WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam test calibration

  1. Preliminary results of the LAT Calibration Unit beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calibration strategy of the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) combines analysis of cosmic ray data with accelerator particle beams measurements. An advanced Monte Carlo simulation of the LAT, based on the Geant4 package, was set up to reproduce the LAT response to such radiation and to benchmark the event reconstruction and the background rejection strategy before launch and during operation. To validate the LAT simulation, a massive campaign of beam tests was performed between July and November 2006, in parallel with the LAT integration and test, on the LAT Calibration Unit. This is a detector built with spare flight modules and flight-like readout electronics, which was exposed to a large variety of beams, representing the whole spectrum of the signal that will be detected by the LAT, using the CERN and the GSI accelerator facilities. Beams of photons (0 - 2.5 GeV), electrons (1 - 300 GeV), hadrons (π and p, a few GeV - 100 GeV) and ions (C; Xe, 1.5 GeV/n) were shot through the CU to measure the physical processes taking place in the detector and eventually fine-tune their description in the LAT Monte Carlo simulation. This paper describes the motivations and goals of the test runs, the many different experimental setups used, the measured detector performance and preliminary results of the LAT Monte Carlo validation

  2. Preliminary Results of the LAT Calibration Unit Beam Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calibration strategy of the GLAST Large Area Telescope (LAT) combines analysis of cosmic ray data with accelerator particle beams measurements. An advanced Monte Carlo simulation of the LAT, based on the Geant4 package, was set up to reproduce the LAT response to such radiation and to benchmark the event reconstruction and the background rejection strategy before launch and during operation. To validate the LAT simulation, a massive campaign of beam tests was performed between July and November 2006, in parallel with the LAT integration and test, on the LAT Calibration Unit. This is a detector built with spare flight modules and flight-like readout electronics, which was exposed to a large variety of beams, representing the whole spectrum of the signal that will be detected by the LAT, using the CERN and the GSI accelerator facilities. Beams of photons (0 - 2.5 GeV), electrons (1 - 300 GeV), hadrons (p and p, a few GeV - 100 GeV) and ions (C Xe, 1.5 GeV/n) were shot through the CU to measure the physical processes taking place in the detector and eventually fine-tune their description in the LAT Monte Carlo simulation. This paper describes the motivations and goals of the test runs, the many different experimental setups used, the measured detector performance and preliminary results of the LAT Monte Carlo validation

  3. Calibrating laser test-beams for cosmic-ray observatories

    OpenAIRE

    Wiencke, Lawrence; Arqueros, Fernando; Compton, John; Monasor, Maria; Pilger, David; Rosado, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed UV lasers can provide useful "testbeams" for observatories that use optical detectors, especially fluorescence detectors, to measure high energy cosmic-rays. The light observed by the detector is proportional to the energy of the laser pulse. Since the absolute laser energy can be measured locally, a well-calibrated laser offers a practical way to test the photometric calibration of the cosmic-ray detector including atmospheric corrections. This poster will describe a robotic system fo...

  4. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    OpenAIRE

    Abat, E.; Abdallah, J. M.; Addy, T. N.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T. P. A.; Aleksa, M.; Alexa, C; Anderson, K.; Andreazza, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Antonaki, A.; Arabidze, G.; Arik, E.

    2016-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Gea...

  5. A layer correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of energy deposits in the calorimeter layers, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20GeV and 180GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by between 11% and 25% compared to the resolution at the electromagnetic scale.

  6. A Layer Correlation technique for pion energy calibration at the 2004 ATLAS Combined Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    Abat, E; Addy, T N; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Ahmad, A; Akesson, T P A; Aleksa, M; Alexa, C; Anderson, K; Andreazza, A; Anghinolfi, F; Antonaki, A; Arabidze, G; Arik, E; Atkinson, T; Baines, J; Baker, O K; Banfi, D; Baron, S; Barr, A J; Beccherle, R; Beck, H P; Belhorma, B; Bell, P J; Benchekroun, D; Benjamin, D P; Benslama, K; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Bernabeu, J; Bertelsen, H; Binet, S; Biscarat, C; Boldea, V; Bondarenko, V G; Boonekamp, M; Bosman, M; Bourdarios, C; Broklova, Z; Burckhart Chromek, D; Bychkov, V; Callahan, J; Calvet, D; Canneri, M; Capeans Garrido, M; Caprini, M; Cardiel Sas, L; Carli, T; Carminati, L; Carvalho, J; Cascella, M; Castillo, M V; Catinaccio, A; Cauz, D; Cavalli, D; Cavalli Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Cetin, S A; Chen, H; Cherkaoui, R; Chevalier, L; Chevallier, F; Chouridou, S; Ciobotaru, M; Citterio, M; Clark, A; Cleland, B; Cobal, M; Cogneras, E; Conde Muino, P; Consonni, M; Constantinescu, S; Cornelissen, T; Correard, S; Corso Radu, A; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cuneo, S; Cwetanski, P; Da Silva, D; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Danielsson, H O; Dannheim, D; Darbo, G; Davidek, T; De, K; Defay, P O; Dekhissi, B; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delmastro, M; Derue, F; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, B; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Dobos, D; Dobson, M; Dolgoshein, B A; Dotti, A; Drake, G; Drasal, Z; Dressnandt, N; Driouchi, C; Drohan, J; Ebenstein, W L; Eerola, P; Efthymiopoulos, I; Egorov, K; Eifert, T F; Einsweiler, K; El Kacimi, M; Elsing, M; Emelyanov, D; Escobar, C; Etienvre, A I; Fabich, A; Facius, K; Fakhr-Edine, A I; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farthouat, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fayard, L; Febbraro, R; Fedin, O L; Fenyuk, A; Fergusson, D; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira, B C; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Filippini, G; Flick, T; Fournier, D; Francavilla, P; Francis, D; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Fullana, E; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Gallas, M; Gallop, B J; Gameiro, S; Gan, K K; Garcia, R; Garcia, C; Gavrilenko, I L; Gemme, C; Gerlach, P; Ghodbane, N; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Giokaris, N; Glonti, G; Göttfert, T.; Golling, T; Gollub, N; Gomes, A; Gomez, M D; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Goujdami, D; Grahn, K J; Grenier, P; Grigalashvili, N; Grishkevich, Y; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwe, M; Guicheney, C; Gupta, A; Haeberli, C; Härtel, R.; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hance, M; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Harvey, A., Jr; Hawkings, R J; Heinemann, F E W; Henriques Correia, A; Henss, T; Hervas, L; Higon, E; Hill, J C; Hoffman, J; Hostachy, J Y; Hruska, I; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Hulsbergen, W; Hurwitz, M; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Jansen, E; Jen-La Plante, I; Johansson, P D C; Jon-And, K; Joos, M; Jorgensen, S; Joseph, J; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Karyukhin, A; Kataoka, M; Kayumov, F; Kazarov, A; Keener, P T; Kekelidze, G D; Kerschen, N; Kersten, S; Khomich, A; Khoriauli, G; Khramov, E; Khristachev, A; Khubua, J; Kittelmann, T H; Klingenberg, R; Klinkby, E B; Kodys, P; Koffas, T; Kolos, S; Konovalov, S P; Konstantinidis, N; Kopikov, S; Korolkov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Kovalenko, S; Kowalski, T Z; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V; Kudin, L G; Kulchitsky, Y; Lacasta, C; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lampl, W; Lanni, F; Laplace, S; Lari, T; Le Bihan, A C; Lechowski, M; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lehmann, G; Leitner, R; Lelas, D; Lester, C G; Liang, Z; Lichard, P; Liebig, W; Lipniacka, A; Lokajicek, M; Louchard, L; Lourerio, K F; Lucotte, A; Luehring, F; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Ma, H; Mackeprang, R; Maio, A; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mandelli, L; Maneira, J; Mangin-Brinet, M; Manousakis, A; Mapelli, L; Marques, C; Marti i Garcia, S; Martin, F; Mathes, M; Mazzanti, M; McFarlane, K W; McPherson, R; Mchedlidze, G; Mehlhase, S; Meirosu, C; Meng, Z; Meroni, C; Mialkovski, V; Mikulec, B; Milstead, D; Minashvili, I; Mindur, B; Mitsou, V A; Moed, S; Monnier, E; Moorhead, G; Morettini, P; Morozov, S V; Mosidze, M; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E W J; Munar, A; Myagkov, A; Nadtochi, A V; Nakamura, K; Nechaeva, P; Negri, A; Nemecek, S; Nessi, M; Nesterov, S Y; Newcomer, F M; Nikitine, I; Nikolaev, K; Nikolic-Audit, I; Ogren, H; Oh, S H; Oleshko, S B; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Paganis, S; Pallin, D; Pantea, D; Paolone, V; Parodi, F; Parsons, J; Parzhitskiy, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passmored, S M; Pater, J; Patrichev, S; Peez, M; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Peshekhonov, V D; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petti, R; Phillips, P W; Pina, J; Pinto, B; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Poppleton, A; Poveda, J; Pralavorio, P; Pribyl, L; Price, M J; Prieur, D; Puigdengoles, C; Puzo, P; Røhne, O.; Ragusa, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reeves, K; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Reznicek, P; Ridel, M; Risso, P; Riu, I; Robinson, D; Roda, C; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Romaniouk, A; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Ruiz, A; Rusakovich, N; Rust, D; Ryabov, Y F; Ryjov, V; Salto, O; Salvachua, B; Salzburger, A; Sandaker, H; Santamarina Rios, C; Santi, L; Santoni, C; Saraiva, J G; Sarri, F; Sauvage, G; Says, L P; Schaefer, M; Schegelsky, V A; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schlager, G; Schlereth, J; Schmitt, C; Schultes, J; Schwemling, P; Schwindling, J; Seixas, J M; Seliverstov, D M; Serin, L; Sfyrla, A; Shalanda, N; Shaw, C; Shin, T; Shmeleva, A; Silva, J; Simion, S; Simonyan, M; Sloper, J E; Smirnov, S.Yu; Smirnova, L; Solans, C; Solodkov, A; Solovianov, O; Soloviev, I; Sosnovtsev, V V; Spano, F; Speckmayer, P; Stancu, S; Stanek, R; Starchenko, E; Straessner, A; Suchkov, S I; Suk, M; Szczygiel, R; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, F; Tas, P; Tayalati, Y; Tegenfeldt, F; Teuscher, R; Thioye, M; Tikhomirov, V O; Timmermans, C J W P; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Tremblet, L; Troncon, C; Tsiareshka, P; Tyndel, M; Karagoez Unel, M; Unal, G; Unel, G; Usai, G; Van Berg, R; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valls, J A; Vandelli, W; Vannucci, F; Vartapetian, A; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vasilyeva, L; Vazeille, F; Vernocchi, F; Vetter-Cole, Y; Vichou, I; Vinogradov, V; Virzi, J; Vivarelli, I; de Vivie, J B; Volpi, M; Vu Anh, T; Wang, C; Warren, M; Weber, J; Weber, M; Weidberg, A R; Weingarten, J; Wells, P S; Werner, P; Wheeler, S; Wiessmann, M; Wilkens, H; Williams, H H; Wingerter-Seez, I; Yasu, Y; Zaitsev, A; Zenin, A; Zenis, T; Zenonos, Z; Zhang, H; Zhelezko, A; Zhou, N

    2011-01-01

    A new method for calibrating the hadron response of a segmented calorimeter is developed and successfully applied to beam test data. It is based on a principal component analysis of the calorimeter layer energy deposits, exploiting longitudinal shower development information to improve the measured energy resolution. Corrections for invisible hadronic energy and energy lost in dead material in front of and between the calorimeters of the ATLAS experiment were calculated with simulated Geant4 Monte Carlo events and used to reconstruct the energy of pions impinging on the calorimeters during the 2004 Barrel Combined Beam Test at the CERN H8 area. For pion beams with energies between 20 and 180 GeV, the particle energy is reconstructed within 3% and the energy resolution is improved by 11% to 25% compared to the response at the electromagnetic scale.

  7. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  8. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2081126; Klute, Markus; Medlock, Catherine Aiko

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The x-y correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1%.

  9. Calibration of waveguide beam position monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Kamps, T

    2000-01-01

    To ensure overlap between the photon beam and electron beam at the SASE-FEL at the TESLA Test Facility, several position-sensitive diagnostics components are installed along the beamline of the FEL. For the undulator part, a new type of waveguide beam position monitors (BPMs) is designed, tested, and installed inside the beam pipe of one undulator module. This paper proposes a method to calibrate these monitors with beam-based measurements

  10. An online calorimeter trigger for removing outsiders from particle beam calibration tests

    CERN Document Server

    Damazio, D O

    2003-01-01

    An online neural triggering system for particle identification is presented. It is developed for calibration tests with Tilecal, the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The proposed neural system proves to cope with the required data input rate and achieves more than 99.7% in particle classification efficiency, even when significant particle contamination is observed in the data samples.

  11. Final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following: the Final Focus Test Beam Project; optical design; magnets; instrumentation; magnetic measurement and BPM calibration; mechanical alignment and stabilization; vacuum system; power supplies; control system; radiation shielding and personnel protection; infrastructure; and administration

  12. Validation of the Local Hadronic Calibration Scheme of ATLAS with Combined Beam Test Data in the End-Cap and Forward Regions of ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kiryunin, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The three Atlas calorimeter systems in the region of the forward crack at |eta| = 3.2 in the nominal Atlas setup have been exposed to combined beam tests with single electrons and pions. Detailed shower shape studies of electrons and pions with comparisons to various Geant4 based simulations utilizing different physics lists are presented. The Local Hadron Calibration developed for the energy reconstruction and the calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS, has been validated using data obtained during these beam tests. The analysis has been carried out by using special sets of calibration weights and corrections obtained with the Geant4 simulation of a detailed beam test set-up. The validation itself has been performed by careful studying specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response, energy resolution, shower shapes, cluster energy density as well as different physics lists of the Geant4 simulation.

  13. Calibration of a proton beam energy monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyers, M F; Coutrakon, G B; Ghebremedhin, A; Shahnazi, K; Koss, P; Sanders, E

    2007-06-01

    Delivery of therapeutic proton beams requires an absolute energy accuracy of +/-0.64 to 0.27 MeV for patch fields and a relative energy accuracy of +/-0.10 to 0.25 MeV for tailoring the depth dose distribution using the energy stacking technique. Achromatic switchyard tunes, which lead to better stability of the beam incident onto the patient, unfortunately limit the ability of switchyard magnet tesla meters to verify the correct beam energy within the tolerances listed above. A new monitor to measure the proton energy before each pulse is transported through the switchyard has been installed into a proton synchrotron. The purpose of this monitor is to correct and/or inhibit beam delivery when the measured beam energy is outside of the tolerances for treatment. The monitor calculates the beam energy using data from two frequency and eight beam position monitors that measure the revolution frequency of the proton bunches and the effective offset of the orbit from the nominal radius of the synchrotron. The new energy monitor has been calibrated by measuring the range of the beam through water and comparing with published range-energy tables for various energies. A relationship between depth dose curves and range-energy tables was first determined using Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport and energy deposition. To reduce the uncertainties associated with typical scanning water phantoms, a new technique was devised in which the beam energy was scanned while fixed thickness water tanks were sandwiched between two fixed parallel plate ionization chambers. Using a multitude of tank sizes, several energies were tested to determine the nominal accelerator orbit radius. After calibration, the energy reported by the control system matched the energy derived by range measurements to better than 0.72 MeV for all nine energies tested between 40 and 255 MeV with an average difference of -0.33 MeV. A study of different combinations of revolution frequency and radial

  14. Ion Beam Energy Calibration Method for Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam energy calibration methods, i e : nuclear reaction method, magnetic field method and calorimeter method were elaborated and studied from its advantage and disadvantage in this paper. Ion beam energy calibration method for accelerator using the method of magnetic field on 3 MV Tandem Accelerator have been carried out at Tiara, JAERI, Japan. The result showed that the energy of ion beam current is 43.56 keV. The result of study conclude that nuclear reaction method generally used to calibrate ion beam energy at the accelerator of energy larger than 2 MeV, calorimetric method for the accelerator electron including linac, magnetic field method for all particle type of accelerator. (author)

  15. Beam Calibration of Radio Telescopes with Drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chihway; Monstein, Christian; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Glauser, Adrian; Casura, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    We present a multifrequency far-field beam map for the 5-m dish telescope at the Bleien Observatory measured using a commercially available drone. We describe the hexacopter drone used in this experiment, the design of the flight pattern, and the data analysis scheme. This is the first application of this calibration method to a single-dish radio telescope in the far-field. The high signal-to-noise ratio data allows us to characterize the beam pattern with high accuracy out to at least the fourth side-lobe. The resulting two-dimensional beam pattern is compared with that derived from a more traditional calibration approach using an astronomical calibration source. We discuss the advantages of this method compared to other beam calibration methods. Our results show that this drone-based technique is very promising for ongoing and future radio experiments, where the knowledge of the beam pattern is key to obtaining high-accuracy cosmological and astronomical measurements.

  16. Beam calibration of radio telescopes with drones

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chihway; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Glauser, Adrian; Casura, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-frequency far-field beam map for the 5m dish telescope at the Bleien Observatory measured using a commercially available drone. We describe the hexacopter drone used in this experiment, the design of the flight pattern, and the data analysis scheme. This is the first application of this calibration method to a single dish radio telescope in the far-field. The high signal-to-noise data allows us to characterise the beam pattern with high accuracy out to at least the 4th side-lobe. The resulting 2D beam pattern is compared with that derived from a more traditional calibration approach using an astronomical calibration source. We discuss the advantages of this method compared to other beam calibration methods. Our results show that this drone-based technique is very promising for ongoing and future radio experiments, where the knowledge of the beam pattern is key to obtaining high-accuracy cosmological and astronomical measurements.

  17. Comment on 'Proton beam monitor chamber calibration'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmans, Hugo; Vatnitsky, Stanislav M

    2016-09-01

    We comment on a recent article (Gomà et al 2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) which compares different routes of reference dosimetry for the energy dependent beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams. In this article, a 3% discrepancy is reported between a Faraday cup and a plane-parallel ionization chamber in the experimental determination of the number of protons per monitor unit. It is further claimed that similar discrepancies between calorimetry and ionization chamber based dosimetry indicate that [Formula: see text]-values tabulated for proton beams in IAEA TRS-398 might be overestimated. In this commentary we show, however, that this supporting argument misrepresents the evidence in the literature and that the results presented, together with published data, rather confirm that there exist unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry. We also show that the comparison in terms of the number of protons gives a biased view on the uncertainty estimates for both detectors while the quantity of interest is absorbed dose to water or dose-area-product to water, even if a beam monitor is calibrated in terms of the number of protons. Gomà et al (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) also report on the discrepancy between cylindrical and plane-parallel ionization chambers and confirm experimentally that in the presence of a depth dose gradient, theoretical values of the effective point of measurement, or alternatively a gradient correction factor, account for the discrepancy. We believe this does not point to an error or shortcoming of IAEA TRS-398, which prescribes taking the centre of cylindrical ionization chambers as reference point, since it recommends reference dosimetry to be performed in the absence of a depth dose gradient. But these observations reveal that important aspects of beam monitor calibration in scanned proton beams are not addressed in IAEA TRS-398 given that those types of beams were not widely implemented at the time of its publication

  18. Test Beam Coordination: 2003 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B.

    The 2003 Test Beam Period The 2003 Test Beam period has been very fruitful for ATLAS. In spite of several days lost because of the accelerator problems, ATLAS has been able to achieve many results: FCAL has completed the calibration program in H6 Tilecal has completed the calibration program in H8 Pixel has performed extensive studies with normal and high intensity beams (up to 1.4*108 hadrons/spill) SCT has completed a variety of studies with quite a high number of modules operated concurrently TRT has performed several studies at high, low and very low energy (first use of the new H8 beam in the range 1 to 9 GeV) Muons (MDT,RPC and TGC) have been operating a large setup for about 5 months. The almost final MDT ROD (MROD) has been integrated in the readout and the final trigger electronics for TGC and RPC has been tested and certified with normal beam and during dedicated 40 MHz beam periods. The TDAQ has exploited a new generation prototype successfully and the new Event Filter infrastructure f...

  19. Calibration of photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern radiotherapy relies on accurate dose delivery to the prescribed target volume. The ICRU has recommended an overall accuracy in tumour dose delivery of (+-5)%, based on an analysis of dose response data and on an evaluation of errors in dose delivery in a clinical setting. Considering all uncertainties involved in the dose delivery to the patient, the ±5% accuracy recommendation is by no means easy to attain. Before clinical use, the output of photon and electron beams produced by external beam radiotherapy machines must be calibrated. This basic output calibration is but one, albeit very important, of the links constituting the chain representing an accurate dose delivery to the patient. The other links refer to: the procedures for measurement of relative dose data, equipment commissioning and quality assurance; treatment planning; and the actual patient set-up on the treatment machine. The basic output for a radiotherapy machine is usually stated as the dose rate for a point P at a reference depth zref (often the depth of dose maximum zmax) in a water phantom for a nominal source to surface distance (SSD) or source to axis distance (SAD) and a reference field size (often 10 x 10 cm2) on the phantom surface or the isocentre. The output for kilovoltage X ray generators and teletherapy units is usually given in Gy/min, while for clinical accelerators it is given in Gy/MU. For superficial and orthovoltage beams and occasionally for beams produced by teletherapy radioisotope machines, the basic beam output may also be stated as the air kerma rate in air (Gy/min) at a given distance from the source and for a given nominal collimator or applicator setting. The basic output calibration of photon and electron beams is carried out with radiation dosimeters and special radiation dosimetry techniques. Radiation dosimetry refers to a determination by measurement and/or calculation of the absorbed dose or some other physically relevant quantity, such as air kerma

  20. Evaluation of the local hadronic calibration with combined beam-test data for the endcap and forward calorimeters of ATLAS in the pseudorapidity region 2.5<|η|<4.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The local hadronic calibration scheme developed for the reconstruction and calibration of jets and missing transverse energy in ATLAS has been evaluated using data obtained during combined beam tests of modules of the ATLAS liquid argon endcap and forward calorimeters. These tests covered the pseudorapidity range of 2.5<|η|<4.0. The analysis has been performed using special sets of calibration weights and corrections obtained with the GEANT4 simulation of a detailed beam-test setup. The evaluation itself has been performed through the careful study of specific calorimeter performance parameters such as e.g. energy response and resolution, shower shapes, as well as different physics lists of the GEANT4 simulation.

  1. Expression of Interest for a Full-Scale Detector Engineering Test and Test Beam Calibration of a Single-Phase LAr TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Leigui de Oliveira, M A

    2014-01-01

    Following the recommendation of the U.S. Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel[1], Fermilab is working with the world neutrino community, CERN, and others to establish “a new international collaboration to design and execute a highly capable Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF) hosted by the U.S.” This new collaboration, which is expected to be formed during the next several months, will combine, among others, groups that have been developing both single-phase and dual-phase LAr TPC detectors for long-baseline physics, mainly from the LBNE and LBNO collaborations respectively. This Expression of Interest regards a proposed full-scale prototype and beam test of the LBNE-design single-phase detector, utilizing the CERN Neutrino Platform[2] that was recently approved as part of the Medium-Term Plan (MTP) [3]. Once the LBNF collaboration is formed, it is expected that development of both single- and dual-phase detectors will come under the umbrella of the new collaboration.

  2. Absolute calibration and beam background of the Squid Polarimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of beam background in Squid Polarimetry is not without residual benefits. The authors may deliberately generate beam background by gently kicking the beam at the spin tune frequency. This signal may be used to accomplish a simple and accurate absolute calibration of the polarimeter. The authors present details of beam background calculations and their application to polarimeter calibration, and suggest a simple proof-of-principle accelerator experiment

  3. Calibration of INDUS-1 and booster beam position indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 0.45 GeV Indus-1 synchrotron radiation facility at Centre for Advanced Technology (C.A.T) Indore, has 6 beam position indicators in Booster and 4 beam position indicators in Indus-1 ring. The beam position indicators (BPI) play an important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. The accurate determination of the offsets relative to magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPIs is thus needed. The bench calibration of Indus-1 and Booster beam position indicators was carried out. A fully automatic computer based calibration system has been developed for calibration of Indus-1 and Indus-2 BPIs. The calibration results of Indus-1 and Booster BPIs and calibration system used for calibration is presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Auto calibration of a cone-beam-CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Daniel; Heil, Ulrich; Schulze, Ralf; Schoemer, Elmar; Schwanecke, Ulrich [Department of Design, Computer Science and Media, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences, 65195 Wiesbaden, Germany and Institute of Computer Science, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Oral Surgery (and Oral Radiology), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55131 Mainz (Germany); Institute of Computer Science, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Department of Design, Computer Science and Media, RheinMain University of Applied Sciences, 65195 Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a novel autocalibration method for cone-beam-CTs (CBCT) or flat-panel CTs, assuming a perfect rotation. The method is based on ellipse-fitting. Autocalibration refers to accurate recovery of the geometric alignment of a CBCT device from projection images alone, without any manual measurements. Methods: The authors use test objects containing small arbitrarily positioned radio-opaque markers. No information regarding the relative positions of the markers is used. In practice, the authors use three to eight metal ball bearings (diameter of 1 mm), e.g., positioned roughly in a vertical line such that their projection image curves on the detector preferably form large ellipses over the circular orbit. From this ellipse-to-curve mapping and also from its inversion the authors derive an explicit formula. Nonlinear optimization based on this mapping enables them to determine the six relevant parameters of the system up to the device rotation angle, which is sufficient to define the geometry of a CBCT-machine assuming a perfect rotational movement. These parameters also include out-of-plane rotations. The authors evaluate their method by simulation based on data used in two similar approaches [L. Smekal, M. Kachelriess, S. E, and K. Wa, 'Geometric misalignment and calibration in cone-beam tomography,' Med. Phys. 31(12), 3242-3266 (2004); K. Yang, A. L. C. Kwan, D. F. Miller, and J. M. Boone, 'A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems,' Med. Phys. 33(6), 1695-1706 (2006)]. This allows a direct comparison of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors present real-world 3D reconstructions of a dry human spine segment and an electronic device. The reconstructions were computed from projections taken with a commercial dental CBCT device having two different focus-to-detector distances that were both calibrated with their method. The authors compare their reconstruction with a reconstruction computed by the manufacturer of

  5. Auto calibration of a cone-beam-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: This paper introduces a novel autocalibration method for cone-beam-CTs (CBCT) or flat-panel CTs, assuming a perfect rotation. The method is based on ellipse-fitting. Autocalibration refers to accurate recovery of the geometric alignment of a CBCT device from projection images alone, without any manual measurements. Methods: The authors use test objects containing small arbitrarily positioned radio-opaque markers. No information regarding the relative positions of the markers is used. In practice, the authors use three to eight metal ball bearings (diameter of 1 mm), e.g., positioned roughly in a vertical line such that their projection image curves on the detector preferably form large ellipses over the circular orbit. From this ellipse-to-curve mapping and also from its inversion the authors derive an explicit formula. Nonlinear optimization based on this mapping enables them to determine the six relevant parameters of the system up to the device rotation angle, which is sufficient to define the geometry of a CBCT-machine assuming a perfect rotational movement. These parameters also include out-of-plane rotations. The authors evaluate their method by simulation based on data used in two similar approaches [L. Smekal, M. Kachelriess, S. E, and K. Wa, “Geometric misalignment and calibration in cone-beam tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(12), 3242–3266 (2004); K. Yang, A. L. C. Kwan, D. F. Miller, and J. M. Boone, “A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems,” Med. Phys. 33(6), 1695–1706 (2006)]. This allows a direct comparison of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors present real-world 3D reconstructions of a dry human spine segment and an electronic device. The reconstructions were computed from projections taken with a commercial dental CBCT device having two different focus-to-detector distances that were both calibrated with their method. The authors compare their reconstruction with a reconstruction computed by the manufacturer of the

  6. Beam optics test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have constructed a beam optics test stand in order to study adaptive charged particle optics. A low energy, continuous electron beam is used to model a high energy negative ion beam. In addition, the beam can be used as a diagnostic probe to study the correction of spherical aberrations in a solenoid lens. The authors test stand design stresses versatility. The conical glass vacuum system has reentrant electron and diagnostic chambers that allow immediate experimental modifications. As an integral part of the vacuum system, the solenoid lens also serves as structural support for grid focusing systems. Vacuum pumping is provided by an 8'' cryopump and the entire system can be moved about freely. Computer control and data acquisition are interfaced to the beam control and diagnostics. A post acceleration grid and deflection plates have been added to a commercial electron gun to produce a 10 keV beam at 100 μA. The diagnostics consist of phosphor screens, a charge-coupled photodiode array, and an image dissector

  7. Bench calibration of INDUS-2 beam position indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A third generation synchrotron radiation source of energy 2.5 GeV named INDUS-2 at Centre for Advanced Technology (C.A.T), Indore (M.P) is in the advanced stage of construction. Accurate determination and correction of beam closed orbit in INDUS-2 machine within 100 of microns is a very desirable goal. Bench based calibration of Beam Position Indicators (BPI) play a very important and useful role during initial commissioning of electron machines. To precisely measure transverse position of electron beam in the Indus-2 storage ring, 56 Beam Position Indicators (BPI) will be installed in INDUS-2 machine. Out of 56 Beam Position Indicators 40 are of individual type whereas 16 are integrated with dipole vacuum chamber. The Beam Position Indicators are required to be calibrated before they can be installed. The calibration is done to determine electrical offset with respect to defined mechanical centre, to determine displacement sensitivities as well as non linearity's of BPI. Ideally when beam passes through the geometrical center of BPI's, all electrodes should have same signal strength. However due to different capacitance of electrodes and offset and drift in electronics, the electrical centre (mechanical x, y where all electrodes shows same signal strength) differs from mechanical centre of BPI. A fully automatic calibration system has been developed to carry out the calibration of Beam Position Indicators. A calibration software has been developed which has necessary utilities to process and display calibration data and results. This paper describes the calibration results of Indus-2 BPM. (author)

  8. Development of calibration procedures for the electron beam calibration of plane parallel ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Finland, plane parallel (pp) ionization chambers have been used more than ten years for absolute dose measurements in electron beams of radiation therapy accelerators, for energies below 15 MeV. Before 1997 all pp chambers were calibrated in a 60Co gamma beam at the Finnish SSDL (STUK) for air kerma. Since 1999 all pp chambers have been calibrated by STUK in accelerator electron beams. The local absolute dose measurements (beam calibrations) at hospitals are verified every second year by independent comparative dose measurements by STUK, carried out by ionization chambers during a site visit. All absolute dose measurements are done in a water phantom. The acceptable conditions of the beam for the calibration are always verified by the measurement of beam profiles and depth doses. In regular site visits at the time of 60Co beam calibrations, discrepancies larger than 3% in comparative dose measurements between STUK and the hospitals were constantly observed with some of the hospitals' chambers, despite the chambers had had recalibrations at a 60Co beam. Based on further studies and preliminary electron beam calibrations of those problematic chambers, it became clear that pp chambers had individual characteristics as for the 60Co beam calibration. Therefore, it was decided to introduce an electron beam calibration as the routine method for the pp chambers. By the help of the electron beam calibrations, discrepancies in the comparative dose measurements between STUK and hospitals generally diminished to less than 1 %. The first electron beam calibrations were made by manual construction and it was not sure if repeatability was good enough. Therefore, a high precision jig for pp chamber calibration was constructed. In the precision jig, all chambers are in fixed positions and the only movement in the calibration process is to slide a sledge to change the reference cylindrical chamber (0,6 cm3) to the pp chamber to be calibrated. The depths of the chambers in water

  9. Testing and calibration through laser radiation and muon beams of the hadron calorimeter in ATLAS detector; Controle et etalonnage par lumiere laser et par faisceaux de muons du calorimetre hadronique a tuiles scintillantes d'ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garde, V

    2003-10-15

    This study is dedicated to the calibration of the hadronic calorimeter (Tilecal) of the ATLAS detector. This detector will be installed on the LHC collider at CERN. The first data will be taken in 2007. This thesis is divided in two parts. The first part is dedicated to the study of the LASER system. A prototype of the final system was studied. It was shown that the stability and the linearity of this prototype are conform to the specification. Several studies were devoted to measurements which can be done on the Tilecal: The relative gain can be calculated and gives the stability of the Tilecal with a resolution of 0.35 %. The number of photoelectrons per charge unit has been calculated. The linearity was checked for a normal range of functioning and was corrected for the functioning at high charge. In both cases it was shown that the non-linearity was smaller than 0.5 %. The second study is devoted to muons beams in test beam periods. These results are used to find a calibration constant. Several problems which come from the difference of size cells are not totally solved. But the resolution of the calibration constant found by this method cannot exceed 2.3%. (author)

  10. PFN tool test and calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system has been developed for the functional testing and neutron output calibration of the PFN (Prompt Fission Neutron) Uranium Logging Tool. The system was designed primarily for field work and consists of a special vehicle as well as test apparatus. Only the pertinent instrumentation is described. This document will serve as an Instruction and Test Equipment service manual for those involved with calibration of the neutron output of the PFN tool

  11. Oberst beam test technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasana, Alessandro; Garibaldi, Luigi; Giorcelli, Ermanno; Ruzzene, Massimo

    1998-06-01

    The definition of the mechanical properties of viscoelastic materials, i.e. the elastic modulus and the loss factor, is carried out, according to many national and international standards, with many different techniques, both of the resonant and non-resonant type. In this paper we focus our attention on the pros and cons of the resonant technique based on the classical Oberst beam method. When the damping material to be tested is not self-supporting, its properties are determined taking start from the measured modal frequencies and loss factors of a laminated beam, constituted by one or two metallic strips, ideally undamped, and one or two viscoelastic layers. The formulae specified on the standards hold valid under the assumptions of the theory developed by Kerwin, Ungar and Ross and we try in this paper to quantify witch deviation of the results should be expected when moving away from their ideal hypotheses.

  12. Development of beam position monitor for test beam of BEPC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three stripline beam position monitors and some feed-throughs were developed to measure the position of beam non-interceptively in test beam facility. After three stripline beam position monitors were produced, calibrations of the monitors were carried out on a workbench, which has high precision and is controlled by a computer. Then two monitor's were installed at the beam line and some experiments were carried out. Four 1 mm thickness stainless steel strips are main modules of the monitor, signals induced in these strips reflect the position of the beam bunch. Calibration coefficient, system characteristic impedance and port transmission coefficient of monitor are introduced in this paper. (authors)

  13. Calibration of the beam-position monitor system for the SLAC PEP-II B factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beam-Position Monitors (BPM) for the PEP-II B Factory consist of four 1.5-cm diameter button style pickups mounted on the diagonals of the quadrupole vacuum chambers. Before installation of the vacuum chambers in the quadrupole assemblies, the electrical center of the BPMs is measured with respect to the mechanical center in a calibration test stand. In this paper the calibration test stand is described and the precision and accuracy of the calibrations are presented. After installation of the quadrupole assemblies in the PEP-II tunnel, the passive attenuation for each channel of the system is measured to preserve the accuracy of the calibration. Finally, the active electronics includes an onboard calibrator. Results for these portions of the calibration are presented

  14. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  15. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access. PMID:26520957

  16. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrystal, C. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  17. Calibration of reference dosimeters for external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traceability, accuracy and consistency of radiation measurements are essential in radiation dosimetry, particularly in radiotherapy, where the outcome of treatments is highly dependent on the radiation dose delivered to patients. The role of Secondary Standards Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) is crucial in providing traceable calibrations to hospitals, since they disseminate calibrations at specific radiation qualities appropriate to the use of radiation measuring instruments. To contribute to harmonization and consistency in radiation measurements, the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO) created a network of SSDLs in 1976. To provide SSDLs with a practical guide on calibration and quality control procedures in radiotherapy dosimetry, the IAEA published a manual in 1995 entitled Calibration of Dosimeters Used in Radiotherapy (Technical Reports Series (TRS) No. 374). The manual was a revision of a report, Calibration of Dose Meters Used in Radiotherapy (TRS-185), published in 1979. Although much of TRS-374 remains relevant, there are a number of reasons for preparing a new report, including the development of new dosimetry standards and an increased emphasis on implementing quality assurance systems to help calibration laboratories provide documented assurance to the user community of their commitment to offering consistent and reliable results. This report is not simply a revision of TRS-374, and should be regarded as a new publication with a new structure. Nevertheless, some material, especially that related to the calibration of dosimeters in terms of air kerma for kilovoltage X rays, has been extracted from TRS-374. It fulfils the need for a systematic and standardized approach to the calibration of reference dosimeters used in external beam radiotherapy by the SSDLs. It provides a framework for the operation of an SSDL within the international measurement system, a methodology for the calibration of instruments, and related quality control procedures to

  18. Calibration and performance testing of electronic personal dosimeters (EPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In modern radiation protection practices, active personal dosimeters are becoming absolutely necessary operational tools for satisfying the ALARA principle. The aim of this work was to carry out calibration and performance testing of ten electronic personal dosimeters (EPD) used for the individual monitoring. The EPDs were calibrated in terms of operation radiation protection quantity, personal dose equivalent, Hp (10). Calibrations were carried out at three of x-ray beam qualities described in ISO 4037 namely 60, 100 and 150 kV in addition to Cs-137 gamma ray quality. The calibrations were performed using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom with dimensions 20*20*15 cm3. Conversion coefficient Hp (10)/K air for the phantom was also calculated. The response and linearity of the dosimeter at the specified energies were also tested. The EPDs tested showed that the calibration coefficient ranged from 0.60 to 1.31 and an equivalent response for the specified energies that ranged from 0.76 to 1.67. The study demonstrated the possibility of using non standard phantom for calibrating dosimeters used for individual monitoring. The dosimeters under study showed a good response in all energies except the response in quality 100 kV. The linearity of the dosimeters was within ±15%, with the exception of the quality 100 kV where this limit was exceeded.(Author)

  19. National TLD network for beam calibration quality control in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Colombia counts now with 16 linear accelerators and 24 cobalt units used for radiation therapy treatments, with a total of 60 radiation beams, and the country takes part in the IAEA/WHO International Network of Postal Dosimetry, as well as in the IAEA/WHO SSDL network. Since the country has technical capacities to develop a national quality control program, based on the SSLD and other dosimetry laboratories, with the support of the IAEA through a coordinated research project, a national network for radiotherapy beam calibration quality control was created. The network is supported by the technical infrastructure of the SSDL and the thermoluminescence dosimetry laboratory of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Unit of INGEOMINAS and an External Audit Group (EAG) conformed by 5 medical physicists, joined to radiotherapy centers of different regions of the country. The objective of the network is mainly the development of procedures for the evaluation of the beam calibration by means of thermoluminiscent (TL) powdered detectors, through the system of capsules used by the IAEA/WHO postal dosimetry audit program. The TL powder contained in the capsules is divided in 20 mg samples which are placed in metallic minicapsules for their reading. As a result of the work carried out up to now, we have established the procedures for dosimetric evaluation using a HARSHAW 4500 reader. The performance of the system and procedures were evaluated by internal trials using the secondary standard of the SSDL and with irradiation set-ups corresponding to the reference conditions for beam calibration. An uncertainty of the final result better than 2% for evaluation of doses near 2 Gy was obtained. The results of the first dosimetry quality audit exercise to national level, for evaluation of high energy photon beam calibration, are presented. The problems detected, concerning the fill-in of the forms with the information about beam calibration and capsules irradiation

  20. How to calibrate Grenz-beams in clinical practice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeken, B. [Algemeen Ziekenhius Middelheim, Antwerp (Belgium); Bressers, E. [Virga jesse Ziekenhius, Hasselt (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, considerable efforts have been spent improving the precision and consistency in the whole process of calibration of high energy photon and electron beams (national protocols, primary calibration facilities ....). The reading in air of 5 different ionisation chambers (NE2532, NE2536, NE2571, PTWM23342, Markus) in an X-ray beam (RT50, HVL=0.35 mm Al) has been compared. Ali NE chambers were provided with a calibration factor Nk, the PTW chamber was directly calibrated in dose water ND,W. The polarisation and recombination effects were measured. In our reference field (ssd=4cm, field diameter 40 mm), the readings in air for the dedicated plan parallel chambers deviated by not more than 8%. The measurements with the NE2571 chamber did not correspond very well with the other measurements. For the equipment in our hospital, the dose rate in air for the reference field was measured from 1971 on and found to be very stable: 17.36 Gy/min (0.48) (1sd). An attempt was made to measure the BSF for the field defining cones used in clinical practice using a Markus plane parallel chamber, but the resulting BSF did not correspond to those reported in BJR/suppl. 17. Special attention has been be paid to the calibration of beams with field size comparable to the dimension of the chamber window- chamber body.

  1. Construction, Test And Calibration of the GLAST Silicon Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope represents a great advance in space application of silicon detectors. With a surface of 80 m2 and about 1 M readout channels it is the largest silicon tracker ever built for a space experiment. GLAST is an astro-particle mission that will study the mostly unexplored, high energy (20 MeV-300 GeV) spectrum coming from active sources or diffused in the Universe. The detector integration and test phase is complete. The full instrument underwent environmental testing and the spacecraft integration phase has just started: the launch is foreseen in late 2007. In the meanwhile the spare modules are being used for instrument calibration and performance verification employing the CERN accelerator complex. A Calibration Unit has been exposed to photon, electron and hadron beams from a few GeV up to 300 GeV. We report on the status of the instrument and on the calibration campaign.

  2. A calibration procedure for beam monitors in a scanned beam of heavy charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, O; Hartmann, G H; Karger, C P; Heeg, P; Vatnitsky, S

    2004-05-01

    An international code of practice (CoP) for dosimetry based on standards of absorbed dose to water has recently been published by the IAEA [Technical Report Series No. 398, 2000] (TRS-398). This new CoP includes procedures for proton and heavy ion beams as well as all other beam qualities. In particular it defines reference conditions to which dose measurements should refer to. For proton and ion beams these conditions include dose measurements in the center of all possible modulated Bragg peaks. The recommended reference conditions in general are used also for the calibration of beam monitors. For a dynamic beam delivery system using beam scanning in combination with energy variation, like, e.g., at the German carbon ion radiotherapy facility, this calibration procedure is not appropriate. We have independently developed a different calibration procedure. Similar to the IAEA CoP this procedure is based on the measurement of absorbed dose to water. This is translated in terms of fluence which finally results in an energy-dependent calibration of the beam monitor in units of particle number per monitor unit, which is unique for all treatment fields. In contrast to the IAEA CoP, the reference depth is chosen to be very small. The procedure enables an accurate and reliable determination of calibration factors. In a second step, the calibration is verified by measurements of absorbed dose in various modulated Bragg peaks by comparing measured against calculated doses. The agreement between measured and calculated doses is usually better than 1% for homogeneous fields and the mean deviation for more inhomogeneous treatment fields, as they are used for patient treatments, is within 3%. It is proposed that the CoP in general, and in particular the IAEA TRS-398 should include explicit recommendations for the beam monitor calibration. These recommendations should then distinguish between systems using static and dynamic beams. PMID:15191285

  3. Recent DIII-D neutral beam calibration results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, J.; Hong, R.M.; Phillips, J.

    1991-10-01

    Injected DIII-D neutral beam power is estimated based on three principle quantities: the fraction of ion beam that is neutralized in the neutralizer gas cell, the beamline transmission efficiency, and the fraction of beam reionized in the drift duct. System changes in the past few years have included a new gradient grid voltage operating point, ion source arc regulation, routine deuterium operations and new neutralizer gas flow controllers. Additionally, beam diagnostics have been improved and better calibrated. To properly characterize the beams the principle quantities have been re-measured. Two diagnostics are primarily used to measure the quantities. The beamline waterflow calorimetry system measures the neutralization efficiency and the beamline transmission efficiency, and the target tile thermocouples measure the reionization loss. An additional diagnostic, the target tile pyrometer, confirmed the reionization loss measurement. Descriptions and results of these measurements will be presented. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Expanded beam x-ray optics calibration facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; FREDERIKSEN, P; ABDALI, S; Grundsøe, Peter; SCHNOPPER, HW; LEWIS, R; HALL, CH; BOROZDIN, K

    1994-01-01

    interval from 6 kev to 12 kev, the facility features a 1D sheet of X-rays, approximately 200 mm wide, obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in large perfect crystals of Si. The beam is collimated to < 20 arcsec. Data from tests using large (approximately 250 mm long) beam expander crystals in...... the energy range from 6 - 12 kev are presented. The planned calibration of the two X-ray telescopes (XSPECT/SODART and JET-X) will be described....

  5. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis

  6. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CRAWFORD, B.A.

    2000-01-05

    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  7. Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam

  8. Results from ATLAS Calorimeter Combined Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tarrade, F

    2007-01-01

    Beam tests of combinations of ATLAS calorimeters have been performed both for the barrel and end cap parts. During a combined test beam in summer 2004 a slice of the ATLAS barrel detector - including all detector sub systems from the inner tracker, the calorimetry to the muon system - was exposed to particle beams (electrons, pions, photons, muons) with different energies (1GeV to 350GeV). The aim was to study the combined performance of the different detector sub systems in ATLAS-like conditions. We will present the electronics calibration scheme of the electromagnetic calorimeter and its implementation. The following studies on the combined testbeam data have been performed and will be presented: performance of the electromagnetic calorimetry down to very low energies (> GeV), photon reconstruction including converted photons and position measurements using the very precise ATLAS tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. These measurements have been compared to Monte Carlo simulations showing the good de...

  9. Self-calibration of cone-beam CT geometry using 3D-2D image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouadah, S.; Stayman, J. W.; Gang, G. J.; Ehtiati, T.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Robotic C-arms are capable of complex orbits that can increase field of view, reduce artifacts, improve image quality, and/or reduce dose; however, it can be challenging to obtain accurate, reproducible geometric calibration required for image reconstruction for such complex orbits. This work presents a method for geometric calibration for an arbitrary source-detector orbit by registering 2D projection data to a previously acquired 3D image. It also yields a method by which calibration of simple circular orbits can be improved. The registration uses a normalized gradient information similarity metric and the covariance matrix adaptation-evolution strategy optimizer for robustness against local minima and changes in image content. The resulting transformation provides a ‘self-calibration’ of system geometry. The algorithm was tested in phantom studies using both a cone-beam CT (CBCT) test-bench and a robotic C-arm (Artis Zeego, Siemens Healthcare) for circular and non-circular orbits. Self-calibration performance was evaluated in terms of the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function in CBCT reconstructions, the reprojection error (RPE) of steel ball bearings placed on each phantom, and the overall quality and presence of artifacts in CBCT images. In all cases, self-calibration improved the FWHM—e.g. on the CBCT bench, FWHM  =  0.86 mm for conventional calibration compared to 0.65 mm for self-calibration (p  self-calibration (p  self-calibration, particularly about high-contrast, high-frequency objects (e.g. temporal bone air cells and a surgical needle). The results indicate that self-calibration can improve even upon systems with presumably accurate geometric calibration and is applicable to situations where conventional calibration is not feasible, such as complex non-circular CBCT orbits and systems with irreproducible source-detector trajectory.

  10. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  11. Multi-species beam hardening calibration device for x-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evershed, Anthony N. Z.; Mills, David; Davis, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Impact-source X-ray microtomography (XMT) is a widely-used benchtop alternative to synchrotron radiation microtomography. Since X-rays from a tube are polychromatic, however, greyscale `beam hardening' artefacts are produced by the preferential absorption of low-energy photons in the beam path. A multi-material `carousel' test piece was developed to offer a wider range of X-ray attenuations from well-characterised filters than single-material step wedges can produce practically, and optimization software was developed to produce a beam hardening correction by use of the Nelder-Mead optimization method, tuned for specimens composed of other materials (such as hydroxyapatite [HA] or barium for dental applications.) The carousel test piece produced calibration polynomials reliably and with a significantly smaller discrepancy between the calculated and measured attenuations than the calibration step wedge previously in use. An immersion tank was constructed and used to simplify multi-material samples in order to negate the beam hardening effect of low atomic number materials within the specimen when measuring mineral concentration of higher-Z regions. When scanned in water at an acceleration voltage of 90 kV a Scanco AG hydroxyapatite / poly(methyl methacrylate) calibration phantom closely approximates a single-material system, producing accurate hydroxyapatite concentration measurements. This system can then be corrected for beam hardening for the material of interest.

  12. Calibration of Cone Beam Rotational X-Ray Image Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUHengyong; MOUXuanqin; CAIYuanlong

    2004-01-01

    The real X-ray projection does not abide by Lambert-Beer Law, since the X-ray is polychromatic and the imaging chains are nonlinear. Based on the generating process of X-ray images, an equivalent nonlinear transform model is firstly proposed which considers all the nonlinear factors as one nonlinear transform. Then the 3D (three-dimensional) X-ray projection of cone beam is defined. The constraints of Radon transform, named H-L (Helgasson-ludwig) consistency conditions, are expanded to fan-beam. After that an algorithm is developed to calibrate Rotational X-ray image sequence (RXIS). The algorithm uses a set of exponential functions to approximate the nonlinear inverse transform. According to expanded H-L consistency conditions, finally a kind of nonlinear measure for RXIS is defined. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can decrease the nonlinear measure to below 0.01.

  13. Muon Beam at the Fermilab Test Beam Area

    OpenAIRE

    Denisov, Dmitri; Evdokimov, Valery; Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    The intensities and profiles of the muon beam behind the beam dump of the Fermilab test beam area when the facility is running in the "pion" beam mode are measured and summarized in this note. This muon beam with momenta in the range 10 - 50 GeV/c provides an opportunity to perform various measurements in parallel with other users of the test beam area.

  14. Neutron beam testing of triblades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du Bois, Andrew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Storlie, Curtis B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rust, William N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Du Bois, David H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Modl, David G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Blanchard, Sean P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [UNIV DEGLI STUDI DI PADOVA ITALY

    2010-12-16

    Four IBM Triblades were tested in the Irradiation of Chips and Electronics facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. Triblades include two dual-core Opteron processors and four PowerXCell 8i (Cell) processors. The Triblades were tested in their field configuration while running different applications, with the beam aimed at the Cell processor or the Opteron running the application. Testing focused on the Cell processors, which were tested while running five different applications and an idle condition. While neither application nor Triblade was statistically important in predicting the hazard rate, the hazard rate when the beam was aimed at the Opterons was significantly higher than when it was aimed at the Cell processors. In addition, four Cell blades (one in each Triblade) suffered voltage shorts, leading to their inoperability. The hardware tested is the same as that in the Roadrunner supercomputer.

  15. Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; McKinney, Wayne R; Takacs, Peter Z

    2013-12-31

    The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer.

  16. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  17. Comparisons of the MINOS near and far detector readout systems at a test beam

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, A; Adamson, P.; Barker, M.; Belias, A.; Boyd, S.; Crone, G.; Drake, G.; Falk, E; Harris, P. G.; Hartnell, J.; Jenner, L.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Litchfield, R. P.; Michael, D.

    2009-01-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two detectors separated by 734 km. The readout systems used for the two detectors are different and have to be independently calibrated. To verify and make a direct comparison of the calibrated response of the two readout systems, test beam data were acquired using a smaller calibration detector. This detector was simultaneously instrumented with both readout systems and exposed to the CERN PS T7 test beam. Differe...

  18. Calibration of a multi-beam Laser System by using a TLS-generated Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, M.; Meidow, J.

    2013-10-01

    Rotating multi-beam LIDARs mounted on moving platforms have become very successful for many applications such as autonomous navigation, obstacle avoidance or mobile mapping. To obtain accurate point coordinates, a precise calibration of such a LIDAR system is required. For the determination of the corresponding parameters we propose a calibration scheme which exploits the information of 3D reference point clouds captured by a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) device. It is assumed that the accuracy of this point clouds is considerably higher than that from the multi-beam LIDAR and that the data represent faces of man-made objects at different distances. After extracting planes in the reference data sets, the point-plane-incidences of the measured points and the reference planes are used to formulate the implicit constraints. We inspect the Velodyne HDL-64E S2 system as the best-known representative for this kind of sensor system. The usability and feasibility of the calibration procedure is demonstrated with real data sets representing building faces (walls, roof planes and ground). Beside the improvement of the point accuracy by considering the calibration results, we test the significance of the parameters related to the sensor model and consider the uncertainty of measurements w.r.t. the measured distances. The Velodyne returns two kinds of measurements - distances and encoder angles. To account for this, we perform a variance component estimation to obtain realistic standard deviations for the observations.

  19. The electron test accelerator beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam chopper and buncher system has been designed to improve the capture efficiency and reduce the beam spill in the Electron Test Accelerator. The buncher increases the dc beam capture from 30 to 70%. 100% beam transmission through the accelerator structures is obtained with the chopper. This report describes results of experimental tests with the beam injector. Results from computer modeling and from measurements with prototypes that have led to the design of the beam chopper and buncher system are discussed

  20. Results of beam based gain calibration for beam position monitor at J-PARC Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Position Monitor (BPM) is one of the essential elements in a synchrotron facility, obtaining the circulating beam information for stabilization of the closed orbit. The accuracy of beam positions greatly affects the orbit stabilization, however, actual signal strength from a BPM depends on individuality such as 1) signal transmission for a long distance, 2) processing circuit, and 3) contact resistance at the connected parts, etc. These things cause deviations in the gain of the signal response. The gains are different from each other even in one BPM. In order to correct this relative gain deviations between electrodes, a Beam Based Gain Calibration (BBGC) method has been proposed. Development of a new method for adequate gain calibration has been an urgent issue for J-PARC Main Ring. It has been found that an analysis using Total Least Square fitting (TLS) adequately reproduces the BPM gain with sufficient accuracy. The gains obtained from the data are varied in the range of less than ±5%, and the accuracy is within ±0.6%. (author)

  1. Test-beam with Python

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The talk will show the current implementation of the software tool developed by Silab (Bonn) and Oxford University to analyze test beam data with Mimosa telescope. Data collected from the telescope are merged with hits recorded on pixel detectors with a FE-I4 chips, the official read-out chip of the Atlas Pixel Detector. The software tool used to collect data, pyBAR, is developed with Python as well. The test-beam analysis tool parses the data-sets, recreates the tracks, aligns the telescope planes and allows to investigate the detectors spatial properties with high resolution. This has just allowed to study the properties of brand new devices that stand as possible candidate to replace the current pixel detector in Atlas.

  2. Seepage Calibration Model and Seepage Testing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Finsterle

    2004-09-02

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document the Seepage Calibration Model (SCM). The SCM was developed (1) to establish the conceptual basis for the Seepage Model for Performance Assessment (SMPA), and (2) to derive seepage-relevant, model-related parameters and their distributions for use in the SMPA and seepage abstraction in support of the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). This Model Report has been revised in response to a comprehensive, regulatory-focused evaluation performed by the Regulatory Integration Team [''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Evaluation of Analysis and Model Reports Supporting the TSPA-LA'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169653])]. The SCM is intended to be used only within this Model Report for the estimation of seepage-relevant parameters through calibration of the model against seepage-rate data from liquid-release tests performed in several niches along the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Main Drift and in the Cross-Drift. The SCM does not predict seepage into waste emplacement drifts under thermal or ambient conditions. Seepage predictions for waste emplacement drifts under ambient conditions will be performed with the SMPA [''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167652])], which inherits the conceptual basis and model-related parameters from the SCM. Seepage during the thermal period is examined separately in the Thermal Hydrologic (TH) Seepage Model [see ''Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170338])]. The scope of this work is (1) to evaluate seepage rates measured during liquid-release experiments performed in several niches in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) and in the Cross-Drift, which was excavated for enhanced characterization of the repository block (ECRB); (2) to evaluate air-permeability data measured in boreholes above the niches and the Cross

  3. An automated linearity test for direct voltage calibrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Ross

    1990-04-01

    The complete calibration of direct voltage calibrators should include a linearity calibration. The method described uses a string of thermally lagged resistors in series across a stable voltage source to provide fixed reference points for the calibration. A high-resolution digital multimeter is used to compare voltage increments in the output of the calibrator. The calibrator and the instruments in the linearity test system are controlled by computer via the IEEE-488 bus. The measured linearity is the result of standard ration techniques. The test is suggested not only as a general purpose technique, but also as a source of assistance in dealing with traceability questions arising over instruments employing international calibration routines.

  4. Down force calibration stand test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  5. Simultaneous Hand-Eye-Workspace and Camera Calibration using Laser Beam Projection

    OpenAIRE

    Jwu-Sheng Hu; Yung-Jung Chang

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a novel calibration technique capable of simultaneously calibrating a camera’s intrinsic parameters and hand-eye-workspace relations. In addition to relaxing the requirement of a precise calibration reference to achieve manipulator accuracy, the proposed method functions when the hand is not in the view field of the eye. The calibration method uses a laser pointer mounted on the hand to project laser beams onto a planar object, which serves as the working plane. Collected l...

  6. Characteristic parameters analysis on diagnostic X-ray beams for dosemeter calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation metrology is the base to achieve reliable dose measurements in ali areas; it is also part of the framework that is established to assure radiation protection procedures in order to avoid or minimize the harmful biological effect that may be caused by ionizing radiation. A well done metrology means the use of reliable instruments that comply with standard performance requirements worldwide accepted. Those instruments are expected to be calibrated by Metrology Laboratories under well defined conditions. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in Standard 61267 established the reference radiations for medical diagnostic x-ray equipment that are recommended to be used for calibrating dosimetric systems for diagnostic dosimetry. In this work, X-ray beam qualities were established in a Calibration Laboratory and their characteristics were analyzed through the measurement of beam parameters like inherent tube filtration, beam uniformity and field size, energy spectra and peak voltage for additional filtration with 94.425 por cent and 99.999 por cent purity filters. Also, the first half-value layer and the homogeneity coefficient were measured for the three RQR 2, RQR 6 and RQR 10 IEC beam qualities and they were analyzed according to the IEC standard. Air-kerma measurements were carried out with an ionization chamber that had its reliability confirmed through repetition and reproducibility reading tests. In 50 sets of measurements the maximum standard deviation found of 10 successive readings was 0.19 %; the maximum shift of the reading mean value at a fixed geometry condition was 0.80 % with an overall standard deviation of 0.23 %. Results showed that the use of different purity filters did not cause a relevant influence on the beam energy spectra. An ionization chamber was also calibrated against a standard dosimeter in ali implemented reference radiations and the relevant sources of uncertainties were estimated. Calibration could be done

  7. RPC test with heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Time-of-Flight (ToF) wall of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment, conceptualized on the basis of high-resolution timing Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs), is intended to account for concise hadron identification at an unprecedented event rate of 10 MHz in Au+Au collisions. Comprehensive performance tests of several purpose-built multi-strip MRPC prototypes foreseen for different rate regions of the planned 120 m2 ToF wall are an essential instrument to study the response and the limitations of the current design. Such evaluation studies were carried out both under SIS-18 heavy-ion beam load at GSI in the fall of 2012 and under cosmic irradiation in the lab throughout the year 2013. Particle flux conditions of up to a few tens of kHz/cm2 as expected to impinge on the ToF wall in future CBM runs can be provided at the SIS-18 accelerator. A generic calibration scheme for MRPCs with strip read-out has been developed and will be described. Preliminary results concerning key characteristics like efficiency and timing resolution of a multi-strip MRPC demonstrator are presented, as well as an outlook to the specifications and requirements of a planned high-rate in-beam test at GSI in 2014.

  8. The 2002 Test Beam DAQ

    CERN Multimedia

    Mapelli, L.

    The ATLAS Tilecal group has been the first user of the Test Beam version of the DAQ/EF-1 prototype in 2000. The prototype was successfully tested in lab in summer 1999 and it has been officially adopted as baseline solution for the Test Beam DAQ at the end of 1999. It provides the right solution for users who need to have a modern data acquisition chain for final or almost final front-end and off-detector electronics (RODs and ROD emulators). The typical architecture for the readout and the DAQ is sketched in the figure below. A number of detector crates can send data over the Read Out Link to the Read Out System. The Read Out System sends data over an Ethernet link to a SubFarm PC that provides to send the data to Central Data Recording. In 2001 also the Muon MDT group has adopted this modern DAQ where for the first time a PC-based ReadOut System has been used, instead of the VME based implementation used in 2000, and for the Tilecal DAQ in 2001. In 2002 also Tilecal has adopted the PC-based implement...

  9. The evaluation and calibration of fan-beam collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine the true focal length of a fan-beam collimator and (b) to calibrate image size (mm/pixel) for each collimator to permit inter-comparison of image data acquired on different gamma camera systems. A total of six fan-beam collimators on three dual-head gamma camera systems were evaluated using a set of four cobalt-57 point source markers. The markers were arranged in a line in the transverse plane with a known separation between them. Tomographic images were obtained at three radii of rotation. From reconstructed transaxial images the distance between markers was measured in pixels and used to determine pixel size in mm/pixel. The system value for the focal length of the collimator was modified by up to ±100 mm and transaxial images were again reconstructed. To standardize pixel size between systems, the apparent radius of rotation during a single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquisition was modified by changes to the effective collimator thickness. SPET images of a 3D brain phantom were acquired on each system and reconstructed using both the original and the modified values of collimator focal length and thickness. Co-registration and subtraction of the reconstructed transaxial images was used to evaluate the effects of changes in collimator parameters. Pixel size in the reconstructed image was found to be a function of both the radius of rotation and the focal length. At the correct focal length, pixel size was essentially independent of the radius of rotation. For all six collimators, true focal length differed from the original focal length by up to 26 mm. These differences in focal length resulted in up to 6% variation in pixel size between systems. Pixel size between the three systems was standardized by altering the value for collimator thickness. Subtraction of the co-registered SPET images of the 3D brain phantom was significantly improved after optimization of collimator parameters, with a 35%-50% reduction

  10. Validating dose rate calibration of radiotherapy photon beams through IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), the quality assurance (QA) of the radiation beam is crucial to the accurate delivery of the prescribed dose to the patient. One of the dosimetric parameters that require monitoring is the beam output, specified as the dose rate on the central axis under reference conditions. The aim of this project was to validate dose rate calibration of megavoltage photon beams using the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/World Health Organisation (WHO) postal audit dosimetry service. Three photon beams were audited: a 6 MV beam from the low-energy linac and 6 and 18 MV beams from a dual high-energy linac. The agreement between our stated doses and the IAEA results was within 1% for the two 6 MV beams and within 2% for the 18 MV beam. The IAEA/WHO postal audit dosimetry service provides an independent verification of dose rate calibration protocol by an international facility. (author)

  11. Cone penetration test in a virtual calibration chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Butlanska, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) is a fast and reliable site investigation tool for exploring soils and soft ground. While the interpretation of the test results in clay has advanced considerably from a theoretical and numerical viewpoint that of tests in sands still relies largely on empirical correlations. A major source of such correlations comes from tests done in calibration chambers (CC), where soil state and properties might be tightly controlled. Calibration chambers are relatively large p...

  12. Beam test of wire scanner beam size monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam size monitor for emittance measurement is required to have around 10μm resolution for injector linac, and to have a few tenth μm resolution for an extracted beam from a damping ring in Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). A wire scanner is a one of the candidate of a beam size monitor with a high resolution. The design and development study of the wire scanning stage has been done. The beam test using Tohoku 300MeV Linac was done and the emittance was measured by this wire scanner. A detection of beam size signal was done by a scintillator gamma detector placed at downstream of the wire stage. All of the measurements are taken by the computer. The beam test results are described. (author)

  13. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  14. Cone penetration tests in a virtual calibration chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Butlanska, Joanna; Gens Solé, Antonio; Calvetti, Francesco; Jamiolkowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A virtual calibration chamber was built using a threedimensional model based on the discrete-element method. The chamber was then filled with a scaled granular equivalent of Ticino sand, the material properties of which were selected by curve-fitting triaxial tests. Cone penetration tests were then performed under different initial densities and isotropic stresses. Penetration resistance in the virtual calibration chamber was affected by the same cone/chamber size effect that affects ph...

  15. Results of final focus test beam

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrof, V.A.; Balakin, V.; Mikhailichenko, A..; Flottmann, K.; Peters, F.; Voss, G.A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Halling, M.; Buon, J.; Jeanjean, J.; LeDiberder, F.; Lepeltier, V.; Puzo, P.; Heimlinger, G.; Settles, R.

    1995-01-01

    The beam experiments of Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) started in September 1993 at SLAC, and have produced a 1.7 μm×75 nm spot of 46 GeV electron beam. A number of new techniques involving two nanometer spot-size monitors have been developed. Several beam diagnostic/tuning schemes are applied to achieve and maintain the small spot. This experiment opens the way toward the nanometer world for future linear colliders

  16. Modelling and calibration of the laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guoyu; Zheng, Bing; Li, Xin; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present an approach of modelling and calibration of an active laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system. The system works with the pattern of two-dimensional beam-scanning illumination and one-dimensional slit-scanning detection with a photo-multiplier tube instead of a CCD camera. By

  17. Beam Loss Calibration Studies for High Energy Proton Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Stockner, M

    2007-01-01

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a proton collider with injection energy of 450 GeV and collision energy of 7 TeV. Superconducting magnets keep the particles circulating in two counter rotating beams, which cross each other at the Interaction Points (IP). Those complex magnets have been designed to contain both beams in one yoke within a cryostat. An unprecedented amount of energy will be stored in the circulating beams and in the magnet system. The LHC outperforms other existing accelerators in its maximum beam energy by a factor of 7 and in its beam intensity by a factor of 23. Even a loss of a small fraction of the beam particles may cause the transition from the superconducting to the normal conducting state of the coil or cause physical damage to machine components. The unique combination of these extreme beam parameters and the highly advanced superconducting technology has the consequence that the LHC needs a more efficient beam cleaning and beam loss measurement system than previous accelerators....

  18. The beam energy calibration system for the BEPC-II collider

    CERN Document Server

    Achasov, M N; Mo, Xiaohu; Muchnoi, N Yu; Qin, Qing; Qu, Huamin; Wang, Yifang; Xu, Jinqiang

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a proposal of the BEPC-II collider beam energy calibration system (IHEP, Beijing). The system is based on Compton backscattering of carbon dioxide laser radiation, producing a beam of high energy photons. Their energy spectrum is then accurately measured by HPGe detector. The high-energy spectrum edge will allow to determine the average electron or positron beam energy with relative accuracy about 3x10^-5.

  19. Beam-based calibrations of the BPM offset at C-ADS Injector II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Long; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Chi; Dou, Wei-Ping; Tao, Yue; Jia, Huan; Wang, Wang-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Hui; He, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Beam-based BPM offset calibration was carried out for Injector II at the C-ADS demonstration facility at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). By using the steering coils integrated in the quadrupoles, the beam orbit can be effectively adjusted and BPM positions recorded at the Medium Energy Beam Transport of the Injector II Linac. The studies were done with a 2 mA, 2.1 MeV proton beam in pulsed mode. During the studies, the “null comparison method” was applied for the calibration. This method is less sensitive to errors compared with the traditional transmission matrix method. In addition, the quadrupole magnet’s center can also be calibrated with this method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  20. Calibration in medical diagnostic beams at the Swedish secondary standard dosimetry laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New diagnostic X-ray beams based on the IEC standard no. 1267 are now available at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in Sweden. These beams are alternatives to the ISO narrow qualities and BIPM qualities that until now have been used for calibration of diagnostic instruments. A procedure differing somewhat from the IEC standard but following the primary radiation standards laboratory at PTB has been used for defining the radiation quality. This report describes the characteristics of the new radiation beams and the estimated effect on calibration factors due to the change in radiation quality. The effect on existing calibration beams due to the reconstruction of filter wheels has been investigated concerning scattered radiation, half-value layers and air kerma rates

  1. Two-dimensional differential calibration method for a neutron dosemeter using a thermal neutron beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Harano, Hideki; Masuda, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Jun; Matsue, Hideaki; Uritani, Akira; Nunomiya, Tomoya

    2013-08-01

    A new thermal neutron calibration method to experimentally determine the energy response function of a neutron detector using a pulse parallel beam and the time-of-flight (TOF) technique is developed. The calibration method was experimentally demonstrated for a (3)He proportional counter and an electric personal dosemeter using a pulsed thermal neutron beam from the research reactor JRR-3M. The responses of the detectors were successfully obtained as a function of neutron energy. However, detailed information on the detector structure is required to obtain the spatial response distribution for the detector. The authors further propose an improved calibration method obtaining the spatial response distribution using a pulsed narrow beam, the TOF technique and a beam scanning technique. PMID:23509397

  2. Calibration Tests of Industrial and Scientific CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortis, M. R.; Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1991-01-01

    Small format, medium resolution CCD cameras are at present widely used for industrial metrology applications. Large format, high resolution CCD cameras are primarily in use for scientific applications, but in due course should increase both the range of applications and the object space accuracy achievable by close range measurement. Slow scan, cooled scientific CCD cameras provide the additional benefit of additional quantisation levels which enables improved radiometric resolution. The calibration of all types of CCD cameras is necessary in order to characterize the geometry of the sensors and lenses. A number of different types of CCD cameras have been calibrated a the NASA Langley Research Center using self calibration and a small test object. The results of these calibration tests will be described, with particular emphasis on the differences between standard CCD video cameras and scientific slow scan CCD cameras.

  3. Reply to comment on 'Proton beam monitor chamber calibration'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Lorentini, Stefano; Meer, David; Safai, Sairos

    2016-09-01

    This reply shows that the discrepancy of about 3% between Faraday cup dosimetry and reference dosimetry using a cylindrical ionization chamber found in Gomà (2014 Phys. Med. Biol. 59 4961-71) seems to be due to an overestimation of the beam quality correction factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398 for the cylindrical chamber used, rather than to 'unresolved problems with Faraday cup dosimetry', as suggested by Palmans and Vatnitsky (2016 Phys. Med. Biol. 61 6585-93). Furthermore, this work shows that a good agreement between reference dosimetry and Faraday cup dosimetry is possible, provided accurate beam quality correction factors for proton beams are used. The review on W air values presented by Palmans and Vatnitsky is believed to be inaccurate, as it is based on the imprecise assumption of ionization chamber perturbation correction factors in proton beams being equal to unity. PMID:27535895

  4. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Montag, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  5. Direct calibration in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo conversion factor: validation and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a 60Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6 MV, 0.51% at 10 MV and 0.46% for the 18 MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18 MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1σ of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4–1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method. (paper)

  6. The beam-based calibration of an X-ray pinhole camera at SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pinhole camera for imaging X-ray synchrotron radiation from a dipole magnet is now in operation at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring. The electron beam. size is derived by unfolding the radiation image and the point spread function (PSF) with deconvolution techniques. The performance of the pinhole is determined by the accuracy of the PSF measurement. This article will focus on a beam-based calibration scheme to measure the PSF system by varying the beam images with different quadrupole settings and fitting them with the corresponding theoretical beam sizes. Applying this method at SSRF, the PSF value of the pinhole is revised from 37 to 44 μm. The deviation in beam size between the theoretical value and the measured value is minimized to 4% after calibration. This optimization allows us to observe the horizontal disturbance due to injection down to as small as 0.5 μm. (authors)

  7. Measurement of longitudinal impedance for a KAON test pipe model with TSD-calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report measurements of longitudinal impedances for a KAON factory beam pipe model by means of the TSD-calibration method. The experimental method and the results are discussed. The frequency band is from 48 MHz up to 900 MHz, within which range the method produces measured impedances accurate enough to be useful in indicating whether a test pipe will have a suitably low impedance

  8. Beam based gain calibration method for beam position monitor at J-PARC MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability of the closed orbit is one of very important points for stable operations to keep a small beam loss in MR. The relative gains of the output data may drift due to unpredictable imbalance among output signals from the pickup electrodes, because the output signals must travel through separate paths, such as cables, connectors, attenuators, switches, and then are measured by detectors. In KEKB, we found noticeable errors larger than 0.1mm in the almost all BPM readings. In KEKB, A non-linear chi-square method has received practical application to calibrate these errors come from the imbalance among 4 output voltage of a BPM. However, we were not able to apply a same method as KEKB to analyze a gain of BPMs in J-PARC. W noticed linear relations among 4 outputs voltage and analyzed the imbalance by the total least-squares method. This paper introduce the new method to estimate the related gains from four output data of a BPM head. (author)

  9. Results from the final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First experimental results from the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) are given in this report. The FFTB has been constructed as a prototype for the final focus system of a future TeV-scale electron-positron linear collider. The vertical dimension of the 47 GeV electron beam form the SLAC linac has been reduced at the focal point of the FFTB by a demagnification of 320 to a beam height of approximately 70 nanometers

  10. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. We will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 μm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun. (author)

  11. Calibration report for Avent 5-beam Demonstrator lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael

    Nacelle-based profiling LiDARs may be the future of power performance assessment. Due to their large rotor size, single-point measurements are insufficient to quantify the power modern wind turbines can harness. The available energy in the wind indeed varies with heights. Improving power performa......Nacelle-based profiling LiDARs may be the future of power performance assessment. Due to their large rotor size, single-point measurements are insufficient to quantify the power modern wind turbines can harness. The available energy in the wind indeed varies with heights. Improving power...... estimation is the ultimate goal of a calibration: a relation is established between reference measurements from calibrated instruments and corresponding LiDAR indications. Traceability in the calibration is obtained by transferring measurement uncertainties from the reference instrument through the...... performance assessment by measuring simultaneously at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive meteorology masts, especially offshore. As for any other measuring system, lidars measurements have uncertainties. Their...

  12. Calibration artefacts in radio interferometry. III. Phase-only calibration and primary beam correction

    CERN Document Server

    Grobler, T G; Wijnholds, S J; Kenyon, J S; Smirnov, O M

    2016-01-01

    This is the third installment in a series of papers in which we investigate calibration artefacts. Calibration artefacts (also known as ghosts or spurious sources) are created when we calibrate with an incomplete model. In the first two papers of this series we developed a mathematical framework which enabled us to study the ghosting mechanism itself. An interesting concomitant of the second paper was that ghosts appear in symmetrical pairs. This could possibly account for spurious symmetrization. Spurious symmetrization refers to the appearance of a spurious source (the anti-ghost) symmetrically opposite an unmodelled source around a modelled source. The analysis in the first two papers indicates that the anti-ghost is usually very faint, in particular when a large number of antennas are used. This suggests that spurious symmetrization will mainly occur at an almost undetectable flux level. In this paper, we show that phase-only calibration produces an anti-ghost that is $N$-times (where $N$ denotes the numb...

  13. Calibration of beam position indicators for insertion devices of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two insertion devices (undulators named U-l and U-2) have been recently installed in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, a 2.5 GeV third generation electron storage ring at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore. Four ultra-high vacuum compatible beam position indicators (IDBPIs) for insertion devices have been designed and developed. These IDBPIs have been installed in the long straight sections LS-2 and LS-3 of Indus-2 ring at the upstream side and downstream side of undulators for the precise monitoring of electron beam position. The IDBPIs have been calibrated on a calibration bench setup before their installation in Indus-2 ring. The calibration procedure along with the calibration results has been described in this paper

  14. A new algorithm for geometric self-calibration in cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geometric misalignment leads to severe artifacts in computed tomography (CT). We suggest a general theory for identification of unknown geometric parameters in cone-beam CT and derive a new computational algorithm to obtain the geometric parameters directly from the scan data. In contrast to many existing approaches, our method requires no dedicated calibration devices and allows us to calibrate the system using an arbitrary phantom or even the patient data. The theory is based on the formalism of the consistency conditions for linear integral operators; the algorithm makes use of the quadratic optimization of the consistency conditions. In the practice, the suggested approach can be viewed as a new concept of 'self-calibration', where the user does not need to be aware of the calibration procedure and plays no role in it, which can be a great advantage in applications of cone-beam CT in interventional radiology and radiotherapy. (orig.)

  15. Immediate needs for MQA testing at state secondary calibration laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, R. [Radiation Instrument Calibration Laboratory, Springfield, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The Calibration Laboratory attempts to provide services that satisfy the needs and requests for a variety of customers. New needs and requests have resulted in calibration of instrumentation outside the original laboratory designs. These tasks require several changes at the laboratory and a need for new support services, especially measurement quality assurance (MQA). The MQA tests are gamma (Cs-137) below 0.5 mrem (5{mu}Sv) per hour and x-ray kVp. Modification to the current gamma (Cs-137) MQA test is recommended because lower intensity fields are commonly measured.

  16. Exercise for laboratory comparison of calibration coefficient in 137Cs beam, radiation protection - 2013/2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the preliminary results of the second exercise of comparing the radiation monitors calibration laboratories in Brazil. The exercise involved eight laboratories and the measured quantity is the air kerma in a beam of 137Cs for radioprotection. The exercise was conducted by the LNMRI/IRD, in a star shaped arrangement from October 2013 to July 2015. The largest deviation was 2% of the calibration coefficient that is acceptable for applications in radioprotection. (author)

  17. Standard practice for torque calibration of testing machines and devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures and requirements for the calibration of torque for static and quasi-static torque capable testing machines or devices. These may, or may not, have torque indicating systems and include those devices used for the calibration of hand torque tools. Testing machines may be calibrated by one of the three following methods or combination thereof: 1.1.1 Use of standard weights and lever arms. 1.1.2 Use of elastic torque measuring devices. 1.1.3 Use of elastic force measuring devices and lever arms. 1.1.4 Any of the methods require a specific uncertainty of measurement and a traceability derived from national standards of mass and length. 1.2 The procedures of 1.1.1, 1.1.2, and 1.1.3 apply to the calibration of the torque-indicating systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the torque-indicating system(s) to be calibrated and included in the repor...

  18. Flight-Tested Prototype of BEAM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Ryan; Tikidjian, Raffi; James, Mark; Wang, David

    2006-01-01

    Researchers at JPL have completed a software prototype of BEAM (Beacon-based Exception Analysis for Multi-missions) and successfully tested its operation in flight onboard a NASA research aircraft. BEAM (see NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9; and Vol. 27, No. 3) is an ISHM (Integrated Systems Health Management) technology that automatically analyzes sensor data and classifies system behavior as either nominal or anomalous, and further characterizes anomalies according to strength, duration, and affected signals. BEAM (see figure) can be used to monitor a wide variety of physical systems and sensor types in real time. In this series of tests, BEAM monitored the engines of a Dryden Flight Research Center F-18 aircraft, and performed onboard, unattended analysis of 26 engine sensors from engine startup to shutdown. The BEAM algorithm can detect anomalies based solely on the sensor data, which includes but is not limited to sensor failure, performance degradation, incorrect operation such as unplanned engine shutdown or flameout in this example, and major system faults. BEAM was tested on an F-18 simulator, static engine tests, and 25 individual flights totaling approximately 60 hours of flight time. During these tests, BEAM successfully identified planned anomalies (in-flight shutdowns of one engine) as well as minor unplanned anomalies (e.g., transient oil- and fuel-pressure drops), with no false alarms or suspected false-negative results for the period tested. BEAM also detected previously unknown behavior in the F- 18 compressor section during several flights. This result, confirmed by direct analysis of the raw data, serves as a significant test of BEAM's capability.

  19. Calibration of wavefront distortion in light modulator setup by Fourier analysis of multi-beam interference

    CERN Document Server

    Leszczyński, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to calibrate wavefront distortion of the spatial light modulator setup by registering far field images of several gaussian beams diffracted off the modulator. The Fourier transform of resulting interference images reveals phase differences between typically 5 movable points on the modulator. Repeating this measurement yields wavefront surface. Next, the amplitude efficiency is calibrated be registering near field image. As a verification we produced a superposition of 7th and 8th Bessel beams with different phase velocities and observed their interference.

  20. Test beam results of lead tungstate matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different lead tungstate matrices with avalanche photodiode readout have been tested in electron and pion beam at CERN. In the H4 beam, a 7 x 7 crystal matrix response has been studied with electrons of 15 to 150 GeV. Crystals (about 23 cm long and pointing shape) came from different producers. An energy resolution of about 0.6% at 100 GeV has been obtained. On the other hand, a 3 x 3 crystals matrix equipped with the first prototype of a complete electronic readout chain (fast shaping, full dynamic range) has been tested in the X3 beam. (orig.)

  1. The METAS absorbed dose to water calibration service for high energy photon and electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS) provides an absorbed dose to water calibration service for reference dosimeters. The calibration service uses 60Co gamma radiation, ten high energy photon beam qualities between TPR20,10 = 0.639 and 0.802 and ten electron beam qualities between R50 = 1.75 g/cm2 and 8.54 g/cm2. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy photons is based on a primary standard sealed water calorimeter used to calibrate several METAS NE 2611A and NE 2571A type ionization chamber working standards in terms of absorbed dose to water in the energy range of 60Co to TPR20,10 = 0.802. The users' reference dosimeters are compared with the working standards to give calibration factors in absorbed dose to water with an uncertainty of 1.0% for 60Co radiation and 1.4% for higher energies (coverage factor k = 2). The calibration service was launched in 1997. The calibration factors measured by METAS have been compared with those derived from the IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 398 (TRS 398) code of practice and from Recommendations No. 4 of the Swiss Society of Radiobiology and Medical Physics (SSRMP). The comparisons showed a maximum difference of 1.2% for the NE 2561A and NE 2571A chambers. At 60Co gamma radiation the METAS primary standard of absorbed dose to water was bilaterally compared with the primary standards of the Bureau international des poids et mesures.The standards were in agreement within the comparison uncertainties. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy electron beams is based on a primary standard chemical dosimeter. A monoenergetic electron beam of known particle energy and beam charge is totally absorbed in Fricke solution. The experiment was carried out in the energy range of 5.3 MeV to 22.4 MeV, which allows the determination of the response of the Fricke dosimeter. Finally, the users' dosimeters are compared with the METAS working standards. The overall uncertainty in

  2. Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten

    2008-01-01

    examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...... attenuation. Results show that the combination of the model and Field II can calculate the pressure within −15 % to 5 % RMS error for long excitation bursts and 7 % to 23 % for short excitation bursts. Furthermore it is shown that current simulations can be done within 1 % to maximum 33 % RMS error, where......Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...

  3. Testing the precision optical calibration module for PINGU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU) is primarily designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This measurement requires an accurate calibration of the detector in order to reduce systematic uncertainties. The Precision Optical Calibration Modules (POCAM) will be placed in the detector as a well calibrated artificial light source in the ice. The POCAM will be enclosed in a glass sphere identical to those used for the detector modules. To construct and simulate a prototype of the POCAM, every component needs to be analyzed by their optical characteristics and by the behavior in temperatures down to -50 C. Therefore a highly shielded an isolated environment has to be build up. We report the status of the testing environment and the hardware selected.

  4. Computer-controlled testing and calibration of health physics instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microcomputer-controlled CAMAC system has been adapted for automated testing and calibration of health physics survey instruments. Once the survey instrument is mounted, the system automatically performs tests for angular dependence or geometry dependence. Positioning the instruments is performed by a computer-controlled stepping motor, read-out is performed by an auto-ranging digital voltmeter, and data is stored on computer disks

  5. Absolute spectral calibration of an intensified CCD camera using twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haderka, O.; Peřina Jr., J.; Michálek, Václav; Hamar, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2014), B1-B7. ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spectral calibration * intensified CCD camera * twin beams * photon pairs Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.970, year: 2014

  6. Quality assurance network in central Europe. External audit on output calibration for photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EROPAQ project for TLD monitoring of photon beams started in June 1994 with the set-up of the TLD system: calibration, reading and evaluation procedures. The acceptance level of ±3% was set for the TLD intercomparisons. The policy of the project was to check all beams in 47 participating radiotherapy centres and to recheck all the beams in those centres, where a deviation exceeding ±3% occurred in one or more of the beams. Out of 129 beams checked, 100 beams (78%) were found within the ±3% limit. Eleven beams show deviations larger than ±6%, and immediate corrective action was undertaken. Out of 47 centres checked, 22 did not participate in any external audit in a preceding 5 years. In these centres 68% (34/50) of the total number of γ and X-ray beams checked but only 59% (20/34) of γ beams were within the acceptance level, while in the 25 centres, which participated in an external audit before, these figures were 84% (66/79) and 88% (35/40) respectively. The sources of discrepancies were thoroughly investigated, discussed with the participants and the errors corrected. Poor results were in several cases associated with very old design of radiotherapy units and old dosimetry systems, equipped with inadequate ionization chambers. In several centres, an insufficient training of the physicists in clinical dosimetry was observed. Thanks to the corrective action, a great improvement of calibration of the beams was achieved. Standard deviation of the distribution of the results for all x and γ beams checked decreased from SD = 7.4% at the first check to SD = 2.5% at the second check. (orig.)

  7. Compound simulator IR radiation characteristics test and calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Zhang, Li; Li, Fan; Tian, Yi; Yang, Yang; Li, Zhuo; Shi, Rui

    2015-10-01

    The Hardware-in-the-loop simulation can establish the target/interference physical radiation and interception of product flight process in the testing room. In particular, the simulation of environment is more difficult for high radiation energy and complicated interference model. Here the development in IR scene generation produced by a fiber array imaging transducer with circumferential lamp spot sources is introduced. The IR simulation capability includes effective simulation of aircraft signatures and point-source IR countermeasures. Two point-sources as interference can move in two-dimension random directions. For simulation the process of interference release, the radiation and motion characteristic is tested. Through the zero calibration for optical axis of simulator, the radiation can be well projected to the product detector. The test and calibration results show the new type compound simulator can be used in the hardware-in-the-loop simulation trial.

  8. Calibration of radioprotection instruments and calibrated irradiation: characterization of gamma beam of 137Cs and 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioprotection Laboratory belongs to Dosimetry Reference Regional Centre of Atomic Energy National Commission, C.A.E. This laboratory offers the service of calibrations for radioprotection instruments as Geiger Muller detector, ionisation chamber, probe, proportional counters, electronic personal dosimeters and others used in nuclear medicine, radiotherapy centres, nuclear power plants, industry and in other applications of ionising radiation. Also it offers the service of calibrated irradiations. A gamma Irradiator and a Stabilipam 300 X-ray are the equipment of the Radioprotection Laboratory used for calibrations. Hopewell Designs Irradiator was installed to improve the quality of services in 2005. The irradiator has a 137Cs source of 10 Curies and a 60Co source of 1 Curie, approximately. Theoretical and experimental studies were done to analyse symmetry, flatness, penumbra and secondary radiation of photon beams. For symmetry, flatness and penumbra X-OMAT-V films and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used. Films were placed to 0.7 and 1 meter from collimator exit receiving 10, 40, 80, 100 and 120mGy. TLDs were placed to 1 and 1.80 meters from collimator on a surface higher than 137Cs beam cross section. Also studies were done to a distance of 1m and 1.80 from exit collimator using LiF powder in capsules. Irradiations were done without attenuators and with a collimator aperture of 8 C degrees. Results were compared to those obtained with Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP5c code). For secondary radiation calculation three methods were employed: Shadow-shield, Multiple distance and Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, from theoretical and experimental studies could conclude that the secondary radiation resulted to be lower than 3.5%, total radiation, symmetry and flatness were higher than 90% and penumbra was lower than 13 mm. Those results agree to recommendations ISO 4037 Standard. (author)

  9. Simultaneous Hand-Eye-Workspace and Camera Calibration using Laser Beam Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwu-Sheng Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel calibration technique capable of simultaneously calibrating a camera’s intrinsic parameters and hand-eye-workspace relations. In addition to relaxing the requirement of a precise calibration reference to achieve manipulator accuracy, the proposed method functions when the hand is not in the view field of the eye. The calibration method uses a laser pointer mounted on the hand to project laser beams onto a planar object, which serves as the working plane. Collected laser spot images must adhere to certain nonlinear constraints established by each hand pose and the corresponding plane-laser intersection. This work also introduces calibration methods for two cases using single and multiple planes. A multistage closed-form solution is derived and serves as the initial guess to the nonlinear optimization procedure that minimizes errors globally, allowing the proposed calibration method to function without manual intervention. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by comparison with existing hand-eye calibration methods via simulation and experiments using an industrial manipulator.

  10. The METAS absorbed dose to water calibration service for high energy photon and electron beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Swiss Federal Office of Metrology and Accreditation (METAS) provides an absorbed dose to water calibration service for reference dosimeters using 60Co γ radiation, ten X-ray beam qualities between TPR20,10=0.639 and 0.802 and ten electron beam qualities between R50=1.75 gcm-2 and 8.54 gcm-2. A 22 MeV microtron accelerator with a conventional treatment head is used as radiation source for the high energy photon and electron beams. The treatment head produces clinical beams. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy photons is based on a primary standard sealed water calorimeter of the Domen type, that is used to calibrate several METAS transfer standards of type NE2611A and NE2571A in terms of absorbed dose to water in the energy range from 60Co to TPR20,10 = 0.802. User reference dosimeters are compared with the transfer standards to give calibration factors in absorbed dose to water with an uncertainty of 1.0% for 60Co γ radiation and 1.4% for higher energies (coverage factor k=2). The calibration service was launched in 1997. The calibration factors measured by METAS have been compared with those derived from the Code of Practice of the International Atomic Energy Agency using the calculated kQ factors listed in table 14. The comparison showed a maximum difference of 0.8% for the NE25611A and NE 2571A chambers. At 60Co γ radiation the METAS primary standard of absorbed dose to water was bilaterally compared with the primary standards of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures BIPM (Sevres) as well as of the National Research Council NRC (Canada). In either case the standards were in agreement within the comparison uncertainties. The METAS absorbed dose calibration service for high energy electron beams is based on a primary standard chemical dosimeter. A monoenergetic electron beam of precisely known particle energy and beam charge is totally absorbed in Fricke solution (ferrous ammonium sulphate) of a given mass. This

  11. Calibration and performance test of the Very-Front-End electronics for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Very-Front-End (VFE) card is an important part of the on-detector read-out electronics of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) electromagnetic calorimeter that is made of ∼ 76.000 radiation hard scintillating crystals PbWO4 and operates on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Almost 16.000 VFE cards that shape, amplify and digitize incoming signals from photodetectors generated by interacting particles. Since any maintenance of any part of the calorimeter is not possible during the 10-year lifetime of the experiment, the extensive screening program was employed throughout the whole manufacture process. As a part of readout electronics quality assurance program, the systems for burn-in and precise calibration of the VFE boards were developed and successfully used at IPN Lyon. In addition to functionality tests, all relevant electrical properties of each card were measured and analyzed in detail to obtain their full characterization and to build a database with all required parameters which will serve for the initial calibration of the whole calorimeter. In order to evaluate the calorimeter performance and also to deliver the most precise calibration constants, several fully equipped super-modules were extensively studied and calibrated during the test beam campaigns at CERN. As an important part of these tests, accurate studies of the electronics noise and relative gains, which are needed for measurement in high energy range, were carried out to optimize amplitude reconstruction procedure and thus improve the precision of the calorimeter energy determination. The heart of the thesis consists of the calibration of all VFE boards, including optimization of the laboratory calibration system and precise analysis of measured values to delivered desired calibration constants. The second half of the thesis is focused on the accurate evaluation and optimization of the read-out electronics in real data taking conditions. The results obtained in the laboratory at IPN Lyon

  12. Laser Wire and Beam Position Monitor tests

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Lyapin, A; Nevay, L; Snuverink, J

    2013-01-01

    This subtask involved two main activities; Firstly the development and subsequent usage of high resolution beam position monitors (BPM) for the International Linear Collider (ILC) and Compact Linear Collider projects (CLIC); and secondly the development of a laser-wire (LW) transverse beam size measurement systems. This report describes the technical progress achieved at a large-scale test ILC compatible BPM system installed at the Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2). The ATF2 is an energy-scaled demonstration system for the final focus systems required to deliver the particle beams to collision at the ILC and CLIC. The ATF2 cavity beam position monitor system is one of the largest of its kind and rivals systems used at free electron lasers. The ATF2 cavity beam position system has achieved a position resolutionof 250 nm (with signal attuenation) and 27 nm (without attenuation). The BPM system has been used routinely for lattice diagnostics, beam based alignment and wakefield measurements. Extensive experience...

  13. Tritium Monitoring in the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) is designed to operate with negative ion neutral injectors in order to provide the required beam power and efficiency. The operation of the neutral beam test bed involves the firing of a beam of deuterons into a calorimeter. The deuterons will become embedded in the calorimeter and subsequent particles can be involved in deuterium fusion reactions. There are two branches of this reaction which have approximately equal probability. These are: D + D → 3He + n D + D → 3H + p Because of this relationship, it is possible to estimate the level of tritium production accurately by measuring the neutron production. The proposed testing campaign will generate an annual tritium discharge to the atmosphere of about 246 GBq. An absolutely calibrated neutron monitor is needed for tritium accounting but difficulties arise because the neutron source is complex: it is spatially extended and varying and is anisotropic. Furthermore the material of the injector will cause significant scattering of neutrons between the source and any detector. To resolve these problems it is proposed that a set of detectors is deployed around the injector and that a neutron source be placed within the injector is used to calibrate them. Very detailed Monte-Carlo calculations have been carried out to model the neutron transport thought the NBTF. All major component of the injector have been modelled. These include the calorimeter, the residual ion dump, the neutraliser, the beam source, the HV bushing and the vacuum vessel. The spatial variation of the neutron source, based on the deuteron deposition on the calorimeter and the residual ion dump has been simulated. The effects of anisotropy and the angular dependence of the neutron energy spectrum have been included. The calculations demonstrate that such a suite of detectors can be calibrated using a 252Cf source to absolutely determine the neutron and therefore the tritium production to an

  14. Cryogenic actuator testing for the SAFARI ground calibration setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Eggens, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Detrain, A.; Smit, H.; Dieleman, P.

    2012-09-01

    For the on-ground calibration setup of the SAFARI instrument cryogenic mechanisms are being developed at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, including a filter wheel, XYZ-scanner and a flipmirror mechanism. Due to the extremely low background radiation requirement of the SAFARI instrument, all of these mechanisms will have to perform their work at 4.5 Kelvin and low-dissipative cryogenic actuators are required to drive these mechanisms. In this paper, the performance of stepper motors, piezoelectric actuators and brushless DC-motors as cryogenic actuators are compared. We tested stepper motor mechanical performance and electrical dissipation at 4K. The actuator requirements, test setup and test results are presented. Furthermore, design considerations and early performance tests of the flipmirror mechanism are discussed. This flipmirror features a 102 x 72 mm aluminum mirror that can be rotated 45°. A Phytron stepper motor with reduction gearbox has been chosen to drive the flipmirror. Testing showed that this motor has a dissipation of 49mW at 4K with a torque of 60Nmm at 100rpm. Thermal modeling of the flipmirror mechanism predicts that with proper thermal strapping the peak temperature of the flipmirror after a single action will be within the background level requirements of the SAFARI instrument. Early tests confirm this result. For low-duty cycle operations commercial stepper motors appear suitable as actuators for test equipment in the SAFARI on ground calibration setup.

  15. Characterization of X-ray beams by attenuation method for personnel dosemeters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been used the attenuation method to characterize the X rays beams used for calibration of personal dosemeters at Calibration and Dosimetry Laboratory of Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). Voltages applied to the X ray tube and the additional filters have been made according to publication ANSI No.13. Half value layer, the homogeneity coefficient and mean energy were determined from attenuation data. Average relative differences of 3, 40 and 4 % respectively were found with respect to values published in ANSI No.13. Also spectral distributions and their resolutions were determined. Relative differences of 16 and 9% respectively were found in comparison with values calculated by the Montecarlo's Method. (author)

  16. The results of IAEA/WHO TLD audit of telegammatherapy units radiation beam calibration quality at medical establishments of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of TLD audit carried out by IAEA/WHO in Ukraine in 1998-2008 showed that the quality of radiation beam calibration of a significant number of units for distance gamma-therapy was unsatisfactory. The errors in absorbed dose delivery exceeded ± 5 %. These were associated with the use of old dosimetry equipment, absence or low qualification of medical of medical physicists as well as with the mistakes at metrology testing of gamma-therapy units. Creation of national center for TLD audit is necessary.

  17. Optical calibration and test of the VLT Deformable Secondary Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando; Andrighettoni, Mario; Pescoller, Dietrich; Biasi, Roberto; Gallieni, Daniele; Vernet, Elise; Kolb, Johann; Arsenault, Robin; Madec, Pierre-Yves

    2013-12-01

    The Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) for the VLT (ESO) represents the state-of-art of the large-format deformable mirror technology with its 1170 voice-coil actuators and its internal metrology based on actuator co-located capacitive sensors to control the shape of the 1.12m-diameter 2mm-thick convex shell. The present paper reports the results of the optical characterization of the mirror unit with the ASSIST facility located at ESO-Garching and executed in a collaborative effort by ESO, INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the DSM manufacturing companies (Microgate s.r.l. and A.D.S. International s.r.l.). The main purposes of the tests are the optical characterization of the shell flattening residuals, the corresponding calibration of flattening commands, the optical calibration of the capacitive sensors and the optical calibration of the mirror influence functions. The results are used for the optical acceptance of the DSM and to allow the next test phase coupling the DSM with the wave-front sensor modules of the new Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF) of ESO.

  18. ALICE Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), test beam.

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Electrons and positrons can be discriminated from other charged particles using the emission of transition radiation - X-rays emitted when the particles cross many layers of thin materials. To develop such a Transition Radiation Detector(TRD) for ALICE many detector prototypes were tested in mixed beams of pions and electrons, as in the example shown here.

  19. The beam-based calibration of an X-ray pinhole camera at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Yong-Bin; HUANG Guo-Qing; ZHANG Man-Zhou; CHEN Zhi-Chu; CHEN Jie; YE Kai-Rong

    2012-01-01

    A pinhole camera for imaging X-ray synchrotron radiation from a dipole magnet is now in operation at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) storage ring.The electron beam size is derived by unfolding the radiation image and the point spread function (PSF) with deconvolution techniques.The performance of the pinhole is determined by the accuracy of the PSF measurement.This article will focus on a beam-based calibration scheme to measure the PSF system by varying the beam images with different quadrupole settings and fitting them with the corresponding theoretical beam sizes.Applying this method at SSRF,the PSF value of the pinhole is revised from 37 to 44 μm.The deviation in beam size between the theoretical value and the measured value is minimized to 4% after calibration.This optimization allows us to observe the horizontal disturbance due to injection down to as small as 0.5 μm.

  20. Quality assurance network in Central Europe: External audit on output calibration for photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The EROPAQ project for TLD audit of photon beams in radiotherapy centres of Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland started in June 1994. The acceptance level of ±3% was set for the TLD intercomparisons. The policy of the project was to check all beams in 47 participating radiotherapy centres and to recheck all the beams in those centres, where a deviation exceeding ±3% occurred in one or more of the beams. Out of 129 beams checked, 100 beams (78%) were found within the ±3% limit. Eleven beams show deviations larger than ±6%, and immediate corrective action was undertaken. Out of 47 centres checked, 22 did not participate in any external audit in a preceding 5 years. In these centres 68% ((34(50))) of the total number of γ and X-ray beams checked but only 59% ((20(34))) of γ beams were within the acceptance level, while in the 25 centres, which participated in an external audit before, these figures were 84% ((66(79))) and 88% ((35(40))), respectively. The sources of discrepancies were investigated, discussed with the participants and the errors corrected. Poor results were in several cases associated with very old design of radiotherapy units and old dosimetry systems, equipped with inadequate ionization chambers. In several centres, an insufficient training of the physicists in clinical dosimetry was observed. Thanks to the corrective action, a great improvement of calibration of the beams was achieved. Standard deviation of the distribution of the results for all X and γ beams checked decreased from SD = 7.4% in the first check to SD = 2.5% in the second check

  1. Cherenkov counter for particle identification test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cherenkov counter used for selecting electrons of the test beam has been studied in this article. The design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the Cherenkov counter are described. And the performance of this counter is measured. The CO2 gas is used as Cherenkov radiator, the XP2020Q photomultiplier is applied for recording signals of the Cherenkov light. The (99.0±0.5)% efficiency of the electron selection has been reached

  2. Calibration of a Non-Linear Beam Position Monitor Electronics by Switching Electrode Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Gasior, M

    2013-01-01

    Button electrode signals from beam position monitors embedded into new LHC collimators will be individually processed with front-end electronics based on compensated diode detectors and digitized with 24-bit audio-range ADCs. This scheme allows sub-micrometre beam orbit resolution to be achieved with simple hardware and no external timing. As the diode detectors only operate in a linear regime with large amplitude signals, offset errors of the electronics cannot be calibrated in the classical way with no input. This paper describes the algorithms developed to calibrate the offset and gain asymmetry of these nonlinear electronic channels. Presented algorithm application examples are based on measurements performed with prototype diode orbit systems installed on the CERN SPS and LHC machines.

  3. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, Katherine, E-mail: kgagnon1@ualberta.c [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton PET Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Jensen, Mikael; Thisgaard, Helge [Hevesy Laboratory, Risoe-DTU, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Publicover, Julia; Lapi, Suzanne [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); McQuarrie, Steve A. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton PET Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Ruth, Thomas J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This work recommends a new and simple-to-perform method for measuring the beam energy of an accelerator. The proposed method requires the irradiation of two monitor foils interspaced by an energy degrader. The primary advantage of the proposed method, which makes this method unique from previous energy evaluation strategies that employ the use of monitor foils, is that this method is independent of the detector efficiency calibration. This method was evaluated by performing proton activation of {sup nat}Cu foils using both a cyclotron and a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies.

  4. A new and simple calibration-independent method for measuring the beam energy of a cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine; Jensen, Mikael; Thisgaard, Helge; Publicover, Julia; Lapi, Suzanne; McQuarrie, Steve A; Ruth, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    This work recommends a new and simple-to-perform method for measuring the beam energy of an accelerator. The proposed method requires the irradiation of two monitor foils interspaced by an energy degrader. The primary advantage of the proposed method, which makes this method unique from previous energy evaluation strategies that employ the use of monitor foils, is that this method is independent of the detector efficiency calibration. This method was evaluated by performing proton activation of (nat)Cu foils using both a cyclotron and a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. The monitor foil activities were read using a dose calibrator set to an arbitrary calibration setting. Excellent agreement was noted between the nominal and measured proton energies. PMID:20926304

  5. Automatic calibration and signal switching system for the particle beam fusion research data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes both the hardware and software components of an automatic calibration and signal system (Autocal) for the data acquisition system for the Sandia particle beam fusion research accelerators Hydra, Proto I, and Proto II. The Autocal hardware consists of off-the-shelf commercial equipment. The various hardware components, special modifications and overall system configuration are described. Special software has been developed to support the Autocal hardware. Software operation and maintenance are described

  6. Laser Tracker Calibration - Testing the Angle Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physics experiments at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) usually require high accuracy positioning, e. g. 100 (micro)m over a distance of 150 m or 25 (micro)m in a 10 x 10 x 3 meter volume. Laser tracker measurement systems have become one of the most important tools for achieving these accuracies when mapping components. The accuracy of these measurements is related to the manufacturing tolerances of various individual components, the resolutions of measurement systems, the overall precision of the assembly, and how well imperfections can be modeled. As with theodolites and total stations, one can remove the effects of most assembly and calibration errors by measuring targets in both direct and reverse positions and computing the mean to obtain the result. However, this approach does not compensate for errors originating from the encoder system. In order to improve and gain a better understanding of laser tracker angle measurement tolerances we extended our laboratory's capabilities with the addition of a horizontal angle calibration test stand. This setup is based on the use of a high precision rotary table providing an angular accuracy of better than 0.2 arcsec. Presently, our setup permits only tests of the horizontal angle measurement system. A test stand for vertical angle calibration is under construction. Distance measurements (LECOCQ and FUSS, 2000) are compared to an interferometer bench for distances of up to 32 m. Together both tests provide a better understanding of the instrument and how it should be operated. The observations also provide a reasonable estimate of covariance information of the measurements according to their actual performance for network adjustments

  7. Characterization of a tagged $\\gamma$-ray beam line at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Buonomo, B; Chen, A W; D’Ammando, F; FoggettA, L; Froysland, T; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mazzitelli, G; Pellizzoni, A; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Quintieri, L; Rappoldi, A; Tavani, M; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Valente, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cocco, V; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Porrovecchio, G; Rapisarda, M; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Zanello, D; Colafrancesco, S; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

    2012-01-01

    At the core of the AGILE scientific instrument, designed to operate on a satellite, there is the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) consisting of a Silicon Tracker (ST), a Cesium Iodide Mini-Calorimeter and an Anti-Coincidence system of plastic scintillator bars. The ST needs an on-ground calibration with a γ-ray beam to validate the simulation used to calculate the energy response function and the effective area versus the energy and the direction of the γ rays. A tagged γ-ray beam line was designed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF), based on an electron beam generating γ-rays through bremsstrahlung in a position-sensitive target. The γ-ray energy is deduced by difference with the post-bremsstrahlung electron energy [1] and [2]. The electron energy is measured by a spectrometer consisting of a dipole magnet and an array of position sensitive silicon strip detectors, the Photon Tagging System (PTS). The use of the combined BTF-PTS system as tagged photon be...

  8. Calibration of voltage transformer test set using an error simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A portable error simulator using a simple voltage divider consisting of a resistor and capacitor in series was developed. The error simulator was applied to the calibration of several commercial current-comparator-based voltage transformer test sets and covered the ratio error and phase errors with ranges up to about  ±10% and  ±14 crad, respectively. From the calculated and measured values of corresponding readings, the errors in the ratio and phase readings are derived with measurement uncertainty and compared with the accuracy provided by the manufacturer. (paper)

  9. SOFIA tracking subsystem: results of assembly, operation, and calibration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Hermann; Erdmann, Matthias; Schmolke, Juergen; Lattner, Klaus; Levin, Torsten; Erhard, Markus

    2003-02-01

    The SOFIA airborne telescope has a Tracking Subsystem for stellar acquisition, tracking, and pointing. The system has three high-performance imagers: the boresighted wide field (6 degrees FOV) and fine field imagers (70 arcminutes FOV), and the main-telescope-optics sharing focal plane imager (8 arcminutes FOV). The imagers are controlled by 3 CCD head controllers, an overall imager controller, and a tracker controller providing the tracking error signals from the objects observed by the imagers. There have been several test steps in the assembly, integration, and verification of the Tracking Subsystem. The paper presents the fully integrated system as actually built, the results of the thermal-vacuum and vibration tests of the fine field imager, the tested operational/functional S/W performance, as well as the results of the geometric and radiometric calibrations of the imagers.

  10. Evaluation of two water-equivalent phantom materials for output calibration of photon and electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two commercially available water-equivalent solid phantom materials were evaluated for output calibration in both photon (6-15 MV) and electron (6-20 MeV) beams. The solid water 457 and virtual water materials have the same chemical composition but differ in manufacturing process and density. A Farmer-type ionization chamber was used for measuring the output of the photon beams at 5- and 10-cm depth and electron beams at maximum buildup depth in the solid phantoms and in natural water. The water-equivalency correction factor for the solid materials is defined as the ratio of the chamber reading in natural water to that in the solid at the same linear depth. For photon beams, the correction factor was found to be independent of depth and was 0.987 and 0.993 for 6- and 15-MV beams, respectively, for solid water. For virtual water, the corresponding correction factors were 0.993 and 0.998 for 6- and 15-MV beams, respectively. For electron beams, the correction factors ranged from 1.013 to 1.007 for energies of 6 to 20 MeV for both solid materials. This indicated that the water-equivalency of these materials is within ± 1.3%, making them suitable substitutes for natural water in both photon and electron beam output measurements over a wide energy range. These correction factors are slightly larger than the manufacturers' advertised values (± 1.0% for solid water and ± 0.5% for virtual water). We suggest that these corrections are large enough in most cases and should be applied in the calculation of beam outputs

  11. The hadron calorimeter prototype beam-test results

    CERN Document Server

    Coca, C; Rosca, A; Ajinenko, I; Dorokhov, A E; Dzhelyadin, R I; Konoplyannikov, A K; Matveev, V; Novikov, V; Yushchenko, O P; Ranyuk, Y

    2000-01-01

    Here We present here the beam-test results obtained with the HCAL Prototype exposed on the X7 beam line of the CERN SPS accelerator. The iron plate: - scintillator tile sampling calorimeter has been tested in the bearn momenta range 10 = 80 GeV/c. The measured energy, angular and coordinate dependences of the HCAL responce and resolution were found to be corresponding to the LHCb design requirements. The angular and X-Y coordinate uniformity have been checked and compared with stand-alone Monte-Carlo simulation program predictions. The radioactive source calibration procedure has been developed. The LED pulse system allows to monitor the short-term stability of the detector. New 40 MHz front-end electronics have been tested and compared with ordinary charge integrating ADC's. The results of the first combined calorimeter tests are also presented. The signal shapes have been studied for FICA L., instrumented with different fiber types and were found to satisfy the I,IICb performance requirements.

  12. Symmetry tests with intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Government of Canada has pulled the plug on funding of the KAON facility in Canada. But the science opportunities for symmetry tests with the kinds of beams that KAON would have provided remain. For example, the full intensity of kaons, which KAON would have provided, is needed to find the magnitude and phase of Vtd and therefore to describe direct CP violation. The combination of K+ → π+νν- and KLo → πoνν- serve this purpose. A variety of other symmetry tests are possible with the kind of intense beams of kaons, antinucleons, other hadrons and neutrinos which KAON would have provided. A perspective will be given for such experiments and their future prospects, now that KAON will not be built. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Heavy ion beam probe coordinate mapping and calibration at WEGA stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) is an established nonperturbing diagnostic for high spatially and temporary resolved measurements of magnetically confined plasma parameters such as potential, density, and temperature. These quantities can be determined from the change in the ion beam parameters (charge, intensity, and trajectory) passing through a plasma volume due to collisions with electrons and interaction with the confining magnetic field. One of the problems that should be solved during HIBP installation and tuning is the coordinate matching. Conventionally the coordinate mapping of the HIBP measurement point is provided by ray tracing calculations of the ion beam in the magnetic field. However, it is very difficult to include all physical effects and uncertainties in the model. Thus, the result of the calculations may differ from the real probing position. In order to improve the mapping precision of the HIBP installed at the WEGA stellarator an additional measurement of the beam position is provided using a primary beam detector array inside the vacuum vessel. This allows comparing the measured and calculated ion beam positions in order to prove the calculated coordinate precision and include adjustments in the calculation code if necessary. The principle and the results of this calibration, which is not specific to WEGA but could be adapted to other experiments as well, are presented in this work.

  14. Construction, calibration and testing of a micro-combustion calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An isoperibolic micro-combustion calorimeter was designed, built and set up in our laboratory, taking as base a 1107 Parr combustion bomb of 22 cm3 of volume. Taken into account the geometrical form of the bomb, it was designed and constructed a vessel and a submarine chamber in brass. All of the pieces of the calorimeter were chromium-plated to reduce heat loss by radiation. The calorimeter was calibrated by using pellets of standard benzoic acid (mass approximate of 40 mg) leading to the energy equivalent of ε(calor) = (1283.8 ± 0.6) J . K-1. In order to test the calorimeter, combustion experiments of salicylic acid were performed leading to a value of combustion energy of Δc u 0 = -(21,888.8 ± 10.9) J . g-1, which agrees with the reported literature values. The combustion of piperonylic acid was carried out as a further test leading to a value of combustion energy of Δc u 0 = -(20,215.9 ± 10.4) J . g-1 in accordance with the reported literature value. The uncertainty of the calibration and the combustion of salicylic acid and piperonylic acid was 0.05%

  15. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  16. Design and Calibration Tests of an Active Sound Intensity Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kletschkowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an active sound intensity probe that can be used for sound source localization in standing wave fields. The probe consists of a sound hard tube that is terminated by a loudspeaker and an integrated pair of microphones. The microphones are used to decompose the standing wave field inside the tube into its incident and reflected part. The latter is cancelled by an adaptive controller that calculates proper driving signals for the loudspeaker. If the open end of the actively controlled tube is placed close to a vibrating surface, the radiated sound intensity can be determined by measuring the cross spectral density between the two microphones. A one-dimensional free field can be realized effectively, as first experiments performed on a simplified test bed have shown. Further tests proved that a prototype of the novel sound intensity probe can be calibrated.

  17. Absorbed dose calibration factors for parallel-plate chambers in high energy photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was carried out into the performance of parallel-plate chambers in 60Co and MV photon beams. The aim was to derive calibration factors, investigate chamber-to-chamber variability and provide much-needed information on the use of parallel-plate chambers in high-energy X-ray beams. A set of NE2561/NE2611 reference chambers, calibrated against the primary standard graphite calorimeter is used for the dissemination of absorbed dose to water. The parallel-plate chambers were calibrated by comparison with the NPL reference chambers in a water phantom. Two types of parallel-plate chamber were investigated - the NACP -02 and Roos and measurements were made at 60C0 and 6 linac photon energies (6-19 MV). Calibration factors were derived together with polarity corrections. The standard uncertainty in the calibration of a chamber in terms of absorbed dose to water is estimated to be ±0.75%. The results of the polarity measurements were somewhat confusing. One would expect the correction to be small and previous measurements in electron beams have indicated that there is little variation between chambers of these types. However, some chambers gave unexpectedly large polarity corrections, up to 0.8%. By contrast the measured polarity correction for a NE2611 chamber was less than 0.13% at all energies. The reason for these large polarity corrections is not clear, but experimental error and linac variations have been ruled out. By combining the calibration data for the different chambers it was possible to obtain experimental kQ factors for the two chamber types. It would appear from the data that the variations between chambers of the same type are random and one can therefore define a generic curve for each chamber type. These are presented in Figure 1, together with equivalent data for two cylindrical chamber types - NE2561/NE2611 and NE2571. As can be seen, there is a clear difference between the curves for the cylindrical chambers and those for the parallel

  18. Sensitivity and offset calibration for the beam position monitors at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam position monitors (BPMs) play a critically important role in commissioning and operation of accelerators. Accurate determination of the offsets relative to the magnetic axis and sensitivities of individual BPMs is thus needed. We will describe in this paper the schemes for calibrating all of the 360 BPMs for sensitivity and offset in the 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring and the results. For the sensitivity calibration, a 2-dimensional map of the BPM response in the aluminum vacuum chamber is obtained theoretically, which is combined with the measured nonlinear response of the BPM electronics. A set of 2-dimensional polynomial coefficients is then obtained to approximate the result analytically. The offset calibration of the BPMs is done relative to the magnetic axis of the quadrupoles using the beam. This avoids the problem arising from various mechanical sources as well as the offset in the processing electronics. The measurement results for the resolution and long-term drift of the BPM electronics shows 0.06-μm/√Hz resolution and 2-μm/hr drift over a period of 1.5 hrs

  19. Self-calibration of a cone-beam micro-CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming more frequent. For proper reconstruction, the geometry of the CBCT systems must be known. While the system can be designed to reduce errors in the geometry, calibration measurements must still be performed and corrections applied. Investigators have proposed techniques using calibration objects for system calibration. In this study, the authors present methods to calibrate a rotary-stage CB micro-CT (CBμCT) system using only the images acquired of the object to be reconstructed, i.e., without the use of calibration objects. Projection images are acquired using a CBμCT system constructed in the authors' laboratories. Dark- and flat-field corrections are performed. Exposure variations are detected and quantified using analysis of image regions with an unobstructed view of the x-ray source. Translations that occur during the acquisition in the horizontal direction are detected, quantified, and corrected based on sinogram analysis. The axis of rotation is determined using registration of antiposed projection images. These techniques were evaluated using data obtained with calibration objects and phantoms. The physical geometric axis of rotation is determined and aligned with the rotational axis (assumed to be the center of the detector plane) used in the reconstruction process. The parameters describing this axis agree to within 0.1 mm and 0.3 deg with those determined using other techniques. Blurring due to residual calibration errors has a point-spread function in the reconstructed planes with a full-width-at-half-maximum of less than 125 μm in a tangential direction and essentially zero in the radial direction for the rotating object. The authors have used this approach on over 100 acquisitions over the past 2 years and have regularly obtained high-quality reconstructions, i.e., without artifacts and no detectable blurring of the reconstructed objects. This self-calibrating approach not only obviates

  20. The role of a certified calibration laboratory in a station's measuring and test equipment calibration, repair, and documentation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper outlines the role of a Certified Calibration Laboratory in- ensuring that the requirements of Measuring and Test Equipment calibration, identification, and traceability are met and documented. The Nuclear environment is one which is subject to influences from numerous 'quality agents'. One of the fields which comes under the scrutiny of the quality agents is that of equipment calibration and repair (both field components and M and TE). There is a responsibility to produce a superior product for the Ontario Consumer. The maintenance and calibration of Station Systems and their components have a direct impact on this output. The Measuring and Test Equipment element in each of these needs can be addressed by having a defined group of Maintenance Staff to execute a Measuring and Test Equipment Program which meets specific parameters. (author)

  1. Pixel-Tilecal-MDT Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    B. Di Girolamo

    A test with many expectations When an additional week of running (from September 11th to 18th) was allocated for the test-beam, it was decided to give priority to a combined run with the participation of the Pixel, Tilecal and MDT sub-detectors. The integration of these three sub-detectors was possible as they all use the baseline (DAQ-1/EF based) DAQ for test beams (as reported in a previous e-news). The tests and the addition of a common trigger and busy were organized in a short timescale by experts from the three sub-detectors and DAQ/EF. The expectations were many; both looking for problems and finding solutions. The setup The setup, shown in the figure, consisted of the Pixel telescope normally used during the sub-detector tests, two Tilecal barrel modules, two Tilecal extended barrel modules, and six MDT barrel chambers. This fully occupied a length of some 30 meters in the H8 line of the SPS North Area. Each sub-detector used their own specialized front-end electronics. The data collected by modu...

  2. The system test of the ZEUS microvertex detector: calibration and digitisation of the detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the shut-down of the electron-proton collider HERA at DESY in Hamburg in the years 2000/2001, the new silicon strip vertex detector MVD has been installed into the ZEUS experiment to achieve a higher quality in the reconstruction of particle tracks. Before its installation, the MVD and all associated hard- and software components have been tested. The objectives of this test - the so-called ''system test'' - were to investigate the performance of the detector and to check the stability and interplay of all components and the monitoring systems. In this thesis, the online software to calibrate the detector signals and to store and monitor the calibration parameters has been developed. Furthermore the stability of the calibration parameters over the system test running period has been investigated. In addition, the simulation of the analog detector signals (digitisation) has been worked out, and the simulated signals have been compared with the real detector response. After a short introduction into the HERA collider and the ZEUS experiment in Chap. 1, the principles of silicon strip detectors are exposed in Chap. 2. Chap. 3 describes the layout of the MVD in detail, and an overview of the data acquisition system is given. Some results of previous measurements on single silicon strip detectors of the MVD obtained with an electron test beam, which are relevant for this thesis, are summarised. The aims and the set-up of the system test are described in Chap. 4. Then results of analyses on the system test data are presented, which have been obtained in parallel to the work of this thesis. The calibration of the detector signals is described in detail in Chap. 5. After an introduction into the meaning and the calculation of the calibration parameters, the methods to obtain, monitor and store them are explained. Also an analysis is introduced, which studies the stability of the calibration parameters. Overall 98% of all MVD channels operate reliably. The signal

  3. Analytic Method Based on Identification of Ellipse Parameters for Scanner Calibration in Cone-Beam Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noo, F.; Clackdoyle, R.; Mennessier, C.; White, Timothy Andrew; Roney, Timothy Joseph

    2000-11-01

    This paper is about calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners for both x-ray computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Scanner calibration refers here to the estimation of a set of parameters which fully describe the geometry of data acquisition. Such parameters are needed for the tomographic reconstruction step. The discussion is limited to the usual case where the cone vertex and planar detector move along a circular path relative to the object. It is also assumed that the detector does not have spatial distortions. We propose a new method which requires a small set of measurements of a simple calibration object consisting of two spherical objects, that can be considered as `point' objects. This object traces two ellipses on the detector and from the parametric description of these ellipses, the calibration geometry can be determined analytically using explicit formulae. The method is robust and easy to implement. However, it is not fully general as it is assumed that the detector is parallel to the rotation axis of the scanner. Implementation details are given for an experimental x-ray CB scanner.

  4. Analytic method based on identification of ellipse parameters for scanner calibration in cone-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners for both x-ray computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Scanner calibration refers here to the estimation of a set of parameters which fully describe the geometry of data acquisition. Such parameters are needed for the tomographic reconstruction step. The discussion is limited to the usual case where the cone vertex and planar detector move along a circular path relative to the object. It is also assumed that the detector does not have spatial distortions. We propose a new method which requires a small set of measurements of a simple calibration object consisting of two spherical objects, that can be considered as 'point' objects. This object traces two ellipses on the detector and from the parametric description of these ellipses, the calibration geometry can be determined analytically using explicit formulae. The method is robust and easy to implement. However, it is not fully general as it is assumed that the detector is parallel to the rotation axis of the scanner. Implementation details are given for an experimental x-ray CB scanner. (author)

  5. Analytic method based on identification of ellipse parameters for scanner calibration in cone-beam tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noo, Frederic [Institut d' Electricite Montefiore, Universite de Liege (Belgium); Department of Radiology, University of Utah (United States). E-mail: noo at montefiore.ulg.ac.be; Clackdoyle, Rolf [Department of Radiology, University of Utah (United States); Mennessier, Catherine [Universite J. Fourier, Grenoble (France); White, Timothy A.; Roney, Timothy J. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (United States)

    2000-11-01

    This paper is about calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners for both x-ray computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Scanner calibration refers here to the estimation of a set of parameters which fully describe the geometry of data acquisition. Such parameters are needed for the tomographic reconstruction step. The discussion is limited to the usual case where the cone vertex and planar detector move along a circular path relative to the object. It is also assumed that the detector does not have spatial distortions. We propose a new method which requires a small set of measurements of a simple calibration object consisting of two spherical objects, that can be considered as 'point' objects. This object traces two ellipses on the detector and from the parametric description of these ellipses, the calibration geometry can be determined analytically using explicit formulae. The method is robust and easy to implement. However, it is not fully general as it is assumed that the detector is parallel to the rotation axis of the scanner. Implementation details are given for an experimental x-ray CB scanner. (author)

  6. Analytic method based on identification of ellipse parameters for scanner calibration in cone-beam tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noo, F; Clackdoyle, R; Mennessier, C; White, T A; Roney, T J

    2000-11-01

    This paper is about calibration of cone-beam (CB) scanners for both x-ray computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Scanner calibration refers here to the estimation of a set of parameters which fully describe the geometry of data acquisition. Such parameters are needed for the tomographic reconstruction step. The discussion is limited to the usual case where the cone vertex and planar detector move along a circular path relative to the object. It is also assumed that the detector does not have spatial distortions. We propose a new method which requires a small set of measurements of a simple calibration object consisting of two spherical objects, that can be considered as 'point' objects. This object traces two ellipses on the detector and from the parametric description of these ellipses, the calibration geometry can be determined analytically using explicit formulae. The method is robust and easy to implement. However, it is not fully general as it is assumed that the detector is parallel to the rotation axis of the scanner. Implementation details are given for an experimental x-ray CB scanner. PMID:11098919

  7. Calibration and performance test results of uranium lung counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A uranium lung counter specially designed for assessment of internal contamination has recently been added to the Health Physics Department of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. The counting chamber is constructed of 10 cm low background steel plate for walls, floor and ceiling. The interior is covered with stainless steel liner. The internal dimensions of the counting chamber are 213 cm W x 86 cm D x 137 cm H. The detection system consists of four LEGe detection, and each detector equipped with 0.5 mm Be window has active area of 20 cm2 and thickness of 20 mm. The counter was calibrated by means of the LLNL phantom with lung source sets containing 241Am and 152Eu. Values of MDA based on a 30 minute count of non-contaminated person with 2.2 cm chest wall thickness at 95% confidence level were found to be 5 Bq for 185.7 keV from 235U, and 69 Bq for 63.3 keV form 234Th and 97 Bq for 92.8 keV from 234Th, respectively. In addition to calibration, test for evaluating the performance of the counter in terms of bias and precision was also performed with the LLNL phantom and lung source sets containing 235U and 234Th. The results were within the acceptable limits. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintao Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The quality of Computed Tomography (CT images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration.

  9. X-ray beams characterization by the attenuation method for the personal dosemeters calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of the attenuation method to characterize the x-ray beams used in the calibration of personal dosemeters at the Calibration and Dosimetry Laboratory of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN). Voltages applied to the X-ray tube and the addition of filters have been made according to the publication ANSI No. 13. Half value layer, homogeneity coefficient and mean energy were determined from attenuation data. Average relative differences of 3, 40 and 4% respectively were found with respect to values published in ANSI No. 13. Also spectral distributions and their resolutions were determined. relative differences of 6 and 19% respectively were found in comparison with values calculated by the Monte Carlo Method

  10. Activity calibration in breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some technical and measurement problems of the breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori are briefly discussed. Calibrated results obtained for population of 108 cases indicate difference between HP+ (infected with Helicobacter pylori) and HP- (non infected with Helicobacter pylori) in exhaled 14C activity not less than 3.9 kBq while the lower limit for HP+ cases was set at 6.8 kBq at the detection limit: 0.9 Bq/mmol of CO2. It was estimated that in exhalation way up to 29% of the taken activity was removed in HP+ cases during first 35 minutes. Radiation hazard for the patient system is negligibly small - dose equipment not exceeds 0.29% of the natural (environmental) yearly exposure. (author)

  11. An optimization-based method for geometrical calibration in cone-beam CT without dedicated phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, D.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Moehrs, S.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present a new method for the determination of geometrical misalignments in cone-beam CT scanners, from the analysis of the projection data of a generic object. No a priori knowledge of the object shape and positioning is required. We show that a cost function, which depends on the misalignment parameters, can be defined using the projection data and that such a cost function has a local minimum in correspondence to the actual parameters of the system. Hence, the calibration of the scanner can be carried out by minimizing the cost function using standard optimization techniques. The method is developed for a particular class of 3D object functions, for which the redundancy of the fan beam sinogram in the transaxial midplane can be extended to cone-beam projection data, even at wide cone angles. The method has an approximated validity for objects which do not belong to that class; in that case, a suitable subset of the projection data can be selected in order to compute the cost function. We show by numerical simulations that our method is capable to determine with high accuracy the most critical misalignment parameters of the scanner, i.e., the transversal shift and the skew of the detector. Additionally, the detector slant can be determined. Other parameters such as the detector tilt, the longitudinal shift and the error in the source-detector distance cannot be determined with our method, as the proposed cost function has a very weak dependence on them. However, due to the negligible influence of these latter parameters in the reconstructed image quality, they can be kept fixed at estimated values in both calibration and reconstruction processes without compromising the final result. A trade-off between computational cost and calibration accuracy must be considered when choosing the data subset used for the computation of the cost function. Results on real data of a mouse femur as obtained with a small animal micro-CT are shown as well, proving

  12. Improved calibration of the nonlinear regime of a single-beam gradient optical trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jamianne C; Lopez, Benjamin J; Campàs, Otger; Valentine, Megan T

    2016-05-15

    We report an improved method for calibrating the nonlinear region of a single-beam gradient optical trap. Through analysis of the position fluctuations of a trapped object that is displaced from the trap center by controlled flow we measure the local trap stiffness in both the linear and nonlinear regimes without knowledge of the magnitude of the applied external forces. This approach requires only knowledge of the system temperature, and is especially useful for measurements involving trapped objects of unknown size, or objects in a fluid of unknown viscosity. PMID:27177009

  13. Precise calibration of LIGO test mass actuators using photon radiation pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Goetz, E; Erickson, S; Savage, R L; González, G; Kawabe, K; Landry, M; Marka, S; O'Reilly, B; Riles, K; Sigg, D; Willems, P

    2009-01-01

    Precise calibration of kilometer-scale interferometric gravitational wave detectors is crucial for source localization and waveform reconstruction. A technique that uses the radiation pressure of a power-modulated auxiliary laser to induce calibrated displacements of one of the ~10 kg arm cavity mirrors, a so-called photon calibrator, has been demonstrated previously and has recently been implemented on the LIGO detectors. In this article, we discuss the inherent precision and accuracy of the LIGO photon calibrators and several improvements that have been developed to reduce the estimated voice coil actuator calibration uncertainties to less than 2 percent (1-sigma). These improvements include accounting for rotation-induced apparent length variations caused by interferometer and photon calibrator beam centering offsets, absolute laser power measurement using temperature-controlled InGaAs photodetectors mounted on integrating spheres and calibrated by NIST, minimizing errors induced by localized elastic defor...

  14. Calibration of Photomultiplier Tubes for the Fluorescence Detector of Telescope Array Experiment using a Rayleigh Scattered Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Kawana, Shingo; Fujii, Toshihiro; Fukushima, Masaki; Inoue, Naoya; Matthews, John N; Ogio, Shoichi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Taketa, Akimichi; Takita, Masato; Thomas, Stan B; Tokuno, Hisao; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Udo, Shigeharu; Wiencke, Lawrence R

    2012-01-01

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.5%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  15. Calibration of photomultiplier tubes for the fluorescence detector of telescope array experiment using a Rayleigh scattered laser beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawana, Shingo, E-mail: kawana@crsgm1.crinoue.phy.saitama-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Toshihiro [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fukushima, Masaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Inoue, Naoya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Matthews, John N. [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Ogio, Shoichi [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sagawa, Hiroyuki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Taketa, Akimichi [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Takita, Masato [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Thomas, Stan B. [Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Tokuno, Hisao [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Interactive Research Center of Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Tsunesada, Yoshiki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Udo, Shigeharu [Kanagawa University, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8624 (Japan); Wiencke, Lawrence R. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2012-07-21

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.2%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  16. Calibration of photomultiplier tubes for the fluorescence detector of telescope array experiment using a Rayleigh scattered laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Shingo; Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Fujii, Toshihiro; Fukushima, Masaki; Inoue, Naoya; Matthews, John N.; Ogio, Shoichi; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Taketa, Akimichi; Takita, Masato; Thomas, Stan B.; Tokuno, Hisao; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Udo, Shigeharu; Wiencke, Lawrence R.

    2012-07-01

    We performed photometric calibration of the PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) and readout electronics used for the new fluorescence detectors of the Telescope Array (TA) experiment using Rayleigh scattered photons from a pulsed nitrogen laser beam. The experimental setup, measurement procedure, and results of calibration are described. The total systematic uncertainty of the calibration is estimated to be 7.2%. An additional uncertainty of 3.7% is introduced by the transport of the calibrated PMTs from the laboratory to the TA experimental site.

  17. Calibration of an Advanced Photon Source linac beam position monitor used for positron position measurement of a beam containing both positrons and electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac beam position monitors can be used to monitor the position of a positron beam also containing electrons. To accomplish this task, both the signal at the bunching frequency of 2856 MHz and the signal at 2 x 2856 MHz are acquired and processed for each stripline. The positron beam position is obtained by forming a linear combination of both 2856- and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline and then performing the standard difference over sum computation. The required linear combination of the 2856- and 5712-MHz signals depends on the electrical calibration of each stripline/cable combination. In this paper, the calibration constants for both 2856-MHz and 5712-MHz signals for each stripline are determined using a pure beam of electrons. The calibration constants are obtained by measuring the 2856- and 5712-MHz stripline signals at various electron beam currents and positions. Finally, the calibration constants measured using electrons are used to determine positron beam position for the mixed beam case

  18. Extrapolation chamber mounted on perspex for calibration of high energy photon and electron beams from a clinical linear accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to establish radiation standards for absorbed doses, for clinical high energy linear accelerator beams. In the nonavailability of a cobalt-60 beam for arriving at Nd, water values for thimble chambers, we investigated the efficacy of perspex mounted extrapolation chamber (EC used earlier for low energy x-rays and beta dosimetry. Extrapolation chamber with facility for achieving variable electrode separations 10.5mm to 0.5mm using micrometer screw was used for calibrations. Photon beams 6 MV and 15 MV and electron beams 6 MeV and 15 MeV from Varian Clinac linacs were calibrated. Absorbed Dose estimates to Perspex were converted into dose to solid water for comparison with FC 65 ionisation chamber measurements in water. Measurements made during the period December 2006 to June 2008 are considered for evaluation. Uncorrected ionization readings of EC for all the radiation beams over the entire period were within 2% showing the consistency of measurements. Absorbed doses estimated by EC were in good agreement with in-water calibrations within 2% for photons and electron beams. The present results suggest that extrapolation chambers can be considered as an independent measuring system for absorbed dose in addition to Farmer type ion chambers. In the absence of standard beam quality (Co-60 radiations as reference Quality for Nd,water the possibility of keeping EC as Primary Standards for absorbed dose calibrations in high energy radiation beams from linacs should be explored. As there are neither Standard Laboratories nor SSDL available in our country, we look forward to keep EC as Local Standard for hospital chamber calibrations. We are also participating in the IAEA mailed TLD intercomparison programme for quality audit of existing status of radiation dosimetry in high energy linac beams. The performance of EC has to be confirmed with cobalt-60 beams by a separate study, as linacs are susceptible for minor

  19. Tests and calibration on ultra violet imaging telescope (UVIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Ghosh, S. K.; Kamath, P. U.; Postma, Joe; Kathiravan, S.; Mahesh, P. K.; Nagbhushana, S.; Navalgund, K. H.; Rajkumar, N.; Rao, M. N.; Sarma, K. S.; Sriram, S.; Stalin, C. S.; Tandon, S. N.

    2012-09-01

    Ultra Violet Imaging Telescope on ASTROSAT Satellite mission is a suite of Far Ultra Violet (FUV; 130 - 180 nm), Near Ultra Violet (NUV; 200 - 300 nm) and Visible band (VIS; 320-550nm) imagers. ASTROSAT is a first multi wavelength mission of INDIA. UVIT will image the selected regions of the sky simultaneously in three channels & observe young stars, galaxies, bright UV Sources. FOV in each of the 3 channels is ~ 28 arc-minute. Targeted angular resolution in the resulting UV images is better than 1.8 arc-second (better than 2.0 arc-second for the visible channel). Two identical co-aligned telescopes (T1, T2) of Ritchey-Chretien configuration (Primary mirror of ~375 mm diameter) collect the celestial radiation and feed to the detector system via a selectable filter on a filter wheel mechanism; gratings are available in the filter wheels of FUV and NUV channels for slit-less low resolution spectroscopy. The detector system for each of the 3 channels is generically identical. One telescope images in the FUV channel, and other images in NUV and VIS channels. One time open-able mechanical cover on each telescope also works as Sun-shield after deployment. We will present the optical tests and calibrations done on the two telescopes. Results on vibrations test and thermo-vacuum tests on the engineering model will also be presented.

  20. Analysis of X-ray beam parameters used to implement reference radiations for calibrating dosimetric systems for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation metrology is the base to achieve reliable dose measurements in all areas; it is also part of the framework of a radiological protection program that requires the use of reliable instruments that comply with standard performance criteria worldwide accepted. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) established the X-ray reference radiations that are recommended to be used for calibrating dosimetric systems for diagnostic dosimetry. In this work, X-ray beam qualities were implemented in the Dosimeter Calibration Laboratory of the Development Centre of Nuclear Technology; the characteristics of the beams were analyzed through the measurement of parameters like inherent tube filtration, beam uniformity; beam field size, energy spectra and peak voltage. The influence of using 99.425% and 99.999% purity filters was also investigated. The first half-value layers and the homogeneity coefficients were measured for the three RQR2, RQR6 and RQR10 IEC beam qualities. An ionization chamber was also calibrated against a standard chamber in all implemented reference radiations and the relevant sources of uncertainties were estimated. Beam parameters were adjusted to comply with IEC standard; the main source of uncertainty during the calibration process was due to the ionization chamber positioning set-up and the purity of the filters did not cause relevant influence on the beam energy spectra. (author)

  1. Available calibration position of TLDs at the ICRU slab for photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoption of the ICRU slab enables several dosimeters to be calibrated at the same time. In order to calibrate all dosimeters mounted at the ICRU slab with the same conversion coefficients, the dosimeters should be positioned at the same irradiation conditions within an agreeable variation. The irradiation conditions can be determined through a radiation quantity that includes incident and backscattered radiations. In this paper, the backscatter factor is employed to quantify the irradiation conditions. If the backscatter factor at the TLD position is the same as that of the TLD at the center of the front surface, the same conversion coefficient can be used for both TLDs because of the same irradiation conditions. In order to examine the irradiation conditions, the backscatter factors at the front surface of the ICRU slab were calculated for photon beams that are parallel and slanted at a 30 deg angle. Distribution of relative backscatter factors to that of the TLD positioned at the center were presented by contours. Consequently, deviations of backscatter factor for nine TLDs were within 3% except photon incidents around 100 keV. It is requested that available positions are refined to calibrate more dosimeters with a conversion coefficient at a time. (author)

  2. Empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) for cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Material-selective imaging using dual energy CT (DECT) relies heavily on well-calibrated material decomposition functions. These require the precise knowledge of the detected x-ray spectra, and even if they are exactly known the reliability of DECT will suffer from scattered radiation. We propose an empirical method to determine the proper decomposition function. In contrast to other decomposition algorithms our empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) technique requires neither knowledge of the spectra nor of the attenuation coefficients. The desired material-selective raw data p1 and p2 are obtained as functions of the measured attenuation data q1 and q2 (one DECT scan=two raw data sets) by passing them through a polynomial function. The polynomial's coefficients are determined using a general least squares fit based on thresholded images of a calibration phantom. The calibration phantom's dimension should be of the same order of magnitude as the test object, but other than that no assumptions on its exact size or positioning are made. Once the decomposition coefficients are determined DECT raw data can be decomposed by simply passing them through the polynomial. To demonstrate EDEC simulations of an oval CTDI phantom, a lung phantom, a thorax phantom and a mouse phantom were carried out. The method was further verified by measuring a physical mouse phantom, a half-and-half-cylinder phantom and a Yin-Yang phantom with a dedicated in vivo dual source micro-CT scanner. The raw data were decomposed into their components, reconstructed, and the pixel values obtained were compared to the theoretical values. The determination of the calibration coefficients with EDEC is very robust and depends only slightly on the type of calibration phantom used. The images of the test phantoms (simulations and measurements) show a nearly perfect agreement with the theoretical μ values and density values. Since EDEC is an empirical technique it inherently compensates for scatter

  3. Beam test performance of the SKIROC2 ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Frisson, T; Anduze, M; Augustin, J.E; Bonis, J; Boudry, V; Bourgeois, C; Brient, J.C; Callier, S; Cerutti, M; Chen, S; Cornat, R; Cornebise, P; Cuisy, D; David, J; De la Taille, C; Dulucq, F; Frotin, M; Gastaldi, F; Ghislain, P; Giraud, J; Gonnin, A; Grondin, D; Guliyev, E; Hostachy, J.Y; Jeans, D; Kamiya, Y; Kawagoe, K; Kozakai, C; Lacour, D; Lavergne, L; Lee, S.H; Magniette, F; Ono, H; Poeschl, R; Rouëné, J; Seguin-Moreau, N; Song, H.S; Sudo, Y; Thiebault, A; Tran, H; Ueno, H; Van der Kolk, N; Yoshioka, T

    2015-01-01

    Beam tests of the first layers of CALICE silicon tungsten ECAL technological prototype were performed in April and July 2012 using 1–6 GeV electron beam at DESY. This paper presents an analysis of the SKIROC2 readout ASIC performance under test beam conditions.

  4. First measurements with the test stand for optical beam tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Christopher; Meusel, Oliver; Ulrich, Ratzinger; Reichau, Hermine

    2011-01-01

    A test stand for optical beam tomography was developed. As a new non-destructive beam-diagnostic system for high current ion beams, the test stand will be installed in the low energy beam transport section (LEBT) of the Frankfurt Neutron Source (FRANZ) behind the chopper system. The test stand consists of a rotatable vacuum chamber with a mounted CCD camera. The maximum rotation angle amounts to 270°. In a first phase the optical beam profile measurement and 3D density reconstruction is teste...

  5. Test Results on the Silicon Pixel Detector for the TTF-FEL Beam Trajectory Monitor

    OpenAIRE

    Hillert, S.; Ischebeck, R.; Müller, U. C.; Roth, S.; Hansen, K.; Holl, P.; Karstensen, S.; Kemmer, J.; Klanner, R.; Lechner, P.; Leenen, M; Ng, J. S. T.; Schmüser, P.; Strüder, L.

    2000-01-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of detector and read-out and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels the 6 keV photons of the manganese K line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: In one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moved across the pixel structure. In the other th...

  6. Comparing calibration methods of electron beams using plane-parallel chambers with absorbed-dose to water based protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent absorbed-dose-based protocols allow for two methods of calibrating electron beams using plane-parallel chambers, one using the ND,wCo for a plane-parallel chamber, and the other relying on cross-calibration of the plane-parallel chamber in a high-energy electron beam against a cylindrical chamber which has an ND,wCo factor. The second method is recommended as it avoids problems associated with the Pwall correction factors at 60Co for plane-parallel chambers which are used in the determination of the beam quality conversion factors. In this article we investigate the consistency of these two methods for the PTW Roos, Scanditronics NACP02, and PTW Markus chambers. We processed our data using both the AAPM TG-51 and the IAEA TRS-398 protocols. Wall correction factors in 60Co beams and absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for 20 MeV electrons were derived for these chambers by cross-calibration against a cylindrical ionization chamber. Systematic differences of up to 1.6% were found between our values of Pwall and those from the Monte Carlo calculations underlying AAPM TG-51, and up to 0.6% when comparing with the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. The differences in Pwall translate directly into differences in the beam quality conversion factors in the respective protocols. The relatively large spread in the experimental data of Pwall, and consequently the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, confirms the importance of the cross-calibration technique when using plane-parallel chambers for calibrating clinical electron beams. We confirmed that for well-guarded plane-parallel chambers, the fluence perturbation correction factor at dmax is not significantly different from the value at dref. For the PTW Markus chamber the variation in the latter factor is consistent with published fits relating it to average energy at depth

  7. A test beam upgrade based on the BEPC-LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of three beam lines, E1, E2 and E3 have based on the LINAC of BEPC. The E1 beam is to be used for intense slow-positron facility. The E2 is a primary positron or electron beam with an energy of 1.3-1.5 GeV. The E3 is a secondary electron or pion test beam with a momentum can be adjustable continuously. The position accuracy of a detected particle is 0.2-0.4 mm with an event rate of 3 - 4 Hz. This beam has been successfully used for some detectors beam test. (author)

  8. Radiotherapy dose calculation on KV cone-beam CT image for lung tumor using the CIRS calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, ChangSheng; Cao, Jianping; Yin, Yong; Zhu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    On-board kilovoltage (KV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are used predominantly for the setup of patients' positioning. The image data can also potentially be used for dose calculation with the precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density). CBCT calibration was analyzed in this study. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for CT and KV CBCT image to dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Two HU-density tables were generated using...

  9. Comparisons of the MINOS near and far detector readout systems at a test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two detectors separated by 734 km. The readout systems used for the two detectors are different and have to be independently calibrated. To verify and make a direct comparison of the calibrated response of the two readout systems, test beam data were acquired using a smaller calibration detector. This detector was simultaneously instrumented with both readout systems and exposed to the CERN PS T7 test beam. Differences in the calibrated response of the two systems are shown to arise from differences in response non-linearity, photomultiplier tube crosstalk, and threshold effects at the few percent level. These differences are reproduced by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to better than 1% and a scheme that corrects for these differences by calibrating the MC to match the data in each detector separately is presented. The overall difference in calorimetric response between the two readout systems is shown to be consistent with zero to a precision of 1.3% in data and 0.3% in MC with no significant energy dependence.

  10. Comparisons of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems at a Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrera, A

    2009-01-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two detectors separated by 734 km. The readout systems used for the two detectors are different and have to be independently calibrated. To verify and make a direct comparison of the calibrated response of the two readout systems, test beam data were acquired using a smaller calibration detector. This detector was simultaneously instrumented with both readout systems and exposed to the CERN PS T7 test beam. Differences in the calibrated response of the two systems are shown to arise from differences in response non-linearity, photomultiplier crosstalk, and threshold effects at the few percent level. These differences are reproduced by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to better than 1% and a scheme that corrects for these differences by calibrating the MC to match the data in each detector separately is presented. The overall difference in calorimetric response between the two readout systems is shown to be consistent with zero to a precision of...

  11. Test Results on the Silicon Pixel Detector for the TTF-FEL Beam Trajectory Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Hillert, S; Müller, U C; Roth, S; Hansen, K; Holl, P; Karstensen, S; Kemmer, J; Klanner, Robert; Lechner, P; Leenen, M; Ng, J S T; Schmüser, P; Strüder, L

    2001-01-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of detector and read-out and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels the 6 keV photons of the manganese K line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: In one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moved across the pixel structure. In the other the detector is scanned using a low-intensity electron beam of an electron microscope. Both methods show that the symmetry axis of the detector defines a straight line within 0.4 microns. The sensitivity of the detector to low energy X-rays is measured using a vacuum ultraviolet beam at the synchrotron light source HASYLAB. Additionally, the electron microscope is used to study the radiation hardness of the detector.

  12. TH-C-BRD-05: Reducing Proton Beam Range Uncertainty with Patient-Specific CT HU to RSP Calibrations Based On Single-Detector Proton Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Beam range uncertainty in proton treatment comes primarily from converting the patient's X-ray CT (xCT) dataset to relative stopping power (RSP). Current practices use a single curve for this conversion, produced by a stoichiometric calibration based on tissue composition data for average, healthy, adult humans, but not for the individual in question. Proton radiographs produce water-equivalent path length (WEPL) maps, dependent on the RSP of tissues within the specific patient. This work investigates the use of such WEPL maps to optimize patient-specific calibration curves for reducing beam range uncertainty. Methods: The optimization procedure works on the principle of minimizing the difference between the known WEPL map, obtained from a proton radiograph, and a digitally-reconstructed WEPL map (DRWM) through an RSP dataset, by altering the calibration curve that is used to convert the xCT into an RSP dataset. DRWMs were produced with Plastimatch, an in-house developed software, and an optimization procedure was implemented in Matlab. Tests were made on a range of systems including simulated datasets with computed WEPL maps and phantoms (anthropomorphic and real biological tissue) with WEPL maps measured by single detector proton radiography. Results: For the simulated datasets, the optimizer showed excellent results. It was able to either completely eradicate or significantly reduce the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) in the WEPL for the homogeneous phantoms (to zero for individual materials or from 1.5% to 0.2% for the simultaneous optimization of multiple materials). For the heterogeneous phantom the RMSE was reduced from 1.9% to 0.3%. Conclusion: An optimization procedure has been designed to produce patient-specific calibration curves. Test results on a range of systems with different complexities and sizes have been promising for accurate beam range control in patients. This project was funded equally by the Engineering and Physical Sciences

  13. Experimental Program for the CLIC test facility 3 test beam line

    CERN Document Server

    Adli, E; Dobert, S; Olvegaard, M; Schulte, D; Syratchev, I; Lillestol, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Test Facility 3 Test Beam Line is the first prototype for the CLIC drive beam decelerator. Stable transport of the drive beam under deceleration is a mandatory component in the CLIC two-beam scheme. In the Test Beam Line more than 50% of the total energy will be extracted from a 150 MeV, 28 A electron drive beam, by the use of 16 power extraction and transfer structures. A number of experiments are foreseen to investigate the drive beam characteristics under deceleration in the Test Beam Line, including beam stability, beam blow up and the efficiency of the power extraction. General benchmarking of decelerator simulation and theory studies will also be performed. Specially designed instrumentation including precision BPMs, loss monitors and a time-resolved spectrometer dump will be used for the experiments. This paper describes the experimental program foreseen for the Test Beam Line, including the relevance of the results for the CLIC decelerator studies.

  14. Last Stand-alone Beam Test of the Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) Finished.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oberlack, H

    One quarter of all 134 HEC modules are tested with electron, pion and muon beams: two "partial HEC wheels", three HEC1 modules and three HEC2 modules, are used in a standard setup using the HEC cryostat in the H6 beam line. The picture shows a view of the set-up in the cryostat during the installation. MC results show that in this setup the energy leakage is well under control - well below 5 %. In addition, the other three quarters of modules are tested in technical cold tests. Using calibration signals, a detailed test of the cabling, cold electronics, crosstalk and noise performance is being done. The beam tests started with four prototype modules per run in '97, when technological optimization was still the key issue. From '98 onwards, modules of the "module 0" type have been tested, typically in two run periods per year. Finally in '99 the series production has started, with first beam test of series modules in 2000. Since then 57 series modules have been cold tested, 24 of them actually in beam tests. T...

  15. Shake Test Results and Dynamic Calibration Efforts for the Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carl R.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the full-scale wind tunnel test of the UH-60A Airloads rotor, a shake test was completed on the Large Rotor Test Apparatus. The goal of the shake test was to characterize the oscillatory response of the test rig and provide a dynamic calibration of the balance to accurately measure vibratory hub loads. This paper provides a summary of the shake test results, including balance, shaft bending gauge, and accelerometer measurements. Sensitivity to hub mass and angle of attack were investigated during the shake test. Hub mass was found to have an important impact on the vibratory forces and moments measured at the balance, especially near the UH-60A 4/rev frequency. Comparisons were made between the accelerometer data and an existing finite-element model, showing agreement on mode shapes, but not on natural frequencies. Finally, the results of a simple dynamic calibration are presented, showing the effects of changes in hub mass. The results show that the shake test data can be used to correct in-plane loads measurements up to 10 Hz and normal loads up to 30 Hz.

  16. Estimation of absorbed dose in clinical radiotherapy linear accelerator beams: effect of ion chamber calibration and long-term stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measured dose in water at reference point in phantom is a primary parameter for planning the treatment monitor units (MU); both in conventional and intensity modulated/image guided treatments. Traceability of dose accuracy therefore still depends mainly on the calibration factor of the ion chamber/dosimeter provided by the accredited Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of laboratories. The data related to Nd,water calibrations, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) postal dose validation, inter-comparison of different dosimeter/electrometers, and validity of Nd,water calibrations obtained from different calibration laboratories were analyzed to find out the extent of accuracy achievable. Nd,w factors in Gray/Coulomb calibrated at IBA, GmBH, Germany showed a mean variation of about 0.2% increase per year in three Farmer chambers, in three subsequent calibrations. Another ion chamber calibrated in different accredited laboratory (PTW, Germany) showed consistent Nd,w for 9 years period. The Strontium-90 beta check source response indicated long-term stability of the ion chambers within 1% for three chambers. Results of IAEA postal TL 'dose intercomparison' for three photon beams, 6 MV (two) and 15 MV (one), agreed well within our reported doses, with mean deviation of 0.03% (SD 0.87%) (n = 9). All the chamber/electrometer calibrated by a single SSDL realized absorbed doses in water within 0.13% standard deviations. However, about 1-2% differences in absorbed dose estimates observed when dosimeters calibrated from different calibration laboratories are compared in solid phantoms. Our data therefore imply that the dosimetry level maintained for clinical use of linear accelerator photon beams are within recommended levels of accuracy and uncertainities are within reported values. (author)

  17. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  18. The 2004 ATLAS Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    The ATLAS CTB Team, .

    2004-01-01

    In the year 2004, ATLAS has been involved in a huge combined test beam (CTB) effort in H8. A complete slice of the barrel detector and of the Muon End-cap has been tested, with the following clear goals: pre-commission the final elements and study the detector performance in a realistic combined data taking. Thanks to this experience, a lot of expertise in the operations has been acquired and much data (~ 4.6 TB of data, ~ 90 million events on castor) has been collected and is already under analysis. The CTB has been characterized by different phases with an incremental presence of sub-detectors modules and associated DAQ infrastructure, as well as incremental improvement of analysis tools for prompt data certification. The physics goals of the CTB have been defined in consultation with the physics coordinator, all the sub-detector representatives and the combined performance group representative. With all these indications, a detailed run plan day-by-day schedule was defined before the CTB start and was foll...

  19. CMS ECAL Intercalibration with Cosmic Rays and 2006 Test Beam Electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Tancini, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) calibration foresees dedicated protocols both before and during the data taking. Up to now test beam electrons and cosmic muons have been used to precalibrate ECAL. During the summer 2006, nine ECAL supermodules have been exposed to a high energy electron beam at the CERN SPS north area facility and the intercalibration coefficients of the 1700 channels have been measured for each supermodule. The reproducibility of the intercalibration has been tested by measuring a supermodule twice. Different calibration methods based either on single crystals or on matrices of crystals energy reconstruction have been used. The intercalibration coefficients obtained have also been compared with those calculated by means of the cosmic ray muons.

  20. Extended calibration range for prompt photon emission in ion beam irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Bellini, F

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the dose delivered during proton and carbon ion therapy is still a matter of research. Among the possible solutions, several exploit the measurement of the single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. To fully characterize such emission the detectors need development, since the energy spectrum spans the range above the MeV that is not traditionally used in medical applications. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the reactions involving gamma production is needed in order to improve the physic models of Monte Carlo codes, relevant for an accurate prediction of the prompt-gamma energy spectrum.This paper describes a calibration technique tailored for the range of energy of interest and reanalyzes the data of the interaction of a 80MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. By adopting the FLUKA simulation with the appropriate calibration and resolution a significant improvement in the agreement between data and simulation is report...

  1. Monte-Carlo investigation of radiation beam quality of the CRNA neutron irradiator for calibration purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazrou, Hakim, E-mail: mazrou_h@crna.d [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Sidahmed, Tassadit [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz, Fanon, B.P. 399, Alger-RP 16000 (Algeria); Allab, Malika [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie de Houari-Boumediene (USTHB), 16111, Alger (Algeria)

    2010-10-15

    An irradiation system has been acquired by the Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA) to provide neutron references for metrology and dosimetry purposes. It consists of an {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide source of 185 GBq (5 Ci) activity inside a cylindrical steel-enveloped polyethylene container with radially positioned beam channel. Because of its composition, filled with hydrogenous material, which is not recommended by ISO standards, we expect large changes in the physical quantities of primary importance of the source compared to a free-field situation. Thus, the main goal of the present work is to fully characterize neutron field of such special delivered set-up. This was conducted by both extensive Monte-Carlo calculations and experimental measurements obtained by using BF{sub 3} and {sup 3}He based neutron area dosimeters. Effects of each component present in the bunker facility of the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) on the energy neutron spectrum have been investigated by simulating four irradiation configurations and comparison to the ISO spectrum has been performed. The ambient dose equivalent rate was determined based upon a correct estimate of the mean fluence to ambient dose equivalent conversion factors at different irradiations positions by means of a 3-D transport code MCNP5. Finally, according to practical requirements established for calibration purposes an optimal irradiation position has been suggested to the SSDL staff to perform, in appropriate manner, their routine calibrations.

  2. Automatic calibration method of voxel size for cone-beam 3D-CT scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a cone-beam three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning system, voxel size is an important indicator to guarantee the accuracy of data analysis and feature measurement based on 3D-CT images. Meanwhile, the voxel size changes with the movement of the rotary stage along X-ray direction. In order to realize the automatic calibration of the voxel size, a new and easily-implemented method is proposed. According to this method, several projections of a spherical phantom are captured at different imaging positions and the corresponding voxel size values are calculated by non-linear least-square fitting. Through these interpolation values, a linear equation is obtained that reflects the relationship between the voxel size and the rotary stage translation distance from its nominal zero position. Finally, the linear equation is imported into the calibration module of the 3D-CT scanning system. When the rotary stage is moving along X-ray direction, the accurate value of the voxel size is dynamically exported. The experimental results prove that this method meets the requirements of the actual CT scanning system, and has virtues of easy implementation and high accuracy. (authors)

  3. Automatic Calibration Method of Voxel Size for Cone-beam 3D-CT Scanning System

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Liu, Yipeng; Men, Fanyong; Li, Xingdong; Liu, Wenli; Wei, Dongbo

    2013-01-01

    For cone-beam three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning system, voxel size is an important indicator to guarantee the accuracy of data analysis and feature measurement based on 3D-CT images. Meanwhile, the voxel size changes with the movement of the rotary table along X-ray direction. In order to realize the automatic calibration of the voxel size, a new easily-implemented method is proposed. According to this method, several projections of a spherical phantom are captured at different imaging positions and the corresponding voxel size values are calculated by non-linear least square fitting. Through these interpolation values, a linear equation is obtained, which reflects the relationship between the rotary table displacement distance from its nominal zero position and the voxel size. Finally, the linear equation is imported into the calibration module of the 3D-CT scanning system, and when the rotary table is moving along X-ray direction, the accurate value of the voxel size is dynamically expo...

  4. The geometric calibration of cone-beam imaging and delivery systems in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, E; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Matsinos, Evangelos

    2006-01-01

    We propose a method to achieve the geometric calibration of cone-beam imaging and delivery systems in radiation therapy; our approach applies to devices where an X-ray source and a flat-panel detector, facing each other, move in circular orbits around the irradiated object. In order to extract the parameters of the geometry from the data, we use a light needle phantom which is easy to manufacture. A model with ten free parameters (spatial lengths and distortion angles) has been put forth to describe the geometry and the mechanical imperfections of the units being calibrated; a few additional parameters are introduced to account for residual effects (small effects which lie beyond our model). The values of the model parameters are determined from one complete scan of the needle phantom via a robust optimisation scheme. The application of this method to two sets of five counterclockwise (ccw) and five clockwise (cw) scans yielded consistent and reproducible results. A number of differences have been observed be...

  5. Extended calibration range for prompt photon emission in ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring the dose delivered during proton and carbon ion therapy is still a matter of research. Among the possible solutions, several exploit the measurement of the single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. To fully characterize such emission the detectors need development, since the energy spectrum spans the range above the MeV that is not traditionally used in medical applications. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the reactions involving gamma production is needed in order to improve the physic models of Monte Carlo codes, relevant for an accurate prediction of the prompt-gamma energy spectrum. This paper describes a calibration technique tailored for the range of energy of interest and reanalyzes the data of the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. By adopting the FLUKA simulation with the appropriate calibration and resolution a significant improvement in the agreement between data and simulation is reported

  6. Extended calibration range for prompt photon emission in ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Boehlen, T.T.; Chin, M.P.W. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Collamati, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); De Lucia, E. [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Faccini, R., E-mail: riccardo.faccini@roma1.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Ferrari, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Lanza, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Mancini-Terracciano, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Marafini, M. [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche “E. Fermi”, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Mattei, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Morganti, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Ortega, P.G. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Patera, V. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Piersanti, L. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, Roma (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell' INFN, Frascati (Italy); Russomando, A. [Center for Life Nano Science@Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Roma (Italy); INFN Sezione di Roma, Roma (Italy); Sala, P.R. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring the dose delivered during proton and carbon ion therapy is still a matter of research. Among the possible solutions, several exploit the measurement of the single photon emission from nuclear decays induced by the irradiation. To fully characterize such emission the detectors need development, since the energy spectrum spans the range above the MeV that is not traditionally used in medical applications. On the other hand, a deeper understanding of the reactions involving gamma production is needed in order to improve the physic models of Monte Carlo codes, relevant for an accurate prediction of the prompt-gamma energy spectrum. This paper describes a calibration technique tailored for the range of energy of interest and reanalyzes the data of the interaction of a 80 MeV/u fully stripped carbon ion beam with a Poly-methyl methacrylate target. By adopting the FLUKA simulation with the appropriate calibration and resolution a significant improvement in the agreement between data and simulation is reported.

  7. Point Cloud Refinement with a Target-Free Intrinsic Calibration of a Mobile Multi-Beam LIDAR System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouiraa, H.; Deschaud, J. E.; Goulettea, F.

    2016-06-01

    LIDAR sensors are widely used in mobile mapping systems. The mobile mapping platforms allow to have fast acquisition in cities for example, which would take much longer with static mapping systems. The LIDAR sensors provide reliable and precise 3D information, which can be used in various applications: mapping of the environment; localization of objects; detection of changes. Also, with the recent developments, multi-beam LIDAR sensors have appeared, and are able to provide a high amount of data with a high level of detail. A mono-beam LIDAR sensor mounted on a mobile platform will have an extrinsic calibration to be done, so the data acquired and registered in the sensor reference frame can be represented in the body reference frame, modeling the mobile system. For a multibeam LIDAR sensor, we can separate its calibration into two distinct parts: on one hand, we have an extrinsic calibration, in common with mono-beam LIDAR sensors, which gives the transformation between the sensor cartesian reference frame and the body reference frame. On the other hand, there is an intrinsic calibration, which gives the relations between the beams of the multi-beam sensor. This calibration depends on a model given by the constructor, but the model can be non optimal, which would bring errors and noise into the acquired point clouds. In the litterature, some optimizations of the calibration parameters are proposed, but need a specific routine or environment, which can be constraining and time-consuming. In this article, we present an automatic method for improving the intrinsic calibration of a multi-beam LIDAR sensor, the Velodyne HDL-32E. The proposed approach does not need any calibration target, and only uses information from the acquired point clouds, which makes it simple and fast to use. Also, a corrected model for the Velodyne sensor is proposed. An energy function which penalizes points far from local planar surfaces is used to optimize the different proposed parameters

  8. Design and development of source holder of collimator assembly for low level radiological testing and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low level radiological test and calibration facility under ISO: 17025; NABL accreditation has been recently upgraded in terms of radiation source strength and radiation collimation geometry. The decayed cobalt-60 radiation source (2.3 mCi) has been replenished with new radioactive source of activity 10 mCi. The source was procured from BRIT Mumbai with physical dimension 15 mm (L) x 10 mm (f), however, the active geometry of the source was not known. An autoradiography concept was applied to know the exact geometry of active dimension of the source with respect to its physical dimension. The source was immobilized on the industrial radiography film and exposed with X-rays (KV: 100, mA: 1, t: 0.5 s) at 100 cm from focal point of X-ray tube. The film was developed under standard laboratory condition in the dark room. The radioactive pellet has been found well delineated with respect to the physical dimension of the source inside the capsule. The exact physical dimension of the source and active dimension have been found as 9 mm (L) x 8 mm (f) and 3 mm (L) x 2 mm (f) respectively. A source holder of perspex material was designed and fabricated as per collimator geometry, ease of fitment and divergence profile of radiation beam. The autoradiography procedure (KV: 70, mA: 1, t: 0.7 s) was repeated after fixing the source in fabricated perpex holder for checking the quality of the immobilization of source in the holder. An improvement in positioning error (±5 mm) while testing and calibrating the radiological instruments, has been observed with the help of autoradiograph. The alignment of the source was checked and verified with laser alignment system. The designed collimator is made of tissue equivalent material and hence will have less radiation scattering. The radiological calibration facility is now more efficient in terms of systematic measurement uncertainty. This has improved the quality standard of the radiological test and calibration. The various aspects

  9. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  10. Radiochromic film sensitivity calibrations using ion beams from a Pelletron accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, T. M.; Steidle, Jessica; Ward, R. J.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    Radiochromic film (RCF) is a transparent detector film that permanently changes color following exposure to ionizing radiation. The optical density of the film increases with increasing absorbed dose. RCF is convenient to use because it requires no chemical processing and can be scanned using commercially available document scanners. RCF is used frequently in medical applications, but is also used in a variety of diagnostics in high energy density physics. The film consists of a single or double layer of radiation-sensitive organic microcrystal monomers placed onto a polyester backing. GafchromicTM manufactures a large number of different types of RCF, and new types of film frequently replace older products. In this study, the sensitivity of several types of RCF to ion beams of different energies was measured. Ion beams produced by the SUNY Geneseo 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator were directed into a target chamber where they scattered off of a gold foil. A sample of RCF was exposed to the scattered ions. The fluence of incident particles on the film was measured using a surface barrier detector. Results of these calibrations will be presented. This work was funded in part by a grant from the DOE through the Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  11. Verification/acceptance test plan/procedure for Acromag calibration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordham, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe and document the test of the Acromag calibration system software. The purpose of this test is to verify that the Acromag Calibration System (ACS) will reliably test the Acromag thermocouple (TC) type input modules and provide a file showing the temperatures at which the modules are tested, the response rom the Acromag station, instrument data, technician data, and date and time of the test. The ACS consists of a thermocouple calibration unit (TCU), a DOS based computer, a hand held resistance temperature detector (RTD) surface probe and connects to a field installed or a bench Acromag unit.

  12. Producing a known neutral particle beam for the purpose of calibrating a neutral particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Earth, gravitational confinement of a plasma is not possible, so plasmas are studied in vacuum chambers where the confinement of the plasma consists mainly of the chamber walls and magnetic fields. Here, the interaction of the plasma with the walls around it is unavoidably significant. The energetic ions and electrons of the plasma strike the walls and a number of different particles leave the surface, most of which are electrically neutral. Sometimes, plasma-surface interactions are beneficial such an in plasma processing. In other cases, the plasma-surface interaction is a hindrance such as in magnetic fusion systems. In either case, it is important to study plasma-surface interactions in order to predict and control its effect on the experimental system. In an effort to understand the composition of the particles leaving the surface, Ph.D. candidate Bruce Cain and Associate Professor David Ruzjc at the University of Illinois have designed and built a system to examine the neutral particles scattered from light ions hitting a surface with a beam energy of 10 to 900 eV. According to the design of the system, the neutral particles are ionized by a glow discharge ionizer and then enter into an energy analyzer. In order to calibrate the ionizer and the energy analyzer, a known particle beam is made by a charge exchange cell that is placed in the path of an ion beam. The design and use of the charge exchange cell is the subject of this paper, which will present the underlying theory, followed by the experimental design, and finally the procedures and the results of the experiments undertaken

  13. First beam test of ΔΦ-A initial beam loading compensation for electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial-beam-loading effect may cause serious beam loss in the electron linac of the Super SOR light source. Because of the large energy spread, it is difficult to compensate the beam loading with ordinary methods, such as the adjustment of injection timing and ECS (Energy Compensation System). A phase-amplitude (ΔΦ-A) modulation system has already been developed and tested. First beam test using this system was carried out at the 125 MeV electron linac of Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA) in Nihon University. Its result shows that our system well corrects the energy spread due to initial beam loading effect. In this paper, we report the results of first beam test. (author)

  14. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  15. IPEM Report No 84: Guidelines for the Testing and Calibration of Physiotherapy Ultrasound Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine York: IPEM (2001) 67 pp, 20.00 British Pounds, ISBN: 0-904181-98-7. This 67-page soft-cover report has been prepared by an expert group within the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) to provide detailed guidance on the testing and calibration of ultrasound therapy devices. Physiotherapists have long used external energy sources to supplement massage and manipulation for musculo-skeletal therapy. Whilst, recently, there has been a general reduction in use of electrotherapy using radio-frequency radiation, microwaves and interferential devices, ultrasound therapy still remains central to physiotherapy practice. There is now robust evidence that, at least for some injuries, ultrasound accelerates the repair of injured tissue. This has been particularly well demonstrated for bone fracture repair. Managed therapy relies on well-calibrated radiation sources. Unfortunately, there has been less than adequate management of ultrasound output in the past. Several well-documented situations have occurred for which faulty ultrasound equipment has continued in clinical use, either generating no output at all, or, more seriously, operating at maximum power all the time. This report reminds those responsible for managing ultrasound equipment of the need for testing and calibration, and gives detailed advice on procedures for carrying this out. These details are contained in 12 annexes forming the majority of the text. Each annex presents a self-contained aspect of one aspect of testing or calibration, such as the measurement of acoustic power, or an example protocol for machine testing. Each is sufficiently detailed to allow novice technical staff to follow the recommended procedure, or to allow a department to plan to introduce ultrasound field calibration into its practice. Other annexes contain useful additional material, not included in the earlier IPSM Report 58. A procedure for the measurement of effective

  16. IPEM Report No 84: Guidelines for the Testing and Calibration of Physiotherapy Ultrasound Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duck, Francis A

    2003-01-21

    Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine York: IPEM (2001) 67 pp, 20.00 British Pounds, ISBN: 0-904181-98-7. This 67-page soft-cover report has been prepared by an expert group within the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM) to provide detailed guidance on the testing and calibration of ultrasound therapy devices. Physiotherapists have long used external energy sources to supplement massage and manipulation for musculo-skeletal therapy. Whilst, recently, there has been a general reduction in use of electrotherapy using radio-frequency radiation, microwaves and interferential devices, ultrasound therapy still remains central to physiotherapy practice. There is now robust evidence that, at least for some injuries, ultrasound accelerates the repair of injured tissue. This has been particularly well demonstrated for bone fracture repair. Managed therapy relies on well-calibrated radiation sources. Unfortunately, there has been less than adequate management of ultrasound output in the past. Several well-documented situations have occurred for which faulty ultrasound equipment has continued in clinical use, either generating no output at all, or, more seriously, operating at maximum power all the time. This report reminds those responsible for managing ultrasound equipment of the need for testing and calibration, and gives detailed advice on procedures for carrying this out. These details are contained in 12 annexes forming the majority of the text. Each annex presents a self-contained aspect of one aspect of testing or calibration, such as the measurement of acoustic power, or an example protocol for machine testing. Each is sufficiently detailed to allow novice technical staff to follow the recommended procedure, or to allow a department to plan to introduce ultrasound field calibration into its practice. Other annexes contain useful additional material, not included in the earlier IPSM Report 58. A procedure for the measurement of effective

  17. 'Magnetsrode', an equipment for magnetic calibrations and test measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central equipment in this laboratory is the Braunbek-magnet coil system, a coil system of three axes with which magnetic fields can be generated up to 100 μT. Such an equipment is useful for the calibration of magnetic field measuring instruments, for the determination of the magnetic properties of materials and for the absolute determination of the components of the geomagnetic field. (orig./WB)

  18. Energy calibration of energy-resolved photon-counting pixel detectors using laboratory polychromatic x-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, Hanbean; Han, Jong Chul; Kam, Soohwa; Yun, Seungman [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Kyung, E-mail: hokyung@pusan.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advanced Medical Engineering Research, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-01

    Recently, photon-counting detectors capable of resolving incident x-ray photon energies have been considered for use in spectral x-ray imaging applications. For reliable use of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (ERPCDs), energy calibration is an essential procedure prior to their use because variations in responses from each pixel of the ERPCD for incident photons, even at the same energy, are inevitable. Energy calibration can be performed using a variety of methods. In all of these methods, the photon spectra with well-defined peak energies are recorded. Every pixel should be calibrated on its own. In this study, we suggest the use of a conventional polychromatic x-ray source (that is typically used in laboratories) for energy calibration. The energy calibration procedure mainly includes the determination of the peak energies in the spectra, flood-field irradiation, determination of peak channels, and determination of calibration curves (i.e., the slopes and intercepts of linear polynomials). We applied a calibration algorithm to a CdTe ERPCD comprised of 128×128 pixels with a pitch of 0.35 mm using highly attenuated polychromatic x-ray beams to reduce the pulse pile-up effect, and to obtain a narrow-shaped spectrum due to beam hardening. The averaged relative error in calibration curves obtained from 16,384 pixels was about 0.56% for 59.6 keV photons from an Americium radioisotope. This pixel-by-pixel energy calibration enhanced the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in images, respectively, by a factor of ∼5 and 3 due to improvement in image homogeneity, compared to those obtained without energy calibration. One secondary finding of this study was that the x-ray photon spectra obtained using a common algorithm for computing x-ray spectra reasonably described the peaks in the measured spectra, which implies easier peak detection without the direct measurement of spectra using a separate spectrometer. The proposed method will be a useful alternative

  19. Energy calibration of energy-resolved photon-counting pixel detectors using laboratory polychromatic x-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, photon-counting detectors capable of resolving incident x-ray photon energies have been considered for use in spectral x-ray imaging applications. For reliable use of energy-resolved photon-counting detectors (ERPCDs), energy calibration is an essential procedure prior to their use because variations in responses from each pixel of the ERPCD for incident photons, even at the same energy, are inevitable. Energy calibration can be performed using a variety of methods. In all of these methods, the photon spectra with well-defined peak energies are recorded. Every pixel should be calibrated on its own. In this study, we suggest the use of a conventional polychromatic x-ray source (that is typically used in laboratories) for energy calibration. The energy calibration procedure mainly includes the determination of the peak energies in the spectra, flood-field irradiation, determination of peak channels, and determination of calibration curves (i.e., the slopes and intercepts of linear polynomials). We applied a calibration algorithm to a CdTe ERPCD comprised of 128×128 pixels with a pitch of 0.35 mm using highly attenuated polychromatic x-ray beams to reduce the pulse pile-up effect, and to obtain a narrow-shaped spectrum due to beam hardening. The averaged relative error in calibration curves obtained from 16,384 pixels was about 0.56% for 59.6 keV photons from an Americium radioisotope. This pixel-by-pixel energy calibration enhanced the signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios in images, respectively, by a factor of ∼5 and 3 due to improvement in image homogeneity, compared to those obtained without energy calibration. One secondary finding of this study was that the x-ray photon spectra obtained using a common algorithm for computing x-ray spectra reasonably described the peaks in the measured spectra, which implies easier peak detection without the direct measurement of spectra using a separate spectrometer. The proposed method will be a useful alternative

  20. Beam Tests of a Prototype Stripline Beam Position Monitoring System for the Drive Beam of the CLIC Two-beam Module at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, Alfonso; Nappa, Jean-Marc; Vilalte, Sebastien; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with LAPP and IFIC, two units of a prototype stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the CLIC Drive Beam (DB), and its associated readout electronics have been successfully installed and tested in the Two-Beam-Module (TBM) at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. This paper gives a short overview of the BPM system and presents the performance measured under different Drive Beam configurations.

  1. Initial Beam Test of the Prototype Strip Line BPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Ryu, Jin Yeong; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A beam position monitor (BPM) was developed which would be used for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) beam line. It is a strip line BPM which is commonly used one for the proton beam. The BPM cross section was designed with the SUPERFISH code and the matching section to the feed through was designed by the MWS code. The design parameters of the BPM are shown in Table 1. The designed BPM was fabricated to verify the manufacturing process and check its electrical performance. After the low power test at the test stand, the BPM was installed at the 20-MeV proton accelerator beam line as shown in Fig. 1

  2. Characteristic parameters analysis on diagnostic X-ray beams for dosemeter calibration; Analise de parametros caracteristicos de feixes de raios-X diagnostico para calibracao de dosimetros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Paulo Marcio Campos de

    2008-07-01

    Ionizing radiation metrology is the base to achieve reliable dose measurements in ali areas; it is also part of the framework that is established to assure radiation protection procedures in order to avoid or minimize the harmful biological effect that may be caused by ionizing radiation. A well done metrology means the use of reliable instruments that comply with standard performance requirements worldwide accepted. Those instruments are expected to be calibrated by Metrology Laboratories under well defined conditions. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in Standard 61267 established the reference radiations for medical diagnostic x-ray equipment that are recommended to be used for calibrating dosimetric systems for diagnostic dosimetry. In this work, X-ray beam qualities were established in a Calibration Laboratory and their characteristics were analyzed through the measurement of beam parameters like inherent tube filtration, beam uniformity and field size, energy spectra and peak voltage for additional filtration with 94.425 por cent and 99.999 por cent purity filters. Also, the first half-value layer and the homogeneity coefficient were measured for the three RQR 2, RQR 6 and RQR 10 IEC beam qualities and they were analyzed according to the IEC standard. Air-kerma measurements were carried out with an ionization chamber that had its reliability confirmed through repetition and reproducibility reading tests. In 50 sets of measurements the maximum standard deviation found of 10 successive readings was 0.19 %; the maximum shift of the reading mean value at a fixed geometry condition was 0.80 % with an overall standard deviation of 0.23 %. Results showed that the use of different purity filters did not cause a relevant influence on the beam energy spectra. An ionization chamber was also calibrated against a standard dosimeter in ali implemented reference radiations and the relevant sources of uncertainties were estimated. Calibration could be done

  3. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  4. Beam Test Results of High Q CBPM prototype for SXFEL

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jian; Yu, Luyang; Lai, Longwei; Yuan, Renxian

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at high precision beam position measurement of micron or sub-micron for Shanghai Soft X-ray free electron laser (SXFEL) facility which is being built in site of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has developed a high Q cavity beam position monitor (CBPM) that the resonant frequency is 4.7 GHz and relevant BPM electronics include dedicated RF front-end and home-made digital BPM (DBPM) also has been done. The cavity design, cold test, system architecture and the beam test with three adjacent pickups has been performed in Shanghai Deep ultraviolet free electron laser(SDUV-FEL) facility are included. The beam experiment results show that the physical design of our CBPM is consistent with the expectations basically and the beam position resolution can fulfill the resolution requirements for the SXFEL project if we optimize the beam conditions.

  5. Beam loss scenarios for MuCool Test Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is an intense primary beam facility derived directly from the Fermilab Linac to test heat deposition and other technical concerns associated with the liquid hydrogen targets, gas-filled RF cavities, and other apparatus being developed to cool intense, large-emittance muon beams. In this study the results of Monte Carlo modeling of several beam loss scenarios are presented. The MTA facility was designed to test targets and other muon cooling apparatus using the intense Fermilab Linac beam. The requested intensity of the proton beam for the MTA is essentially full Linac capability, or 1.6 x 1013 protons per pulse and an energy of 400 MeV. Two modes of operation will be supported in the MuCOOL beamline: one mode for emittance measurements (and beamline studies) and a second mode for MTA experiments. Maximum beam intensity for these two modes is: 9.6 x 1015 protons/hr - 600 beam pulses/hour of full Linac beam pulse intensity (1.6 x 1013 protons/pulse) to the emittance beam absorber and 9.6 x 1014 protons/hour - 60 beam pulses/hour of full Linac beam pulse intensity to experiments in the MTA experimental hall. This extremely high intensity implies careful investigation into and application of proper shielding materials and configuration in order to satisfy the following two requirements: (i) to reduce the instantaneous dose rate outside of the experimental enclosure to prescribed levels appropriate for the area considered; (ii) to ensure the civil construction of the hall is capable of additional shielding and, further, that the weight of the shielding is commensurate with the loading specifications of the enclosure, notably the ceiling. A number of scenarios for beam loss at different locations were studied in order to determine the maximum beam intensity which is in compliance with the existing shielding. The modeling was performed with the MARS15 code.

  6. Calibration of inductive path sensors for creep tests under radioactive radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear power stations it is required to carry out creep tests on radioactive materials. This entails the questions on the effects of radiation on the properties of the measuring instruments used. The essay describes a calibration device which was especially developed for testing inductive strain transducers used for creep tests on highly radioactive test objects. This device with the transducers to be tested is located in a cell under radiation load whilst calibration is taking place. Calibration cycles were carried out at the beginning, during the tests and at the end of the test time under radiation (up to 13,000 h at 50 mGy/h). The tests showed that for good reproducibility the measuring uncertainty was within the limit of <0.2% which was specified by the producer of the inductive strain transducers (HBM). (orig.)

  7. The production of calibration specimens for impact testing of subsize Charpy specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration specimens have been manufactured for checking the performance of a pendulum impact testing machine that has been configured for testing subsize specimens, both half-size (5.0 x 5.0 x 25.4 mm) and third-size (3.33 x 3.33 x 25.4 mm). Specimens were fabricated from quenched-and-tempered 4340 steel heat treated to produce different microstructures that would result in either high or low absorbed energy levels on testing. A large group of both half- and third-size specimens were tested at -40 degrees C. The results of the tests were analyzed for average value and standard deviation, and these values were used to establish calibration limits for the Charpy impact machine when testing subsize specimens. These average values plus or minus two standard deviations were set as the acceptable limits for the average of five tests for calibration of the impact testing machine

  8. Characterization of a tagged $\\gamma$-ray beam line at the DA$\\Phi$NE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Buonomo, B; Chen, A W; D'Ammando, F; Froysland, T; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mazzitelli, G; Pellizzoni, A; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Quintieri, L; Rappoldi, A; Tavani, M; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Valente, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cocco, V; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Porrovecchio, G; Rapisarda, M; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Zanello, D; Colafrancesco, S; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

    2011-01-01

    At the core of the AGILE scientific instrument, designed to operate on a satellite, there is the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) consisting of a Silicon Tracker (ST), a Cesium Iodide Mini-Calorimeter and an Anti-Coincidence system of plastic scintillator bars. The ST needs an on-ground calibration with a $\\gamma$-ray beam to validate the simulation used to calculate the energy response function and the effective area versus the energy and the direction of the $\\gamma$ rays. A tagged $\\gamma$-ray beam line was designed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF), based on an electron beam generating $\\gamma$ rays through Bremsstrahlung in a position-sensitive target. The $\\gamma$-ray energy is deduced by difference with the post-Bremsstrahlung electron energy \\cite{prest}-\\cite{hasan}. The electron energy is measured by a spectrometer consisting of a dipole magnet and an array of position sensitive silicon strip detectors, the Photon Tagging System (PTS). The use of the...

  9. Photogrammetric Deflection Measurements for the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) Multi-Component Rotor Balance Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Eduardo; Meyn, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Calibrating the internal, multi-component balance mounted in the Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) required photogrammetric measurements to determine the location and orientation of forces applied to the balance. The TTR, with the balance and calibration hardware attached, was mounted in a custom calibration stand. Calibration loads were applied using eleven hydraulic actuators, operating in tension only, that were attached to the forward frame of the calibration stand and the TTR calibration hardware via linkages with in-line load cells. Before the linkages were installed, photogrammetry was used to determine the location of the linkage attachment points on the forward frame and on the TTR calibration hardware. Photogrammetric measurements were used to determine the displacement of the linkage attachment points on the TTR due to deflection of the hardware under applied loads. These measurements represent the first photogrammetric deflection measurements to be made to support 6-component rotor balance calibration. This paper describes the design of the TTR and the calibration hardware, and presents the development, set-up and use of the photogrammetry system, along with some selected measurement results.

  10. SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison of calibration coefficients at radiotherapy level for orthovoltage X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air-kerma calibration coefficients were compared at the radiotherapy level for orthovoltage x-ray beams in the SIM.RI(I)-K3 comparison for members of the Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM). Five SIM laboratories participated in the comparison: NIST, NRC, ININ, CNEA and LNMRI, the NIST being the pilot laboratory. Results from the comparison are linked to the BIPM.RI(I)-K3 key comparison reference value through the NIST-BIPM comparison made in 2003 and will meet requirements of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA) to support several CMCs (calibration and measurement capability claims) of the participants. The comparison began in October of 2007 and the measurements were completed in September 2008. The results reveal the degree to which the participating calibration facility can demonstrate proficiency in transferring air-kerma calibrations under the conditions of the said facility at the time of the measurements. The evaluation of the degrees of equivalence was performed as described in the comparison protocol. The comparison of the calibration coefficients for the four chambers is based on the average ratios of the calibration coefficients measured at the NIST and at each participating laboratory. (authors)

  11. Transmission ionization chambers for measurements of air collision kerma integrated over beam area. Factors limiting the accuracy of calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerma-area product meters (KAP meters) are frequently used in diagnostic radiology to measure the integral of air-collision kerma over an area A(∫A Kc,air dA) perpendicular to the x-ray beam. In this work, a precise method for calibrating a KAP meter to measure ∫A Kc,air dA is described and calibration factors determined for a broad range of tube potentials (40-200kV). The integral is determined using a large number of TL dosimeters spread over and outside the nominal field area defined as the area within 50% of maximum Kc,air. The method is compared to a simplified calibration method which approximates the integral by multiplying the kerma in the centre of the field by the nominal field area Anom. While the calibration factor using the precise method is independent of field area and distance from the source, that using the simplified method depends on both. This can be accounted for by field inhomogeneities caused by the heel effect, extrafocal radiation and scattered radiation from the KAP meter. The deviations between the calibration factors were as large as ±15% for collimator apertures of 5-100cm2 and distances from the source of 50 - 160 cm. The uncertainty in the calibration factor using the precise method was carefully evaluated and the expanded relative uncertainty estimated to be ±3% with a confidence level of 95%. (author)

  12. Design and testing of a hybrid polymeric electrostrictive/piezoelectric beam with bang bang control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, H. S.; Chai, W. K.

    2007-01-01

    Electrostrictive materials, hard ceramics and soft polymers, have been used as precision actuators in many engineering applications. This study is to examine bang-bang control performance of a hybrid Plexiglas beam laminated with polymeric electrostrictive (RTV 270) actuator and piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor layers using both analytical and experimental techniques. Material characteristics are calibrated via static testing first; a hybrid beam model is then fabricated and an experiment set-up, consisting of a bang-bang controller, high-voltage amplifier, data acquisition system and the hybrid beam system, is designed to evaluate vibration control characteristics (i.e., damping ratio estimation) of the hybrid beam subjected to various control conditions. Due to the quadratic behaviour of electrostrictive materials, the controller activates the electrostrictive actuator only in upward motion of the beam, with reference to signals generated from the piezoelectric sensor. Base on constitutive equations and dynamic/control characteristics, a mathematic hybrid beam model is also derived from the electrostrictive thin shell theory and its dynamic responses, based on the finite difference discretization, are simulated to predict damping ratios resulting from control forces induced by the electrostrictive actuators. Dynamic responses (with and without control) of the physical beam model are measured and compared with simulation results. Favourable comparison suggests that the mathematical model describes the experimental model very well and its application to other advanced structures can be proceeded.

  13. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  14. Mechanical characterization of thermal SiO2 micro-beams through tensile testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A micro-tensile testing system has been developed to measure mechanical properties of a thermal SiO2 thin film. Through the stiffness coefficient calibration of the tensile system in situ, the deformation of the gage section is obtained using a two-serial spring model. A simple gripping method with rapid alignment is presented to improve alignment precision and repeatability of the measurement. Two kinds of specimens, including traditional ones and those with suspended spring beams, are fabricated using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching technology. The finished free-standing thermal SiO2 beams are buckled because of the compressive residual stress. The residual elongation of the beams could be obtained from the original load–displacement curves of the SiO2 beams. Thus the compressive residual stress, Young's modulus and the fracture strength of the thermal SiO2 beams were achieved simultaneously from the tensile testing. The measured values of Young's modulus are 64.6 ± 3 GPa for traditional SiO2 film specimens and 65.5 ± 2.8 GPa for those with suspended spring beams. The measured residual stress is 354 ± 26 MPa and the fracture strength is 426 ± 63 MPa. The measured modulus and residual stress are reasonably coherent with other reports

  15. Roadmap for ILC Detector R&D Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Community, Worldwide ILC Detector

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a roadmap for ILC detector test beam needs in the next 3 - 5 years. In this period, detector Letters of Intent are expected by fall 2008, the ILC Engineering Design Report to be submitted in ILC and its detectors in 2012. ILC detectors are required to have unprecedented precision to be able to elucidate new physics discoveries at TeV energies from the LHC and ILC machines, and to fully exploit experimental investifation at the electrweak unification energy scale. Ahieving this requires significant investment for detector test beam activities to complete the R&D needed, to test prototypes and (later) to qualify final detector system desgns, including integated system tess. This roadmap document describes the need for significant increases in resources for ILC test beam activities. It should be used by test beam facility managers and the worldwide ILC leadership to assure that the necessary resources and facilities are made available to meet the needs in time.

  16. Preliminary test experiment for electron beam injection to JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary test experiment has been carried out to investigate the property of electron beam from the JAERI linac which will be used as an injector for the JSR(JAERI Storage Ring). The electron beam was obtained within the energy resolution of 1.55 % and the peak current of 38 mA at 150 MeV. (author)

  17. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX): Instructions for Implementing the Test Procedure, Calibration Test Reference Results, and Example Acceptance-Range Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.; Kennedy, M.

    2011-08-01

    This publication summarizes building energy simulation test for existing homes (BESTEST-EX): instructions for implementing the test procedure, calibration tests reference results, and example acceptance-range criteria.

  18. Performance test results of ion beam transport for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral beam injector is built at IPR to heat the plasma of SST-1 and its upgrade. It delivers a maximum beam power of 1.7 MW for 55 kV Hydrogen beam or 80 kV Deuterium beam. At lower beam voltage, the delivered power falls to 500 kW at 30 kV Hydrogen beam which is adequate to heat SST-1 plasma ions to ∼ 1 keV. Process of acceleration of ions to the required beam voltage, conversion of ions to neutrals and removal of un-neutralized ions and the beam diagnostic systems occupy a large space. The consequence is that linear extent of the neutral beam injector is at least a few meters. Also, port access provides a very narrow duct. Even a very good injector design and fabrication practices keep beam divergence at a very low but finite value. The result is beam transport becomes an important issue. Since a wide area beam is constructed by hundreds of beam lets, it becomes essential they be focused in such a way that beam transport loss is minimized. Horizontal and vertical focal lengths are two parameters, in addition to beam divergence, which give a description of the beam transport. We have obtained these two parameters for our injector by using beam transport code; making several hundred simulation runs by varying optical parameters of the beam. The selected parameters set has been translated into the engineering features of the extractor grid set of the ion source. Aperture displacement technique is used to secure the horizontal beam focusing at 5.4 m. Combination of both aperture displacement and inclining of two grid halves to ∼ 17 mrad are secured for vertical beam focusing at 7 m from earth grid of the ion source. The gaps between the design, engineered and performance tested values usually arise due to lack of exercising control over fabrication processes or due to inaccuracies in the assumption made in the model calculations of beam optics and beam transport. This has been the case with several injectors, notably with JET injector. To overcome this

  19. Characterization tests and application of special ionization chambers in standard mammography beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Cristiane J.C.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: cristianehonda@usp.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Silva, Jonas O., E-mail: jonas.silva@ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica

    2015-07-01

    The most used instrument for quality assurance programs in mammography beams is the ionization chamber. At the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN three different ionization chambers were recently designed and assembled for dosimetry in standard mammography beams. These ionization chambers are parallel plate chambers, with different geometries. The objective of this work was to study the performance of all three ionization chambers in relation to a commercial one. The established standard beams at an industrial X-ray system Pantak-Seifert were used for the characterization tests of the ionization chambers as short- and medium-term stability, saturation curves, polarity effect, ion collection efficiency, response linearity and angular dependence. All of the results obtained were within the limits recommended by the international standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. (author)

  20. Characterization tests and application of special ionization chambers in standard mammography beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most used instrument for quality assurance programs in mammography beams is the ionization chamber. At the Calibration Laboratory of IPEN three different ionization chambers were recently designed and assembled for dosimetry in standard mammography beams. These ionization chambers are parallel plate chambers, with different geometries. The objective of this work was to study the performance of all three ionization chambers in relation to a commercial one. The established standard beams at an industrial X-ray system Pantak-Seifert were used for the characterization tests of the ionization chambers as short- and medium-term stability, saturation curves, polarity effect, ion collection efficiency, response linearity and angular dependence. All of the results obtained were within the limits recommended by the international standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. (author)

  1. EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANE BEAMS OF AN OVERFLOW DAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich; Zubkov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Khurtin Vladimir Anatol'evich

    2012-01-01

    The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure o...

  2. Fatigue test of RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyan; Huang, Peiyan; Liu, Guangwan; Xie, Jianhe

    2008-11-01

    Applying prestress to fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) can be used more efficiently since a greater portion energy of its tensile capacity is engaged. Based on carbon fiber laminate (CFL), fatigue tests are made to find out the fatigue behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with prestressed CFL. The interfacial debonding is a main failure mode for RC beams strengthened with prestressed CFLs under the cyclic loading. Furthermore, it has been found that the stress value of CFLs decide whether the additional prestressing has a negative or positive effect on the fatigue behavior of the strengthened beam, and the excessive prestressing would reduce the fatigue life of the strengthened beam.

  3. Beam-induced quench test of LHC main quadrupole

    CERN Document Server

    Priebe, A; Dehning, B; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Holzer, E B; Kurfuerst, C; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Zamantzas, C

    2011-01-01

    Unexpected beam loss might lead to a transition of the accelerator superconducting magnet to a normal conducting state. The LHC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system is designed to abort the beam before the energy deposited in the magnet coils reach a quench-provoking level. In order to verify the threshold settings generated by simulation, a series of beam-induced quench tests at various beam energies has been performed. The beam losses are generated by means of an orbital bump peaked in one of main quadrupole magnets (MQ). The analysis includes not only BLM data but also the quench protection system (QPS) and cryogenics data. The measurements are compared to Geant4 simulations of energy deposition inside the coils and corresponding BLM signal outside the cryostat.

  4. Beam-based optical tuning of the final focus test beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the SLAC 46.6 GeV beam to submicron sizes, the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) must meet tight tolerances on many aberrations. These aberrations include: mismatch and coupling of the incoming beam; dispersion; chromaticity; lattice errors in the chromatic correction sections; lattice coupling; and residual sextupole content in the quadrupoles. In order to address these aberrations, the authors have developed a procedure which combines trajectory analysis, use of intermediate wire scanners, and a pair of novel beam size monitors at the IP. This procedure allows the FFTB IP spot to be reduced to sizes under 100 nanometers

  5. The calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers for the measurement of absorbed dose in electron beams of low to medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of calibrating the NACP plane parallel chamber in electron beams from linear accelerators of a different manufacture with energies, E O' from 4.4 to 19.1 MeV, and also in 4 and 6 MV photon beams as well as a cobalt60 beam. The photon beam measurements were both IN-AIR and IN-Phantom. With the exception of the lowest energy electron beam (nominal S MeV), the ND values from measurements in the electron beams were within +1% of the average value f'rom the three different methods according to the AAPM TG 39 protocol. The preferred method of calibration of an electron chamber is of course in an electron beam at R100 in water. This can still be done in medium energy electron beams (nominal 7 to 14 MeV) for the NACP chamber with the same degree of accuracy and precision as with AAPM TG 39 methodology. Alternatively the traditional cobalt-60 calibration beam can be replaced by a low energy (4 - 6MV) photon beam for in-phantom calibrations at 50 mm depth, giving comparable results, and with no more uncertainties than those obtained in electron beams. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  6. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  7. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  8. CERN PSB Beam Tests of CNAO Synchrotron's Digital LLRF

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; De Martinis, C; Falbo, L; Findlay, A; Foglio, R; Hunt, S; Tourres, D; Vescovi, C

    2008-01-01

    The Italian National Centre for Oncological hAdrontherapy (CNAO), in its final construction phase, uses proton and carbon ion beams to treat patients affected by solid tumours. At the heart of CNAO is a 78- meter circumference synchrotron that accelerates particles to up to 400 MeV/u. The synchrotron relies on a digital LLRF system based upon Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) and Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This system implements cavity servoing and beam control capabilities, such as phase and radial loops. Beam tests of the CNAO synchrotron LLRF system were carried out at CERN's Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB) in autumn 2007, to verify the combined DSP/FPGA architecture and the beam control capabilities. For this, a prototype version of CNAO's LLRF system was adapted to the PSB requirements. This paper outlines the prototype system layout and describes the tests carried out and their results. In particular, system architecture and beam control capabilities were successfully proven by comparison wit...

  9. Preliminary Measurement of Beam Power Transmission in KSTAR Neutral Beam Test-Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutral beam test-stand (NBTS) was constructed to develop 300-sec deuterium beam extraction of 120 kV/65 A as an auxiliary heating system of KSTAR. The ion source is composed of a plasma generator and a tetrode accelerator. The beamline components include an optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA) duct, a neutralizer, a bending magnet (BM), an ion dump, a calorimeter, and a cryo-sorption pump system. Beam deposition along the NBTS has been measured by water flow calorimetry (WFC) and 96 % of the extracted beam power (Vacc·Iacc) was counted for a beam of 97 kV/22.2 A. Maximum power transmission efficiency, which is the ratio of transmitted power on the calorimeter to the extracted beam power, was 0.77 with an optimum perveance of 1.1 microperv

  10. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  11. Test Beam Results of a 3D Diamond Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Dunser, Marc

    2015-01-01

    3D pixel technology has been used successfully in the past with silicon detectors for tracking applications. Recently, a first prototype of the same 3D technology has been produced on a chemical vapour deposited single-crystal diamond sensor. This device has been subsequently tested in a beam test at CERN’s SPS accelerator in a beam of 120 GeV protons. Details on the production and results of testbeam data are presented.

  12. Beam tests with microstrip gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured the efficiency, timing and pulse heights in several types of microstrip Gas Chambers with plastic substrates passivated with a thin Nickel layer. We used as active gas mixtures Argon/Isobutane and CF4/Isobutane. We placed the detectors in a secondary beam at TRIUMF tuned to a momentum of 100 MeV/c of pions, muons and electrons. Preliminary results indicate good efficiency for minimum ionizing particles in Argon/Isobutane mixtures but lesser efficiency in CF4 based gases indicating the importance of high quality preamplifiers to increase the signal to noise ratio. (author). 20 refs., 6 figs

  13. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da-Li; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, heng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSD). It provides the tracking information of incident particles. The low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used for signal readout of DSSD. A beam test of the DSSD module was performed in the Beijing test beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using proton beam of 400~800MeV/c. Results on pedestal analysis, RMSE noise, gain correction and reconstruction of incident position of DSSD module are presented.

  14. Calibration, testing, commissioning and first data of ALFA at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) project aims at measuring luminosity of the LHC with high precision using pp elastic scattering under small angles. This will be done by moving an upper and a lower tracking detector inside Roman Pots very close to the beam. To align the upper and lower tracking detector a dedicated part overlaps and the alignment will be done with particles passing both the upper and the lower detector. The tracking detectors are made of scintillating square fibers read out by MultiAnode PhotoMutiplier Tubes, MAPMTs, with custom made electronics. The gain of the MAPMT channels has been equalized and the average light yield of scintillating fibers determined before installation in the LHC. Also reflections on the Roman Pot windows have been observed and the window has been blackened to reduce the effect. The ALFA detectors are currently being commissioned at ATLAS/LHC and the first particles have been observed in the detectors.

  15. Calibration, testing, commissioning and first data of ALFA at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) project aims at measuring luminosity of the LHC with high precision by using pp-scattering under small angles. This will be done by moving an upper and a lower tracking detector inside Roman Pots very close to the beam. To align the upper and lower tracking detector a dedicated part overlaps and the alignment will be done with particles passing both the upper and the lower detector. The tracking detectors are made of scintillating square fibers read out by MultiAnode PhotoMutiplier Tubes, MAPMTs, with custom made electronics. The gain of the MAPMT channels has been equalized and the average light yield of scintillating fibers determined before installation in LHC. Also reflections on the Roman Pot windows have been observed and the window has been blackened to reduce the effect. The ALFA detectors are currently being commissioned at ATLAS/LHC and the first particles observed in the detectors.

  16. In Beam Tests of Implanted Helium Targets

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, J E; Ahmed, M W; Blackston, M A; Delbar, T; Gai, M; Kading, T J; Parpottas, Y; Perdue, B A; Prior, R M; Rubin, D A; Spraker, M C; Yeomans, J D; Weissman, L; Weller, H R; Delbar, Th.; Conn, LNS/U; Duke, TUNL/

    2006-01-01

    Targets consisting of 3,4He implanted into thin aluminum foils (approximately 100, 200 or 600 ug/cm^2) were prepared using intense (a few uA) helium beams at low energy (approximately 20, 40 or 100 keV). Uniformity of the implantation was achieved by a beam raster across a 12 mm diameter tantalum collimator at the rates of 0.1 Hz in the vertical direction and 1 Hz in the horizontal direction. Helium implantation into the very thin (approximately 80-100 ug/cm^2) aluminum foils failed to produce useful targets (with only approximately 10% of the helium retained) due to an under estimation of the range by the code SRIM. The range of low energy helium in aluminum predicted by Northcliffe and Shilling and the NIST online tabulation are observed on the other hand to over estimate the range of low energy helium ions in aluminum. An attempt to increase the amount of helium by implanting a second deeper layer was also carried out, but it did not significantly increase the helium content beyond the blistering limit (ap...

  17. Check Calibration of the NASA Glenn 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (2014 Test Entry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron; Pastor-Barsi, Christine; Arrington, E. Allen

    2016-01-01

    A check calibration of the 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) was conducted in May/June 2014 using an array of five supersonic wedge probes to verify the 1999 Calibration. This check calibration was necessary following a control systems upgrade and an integrated systems test (IST). This check calibration was required to verify the tunnel flow quality was unchanged by the control systems upgrade prior to the next test customer beginning their test entry. The previous check calibration of the tunnel occurred in 2007, prior to the Mars Science Laboratory test program. Secondary objectives of this test entry included the validation of the new Cobra data acquisition system (DAS) against the current Escort DAS and the creation of statistical process control (SPC) charts through the collection of series of repeated test points at certain predetermined tunnel parameters. The SPC charts secondary objective was not completed due to schedule constraints. It is hoped that this effort will be readdressed and completed in the near future.

  18. ESTB: A New Beam Test Facility at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivi, M.; Fieguth, T.; Hast, C.; Iverson, R.; Jaros, J.; Jobe, K.; Keller, L.; Walz, D.; Weathersby, S.; Woods, M.; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    End Station A Test Beam (ESTB) is a beam line at SLAC using a small fraction of the bunches of the 13.6 GeV electron beam from the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), restoring test beam capabilities in the large End Station A (ESA) experimental hall. ESTB will provide one of a kind test beam essential for developing accelerator instrumentation and accelerator R&D, performing particle and particle astrophysics detector research, linear collider machine and detector interface (MDI) R&D studies, development of radiation-hard detectors, and material damage studies with several distinctive features. In the past, 18 institutions participated in the ESA program at SLAC. In stage I, 4 new kicker magnets will be added to divert 5 Hz of the LCLS beam to the A-line. A new beam dump will be installed and a new Personnel Protection System (PPS) is being built in ESA. In stage II, a secondary hadron target will be installed, able to produce pions up to about 12 GeV/c at 1 particle/pulse.

  19. Calibration, testing, commissioning and first data of ALFA at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Jakobsen, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ALFA detector system (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims for measuring the absolute LHC luminosity with high precision by using pp-scattering under small angles. Scintillating fibers tracking detectors are positioned 240 m from LHC interaction point 1 inside Roman Pots at millimeter distance from the LHC beam axis. The detectors consist of layers of 64 scintillating square fibers of 500 µm size in a U-V configuration. The layers are staggered 10 times to improve the spatial resolution to about 30 micrometers. A total of 11680 scintillating fibers are read out on the 8 ALFA detectors through 184 Multi Anode Photomultiplier Tubes, MAPMTs, of type Hamamatsu R7600-00-M64, 64 channels. Each detector has dedicated scintillating trigger tiles read out by 8 mm Hamamatsu Photomultiplier Tubes (R7400P and R9880U-110) via clear fibers. The gain of the MAPMTs differs up to a factor 3 inside a MAPMT and an additional factor 2 between different MAPMTs. For compensation, ALFA has developed a front-end electronic based...

  20. Calibration of dosimeters for the cryogenic irradiation of composite materials using an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate materials such as superconducting magnet components for use in the high-dose radiation environment of the large recirculating charged-particle accelerators such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider (Switzerland/France), CEBAF (Virginia), HERA (Hamburg, Germany), Fermilab's Tevatron (Illinois), and the recently cancelled Superconducting Super Collider (Texas), a study of the radiation resistance of these materials was carried out. These materials must withstand absorbed doses as large as 107 Gy at a temperature of 4 K and were tested under these conditions using an electron beam from a 20 MeV linear accelerator. This paper describes the dosimetry at such very large doses and how the dose was delivered to the samples. ((orig.))

  1. Postal dosimetry audit test for small photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Small radiation beams (3) of TLD-100 inserted at 5 and 10 cm of depth in a cylindrical PMMA phantom designed for this purpose. This experimental system is mailed to the audited centres to be irradiated with beams of 1 and 3 cm of side or diameter. The prescribeddose is 1.5 Gy at 10 cm. The properties of this system were studied experimentally and by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation, before the external test. Results: Deviations between the prescribed and measured absorbed doses are below 5% for 69% (1 × 1 cm2 beam) and 64% (3 × 3 cm2 beam) of the audited centres. When deviations are above 5%, their causes have been investigated and led to corrections. Conclusion: The developed postal audit is suitable to verify the absorbed doses in small photon beams with an accuracy of 2.9% (1s).

  2. Plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barletta, B. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chattopadhyay, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Chen, P. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1993-04-01

    We intend to carry out a series of plasma lens experiments at the Final Focus Test Beam facility at SLAC. These experiments will be the first to study the focusing of particle beams by plasma focusing devices in the parameter regime of interest for high energy colliders, and is expected to lead to plasma lens designs capable of unprecedented spot sizes. Plasma focusing of positron beams will be attempted for the first time. We will study the effects of lens aberrations due to various lens imperfections. Several approaches will be applied to create the plasma required including laser ionization and beam ionization of a working gas. At an increased bunch population of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 10}, tunneling ionization of a gas target by an electron beam -- an effect which has never been observed before -- should be significant. The compactness of our device should prove to be of interest for applications at the SLC and the next generation linear colliders.

  3. Material model calibration through indentation test and stochastic inverse analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Buljak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Indentation test is used with growing popularity for the characterization of various materials on different scales. Developed methods are combining the test with computer simulation and inverse analyses to assess material parameters entering into constitutive models. The outputs of such procedures are expressed as evaluation of sought parameters in deterministic sense, while for engineering practice it is desirable to assess also the uncertainty which affects the final estimates resulting from various sources of errors within the identification procedure. In this paper an experimental-numerical method is presented centered on inverse analysis build upon data collected from the indentation test in the form of force-penetration relationship (so-called indentation curve). Recursive simulations are made computationally economical by an a priori model reduction procedure. Resulting inverse problem is solved in a stochastic context using Monte Carlo simulations and non-sequential Extended Kalman filter. Obtained re...

  4. The proposed alignment system for the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the current state of work in progress with respect to the geometry, alignment requirements, scenarios, and hardware for meeting the tolerances of the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) at SLAC. The methods and systems proposed acknowledge that component motion at the micron level, from whatever cause (ground motion, thermal effects, etc.) must be measured on-line and compensated for on relatively short time scales. To provide an integrated alignment/positioning package, some unique designs for reference systems, calibration of effect electric and magnetic centers, and component movers are introduced. 24 refs., 28 figs

  5. Overview of the Beam diagnostics in the Medaustron Accelerator:Design choices and test Beam commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Osmic, F; Gyorgy, A; Kerschbaum, A; Repovz, M; Schwarz, S; Neustadt, W; Burtin, G

    2012-01-01

    The MedAustron centre is a synchrotron based accelerator complex for cancer treatment and clinical and non-clinical research with protons and light ions, currently under construction in Wiener Neustadt, Austria. The accelerator complex is based on the CERN-PIMMS study [1] and its technical implementation by the Italian CNAO foundation in Pavia [2]. The MedAustron beam diagnostics system is based on sixteen different monitor types (153 devices in total) and will allow measuring all relevant beam parameters from the source to the irradiation rooms. The monitors will have to cope with large intensities and energy ranges. Currently, one ion source, the low energy beam transfer line and the RFQ are being commissioned in the Injector Test Stand (ITS) at CERN. This paper gives an overview of all beam monitors foreseen for the MedAustron accelerator, elaborates some of the design choices and reports the first beam commissioning results from the ITS.

  6. Mammography calibration: Factor or fit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose measurements in mammography x-ray have become more important and a basic path in quality assurance programmes. It is recognized by the international guidelines that it is necessary to have calibration services offered for mammography beams in order to help the improvement of the clinical diagnosis. Major efforts have been made by several laboratories in order to establish an appropriate and traceable calibration infrastructure and to provide the basis for a quality control programme in mammography. The indication of a dosimeter, whose reference point is positioned at the point of test, is compared with the conventional true value of the quantity to be measured. The calibration coefficient is then the ratio of the conventional true value to the indicated. The Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory - PSDL or the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory - SSDL provides the calibration coefficient of the dosimeters in reference to the Half Value Layers - HVL implemented in their laboratories. The dosimetry calibration data is enough when the user has the same system as the laboratory where the ionization chamber has been calibrated. However, there are other calibration systems that have different calibration qualities implemented using different combinations of anode and filter and, therefore, there is no direct relation with the calibration coefficient. How to deal with this? There are two different ways to obtain calibration coefficients when the user's implemented qualities are different from the calibration laboratory's qualities. The first is the interpolation of each calibration coefficient stated in the certificate. The second is the fit of all calibration coefficients, separately for non-attenuated and attenuated beam qualities, to obtain a function by which the calibration coefficients can be determined at each beam quality. The second one includes the statistical fluctuation. The dosimetry calibration data must fit an analytical form, as for example a

  7. beam loss scenarios for MuCool Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, Igor; Johnstone, Carol; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    The MuCool Test Area (MTA) is an intense primary beam facility derived directly from the Fermilab Linac to test heat deposition and other technical concerns associated with the liquid hydrogen targets, gas-filled RF cavities, and other apparatus being developed to cool intense, large-emittance muon beams. In this study the results of Monte Carlo modeling of several beam loss scenarios are presented. The MTA facility was designed to test targets and other muon cooling apparatus using the intense Fermilab Linac beam. The requested intensity of the proton beam for the MTA is essentially full Linac capability, or 1.6 x 10{sup 13} protons per pulse and an energy of 400 MeV. Two modes of operation will be supported in the MuCOOL beamline: one mode for emittance measurements (and beamline studies) and a second mode for MTA experiments. Maximum beam intensity for these two modes is: 9.6 x 10{sup 15} protons/hr - 600 beam pulses/hour of full Linac beam pulse intensity (1.6 x 10{sup 13} protons/pulse) to the emittance beam absorber and 9.6 x 10{sup 14} protons/hour - 60 beam pulses/hour of full Linac beam pulse intensity to experiments in the MTA experimental hall. This extremely high intensity implies careful investigation into and application of proper shielding materials and configuration in order to satisfy the following two requirements: (i) to reduce the instantaneous dose rate outside of the experimental enclosure to prescribed levels appropriate for the area considered; (ii) to ensure the civil construction of the hall is capable of additional shielding and, further, that the weight of the shielding is commensurate with the loading specifications of the enclosure, notably the ceiling. A number of scenarios for beam loss at different locations were studied in order to determine the maximum beam intensity which is in compliance with the existing shielding. The modeling was performed with the MARS15 code.

  8. EXAMINATION AND TESTING OF CRANE BEAMS OF AN OVERFLOW DAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholopov Igor' Serafimovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following conclusions were made upon completion of the testing of crane beams: The lowest rigidity is demonstrated by welded beams exposed to temporary mobile loads; the maximal buckling caused by temporary mobile loads is equal to 12 mm, or 1/1,1790 of the span; the rigidity of crane beams of an overflow dam meets the requirements set by Section E2.1 of Construction Rules 20.13330.2011 "Loads and Actions". In general, the authors state that the crane beams of the span structure of the overflow dam are in a serviceable operating condition, according to their opinion issued upon completion of examination and testing procedures. The recommendation is to regularly tighten screw nuts and to install high-strength bolts in the points of missing rivets. The authors also recommend applying a rust-proofing coating to all metal structures of the dam spans.

  9. One primary collimator with optional crystal feature, tested with beam

    CERN Document Server

    EuCARD, Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The WP8 of EuCARD aims at the design of more advanced materials and collimator concepts for high beam power in particle accelerators like LHC and FAIR. Deliverable 8.3.1 concerned the production and the validation by beam tests of an advanced collimator prototype to improve various aspects of the LHC collimation system, such as the accuracy of the collimator jaw alignment to the circulating beam, the duration of collimator setup time and the overall halo cleaning performance. A collimator prototype was built and installed in the SPS for beam tests in the running period between 2010 and 2012. Crystal collimation aspects were dealt with in a dedicated SPS experiment, which also profited from EuCARD contributions.

  10. Beam Profile Monitor Tests at the SLAC FFTB^1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, J.; Dawson, J.; Haberichter, W.; Reed, L.; Yang, X.-F.; Spencer, J.; Saleski, M.

    1996-05-01

    The next generation linear colliders require beam sizes as small as 5 nm for efficient collisions between electron and positron beams. The difficulty of producing and maintaining such beams in stable collision means that bunch-to-bunch measurements need to be made quickly and precisely. We are developing a new technique using non-imaging gamma optics having good time resolution and sensitivity to correlations when the expected resolution is a few nm. Apparatus has been set up and made operational in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC and we have begun to tune and test components. We will describe this setup and our initial measurements together with Monte Carlo simulations based on using foils and wires (bremsstrahlung) and laser backscattering (Compton) as gamma sources to measure the beam size at IP1 of experiment E144. For the NLC we could also use beamsstrahlung generated by the strong beam-beam interaction at the IP to provide a comparable nonintercepting monitor. \\overline ^1Funded by the US Department of Energy under contracts W-31-109-ENG-38 and DE-AC03-76SF00515.

  11. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: Major upgrade of the ATLAS Test Beam network infrastructure

    CERN Multimedia

    Di Girolamo, B; Pasqualucci, E

    Based on the positive experience gained last year by the Muon group with the adoption of a completely isolated private network for the data acquisition, already last year for the 2002 Combined Pixel-Tilecal-Muon Test Beam, we adopted the private network solution. The main advantage of the isolation from the common CERN network infrastructure is the complete independence from possible problems that could affect the network in the area, intended to serve many other users, and the possibility to have a completely independent management of the IP addresses assignment. Moreover the presence of a firewall in the private network allows a better protection against possible external hackers, allowing users to transparently access the external word. A Fast Ethernet network has been set up as a control network. It relies on a backbone 24-port Fast Ethernet switch on which, in a tree structure, are connected several smaller switches dedicated to each sub-detector. In this way each sub-detector produces its own traffic...

  12. Diagnostics of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Agostini, M.; Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Gazza, E.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Spolaore, M.; Zaniol, B. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P.; De Muri, M. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University (Italy); Croci, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); Gorini, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma, Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CNR, Milano (Italy); CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    The ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) injector, based on negative ions accelerated at 1 MV, will be tested and optimized in the SPIDER source and MITICA full injector prototypes, using a set of diagnostics not available on the ITER HNB. The RF source, where the H{sup -}/D{sup -} production is enhanced by cesium evaporation, will be monitored with thermocouples, electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy, cavity ring down, and laser absorption spectroscopy. The beam is analyzed by cooling water calorimetry, a short pulse instrumented calorimeter, beam emission spectroscopy, visible tomography, and neutron imaging. Design of the diagnostic systems is presented.

  13. Experimental tests of the Bonner Sphere spectrometer using filtered neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The operation of a Bonner Sphere neutron detector system has been tested using several unqiue neutron sources. Filtered neutron beams at beamport F at the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) were used as a source of known quasi-monoenergetic neutrons for precise energy spectra analysis and calibration. A PuBe neutron source was used for absolute flux magnitude and spectral verification. Two computer codes, SWIFT and Least Squares Unfolding Techniques (LSUT), were used to unfold the experimental data. Several operational problems were encountered during these tests. First, many of the measurements involved neutron beam measurements in which the beams had a smaller diameter than the moderating spheres. This caused partial illumination of the spheres for which correction factors had to be developed. A partial illumination correction factor has been proposed and tested to account for this problem. Second, reactor core gamma-ray contamination in the neutron beams was of sufficient magnitude to interfere with some measurements. Gamma-ray background subtraction techniques using a multi-channel analyzer were used to alleviate this problem. After correcting for gamma-ray background and applying partial illumination correction factors, unfolded neutron spectra from the unfolding codes gave good results for most neutron sources. In particular the SWIFT results were quite good, exceeding expectations in terms of energy resolution and spectral accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations in graphite to water for mega-voltage photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy (4-19 MV) X-ray calibration service for secondary standard dosemeters, in terms of absorbed dose to water. As the primary standard that is used for this calibration service is a graphite calorimeter absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the commencement of this service. Since this time it has been identified that clinical LINACs have more inherent filtration than the NPL LINAC and so calibrations are now carried out for heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of TPR (tissue phantom ratio). This work aims to evaluate these factors for all megavoltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water to graphite determined in these two ways agreed with each other to within 0.2% (1 σ uncertainty). The best fit to both sets of results agrees with values determined in previous work to within 0.4% (2 σ uncertainty). (author)

  15. Dental x-ray qualities for test and calibration purposes at CRCN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dental X-ray examinations represent around 30% of the total radiological procedures involving the exposure to ionizing radiation derived from medical practices in Brazil. There are approximately 75,000 intra-oral dental X-ray units and the great majority of them are single-phase x-ray units with 50 to 70 kVp tube potentials. Despite the great number of these devices sold in Brazil, there is no regulatory or standard requirements and each manufacturer produces the x-ray units according to their own design. In spite of this lack of regulation, the Brazilian Health Regulatory Agency (ANVISA-MS) establishes some criteria which must be met for quality assurance in dental practices. In order to contribute for the quality assurances programs, a single-phase dental unit with adjustable kVp and mA was developed at CRCN, aiming to define dental X-ray beam qualities for tests and calibrations purposes. With this equipment it is possible to have continuous X-ray production during a few minutes, thanks to the size of X-ray tube head, which permits a better cooling, and the low tube current (0.2 to 1.0 mA range). Due to its characteristics, the unit can also be utilized for X-ray spectrometry purposes. Measurements of the inherent filtration and half-value layers were carried out. The radiation field size and uniformity, radiation leakage through tube shielding, and other parameters were also evaluated on the basis of ANVISA quality criteria. The X-ray spectra at 50, 60 and 70 kVp were obtained by using an Amptek CdTe detector with pinhole collimators, alignment devices and associated software. These spectra were compared with those obtained for commercial dental X-ray units. The results show that the behavior of this test equipment is similar to the one for commercial units. The X-ray qualities obtained in this work are the first step to establish X-ray beam standards for dental radiology in Brazil. (author)

  16. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikin, Alexander; Alessi, James G.; Beebe, Edward N.; Shornikov, Andrey; Mertzig, Robert; Wenander, Fredrik; Scrivens, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm2 and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given.

  17. Wedge splitting test of foam concrete specimens: Calibration curves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Merta, I.; Veselý, V.

    Zürich : Trans Tech publications, 2015 - (Alfaiate, J.; Aliabadi, M.), s. 281-284 ISBN 978-3-03835-235-8. ISSN 1013-9826. - (Key Engineering Materials. 627). [FDM 2014 International Conference on Fracture and Damage Mechanics /13./. São Miguel Island, Azores (PT), 23.09.2014-25.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AT012 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Wedge splitting test * Fracture parameters * Stress intensity factor * Foam concrete * Two-parameter fracture mechanics * FEM Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  18. Overcoring and calibration of IRAD GAGE stressmeters at the Spent Fuel Test in Climax granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRAD GAGE vibrating-wire stressmeters were installed in the Spent Fuel Facility at the Nevada Test Site to measure the change in in-situ stress during the Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C). Although extensive pre-installation laboratory tests were conducted, they were generic in nature. Unfortunately the degree of gage-rock contact has a strong influence on gage sensitivity and cannot be predicted before installation. This report discusses the results of removing a cylindrical section of rock and gages as a unit through overcoring and the subsequent post test calibrations of the stressmeters in the laboratory. With the assumption that the gage-rock contact was not disturbed by the overcoring, the results from these calibrations compensate for varying gage-rock contact. The estimated in-situ stresses based on post test calibration data are quite consistent with those directly measured in nearby holes. The magnitude of stress change calculated from pre-installation test data is generally much smaller than that estimated from post test calibration data

  19. Multi-Beam Approach for Accelerating Alignment and Calibration of HyspIRI-Like Imaging Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Michael L.; Green, Robert O.; Mouroulis, Pantazis; Hochberg, Eric B.; Hein, Randall C.; Kroll, Linley A.; Geier, Sven; Coles, James B.; Meehan, Riley

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an optical stimulus that produces more consistent results, and can be automated for unattended, routine generation of data analysis products needed by the integration and testing team assembling a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer system. One key attribute of the system is an arrangement of pick-off mirrors that provides multiple input beams (five in this implementation) to simultaneously provide stimulus light to several field angles along the field of view of the sensor under test, allowing one data set to contain all the information that previously required five data sets to be separately collected. This stimulus can also be fed by quickly reconfigured sources that ultimately provide three data set types that would previously be collected separately using three different setups: Spectral Response Function (SRF), Cross-track Response Function (CRF), and Along-track Response Function (ARF), respectively. This method also lends itself to expansion of the number of field points if less interpolation across the field of view is desirable. An absolute minimum of three is required at the beginning stages of imaging spectrometer alignment.

  20. Calibration of the central jet chamber of the OPAL detector with UV laser beams: Methods and results on jet chamber prototypes (FSP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central tracking device of the OPAL experiment at the LEP e+e--collider consists of a pictorial jet chamber with a diameter of 4 m and 4 m length. The calibration of such a large detector is performed by the help of a UV laser system generating straight tracks even in the presence of magnetic fields. Intensive investigations of the laser calibration power and performance were done at the Full Scale Prototype (FSP) of the OPAL jet chamber. Laser double tracks with a precisely known distance are used to determine the drift velocity with an accuracy of 0.1%. From the measured deviations of a straight laser track electronic time offsets, wire positions and field distortions are derived. These calibration constants were applied to correct the measured drift times of test beam events. The sagitta and momentum resolutions of the thus corrected tracks have been obtained in the range from 6 GeV/c to 50 GeV/c. Extrapolating the results to the final OPAL jet chamber, a momentum resolution of σ-p/p = 6% is expected for 50 GeV/c tracks in a magnetic field of 4 kG. (orig.)

  1. Calibration and performance tests of the MAGIC-II camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAGIC 17m diameter Cherenkov telescopes system has been upgraded with a second telescope within the year 2007-2008 to allow stereo observations. This will improve the sensitivity and energy threshold of the current installation. The new MAGIC-II telescope has been equipped with a camera composed of 1039 pixels with 0.1-degree diameter. Seven pixels in a hexagonal configuration are grouped to form one cluster of the camera. This modular design allows easier maintenance and replacement of photosensors. In the first phase Hamamatsu photomultipliers (PMTs) are used, with a quantum efficiency (QE) as high as 332.104 to observe also under moderate moon conditions. In the second phase it is planned to replace the PMTs in the inner part of the camera with higher QE hybrid photo detectors (HPDs). Here we present test measurements and results performed on the PMT clusters

  2. A self-calibrating led-based solar test platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2011-01-01

    A compact platform for testing solar cells is presented. The light source comprises a multi-wavelength high-power LED (light emitting diode) array allowing the homogenous illumination of small laboratory solar cell devices (substrate size 50 × 25 mm) within the 390–940 nm wavelength range......, it is possible to perform all the commonly employed measurements on the solar cell at very high speed without moving the sample. In particular, the LED-based illumination system provides an alternative to light-biased incident photon-to-current efficiency measurement to be performed which we demonstrate. Both...... top and bottom contact is possible and the atmosphere can be controlled around the sample during measurements. The setup was developed for the field of polymer and organic solar cells with particular emphasis on enabling different laboratories to perform measurements in the same manner and obtain...

  3. Test and calibration of the IDS fast-timing electronics

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2160817

    2016-01-01

    The ISOLDE decay station(IDS) is one of the permanent experimental setups at the ISOLDE facility of CERN. IDS is used to study decay properties of radioactive nuclei. Thus, fast-timing electronics are necessary for extracting nuclear half-lives. The aims of this work are testing and optimization of the IDS fast-timing electronics as well as measuring a nuclear level half-life in the decay of $^{152}$Eu. The energy resolution of LaBr$_3$ $\\gamma$-detectors was characterized and optimized. A nuclear level lifetime of $^{152}$Eu was measured after obtaining the best parameters for energy resolution and time walk. Dedicated sorting scripts were developed in ROOT in order of perform the characterization and optimization automatically.

  4. Radiation shielding for the ITER neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NB system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) consists of two heating and current drive (H and CD) NB injectors and a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) injector. The NB accelerates negative deuterium ions with maximum energy of 1 MeV and maximum beam current of 40 A. The ITER (H and CD) NB will be tested in the Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) that will be located in Italy, near Padua. The performance test will be based on different operation phases starting with low energy hydrogen beam. In the initial testing phase for many months the machine will operate with hydrogen only and with deuteron at a reduced intensity suggesting the possibility of hosting the device in a light shielding room/area. In the paper the study performed to evaluate the minimum shielding needed in connection with the different operation phases is shown. The source terms were calculated starting from neutron source characterisation and then assessing article transport in the ITER NB structure with a mathematical model of the components geometry that was implemented into MCNP computer code. The neutron source definition was outlined considering both D-D and D-T neutron production. Shielding was assessed for hydrogen operation only and for 20, 60, 100 and 1000 kV (full energy) deuteron acceleration, accounting for the associated beam current intensity. Related results are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  5. Vibration tests on dismounted bridge beams and effects of deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims at describing the tests campaign carried out on five precast bonded post-tensioned concrete bridge beams, recently dismounted after a service life of 50 years. The girders were part of the deck of a recently dismounted viaduct of an Italian motorway. The beams showed different deterioration levels, mainly due to the different exposure to corrosive agents. The test campaign were designed for evaluating the residual load bearing capacity of the members. Dynamic measurements were acquired before and after the static tests by using different excitation sources. This experimental research highlights that the natural frequencies of the beams can be used as a predictor of the ultimate bending moment of an existing structure.

  6. Testing and Calibration of Phase Plates for JWST Optical Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Chu, Jenny; Tournois, Severine; Eichhorn, William; Kubalak, David

    2011-01-01

    Three phase plates were designed to simulate the JWST segmented primary mirror wavefront at three on-orbit alignment stages: coarse phasing, intermediate phasing, and fine phasing. The purpose is to verify JWST's on-orbit wavefront sensing capability. Amongst the three stages, coarse alignment is defined to have piston error between adjacent segments being 30 m to 300 m, intermediate being 0.4 m to 10 m, and fine is below 0.4 m. The phase plates were made of fused silica, and were assembled in JWST Optical Simulator (OSIM). The piston difference was realized by the thickness difference of two adjacent segments. The two important parameters to phase plates are piston and wavefront errors. Dispersed Fringe Sensor (DFS) method was used for initial coarse piston evaluation, which is the emphasis of this paper. Point Diffraction Interferometer (PDI) is used for fine piston and wavefront error. In order to remove piston's 2 pi uncertainty with PDI, three laser wavelengths, 640nm, 660nm, and 780nm, are used for the measurement. The DHS test setup, analysis algorithm and results are presented. The phase plate design concept and its application (i.e. verifying the JWST on-orbit alignment algorithm) are described. The layout of JWST OSIM and the function of phase plates in OSIM are also addressed briefly.

  7. JET neutral beam injection system, construction and component tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two neutral injection systems for JET are each determined by 40 mw beam power extracted from eight sources during 10 s pulses. Under the existing spatial restrictions, this has led to a complex beam-line system design. The applied manufacturing techniques and the approach to quality assurance are discussed. The beam sources have been operated at 80 kv, 60 a, 5 s in hydrogen. Plasma source development has increased the H+ yield to approximately 84%. Beamlet steering by aperture offset has experimentally been adjusted to the values required for the restricted tokamak entrance geometry. A beam source has also been operated at 160 kv, 37 a in deuterium. At the tokamak the 7 m high injector vacuum box has been installed incorporating a fast shutter and a cryopump. This LHE cooled pump with 40 m2 entrance area and 45% pumping efficiency has successfully been tested as well as the flexible cryoliquid transfer-lines. The bakeable valve between injector box and tokamak vacuum (1.1 m x 0.5 m gate cross-section) has been operated with leak rates <10-9 mbar1/s. The sub-system commissioning is completed by short-pulse operation of the beam sources with their final power supplies in situ at the tokamak and, in parallel to this, testing of the beam-line system in the neutral injection testbed

  8. Beam Physics of Integrable Optics Test Accelerator at Fermilab

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaitsev, S.; Valishev, A.; Danilov, V. V.; Shatilov, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Fermilab's Integrable Optics Test Accelerator is an electron storage ring designed for testing advanced accelerator physics concepts, including implementation of nonlinear integrable beam optics and experiments on optical stochastic cooling. The machine is currently under construction at the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. In this report we present the goals and the current status of the project, and describe the details of machine design. In particular, we concentrate on ...

  9. Automatic In Situ Calibration of a Spinning Beam LiDAR System in Static and Kinematic Modes

    OpenAIRE

    Ting On Chan; Lichti, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    The Velodyne LiDAR series is one of the most popular spinning beam LiDAR systems currently available on the market. In this paper, the temporal stability of the range measurements of the Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR system is first investigated as motivation for the development of a new automatic calibration method that allows quick and frequent recovery of the inherent time-varying errors. The basic principle of the method is that the LiDAR’s internal systematic error parameters are estimated by c...

  10. Beam loading and cavity compensation for the Ground Test Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) will be heavily beam-loaded H- linac with tight tolerances on accelerating field parameters. The methods used in modeling the effects of beam loading in this machine are described. The response of the cavity to both beam and radio-frequency (RF) drive stimulus is derived, including the effects of cavity detuning. This derivation is not restricted to a small-signal approximation. An analytical method for synthesizing a predistortion network that decouples the amplitude and phase responses of the cavity is also outline. Simulation of performance, including beam loading, is achieved through use of a control system analysis software package. A straightforward method is presented for extrapolating this work to model large coupled structures with closely spaced parasitic modes. Results to date have enabled the RF control system designs for GTA to be optimized and have given insight into their operation. 6 refs., 10 figs

  11. Test results on the silicon pixel detector for the TTF-FEL beam trajectory monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillert, S.; Ischebeck, R.; Müller, U. C.; Roth, S.; Hansen, K.; Holl, P.; Karstensen, S.; Kemmer, J.; Klanner, R.; Lechner, P.; Leenen, M.; Ng, J. S. T.; Schmüser, P.; Strüder, L.

    2001-02-01

    Test measurements on the silicon pixel detector for the beam trajectory monitor at the free-electron laser of the TESLA test facility are presented. To determine the electronic noise of the detector and the read-out electronics and to calibrate the signal amplitude of different pixels, the 6 keV photons of the manganese K α/K β line are used. Two different methods determine the spatial accuracy of the detector: in one setup a laser beam is focused to a straight line and moves across the pixel structure. In the other, the detector is scanned using a low-intensity electron beam of an electron microscope. Both methods show that the symmetry axis of the detector defines a straight line within 0.4 μm. The sensitivity of the detector to low-energy X-rays is measured using a vacuum ultraviolet beam at the synchrotron light source HASYLAB. Additionally, the electron microscope is used to study the radiation hardness of the detector.

  12. TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beam injected power measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterfall calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source in the well instrumented test stand, 99.5 +- 3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12/degree/, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations on the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Calibration and testing of simulation models for evaluation of trench cap designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype decision support system (PDSS) using multi-objective decision theory and embedded simulation models is being developed to evaluate landfill cover designs for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites. To evaluate the performance of the PDSS, the simulation models, which are used to parameterize the decision model when data are not available, must be calibrated and tested. The two linked simulation models embedded in the PDSS are the HELP (hydrologic evaluation of landfill performance) and CREAMS (chemicals, runoff, and erosion from agricultural management systems) models. Data from a field demonstration study at Hill Air Force Base were used to calibrate the simulation models. The models were calibrated using water balance and erosion parameters for two alternative designs, a control soil cover and a modified USEPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act design. Simulations were run using the calibrated model parameters for a 200-yr period to evaluate the long-term performance of the models. The progressive annual average for all of the output parameters was within the 95% confidence limits of the long-term mean by Year 60 for both of the cover designs evaluated. The results of the calibration and long-term evaluation of the simulation models were reasonable for the length of the data set. To fully validate and test the simulation models, other data sets of landfill covers in a variety of climates are needed. 15 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Tests of beam-based alignement at FACET

    CERN Document Server

    Latina, A; Schulte, D; Adli, E

    2014-01-01

    The performance of future linear colliders will depend critically on beam-based alignment (BBA) and feedback systems, which will play a crucial role in guaranteeing the low emittance transport throughout such machines. BBA algorithms designed to improve the beam transmission in a linac by simultaneously optimising the trajectory and minimising the residual dispersion, have thoughtfully been studied in theory over the last years, and successfully verified experimentally. One such technique is called Dispersion-Free Steering (DFS). A careful study of the DFS performance at the SLAC test facility FACET lead us to design a beam-based technique specifically targeted to reduce the impact of transverse short-range wakefields, rather than of the dispersion, being the wakefields the limiting factor to the FACET performance. This technique is called Wakefield-Free Steering (WFS). The results of the first tests of WFS at FACET are presented in this paper.

  15. Lake Mead dynamic test range for calibration of airborne gamma radiation measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented for calibrating airborne gamma radiation measuring systems for surface concentrations of U, Th, and K. Data are included for six flight paths at altitudes of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 feet. Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range is described in detail in Volume I of this report

  16. Lake Mead dynamic test range for calibration of airborne gamma radiation measuring systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    Data are presented for calibrating airborne gamma radiation measuring systems for surface concentrations of U, Th, and K. Data are included for six flight paths at altitudes of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 feet. Lake Mead Dynamic Test Range is described in detail in Volume I of this report. (WHK)

  17. Viking lander camera geometry calibration report. Volume 1: Test methods and data reduction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M. B.

    1981-01-01

    The determination and removal of instrument signature from Viking Lander camera geometric data are described. All tests conducted as well as a listing of the final database (calibration constants) used to remove instrument signature from Viking Lander flight images are included. The theory of the geometric aberrations inherent in the Viking Lander camera is explored.

  18. Indirect deformation (strain) measurements and calibrations in Sandia triaxial apparatus for rock testing to 2500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirect procedures for axial and radial strain measurements on rock in triaxial tests to 2500C are presented. The description of techniques includes discussions of all calibrations and of the accuracies of measurements. In addition, two examples are given to show how the techniques are implemented in triaxial compression and triaxial extension experiments. 10 figures

  19. GESCAL: Quality management automated system for a calibration and test laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GESCAL is a software created to automate all elements composing the quality system in a calibration and test laboratory. It also evaluates quality according to its objectives and policies. This integrated data system decreases considerably the amount of time devoted to manage quality. It is speedier in searching and evaluating information registers thus notably in reducing the workload for laboratory staff

  20. Calibration of pressure gauge for Cherenkov detector

    CERN Document Server

    Saponjic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    Solartron/Hamilton pressure gauges are used to monitor the gas pressure in the particle beam detectors installed in the experimental areas. Here is description of the test bench for the calibration of these gauges in Labview.

  1. Calibration of Monte Carlo simulation code to low voltage electron beams through radiachromic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple multilayer slab model of an electron beam using the ITS/TIGER code can consistently account for about 80% of the actual dose delivered by a low voltage electron beam. The difference in calculated values is principally due to the 3D hibachi structure which blocks 22% of the beam. A 3D model was constructed using the ITS/ACCEPT code to improve upon the TIGER simulations. A rectangular source description update to the code and reproduction of all key geometric elements involved, including the hibachi, accounted for 90-95% of the dose received by routine dosimetry

  2. Fermilab Test Beam Facility Annual Report. FY 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-01-01

    Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) operations are summarized for FY 2014. It is one of a series of publications intended to gather information in one place. In this case, the information concerns the individual experiments that ran at FTBF. Each experiment section was prepared by the relevant authors, and was edited for inclusion in this summary.

  3. Collimation quench test with 4 TeV proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Salvachua, B; Cauchi, M; Deboy, D; Hofle, W; Holzer, EB; Jacquet, D; Lari, L; Nebot, E; Mirarchi, D; Quaranta, E; Redaelli, S; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, R; Valentino, G; Valuch, D; Wenniger, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, at the end of the LHC physics run I, several quench tests took place with the aim to measure the quench limit of the LHC superconducting magnets. The LHC superconducting magnets in the dispersion suppressor of IR7 are the most exposed to beam losses leaking from the betatron collimation system and represent the main limitation for the halo cleaning. A collimation quench test was performed with 4 TeV proton beams to improve the quench limit estimates, which determine the maximum allowed beam loss rate for a given collimation cleaning. The main goal of the collimation quench test was to try to quench the magnets by increasing losses at the collimators. This note describes the procedure during the test and the first results with the data. Losses of up to 1 MW over a few seconds were generated by blowing up the beam, achieving total losses of about 5.8 MJ. These controlled losses exceeded by a factor 2 the collimation design value, and the magnets did not quench.

  4. Beam test of a large area silicon drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the tests of the first large area (4x4 cm2) planar silicon drift detector prototyp in a pion beam are reported. The measured position resolution in the drift direction is σ=40±10 μm. (orig.)

  5. Fiber-reinforced dental composites in beam testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heumen, C.C.M. van; Kreulen, C.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Lesaffre, E.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on in vitro tests of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) beams, with regard to studies that followed criteria described in an International Standard. The reported reinforcing effects of various fibers on the flexural

  6. Dynamic Calibration of the NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus Steady/Dynamic Rotor Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Randall L.; vanAken, Johannes M.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Ames Rotor Test Apparatus was modified to include a Steady/Dynamic Rotor Balance. The dynamic calibration procedures and configurations are discussed. Random excitation was applied at the rotor hub, and vibratory force and moment responses were measured on the steady/dynamic rotor balance. Transfer functions were computed using the load cell data and the vibratory force and moment responses from the rotor balance. Calibration results showing the influence of frequency bandwidth, hub mass, rotor RPM, thrust preload, and dynamic loads through the stationary push rods are presented and discussed.

  7. Design of a synchrotron radiation detector for the test beam lines at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the particle- and momentum-tagging instrumentation required for the test beam lines of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), the synchrotron radiation detector (SRD) was designed to provide electron tagging at momentum above 75 GeV. In a parallel effort to the three test beam lines at the SSC, schedule demands required testing and calibration operations to be initiated at Fermilab. Synchrotron radiation detectors also were to be installed in the NM and MW beam lines at Femilab before the test beam lines at the SSC would become operational. The SRD is the last instrument in a series of three used in the SSC test beam fines. It follows a 20-m drift section of beam tube downstream of the last silicon strip detector. A bending dipole just in of the last silicon strip detector produces the synchrotron radiation that is detected in a 50-mm-square cross section NaI crystal. A secondary scintillator made of Bicron BC-400 plastic is used to discriminate whether it is synchrotron radiation or a stray particle that causes the triggering of the NaI crystal's photo multiplier tube (PMT)

  8. Calibration of Pencil Type Ionization Chambers at Various Irradiation Lengths and Beam Qualities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pencil type ionization chambers are being used in several diagnostic radiology applications, for the measurement of the air kerma length product, PKL. This work investigates several aspects of the pencil chamber calibration. The air kerma behind the apertures that are used for the partial irradiation of the pencil chambers depends on the irradiation set-up and equals to the air kerma free in air only under 'good geometry' irradiation conditions. Appropriate correction factors, kw, may be needed for this. The residual signal of four pencil chamber models was measured using various apertures widths. The residual signal should be subtracted from chamber signal in order to improve accuracy. Twenty-three commercial pencil type chambers were calibrated at RQT radiation qualities. The variation of performance between chambers of the same model and between different models is discussed, while the energy dependence of their response is presented. Finally, a comparison of the two calibration methods (total and partial irradiation of chamber) showed that both methods deduce similar calibration coefficients. The uncertainties of the measurements are assessed and discussed. (author)

  9. Radiotherapy dose calculation on KV cone-beam CT image for lung tumor using the CIRS calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changsheng; Cao, Jianping; Yin, Yong; Zhu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    On-board kilovoltage (KV) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images are used predominantly for the setup of patients' positioning. The image data can also potentially be used for dose calculation with the precise calibration of Hounsfield units (HU) to electron density (HU-density). CBCT calibration was analyzed in this study. A clinical treatment planning system was employed for CT and KV CBCT image to dose calculations and subsequent comparisons. Two HU-density tables were generated using the Computerized Imaging Reference Systems (CIRS) phantom. The results showed that a maximum ∼4% dose discrepancy was observed for inserts. The single field isodose curves were very close. The lung clinical patient study indicated that the volume of lung tumor that achieved the prescribed dose in CBCT was lower than in the CT plan. Our study showed that the dosimetric accuracy of CBCT-based dose calculation for lung tumor is acceptable only for the purpose of dosimetric checks with calibration applied. KV CBCT images cannot replace traditional CT images for dose calculation accuracy. PMID:26766975

  10. Calibration of solid state nuclear track detectors at high energy ion beams for cosmic radiation measurements: HAMLET results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, J.; Pálfalvi, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The MATROSHKA experiments and the related HAMLET project funded by the European Commission aimed to study the dose burden of the crew working on the International Space Station (ISS). During these experiments a human phantom equipped with several thousands of radiation detectors was exposed to cosmic rays inside and outside the ISS. Besides the measurements realized in Earth orbit, the HAMLET project included also a ground-based program of calibration and intercomparison of the different detectors applied by the participating groups using high-energy ion beams. The Space Dosimetry Group of the Centre for Energy Research (formerly Atomic Energy Research Institute) participated in these experiments with passive solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). The paper presents the results of the calibration experiments performed in the years 2008-2011 at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The data obtained serve as update and improvement for the previous calibration curves which are necessary for the evaluation of the SSNTDs exposed in unknown space radiation fields.

  11. Results from the 1999 Beam Test of a Preshower Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Aspell, Paul; Bloch, Philippe; Bourotte, Jean; Domeniconi, Jacques; Peisert, Anna; Evangelou, Ioannis; Kloukinas, Kostas; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loos, Robert; Loukas, Demetrios; Mousa, Jehad; Peron, Franck; Reynaud, Serge; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tournefier, Edwige; Van Hove, Alain; Zamiatin, Nikolai

    2000-01-01

    At the end of June 1999 a test of a preshower prototype, equipped with real-size detectors and LHC-style electronics, was tested in the H4 beam at CERN in front of a matrix of "Endcap" crystals. Data were taken with a variety of incident electron energies, and three angles of incidence ( to simulate different regions of the CMS endcaps). The prototype functioned well, with a very small startup period and operated successfully for the duration of the test ( ~ 1 week) without intervention. Good agreement has been found between data and a GEANT-3 based simulation, and the absolute results are promising. Plans are presented for a further test of the prototype in 2000 in the H2 beam inside the 3T magnet.

  12. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Results of Beam Tests on a High Current EBIS Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory there is an R and D program to design an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) for use in a compact ion injector to be developed for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The BNL effort is directed at developing an EBIS with intensities of 3 x 109 particles/pulse of ions such as Au35+ and U45+, and requires an electron beam on the order of 10A. The construction of a test stand (EBTS) with the full electron beam power and 1/3 the length of the EBIS for RHIC is nearing completion. Initial commissioning of the EBTS was made with pulsed electron beams of duration < 1 ms and current up to 13 A. Details of the EBTS construction, results of the pulse tests, and preparations for DC electron beam tests are presented

  14. Some tests of wet tropospheric calibration for the CASA Uno Global Positioning System experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, T. H.; Wolf, S. Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    Wet tropospheric path delay can be a major error source for Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic experiments. Strategies for minimizing this error are investigted using data from CASA Uno, the first major GPS experiment in Central and South America, where wet path delays may be both high and variable. Wet path delay calibration using water vapor radiometers (WVRs) and residual delay estimation is compared with strategies where the entire wet path delay is estimated stochastically without prior calibration, using data from a 270-km test baseline in Costa Rica. Both approaches yield centimeter-level baseline repeatability and similar tropospheric estimates, suggesting that WVR calibration is not critical for obtaining high precision results with GPS in the CASA region.

  15. Improved calibration of mass stopping power in low density tissue for a proton pencil beam algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose distributions for proton therapy treatments are almost exclusively calculated using pencil beam algorithms. An essential input to these algorithms is the patient model, derived from x-ray computed tomography (CT), which is used to estimate proton stopping power along the pencil beam paths. This study highlights a potential inaccuracy in the mapping between mass density and proton stopping power used by a clinical pencil beam algorithm in materials less dense than water. It proposes an alternative physically-motivated function (the mass average, or MA, formula) for use in this region. Comparisons are made between dose-depth curves calculated by the pencil beam method and those calculated by the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX in a one-dimensional lung model. Proton range differences of up to 3% are observed between the methods, reduced to  <1% when using the MA function. The impact of these range errors on clinical dose distributions is demonstrated using treatment plans for a non-small cell lung cancer patient. The change in stopping power calculation methodology results in relatively minor differences in dose when plans use three fields, but differences are observed at the 2%–2 mm level when a single field uniform dose technique is adopted. It is therefore suggested that the MA formula is adopted by users of the pencil beam algorithm for optimal dose calculation in lung, and that a similar approach is considered when beams traverse other low density regions such as the paranasal sinuses and mastoid process. (paper)

  16. Improved calibration of mass stopping power in low density tissue for a proton pencil beam algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Daniel R.; Partridge, Mike; Hill, Mark A.; Peach, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Dose distributions for proton therapy treatments are almost exclusively calculated using pencil beam algorithms. An essential input to these algorithms is the patient model, derived from x-ray computed tomography (CT), which is used to estimate proton stopping power along the pencil beam paths. This study highlights a potential inaccuracy in the mapping between mass density and proton stopping power used by a clinical pencil beam algorithm in materials less dense than water. It proposes an alternative physically-motivated function (the mass average, or MA, formula) for use in this region. Comparisons are made between dose-depth curves calculated by the pencil beam method and those calculated by the Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNPX in a one-dimensional lung model. Proton range differences of up to 3% are observed between the methods, reduced to  impact of these range errors on clinical dose distributions is demonstrated using treatment plans for a non-small cell lung cancer patient. The change in stopping power calculation methodology results in relatively minor differences in dose when plans use three fields, but differences are observed at the 2%-2 mm level when a single field uniform dose technique is adopted. It is therefore suggested that the MA formula is adopted by users of the pencil beam algorithm for optimal dose calculation in lung, and that a similar approach is considered when beams traverse other low density regions such as the paranasal sinuses and mastoid process.

  17. Modify beam transversal test to evaluate hemiparkinsonian rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nigrostriatal degeneration underlying Parkinson's disease (PD) is commonly studied in experimental animals by injection of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine. the present study describes a modified version of a beam traversal test which allows the quantification of the motor deficit through the time spent to arrive to the platform once all four paws of the animals are in contact with the beam (escape latency, el), the time spent before falling (tumbled down latency, TDL) and the number of errors (NE) committed for the animals in each beam. The shape and the diameter of the cross section of the beams were modified from rectangular and circular cross section with 2.5 cm of diameter to the same shape with 1 cm of diameter, which induced a high difficulty to the execution of the test. Three groups of Wistar rats were examined: untreated (n=15), lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (n=14), and sham-operated (n=14). All variables studied showed significant differences between control and hemiparkinsonian rats. The EL and the NE were increased and the TDL was decreased in hemiparkinsonian rats for all beams in comparison with control rats. In TDL the significant differences between groups were more evident (p<0.001) for the beams with high cross section irrespective of the shape of the cross section. BTT is a convenient sensorimotor test that does not need to be trained extensively, and require adverse motivation or food deprivation and appears to be very useful in evaluating the motor deficits in established unilateral model of PD and also other experimental models.

  18. Calibration and performance testing of survey meters used in ionizing radiation applications in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection monitoring is an essential activity in any facility using radioactive sources or isotopes, for medical, industrial, research and other ionizing radiation application. Quantification of the radiation levels in a workplace in order to designate an area as controlled or supervised or to estimate the effectiveness of shielding is frequently needed. According to the Greek legislation the levels of ionizing radiation must be adequately monitored and the equipment used for this purpose should be tested and calibrated at appropriate intervals that should not exceed two years. The Ionizing Radiation Calibration Laboratory (H.I.R.C.L.) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (G.A.E.C.) has established a detailed calibration procedure for radiation protection equipment in order to investigate the accuracy of the various detectors and to provide homogeneous response of their use in Greece. H.I.R.C.L. has been accredited according to E.N./ISO 17 025, for radiation protection calibrations by the Hellenic Accreditation Council, E.S.Y.D.. This study summarizes the results of calibrations and performance testing in nearly 650 survey meters of different types. For each instrument, operational characteristics such as, accuracy and linearity in every scale, energy and angular dependence have been studied. The calibration factor in each scale was also determined. The measured values were compared to the suggested limits. The results were classified in seven dose intervals (from 0,1 + Sv/h up to >1 Sv/h). The statistical distribution showed tales that exceeded the + 20% criterion of accuracy in all dose intervals. About 20% of them showed non - linearity in their response. Moreover, about 8,5% of the instruments with more than one operational scales, showed accuracy discrepancies in some scales, while the others where found to operate satisfactory. Almost 9% of the instruments were found to be out of order because of technical and operational malfunctions. About 270

  19. Beam tests of a 10 GHz compact ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability and long operation time without maintenance (one year or more). The 10 GHz compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) Ion Source with all permanent magnets has been developed 2003. The maximum mirror magnetic field on the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side. The minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The size of the source is 300 mm in diameter and 290 mm in length. Details of the design and the results of preliminary beam test are reported. (author)

  20. Beam Test Results of High Q CBPM prototype for SXFEL

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jian; Leng, Yongbin; Yu, Luyang; Lai, Longwei; Yuan, Renxian

    2016-01-01

    Aiming at high precision beam position measurement of micron or sub-micron for Shanghai Soft X-ray free electron laser (SXFEL) facility which is being built in site of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics has developed a high Q cavity beam position monitor (CBPM) that the resonant frequency is 4.7 GHz and relevant BPM electronics include dedicated RF front-end and home-made digital BPM (DBPM) also has been done. The cavity design, cold test...

  1. Tile HCAL Test Beam Analysis: Positron and Hadron Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Riccardo

    2009-01-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed a hadronic sandwich calorimeter prototype with 7608 scintillating plates, individually read out by multi-pixel silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). For the first time ever the read out is performed using SiPMs on a large scale. Results of test beam operations with muon, positron and hadron beams at CERN are presented here, validating the feasibility of the novel SiPM technology. Results of the application of the particle flow approach in shower energy reconstruction are presented for the first time ever using real data.

  2. Absolute Electron Emission Calibration: Round Robin Tests of Au and Polyimide

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, JR; Christensen, Justin; Dekany, Justin; Thomson, Clint; Nickles, Neal; Davies, Robert E.; Belhai, Mohamed; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Khan, Arifur R.; Kawasaki, Kazutaka; Inoue, Shunsuke; Montero, Isabel; Davila, Maria E.; Olano, Leandro

    2016-01-01

    Accurate determination of the absolute electron yields of conducting and insulating materials are essential for models of spacecraft charging and related processes involving charge accumulation and emission due to electron beams and plasmas. Apparatus using low-fluence pulsed electron beam sources and various methods to minimize charge accumulation have been developed at facilities around the world. This study presents a round robin comparison of such tests performed in CSIC at Instituto de...

  3. Post-launch calibration and testing of space weather instruments on GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadikonda, Sivakumara S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todirita, Monica

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments -- Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar backgrounds/events impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  4. Post-Launch Calibration and Testing of Space Weather Instruments on GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadikonda, S. K.; Merrow, Cynthia S.; Kronenwetter, Jeffrey A.; Comeyne, Gustave J.; Flanagan, Daniel G.; Todrita, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite - R (GOES-R) is the first of a series of satellites to be launched, with the first launch scheduled for October 2016. The three instruments Solar UltraViolet Imager (SUVI), Extreme ultraviolet and X-ray Irradiance Sensor (EXIS), and Space Environment In-Situ Suite (SEISS) provide the data needed as inputs for the product updates National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides to the public. SUVI is a full-disk extreme ultraviolet imager enabling Active Region characterization, filament eruption, and flare detection. EXIS provides inputs to solar back-ground-sevents impacting climate models. SEISS provides particle measurements over a wide energy-and-flux range that varies by several orders of magnitude and these data enable updates to spacecraft charge models for electrostatic discharge. EXIS and SEISS have been tested and calibrated end-to-end in ground test facilities around the United States. Due to the complexity of the SUVI design, data from component tests were used in a model to predict on-orbit performance. The ground tests and model updates provided inputs for designing the on-orbit calibration tests. A series of such tests have been planned for the Post-Launch Testing (PLT) of each of these instruments, and specific parameters have been identified that will be updated in the Ground Processing Algorithms, on-orbit parameter tables, or both. Some of SUVI and EXIS calibrations require slewing them off the Sun, while no such maneuvers are needed for SEISS. After a six-month PLT period the GOES-R is expected to be operational. The calibration details are presented in this paper.

  5. Beam spill structure feedback test in HIRFL-CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIRFL-CSR is the post-acceleration system of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou and is composed of a double cooling storage ring and a radioactive beam line. The slow extraction beam from HIRFL-CSR is used in nuclear physics experiments and heavy ion therapy. 50 Hz ripple and harmonics are observed in beam spill. To improve the spill structure, the first set of control system consisting of fast Q-magnet and feedback device based FPGA is developed and installed in 2010. Spill structure feedback testing has also started. It is shown that the feedback structure has improved the spill structure, the 50 Hz ripple and its harmonics have been reduced

  6. Operational test of micro-oven for 48Ca beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, K.; Kageyama, T.; Kidera, M.; Higurashi, Y.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    In order to supply a high-intensity and stable 48Ca beam from the RIKEN 18-GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, we are conducting operational tests of a micro-oven. A mixture of CaO and Al powders is placed into the crucible of the micro-oven and heated to produce metallic calcium by a reductive reaction. The successful production of a calcium beam was confirmed. In addition, we reduced the material consumption rate by using a so-called "hot liner," and we enhanced the beam intensity by applying a negative voltage bias to the micro-oven, the effect of which is similar to the effect of a "biased disk."

  7. Wide-bandwidth test fixture for electromagnetic-beam sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) accelerator will supply the neutron flux required for studying materials that may be used in a fusion environment. The diagnostic measurement instrumentation, which will characterize the accelerator beam, must be noninterceptive because of the beam's power density. Instrumentation also must be fully functional for start up of the FMIT accelerator. To this end, three types of test facility were proposed: (1) a low-energy electron accelerator, (2) a large electron-gun assembly, and (3) a coaxial structure that produces electromagnetic fields similar to that of the proposed FMIT accelerator. The third type was chosen. This paper describes the design and some experimental results of the coaxial test fixture

  8. Optimization of filtered neutron beams for the calibration of superheated droplet detectors at the RPI

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, F; Ramos, A. R.; Fernandes, A C; Felizardo, M.; Morlat, T.; Marques, J. G.; F. Giuliani; Girard, T. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Superheated droplet detectors (SDDs) have been investigated for applications in neutron dosimetry and spectrometry. Varying the detector temperature, it is possible to change the neutron energy detection threshold of SDDs, thus allowing the use of a single detector to measure neutrons of different energy, without any change of the experimental setup. However, the neutron threshold energy versus temperature curves have to be experimentally determined. The determination of the calibration curve...

  9. Absolute calibration of a charge-coupled device camera with twin beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the absolute calibration of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera by exploiting quantum correlation. This method exploits a certain number of spatial pairwise quantum correlated modes produced by spontaneous parametric-down-conversion. We develop a measurement model accounting for all the uncertainty contributions, and we reach the relative uncertainty of 0.3% in low photon flux regime. This represents a significant step forward for the characterization of (scientific) CCDs used in mesoscopic light regime.

  10. The ITER neutral beam test facility : Design overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame an EFDA contract, the CEA, in close collaboration with the Consorzio RFX, Padua, FZK, Karlsruhe and IPP Garching, is carrying out a design study of the ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) with the aim to procure in time, a dedicated test bed to optimise the performances of the first ITER neutral beam injector and to demonstrate its reliability. The main specifications that have to be considered for the study of the NBTF genetic design and general infrastructure are first an easy maintenance of components, an easy man access and also integration of the required full set of beam diagnostics. A specific inspection tool is developed that allows remote visual inspection of the source ground grid and beam line components to be performed under vacuum. Associated safety requirements are also considered (pulses in H2 and D2, X-ray and neutron production). The current design of the dedicated beam line vessel allows mixed vertical and horizontal access to the beam line components during phase 1 of the operation plan (20s short pulses). The split two halves cylindrical cryopumps, developed by FZK, will be further re-assembled in the final ITER reference cylindrical configuration for phase 2 of the operation plan: long pulses at full power. The 4.5 K cryopanels must be periodically regenerated at 90 K. Both regeneration and cool-down phases of the cryopanels are time consuming optimised. The cryosystem that supply the necessary cryogens to the cryopump is designed using existing industrial 4.5 K cold power and 80 K helium gas refrigenerators. A total power of about 50 MW will have to be removed during the two NBTF operation stages of short (20 s) and long (∼ 1 hour) pulses. for both scenarios, the cooling plant is designed for cooling down the high and low voltage components, the cryoplant and associated power supply systems. (author)

  11. Experimental program with beam in TESLA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish a technical basis for a high energy e+e- collider using the superconducting RF technology, the test of a string of 32 cavities with beam at an accelerating gradient of 15 MV/m is planned in an installation at DESY. Several experiments with beam in the TTF linac will be performed. The dissipated HOM power at helium temperature is a key issue for TESLA, its estimation requires careful calorimetric measurements and the full charge injector. Bunch wake potentials can be estimated with bunch charges of at least 1 to 2 nC. Multibunch measurements require a beam of a few hundreds of these bunches. The beam will be injected either on axis or off axis. RF steering due to couplers will be estimated by measuring the beam displacement for different RF phase settings. The expected resolution is well below the TESLA specification. The acceleration of dark currents will be observed for different settings of the focusing elements. 7 figs., 1 tab., 3 refs

  12. Hearing Tests on Mobile Devices: Evaluation of the Reference Sound Level by Means of Biological Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; Grysiński, Tomasz; Kręcicki, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Background Hearing tests carried out in home setting by means of mobile devices require previous calibration of the reference sound level. Mobile devices with bundled headphones create a possibility of applying the predefined level for a particular model as an alternative to calibrating each device separately. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the reference sound level for sets composed of a mobile device and bundled headphones. Methods Reference sound levels for Android-based mobile devices were determined using an open access mobile phone app by means of biological calibration, that is, in relation to the normal-hearing threshold. The examinations were conducted in 2 groups: an uncontrolled and a controlled one. In the uncontrolled group, the fully automated self-measurements were carried out in home conditions by 18- to 35-year-old subjects, without prior hearing problems, recruited online. Calibration was conducted as a preliminary step in preparation for further examination. In the controlled group, audiologist-assisted examinations were performed in a sound booth, on normal-hearing subjects verified through pure-tone audiometry, recruited offline from among the workers and patients of the clinic. In both the groups, the reference sound levels were determined on a subject’s mobile device using the Bekesy audiometry. The reference sound levels were compared between the groups. Intramodel and intermodel analyses were carried out as well. Results In the uncontrolled group, 8988 calibrations were conducted on 8620 different devices representing 2040 models. In the controlled group, 158 calibrations (test and retest) were conducted on 79 devices representing 50 models. Result analysis was performed for 10 most frequently used models in both the groups. The difference in reference sound levels between uncontrolled and controlled groups was 1.50 dB (SD 4.42). The mean SD of the reference sound level determined for devices within the same model

  13. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants are calibrated at every refueling outage and surveillance tested once every month or once every quarter depending on the plant. These activities usually involve extensive manpower and personnel radiation exposure, and have the potential of producing maintenance-induced errors, reactor trips, and wear and tear of the plant equipment. A search of the Licensee Event Report (LER) database has shown that a notable number of instrumentation problems and plant trips have been caused by hands-on maintenance and testing activities. Furthermore, a review of historical calibration and surveillance data from nuclear power plants has revealed that less than ten percent of instrument channels are normally found to drift out of tolerance over a typical fuel cycle of eighteen months. That is, a majority of the effort currently spent on calibration of instrument channels can be saved if a means is established to identify ahead of time those instrument channels which drift, and must therefore be calibrated. (author)

  14. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy

  15. Calibration and energy resolution study of a high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer with monochromatic proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, F.; Maggiore, M.; Velyhan, A.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Margarone, D.; Parasiliti Palumbo, G.; Pisciotta, P.; Rifuggiato, D.; Romano, F.; Russo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Stancampiano, C.; Tramontana, A.; Amato, A.; Caruso, G. F.; Salamone, S.

    2014-10-01

    A high energy resolution, high dispersive power Thomson Parabola Spectrometer has been developed at INFN-LNS in order to characterize laser-driven beams up to 30- 40 MeV for protons. This device has parallel electric and magnetic field to deflect particles of a certain charge-to-mass ratio onto parabolic traces on the detection plane. Calibration of the deflection sector is crucial for data analysis, namely energy determination of analysed beam, and to evaluate the effective energy limit and resolution. This work reports the study of monochromatic proton beams delivered by the TANDEM accelerator at LNS (Catania) in the energy range between 6 and 12.5 MeV analysed with our spectrometer which allows a precise characterization of the electric and magnetic deflections. Also the energy and the Q/A resolutions and the energy limits have been evaluated proposing a mathematical model that can be used for data analysis, for the experimental set up and for the device scalability for higher energy.

  16. Calibration of UHF Sensors for GIS: Comparison of Different Methods and Testing of a Calibration System Based on a Conical Antenna%Calibration of UHF Sensors for GIS: Comparison of Different Methods and Testing of a Calibration System Based on a Conical Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Gautschi; Pierre Bertholet

    2011-01-01

    Different methods of calibrating ultra high frequency(UHF) sensors for gas-insulated substations (GIS) were investigated in the past. The first approach was to use strip lines, triplates and TEM calibration cells. These cells had already been in use for years for example to test the electromagnetic compatibility of electronic devices. The smaller the size of the cell, the higher its bandwidth-but the cell should be large enough to not disturb the electric field with the installed sensor under test. To overcome this problem, a calibration procedure using a gigahertz transverse e- lectromagnetic(GTEM) test cell and a pulsed signal source were introduced in 1997. Although this procedure has many advantages and is easy to understand, measurements show several shortcomings of this calibration method. To overcome the disadvantages of the known systems, a calibration cell using a monopole cone antenna and a metallic ground plane were developed and tested. The UHF sensor was placed in a region with minimum distortion of the elec- tric field due to its installation. Experience shows that the new method for calibrating UHF sensors is necessary in or- der to overcome the limits in the calibration of large sensors and to suppress the propagation of higher order modes and reflections. Due to its surprisingly simple structure, its low price and low overall measurement uncertainty, it is the preferred method for calibrating UHF sensors for GIS applications.

  17. Concept of electron beam diagnostic for the VUV SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF FEL) at DESY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam trajectory inside an undulator with integrated strong focusing quadrupoles is disturbed by any kind of magnetic or alignment errors of the guiding field. The electron and photon beam must overlap over the entire undulator length to achieve an optimum output of the TTF FEL (A VUV Free Electron Laser at the TESLA Test Facility: Conceptual Design Rep., DESY Print TESLA-FEL 95-03, Hamburg, 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to measure and correct the electron beam trajectory. The orbit correction in the undulator is based on two principles of orbit measurement. The absolute position of the electron beam inside the undulator can be measured at 4 points of support with calibrated monitors. The second method of measuring the beam trajectory is a beam based alignment algorithm which uses relative orbit changes at 30 distributed beam position monitors along the undulator. A mismatching of the optic at the entrance of the undulator can be seen by measuring the beam size at different locations along the undulator

  18. Concept of electron beam diagnostic for the VUV SASE FEL at the TESLA Test Facility (TTF FEL) at DESY

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, U; Schmidt, G

    1999-01-01

    The electron beam trajectory inside an undulator with integrated strong focusing quadrupoles is disturbed by any kind of magnetic or alignment errors of the guiding field. The electron and photon beam must overlap over the entire undulator length to achieve an optimum output of the TTF FEL (A VUV Free Electron Laser at the TESLA Test Facility: Conceptual Design Rep., DESY Print TESLA-FEL 95-03, Hamburg, 1995). Therefore, it is necessary to measure and correct the electron beam trajectory. The orbit correction in the undulator is based on two principles of orbit measurement. The absolute position of the electron beam inside the undulator can be measured at 4 points of support with calibrated monitors. The second method of measuring the beam trajectory is a beam based alignment algorithm which uses relative orbit changes at 30 distributed beam position monitors along the undulator. A mismatching of the optic at the entrance of the undulator can be seen by measuring the beam size at different locations along the...

  19. Beam tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices and a silicon strip preshower detector for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benhammou, Ya; Blick, A M; Bloch, P; Bonamy, P; Bourotte, J; Buiron, L; Cavallari, F; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Dafinei, I; Davies, G; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Diemoz, M; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Donskov, S V; Mamouni, H E; Ercoli, C; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Gautheron, F; Géléoc, M; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Inyakin, A V; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kirn, T; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Longo, E; MacKay, C K; Martin, E; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Organtini, G; Paoletti, S; Pansart, J P; Peigneux, J P; Puljak, I; Qian, S; Reid, E; Renker, D; Rosowsky, A; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schneegans, M; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Sillou, D; Singovsky, A V; Sougonyaev, V; Soric, I; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1998-01-01

    Tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices carried out in high-energy electron beams in 1996, using new crystals, new APDs and an improved test set-up, confirm that an energy resolution of better than 0 .6% at 100 GeV can be obtained when the longitudinal uniformity of the struck crystal is adequate. Light loss measurements under low dose irradiation are reported. It is shown that there is no loss of energy resolution after irradiation and that the calibration change due to light loss can be tracked with a precision monitoring system. Finally, successuful tests with a preshower device, equipped wi th silicon strip detector readout, are described.

  20. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willegaignon, José; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq) and 18F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. PMID:25798005

  1. Dose calibrator linearity test: 99mTc versus 18F radioisotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Willegaignon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing 18F with 99mTc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and Methods: The test was performed with sources of 99mTc (62 GBq and 18F (12 GBq whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: Mean deviations between experimental and theoretical 99mTc and 18F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79% and 0.92 (± 1.19%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the 99mTc source as measured with the equipment pre-calibrated to measure 99mTc and 18F was 3.42 (± 0.06, and for the 18F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05, values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: The results of the linearity test using 99mTc were compatible with those obtained with the 18F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in 18F acquisition suggest 99mTc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use 18F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service.

  2. Polarization leakage in epoch of reionization windows -- II. Primary beam model and direction dependent calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Asad, K M B; Jelić, V; Ghosh, A; Brentjens, M A; de Bruyn, A G; Ciardi, B; Iliev, I T; Mevius, M; Pandey, V N; Yatawatta, S; Zaroubi, S

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of diffuse polarized emission into Stokes I caused by the polarized primary beam of the instrument might mimic the spectral structure of the 21-cm signal coming from the epoch of reionization (EoR) making their separation difficult. Therefore, understanding polarimetric performance of the antenna is crucial for a successful detection of the EoR signal. Here, we have calculated the accuracy of the nominal model beam of LOFAR in predicting the leakage from Stokes I to Q, U by comparing them with the corresponding leakage of compact sources actually observed in the 3C295 field. We have found that the model beam has errors of less than or equal to 10% on the predicted levels of leakage of ~1%, i. e. if the leakage is taken out perfectly using this model the leakage will reduce to $10^{-3}$ of the Stokes I flux. If similar levels of accuracy can be obtained in removing leakage from Stokes Q, U to I, we can say, based on the results of our previous paper, that the removal of this leakage using this beam mod...

  3. Construction and calibration of a fast superconducting bolometer for molecular beams detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tin bolometer evaporated on an anodized aluminum block is described. The noise equivalent power of the bolometer is of 10-13 watt Hzsup(-1/2) and the time constant is 3μ sec. The bolometer is a suitable fast molecular beam detector

  4. Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

  5. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring: first test with proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solevi, Paola; Muñoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector concepts proposed, Compton cameras are employed to detect prompt gammas and represent a valid candidate for real-time range verification. We present the first on-beam test of MACACO, a Compton telescope (multi-layer Compton camera) based on lanthanum bromide crystals and silicon photo-multipliers. The Compton telescope was first characterized through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The detector linearity was measured employing 22Na and Am-Be sources, obtaining about 10% deviation from linearity at 3.44 MeV. A spectral image reconstruction algorithm was tested on synthetic data. Point-like sources emitting gamma rays with energy between 2 and 7 MeV were reconstructed with 3–5 mm resolution. The two-layer Compton telescope was employed to measure radiation emitted from a beam of 150 MeV protons impinging on a cylindrical PMMA target. Bragg-peak shifts were achieved via adjustment of the PMMA target location and the resulting measurements used during image reconstruction. Reconstructed Bragg peak profiles proved sufficient to observe peak-location differences within 10 mm demonstrating the potential of the MACACO Compton Telescope as a monitoring device for ion-beam therapy.

  6. First test of BNL electron beam ion source with high current density electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new electron gun with electrostatic compression has been installed at the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) Test Stand at BNL. This is a collaborative effort by BNL and CERN teams with a common goal to study an EBIS with electron beam current up to 10 A, current density up to 10,000 A/cm2 and energy more than 50 keV. Intensive and pure beams of heavy highly charged ions with mass-to-charge ratio < 4.5 are requested by many heavy ion research facilities including NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL and HIE-ISOLDE at CERN. With a multiampere electron gun, the EBIS should be capable of delivering highly charged ions for both RHIC facility applications at BNL and for ISOLDE experiments at CERN. Details of the electron gun simulations and design, and the Test EBIS electrostatic and magnetostatic structures with the new electron gun are presented. The experimental results of the electron beam transmission are given

  7. Calibrating pen dosimeters with and without a phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonato, Fernanda B.C.; Cescon, Claudinei T.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: fbnonato@ipen.b, E-mail: ctcescon@ipen.b, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Thirty one direct reading dosimeters (pen dosimeters) were calibrated and tested in standard beams of gamma radiation, with and without the use of a phantom. The calibration was performed with a Co-60 source and tested with a Cs-137 source. The dose-response curves of the pen dosimeters and their calibration factors for a Co-60 source, with and without the use of a phantom were obtained. The results show the need to calibrate the pen dosimeters with a phantom. (author)

  8. LBT adaptive secondary mirrors: chopping procedures and optical calibration on the test bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briguglio, Runa; Xompero, Marco; Riccardi, Armando

    2012-07-01

    In this paper we will describe the chopping capabilities of the Large Binocular Telescope adaptive secondary mirrors. The chopping testing procedure has been implemented at the Arcetri Test Tower in Florence, Italy, together with the optical testing set-up. The deformable mirror static figuring error, after the flattening calibration at both chopping positions (+/- 25 μm tilt with respect to the nominal position), is measured to be compatible to the figuring at the zero tilt position, i.e. 30 nm RMS. The figuring error measured at a +25 μm tilted position, while the mirror was chopping at 10Hz, is within requirements for seeing limited mode observations.

  9. Test-beam studies of diamond sensors for SLHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uplegger, Lorenzo; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Alagoz, Enver; Andresen, Jeff; Arndt, Kirk; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Marie Brom, Jean; Brosius, Richard; Bubna, Mayur; Chramowicz, John; Cumalat, John; Jensen, Frank; Krzywda, Alex; Kumar, Ashish; Kwan, Simon; Lei, C. M.; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Obertino, Margherita; Osipenkov, Ilya; Perera, Lalith; Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan; Solano, Ada; Tan, Ping; Terzo, Stefano; Tran, Nhan; Robert Wagner, Stephen

    2013-08-01

    Diamond sensors are studied as an alternative to silicon sensors to withstand the high radiation doses that are expected in future upgrades of the pixel detectors for the SLHC. Diamond pixel sensors are intrinsically radiation hard and are considered as a possible solution for the innermost tracker layers close to the interaction point where current silicon sensors cannot cope with the harsh radiation environment.An effort to study possible candidates for the upgrades is undergoing using the Fermilab test-beam facility (FTBF), where diamonds and 3D silicon sensors have been studied. Using a CMS pixel-based telescope built and installed at the FTBF, we are studying charge collection efficiencies for un-irradiated and irradiated devices bump-bonded to the CMS PSI46 pixel readout chip. A description of the test-beam effort and preliminary results on diamond sensors will be presented.

  10. The absolute calibration of semiconductor detectors in the Neutrino beam of CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes a method for the calibration of semiconductor detectors. A nuclear emulsion is exposed to charged particles (muons) immediately in front of the detector. The muons also scatter delta electrons which give traces in the emulsion. The traces can be counted under a microscope. The separation of the muons and delta electrons takes place by angular distribution. The muons are counted per area unit. The flow is related to the signal of the detector and an absolute counting is achieved. (G.B)

  11. Calibration of activation detectors in a monoenergetic neutron beam. Contribution to criticality dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation detectors have been calibrated for critical dosimetry applications. Measurements are made using a monoenergetic neutron flux. 14 MeV neutrons obtained par (D-T) reaction are produced by 150 kV accelerator. Neutron flux determined by different methods leads us to obtain an accuracy better than 6%. The present dosimetric system (Activation Neutron Spectrometer - SNAC) gives few informations in the (10 keV - 2 MeV) energetic range. The system has been improved and modified so that SNAC detectors must be read out by gamma spectrometer

  12. Use of research and test reactors for SPD development and calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to using a research or test reactor for performance studies or calibration of self powered detectors, it is first necessary to fully characterize the reactor environment in the region to be utilized. This presentation details Characterization Experiments performed to quantify research/test reactor core/site parameters as they would apply for use with SPD applications. Methods will be described to: Determine the Westcott parameter, r (T n/T o) , for the region of interest; Characterize the neutron energy spectrum in terms of the cadmium absorption cut-off, i.e., consider neutrons of energy 5kT 0.13 eV to be epithermal neutrons; Determine T n, the effective neutron temperature, in the region of interest; Determine the gamma flux in the region of interest; and, Establish SPD calibration standard detectors.

  13. Highly focused ion beams in integrated circuit testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear microprobe has proven to be a useful tool in radiation testing of integrated circuits. This paper reviews single event upset (SEU) and ion beam induced charge collection (IBICC) imaging techniques, with special attention to damage-dependent effects. Comparisons of IBICC measurements with three-dimensional charge transport simulations of charge collection are then presented for isolated p-channel field effect transistors under conducting and non-conducting bias conditions

  14. Remote sensing of evapotranspiration using automated calibration: Development and testing in the state of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Aaron H.

    Thermal remote sensing is a powerful tool for measuring the spatial variability of evapotranspiration due to the cooling effect of vaporization. The residual method is a popular technique which calculates evapotranspiration by subtracting sensible heat from available energy. Estimating sensible heat requires aerodynamic surface temperature which is difficult to retrieve accurately. Methods such as SEBAL/METRIC correct for this problem by calibrating the relationship between sensible heat and retrieved surface temperature. Disadvantage of these calibrations are 1) user must manually identify extremely dry and wet pixels in image 2) each calibration is only applicable over limited spatial extent. Producing larger maps is operationally limited due to time required to manually calibrate multiple spatial extents over multiple days. This dissertation develops techniques which automatically detect dry and wet pixels. LANDSAT imagery is used because it resolves dry pixels. Calibrations using 1) only dry pixels and 2) including wet pixels are developed. Snapshots of retrieved evaporative fraction and actual evapotranspiration are compared to eddy covariance measurements for five study areas in Florida: 1) Big Cypress 2) Disney Wilderness 3) Everglades 4) near Gainesville, FL. 5) Kennedy Space Center. The sensitivity of evaporative fraction to temperature, available energy, roughness length and wind speed is tested. A technique for temporally interpolating evapotranspiration by fusing LANDSAT and MODIS is developed and tested. The automated algorithm is successful at detecting wet and dry pixels (if they exist). Including wet pixels in calibration and assuming constant atmospheric conductance significantly improved results for all but Big Cypress and Gainesville. Evaporative fraction is not very sensitive to instantaneous available energy but it is sensitive to temperature when wet pixels are included because temperature is required for estimating wet pixel

  15. Beam test of multi-bunch energy compensation system in the accelerator test facility at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam test of the multi-bunch energy compensation system (ECS) was performed using the ΔF method with the 2856±4.327 HMz accelerating structures in the accelerator test facility (ATF) at KEK. The 1.54 GeV S-band linac of the ATF was designed to accelerate a multi-bunch beam the consists of 20 bunches with 2.8 ns spacing. The multi-bunch beam with 2.0 x 1010 electrons/bunch has an energy deviation of about 8.5% at the end of the linac due to transient beam loading without ECS. The ATF linac is the injector of the ATF damping ring (DR), whose energy acceptance is ±0.5%. The beam loading compensation system is necessary in the ATF linac for the successful injection of multi-bunch into DR. The rf system of the linac consists of 8 regular rf units with the SLED system and 2 ECS rf units without the SLED system. The accelerating structures of the regular units are driven at 2856 MHz and the 2 ECS structures are operated with slightly different rf frequencies of 2856±4.327 MHz. In the beam test, we have succeeded in compressing the multi-bunch energy spread within the energy acceptance of the DR using ΔF ECS. The principle of the beam loading compensation system of KEK-ATF and the experimental results are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Multi-scale analysis of cone penetration test (CPT) in a virtual calibration chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Butlanska, Joanna; Arroyo Alvarez de Toledo, Marcos; Gens Solé, Antonio; O'Sullivan, Catherine, LL.M, Ph.D.

    2014-01-01

    A virtual calibration chamber was developed using a three-dimensional (3D) discrete element method (DEM) to perform cone penetration tests (CPTs) on a discrete analogue of Ticino sand. The macroscale response of the DEM model was previously shown to be in good quantitative agreement with that of analogous physical models. In the current study the performance of the model at meso and microscale levels of resolution is examined. The microscale response is examined using particle displacements a...

  17. Quality control tests in dose calibrators used in research laboratories of IPEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to do the intercomparison between two dose calibrators used in research laboratories at IPEN-CNEN / SP, one being the Capinted NPL-CRC, of the Laboratorio de Calibracao de Instrumentos (LCI) do IPEN, and the other Capintec CRC-15R of the Centro de Radiofarmacia (CR). The standard sources used for carrying out the comparing tests between the two laboratories were 57Co, 133Ba and the 137Cs

  18. Fabrication of a current transformer test set calibrator and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A current transformer test set (CTTS) calibrator consisting of capacitors and resistors was fabricated. The calibrator was utilized for the calibration of several commercial CTTSs and covered a ratio error and phase error range up to ±10% and ±10 crad, respectively. From the calculated and measured values of the corresponding readings, the errors in the ratio and phase readings are derived. The calibration results for several commercial CTTSs are presented with the measurement uncertainty and are compared with the specifications provided by the manufacturer. The absolute uncertainty of a CTTS for both the ratio and the phase for the entire investigated range was obtained. The absolute uncertainty for the ratio error range of –0.1% to +0.05% was found to be less than 10 × 10−6 and the absolute uncertainty of the phase error range of –0.1 to +0.1 crad was not more than 6 µrad. (paper)

  19. Calibration, performance and type testing of personal dosemeters used in ionising-radiation applications in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boziari, A; Hourdakis, C J

    2007-01-01

    Active Personal Dosemeters (APDs) are widely used in real-time personal dosimetry. Their performance, operational characteristics and limitations, as well as their calibration should be routinely checked to assure satisfactory operation and safe use. This study summarises the results of such type tests and calibrations performed in almost 4750 dosemeters at Ionising Radiation Calibration Laboratory (HIRCL) of Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). About 13.8% of the pencil type and 4.3% of the electronic dosemeters were found to be out of limits of acceptable performance. For the pencil type dosemeters, the mean calibration factor (CF+/-SD) for high- and low-dose categories was found to be 1.014+/-0.102 (range 0.793-1.458) and 0.995+/-0.059 (range 0.794-1.311), respectively. Of these >85% of them had reproducibility better than 90%, while <1% showed remarkable non-linearity and approximately 10% of them failed to retain the dose reading within the limits after 24 h. For the electronic dosemeters, the mean CF was 1.034+/-0.046 (range 0.967-1.238). The majority of them showed good reproducibility and linearity results while, after irradiation, the dose readings were not shifted through time. The energy response varies with the dosemeter type, reaching in one dosemeter type down to 50%. Both electronic and pencil did not showed electronic equilibrium problems. PMID:17185312

  20. Beam tests on a proton linac booster for hadron therapy

    CERN Document Server

    De Martinis, C; Berra, P; Birattari, C; Calabretta, L; Crandall, K; Giove, D; Masullo, M R; Mauri, M; Rosso, E; Rovelli, A; Serafini, L; Szeless, Balázs; Toet, D Z; Vaccaro, Vittorio G; Weiss, M; Zennaro, R

    2002-01-01

    LIBO is a 3 GHz modular side-coupled proton linac booster designed to deliver beam energies up to 200 MeV, as required for the therapy of deep seated tumours. The injected beam of 50 to 70 MeV is produced by a cyclotron like those in several hospitals and research institutes. A full-scale prototype of the first module with an input/output energy of 62/74 MeV, respectively, was designed and built in 1999 and 2000. Full power RF tests were carried out successfully at CERN using a test facility at LIL at the end of the year 2000. In order to prove the feasibility of the acceleration process, an experimental setup with this module was installed at the INFN Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (LNS) in Catania during 2001. The superconducting cyclotron provided the 62 MeV test beam. A compact solid-state RF modulator with a 4 MW klystron, made available by IBA-Scanditronix, was put into operation to power the linac. In this paper the main features of the accelerator are reviewed and the experimental results obtained duri...

  1. Trigger and DAQ in the Combined Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Dobson, M; Padilla, C

    2004-01-01

    Introduction During the Combined Test Beam the latest prototype of the ATLAS Trigger and DAQ system is being used to support the data taking of all the detectors. Further development of the TDAQ subsystems benefits from the direct experience given by the integration in the beam test. Support of detectors for the Combined Test Beam All ATLAS detectors need their own detector-specific DAQ development. The readout electronics is controlled by a Readout Driver (ROD), custom-built for each detector. The ROD receives data for events that are accepted by the first level trigger. The detector-specific part of the DAQ system needs to control the ROD and to respond to commands of the central DAQ (e.g. to "Start" a run). The ROD module then sends event data to a Readout System (ROS), a PC with special receiver modules/buffers. At this point the data enters the realm of the ATLAS DAQ and High Level Trigger system, constructed from Linux PCs connected with gigabit Ethernet networks. Most ATLAS detectors, representing s...

  2. Beam Test Results of the GlueX Forward Calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Kevin; Moriya, Kei; Shepherd, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    GlueX is an experiment to begin running in the near future at Jefferson Lab. Our research group is responsible for the forward calorimeter (FCAL) that is designed to measure the energy of photons produced from the decays of mesons. Recently, we conducted a beam test at Jefferson Lab using a prototype of the FCAL. Its goal was to experimentally verify the energy resolution of the FCAL as a function of beam energy. The prototype was tested with recoil electrons ranging in energy from 113MeV to 277MeV. We obtained the resolution by comparing the reconstructed energy to the known energy. In addition, we corrected our measured resolution for multiple scattering and energy loss based on a GEANT4 simulation of the prototype. Another important goal of the beam test was to measure the timing resolution of the channels on our flash analog to digital converters (fADCs). For GlueX, we need to require the timing resolution to be much less than the bunch spacing (2ns). The results of our studies indicate that the energy resolution of the FCAL is consistent with our predictions. We also found the timing resolution as a function of signal size and the results agreed with a similar study. For signals of about at least 75mV, the timing resolution achieved was significantly lower than 2ns.

  3. Extremely Low-Stress Triaxiality Tests in Calibration of Fracture Models in Metal-Cutting Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebek, František; Kubík, Petr; Petruška, Jindřich; Hůlka, Jiří

    2016-04-01

    The cutting process is now combined with machining, milling, or drilling as one of the widespread manufacturing operations. It is used across various fields of engineering. From an economical point of view, it is desirable to maintain the process in the most effective way in terms of the fracture surface quality or minimizing the burr. It is not possible to manage this experimentally in mass production. Therefore, it is convenient to use numerical computation. To include the crack initiation and propagation in the computations, it is necessary to implement a suitable ductile fracture criterion. Uncoupled ductile fracture models need to be calibrated first from fracture tests when the test selection is crucial. In the present article, there were selected widespread uncoupled ductile fracture models calibrated with, among others, an extremely low-stress triaxiality test realized through the compression of a cylinder with a specific recess. The whole experimental program together with the cutting process experiment were carried out on AISI 1045 carbon steel. After the fracture models were calibrated and the cutting process was simulated with their use, fracture surfaces and force responses from computations were compared with those experimentally obtained and concluding remarks were made.

  4. Calibration of Avent Wind IRIS SN 01030167

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement un...

  5. Electron beam dosimetry. Calibration and use of plane parallel chambers following IAEA TRS-381 recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using different plane parallel chamber types (NACP-02, PTW Roos and PTW Markus), and a cylindrical chamber NE-2571 as reference, the IAEA TRS-381 Code of Practice has been compared with the AAPM TG-39 dosimetry protocol for plane parallel chambers. ND,airpp was determined following the 60Co in-phantom method and the electron beam method described in TRS-381, using water, PMMA and RMI-457 Solid Water phantoms. Differences were smaller than 0.5% between the two methods except for the PTW Roos chamber where the discrepancy was about 1.5%. The absorbed dose to water was determined according to the procedures and data of each protocol for electron beams between 4 and 18 MeV. Differences in absorbed dose were less than 1% when measurements were made in water, but a deviation of up to 2% was found between TRS-381 and TG-39 when PMMA phantoms were used. To validate the results obtained and to investigate differences between plastic and water phantoms in electron beam dosimetry, the scaling factor Cpl and the fluence correction factor hm for PMMA and solid water RMI-457 were measured and compared to the data in TRS-381. Good agreement was found for Cpl, but only when the plastics density were taken into account. The experimental values of hm have a large uncertainty but for PMMA a trend for hm being lower than in TRS-381 has been obtained. (author)

  6. Performance Test of High Heat Flux Test Facility for the Calorimetry and Beam Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Heat Load Test facility, KoHLT-EB (Electron Beam) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering in Korea. The ITER Neutral Beam Duct Liner (NBDL) was fabricated and tested to qualify the thermocouple fixation method for the temperature measurement during a direct collision of the high-power neutral beam during ITER operation. The NBDL is CuCrZr panels, which are actively water cooled using deep drilled channels. To perform the profile test, the assessment for the possibility of an electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the result of absorbed power for that profile before the test start is needed. To assess the possibility of Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of a Gaussian heat load profile, small calorimetry was manufactured to simulate a real heat profile in the neutral beam duct liner, and this calorimetry has two cooling channel with five thermocouples, which is the same as NBDL. Preliminary analyses with ANSYSCFX using a 3D model were performed with the calorimetry model. The heating area was modeled to be 60 mm x 250 mm. The simulated heat flux is 0.5 - 1.2 MW/m''2 at 0.75 kg/sec of the water flow rate. A steady heat flux test was performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile. With a thermohydraulic analysis and heat load test, the Gaussian heat profile will be confirmed for this calorimetry and NBDL mockup. The Korean heat load test facility will be used to qualify the specifications of various plasma facing components in fusion devices. To conduct a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test

  7. Performance of CREAM Calorimeter: Results of Beam Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM), a balloon-borne experiment, is under preparation for a flight in Antarctica at the end of 2004. CREAM is planned to measure the energy spectrum and composition of cosmic rays directly at energies between 1 TeV and 1000 TeV. Incident particle energies will be measured by a transition radiation detector and a sampling calorimeter. The calorimeter was constructed at the University of Maryland and tested at CERN in 2003. Performance of the calorimeter during the beam tests is reported

  8. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3x1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme

  9. Test beam results of the ATLAS electromagnetic calorimeter prototype modules

    CERN Document Server

    Maslennikov, A L

    2002-01-01

    The pre-series modules of the future ATLAS liquid argon electromagnetic calorimeter (the LHC project) have been tested in 1999-2000 with electron beams at CERN SPS. Detailed results of these tests are presented, including the performance of ATLAS-like electronics. Energy resolution of better than 9.5%/ root E (barrel) and 10.5-12.5%/ root E (end-cap) is obtained. Angular resolution measured ( asymptotically equal to 50 mrad/ root E, end-cap) also fits to physics requirements.

  10. RFI hydrogen beam source system for materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Radio Frequency Induction (RFI) ion source system has been designed, constructed and tested for integration as a fast rise time (≅100μsec), long pulse to CW heat source for the Sandia National Laboratories Plasma and Materials Test Facility (PMTF). The ion source system to be described is capable of producing a 40kV, 20A hydrogen beam and providing a uniform heat flux of up to 2.0 kWatt/cm/sup 2/ at targets, with areas in excess of 100cm/sup 2/, located ≅4. meters from the accelerator. An intense plasma is produced in the RFI ion source by inductive coupling of RF energy at a frequency of 1.5MHz to plasma electrons which are collisionally heated and maintain the discharge. Since no hot cathode structures are required with this plasma production techniques, source impurities are reduced and system control and reliability is enhanced. Source current density and extracted beam current is determined for a given source geometry, solely by the quantity of RF power coupled to the source. The beam current is thus controlled by the amplitude to the low level oscillator feeding the PA. Previous RFI sources we have built have been operated to extractable hydrogen or deuterium current densities of up to 500mA/cm/sup 2/ and have provided measured beam species fractions of 72/17/11% for H/sup +//H/sub 2//sup +//H/sub 3//sup +/, respectively, during 80k Volt extraction tests at LBL

  11. Simulation of Particle Fluxes at the DESY-II Test Beam Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of this Master's thesis ''Simulation of Particle Fluxes at the DESY-II Test Beam Facility'' the test beam generation for the DESY test beam line was studied in detail and simulated with the simulation software SLIC. SLIC uses the Geant4 toolkit for realistic Monte Carlo simulations of particles passing through detector material.After discussing the physics processes relevant for the test beam generation and the principles of the beam generation itself, the software used is introduced together with a description of the functionality of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation of the test beam line follows the sequence of the test beam generation. Therefore, it starts with the simulation of the beam bunch of the synchrotron accelerator DESY-II, and proceeds step by step with the single test beam line components. An additional benefit of this thesis is the provision of particle flux and trajectory maps, which make fluxes directly visible by following the particle tracks through the simulated beam line. These maps allow us to see each of the test beam line components, because flux rates and directions change rapidly at these points. They will also guide the decision for placements of future test beam line components and measurement equipment.In the end, the beam energy and its spread, and the beam rate of the final test beam in the test beam area were studied in the simulation, so that the results can be compared to the measured beam parameters. The test beam simulation of this Master's thesis will serve as a key input for future test beam line improvements.

  12. Beam intensity monitoring for the external proton beam at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three different intensity monitors were tested in the external proton beam at LAMPF, and together cover the entire range of beam currents available. A 800 kg Faraday cup was installed and used to measure the absolute intensity to better than 1 percent for beam currents up to several nanoamperes. A high gain ion chamber was used as part of the calibration procedure for the Faraday cup, and was found to be useful when monitoring very small beam intensities, being reliable down to the few picoampere level. A secondary emission monitor was also tested, calibrated, and found to be trustworthy only for beams of greater than 50 pA intensity. (auth)

  13. External audit on output calibration for photon beams (Polish participation in pan-European Radiation Oncology Project for Assurance of Treatment Quality)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TLD audit of photon beams in radiotherapy centres started in June 1994 within the frame of the EROPAQ project. All 55 photon beams in Polish departments have been checked and 18 beams rechecked in the centres , where deviations out of 3% were detected. Out of 55 beams checked in the first run, 87% were found within 3% acceptance limit and 13% showed deviations larger than 3%. No deviations out of 6% have been detected. The results of the national intercomparison for photon beams (90-92) compared to the results of the EROPAQ audit (94-95) show an improvement of the beam calibrations in Poland and illustrate the usefulness of external audits. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  14. ALTEA calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  15. Beam test of a GEM-TPC prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with a GEM-based read out is one option for the central tracker of PANDA at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt. A TPC offers very good momentum resolution and the ability to do particle ID using precise energy-loss measurements. The suppression of ion backflow intrinsic to GEM-based amplification allows us to operate the TPC an ungated, continuous mode, as required by the quasi-continuous beam in the HESR. To show the feasibility of such a detector a prototype with a drift length of 725 mm and an outer radius of 300 mm has been built. The pad plane of the detector has 10254 hexagonal read out pads which are read out using 42 front end cards based on the AFTER-T2K chip. A gas mixture of Ar/CO2 (90/10) was used together with different drift fields ranging from 150 to 350 (V)/(cm). The GEM-TPC was installed and tested in the FOPI spectrometer at GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) with a 2 %X0 Al target being hit by heavy ion beams of Kr at 1.2 AGeV and Au at 1.0 AGeV, respectively. A detailed overview of the detector hardware as well as first experimental data from the beam test is presented.

  16. Fabrication and mechanical testing of glass fiber entangled sandwich beams: A comparison with honeycomb and foam sandwich beams

    OpenAIRE

    Shahdin, Amir; Mezeix, Laurent; Bouvet, Christophe; Morlier, Joseph; Gourinat, Yves

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the fabrication and mechanical testing of entangled sandwich beam specimens and the comparison of their results with standard sandwich specimens with honeycomb and foam as core materials. The entangled sandwich specimens have glass fiber cores and glass woven fabric as skin materials. The tested glass fiber entangled sandwich beams possess low compressive and shear modulus as compared to honeycomb and foam sandwich beams of the same specifications. Although the entang...

  17. Beam test of compact ECR ion source for carbon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion source for medical facilities should have characteristics of easy maintenance, low electric power, good stability and long operation time without maintenance (one year or more). Based on the proto type compact source, a 10 GHz compact ECR ion source with all permanent magnets has been developed. Peaks of the mirror magnetic field along the beam axis are 0.59 T at the extraction side and 0.87 T at the gas injection side, respectively, while the minimum B strength is 0.25 T. The source has a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 295 mm. The result of beam tests shows that a C4+ intensity of 530 μA was obtained under an extraction voltage of 45 kV. This paper describes the design detail and the experimental results for the new source. (author)

  18. Entanglement of atomic beams: Tests of complementarity and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that distinct atomic beams can be entangled when they interact with quantum superpositions of macroscopically separated micromaser fields. Experimentally feasible tests of complementarity are proposed, detecting Ramsey interference (or not) in one and open-quote open-quote Welcher Weg close-quote close-quote information (or not) in the other entangled beam. Available information and fringe contrast can be manipulated using classical and quantum fields. The open-quote open-quote quantum eraser close-quote close-quote is realized in the former case, while it is only a special feature in the latter one. Other applications of entangled atoms are also suggested. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Testing and calibrating analogue inputs to the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Seidler, P; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger is a hardwarebased system which aims to identify objects with high transverse momentum within an overall latency of 2.5 μs. It is composed of a PreProcessor system (PPr) which digitises 7200 analogue input channels, determines the bunch crossing of the interaction, applies a digital noise filter, and provides a fine calibration; and two subsequent digital processors. The PreProcessor system needs various channel dependent parameters to be set in order to provide digital signals which are aligned in time and have proper energy calibration. The different techniques which are used to derive these parameters are described along with the quality tests of the analogue input signals.

  20. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements....

  1. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  2. Calibration of low-energy electron beams from a mobile linear accelerator with plane-parallel chambers using both TG-51 and TG-21 protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to intraoperative radiation therapy led to the development of mobile linear electron accelerators that provide lower electron energy beams than the usual conventional accelerators commonly encountered in radiotherapy. Such mobile electron accelerators produce electron beams that have nominal energies of 4, 6, 9 and 12 MeV. This work compares the absorbed dose output calibrations using both the AAPM TG-51 and TG-21 dose calibration protocols for two types of ion chambers: a plane-parallel (PP) ionization chamber and a cylindrical ionization chamber. Our results indicate that the use of a 'Markus' PP chamber causes 2-3% overestimation in dose-output determination if accredited dosimetry-calibration laboratory based chamber factors are used. However, if the ionization chamber factors are derived using a cross-comparison at a high-energy electron beam, then a good agreement is obtained (within 1%) with a calibrated cylindrical chamber over the entire energy range down to 4 MeV. Furthermore, even though the TG-51 does not recommend using cylindrical chambers at the low energies, our results show that the cylindrical chamber has a good agreement with the PP chamber not only at 6 MeV but also down to 4 MeV electron beams. (note)

  3. The MINOS calibration detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the MINOS calibration detector (CalDet) and the procedure used to calibrate it. The CalDet, a scaled-down but functionally equivalent model of the MINOS Far and Near detectors, was exposed to test beams in the CERN PS East Area during 2001-2003 to establish the response of the MINOS calorimeters to hadrons, electrons and muons in the range 0.2-10GeV/c. The CalDet measurements are used to fix the energy scale and constrain Monte Carlo simulations of MINOS

  4. Status of the realization of the neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are required to deliver 16.5 MW of additional heating power to the plasma, accelerating negative ions up to -1 MV with a beam current of 40A lasting up to 1 hour. Since these outstanding requirements were never achieved all together so far, the realization of a Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF), called PRIMA, currently under construction in Padova, was launched with the aim to test the operation of the NB injector and to study the relevant physical and technological issues, in advance to the implementation in ITER. Two projects are under development: MITICA and SPIDER. MITICA is a full scale prototype of the ITER NB injector; the design is based on a similar scheme and layout, with the same power supply system and also the control and protection systems are being designed according to the ITER rules and constraints. The HV components are procured by JADA; the low voltage ones and the injector are procured by F4E. SPIDER project is an ion source with the same characteristics of the ITER one, specifically addressed to study the issues related to the RF operation; for this reason, the beam energy is limited to 100keV. It can generate both Hydrogen and Deuterium Ions; the design includes provisions to filter electrons and also to allow the use of cesium to attain the high values of current density required. SPIDER is procured by F4E and INDA. The construction of PRIMA buildings and auxiliaries, started in autumn 2008, was completed in summer 2015. SPIDER plant systems procurement is well advanced and some systems are under installation or site acceptance tests. In 2016 integrated commissioning and power supply integrated tests will be performed followed by the beginning of the first experimental phase. MITICA design was completed; many procurement contracts have been signed or will be launched in the next months. Installation activity will start in December 2015 with the installation of the first HV power supply components provided

  5. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to be used for calibration and characterization of primary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution, such as Tables G173. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. 1.2 Primary photovoltaic reference cells are calibrated in natural sunlight using the relative spectral response of the cell, the relative spectral distribution of the sunlight, and a tabulated reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is calibrated according to Test Method E816, which requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). Therefore, reference cells calibrated according to this test method are traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method is a technique that may be used ...

  6. Efficiency calibration of the ELBE nuclear resonance fluorescence setup using a proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompler, Erik; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Erhard, Martin; Grosse, Eckart; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd Rudolf; Marta, Michele; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden (Germany); Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Menegazzo, Roberto [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Fueloep, Zsolt; Gyuerky, Gyoergy; Szuecs, Tamas [Atomki, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2009-07-01

    The nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) setup at ELBE uses bremsstrahlung with endpoint energies up to 20 MeV. The setup consists of four 100% high-purity germanium detectors, each surrounded by a BGO escape-suppression shield and a lead collimator. The detection efficiency up to E{sub {gamma}}=12 MeV has been determined using the proton beam from the FZD Tandetron and well-known resonances in the {sup 11}B(p,{gamma}){sup 12}C, {sup 14}N(p,{gamma}){sup 15}O, and {sup 27}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 28}Si reactions. The deduced efficiency curve allows to check efficiency curves calculated with GEANT. Future photon-scattering work can be carried out with improved precision at high energy.

  7. Planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade: beam tests results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of planar silicon pixel sensors, in development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades, has been examined in a series of beam tests at the CERN SPS facilities since 2009. Salient results are reported on the key parameters, including the spatial resolution, the charge collection and the charge sharing between adjacent cells, for different bulk materials and sensor geometries. Measurements are presented for n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated with a range of fluences and for p-type silicon sensors with various layouts from different vendors. All tested sensors were connected via bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. The tests reveal that both n-type and p-type planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after the lifetime fluence expected at the HL-LHC.

  8. Cuban laboratory proficiency test for calibration of well-type chambers using two types of HDR 192Ir sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proficiency test by inter-laboratory comparisons is the commonly accepted procedure both for validation of the testing methods and assuring the quality of the calibration undertaken by the competence laboratories. The Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) of Cuba is located at the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR). The SSDL has recently implemented the calibration methodology of well-type chambers using the High Dose Rate 192Ir sources under activities of the technical co-operation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency. The reference standard of CPHR is traceable to the primary standard of the German National Metrology Institute (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt - PTB). The method used by the secondary laboratory follows the Technical Document 1274. On this method the source available is measured in a well-type chamber calibrated against the primary standard. Because there is no HDR afterloader at the SSDL, the calibration of the client source can be done only in the hospital set-up. The user's chamber is calibrated by means of a calibrated source. This method has the advantage that the measurement set-up is simplified but problems can arise from the use of different source designs during calibration of the secondary standard at the primary laboratory and calibration of the user's chambers at the hospital set-up. The variation of the calibration coefficient of the PTW 33004 chamber due to the use of different sources and adapters has already been measured experimentally. The larger differences can be found near 4%. All those facts reinforced the idea to conduct a proficiency test to demonstrate that the calibration procedure used by SSDL can be applied in practice and will not lead to the incorrect calibration coefficient within the stated uncertainty

  9. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, H.M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line.

  10. On-line testing of calibration of process instrumentation channels in nuclear power plants. Phase 2, Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear industry is interested in automating the calibration of process instrumentation channels; this report provides key results of one of the sponsored projects to determine the validity of automated calibrations. Conclusion is that the normal outputs of instrument channels in nuclear plants can be monitored over a fuel cycle while the plant is operating to determine calibration drift in the field sensors and associated signal conversion and signal conditioning equipment. The procedure for on-line calibration tests involving calculating the deviation of each instrument channel from the best estimate of the process parameter that the instrument is measuring. Methods were evaluated for determining the best estimate. Deviation of each signal from the best estimate is updated frequently while the plant is operating and plotted vs time for entire fuel cycle, thereby providing time history plots that can reveal channel drift and other anomalies. Any instrument channel that exceeds allowable drift or channel accuracy band is then scheduled for calibration during a refueling outage or sooner. This provides calibration test results at the process operating point, one of the most critical points of the channel operation. This should suffice for most narrow-range instruments, although the calibration of some instruments can be verified at other points throughout their range. It should be pointed out that the calibration of some process signals such as the high pressure coolant injection flow in BWRs, which are normally off- scale during plant operation, can not be tested on-line

  11. Low-cost and versatile thermal test chip for power assemblies assessment and thermometric calibration purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chips specifically designed for thermal tests such as the assessment of packages, are of main interest in Microelectronics. Nevertheless, these test dies are required in relatively low quantities and their price is a limiting factor. This work describes a low-cost thermal test chip, specifically developed for the needs of power electronics. It is based on a poly-silicon heating resistor and a decoupled Pt temperature sensing resistor on the top, allowing to dissipate more than 60 W (170 W/cm2) and reaching temperatures up to 200 oC. Its simple structure allows an easy simulation and modeling. These features have been taken in profit for packaging materials assessment, calibration of temperature measurement apparatus and methods, and validation of thermal models and simulations. - Highlights: → We describe a low-cost thermal test chip developed for power electronics applications. → It integrates a poly-silicon heating resistor and a Pt temperature sensing resistor on the top. → It can dissipate up to 200 W/cm2 and work up to 200 oC. → It has been used for thermal resistance and conductivity measurement of substrates. → It allowed also the calibration of advanced thermometric equipments.

  12. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Advanced Baseline Imager on the GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebair, William; Rollins, C.; Kline, John; Todirita, M.; Kronenwetter, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United State's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first launch of the GOES-R series is planned for October 2016. The GOES-R series satellites and instruments are being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). One of the key instruments on the GOES-R series is the Advance Baseline Imager (ABI). The ABI is a multi-channel, visible through infrared, passive imaging radiometer. The ABI will provide moderate spatial and spectral resolution at high temporal and radiometric resolution to accurately monitor rapidly changing weather. Initial on-orbit calibration and performance characterization is crucial to establishing baseline used to maintain performance throughout mission life. A series of tests has been planned to establish the post launch performance and establish the parameters needed to process the data in the Ground Processing Algorithm. The large number of detectors for each channel required to provide the needed temporal coverage presents unique challenges for accurately calibrating ABI and minimizing striping. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on ABI over the six-month Post Launch Test period and the expected performance as it relates to ground tests.

  13. Beam tests of the balloon-borne ATIC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ganel, O; Ahn, H S; Ampe, J; Bashindzhagian, G L; Case, G; Chang, H; Ellison, S; Fazely, A; Gould, R; Granger, D; Gunasingha, R M; Guzik, T G; Han, Y J; Isbert, J; Kim, H J; Kim, K C; Kim, S K; Kwon, Y; Panasyuk, M Y; Panov, A; Price, B; Samsonov, G; Schmidt, W K H; Sen, M; Seo, E S; Sina, R; Sokolskaya, N; Stewart, M; Voronin, A; Wagner, D; Wang, J Z; Wefel, J P; Wu, J; Zatsepin, V

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon-borne experiment is designed to perform cosmic-ray elemental spectra measurements from 50 GeV to 100 TeV for nuclei from hydrogen to iron. These measurements are expected to provide information about some of the most fundamental questions in astroparticle physics today. ATIC's design centers on an 18 radiation length (X0) deep bismuth germanate (BGO) calorimeter, preceded by a 0.75λint graphite target. In September 1999, the ATIC detector was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN's SPS accelerator within the framework of the development program for the Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS). In December 2000–January 2001 and again in December 2002–January 2003, ATIC flew on the first two of a series of long-duration balloon (LDB) flights from McMurdo Station, Antarctica. We present here results from the 1999 beam tests, including energy resolutions for electrons and protons at several beam energies from 100 to 375 G...

  14. Successful beam tests for ALICE Transition Radiation Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Another round of beam tests of prototypes for the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) for ALICE has been completed and there are already some good results. Mass production of the components of the detector will start early next year.   Top view of the setup for the Transition Radiation Detector prototype tests at CERN.On the left, can be seen the full-scale TRD prototype together with four smaller versions. These are busy days for the TRD (Transition Radiation Detector) team of ALICE. Twenty people - mainly from Germany, but also from Russia and Japan - were working hard during the beam tests this autumn at CERN to assess the performance of their detector prototypes. Analysis of the data shows that the TRD can achieve the desired physics goal even for the highest conceivable multiplicities in lead-lead collisions at the LHC. In its final configuration in the ALICE experiment, the TRD will greatly help in identifying high-momentum electrons, which are 'needles in a haystack' that consists mostly of...

  15. Pre-launch performance testing of the pointing calibration and reference sensor for SIRTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Amanda K.; Young, Erick T.; Huff, Lynn W.; Swanson, Dan

    2003-03-01

    We present the performance results of the as-built Pointing Calibration and Reference Sensor (PCRS) for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). A cryogenic optical (center wavelength 0.55 microns) imager, the PCRS serves as the Observatory's fine guidance sensor by providing an alignment reference between the telescope boresight and the external spacecraft attitude determination system. The PCRS makes precision measurements of the positions of known guide stars; these are used to calibrate measurements from SIRTF's star trackers and gyroscopes to obtain the actual pointing of the SIRTF telescope. The PCRS calibrates out thermomechanical drifts between the 300 K spacecraft bus and the 5.5 K telescope. We have demonstrated that the PCRS meets its centroiding accuracy requirement of 0.14 arcsec 1-σ radial. The PCRS was installed inside the SIRTF Cryo-Telescope Assembly in July, 2000 and has logged over 1000 hours of failure-free operation ever since. We have verified that the PCRS has survived all box-level environmental requirements, including the 1.4 K operating temperature, random vibration, pyroshock, and EMI/EMC, necessary to survive launch and operations over SIRTF's 2.5 year lifetime. Currently, the PCRS is undergoing testing as part of the recently integrated Observatory in preparation for a January, 2003 launch.

  16. Beam test results of high counting rate MRPCs at GSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of electrodes made of semi-conductive glass is an inspiring way of improving the counting rate capability of resistive plate chamber. We developed 6 and 10-gap multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs) with low resistive silicate glass electrodes (bulk resistivity ∼1010 Ωcm) for applications in time-of-flight (TOF) at high counting rates. These two prototypes were tested with secondary irradiation from 2.5 GeV proton beam at GSI. Time resolutions below 90 ps and efficiencies above 90% were obtained at counting rates up to 28 kHz/cm2 for the 10-gap MRPC.

  17. Development and calibration of an on-line aerosol monitor for PHEBUS test FPT1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An on-line aerosol monitor (OLAM2) has been developed and tested for PHEBUS test FPT1. OLAM2 utilizes new detachable fiber optic cables and sapphire light pipes for light transmission between the OLAM and the electronics. This light transmission system was tested and found to provide better signal-to-noise performance than was achieved with the continuous fibers used for test FPT0. An additional advantage of the detachable fiber/light pipe system is ease of installation. Aerosol testing (OLAM calibration) was performed in order to verify adequate signal-to-noise performance of the new fiber optic system over the specified operating conditions and to check the quantitative light attenuation measurements against theoretical predictions. Results of the testing indicated that light extinction measurements obtained during Phebus tests could be used to estimate aerosol volume concentrations, if diamond window fouling can be avoided. OLAM2 was also subjected to a proof pressure test and a long-term thermal stability test. These tests verified the mechanical and thermal integrity of the OLAM within design specifications. Long-term output signal stability was also verified with the system maintained at design temperature and half-design pressure

  18. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report...... accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a...... inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work....

  19. Preliminary Results of Ion Beam Extraction Tests on EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡纯栋

    2012-01-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system is one of the most important auxiliary plasma heating and current driving methods for fusion device. A high power ion beam of 3 MW with 80 keV beam energy in 0.5 s beam duration and a long pulse ion beam of 4 s with 50 keV beam energy ion beam extraction were achieved on the EAST neutral beam injector on the teststand. The preliminary results show that the EAST-NBI system was developed successfully on schedule.

  20. Results of experimental tests and calibrations of the surface neutron moisture measurement probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.T.; Bussell, J.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-13

    The surface neutron moisture probe has been tested both to demonstrate that is is able to operate in the expected in-tank temperature and gamma-ray fields and to provide detector responses to known moisture concentration materials. The probe will properly function in a simultaneous high temperature (80 degrees C) and high gamma radiation field (210 rad/hr)environment. Comparisons between computer model predicted and experimentally measured detector responses to changes in moisture provide a basis for the probe calibration to in-tank moisture concentrations.

  1. Clinical tests of large area thermoluminescent detectors under radiotherapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two-dimensional (2D) thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry systems based on LiF:Mg,Cu,P, together with the newly developed, based on CaSO4:Dy, were tested under radiotherapy beams. The detectors were irradiated in a water phantom with 6 MV X-ray beams from linac and read with a dedicated TLD reader. Dose distributions of differently shaped fields and of a full stereotactic plan were measured and compared with planned distributions. Maximum distance-to-agreement (DTA) in the penumbra region was 1 mm for both LiF:Mg,Cu,P and CaSO4:Dy TL sheets, for all the measured fields. Maximum percentage dose difference (DA%) between planned and measured dose value in low dose gradient regions was up to 11% for LiF:Mg,Cu,P TL sheets and 18% for CaSO4:Dy TL sheets. Concerning the full stereotactic plan, the percentage of points with γ-index below 1 is 54.9% for the LiF:Mg,Cu,P-based foil and 96.9% for the CaSO4:Dy TL sheets. Both 2D TL detector types can be considered to be a promising tool for bi-dimensional dose measurements in radiotherapy. Non-homogeneity, presumably due to the TL sheets manufacture, still affects dosimetric distribution and the agreement between planned and measured distributions may depend on the chosen sample. - Highlights: ► Thermoluminescence films were tested under radiotherapy beams. ► The detectors were irradiated in a water phantom and read with a dedicated TLD reader. ► Dose distributions of treatment plans were measured and compared with planned ones. ► Non-homogeneity, maybe due to sheets manufacture, still affects detectors response. ► If properly corrected, TL films can be considered for 2D dose verification

  2. TESTING AND CALIBRATION OF SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS AND TOOLS – MEANS TO THE QUALITY INCREASE OF SURVEYING WORKS IN CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    JÁN JEŽKO

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces the basic calibration procedures of selected surveyinginstruments and ancillary equipment (digital levels and bar code levelling staffs, totalstations and electronic tacheometers, reflective systems). The results from testing ofthe light influence on work of digital level are presented. The testing procedure andresults of the calibration of horizontal circles of the surveying instruments on thecalibration device in the Slovak Institute of Metrology in Bratislava are intro...

  3. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: The 2004 Test Beam Calorimetry set-up in H8

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Di Girolamo, B; Ferrari, C; Giugni, D; Santoni, C; Wingerter, I

    A new table has been designed, built and finally mounted to position the LAr cryostat in front of the Tilecal modules. The new table has been connected to the existing Tilecal table to be able to move the full set-up along eta values between 0 and 1.2. The table has been conceived by D. Giugni (INFN Milano and now CERN PH) and modeled by G. Braga (INFN Milano) in spring-summer 2003. The realization of the table has been done by an Italian firm (MatecImpianti, Fenegrò, Como) under the supervision of S. Coelli (INFN Milano) starting August 2003. Figure 1 shows the table assembled at the firm (left). Figure 1: The Tilecal-LAr table: in Fenegro (left) and at CERN (right). In November 2003 the table has been delivered to CERN and put in temporary storage to be assembled after the preparation of the Tilecal zone. In February 2004 two technicians from the firm and the team of technician coordinated by C. Ferrari (CERN AB/ATB), assembled, tested and commissioned the table under the supervision of S. Coelli...

  4. Inlet Flow Test Calibration for a Small Axial Compressor Facility. Part 1: Design and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Prahst, P. S.

    1994-01-01

    An axial compressor test rig has been designed for the operation of small turbomachines. The inlet region consisted of a long flowpath region with two series of support struts and a flapped inlet guide vane. A flow test was run to calibrate and determine the source and magnitudes of the loss mechanisms in the inlet for a highly loaded two-stage axial compressor test. Several flow conditions and IGV angle settings were established in which detailed surveys were completed. Boundary layer bleed was also provided along the casing of the inlet behind the support struts and ahead of the IGV. A detailed discussion of the flowpath design along with a summary of the experimental results are provided in Part 1.

  5. Numerical simulation of impact tests on reinforced concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Predictions using advanced concrete model compare well with the impact test results. ► Several important behavior of concrete is discussed. ► Two mesh ways incorporating rebar into concrete mesh is also discussed. ► Gives a example of using EPDC model and references to develop new constitutive models. -- Abstract: This paper focuses on numerical simulation of impact tests of reinforced concrete (RC) beams by the LS-DYNA finite element (FE) code. In the FE model, the elasto-plastic damage cap (EPDC) model, which is based on continuum damage mechanics in combination with plasticity theory, is used for concrete, and the reinforcement is assumed to be elasto-plastic. The numerical results compares well with the experimental values reported in the literature, in terms of impact force history, mid-span deflection history and crack patterns of RC beams. By comparing the numerical and experimental results, several important behavior of concrete material is investigated, which includes: damage variable to describe the strain softening section of stress–strain curve; the cap surface to describe the plastic volume change; the shape of the meridian and deviatoric plane to describe the yield surface as well as two methods of incorporating rebar into concrete mesh. This study gives a good example of using EPDC model and can be utilized for the development new constitutive models for concrete in future.

  6. Beam dynamics simulations and measurements at the Project X Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project X, under study at Fermilab, is a multitask high-power superconducting RF proton beam facility, aiming to provide high intensity protons for rare processes experiments and nuclear physics at low energy, and simultaneously for the production of neutrinos, as well as muon beams in the long term. A beam test facility - former known as High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) - is under commissioning for testing critical components of the project, e.g. dynamics and diagnostics at low beam energies, broadband beam chopping, RF power generation and distribution. In this paper we describe the layout of the test facility and present beam dynamics simulations and measurements.

  7. Beam dynamics simulations and measurements at the Project X Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Scarpine, V.E.; Webber, R.C.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Project X, under study at Fermilab, is a multitask high-power superconducting RF proton beam facility, aiming to provide high intensity protons for rare processes experiments and nuclear physics at low energy, and simultaneously for the production of neutrinos, as well as muon beams in the long term. A beam test facility - former known as High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) - is under commissioning for testing critical components of the project, e.g. dynamics and diagnostics at low beam energies, broadband beam chopping, RF power generation and distribution. In this paper we describe the layout of the test facility and present beam dynamics simulations and measurements.

  8. Proposal for PS beam tests of a fast rich detector

    CERN Document Server

    Séguinot, Jacques; Ypsilantis, Thomas; CERN. Geneva. Detector Research and Development Committee

    1993-01-01

    A full scale prototype Fast RICH detector with pad readout for unambiguous imaging has been constructed for operation in a high luminosity environment. It uses the best photosensitive gas capable of fast response (TEA) or the intrinsically fast solid photocathode (CsI/TMAE), developed specifically for this purpose. It can be used at e+e- or hadron colliders as well as at fixed target facilities. It has time resolution of 20 ns with a 1.3 microsecond pipeline and parallel readout of 4000 pad sectors. Fast digital VLSI electronics has been developed for readout and 24000 channels have been tested. The prototype device (12000 pad channels) is assembled and ready for beam tests in 1993.

  9. INTRODUCING NOVEL GENERATION OF HIGH ACCURACY CAMERA OPTICAL-TESTING AND CALIBRATION TEST-STANDS FEASIBLE FOR SERIES PRODUCTION OF CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nekouei Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in the field of computer-vision have opened the doors of many opportunities for taking advantage of these techniques and technologies in many fields and applications. Having a high demand for these systems in today and future vehicles implies a high production volume of video cameras. The above criterions imply that it is critical to design test systems which deliver fast and accurate calibration and optical-testing capabilities. In this paper we introduce new generation of test-stands delivering high calibration quality in single-shot calibration of fisheye surround-view cameras. This incorporates important geometric features from bundle-block calibration, delivers very high (sub-pixel calibration accuracy, makes possible a very fast calibration procedure (few seconds, and realizes autonomous calibration via machines. We have used the geometrical shape of a Spherical Helix (Type: 3D Spherical Spiral with special geometrical characteristics, having a uniform radius which corresponds to the uniform motion. This geometrical feature was mechanically realized using three dimensional truncated icosahedrons which practically allow the implementation of a spherical helix on multiple surfaces. Furthermore the test-stand enables us to perform many other important optical tests such as stray-light testing, enabling us to evaluate the certain qualities of the camera optical module.

  10. Calibration of straight TXRF analysis - results of an European Round Robin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration of spot measurements pose in general less problems than calibration of straight TXRF measurements as several Round Robin tests show. This is at least matter of discussion for those TXRF users who apply a droplet standard for straight TXRF measurements at the angle of incident where particle and film-type contamination show the same fluorescence intensity - the so-called iso-angle. In order to gain more insight in the differences between several TXRF-equipment types and calibration methods we started an European Round Robin test in 1998 in which twelve firms participated using twenty different TXRF-tools, one RBS- and one Synchrotron-TXRF equipment. In contrast to earlier global Round Robin tests e.g. in 1996 (ISO/TC201/WG2) direct comparison of measurements of the same wafers is possible, because the same wafers were sent to several participants and additional reference measurements were performed at Philips as well. Wafer preparation has been performed by spin-coating of Ni (5 concentrations) and by dipping in Fe-spiked SCI-solution (1 blank, 2 spiking concentrations). From this eight sets were formed containing eight wafers with varying Ni-and Fe-concentrations. All wafers were firstly measured at Philips as reference and then sent to certain participant-groups. The results of this first measurement show that the sets were almost comparable to each other with a standard deviation of < 15 % for the variants Ni-3, Ni-4, Ni-5 and Fe-2, with exception of few single concentrations of some sets. After normalization it is possible to compare all results of these variants with one reference value. The results can be divided in three groups with similar results and one extreme outlier: group 1: RBS-results and those results based on correction with Fit-program from GKSS, calibration with spin-coated wafers (RBS, Radio tracer) and results of one XSA 8000 and of one Rigaku 3750; group 2: Results of all Atomika TXRF 8030, three Atomika TXRF 8010, one TREX630S

  11. Calibration and comparison of the NASA Lewis free-piston Stirling engine model predictions with RE-1000 test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    A free-piston Stirling engine performance code is being upgraded and validated at the NASA Lewis Research Center under an interagency agreement between the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NASA Lewis. Many modifications were made to the free-piston code in an attempt to decrease the calibration effort. A procedure was developed that made the code calibration process more systematic. Engine-specific calibration parameters are often used to bring predictions and experimental data into better agreement. The code was calibrated to a matrix of six experimental data points. Predictions of the calibrated free-piston code are compared with RE-1000 free-piston Stirling engine sensitivity test data taken at NASA Lewis. Resonable agreement was obtained between the code predictions and the experimental data over a wide range of engine operating conditions.

  12. Shuttle Return-to-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at CUBRC - Flow Field Calibration and CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kei Y.; Holden, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses one specific aspect of the Shuttle Retrun-To-Flight IH-108 Aerothermal Test at Calspan-University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC), the test flow field calibration. It showed the versatility of the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock Tunnel (LENS) II wind tunnel for an aerothermal test with unique and demanding requirements. CFD analyses were used effectively to extend the test range at the low end of the Mach range. It demonstrated how ground test facility and CFD synergy can be utilitzed iteratively to enhance the confidence in the fedility of both tools. It addressed the lingering concerns of the aerothermal community on use of inpulse facility and CFD analysis. At the conclusion of the test program, members from the NASA Marshall (MSFC), CUBRC and USA (United Space Alliance) Consultants (The Grey Beards) were asked to independently verify the flight scaling data generated by Boeing for flight certification of the re-designed external tank (ET) components. The blind test comparison showed very good results.

  13. Atmospheric measurement analysis for the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    The Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) was developed by the University of Arizona in the early 2000s to collect ground-based data in support of the calibration and validation of Earth-observing sensors. It uses the reflectance-based approach, which requires measurements of the atmosphere and surface reflectance. The measurements are used in MODTRAN to determine the at-sensor radiance for a given time and date. In the traditional reflectance-based approach, on-site personnel use an automated solar radiometer (ASR) to measure the atmospheric attenuation, but in the case of RadCaTS, an AERONET Cimel sun photometer is used to make atmospheric measurements. This work presents a comparison between the Cimel-derived atmospheric characteristics such as aerosol optical depth, the Angstrom exponent, and the columnar water vapor, to those derived using a traditional solar radiometer. The top-of-atmosphere radiance derived using the Cimel and ASR measurements are compared using Landsat 8 OLI bands as a test case for the period 2012-2014 to determine if any biases exist between the two methodologies.

  14. Calibration of an automated California mastitis test with focus on the device-dependent variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitzel, Anne-Christin; Stamer, Eckhard; Junge, Wolfgang; Thaller, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to estimate the accuracy of the metrology of an installed indirect on-line sensor system based on the automated California Mastitis Test (CMT) with focus on the prior established device-dependent variation. A sensor calibration was implemented. Therefore, seven sensors were tested with similar trials on the dairy research farm Karkendamm (Germany) on two days in July 2011 and January 2012. Thereby, 18 mixed milk samples from serial dilutions were fourfold recorded at every sensor. For the validation, independent sensor records with corresponding lab somatic cell score records (LSCS) in the period between both trials were used (n = 1,357). From these records for each sensor a polynomial regression function was calculated. The predicted SCS (PSCS) was obtained for each sensor with the previously determined regression coefficients. Pearson correlation coefficients between PSCS and LSCS were established for each sensor and ranged between r = 0.57 and r = 0.67. Comparing the results with the correlation coefficients between the on-line SCS (OSCS) and the LSCS (r = 0.20 to 0.57) for every sensor, the calibration showed the tendency to improve the installed sensor system. PMID:25674485

  15. Tests and calibration of the H1 hadronic calorimeter at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the tests and the calibration of the H1 liquid argon calorimeter. We show that, for the modules carried out and tested at LAL, we get an accuracy of the argon gap measurement of 0.6%. The required precision for the hadronic energy calibration is 2%. We analyse the data taken at CERN. The negative crosstalk effect is understood, it is due to the calorimeter mechanical constants and it is corrected for in the analysis. The liquid argon impurity is measured and corrected for also. The calorimeter response is homogeneous and is practicly identical between different modules. A simple model of dead material correction is tuned to CERN data. This model corrects a significant part of the energy loss in dead material but it should be worked out more precisely. Weighting methods are applied to pions data. They improve the performances of the hadronic calorimetry, namely, their resolution and linearity with energy. Finally, we study the leptoquarks signal in H1

  16. Bulk-assay calorimeter: Part 1. System design and operation. Part 2. Calibration and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bulk-Assay Calorimeter is designed to measure the thermal power emitted by plutonium-containing samples. The sample power range of the instrument is 1.4 to 22.4 W. The instrument package consists of the calorimeter measurement chamber, the control circuit power bin, and the data acquisition system. Two sample preheating chambers and five calorimeter canisters for containing the samples are included. A set of 32 test points which monitor voltages at points within the calorimeter and its control circuitry are accessed by the data acquisition system. The use of the test points is described. System start-up and checkout are described. Sample assay and preheater operation procedures are given. The data acquisition system and data analysis software are described. The calorimeter was calibrated at 23 points with heat sources from 1.4 to 22.4 watts. The combined measurement error varied with sample power from 1.4% to 0.1% over the range of calibration measurements. Circuit diagrams for the calorimeter and schematics for the data acquisition system are included

  17. Beam-Based Diagnostics of RF-Breakdown in the Two-Beam Test-Stand in CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    The general outline of a beam-based diagnostic method of RF-breakdown, using BPMs, at the two-beam test-stand in CTF3 is discussed. The basic components of the set-up and their functions in the diagnostic are described. Estimations of the expected error in the measured parameters are performed.

  18. Long-term stability of the Hounsfield unit to electron density calibration curve in cone-beam computed tomography images for adaptive radiotherapy treatment planning

    OpenAIRE

    Takemura, Akihiro; Tanabe, Shogo; Tokai, Mei; Ueda, Shinichi; Noto, Kimiya; Isomura, Naoki; Kojima, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Aim To use cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images for treatment planning, the Hounsfield unit (HU)-electron density (ED) calibration table for CBCT should be stable. The purpose of this study was to verify the stability of the HU values for the CBCT system over 1 year and to evaluate the effects of variation in HU-ED calibration curves on dose calculation. Materials and Methods A tissue characterisation phantom was scanned with the field of view (FOV) of size S (FOV-S) and FOV of size M ...

  19. Testing boron-containing estrogens on human breast cancer cells in a neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the several boron-containing estrogen derivatives synthesized by the authors, they found that 17α-carboranyestradiol (Carbestrol) had estrogenic potency equal to natural estradiol both in female rats and also in human breast cancer cells (cell line MCF-7, estrogen sensitive). The therapy neutron beam from the MITR II nuclear reactor was trained on the MCF-7 cells which had been pre-incubated with various concentrations of Carbestrol. The background γ-radiation was 300 rads. Both the test cells and also the control cells were markedly damaged by the irradiation. Under similar experimental conditions, 300 rads of γ-radiation from a calibrated cesium source were found to produce about half of the cell damage observed in the neutron irradiation experiments. Experiments involving the treatment of estrogen-sensitive cancer cells with a boron-containing estrogen may be more productive when the non-selectively destructive γ-radiation is removed from the neutron beam and also by enriching Carbestrol with 10B

  20. The 50 MeV Beam Test Facility at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new beam line, expected to be built by September 1993, will transport the 50 MeV electron beam from the ALS LINAC into an experimental area to support various R ampersand D activities in the Center for Beam Physics at LBL. A variety of experiments are planned involving the interaction of such a relativistic electron beam with plasmas (plasma focusing), laser beams (generation of femtosecond X-ray pulses) and electromagnetic cavities (Crab cavities etc....). The beam line is designed using the measured emittance and Twiss parameters of the ALS linac. It accommodates the different requirements of the various experiments on the electron beam properties (charge, energy, pulse length) and on the handling of the beam before and after the interaction point. Special attention has also been given to incorporate diagnostics for measuring the beam properties (such as the electron energy, bunch length and charge) needed in the interpretation of the experiments

  1. Design and calibration of a novel transient radiative heat flux meter for a spacecraft thermal test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Chunchen; Hu, Peng; Cheng, Xiaofang

    2016-06-01

    Radiative heat flux measurement is significantly important for a spacecraft thermal test. To satisfy the requirements of both high accuracy and fast response, a novel transient radiative heat flux meter was developed. Its thermal receiver consists of a central thermal receiver and two thermal guarded annular plates, which ensure the temperature distribution of the central thermal receiver to be uniform enough for reasonably applying lumped heat capacity method in a transient radiative heat flux measurement. This novel transient radiative heat flux meter design can also take accurate measurements regardless of spacecraft surface temperature and incident radiation spectrum. The measurement principle was elaborated and the coefficients were calibrated. Experimental results from testing a blackbody furnace and an Xenon lamp show that this novel transient radiative heat flux meter can be used to measure transient radiative heat flux up to 1400 W/m(2) with high accuracy and the response time of less than 10 s. PMID:27370482

  2. Test Beam Data Analysis for a Timepix3 Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Morag

    2016-01-01

    The vertex and tracker detector R&D for a future linear collider (CLICdp) aims at developing new silicon sensor technologies. The EP-LCD group has been helping develop a novel pixel detector chip called the Timepix3 with a very thick active silicon layer (675 μm). This thick detector can be used to reconstruct the track incidence angle using the charge drift-time information. To evaluate the principle, test beam data was taken in October 2015 and June 2016 with the Timepix3 at various angles to the beam. The data was analysed to evaluate the sensors performance in calculating the track incidence angle. The device angle was determined using three methods: the first using the cluster size information, secondly using the timing information, and finally using a multivariate analysis technique. The timing method proved the principle of the Timepix3 track angle measurements but the MVA method was found to give much better results, especially for smaller angles, than the other two methods and requires fewer cal...

  3. The construction and testing of the portable Hg(2+) ultrasonic calibrator for the control of mercury speciation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, Jerzy; Okonska, Anna

    2016-01-15

    During fuel combustion mercury, as Hg(0) and Hg(2+) forms, is emitted to the atmosphere. Effective reduction of mercury emission requires applying speciation systems for emission control and research. An important part of all mercury determination and speciation systems are the calibrators. Calibrators are responsible for the accuracy of mercury determination and, in consequence, the effective reduction of mercury emission. The aim of the work was to construct a portable HgCl2 calibrator. The purpose of the device was the control of mercury speciation systems for continuous measurements and study of HgCl2 sorption. As a result of previously conducted research, the portable Hg(2+) ultrasonic calibrator was designed, constructed and tested. The ultrasonic calibrator generates a stable stream of HgCl2 (RSD=2.8% for CHg=28µg/m(3)). The correlation between theoretical and reading concentration of HgCl2 was R(2)=0.9983. The average recovery of HgCl2 was 95%. The advantages of the ultrasonic Hg(2+) calibrator are: high accuracy and selectivity, low pressure of HgCl2 stream and very low cost of production. The calibrator was successfully tested, both in the laboratory and in the power plant, during a preliminary study on HgCl2 sorption on a fly ash filter. PMID:26592572

  4. Beam test results with the silicon pad detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silicon pad detector, consisting of 16 x 16 silicon diodes (150 x 150 μm pitch), with an integrated fan-out which allows readout using standard micro-strip detector front end electronics, was connected to VA2 low noise chips. The performance of the system with a measured equivalent noise charge of 80 electrons can be compared with realistic pixel detectors for future particle physics experiments. In this work we present detailed experimental study of the charge collection mechanism and the spatial resolution as a function of the impact angle of traversing particles at a 100 GeV test beam at CERN. Comparison with a binary readout scheme, realistically simulated using analog information from our measurements, is done. (orig.)

  5. Precision standard model tests with polarized e+e- beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of polarized electron beams at the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) makes possible the new precision electroweak tests now being performed by the SLC Large Detector (SLD) experiment. One such new technique, the left-right asymmetry measurement, allows remarkably direct measurement of the effective weak mixing angle, sin2 θWeff = 0.2292 ± 0.0009(stat) ± 0.0004(syst). When considered within the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) framework, this result predicts the top mass to be mt = 240-45-20+30+18 GeV where the first errors are experimental and the second reflect a range of possible Higgs mass values from 60 to 1000 GeV

  6. A water calorimeter for on-site absorbed dose to water calibrations in 60Co and MV-photon beams including MRI incorporated treatment equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Prez, Leon; de Pooter, Jacco; Jansen, Bartel; Aalbers, Tony

    2016-07-01

    In reference dosimetry the aim is to establish the absorbed dose to water, D w, under reference conditions. However, existing dosimetry protocols are not always applicable for rapidly emerging new treatment modalities. For primary standard dosimetry laboratories it is generally not feasible to acquire such modalities. Therefore it is strongly desired that D w measurements with primary standards can be performed on-site in clinical beams for the new treatment modalities in order to characterize and calibrate detectors. To serve this need, VSL has developed a new transportable water calorimeter serving as a primary D w standard for 60Co and MV-photons including MRI incorporated treatment equipment. Special attention was paid to its operation in different beam geometries and beam modalities including the application in magnetic fields. The new calorimeter was validated in the VSL 60Co beam and on-site in clinical MV-photon beams. Excellent agreement of 0.1% was achieved with previous 60Co field calibrations, i.e. well within the uncertainty of the previous calorimeter, and with measurements performed in horizontal and vertical MV-photon beams. k Q factors, determined for two PTW 30013 ionization chambers, agreed very well with available literature data. The relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) for D w measurements in 60Co and MV-photons is 0.37%. Calibrations are carried out with a standard uncertainty of 0.42% and k Q -factors are determined with a relative standard uncertainty of 0.40%.

  7. Data acquisition and online monitoring software for CBM test beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is intended to run at the FAIR facility that is currently being built at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany. For testing of future CBM detector and read-out electronics prototypes, several test beam campaigns have been performed at different locations, such as GSI, COSY, and CERN PS. The DAQ software has to treat various data inputs: standard VME modules on the MBS system, and different kinds of FPGA boards, read via USB, Ethernet, or optical links. The Data Acquisition Backbone Core framework (DABC) is able to combine such different data sources with event-builder processes running on regular Linux PCs. DABC can also retrieve the instrumental set-up data from EPICS slow control systems and insert it into the event data stream for later analysis. Vice versa, the DIM based DABC control protocol has been integrated to the general CBM EPICS IOC by means of an EPICS-DIM interface. Hence the DAQ can be monitored and steered with a CSS based operator GUI. The CBM online monitoring analysis is based on the GSI Go4 framework which can directly connect to DABC online data via sockets, or process stored data from list-mode files. A Go4 sub-framework has been implemented to provide possibility of parallel development of analysis code for different sub-detectors groups. This allows divide the Go4 components up into independent software packages that can run either standalone, or together at the beam-time in a full set-up.

  8. Ultrasonic testing of electron beam closure weld on pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the special products manufactured at the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) is a small stainless steel vessel designed to hold a component under high pressure for long periods. The vessel is a thick-walled cylinder with a threaded receptacle into which a plug is screwed and welded after receiving the unit to be tested. The test cavity is then pressurized through a small diameter opening in the bottom and that opening is welded closed. When x-ray inspection techniques did not reveal defective welds at the threaded plug in a pressured vessel, occasional ''leakers'' occurred. With normal equipment tolerances, the electron beam spike tends to wander from the desired path, particularly at the root of the weld. Ultrasonic techniques were used to successfully inspect the weld. The testing technique is based on the observation that ultrasonic energy is reflected from the unwelded screw threads and not from the regions where the threads are completely fused together by welding. Any gas pore or any threaded region outside the weld bead can produce an echo. The units are rotated while the ultrasonic transducer travels in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation and toward the welded end. This produces a helical scan which is converted to a two-dimensional presentation in which incomplete welds can be noted. (U.S.)

  9. Calibration of 5-hole Probe for Flow Angles from Advanced Technologies Testing Aircraft System Flight Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Parameswaran

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigations carried out to calibrate the 5-hole probe for flow angles from advanced technologies testing aircraft system flight data. The flight tests were carriedout with gear up and at nominal mid-centre of gravity location for two landing flap positions, Of= IN and 14°. Dynamic manoeuvres were executed to excite the short period and Dutch roll mode of the aircraft. In addition, pull up, push down and steady sideslip manoeuvres were also carried out. The data compatibility check on the recorded flight data has been carried out using maximum likelihood output error algorithm to estimate the bias, scale factor, and time delay in the pressure measurements from the 5-hole probe mounted on a noseboom in front of aircraft nose . Through a way of kinematic consistency checking, flight-validated scale factors, biases, and time delays are determined for the differential pressure measurements for both angle of attack and angle of sideslip. Also, the dynamic pressure measurement is found to have time delays. Based on the earlier investigations, it is once again confirmed that the measurements of attitude angles, obtained from the inertial platform, clearly indicate time delays referred to the other signals like linear accelerations and angular rates which are measured with the dedicated flight instrumentation package.The identified time delays in attitude angles agreed well with the inertial platform specifications. The estimates of sensitivity coefficients and scale factors from the flight data analysis correlates reasonably well with the manufacturer Rosemount calibration curves for the tested Mach range 0.23-0.53 . The flight data analysis at Mach number of about 0.59 indicateMach dependency for the angle of attack.

  10. Modified calibration protocol evaluated in a model-based testing of SBR flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corominas, Lluís; Sin, Gürkan; Puig, Sebastià; Balaguer, Maria Dolors; Vanrolleghem, Peter A.; Colprim, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to refine the BIOMATH calibration protocol for SBR systems, in particular to develop a pragmatic calibration protocol that takes advantage of SBR information-rich data, defines a simulation strategy to obtain proper initial conditions for model calibration and provide...

  11. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    CERN Document Server

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  12. Measurements in quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams at the EC-IRMM Van der Graaf accelerator for calibration of the UAB PADC based neutron dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, C., E-mail: carles.domingo@uab.ca [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Garcia-Fuste, M.J.; Amgarou, K.; Morales, E.; Castelo, J. [Grup de Fisica de les Radiacions, Departament de Fisica, Edifici C, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    The UAB PADC based neutron dosimeter was designed to have similar dose responses for thermal and for fast neutrons. A set of calibrations with ISO neutron sources and the realistic SIGMA neutron field at IRSN Cadarache showed this behaviour. Nevertheless, a noticeable decrease of the response to epithermal neutrons is expected because of the small values of cross sections for neutrons at this energy range. The EC NUDAME program gave the opportunity to expose several units of our dosimeter to quasi-monoenergetic beams at the IRMM Van der Graaf accelerator for calibration purposes. The revision of the IRSN Cadarache values with an improved uncertainty treatment and the results of the calibration at IRMM Van der Graaf, in relation to the reference values of the neutron source term obtained using our Bonner sphere spectrometer, are presented in this work.

  13. Calibration uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration...... uncertainty was verified from independent measurements of the same sample by demonstrating statistical control of analytical results and the absence of bias. The proposed method takes into account uncertainties of the measurement, as well as of the amount of calibrant. It is applicable to all types of...

  14. Laboratory test simulation for non-flat response calibration of global Earth albedo monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Sehyun; Kim, Sug-Whan; Ryu, Dongok; Hong, Jinsuk; Lockwood, Mike

    2012-09-01

    In this report, we present laboratory test simulation for directional responsivity of a global Earth albedo monitoring instrument. The sensor is to observe the Sun and the Earth, alternately, and measure their shortwave (instrument consists of a broadband scanning radiometer (energy channel instrument) and an imager (visible channel instrument) with ±2° field-of-view. In the case of the energy channel instrument, radiations arriving at the viewing ports from the Sun and the Earth are directed toward the pyroelectric detector via two spherical folding mirrors and a 3D compound parabolic concentrator (CPC). The instrument responsivity is defined by the ratio of the incident radiation input to the instrument output signal. The radiometer's relative directional responsivity needs to be characterized across the field-of-view to assist output signal calibration. For the laboratory test, the distant small source configuration consists of an off-axis collimator and the instrument with adjustable mounts. Using reconstructed 3D CPC surface, the laboratory test simulation for predicting the instrument directional responsivity was conducted by a radiative transfer computation with ray tracing technique. The technical details of the laboratory test simulation are presented together with future plan.

  15. Rorschach test: Italian calibration update about statistical frequencies of responses and location sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Caruson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The remarkable importance of a calibration of a test lies in the formalization of useful statistical norms. In particular, the determination of these norms is of key importance for the Rorschach Test because of it allows objectifying the estimates of the interpretations’ formal qualities, and help to characterize responses consistent with the common perception. The aim of this work is to communicate the new results provided by a study conducted  on Rorschach protocols related to a sample of “non-clinical” subjects. The expert team in Psychodiagnostic of CIFRIC (Italian Center for training, research and clinic in medicine and psychology has carried out the following work identifying the rate at which the details of each card are interpreted by normative sample. The data obtained are systematized in new Location sheets, which refers to the next edition of the "Updated Manual of Locations and Coding of Responses to Rorschach Test".             Considering the Rorschach Test one of the more effective means for the acquaintance of the personality, it appears therefore fundamental to provide the professional, who uses it, with the possibility of accessing updated statistical data that reflect the population of reference, in order to deduce from them reliable and objectively valid indications.

  16. The DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program performance testing laboratory automated calibration verification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Performance Testing Laboratory for the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) resides at the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory (RESL) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). A system has been developed to verify the calibration of Cesium 137 irradiators using a reference class ionization chamber under computer control. The measurement system consists of irradiators, a Victoreen Model 415 ionization chamber, a Keithley Model 617 electrometer, a high voltage power supply, a VAXLAB microVAX II processor controller, a Fluke digital thermometer, a Heise digital barometer and an Optomux interface between the computer and irradiator. The ionization chamber is placed in an irradiation fixture which is affixed to the dosimeter phantom stand. The computer then executes a variety of steps to conduct the irradiation and measurement. The data taken over the last six months indicate that all of the irradiator geometries meet requirements in the governing standards

  17. Calibration and testing of IKU's oil spill contingency and response (OSCAR) model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer modeling system entitled Oil Spill Contingency and Response (OSCAR), was calibrated and tested using a variety of field observations. The objective of the exercise was to establish model credibility and increase confidence in efforts to compare alternate oil spill response strategies, while maintaining a balance between response costs and environmental protection. The key components of the system are IKU's data-based oil weathering model, a three dimensional oil trajectory and chemical fates model, an oil spill combat model, and exposure models for fish, ichthyoplankton, birds, and marine mammals. Most modelled calculations were in good agreement with field observations. One discrepancy was found which could be attributed to an underestimation of wind drift in the current model. 21 refs., 4 tabs., 32 figs

  18. Image calibration and registration in cone-beam computed tomogram for measuring the accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Walter Y. H.; Ngan, Henry Y. T.; Wat, Peter Y. P.; Luk, Henry W. K.; Goto, Tazuko K.; Pow, Edmond H. N.

    2015-02-01

    Medical radiography is the use of radiation to "see through" a human body without breaching its integrity (surface). With computed tomography (CT)/cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), three-dimensional (3D) imaging can be produced. These imagings not only facilitate disease diagnosis but also enable computer-aided surgical planning/navigation. In dentistry, the common method for transfer of the virtual surgical planning to the patient (reality) is the use of surgical stent either with a preloaded planning (static) like a channel or a real time surgical navigation (dynamic) after registration with fiducial markers (RF). This paper describes using the corner of a cube as a radiopaque fiducial marker on an acrylic (plastic) stent, this RF allows robust calibration and registration of Cartesian (x, y, z)- coordinates for linking up the patient (reality) and the imaging (virtuality) and hence the surgical planning can be transferred in either static or dynamic way. The accuracy of computer-aided implant surgery was measured with reference to coordinates. In our preliminary model surgery, a dental implant was planned virtually and placed with preloaded surgical guide. The deviation of the placed implant apex from the planning was x=+0.56mm [more right], y=- 0.05mm [deeper], z=-0.26mm [more lingual]) which was within clinically 2mm safety range. For comparison with the virtual planning, the physically placed implant was CT/CBCT scanned and errors may be introduced. The difference of the actual implant apex to the virtual apex was x=0.00mm, y=+0.21mm [shallower], z=-1.35mm [more lingual] and this should be brought in mind when interpret the results.

  19. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters; Desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de calibracao e testes de medidores de produto Kerma-Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Nathalia Almeida

    2013-07-01

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  20. Stabilization of the Beam Intensity in the Linac at the CTF3 CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A; Bathe, BN; Srivastava, S

    2013-01-01

    A new electron beam stabilization system has been introduced in CTF3 in order to open new possibilities for CLIC beam studies in ultra-stable conditions and to provide a sustainable tool to keep the beam intensity and energy at its reference values for long term operations. The stabilization system is based on a pulse-to-pulse feedback control of the electron gun to compensate intensity deviations measured at the end of the injector and at the beginning of the linac. Thereby it introduces negligible beam distortions at the end of the linac and it significantly reduces energy deviations. A self-calibration mechanism has been developed to automatically configure the feedback controller for the optimum performance. The residual intensity jitter of 0.045% of the stabilized beam was measured whereas the CLIC requirement is 0.075%.

  1. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip

  2. Development, Production and Testing of 4500 Beam Loss Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Holzer, E B; Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Grishin, V; Jimenez, T M; Koshelev, A; Kramer, Daniel; Larionov, A; Taborelli, M; Seleznev, V; Sleptsov, M; Sytin, A; Wevers, I

    2008-01-01

    Beam-loss monitoring (BLM) [1] is a key element in the LHC machine protection. 4250 nitrogen filled ionization chambers (IC) and 350 secondary emission monitors (SEM) have been manufactured and tested at the Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) in Protvino, Russia, following their development at CERN. Signal speed and robustness against aging were the main design criteria. Each monitor is permanently sealed inside a stainless-steel cylinder. The quality of the welding was a critical aspect during production. The SEMs are requested to hold a vacuum of $10^{-7}$ bar. Impurity levels from thermal and radiationinduced desorption should remain in the range of parts per million in the ICs. To avoid radiation aging (up to $2·10^{8}$ Gy in 20 years) production of the chambers followed strict UHV requirements. IHEP designed and built the UHV production stand. Due to the required dynamic range of $10^{8}$, the leakage current of the monitors has to stay below 2 pA. Several tests during and after production were ...

  3. GridPix detectors: Production and beam test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koppert, W.J.C., E-mail: wkoppert@nikhef.nl [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bakel, N. van [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bilevych, Y. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Colas, P. [IRFU, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Desch, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Fransen, M.; Graaf, H. van der; Hartjes, F.; Hessey, N.P. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaminski, J. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Schmitz, J. [University of Twente, Mesa Institute for Nanotechnology, Enschede (Netherlands); Schön, R.; Zappon, F. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-21

    The innovative GridPix detector is a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) that is read out with a Timepix-1 pixel chip. By using wafer post-processing techniques an aluminium grid is placed on top of the chip. When operated, the electric field between the grid and the chip is sufficient to create electron induced avalanches which are detected by the pixels. The time-to-digital converter (TDC) records the drift time enabling the reconstruction of high precision 3D track segments. Recently GridPixes were produced on full wafer scale, to meet the demand for more reliable and cheaper devices in large quantities. In a recent beam test the contribution of both diffusion and time walk to the spatial and angular resolutions of a GridPix detector with a 1.2 mm drift gap are studied in detail. In addition long term tests show that in a significant fraction of the chips the protection layer successfully quenches discharges, preventing harm to the chip.

  4. Calibration of plane-parallel chambers and determination of pwall for the NACP and Roos chambers for 60Co γ-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedures for the calibration and use of plane-parallel ionization chambers in high-energy electron and photon beams have been given in the international code of practice IAEA TRS-381. In the present work, plane-parallel ionization chambers of the type PTW-34001 Roos and Scanditronix NACP02 have been calibrated using two NK-based procedures. For the NACP chamber the difference between the ND,air chamber factors determined in an electron beam and in a 60Co γ-ray beam, respectively, is of the same magnitude as the experimental uncertainty. Results for the PTW Roos chambers, however, do not agree, in accordance with recent findings of other authors. The value determined in a 60Co γ-ray beam is questioned and the reason for the discrepancy assigned to the correction factor for the perturbation due to the chamber wall, pwall . New values of pwall have been experimentally determined by comparing absorbed dose measurements based on air-kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration procedures. A new pwall factor for the Roos chamber in 60Co γ-ray beams in water (1.009±0.6%) was derived as the weighted average of the different determinations. The value is not significantly higher than the pwall factor given in TRS-381 (1.003±1.5%), but the combined standard uncertainty is reduced. The chamber to chamber variation for six commercial PTW Roos chambers and a Roos prototype was found to be very small. (author)

  5. Final design of the neutral beam lines for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final design of the neutral beam lines for TFTR has been completed. A prototype has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and is undergoing testing as part of the Neutral Beam System Test Facility (NBSTF). The final neutral beam line (NBL) configuration differs in several details from that previously reported upon; certain components have been added; and testing of the cryopump system has led to some design simplification. It is these developments which are reported herein

  6. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed.

  7. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed

  8. Preparation of HEC Serial Modules for Beam and Cold Tests at CERN in 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Three mated HEC-1 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 2 - Three mated HEC-1 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 3 - Three mated HEC-2 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 4 - Three mated HEC-2 modules in the clean room, prepared for beam tests. Photo 5 - Close-up of the inner-connecting bars of three mated HEC-2 modules, prepared for beam tests. Photo 6 - Mechanical acceptance tests for HEC serial modules at CERN. Photo 7 - Mechanical acceptance tests for HEC serial modules at CERN. Photo 8 - Four HEC-2 modules in the cryostat, prepared for cold tests.

  9. Device for Testing and Calibrating Equipment for Monitoring Atmospheric Contamination by Aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for aerosol production and entrainment has been designed and built at the Physics Laboratory of the Radiation Protection Section of the Nuclear Studies Centre in Fontenay-aux-Roses for use in experiments with and calibration of various instruments for monitoring atmospheric contamination by radioactive aerosols. The paper describes the device for aerosol production and diffusion and refers to a number of experiments which illustrate its use. The unit consists of an aerosol generator which disperses inside a containment aerosols produced by drying a saline solution in dry air. The aerosols in the homogenization container have a definite and reproducible particle size. The concentration of natural daughter products of radon can be varied within certain limits. The first checks of aerosol particle size were made with a cascade impactor. Testing with a slit impactor can be used for checking on the collection of plutonium aerosols, while various other instruments with a mobile filter were tested with beta-emitting aerosols. The testing device can also be used for studying the distribution of aerosols on fixed filters and for investigating deposits in pipelines and sampling containers. (author)

  10. Relationship between the calibration tone and speech volume unit (VU) levels for some commercially available test tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, B J; Beattie, R C; Helmerich, L F

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the calibration tone and speech volume unit (VU) levels for nine commercially recorded speech tests was studied. Two procedures were used. In procedure 1, experienced clinicians reported observations of four different audiometer VU meters responding to six commercially available speech tests. Differences in magnitude estimates among judges were usually about 1 dB or less. Peak VU level deviations from the zeroed calibration tone were within +/- 1.5 VU except for the Fulton Lewis Jr. recording, which varied by about -4.8 VU. In procedure 2, a video system was used to recorded precisely VU meter responses to clinical speech materials. Differences between the calibration tones and speech levels were similar to those obtained using multiple observers. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01) differences were found between the speech levels of the commercial test recordings. PMID:7141143

  11. Proceedings of the 2. International Linear Collider Test-beam workshop - LCTW'09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this workshop detector and simulation experts have described and discussed the necessary ILC (International Linear Collider) detector research and development program in view of its need for test beams. This workshop has provided an opportunity to evaluate the capabilities and shortcomings of existing facilities in the context of planned test beam activities. This document gathers together the slides of the presentations. The presentations have been classified into 4 topics: -) plans of sub-detectors - calorimetry, silicon and gaseous tracking, -) data acquisition, -) test beam facilities, and -) resources and infrastructure for future test beams

  12. Photos from MPI: Module installation at CERN for 1999 Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Photo1 - Three HEC-1 modules after mating in the clean room. Photo2 - Close-up of three HEC-1 modules in the clean room when mounting the PSB boards. Photo3 - Three HEC-2 modules being inserted into the test-beam cryostat. Photo4 - Three HEC-2 modules in the test-beam cryostat. Photo5 - Three HEC-1 and three HEC-2 modules in the test-beam cryostat. Photo6 - Three HEC-1 and three HEC-2 modules in the test-beam cryostat.

  13. Fault detection and protection system for neutral beam generators on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam sources, their power supplies and instrumentation can be damaged from high voltage sparkdown or from overheating due to excessive currents. The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF) in Berkeley has protective electronic hardware that senses a condition outside a safe operating range and generates a response to terminate such a fault condition. A description of this system is presented in this paper. 8 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Joint test rig for tests and calibration of different methods of two-phase mass flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of measuring methods have been extensively tested. The first group is sponsored by the BMFT: - Two pairs of free field turbine meters and drag discs together with a 2 beam densitometer (RS 109, Euratom Ispra). - Temperature noise signal correlation (RS 135, IKT-Technische Universitaet Berlin). - Radiotracer technique (PNS 4214, RS 146, KfK-LIT). - Dragbody (RS 147, Battelle Frankfurt). All these measuring systems (exept RS 147) were tested simultaneously in the horizontal test section (50 mm diameter) at steady-state steam-water flow. Mass flow rate and quality have been varied at pressures of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 bars. About 110 different test points (incl. single phase points) were performed. The second group of techniques was sponsored by the US NRC and developed by the INEL (Idaho) to be utilized in the LOFT- and Semiscale-experiments. The instrumentation, drag disc, turbine, γ-densitometer, is similar in principle for both LOFT and Semiscale, however, the mechanical design of some transducers is significantly different. The data reduction techniques are essentially the same. The experiments included both steady-state air-water and steam-water flow. Approximately 240 test points were performed. (orig.)

  15. Reliability Tests of the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring FPGA Firmware

    CERN Document Server

    Hajdu, C F; Dehning, B; Jackson, S

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is one of the most complex instrumentation systems deployed in the LHC. In addition to protecting the collider, the system also needs to provide a means of diagnosing machine faults and deliver a feedback of losses to the control room as well as to several systems for their setup and analysis. It has to transmit and process signals from almost 4’000 monitors, and has nearly 3 million configurable parameters. In a system of such complexity, firmware reliability is a critical issue. The integrity of the signal chain of the LHC BLM system and its ability to correctly detect unwanted scenarios and thus provide the required protection level must be ensured. In order to analyze the reliability and functionality, an advanced verification environment has been developed to evaluate the performance and response of the FPGA-based data analysis firmware. This paper will report on the numerous tests that have been performed and on how the results are used to quantify the reliabi...

  16. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  17. Test Beam Results for ALICE TPC Upgrade Prototypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, James; Alice Tpc-Upgrade Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The ALICE detector is one of four major experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and its main purpose is to study the quark-gluon plasma created in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector within ALICE, and currently has an intrinsic rate limitation of 3 kHz. The LHC will be upgraded during Long Shutdown 2 in 2018 to have Pb-Pb collision rates up to 50 kHz, and so the TPC readout must be accordingly upgraded. This will be done by replacing the current Multi-Wire Proportional Chamber assembly, which uses a gating grid to prevent ion backflow, with Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors such as Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) and Micro-Mesh Gaseous Structures (MMGs), which allow for continuous rather than gated readout. A substantial R&D effort is underway for a 4-GEM design, as well as an alternate 2-GEM/MMG design. Prototypes of each design were tested in November-December 2014 at the PS and SPS beams at CERN; the results for the 2-GEM/MMG chambers will be presented.

  18. Physiotherapy ultrasound calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration of physiotherapy ultrasound equipment has long been a problem. Numerous surveys around the world over the past 20 years have all found that only a low percentage of the units tested had an output within 30% of that indicatd. In New Zealand, a survey carried out by the NRL in 1985 found that only 24% had an output, at the maximum setting, within + or - 20% of that indicated. The present performance Standard for new equipment (NZS 3200.2.5:1992) requires that the measured output should not deviate from that indicated by more than + or - 30 %. This may be tightened to + or - 20% in the next few years. Any calibration is only as good as the calibration equipment. Some force balances can be tested with small weights to simulate the force exerted by an ultrasound beam, but with others this is not possible. For such balances, testing may only be feasible with a calibrated source which could be used like a transfer standard. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  19. Construction, calibration and testing of a decimeter-size heat-flow calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wu-Shou, E-mail: wszhang@iccas.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Colloid, Interface and Chemical Thermodynamics, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2709, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-02-20

    A heat-flow calorimeter was designed and built. Its measurements are 26 cm x 26 cm x 26 cm (17.6 dm{sup 3}). 18,796 thermocouples are used to measure the heat-flow from the vessel walls to the outer walls, for which temperature is controlled within 0.01 {sup o}C from 0 to 100 {sup o}C by a refrigerating/heating circulator. Homogeneity of temperature in the measuring vessel is improved by a fan with constant power. The calibration was performed with an electric heater, with input power up to 50 W. The device constant is 5.8954 {+-} 0.0025 W V{sup -1}; the time constant is 501.7 {+-} 3.2 s; the uncertainty is 0.6% at 2 W to 0.06% at 50 W. Nonlinearity of this calorimeter is analyzed. The calorimeter can be utilized for studies of kinetics and thermodynamics of physical, chemical and biological systems of decimeter-size. A Sony 26650 Li-ion rechargeable battery was tested with this device during charging and discharging, and an electrolytic cell with Pd-D{sub 2}O was also tested with this device.

  20. Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment of ultrasonic beam parameters from immersion transducers used to non-destructive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, A V; Silva, C E R; Costa-Félix, R P B

    2016-07-01

    The uncertainty of ultrasonic beam parameters from non-destructive testing immersion probes was evaluated using the Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) uncertainty framework and Monte Carlo Method simulation. The calculated parameters such as focal distance, focal length, focal widths and beam divergence were determined according to EN 12668-2. The typical system configuration used during the mapping acquisition comprises a personal computer connected to an oscilloscope, a signal generator, axes movement controllers, and a water bath. The positioning system allows moving the transducer (or hydrophone) in the water bath. To integrate all system components, a program was developed to allow controlling all the axes, acquire waterborne signals, and calculate essential parameters to assess and calibrate US transducers. All parameters were calculated directly from the raster scans of axial and transversal beam profiles, except beam divergence. Hence, the positioning system resolution and the step size are principal source of uncertainty. Monte Carlo Method simulations were performed by another program that generates pseudo-random samples for the distributions of the involved quantities. In all cases, there were found statistical differences between Monte Carlo and GUM methods. PMID:27107164

  1. Standard practice of calibration of force-measuring instruments for verifying the force indication of testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this practice is to specify procedures for the calibration of force-measuring instruments. Procedures are included for the following types of instruments: 1.1.1 Elastic force-measuring instruments, and 1.1.2 Force-multiplying systems, such as balances and small platform scales. Note 1Verification by deadweight loading is also an acceptable method of verifying the force indication of a testing machine. Tolerances for weights for this purpose are given in Practices E 4; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. Other metric and inch-pound values are regarded as equivalent when required. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static force measuring instruments. It is not applicable for dynamic or high speed force calibrations, nor can the results of calibrations performed in accordance with this practice be assumed valid for...

  2. Preparation, installation, and calibration of a 152-fiber imaging experiment at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber-optic transmission lines are being used with increasing frequency in the demanding environment of nuclear device diagnostic tests at the Nevada Test Site. Previous reports have described diagnostic experiments that utilize properties of fiber-optic cables to provide capabilities that are extremely difficult to obtain with coaxial cable systems. This paper describes an imaging experiment conducted during the last quarter of 1980 at the Nevada Test Site involving 152 approx. 0.6-km long GI fibers in 18 cables. An imager cell sensitive to neutron and gamma radiation was located at approx. 8 m from the source. Individual elements of the fluor were coupled by approx. 10 m PCS fibers (for radiation damage resistance) to the GI fibers used for the uphole and surface lines to the detector station. Light from the imager cell in a 9-nm band, centered at 540 nm, was detected by photomultipliers and the electrical signals then recorded on oscilloscopes. Overall system bandwidth, including the fluor, was approx. 80 MHz. Due to the complexity of the experiment and the conditions associated with field testing, the PCS and GI fibers were cut and terminated under laboratory shop conditions prior to installation at the field site. Procedures used for quality assurance of the fiber assemblies as well as procedures used in checking fiber throughput during installation are described. The application of a large star coupler (5 input x 200 output fibers) used for system time and amplitude calibration and an attempt to shutter fibers with neutrons for a multiplexing application are also discussed

  3. Testing and ground calibration of DREAMS-H relative humidity device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Nikkanen, Timo; Schmidt, Walter; Kemppinen, Osku; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri

    2015-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterization, Risk Assessment and Environmental Analyzer on the Martian Surface) instrument suite is to be launched as part of the ESA ExoMars 2016/Schiaparelli lander. DREAMS consists of an environmental package for monitoring temperature, pressure, relative humidity, winds and dust opacity, as well as atmospheric electricity of Martian atmosphere. The DREAMS instruments and scientific goals are described in [1]. Here we describe testing and ground calibration of the relative humidity device, DREAMS-H, provided to the DREAMS payload by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and based on proprietary technology of Vaisala, Inc. The same kind of device is part of the REMS instrument package onboard MSL Curiosity Rover [2][3]. DREAMS-H is based on Vaisala Humicap® technology adapted for use in Martian environment by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The device is very small and lightweighed, with total mass less than 20 g and consuming only 15 mW of power. The Humicap® sensor heads contain an active polymer film that changes its capacitance as function of relative humidity, with 0% to 100% RH measurement range. The dynamic range of the device gets smaller with sensor temperature, being in -70°C approximately 30% of the dynamic range in 0°C [3]. Good-quality relative humidity measurements require knowing the temperature of the environment in which relative humidity is measured. An important part of DREAMS-H calibration was temperature calibration of Vaisala Thermocap® temperature sensors used for housekeeping temperature measurements of the DREAMS-H device. For this, several temperature points in the desired operational range were measured with 0.1°C accuracy traceable to national standards. The main part of humidity calibration of DREAMS-H flight models was done in subzero temperatures in a humidity generator of the Finnish Center of Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES). Several relative humidity points ranging from almost dry to almost wet

  4. Calibration of Avent Wind IRIS SN. WI01030176

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement un...

  5. Feasibility test to control algal bloom using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made to assess the feasibility to control algal growth using electron beam irradiation. Fresh water algae (e.g. Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., Anabaena sp., Oscillatoria sp.) and sea water red algae (e.g. Procentrium minimum, Lingulodinium polyedra, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Scrippsiella trochoidea, Procentrium micans) were cultured in laboratory and irradiated at different dose of 1.0-10kGy by ELV-4 model electron beam accelerator. The results indicated that in spite of low dose, electron beam irradiation have a great effect on the algal photosynthetic activity; especially for sea water red algae, approximately 40% reduction in chlorophyll-a concentration was observed right after electron beam irradiation at 1.0kGy. Decrease in photosynthetic activity of sea water red algae was more pronounced than that of fresh water algae. With regard to fresh water algae, blue green algae(e.g. Microcystis sp., Oscillatoria sp.) was more vulnerable to electron beam exposure than green algae(e.g. Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp.). It is interesting to observe that complete bioflocculation marked by cell aggregation and rapid settling of fresh water algae occurred within 2 days after electron beam irradiation. Continuous mixing was one of the important factors to induce algal bioflocculation. Algal removal and settleable matter production were found to be proportional to irradiation dose and mixing intensity. It is likely that electron beam irradiation damages cell contents including chlorophyll-a, releasing extracellular biopolymer that can be used for inducing bioflocculation. (author)

  6. Evaluation on the effect of dosimetry using a depth of calibration point or a depth of temporary dose maximum in high energy electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Society of Medical Physics (JSMP) has published a new dosimetry protocol ''JSMP-01'' for the calibration of radiotherapy beams. This protocol provides a new definition of the calibration point (depth) in order to obtain the absorbed dose at a reference point (Dr) by the calculation in high energy electron beams. This study evaluated the difference in the absorbed dose at the depth dose maximum (Ddmax) and Dr calculated from the absorbed dose at the calibration point. Further, the difference in the absorbed dose (Ddmax) at ''measured maximum depth (dmax)'' was evaluated using ''temporary maximum depth (dmax*)''. In the experiment at a depth interval of 0.1 g cm2, no difference was observed between Ddmax and Dr. However, in the experiment at a depth interval of 0.3 g cm-2 the differences between Ddmax and Dr increased to 6.4% and 5.2% at 4 MeV and 6 MeV, respectively. Subsequently, at all energy levels the difference between Ddmax and Dr of all energy was more than 3% at a depth interval of 0.4 g cm-2. The differences between Ddmax and Ddmax* were 2.68% and 4.50% at 6 MeV and 9 MeV, respectively, for this depth interval. (author)

  7. In vacuum diamond sensor scanner for beam halo measurements in the beam line at the KEK Accelerator Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shan; Cornebise, Patrick; Faus-Golfe, Angeles; Fuster-Martínez, Nuria; Griesmayer, Erich; Guler, Hayg; Kubytskyi, Viacheslav; Sylvia, Christophe; Toshiaki, Tauchi; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Bambade, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of beam halo transverse distributions is important for the understanding of beam losses and the control of backgrounds in Future Linear Colliders (FLC). A novel in vacuum diamond sensor (DSv) scanner with four strips has been designed and developed for the investigation of the beam halo transverse distributions and also for the diagnostics of Compton recoil electrons after the interaction point (IP) of ATF2, a low energy (1.3 GeV) prototype of the final focus system for the ILC and CLIC linear collider projects. Using the DSv, a dynamic range of $\\sim10^6$ has been successfully demonstrated and confirmed for the first time by simultaneous beam core ($\\sim10^9$ electrons) and beam halo ($\\sim10^3$ electrons) measurements at ATF2. This report presents the characterization, performance studies and tests of the diamond sensors using an $\\alpha$ source as well as using the electron beams at PHIL, a low energy ($< 10$ MeV) photo-injector at LAL, and at ATF2. First beam halo measurement results ...

  8. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  9. Post launch calibration and testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-05-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 μs) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  10. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc; Cholvibul, Ruth; Clarke, Jared

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 s) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  11. Post Launch Calibration and Testing of the Geostationary Lightning Mapper on the GOES-R Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal, Marc D.; Clarke, Jared T.; Cholvibul, Ruth W.

    2016-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite R (GOES-R) series is the planned next generation of operational weather satellites for the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is procuring the GOES-R spacecraft and instruments with the first launch of the GOES-R series planned for October 2016. Included in the GOES-R Instrument suite is the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). GLM is a single-channel, near-infrared optical detector that can sense extremely brief (800 microseconds) transient changes in the atmosphere, indicating the presence of lightning. GLM will measure total lightning activity continuously over the Americas and adjacent ocean regions with near-uniform spatial resolution of approximately 10 km. Due to its large CCD (1372x1300 pixels), high frame rate, sensitivity and onboard event filtering, GLM will require extensive post launch characterization and calibration. Daytime and nighttime images will be used to characterize both image quality criteria inherent to GLM as a space-based optic system (focus, stray light, crosstalk, solar glint) and programmable image processing criteria (dark offsets, gain, noise, linearity, dynamic range). In addition ground data filtering will be adjusted based on lightning-specific phenomenology (coherence) to isolate real from false transients with their own characteristics. These parameters will be updated, as needed, on orbit in an iterative process guided by pre-launch testing. This paper discusses the planned tests to be performed on GLM over the six-month Post Launch Test period to optimize and demonstrate GLM performance.

  12. Measurements of lineal energy spectra for the BNCT test beam of THOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.5 cm tissue-equivalent Rossi type proportional counter was fabricated at St Andrews University and used in this study. Boron-doped and non-boron chambers were performed to measure the lineal energy spectra of a test epithermal neutron beam, built for the research of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR). Measurements were made using standard microdosimetry equipment, including a low pressure gas flow system, low noise charge sensitive preamplifier, linear amplifier, multi-channel analyzer, and americium-241 calibration alpha source. Chambers were positioned at different depths in an acrylic phantom. Lineal energy spectra were determined for several gas pressures to simulate various cell sizes. Spectra of the boron-doped chamber are dominated by a peak at ∼200 keV/μm corresponding to the traversal of alpha particles and lithium recoils through the chamber. Peaks in the non-boron spectra correspond to gamma-rays, recoil protons, and fast neutrons. (author)

  13. First test of a CMS DT chamber equipped with full electronics in a muon beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    A CMS DT chamber of MB3 type, equipped with the final version of a minicrate (containing all on-chamber trigger and readout electronics), was tested in a muon beam for the first time. The beam was bunched in 25 ns spills, allowing an LHC-like response of the chamber trigger. This test confirmed the excellent performance of the trigger design.

  14. Recent results from beam tests of large area silicon drift detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon drift detectors with an active area of 7.0 x 7.5 cm2 will equip the two middle layers of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment. The performance of several prototypes was studied during beam tests carried out at the CERN SPS facility. The results of the beam test data analysis are discussed in this paper

  15. Strain Gage Load Calibration of the Wing Interface Fittings for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge Flap Flight Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Holguin, Andrew C.; Cruz, Josue; Lokos, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The safety-of-flight parameters for the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap experiment require that flap-to-wing interface loads be sensed and monitored in real time to ensure that the structural load limits of the wing are not exceeded. This paper discusses the strain gage load calibration testing and load equation derivation methodology for the ACTE interface fittings. Both the left and right wing flap interfaces were monitored; each contained four uniquely designed and instrumented flap interface fittings. The interface hardware design and instrumentation layout are discussed. Twenty-one applied test load cases were developed using the predicted in-flight loads. Pre-test predictions of strain gage responses were produced using finite element method models of the interface fittings. Predicted and measured test strains are presented. A load testing rig and three hydraulic jacks were used to apply combinations of shear, bending, and axial loads to the interface fittings. Hardware deflections under load were measured using photogrammetry and transducers. Due to deflections in the interface fitting hardware and test rig, finite element model techniques were used to calculate the reaction loads throughout the applied load range, taking into account the elastically-deformed geometry. The primary load equations were selected based on multiple calibration metrics. An independent set of validation cases was used to validate each derived equation. The 2-sigma residual errors for the shear loads were less than eight percent of the full-scale calibration load; the 2-sigma residual errors for the bending moment loads were less than three percent of the full-scale calibration load. The derived load equations for shear, bending, and axial loads are presented, with the calculated errors for both the calibration cases and the independent validation load cases.

  16. Calibration and validation of a stochastic continuum model using the Finnsjoen dipole tracer test. A contribution to INTRAVAL phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A realistic semi-synthetic transmissivity field and dipole tracer test conditions similar the actual field test conditions at Finnsjoen were used to demonstrate a calibration and validation procedure applied to a stochastic continuum model. A validation strategy was set up to address whether a model calibrated and possibly validated on a local model scale, also is validated when extrapolated to a far-field scale. A generated 2D realization of the material property distribution on a far-field scale, honouring the measured single hole data and also recapturing the characteristics of the field dipole tracer test, was selected as an exhaustive reference field. The results of the simulated dipole tracer test on a local scale and of a far-field natural gradient tracer test were considered as reference field results. A large number (N=100) of conditioned parametric realizations of the studied domain were generated and the dipole tracer experiment was simulated for each realization. The porosity of the 2D aquifer model was used to calibrate the stochastic simulations on a local scale. An alternative calibration using a defined index of deviation was also applied. Subsequently, also the natural gradient tracer test was simulated on a far-field scale for the ensemble of realizations. It was found that the realizations which based on the defined index of deviation compared best with the local scale reference results did not recapture the characteristics of the reference far-field results. It was thus concluded that calibration/validation of a model on a local scale is insufficient for validating the model also an another large transport scale. In order to reduce the uncertainty in the far-field simulations more data on the corresponding transport are required. (20 refs.) (au)

  17. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays (Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)) has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)). Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  18. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-03-14

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47, 073602 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A616, 172 (2010)]. Here we report on a further expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  19. Calibration of the modulation transfer function of surface profilometers with binary pseudo-random test standards: Expanding the application range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; Cambie, Rossana; Conley, Raymond; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-07-26

    A modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays [Proc. SPIE 7077-7 (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)] has been proven to be an effective MTF calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 616, 172-82 (2010]. Here we report on a significant expansion of the application range of the method. We describe the MTF calibration of a 6 inch phase shifting Fizeau interferometer. Beyond providing a direct measurement of the interferometer's MTF, tests with a BPR array surface have revealed an asymmetry in the instrument's data processing algorithm that fundamentally limits its bandwidth. Moreover, the tests have illustrated the effects of the instrument's detrending and filtering procedures on power spectral density measurements. The details of the development of a BPR test sample suitable for calibration of scanning and transmission electron microscopes are also presented. Such a test sample is realized as a multilayer structure with the layer thicknesses of two materials corresponding to BPR sequence. The investigations confirm the universal character of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

  20. Muon Energy Calibration of the MINOS Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagawa, Paul S.

    2004-09-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment designed to search for conclusive evidence of neutrino oscillations and to measure the oscillation parameters precisely. MINOS comprises two iron tracking calorimeters located at Fermilab and Soudan. The Calibration Detector at CERN is a third MINOS detector used as part of the detector response calibration programme. A correct energy calibration between these detectors is crucial for the accurate measurement of oscillation parameters. This thesis presents a calibration developed to produce a uniform response within a detector using cosmic muons. Reconstruction of tracks in cosmic ray data is discussed. This data is utilized to calculate calibration constants for each readout channel of the Calibration Detector. These constants have an average statistical error of 1.8%. The consistency of the constants is demonstrated both within a single run and between runs separated by a few days. Results are presented from applying the calibration to test beam particles measured by the Calibration Detector. The responses are calibrated to within 1.8% systematic error. The potential impact of the calibration on the measurement of oscillation parameters by MINOS is also investigated. Applying the calibration reduces the errors in the measured parameters by {approx} 10%, which is equivalent to increasing the amount of data by 20%.

  1. RadBallTM Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBallTM, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  2. RadBallTM Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B.; Foley, Trevor Q.; Jannik, G. Timothy; Harpring, Larry J.; Gordon, John R.; Blessing, Ronald; Rusty Coleman, J.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J.

    2010-11-01

    The UK's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBallTM, consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBallTM technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the UK and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL).

  3. RadBall Technology Testing in the Savannah River Site's Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán, Eduardo B; Foley, Trevor Q; Jannik, G Timothy; Harpring, Larry J; Gordon, John R; Blessing, Ronald; Coleman, J Rusty; Holmes, Christopher J; Oldham, Mark; Adamovics, John; Stanley, Steven J

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom's National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) has developed a radiation-mapping device that can locate and quantify radioactive hazards within contaminated areas of the nuclear industry. The device, known as RadBall(™), consists of a colander-like outer collimator that houses a radiation-sensitive polymer sphere. The collimator has over two hundred small holes; thus, specific areas of the polymer sphere are exposed to radiation becoming increasingly more opaque in proportion to the absorbed dose. The polymer sphere is imaged in an optical-CT scanner that produces a high resolution 3D map of optical attenuation coefficients. Subsequent analysis of the optical attenuation data provides information on the spatial distribution of sources in a given area forming a 3D characterization of the area of interest. The RadBall(™) technology has been deployed in a number of technology trials in nuclear waste reprocessing plants at Sellafield in the United Kingdom and facilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This paper summarizes the tests completed at SRNL Health Physics Instrument Calibration Laboratory (HPICL). PMID:21617738

  4. Significance of calibration explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site for the tasks of monitoring of nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signing of Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty made the necessity of creating of monitoring systems over nuclear explosions most actual. This work is conducted in two directions. 1) Creation or modernization of existing seismic stations, included in the international monitoring system (IMS), according to specifications established in the documents of Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization. 2) Calibration of seismic stations. It's evident that calibration explosions are the most difficult stage in creation of monitoring network. For IMS stations to record rightly all corrections, information about explosions (coordinates, exact time of explosion, power, geological structure etc.) should be completely open. It imposes on the states declaring about calibration explosions increased obligations to reliability of the information. Calibration explosions, which are carried out at Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, are the most interesting and most happy combination of work on liquidation of nuclear infrastructure of the site and development of IMS. These explosions have been conducted thanks to cooperation of two states: USA that finance realization of these operations and participate in scientific surveys and Kazakstan that manifest its good will in liquidation of a nuclear structure of the site and in consent to conduct calibration explosions, and ensuring an industrial part of works and geologic-geophysical measurements. By this time three explosions of 25 tons have been conducted in boreholes at the Balapan site and one explosion of 100 tons has been also conducted in the tunnel at the Degelen site. The results of their processing should contribute greatly both to calibration of seismic stations, and to development of identification methods of seismic events

  5. Testing Long-Range Beam-Beam Compensation for the LHC Luminosity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T L

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and its minimum crossing angle are limited by the effect of long-range beam-beam collisions. A wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects and may allow for smaller crossing angles, or higher beam intensity. A prototype long-range wire compensator could be installed in the LHC by 2014/15. Since the originally reserved position for such a wire compensator is not available for this first step, we explore other possible options. Our investigations consider various longitudinal and transverse locations, different wire shapes, different optics configurations and several crossing angles between the two colliding beams. Simulations are carried out with the weak-strong code BBtrack. New postprocessing tools are introduced to analyse tune footprints and particle stability. In particular, a new method for the Lyapunov coefficient calculation is implemented. Submitted as "Tesi di laurea" at the University of Milano, 2012.

  6. Development, calibration and performance testing of the infrared imaging video bolometer for the SST-1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infrared Imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful diagnostic tool for the measurement of total radiated power losses from the plasma device and it can provide temporally resolved two-dimensional (20) images of plasma radiation brightness. Recently IRVB system is designed, developed, calibrated, tested for its performance and installed on the ADITYA Tokamak for initial studies. IRVB is being developed for the first phase of SST-1 tokamak and is to be deployed at mid plane of radial port 2 with tangential viewing geometry. The IRYB developed for the SST-1 tokamak utilizes a 2.5 μm thick and 9 x 7 cm2 size free standing Platinum foil as a radiation absorber element which provides broad radiation absorptions band 1 eV to 8.5 keV (Soft X-Ray to IR). The foil is clamped on a metal frame. A pinhole camera geometry with square aperture of 0.7 x 0.7 provides 13 x 10 bolometer pixels 2-D array (130 channels) and ∼8 em of spatial resolution at the plasma mid plane with a 61° x 48° wide field of view (FOY). This wide FOY covers a tangential and a poloidal cross sectional views of SST-1 plasma. The FOY provides unique plasma viewing geometry which is confirmed by the synthetic diagnostic model results. A medium wave Infrared Camera having 320 x 240 focal plane arrays, 142 Hz full frame rate and temperature sensitivity ∼ 0.02℃ is used to record 2-D temperature distribution of the foil. Using 2-D heat diffusion analysis method, total radiated power can be estimated. The Noise Equivalent Power Density of the IRYB system has been found to be ∼ 200 μW/cm2. The present paper discusses the development and calibration of the SST-1 IRYB system. Performance of the IRVB system for its time response and NEP are experimentally investigated and has also been reported here. (author)

  7. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  8. NOTE: Cone beam computerized tomography: the effect of calibration of the Hounsfield unit number to electron density on dose calculation accuracy for adaptive radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Joan; McCurdy, Boyd; Greer, Peter B.

    2009-08-01

    The availability of cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) images at the time of treatment has opened possibilities for dose calculations representing the delivered dose for adaptive radiation therapy. A significant component in the accuracy of dose calculation is the calibration of the Hounsfield unit (HU) number to electron density (ED). The aim of this work is to assess the impact of HU to ED calibration phantom insert composition and phantom volume on dose calculation accuracy for CBCT. CBCT HU to ED calibration curves for different commercial phantoms were measured and compared. The effect of the scattering volume of the phantom on the HU to ED calibration was examined as a function of phantom length and radial diameter. The resulting calibration curves were used at the treatment planning system to calculate doses for geometrically simple phantoms and a pelvic anatomical phantom to compare against measured doses. Three-dimensional dose distributions for the pelvis phantom were calculated using the HU to ED curves and compared using Chi comparisons. The HU to ED calibration curves for the commercial phantoms diverge at densities greater than that of water, depending on the elemental composition of the phantom insert. The effect of adding scatter material longitudinally, increasing the phantom length from 5 cm to 26 cm, was found to be up to 260 HU numbers for the high-density insert. The change in the HU value, by increasing the diameter of the phantom from 18 to 40 cm, was found to be up to 1200 HU for the high-density insert. The effect of phantom diameter on the HU to ED curve can lead to dose differences for 6 MV and 18 MV x-rays under bone inhomogeneities of up to 20% in extreme cases. These results show significant dosimetric differences when using a calibration phantom with materials which are not tissue equivalent. More importantly, the amount of scattering material used with the HU to ED calibration phantom has a significant effect on the dosimetric

  9. Sensitivity analysis, calibration, and testing of a distributed hydrological model using error-based weighting and one objective function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foglia, L.; Hill, M.C.; Mehl, S.W.; Burlando, P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the utility of three interrelated means of using data to calibrate the fully distributed rainfall-runoff model TOPKAPI as applied to the Maggia Valley drainage area in Switzerland. The use of error-based weighting of observation and prior information data, local sensitivity analysis, and single-objective function nonlinear regression provides quantitative evaluation of sensitivity of the 35 model parameters to the data, identification of data types most important to the calibration, and identification of correlations among parameters that contribute to nonuniqueness. Sensitivity analysis required only 71 model runs, and regression required about 50 model runs. The approach presented appears to be ideal for evaluation of models with long run times or as a preliminary step to more computationally demanding methods. The statistics used include composite scaled sensitivities, parameter correlation coefficients, leverage, Cook's D, and DFBETAS. Tests suggest predictive ability of the calibrated model typical of hydrologic models. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. CFD Analysis of a Void Distribution Benchmark of the NUPEC PSBT Tests: Model Calibration and Influence of Turbulence Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Krepper, E.; Rzehak, R.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents CFD calculations of the void distribution tests of the PSBT benchmark using ANSYS CFX-12.1. First, relevant aspects of the implemented wall boiling model are reviewed highlighting the uncertainties in several model parameters. It is then shown that the measured cross-sectionally averaged values can be reproduced well with a single set of calibrated model parameters for different test cases. For the reproduction of patterns of void distribution cross-sections, attention has ...

  11. Standard practice for calibration of torque-measuring instruments for verifying the torque indication of torque testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice is to specify procedure for the calibration of elastic torque-measuring instruments. Note 1—Verification by deadweight and a lever arm is an acceptable method of verifying the torque indication of a torque testing machine. Tolerances for weights used are tabulated in Practice WK6364; methods for calibration of the weights are given in NIST Technical Note 577, Methods of Calibrating Weights for Piston Gages. 1.2 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard. 1.3 This practice is intended for the calibration of static or quasi-static torque measuring instruments. The practice is not applicable for high speed torque calibrations or measurements. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any,...

  12. Test of large area glass RPCs at the DAΦNE Test Beam Facility (BTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CaPiRe program has been started to develop a new detector design, in order to produce large areas of glass Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors, overcoming the previous limitations. As a first step we produced our glass RPC detectors (1m2) at General Tecnica exploiting their standard procedures, materials and production techniques simply using 2 mm glass electrodes instead of the bakelite ones. A set of RPC was produced by using pre-coated (silk screen printed) electrodes, while others were produced with the standard graphite coating. All the detectors, together with four old Glass RPC acting as reference, were tested at the DAΦNE Test Beam Facility with 500MeV electrons in order to study the efficiency in different positions inside the detectors (i.e. near spacers and edges) and to study the detector behavior as a function of the local particle rate

  13. Experimental Testing Of Partially Encased Composite Beam Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab M. Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few decades have seen outstanding advances in the use of composite materials in structural applications. There can be little doubt that, within engineering circles, composites have revolutionized traditional design concepts and made possible an unparalleled range of new and exciting possibilities as viable materials for construction. In addition to the well-known advantages of composite columns, partially encased composite columns offered simplified beam-to-column connection as well as reduced or omitted shuttering thus achieved more cost effective construction. Some companies have patented these new types of partially encased composite column made of light welded steel shapes; moreover, the Canadian Institute of Steel construction CISC has recognized and codified this type of columns. In This paper, Partially Encased Composite Beam Columns is introduced; experimental studies are made on five partially encased beam columns to investigate the behavior of eccentrically loaded partially encased composite columns using different parameters.

  14. Calibration of the VIRGO experiment: from the testing of the detector to the search of coalescing binaries with the central interferometer; Calibration de l'experience VIRGO: de l'etalonnage du detecteur a la recherche de signaux de coalescences binaires avec l'interferometre central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veziant, O

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the VIRGO experiment is the detection of gravitational waves. The detector is based on a Michelson interferometer with three-kilometer long arms. Before the availability of the complete detector, most of the technical choices have been tested on a small scale interferometer (central interferometer or CITF). This allowed to record the first technical data of the experiment. The calibration of the CITF data has been studied in this thesis. This work involved some local operations such as the calibration of the electronics of the detection system, and also some more global operation such as the characterisation of the detector response function. The latter is used to unfold the data from experimental effects and to estimate the detector sensitivity. A monitoring procedure of this response function has been applied to produce a time series of reconstructed data, i.e. data free from experimental distortions. The implementation of VIRGO will make use of an optical calibrator using the radiation pressure of a laser beam to act on the interferometer mirrors and characterize its response. The optical calibrator has been designed and assembled in laboratory and its performances have been measured. The physics analysis following the calibration step was tackled through a coalescing binary search algorithm. The latter was applied both on simulated data and on CITF data in order to estimate the detector noise level and to check the effects of the reconstruction procedure. (author)

  15. Calibration of kVp meter used in quality control tests of diagnostic x-ray units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In diagnostic radiology, the tube voltage [peak kilo-voltage (kVp)] is one of the most important parameter affecting both radiation exposure and image contrast. So, an accurate kVp meter is necessary to control kV p in the medical radiography practice with the overall uncertainty less than ±5 % according to IEC 61676. Therefore, both invasive and non-invasive calibration methods of kVp meter were established and applied to different kinds of commercial quality control instruments for diagnostic radiology. Calibration of kVp meter by the invasive method is the most accurate (with uncertainty of 1.67 %, k=2); however, the non-invasive method also provides good results (with uncertainty of 3.12 %, k=2). Due to their detailed design, the commercial kV p meters have various responses with X-ray beam, so the working regime of a particular device type must be appropriately selected with a specific X-ray machine used for calibration of kVp meter. (authors)

  16. Research on six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for wind tunnel balances with a collimated laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhigang; He, Jin; Zuo, Baojun; Li, Runshun; Jia, Yuansheng; Gui, Bing; Qiu, Junwen; Dong, Milin

    2003-02-01

    A newly-developed six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for the wind tunnel balances is introduced. The frame of the system, the functions and the operating principle of different parts are presented in detail. The system is composed of four parts: the automatically loading subsystem, the automatically resetting subsystem, the data-acquisition subsystem and the measurement subsystem. The results of some cell experiments proved that the system can meet the needs of the present calibration task of the balance. Through further improvement, the system can be also used to calibrate other devices with multi degree-of-freedom and measure the minute shifts, such as the guide rail of machine tool and the assembling of large parts and so on.

  17. Research on six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for wind tunnel balances with a collimated laser beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhigang Fan(范志刚); Jin He(何瑾); Baojun Zuo(左保军); Runshun Li(李润顺); Yuansheng Jia(贾元胜); Bing Gui(桂兵); Junwen Qiu(邱俊文); Milin Dong(董密林)

    2003-01-01

    A newly-developed six-degree-of-freedom calibration system for the wind tunnel balances is introduced.The frame of the system, the functions and the operating principle of different parts are presented indetail. The system is composed of four parts: the automatically loading subsystem, the automaticallyresetting subsystem, the data-acquisition subsystem and the measurement subsystem. The results ofsome cell experiments proved that the system can meet the needs of the present calibration task of thebalance. Through further improvement, the system can be also used to calibrate other devices withmulti degree-of-freedom and measure the minute shifts, such as the guide rail of machine tool and theassembling of large parts and so on.

  18. Static and dynamic testing of a damaged post tensioned concrete beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limongelli M.P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are reported the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a post tensioned concrete beam with the aim of investigating the possibility to detect early warning signs of deterioration basing on static and/or dynamic tests. The beam was tested in several configurations aimed to reproduce several different phases of the ‘life’ of the beam: the original undamaged state, increasing loss of tension in the post tensioning cables, a strengthening intervention carried out by means of a second tension cable, formation of further cracks on the strengthened beam. Responses of the beam were measured by an extensive set of instruments consisting of accelerometers, inclinometers, displacement transducers, strain gauges and optical fibres. The paper discusses the tests program and the dynamic characterization of the beam in the different damage scenarios. The modal properties of the beam in the different phases were recovered basing on the responses recorded on the beam during sine-sweep and impact hammer tests. The variation of the first modal frequency was studied to investigate the sensitivity of this parameter to both the cracking of the concrete section and the tension in the cables and also to compare results given by different types of experimental tests.

  19. Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up fills.

  20. Beam-beam effects in the high-pile-up tests of the LHC

    OpenAIRE

    Trad, G.

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the beam-beam limit in the LHC is of great importance, since identifying its source is crucial for the luminosity optimization scenario. Several experiments were carried out to search for this limit and check whether it is dominated by the head-on (HO) or the long-range (LR) interactions. In this paper only the HO collision effects will be considered, tracking the evolution of the maximum tune shift achieved during the dedicated machine developments and the special high pile-up ...

  1. Comparative test results of various beam loss monitors in preparation for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Beam loss detectors will play an important role in the protection of the superconducting LHC magnets. Different types of detectors have been tested in the SPS ring and secondary beam lines with a view to their possible use for this application. This paper describes the measurements made with: microcalorimeters at cryogenic temperatures, PIN diodes, ionisation chambers, scintillators, and ACEMs. Measurements made using proton beams showing their relative sensitivities, linearities in counting or analog mode and minimum detection level will be presented.

  2. Beam Extraction for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at the 300 kV Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. A beam extraction experiment for the test stand was performed, and the beam current was measured using a faraday cup in the chamber. A beam extraction results for the RF ion source will be presented. Beam extraction from the RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. Thus far NI Labview, PLC and faraday cup have been used to measure the beam current. The OPC server is useful for monitoring the PLC values. The average beam current of (a), (b) and (c) shown in figure 2 are 110.241µA, 105.8597µA and 103.5278µA respectively

  3. Design and beam tests of an RFQ to accelerate a lead ion beam from a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) for acceleration of a 10 mA lead 18+ ion beam from 6.9 keV/u to 100 keV/u has been designed, built and tested in the framework of the CERN Laser Ion Source (LIS) study. The challenge of the RFQ design was to deal with a lead ion beam that includes about 10 charge states with an overall current of some 100 mA. A new RFQ design, intermediate between the two standard high-intensity and low-intensity designs, has been applied in order to have a compact structure giving small longitudinal emittance and high transmission. The transport and matching line from the source to the RFQ is made of two solenoids. The unwanted charge states are not filtered and will enter the RFQ mis-matched. In order to test the RFQ performance proper it was decided to operate it with an equivalent mono-species proton beam during the first stage of the commissioning. The design criteria for this intermediate current RFQ, the problems involved in dealing with a mixture of different charge states, as well as the results of the first test with an equivalent proton beam are presented in this paper. (author)

  4. Performance of MACACO Compton telescope for ion-beam therapy monitoring : first test with proton beams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solevi, Paola; Munoz, Enrique; Solaz, Carles; Trovato, Marco; Dendooven, Peter; Gillam, John E.; Lacasta, Carlos; Oliver, Josep F.; Rafecas, Magdalena; Torres-Espallardo, Irene; Llosa, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In order to exploit the advantages of ion-beam therapy in a clinical setting, delivery verification techniques are necessary to detect deviations from the planned treatment. Efforts are currently oriented towards the development of devices for real-time range monitoring. Among the different detector

  5. The Final Beam Line Design for the HiRadMat Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Hessler, C; Meddahi, M

    2010-01-01

    The High Radiation to Materials facility - hereafter HiRadMat - is designed to allow testing of accelerator components, in particular those of the LHC and its injectors, with the impact of high-intensity pulsed beams. The facility is currently under construction, as an approved CERN project. The installation of the dedicated primary beam line and experimental area is planned during the 2010-2011 technical stop. It will be ready for users after commissioning and some test running in October 2011. A detailed proton beam line design has been performed in order to fulfil the beam parameter specification, in particular the demanding optics flexibility at the test stand location. The studies presented include trajectory correction and aperture studies as well as specifications of magnetic systems, power converters, beam instrumentation and vacuum systems

  6. Analysis of DESY-Flash LLRF Measurements for the ILC Heavy Beam Loading Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancelo, Gustavo; Chase, Brian; Davidsaver, Michael; /Fermilab; Carwardine, J.; /Argonne; Simrock, Stefan; Ayvazyan, Valeri; Grecki, Mariusz; /DESY; Matsumoto, Toshihiro; Michizono, Shinichiro; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2009-06-01

    In September 2008 the DESY-FLASH accelerator was run with up to 550, 3 nano-coulomb bunches at 5 Hz repetition rate. This test is part of a longer-term study aimed at validating ILC parameters by operation as close as possible to ILC beam currents and RF gradients. The present paper reports on the analysis that has been done in order to understand the RF control system performance during this test. Actual klystron power requirements and beam stability are evaluated with heavy beam loading conditions. Results include suggested improvements for upcoming tests in 2009.

  7. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ben-Zvi, I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meng, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rahman, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Rao, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Sheehy, B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Skaritka, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pietz, J. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Ackeret, M. [Transfer Engineering and Manufacturing, Inc., Fremont, CA (United States); Yeckel, C. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Miller, R. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dobrin, E. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Thompson, K. [Thompson, Stangenes Industries, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-05-03

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  8. Analysis of DESY-Flash LLRF Measurements for the ILC Heavy Beam Loading Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 2008 the DESY-FLASH accelerator was run with up to 550, 3 nano-coulomb bunches at 5 Hz repetition rate. This test is part of a longer-term study aimed at validating ILC parameters by operation as close as possible to ILC beam currents and RF gradients. The present paper reports on the analysis that has been done in order to understand the RF control system performance during this test. Actual klystron power requirements and beam stability are evaluated with heavy beam loading conditions. Results include suggested improvements for upcoming tests in 2009.

  9. The progress of funnelling gun high voltage condition and beam test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype of a high average current polarized electron funneling gun as an eRHIC injector has been built at BNL. The gun was assembled and tested at Stangenes Incorporated. Two beams were generated from two GaAs photocathodes and combined by a switched combiner field. We observed the combined beams on a YAG crystal and measured the photocurrent by a Faraday cup. The gun has been shipped to Stony Brook University and is being tested there. In this paper we will describe the major components of the gun and recent beam test results. High voltage conditioning is discussed as well.

  10. The Optics and Alignment of the Divergent Beam Laboratory X-ray Powder Diffractometer and its Calibration Using NIST Standard Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, James P; Mendenhall, Marcus H; Black, David; Windover, Donald; Henins, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The laboratory X-ray powder diffractometer is one of the primary analytical tools in materials science. It is applicable to nearly any crystalline material, and with advanced data analysis methods, it can provide a wealth of information concerning sample character. Data from these machines, however, are beset by a complex aberration function that can be addressed through calibration with the use of NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Laboratory diffractometers can be set up in a range of optical geometries; considered herein are those of Bragg-Brentano divergent beam configuration using both incident and diffracted beam monochromators. We review the origin of the various aberrations affecting instruments of this geometry and the methods developed at NIST to align these machines in a first principles context. Data analysis methods are considered as being in two distinct categories: those that use empirical methods to parameterize the nature of the data for subsequent analysis, and those that use model functions to link the observation directly to a specific aspect of the experiment. We consider a multifaceted approach to instrument calibration using both the empirical and model based data analysis methods. The particular benefits of the fundamental parameters approach are reviewed. PMID:26958446

  11. Results from the beam test of the engineering model of the GLAST large area telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the results of a beam test using the Engineering Model of the GLAST Large Area Telescope, which was installed in a beam of positrons, hadrons and tagged photons at SLAC. The performance of the four subsystems, Anti Coincidence Detector, Silicon Tracker, Calorimeter and Data Acquisition will be described

  12. Beam Diagnostics Report for the Thermal Test Conducted on 3/9/2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalmas, Dale Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    The thermal test OTR data revealed several issues with the beam focus and the target window itself. The oxidation of the target window and the prominence of a scratch across the center of the window makes it impossible to accurately measure the beam profile and size.

  13. Modelling the double cantilever beam test with bending moments by using bilinear discontinuous cohesive laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valvo, Paolo S.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical model of the double cantilever beam tests with bending moments (DCB-UBM) is presented. The specimen is modelled as the assemblage of two laminated beams connected by a cohesive interface. It is assumed that the traction-separation laws – i.e. the relationships between the interfacial...

  14. Test beam results of Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report preliminary beam test results of linear Silicon Drift Detector prototypes for the ALICE experiment. Linearity, resolution, charge transport and collection, and efficiency have been studied using a minimum ionizing particle beam for a very large area detector prototype read out with the OLA preamplifier/shaper and for another detector read out using a new transimpedance amplifier with a non linear response

  15. Online catalog of world-wide test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, G.; Christopherson, J.B.; Stensaas, G.L.; Teillet, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In an era when the number of Earth-observing satellites is rapidly growing and measurements from these sensors are used to answer increasingly urgent global issues, it is imperative that scientists and decision-makers can rely on the accuracy of Earth-observing data products. The characterization and calibration of these sensors are vital to achieve an integrated Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) for coordinated and sustained observations of Earth. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as a supporting member of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) and GEOSS, is working with partners around the world to establish an online catalog of prime candidate test sites for the post-launch characterization and calibration of space-based optical imaging sensors. The online catalog provides easy public Web site access to this vital information for the global community. This paper describes the catalog, the test sites, and the methodologies to use the test sites. It also provides information regarding access to the online catalog and plans for further development of the catalog in cooperation with calibration specialists from agencies and organizations around the world. Through greater access to and understanding of these vital test sites and their use, the validity and utility of information gained from Earth remote sensing will continue to improve. Copyright IAF/IAA. All rights reserved.

  16. Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors: Simulation of Signal Formation & Irradiation Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091318; Stamoulis, G; Vavougios, D

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system of the Large Hadron Collider is responsible for the pro- tection of the machine from damage and for the prevention of a magnet quench. Near the interaction points of the LHC, in the triplet magnets area, the BLMs are sensitive to the collision debris, limiting their ability to distinguish beam loss signal from signal caused due to the collision products. Placing silicon & diamond detectors inside the cold mass of the mag- nets, in liquid helium temperatures, would provide significant improvement to the precision of the measurement of the energy deposition in the superconducting coil of the magnet. To further study the signal formation and the shape of the transient current pulses of the aforementioned detectors in cryogenic temperatures, a simulation application has been developed. The application provides a fast way of determining the electric field components inside the detectors bulk and then introduces an initial charge distribution based on the properties of the radiat...

  17. Test beam results for a Shashlik calorimeter with longitudinal segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Milan Univ

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of R&D for electromagnetic calorimetry at future e/sup + /e/sup $/linear colliders different techniques have been studied to implement longitudinal segmentation in Shashlik calorimeters. Two prototypes with 5*5 cm/sup 2/ Pb scintillator towers and WLS readout have been built. The longitudinal segmentation of the shower is achieved by modifying the front part of the detector. In one prototype vacuum photodiodes are inserted laterally for the first 8 radiation lengths, while in the second one fast scintillator is used in the first 5 radiation lengths. Both prototypes have been exposed to a beam at the CERN West Area, and the performance in terms of energy resolution, uniformity, spatial resolution and electron/pion separation are described. The preliminary results of the exposure to the same beam of a third prototype, with a 3*3 cm/sup 2/ lateral granularity are also presented. (0 refs).

  18. Streak camera time calibration procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J.; Jackson, I.

    1978-01-01

    Time calibration procedures for streak cameras utilizing a modulated laser beam are described. The time calibration determines a writing rate accuracy of 0.15% with a rotating mirror camera and 0.3% with an image converter camera.

  19. Gaussian Beam Effect on Equivalence Principle Test Using Free-Fall Interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严琴; 周泽兵; 龙长才; 罗俊; 张元仲; 聂玉昕

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the Gaussian beam effect on the test of the equivalence principle using a free-fall interferometer.A two-lens assembly is used to improve the propagating character of the laser beam, and the beam radius is collimated to about 3.0 mm. The analysis shows that the gravity acceleration difference induced by the Gaussian beam effect could be less than 10-15 g for our double free-fall experimental design, but it would be 10-9 g for the absolute measurement of the gravity acceleration with the usual single free-fall method.

  20. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88double-prime Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics