalism in two different approaches (ray tracing and the beam-envelope approach) and describe it in terms of cross section size and emittance. The beam size results given by MATLAB are compared with the measured beam size in three of the four image points that the system has, obtaining a good agreement between them. This suggests that the first-order transfer matrix formalism is enough to simulate the optical behavior of the system. The present version of this interface enables the user to control, interact with and display a beam transport system. Parameters involved in the optics such as voltages applied to the lenses, terminal voltage and charge state of the selected ion can be modified using this interface, which gives great generality, as the optics behavior of the AMS system can be simulated for any ion species prior to operation.

  16. A MATLAB-based interface for the beam-transport system of an AMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility located at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain). We determine the beam transport through the optical system using the transfer matrix formalism in two different approaches (ray tracing and the beam-envelope approach) and describe it in terms of cross section size and emittance. The beam size results given by MATLAB are compared with the measured beam size in three of the four image points that the system has, obtaining a good agreement between them. This suggests that the first-order transfer matrix formalism is enough to simulate the optical behavior of the system. The present version of this interface enables the user to control, interact with and display a beam transport system. Parameters involved in the optics such as voltages applied to the lenses, terminal voltage and charge state of the selected ion can be modified using this interface, which gives great generality, as the optics behavior of the AMS system can be simulated for any ion species prior to operation

  17. Development of energy and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economic development and the advancement of technology is presented as a process of substituting old forms of satisfying human needs by new ones or, more precisely, as a sequence of such substitutions. The examples, reconstructed from historical records, describe the quantitative, technological changes in energy and transport systems. The analysis of historical replacement of old by new technologies has shown that most of these processes can be described by simple rules that are captured in the logistic substitution model, and that technological substitution, expressed in terms of market shares, follows characteristic S-shaped curves. To illustrate the properties of the approach examples are given of how new energy forms replaced their predecessors. To further explore the method similar substitution processes in transport systems are described. 21 refs, 23 figs, 1 tab

  18. Galopr, a beam transport program, with space-charge and bunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GALOPR is a first order beam transport code including 3 dimensional space charge forces and the beam bunching process. It deals with usual optical devices (bending magnets, lenses, solenoids, drift spaces, bunchers) and can take into account any special optical device represented by its transfer matrix with space charge (the Muller and the Pabot-Belmont inflectors were recently introduced as one of these devices). The beam can be continuous, bunched or undergoing a bunching or debunching process. The beam line parameters can be optimized in order to fit any elements of the 6 x 6 transfer and/or covariance matrices in order to obtain the maximum transmission efficiency. The results are presented with a complete set of print-outs and graphical displays. This code has been used to optimize the 100 kV Axial Injection Beam Line at GANIL

  19. Low-temperature charge transport in Ga-acceptor nanowires implanted by focused-ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Robinson, S.J.; Perkins, C.L.; Tucker, J.R.; Schenkel, T.; Wang, X.W.; Ma, T.P.; Shen, T.-C.

    2007-07-31

    Ga-acceptor nanowires were embedded in crystalline Si using focused-ion beams. The dc current-voltage characteristics of these wires after annealing are highly nonlinear at low temperatures, and a threshold voltage of less than 50 mV is observed independent of Ga+ dosage and implant beam overlap. These features suggest a Coulomb blockade transport mechanism presumably caused by a network of Ga precipitates in the substrate. This granular scenario is further supported by measurements of gated nanowires. Nanowires with metallic conductance at low temperatures could be achieved by reducing the current density of the focused-ion beams.

  20. A Labview based FPGA data acquisition with integrated stage and beam transport control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new FPGA based data acquisition system developed for the CSIRO Nuclear Microprobe (NMP) which is tightly integrated with both target positioning and beam transport. The data acquisition system called MicrodaQ is based on National Instruments Labview FPGA and numerous instrumentation modules spread over several PC’s. Beam transport uses a feedback control loop to optimise current on target for long unmanned experiments. These upgrades are discussed in detail and an example of the systems use for μ-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analysis on a Doriri apatite is briefly described

  1. Formation and transport of slow positron beam in magnetic field with {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Takayoshi; Fujita, Hirohumi; Yamada, Masaki; Nunogaki, Masanobu; Honda, Yoshihide; Isoyama, Goro [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research

    1996-03-01

    The {beta}{sup +} particles emitted from {sup 22}Na have been formed to a slow positron beam by moderating them at the surface of a W-foil and then transported in a curved magnetic field to separate the beam from the {gamma}-rays. The curvature drift has been compensated by the E x B drift due to the auxidially electrodes inserted in that region. More than 1.1 x 10{sup 4} positrons/sec have been confirmed to be transported through the curved field without the drift motion. (author).

  2. Electron-beam generation, transport, and transverse oscillation experiments using the REX injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The REX machine at LANL is being used as a prototype to generate a 4-MV, 4.5-kA, 55-ns flat-top electron beam as a source for injection into a linear induction accelerator of the 16-MeV Dual Axis Radiographic Hydrotest facility. The pulsed-power source drives a planar velvet cathode producing a beam that is accelerated through a foilless anode aperture and transported by an air core magnetic lens for injection into the first 48 linear induction cells. Extensive measurements of the time-resolved (<1-ns) properties of the beam using a streak camera and high-speed electronic diagnostics have been made. These parameters include beam current, voltage, current density, emittance, and transverse beam motion. The effective cathode temperature is 117 eV, corresponding to a Lapostolle emittance of 0.96 mm-rad. Transverse oscillations of the transported beam have been observed via a differenced B-dot technique to be about ±100 μ at 245 MHz. This beam motion has been correlated via detailed rf measurements of asymmetric transverse cavity modes in the A-K gap

  3. Energy transport between two integrable spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biella, Alberto; De Luca, Andrea; Viti, Jacopo; Rossini, Davide; Mazza, Leonardo; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-05-01

    We study the energy transport in a system of two half-infinite XXZ chains initially kept separated at different temperatures, and later connected and let free to evolve unitarily. By changing independently the parameters of the two halves, we highlight, through bosonization and time-dependent matrix-product-state simulations, the different contributions of low-lying bosonic modes and of fermionic quasiparticles to the energy transport. In the simulations we also observe that the energy current reaches a finite value which only slowly decays to zero. The general picture that emerges is the following. Since integrability is only locally broken in this model, a preequilibration behavior may appear. In particular, when the sound velocities of the bosonic modes of the two halves match, the low-temperature energy current is almost stationary and described by a formula with a nonuniversal prefactor interpreted as a transmission coefficient. Thermalization, characterized by the absence of any energy flow, occurs only on longer time scales which are not accessible with our numerics.

  4. Evolution of elliptic and triangular flow as a function of beam energy in a hybrid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliptic flow has been one of the key observables for establishing the finding of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest energies of Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). As a sign of collectively behaving matter, one would expect the elliptic flow to decrease at lower beam energies, where the QGP is not produced. However, in the recent RHIC beam energy scan, it has been found that the inclusive charged hadron elliptic flow changes relatively little in magnitude in the energies between 7.7 and 39 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision. We study the collision energy dependence of the elliptic and triangular flow utilizing a Boltzmann + hydrodynamics hybrid model. Such a hybrid model provides a natural framework for the transition from high collision energies, where the hydrodynamical description is essential, to smaller energies, where the hadron transport dominates. This approach is thus suitable to investigate the relative importance of these two mechanisms for the production of the collective flow at different values of beam energy. Extending the examined range down to 5 GeV per nucleon-nucleon collision allows also making predictions for the CBM experiment at FAIR.

  5. Selected legal and regulatory concerns affecting domestic energy transportation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides assessments of eight legal and regulatory concerns that may affect energy material transportation in the US during the rest of the century: state authority to regulate nuclear materials transport, divestiture of petroleum pipelines from major integrated oil companies, problems affecting the natural gas transportation system, capabilities of energy transportation systems during emergencies, Federal coal pipeline legislation, ability of Federal agencies to anticipate railroad difficulties, abandonment of uneconomic railroad lines, and impact of the Panama Canal treaty upon US energy transportation

  6. H- source and beam transport experiments for a new RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new RFQ preinjector is being built for the 200 MeV Linac at the AGS. For injection into this RFQ, a symmetric emittance has been obtained from a circular aperture magnetron H- source. Transport studies are beginning to address possible problems with space charge or instabilities in the 35 keV line. A volume H- source is being tested as an eventual replacement for the magnetron

  7. Transverse centroid oscillations in solenoidially focused beam transport lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Linear equations of motion are derived that describe small-amplitude centroid oscillations induced by displacement and rotational misalignments of the focusing solenoids in the transport lattice, dipole steering elements, and initial centroid offset errors. These equations are analyzed in a local rotating Larmor frame to derive complex-variable "alignment functions" and "bending functions" that efficiently describe the characteristics of the centroid oscillations induced by mechanical misalig...

  8. Energy recuperation of intense proton beam compensated by slow electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of direct transformation (recuperation) of intense ion beam energy are described. In a recuperator low-energy electrons of a beam are separated by a grid unit and ions are detected by one of the three types of collectors: plane, ''Faraday cylinder'' with a grid in the input hole and without it. The transformation of proton beam energy with current density up to 150 mA/cm2 at current pulse duration of 300 μ and power of ∼ 0.5 kW is realized with the efficiency of 70%, at power up to 30 kW - with the efficiency of about 50%. The investigation results can be used for the development of recuperation systems in thermonuclear facilities

  9. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2008-04-01

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose "to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large". The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed.

  10. American Institute of Beamed Energy Propulsion: An Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date ISBEP remains the main forum addressing the science and engineering of beamed energy propulsion. Hopefully, it will continue to serve BEP community in this capacity for years to come. The need for organization acting beyond ISBEP was discussed since the second symposium. This paper will address the following question: if our community is ready for having its own organization, a BEP institute, what new it should bring comparing to already existing conference. Such organization, an American Institute on Beamed Energy Propulsion (AIBEP) was recently established. The institute is designed as a nonprofit corporation serving the purpose 'to promote the ideas, concepts and benefits of beamed-energy propulsion to research community, industry and society at large'. The goals of the institute, expected outcomes and benefits of the organization and its membership will be discussed

  11. Modeling crossed-beam energy transfer for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, D. J. Y.; Debayle, A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-05-01

    We developed a numerical code that describes both the energy transfer occurring when two or more laser beams overlap in a weakly non-homogeneous plasma, and the beam energy losses associated with the electron-ion collisions. The numerical solutions are validated with both the exact analytical solutions in homogeneous plasmas, and with new approximate analytical solutions in non-homogeneous plasmas that include the aforementioned inverse bremsstrahlung effect. Comparisons with kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are satisfactory, provided the acoustic wave-breaking limit and the self-focusing regime are not reached. An application of the Cross-Beam Energy Transfer model is shown for a typical case of indirect-drive implosion in a gold hohlraum.

  12. Crossed Beam Energy Transfer in the NIF ICF Target Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the National Ignition Facility (NIF) ICF point design, the cylindrical hohlraum target is illuminated by multiple laser beams through two laser entrance holes on the ends. According to simulations by LASNEX and HYDRA plasma created inside the hohlraum will stream out of the LEH, accelerate to supersonic speeds and then fan out radially. Inside the hohlraum, flows are subsonic. Forward Brillouin scattering can transfer energy between pairs of laser beams (0 and 1) if the following frequency matching condition is satisfied: ω0 - ω1 = (k0 - k1) · V + |k0 - k1| cs (1) where ω0.1 and k0.1 are the frequencies and wave-numbers of the two laser beams, V is the plasma flow velocity and cs is the local ion sound speed. In the nominal case of equal frequency beams, this requires the component of the plasma flow velocity transverse to the bisector of the beam directions to be sonic, with the resulting transfer being to the downstream beam. In the NIF beam geometry, this is from the outer to inner cones of beams. The physics of this transfer is the same as in beam bending; the difference being that in the case of beam bending the effect is to redistribute power to the downstream side of the single beam. Were significant power transfer to occur in the point design, the delicately tuned implosion symmetry would be spoiled. To directly compensate for the transfer, the incident beam powers would have to be adjusted. The greatest vulnerability in the point design thus occurs at 15.2ns, when the inner beams are at their peak power and are at their nominal design power limit. In this situation, some other means of symmetry control would be required, such as re-pointing. At 15.2ns, the envelope focal intensities of the outer and inner beams are approximately 1015 and 6.7 1014 W/cm2 respectively. There is little absorption or diffractive spreading of the beams in the crossing region, so these intensities are also representative there. The outer beams are at higher intensity

  13. Effusive-Flow of Pure Elemental Species in Tubular Transport Systems: Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximum practically achievable intensities are required for research with accelerated radioactive ion beams (RIBs). Time delays due to diffusion of radioactive species from solid or liquid target materials and their effusive-flow transport to the ion source can severely limit intensities of short-lived radioactive beams, and therefore, such delays must be minimized. An analytical formula has been developed that can be used to calculate characteristic effusive-flow times through tubular transport systems, independent of species, tube material, and operational temperature for ideal cases. Thus, the equation permits choice of materials of construction on a relative basis that minimize transport times of atoms or molecules moving through the system, independent of transport system geometry and size. In this report, we describe the formula and compare results derived by its use with those determined by use of Monte-Carlo techniques

  14. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  15. Risoe energy report 5. Renewable energy for power and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2006-11-15

    The global energy policy scene today is dominated by three concerns, namely security of supply, climate change and energy for development and poverty alleviation. This is the starting point for Risoe Energy Report 5 that addresses status and trends in renewable energy, and gives an overview of global driving forces for transformation of the energy systems in the light of security of supply, climate change and economic growth. More specifically status and trends in renewable energy technologies, for broader applications in off grid power production (and heat) will be discussed. Furthermore the report will address wider introduction of renewable energy in the transport sector, for example renewable based fuels, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles and fuel cell driven vehicles. (au)

  16. Injector and beam transport simulation study of proton dielectric wall accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Quantang, E-mail: zhaoquantang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yuan, P.; Zhang, Z.M.; Cao, S.C [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Shen, X.K. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Jing, Y.; Ma, Y.Y. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, C.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Z.P.; Liu, M.; Xiao, R.Q.; Zhao, H.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-12-01

    A simulation study of a short-pulsed proton injector for, and beam transport in, a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been carried out using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code Warp. It was shown that applying 'tilt pulse' voltage waveforms on three electrodes enables the production of a shorter bunch by the injector. The fields in the DWA beam tube were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology's Microwave Studio (CST MWS) package, with various choices for the boundary conditions. For acceleration in the DWA, the beam transport was simulated with Warp, using applied fields obtained by running CST MWS. Our simulations showed that the electric field at the entrance to the DWA represents a challenging issue for the beam transport. We thus simulated a configuration with a mesh at the entrance of the DWA, intended to improve the entrance field. In these latter simulations, a proton bunch was successfully accelerated from 130 keV to about 36 MeV in a DWA with a length of 36.75 cm. As the beam bunch progresses, its transverse dimensions diminish from (roughly) 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 0.5 cm to 0.2 Multiplication-Sign 0.4 cm. The beam pulse lengthens from 1 cm to 2 cm due to lack of longitudinal compression fields. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A pulse proton injector with tilt voltages on the three electrodes was simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fields in different part of the DWA were simulated with CST and analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proton beam transport in DWA was simulated with Warp successfully. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simulation can help for designing a real DWA.

  17. Injector and beam transport simulation study of proton dielectric wall accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation study of a short-pulsed proton injector for, and beam transport in, a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) has been carried out using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code Warp. It was shown that applying “tilt pulse” voltage waveforms on three electrodes enables the production of a shorter bunch by the injector. The fields in the DWA beam tube were simulated using Computer Simulation Technology’s Microwave Studio (CST MWS) package, with various choices for the boundary conditions. For acceleration in the DWA, the beam transport was simulated with Warp, using applied fields obtained by running CST MWS. Our simulations showed that the electric field at the entrance to the DWA represents a challenging issue for the beam transport. We thus simulated a configuration with a mesh at the entrance of the DWA, intended to improve the entrance field. In these latter simulations, a proton bunch was successfully accelerated from 130 keV to about 36 MeV in a DWA with a length of 36.75 cm. As the beam bunch progresses, its transverse dimensions diminish from (roughly) 0.5×0.5 cm to 0.2×0.4 cm. The beam pulse lengthens from 1 cm to 2 cm due to lack of longitudinal compression fields. -- Highlights: ► A pulse proton injector with tilt voltages on the three electrodes was simulated. ► The fields in different part of the DWA were simulated with CST and analyzed. ► The proton beam transport in DWA was simulated with Warp successfully. ► The simulation can help for designing a real DWA.

  18. Which energy for the 21 century transports; Quelles energies pour les transports au 21. siecle?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauquis, P.R.; Lovelock, J

    2005-07-01

    With more than 95% of the energy consumption realized by the petroleum, the transportation sector represents 20% of the world energy consumption. How will be assure the energy need of this sector for the 21 century? How control the greenhouse gases emissions and in particular the CO{sub 2} by the control of the transportation sector? This paper aims to answer the first question taking into account the bond second one. It analyzes the today situation and scenario for 2020 and 2050, the possible substitution fuels, the hybrid vehicles, the hydrogen fuel and the electric power vehicles. (A.L.B.)

  19. Study and optimization of beam transport in a great length recirculation linear accelerator. Application to the ELFE project (Electron Laboratory for Europe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of three simultaneous beams in the 1 km-length linear accelerator (linac) has been studied, from the beam recombination stage at the linac entry, to their dispersion, at the end of the linac: effects of the injection energy, the FODO mesh length and the mesh betatron propagation at the first passage, on the acceptance corresponding to the three passages, have been simulated. Optics misalignment defects and corrections have been taken into account. It appears that at least one beam position monitor per FODO mesh is necessary. The study was then extended to a two-way recirculation linac. 41 fig., 51 ref

  20. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  1. Production of high energy photon beam at TAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When an electron pass through an electric field, the electron loose its part of energy and photon is generated. This process is known as Bremsstrahlung (means 'radiation breaking' in German) and this photon can be used in a variety of different application. The TAC will be first Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC) where a IR-FEL and Beamstrahlung photon beam facilities will be established in first stage. The electrons will be accelerated up to 40 MeV by two LINAC and these beam will be used to generate Bremsstrahlung photon. In this study, the main parameters for Bremsstrahlung photon beam facility will be established at TAC will be detailed and fields to be used Bremsstrahlung beam will also be presented.

  2. The high-energy dual-beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proposal presents a new experimental facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) to study the effects of irradiation on the first wall and blanket materials of a fusion reactor. A special effort is made to demonstrate the advantages of the Dual Beam Technique (DBT) as a future research tool for materials development within the European Fusion Technology Programme. The Dual-Beam-Technique allows the production both of helium and of damage in thick metal and ceramic specimens by simultaneous irradiation with high energy alpha particles and protons produced by the two KfK cyclotrons. The proposal describes the Dual Beam Technique the planned experimental activities and the design features of the Dual Beam Facility presently under construction. (orig.)

  3. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  4. Focused high energy proton beam micromachining: A perspective view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micromachining techniques utilising optical, UV and X-ray photons, as well as electrons, low energy heavy ions and high energy light ions (protons), are briefly reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed. High energy ion beam micromachining (proton micromachining) is a new process which exhibits a unique feature; direct-write 3-dimensional micromachining at submicron resolutions. Although this technique may not compete with conventional mask processes for producing high volume batch production of microcomponents, high energy ion beam micromachining may have a significant role in rapid prototyping, research into the characteristics of microstructures, and the manufacture of molds, stamps and thick masks. Several examples of high energy proton micromachining are presented to illustrate the potential of the technique

  5. Transportation energy conservation data book: edition I. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shonka, D B; Loebl, A S; Ogle, M C; Johnson, M L; Howard, E B

    1977-01-01

    This document contains statistical information on the major transportation modes, their respective energy consumption patterns, and other pertinent factors influencing performance in the transportation sector. Data relating to past, present, and projected energy use and conservation in the transportation sector are presented under seven chapter headings. These focus on (1) modal transportation characteristics, (2) energy characteristics of the transportation sector, (3) energy conservation alternatives involving the transportation sector, (4) government impacts on the transportation sector, (5) the supply of energy to the transportation sector, (6) characteristics of transportation demand, and (7) miscellaneous reference materials such as energy conversion factors and geographical maps. References are included for each set of data presented, and a more general bibliography is included at the end of the book. In addition, a glossary of key terms and a subject index is provided for the user. A second edition of this document is scheduled for publication in September 1977.

  6. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McTaggart, N.; Bonnin, X.; Runov, A.; Schneider, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Zagorski, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, P.O.Box 49, Warsaw (Poland)

    2004-04-01

    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Energy transport modelling including ergodic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of ergodization (either by additional coils like in TEXTOR-DED or by intrinsic plasma effects like in W7-X) defines the need for transport models being able to describe this properly. A prerequisite for this is the concept of local magnetic coordinates allowing a correct discretization with minimized numerical errors. For these coordinates the full respective metric tensor has to be known. To study the energy transport in complex edge geometries (in particular for W7-X) we use a finite difference discretization of the transport equations on a custom-tailored grid in local magnetic coordinates. This grid is generated by field line tracing to guarantee an exact discretization of the dominant parallel transport (this also minimizes the numerical diffusion problem). The perpendicular fluxes are interpolated on cross-sectional planes (toroidal cuts), where a quasi-isotropic problem is solved by a constrained Delaunay triangulation (preserving magnetic surfaces where they exist), and discretization. All terms involving toroidal terms are discretized by finite differences. The first tests for W7X and NCSX were successfully performed. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Physics of Neutralization of Intense High-Energy Ion Beam Pulses by Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Davidson, R. C.; Dorf, M. A.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Lee, E. P.; Friedman, A.

    2010-04-28

    Neutralization and focusing of intense charged particle beam pulses by electrons forms the basis for a wide range of applications to high energy accelerators and colliders, heavy ion fusion, and astrophysics. For example, for ballistic propagation of intense ion beam pulses, background plasma can be used to effectively neutralize the beam charge and current, so that the self-electric and self- magnetic fields do not affect the ballistic propagation of the beam. From the practical perspective of designing advanced plasma sources for beam neutralization, a robust theory should be able to predict the self-electric and self-magnetic fields during beam propagation through the background plasma. The major scaling relations for the self-electric and self-magnetic fields of intense ion charge bunches propagating through background plasma have been determined taking into account the effects of transients during beam entry into the plasma, the excitation of collective plasma waves, the effects of gas ionization, finite electron temperature, and applied solenoidal and dipole magnetic fields. Accounting for plasma production by gas ionization yields a larger self-magnetic field of the ion beam compared to the case without ionization, and a wake of current density and self-magnetic field perturbations is generated behind the beam pulse. A solenoidal magnetic field can be applied for controlling the beam propagation. Making use of theoretical models and advanced numerical simulations, it is shown that even a small applied magnetic field of about 100G can strongly affect the beam neutralization. It has also been demonstrated that in the presence of an applied magnetic field the ion beam pulse can excite large-amplitude whistler waves, thereby producing a complex structure of self-electric and self-magnetic fields. The presence of an applied solenoidal magnetic field may also cause a strong enhancement of the radial self-electric field of the beam pulse propagating through the

  9. Dissipative instability of negative energy wave of an intense E-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissipative instabilities in a flowing system have been widely discussed in the literature, and is being sought to be applied to explain various phenomena in fusion plasma. The instabilities are accompanied by plasma heating and diffusion and can also greatly enhance plasma transport across magnetic-field lines. Physical nature of these instabilities actually is coupled with that of resistive wall modes. Physics of instabilities in flowing systems is elaborated and it may seem that one fail to encounter a variety of that with new physics. This investigation presents new type of dissipative streaming instability. Strong dissipation changes physical nature of streaming instabilities. Instability becomes of dissipative type, caused by excitation of the beam wave of negative energy. Another type of streaming instability caused by excitation of the negative energy beam wave also is known in theory. With increase in beam intensity space charge fields set an upper limit on beam current that can be transmitted through given vacuum electrodynamic system. In systems of uniform transversal geometry overlimiting e-beam instability is due to modulation of the beam density in media with negative permittivity. Influence of dissipation on this instability was considered. But in no-uniform-cross-section plasma-filled systems overlimiting e-beam instability is also due to growing of the negative energy beam wave. Superposition of the two processes that lead to excitation of the beam wave with negative energy leads to new type of dissipative streaming instability. Its growth rate has previously unknown, inverse proportional dependence on dissipation. The influence of dissipation on excitation of the beam wave with negative energy is elaborated in detail as well as the transformation of the instability to that of dissipative type. Growth rate of the instability is obtained for arbitrary level of dissipation. An approach is developed that enables to investigate the dynamics of the

  10. Effective source size, radial, angular and energy spread of therapeutic 11C positron emitter beams produced by 12C fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of positron emitter light ion beams in combination with PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and PET–CT (Computed Tomography) imaging could significantly improve treatment verification and dose delivery imaging during radiation therapy. The present study is dedicated to the analysis of the beam quality in terms of the effective source size, as well as radial, angular and energy spread of the 11C ion beam produced by projectile fragmentation of a primary point monodirectional and monoenergetic 12C ion beam in a dedicated range shifter of different materials. This study was performed combining analytical methods describing the transport of particles in matter and the Monte Carlo code SHIELD-HIT+. A high brilliance and production yield of 11C fragments with a small effective source size and emittance is best achieved with a decelerator made of two media: a first liquid hydrogen section of about 20 cm followed by a hydrogen rich section of variable length. The calculated intensity of the produced 11C ion beam ranges from about 5% to 8% of the primary 12C beam intensity depending on the exit energy and the acceptance of the beam transport system. The angular spread is lower than 1 degree for all the materials studied, but the brilliance of the beam is the highest with the proposed mixed decelerator

  11. High energy density in matter produced by heavy ion beams. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities presented in this annual report were carried out in 1987 in the framework of the government-funded program 'High Energy Density in Matter Produced by Heavy Ion Beams'. It addresses fundamental problems of the generation and investigation of hot dense matter. Its initial motivation and its ultimate goal is the question whether inertial confinement can be achieved by intense heavy ion beams. The new accelerator facility SIS/ESR now under construction at GSI will provide an excellent potential for research in this field. The construction work at the new validity is on schedule. The building construction is near completion and the SIS accelerator will have its first beam at the beginning of next year. First experiments at lower intensity will start in summer 1989 and the full program will run after the cooler and storage ring ESR has got operational. Accordingly, the planning and the preparation of the high energy density experiments at this unique facility was an essential part of the activities last year. In this funding period emphasis was given to the experimental activities at the existing accelerator. In addition to a number of accelerator-oriented and instrumental developments, an experiment on beam-plasma interaction had first exciting results, a significant increase of the stopping power for heavy ions in plasma was measured. Other important activities were the investigation of dielectronic recombination of highly charged ions, spectroscopic investigations aiming at the pumping of short wavelength lasers by heavy ion beams and a crossed beam experiment for the determination of Bi+ + Bi+ ionization cross sections. As in previous years theoretical work an space-charge dominated beam dynamics as well as on hydrodynamics of dense plasmas, radiation transport and beam plasma interaction was continued, thus providing a basis for the future experiments. (orig.)

  12. High-precision absolute measurement of CEBAF beam mean energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute measurement of the beam mean energy with an accuracy of one part in 104 or higher is an important demand of the CEBAF Hall A physics program. This accuracy may reduce the uncertainty in the d(e, e'p)p cross section δσ/σ to 1%. The need for such an accurately calibrated beam is not particular to CEBAF; at other electron facilities uncertainty in the incident energy has proven to be among the dominant sources of systematic error. The following methods for solving the problem were considered at both CEBAF and the Yerevan Physics Institute during 1990--1991: Backscattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by the relativistic electron beam. Calculations show that the intensity of the backscattered radiation in a bandwidth of 10-4 near the maximum frequency is about 1 photon per second at 4 GeV and 0.3 mA. Magnetic spectrometers performing as three- and four-magnet chicanes with appropriate detector systems. Such a system was used at SLAC for absolute measurement of the SLC beams energy, where a maximum accuracy of 5 x 10-4 was achieved. Calculations show that a similar accuracy can be achieved for the CEBAF beam in both proposed systems. Measurement of the vertical distribution of synchrotron radiation. Calculations indicate that precision of about 2.5 x 10-5 is achievable for CEBAF

  13. Beamed Energy Propulsion: Research Status And Needs--Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One promising solution to the operationally responsive space is the application of remote electromagnetic energy to propel a launch vehicle into orbit. With beamed energy propulsion, one can leave the power source stationary on the ground or space, and direct heat propellant on the spacecraft with a beam from a fixed station. This permits the spacecraft to leave its power source at home, saving significant amounts of mass, greatly improving performance. This concept, which removes the mass penalty of carrying the propulsion energy source on board the vehicle, was first proposed by Arthur Kantrowitz in 1972; he invoked an extremely powerful ground based laser. The same year Michael Minovich suggested a conceptually similar 'in-space' laser rocket system utilizing a remote laser power station. In the late 1980's, Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) funded continuous, double pulse laser and microwave propulsion while Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO) funded ablative laser rocket propulsion. Currently AFOSR has been funding the concept initiated by Leik Myrabo, repetitively pulsed laser propulsion, which has been universally perceived, arguably, to be the closest for mid-term applications. This 2-part paper examines the investment strategies in beamed energy propulsion and technical challenges to be overcome. Part 1 presents a world-wide review of beamed energy propulsion research, including both laser and microwave arenas

  14. Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 μm patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations

  15. Energy Spread Reduction of Electron Beams Produced via Laser Wake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollock, Bradley Bolt [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration of electrons holds great promise for producing ultra-compact stages of GeV scale, high quality electron beams for applications such as x-ray free electron lasers and high energy colliders. Ultra-high intensity laser pulses can be self-guided by relativistic plasma waves over tens of vacuum diffraction lengths, to give >1 GeV energy in cm-scale low density plasma using ionization-induced injection to inject charge into the wake at low densities. This thesis describes a series of experiments which investigates the physics of LWFA in the self-guided blowout regime. Beginning with high density gas jet experiments the scaling of the LWFA-produced electron beam energy with plasma electron density is found to be in excellent agreement with both phenomenological theory and with 3-D PIC simulations. It is also determined that self-trapping of background electrons into the wake exhibits a threshold as a function of the electron density, and at the densities required to produce electron beams with energies exceeding 1 GeV a different mechanism is required to trap charge into low density wakes. By introducing small concentrations of high-Z gas to the nominal He background the ionization-induced injection mechanism is enabled. Electron trapping is observed at densities as low as 1.3 x 1018 cm-3 in a gas cell target, and 1.45 GeV electrons are demonstrated for the first time from LWFA. This is currently the highest electron energy ever produced from LWFA. The ionization-induced trapping mechanism is also shown to generate quasi-continuous electron beam energies, which is undesirable for accelerator applications. By limiting the region over which ionization-induced trapping occurs, the energy spread of the electron beams can be controlled. The development of a novel two-stage gas cell target provides the capability to tailor the gas composition in the longitudinal direction, and confine the trapping process to occur only in a

  16. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed

  17. Computer simulation of low-energy high-current electron beam dynamics in a long plasma-filled diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of computer simulation of low-energy high-current electron beam dynamics in a low-impedance system consisting of a diode with a long plasma anode, just siding with an explosive emission cathode and an auxiliary thermionic cathode are presented. Plasma anode plays simultaneously a role of the transport channel providing charge neutralization of high-current beam and is created by means of the residual gas ionisation by low-current, low-voltage electron beam emitted from the auxiliary cathode in an external longitudinal magnetic field. The main peculiarities of the beam-plasma system are discussed: 1) the formation of the beam of currents exceeding the limiting Alven's ones; 2) the formation of paramagnetic states of the beam under condition of beam charge density close to the plasma density. These peculiarities complicate beam-plasma interaction significantly due to sharp nonuniform distribution of the beam current density, significant transverse motion of the beam electrons and redistribution of ion plasma density under the influence of high-current electron beam fields. Computer simulation was performed using electromagnetic PIC code KARAT

  18. Recent Progress in the Development of a Multi-Layer Green's Function Code for Ion Beam Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweed, John; Walker, Steven A.; Wilson, John W.; Tripathi, Ram K.

    2008-01-01

    To meet the challenge of future deep space programs, an accurate and efficient engineering code for analyzing the shielding requirements against high-energy galactic heavy radiation is needed. To address this need, a new Green's function code capable of simulating high charge and energy ions with either laboratory or space boundary conditions is currently under development. The computational model consists of combinations of physical perturbation expansions based on the scales of atomic interaction, multiple scattering, and nuclear reactive processes with use of the Neumann-asymptotic expansions with non-perturbative corrections. The code contains energy loss due to straggling, nuclear attenuation, nuclear fragmentation with energy dispersion and downshifts. Previous reports show that the new code accurately models the transport of ion beams through a single slab of material. Current research efforts are focused on enabling the code to handle multiple layers of material and the present paper reports on progress made towards that end.

  19. 1 to 12 GeV/c beam transport for transverse or longitudinally polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-stage beam transport for polarized protons has been constructed and operated at the Argonne ZGS. The first stage delivers vertically polarized protons (N-type) to an elastic scattering polarimeter consisting of a 10 cm long LH2 target and two moveable sets of forward and recoil scintillation counters. The unscattered protons transported through the beam's second stage are focused onto the polarized proton target PPT-III; this target utilizes a 2.5 T R and A magnet to produce target polarizations in the horizontal plane, either in the beam direction (L-type) or transverse to it (S-type). The second stage of the beam is equipped with a combination of superconducting solenoids and dipole magnets; thus the beam polarization can also be rotated to point in the L or S direction. The entire system has been operated successfully over the momentum range 1.0 to 11.75 GeV/c with NS, LS, SS, and LL beam target spin directions

  20. Accelerator system and final beam transport in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical aspects of the fundamental components of accelerator system, beam and target for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion, are briefly reviewed. A particular emphasis is placed on the heavy ion transport in reactor vessel. The feasibility study at European research group on ignition by heavy ion driver is also presented. (author)

  1. High energy beams of radioactive nuclei and their biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of high-energy beams of radioactive species is the most recent advancement in the field of accelerator physics. One of the primary interactions experienced by relativistic heavy ions is the peripheral nuclear collision. Thus, radioactive nuclei are produced as secondary particles from peripheral nuclear fragmentation reactions. These nuclei have trajectories and energies differing little from that of the parent particle. Various radioactive beams produced as a result of these reactions, now available on a regular basis from the Bevalac, are: 11C, 13N, 15O, and 19Ne with sufficient intensity. Besides the interest in such beams for nuclear physics, important applications in therapeutic and diagnostic radiology and in nuclear medicine are discussed

  2. Tentative design of beam focusing for the AHF linac and transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proposals for an advanced hadron facility include building afterburner linacs for LAMPF. A first afterburner, Add-on Linac number 1, is proposed to accelerate the beam from 0.8 to 1.6 GeV. The output beam would then be fed to a compressor ring and to another afterburner, Add-on Linac number 2. We make a rough estimate of the transverse focusing strength needed in these linacs, and consider the transport line from the end of the LAMPF 805-MHz linac to the start of Add-on Linac number 1. A rebuncher is needed in this transport line for proper acceptance of the beam into the add-on linac. 2 refs., 4 figs

  3. LEADS-DC: A computer code for intense dc beam nonlinear transport simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An intense dc beam nonlinear transport code has been developed. The code is written in Visual FORTRAN 6.6 and has ~13000 lines. The particle distribution in the transverse cross section is uniform or Gaussian. The space charge forces are calculated by the PIC (particle in cell) scheme, and the effects of the applied fields on the particle motion are calculated with the Lie algebraic method through the third order approximation. Obviously,the solutions to the equations of particle motion are self-consistent. The results obtained from the theoretical analysis have been put in the computer code. Many optical beam elements are contained in the code. So, the code can simulate the intense dc particle motions in the beam transport lines, high voltage dc accelerators and ion implanters.

  4. Beam transport in the crystal x-ray accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fokker-Planck model of charged particle transport in crystal channels which includes the effect of strong accelerating gradients has been developed for application to the crystal x-ray accelerator and other crystal accelerator schemes. We indicate the implications of the analytic solutions found for a harmonic channeling potential for the accelerating gradient and the multiple scattering which, because we consider only the acceleration of positive particles, is dominated by scattering from the valence electrons. In order to relax the constraints imposed by these, we have been exploring the application of novel materials to this problem. One candidate is porous Si and our investigation into this material which is as yet preliminary is discussed and other possible materials are indicated

  5. ADVANCED METHODS FOR THE COMPUTATION OF PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT AND THE COMPUTATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND MULTIPARTICLE PHENOMENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex J. Dragt

    2012-08-31

    Since 1980, under the grant DEFG02-96ER40949, the Department of Energy has supported the educational and research work of the University of Maryland Dynamical Systems and Accelerator Theory (DSAT) Group. The primary focus of this educational/research group has been on the computation and analysis of charged-particle beam transport using Lie algebraic methods, and on advanced methods for the computation of electromagnetic fields and multiparticle phenomena. This Final Report summarizes the accomplishments of the DSAT Group from its inception in 1980 through its end in 2011.

  6. Construction of the beam profile monitor system with CameraLink in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had measured the beam position and size in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line by the monitor system that consists of analog video camera and fluorescent plate. It was difficult to estimate the seasonal change of the beam position and beam size between user operation cycles. In order to keep the high injection efficiency to SPring-8 storage ring, we need to achieve the tuning reproducibility of the accelerator parameter in the booster ring and beam transport line by using the quantitative data. The newly constructed beam profile monitor system consists of the digital CCD camera with external trigger synchronous capturing function, camera selectors, and server computers. Each camera system placed on the booster ring and beam transport line are managed by the UNIX server computer setup for each area. This system is connected by the cameralink configuration devices with cameralink cables or optical fiber cables. It became possible to capture image of beam profile synchronous with a beam trigger with a high resolution and a fast capturing time as same as it by using the analog video system. We will report the detail of beam profile monitor system with cameralink and the system operation. (author)

  7. RESIDUAL GAS IONIZATION BEAM PROFILE MONITOR ON 40MeV H— BEAM TRANSPORT LINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟鹏; E.Takasaki

    1995-01-01

    The monitor is composed of a pair of electrodes,a single stage of microchannel plate,a phosphor screen,a CCD camera and a PC computer,To obtain a good uniform collecting field,forming electrodes system is used instead of that with a resistive divider,The readout system is performed by the phosphor screen and the CCD camera because the spatial resolution is not limited by the mechanical structure like the anode strip type and such video display system is very useful for beam studies and operation of the 40MeV linac,Besides,the design and test results are described in detail.

  8. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  9. Solar Power Satellites: Creating the Market for Beamed Energy Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beamed energy advocates must investigate the potential of major markets like space based solar satellites and space-based nuclear waste disposal. For BEP to succeed, its proponents must work with these possible users to generate interest and resources needed to develop BEP.

  10. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  11. High energy physics with polarized beams and targets. [65 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshak, M L [ed.

    1976-01-01

    Sixty-six papers are presented as a report on conference sessions held from August 23-27, 1976, at Argonne National Laboratory. Topics covered include: (1) strong interactions; (2) weak and electromagnetic interactions; (3) polarized beams; and (4) polarized targets. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and for the INIS Atomindex. (PMA)

  12. Recent applications of low energy electron beam processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is obvious that radiation processing reduces energy consumption and avoids pollution because the coatings are solventless; but as important these factors may be, they alone do not justify the investment of an electron beam accelerator. With a few examples from the industry, motivations of users to choose electron processing is explained. (author)

  13. LOW ENERGY BEAM-GAS SPECTROSCOPY OF HIGHLY IONISED ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Desesquelles, J.; Denis, A.; Druetta, M.; Martin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Features of low energy beam-gas spectroscopic source are reviewed and compared to those of other light sources. Measurement techniques are surveyed. They include the study of wavelength of heavy multiply charged ions in visible and u.v. ranges from normal excited states, doubly excited states, high n levels and doubly excited Rydberg levels.

  14. Dynamic Response of Inextensible Beams by Improved Energy Balance Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfahani, M. G.; Barari, Amin; Omidvar, M.;

    2011-01-01

    An improved He's energy balance method (EBM) for solving non-linear oscillatory differential equation using a new trial function is presented. The problem considered represents the governing equations of the non-linear, large-amplitude free vibrations of a slender cantilever beam with a...

  15. Numerical simulation of transport of a high-current electron beam generated by the secondary-emission cathode gun in a decreasing solenoidal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The software tool has been developed for computing the electron beam formation by means of the secondary-emission cathode magnetron gun in the electron energy range between 30 and 65 keV at beam transport in a decreasing magnetic field of the solenoid. Numerical simulation data on the tubular electron flow motion and visualization are presented. The beam current was investigated versus the amplitude and gradient of the field decrease, and also, versus the initial beam particle distribution in the phase space. It has been found that for the given simulation conditions, the magnetic field reconfiguration has an effect only on the total displacement of the electron beam, without causing a noticeable change in the shape of the final flow distribution along the longitudinal coordinate

  16. Quadrupole beam-transport experiment for heavy ions under extreme space charge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cs ion-beam-transport experiment is in progress to study beam behavior under extreme space-charge conditions. A five-lens section matches the beam into a periodic electrostatic quadrupole FODO channel and its behavior is found to agree with predictions. With the available parameters (less than or equal to 200 keV, less than or equal to 20 mA, πepsilon/sub n/ greater than or equal to 10-7 π rad-m, up to 41 periods) the transverse (betatron) occillation frequency (nu) can be depressed down to one-tenth of its zero current value (nu/sub 0/), where nu/sup 2/ = nu/sub 0//sup 2/ -#betta#/sub p/2/2, and #betta#/sub p/ is the beam plasma frequency. The current can be controlled by adjustment of the gun and the emittance can be controlled independently by means of a set of charged grids

  17. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun [Department of Physics, Korea University, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}{r_reversible} 6s7s {sup 1}S{sub 0}) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm{sup 3} and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s{sup 1}S{sub 0} state via the intercombination 6s6p{sup 3}P{sub 1} state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 Degree-Sign C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle.

  18. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2013-02-01

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s(2)(1)S0↔ 6s7s (1)S0) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm(3) and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s(1)S0 state via the intercombination 6s6p(3)P1 state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 °C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle. PMID:23464193

  19. Spiral design and beam dynamics for a variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam-orbit studies were performed for the conversion of the SREL synchrocyclotron magnet for use as a room temperature, multiparticle, isochronous cyclotron. Based on model magnet measurements of field profiles for 8 to 230K gauss hill fields, a four sector spiral pole tip design has been realized which allows all isotope species of heavy ion beams to be accelerated to required final energies. The total spiral angle of 380 allows injection of the beams from the MP tandem into the cyclotron through a valley. The two valey RF system of 140 kV peak accelerates beams on harmonic numbers 2, 3, 4, 6 and 10 at 14 to 21 MHz. Computer calculations indicated acceptable ν/sub z/, ν/sub r/ and phase space beam characteristics and passing of resonances for typical beams considered: 16O at 8 and 150 MeV/amu, 60Ni at 100 MeV/amu and 238U at 2.5 and 16 MeV/amu. Single turn extraction is achieved with electrostatic deflection

  20. The design and initial testing of a beam phase and energy measurement for LEDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A diagnostic system being designed to measure the beam phase and beam energy of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) is described and the characterization of the prototype presented. The accelerator, being built at LANL, is a 350 MHz proton linac with a 100 mA beam. In the first beam experiments, the 6.7 MeV RFQ will be characterized. Signals received from an rf cavity probe in the RFQ and capacitive pick-ups along the high-energy beam transport line will be compared in phase in order to calculate the beam phase and energy. The 350 MHz signals from four pick-ups will be converted to 2 MHz in a VXI-based down converter module. A second VXI phase processor module makes two, differential-phase measurements based on its four 2 MHz inputs. The heart of this system is the phase processor module. The phase processor consists of an analog front end (AFE), digital front end (DFE), digital signal processing (DSP) modules and the VXI bus interface. The AFE has an AGC circuit with a >60 dB dynamic range with a few degrees of phase shift. Following the AFE is the DFE which uses an in-phase and quadrature-phase (I and Q) technique to make the phase measurement. The DSP is used to correct the real-time data for phase variations as a function of dynamic range and system offsets. The prototype phase module gives an absolute accuracy of ±0.5 degrees with a resolution of <0.1 degrees and a bandwidth of 200 kHz. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics