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Sample records for beam stripping solutions

  1. Possibilities for Beam Stripping Solutions at a Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greife, Uwe

    2006-01-01

    As part of the DOE RIA R and D effort we investigated the possibilities and problems of beam strippers in the different heavy ion accelerator components of a possible Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility. We focused on two beam stripping positions in the RIA heavy ion driver where benchmark currents of up to 5 particle (micro)A 238-U were projected at energies of 10.5 MeV/u and 85 MeV/u respectively. In order to select feasible stripper materials, data from experiments with Uranium beams at Texas A and M and GSI were evaluated. Based on these results thermal estimates for a possible design were calculated and cooling simulations with commercially available software performed. Additionally, we performed simulations with the GEANT4 code on evaluating the radiation environment for our beam stripping solution at the 85 MeV/u position in the RIA driver

  2. Possibilities for beam stripping solutions at a rare isotope accelerator (RIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greife, Uwe; Simmons, Ellen; Erikson, Luke; Jewett, Cybele; Livesay, Jake; Chipps, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the possibilities and problems of beam strippers in the different heavy ion accelerator components of a possible rare isotope accelerator (RIA) facility. We focused on two beam stripping positions in the RIA heavy ion driver where benchmark currents of up to 5 particle μA 238 U were projected at energies of 10.5 MeV/u and 85 MeV/u, respectively. In order to select feasible stripper materials, data from experiments with uranium beams at the Texas A and M cyclotron and the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) accelerator were evaluated. Based on these results thermal estimates for a possible design were calculated and cooling simulations with commercially available software performed. Additionally, we performed simulations with the GEANT4 code on evaluating the radiation environment for our beam stripping solution at the 85 MeV/u position in the RIA driver

  3. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Watson, R. L.; Horvat, V.; Zaharakis, K. E.; Peng, Y.

    2002-01-01

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters

  4. Dual deflectable beam strip engine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. E.; Kami, S.; Schnelker, D. E.; Ward, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    This paper describes a dual beam thruster that has been designed, constructed, and tested. The system is suitable for two-axes attitude control and is comprised of two orthogonal strips, each capable of producing 0.30 mlb thrust and beam deflections of more than plus or minus 20 deg. The nominal specific impulse for the thruster is 5000 sec, and the thrust level from each strip can be varied from 0 to 100%. Neutralizer filaments that were developed and life tested over 2000 hours producing more than 40 mA of electron emission per watt of input power are also discussed. The system power required for clean ionizers is approximately 200 W.

  5. Moving strip technique of electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, Kishio; Wakasa, Hiroyuki; Oguri, Nobuhiro; Kitayama, Takuichi; Nakagiri, Yoshitada; Mikami, Yasutaka; Hashimoto, Keiji; Hiraki, Yoshio; Aono, Kaname

    1984-12-01

    The fieldsize in electron beam therapy is determined by the cone size. In case of skin metastasis of a malignant tumor and so on, which need a large field size and whose area is much larger than the size of the cone, a large field size is usually produced by dividing the portals. However, the dose distribution at the border of the field becomes unequal, and hot and cold dose areas are produced according to the distance between portals. We tried the strip field technique in a large field along the long axis of the body in order to flatten the dose of the border employing the moving strip used for whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian cancer. We set the film in Mix-DP and used the strip field technique with 2.5cm steps. We discussed the relationship between the interval (distance between portals) and the flattening of the dose within the field. Skin movement due to breathing and influences on the flattening of the dose were considered. The proper flatness was obtained at depths of 0,1,2, and 3cm by setting the interval at 0.5cm. When skin movement was produced by breathing in +-1.5mm, the proper flaness was obtained also at a 0.5-cm interval. It seems that smoothing is increased by breathing. An ''electron beam moving strip'' with a 2.5-cm step and 0.5-cm interval was clinically effective in the treatment of patients with skin metastasis of colon cancer. (author).

  6. Beam test of CSES silicon strip detector module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da-Li; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; An, Zheng-Hua; Yu, Xiao-xia; Wang, Hui; Shi, Feng; Wang, Ping; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2017-05-01

    The silicon-strip tracker of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) consists of two double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSDs) which provide incident particle tracking information. A low-noise analog ASIC VA140 was used in this study for DSSD signal readout. A beam test on the DSSD module was performed at the Beijing Test Beam Facility of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC) using a 400-800 MeV/c proton beam. The pedestal analysis results, RMSE noise, gain correction, and intensity distribution of incident particles of the DSSD module are presented. Supported by the XXX Civil Space Programme

  7. Initial Beam Test of the Prototype Strip Line BPM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Kim, Han Sung; Seol, Kyung Tae; Ryu, Jin Yeong; Jang, Ji Ho; Cho, Yong Sub

    2011-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) was developed which would be used for the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) beam line. It is a strip line BPM which is commonly used one for the proton beam. The BPM cross section was designed with the SUPERFISH code and the matching section to the feed through was designed by the MWS code. The design parameters of the BPM are shown in Table 1. The designed BPM was fabricated to verify the manufacturing process and check its electrical performance. After the low power test at the test stand, the BPM was installed at the 20-MeV proton accelerator beam line as shown in Fig. 1

  8. Paint stripping with high power flattened Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researchers present results on improved paint stripping performance with an intra-cavity generated Flattened Gaussian Beam (FGB). A resonator with suitable diffractive optical elements was designed in order to produce a single mode...

  9. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campabadal, F.; Fleta, C.; Key, M.; Böhm, Jan; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Šťastný, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 538, - (2005), s. 384-407 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P04LA212 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : ATLAS * silicon * micro-strip * beam * test Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 1.224, year: 2005

  10. Laser stripping of the TRIUMF H- beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.T.; Fraser, J.S.; Levy, C.D.P.

    1989-03-01

    A ≤ nA external beam of 50 to 200 MeV is required for certain physics and medical experiments at the same time as 200 μA is being accelerated for meson production. A mode-locked laser, synchronized with the cyclotron rf, can produce a 20 nA parasitic H 0 beam for continuous extraction. The best available Nd:YAG or Nd:YLF laser (Av. Pwr. 15 W) mode-locked at a harmonic of the cyclotron rf falls short of the required intensity by a factor of about 50. An optical delay line could trap the mode-locked pulse train to achieve the required intensity. The optical delay line is a near-concentric resonator installed half above and half below the beam plane and in which all trapped pulses cross the midplane in synchronism with the cyclotron beam bunches. An analysis of the delay line is presented in terms of the transfer matrix for one round trip in the periodic focusing system formed by the end mirrors of the resonator. An enhancement factor ≥55 is possible with 80 trapped pulses if the mirror reflectively ≥ 99%

  11. Acceleration region influence on beam parameters on stripping foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsonov, E.V.; Tomic, S.

    1999-01-01

    Some formulas describing the beam parameters on the stripping foil (SF) as a function of the radial amplitude of betatron oscillations and energy gain are derived. The results computed by these formulas are in good agreement with the results of the numerical calculations. Obtained results show that between the radial emittance and the energy spread exists parametric dependence via amplitude of radial betatron oscillations. This conclusion allows one to create a working diagram of expected beam parameters on SF. This diagram may be particularly useful for the extraction system designers since it gives relationship between parameters considered as the extraction system input parameters. (author)

  12. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Blumenfeld, Y; Sauvestre, J E; Maréchal, F; Ottini, S; Alamanos, N; Barbier, A; Beaumel, D; Bonnereau, B; Charlet, D; Clavelin, J F; Courtat, P; Delbourgo-Salvador, P; Douet, R; Engrand, M; Ethvignot, T; Gillibert, A; Khan, E; Lapoux, V; Lagoyannis, A; Lavergne, L; Lebon, S; Lelong, P; Lesage, A; Le Ven, V; Lhenry, I; Martin, J M; Musumarra, A; Pita, S; Petizon, L; Pollacco, E; Pouthas, J; Richard, A; Rougier, D; Santonocito, D; Scarpaci, J A; Sida, J L; Soulet, C; Stutzmann, J S; Suomijärvi, T; Szmigiel, M; Volkov, P; Voltolini, G

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm sup 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and a...

  13. Beam tests of ATLAS SCT silicon strip detector modules

    CERN Document Server

    Campabadal, F; Key, M; Lozano, M; Martínez, C; Pellegrini, G; Rafí, J M; Ullán, M; Johansen, L; Pommeresche, B; Stugu, B; Ciocio, A; Fadeev, V; Gilchriese, M G D; Haber, C; Siegrist, J; Spieler, H; Vu, C; Bell, P J; Charlton, D G; Dowell, John D; Gallop, B J; Homer, R J; Jovanovic, P; Mahout, G; McMahon, T J; Wilson, J A; Barr, A J; Carter, J R; Fromant, B P; Goodrick, M J; Hill, J C; Lester, C G; Palmer, M J; Parker, M A; Robinson, D; Sabetfakhri, A; Shaw, R J; Anghinolfi, F; Chesi, Enrico Guido; Chouridou, S; Fortin, R; Grosse-Knetter, J; Gruwé, M; Ferrari, P; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; MacPherson, A; Niinikoski, T O; Pernegger, H; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Ruggiero, G; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Bialas, W; Dabrowski, W; Grybos, P; Koperny, S; Blocki, J; Brückman, P; Gadomski, S; Godlewski, J; Górnicki, E; Malecki, P; Moszczynski, A; Stanecka, E; Stodulski, M; Szczygiel, R; Turala, M; Wolter, M; Ahmad, A; Benes, J; Carpentieri, C; Feld, L; Ketterer, C; Ludwig, J; Meinhardt, J; Runge, K; Mikulec, B; Mangin-Brinet, M; D'Onofrio, M; Donega, M; Moêd, S; Sfyrla, A; Ferrère, D; Clark, A G; Perrin, E; Weber, M; Bates, R L; Cheplakov, A P; Saxon, D H; O'Shea, V; Smith, K M; Iwata, Y; Ohsugi, T; Kohriki, T; Kondo, T; Terada, S; Ujiie, N; Ikegami, Y; Unno, Y; Takashima, R; Brodbeck, T; Chilingarov, A G; Hughes, G; Ratoff, P; Sloan, T; Allport, P P; Casse, G L; Greenall, A; Jackson, J N; Jones, T J; King, B T; Maxfield, S J; Smith, N A; Sutcliffe, P; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Beck, G A; Carter, A A; Lloyd, S L; Martin, A J; Morris, J; Morin, J; Nagai, K; Pritchard, T W; Anderson, B E; Butterworth, J M; Fraser, T J; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Postranecky, M; Warren, M R M; Cindro, V; Kramberger, G; Mandic, I; Mikuz, M; Duerdoth, I P; Freestone, J; Foster, J M; Ibbotson, M; Loebinger, F K; Pater, J; Snow, S W; Thompson, R J; Atkinson, T M; Bright, G; Kazi, S; Lindsay, S; Moorhead, G F; Taylor, G N; Bachindgagyan, G; Baranova, N; Karmanov, D; Merkine, M; Andricek, L; Bethke, Siegfried; Kudlaty, J; Lutz, Gerhard; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R; Schieck, J; Cornelissen, T; Gorfine, G W; Hartjes, F G; Hessey, N P; de Jong, P; Muijs, A J M; Peeters, S J M; Tomeda, Y; Tanaka, R; Nakano, I; Dorholt, O; Danielsen, K M; Huse, T; Sandaker, H; Stapnes, S; Bargassa, Pedrame; Reichold, A; Huffman, T; Nickerson, R B; Weidberg, A; Doucas, G; Hawes, B; Lau, W; Howell, D; Kundu, N; Wastie, R; Böhm, J; Mikestikova, M; Stastny, J; Broklová, Z; Broz, J; Dolezal, Z; Kodys, P; Kubík, P; Reznicek, P; Vorobel, V; Wilhelm, I; Chren, D; Horazdovsky, T; Linhart, V; Pospísil, S; Sinor, M; Solar, M; Sopko, B; Stekl, I; Ardashev, E N; Golovnya, S N; Gorokhov, S A; Kholodenko, A G; Rudenko, R E; Ryadovikov, V N; Vorobev, A P; Adkin, P J; Apsimon, R J; Batchelor, L E; Bizzell, J P; Booker, P; Davis, V R; Easton, J M; Fowler, C; Gibson, M D; Haywood, S J; MacWaters, C; Matheson, J P; Matson, R M; McMahon, S J; Morris, F S; Morrissey, M; Murray, W J; Phillips, P W; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Dorfan, D E; Grillo, A A; Rosenbaum, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Spencer, E; Wilder, M; Booth, P; Buttar, C M; Dawson, I; Dervan, P; Grigson, C; Harper, R; Moraes, A; Peak, L S; Varvell, K E; Chu Ming Lee; Hou Li Shing; Lee Shih Chang; Teng Ping Kun; Wan Chang Chun; Hara, K; Kato, Y; Kuwano, T; Minagawa, M; Sengoku, H; Bingefors, N; Brenner, R; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Bernabeu, J; Civera, J V; Costa, M J; Fuster, J; García, C; García, J E; González-Sevilla, S; Lacasta, C; Llosa, G; Martí i García, S; Modesto, P; Sánchez, J; Sospedra, L; Vos, M; Fasching, D; González, S; Jared, R C; Charles, E

    2005-01-01

    The design and technology of the silicon strip detector modules for the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment have been finalised in the last several years. Integral to this process has been the measurement and verification of the tracking performance of the different module types in test beams at the CERN SPS and the KEK PS. Tests have been performed to explore the module performance under various operating conditions including detector bias voltage, magnetic field, incidence angle, and state of irradiation up to 3 multiplied by 1014 protons per square centimetre. A particular emphasis has been the understanding of the operational consequences of the binary readout scheme.

  14. MUST: A silicon strip detector array for radioactive beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Auger, F.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Marechal, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Bonnereau, B.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Courtat, P.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Ethvignot, T.; Gillibert, A.; Khan, E.; Lapoux, V.; Lagoyannis, A.; Lavergne, L.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Le Ven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Martin, J.M.; Musumarra, A.; Pita, S.; Petizon, L.; Pollacco, E.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Santonocito, D.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Sida, J.L.; Soulet, C.; Stutzmann, J.S.; Suomijaervi, T.; Szmigiel, M.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1999-01-01

    A new and innovative array, MUST, based on silicon strip technology and dedicated to the study of reactions induced by radioactive beams on light particles is described. The detector consists of 8 silicon strip - Si(Li) telescopes used to identify recoiling light charged particles through time of flight, energy loss and energy measurements and to determine precisely their scattering angle through X, Y position measurements. Each 60x60 mm 2 double sided silicon strip detector with 60 vertical and 60 horizontal strips yields an X-Y position resolution of 1 mm, an energy resolution of 50 keV, a time resolution of around 1 ns and a 500 keV energy threshold for protons. The backing Si(Li) detectors stop protons up to 25 MeV with a resolution of approximately 50 keV. CsI crystals read out by photo-diodes which stop protons up to 70 MeV are added to the telescopes for applications where higher energy particles need to be detected. The dedicated electronics in VXIbus standard allow us to house the 968 logic and analog channels of the array in one crate placed adjacent to the reaction chamber and fully remote controlled, including pulse visualization on oscilloscopes. A stand alone data acquisition system devoted to the MUST array has been developed. Isotope identification of light charged particles over the full energy range has been achieved, and the capability of the system to measure angular distributions of states populated in inverse kinematics reactions has been demonstrated

  15. Process for recovering uranium using an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid and alkaline stripping solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, R.E.; Magdics, A.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for stripping uranium for a pregnant organic extractant comprising an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in a substantially water-immiscible organic diluent. The organic extractant contains tetravalent uranium and an alcohol or phenol modifier in a quantity sufficient to retain substantially all the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid in solution in the diluent during stripping. The process comprises adding an oxidizing agent to the organic extractant and thereby oxidizing the tetravalent uranium to the +6 state in the organic extractant, and contacting the organic extractant containing the uranium in the +6 state with a stripping solution comprising an aqueous solution of an alkali metal or ammonium carbonate or hydroxide thereby stripping uranium from the organic extractant into the stripping solution. The resulting barren organic extractant containing substantially all of the unhydrolyzed alkyl pyrophosphoric acid dissolved in the diluent is separated from the stripping solution containing the stripped uranium, the barren extractant being suitable for recycle

  16. Test-beam evaluation of heavily irradiated silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase-II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of 7.5x1034cm−2s−1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x1015 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2 in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II and CERN SPS test beam facilities to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before and after irradiation with 8x1014neqcm−2 protons and a total ionising dose of 37.2MRad. The DURA...

  17. Position-sensitive silicon strip detector characterization using particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Maenpaeae, Teppo

    2012-01-01

    Silicon strip detectors are fast, cost-effective and have an excellent spatial resolution.They are widely used in many high-energy physics experiments. Modern high energyphysics experiments impose harsh operation conditions on the detectors, e.g., of LHCexperiments. The high radiation doses cause the detectors to eventually fail as a resultof excessive radiation damage. This has led to a need to study radiation tolerance usingvarious techniques. At the same time, a need to operate sensors approaching the endtheir lifetimes has arisen.The goal of this work is to demonstrate that novel detectors can survive the environment that is foreseen for future high-energy physics experiments. To reach this goal,measurement apparatuses are built. The devices are then used to measure the propertiesof irradiated detectors. The measurement data are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn.Three measurement apparatuses built as a part of this work are described: two telescopes measuring the tracks of the beam of a particle acceler...

  18. Performance tests of developed silicon strip detector by using a 150 GeV electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Hyojung; Jung, Sunwoo; Kah, Dongha; Kang, Heedong; Kim, Hongjoo; Park, Hwanbae

    2008-01-01

    We manufactured and characterized a silicon micro-strip detector to be used in a beam tracker. A silicon detector features a DC-coupled silicon strip sensor with VA1 Prime2 analog readout chips. The silicon strip sensors have been fabricated on 5-in. wafers at Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Daejeon, Korea). The silicon strip sensor is single-sided and has 32 channels with a 1 mm pitch, and its active area is 3.2 by 3.2 cm 2 with 380 μm thickness. The readout electronics consists of VA hybrid, VA Interface, and FlashADC and Control boards. Analog signals from the silicon strip sensor were being processed by the analog readout chips on the VA hybrid board. Analog signals were then changed into digital signals by a 12 bit 25 MHz FlashADC. The digital signals were read out by the Linux-operating PC through the FlashADC-USB2 interface. The DAQ system and analysis programs were written in the framework of ROOT package. The beam test with the silicon detector had been performed at CERN beam facility. We used a 150 GeV electron beam out of the SPS(Super Proton Synchrotron) H2 beam line. We present beam test setup and measurement result of signal-to-noise ratio of each strip channel. (author)

  19. E-plane Beam Width Reconfigurable Dipole Antenna with Tunable Parasitic Strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2018-01-01

    A 3-dB E-plane beam width (EPBW) reconfig- urable dipole antenna is proposed in this paper. By introducing a tunable C-shape strip, the EPBW of the dipole antenna can switch in three different modes: narrow, middle and wide. Three pairs of PIN diodes are used for controlling. The beam width tuning...

  20. Study on shear strengthening of RC continuous T-beams using different layers of CFRP strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alferjani, M. B. S.; Samad, A. A. Abdul; Mohamad, Noridah [Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Batu Pahat (Malaysia); Elrawaff, Blkasem S.; Elzaroug, Omer [Faculty of Civil Engineering Omar Al Mukhtar University, Bayda, Libya, Africa (Libya)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates are externally bonded to reinforced concrete (RC) members to provide additional strength such as flexural, shear, etc. However, this paper presents the results of an experimental investigation for enhancing the shear capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) continuous T- beams using different layers of CFRP wrapping schemes. A total of three concrete beams were tested and various sheet configurations and layouts were studied to determine their effects on ultimate shear strength and shear capacity of the beams. One beam was kept as control beams, while other beams were strengthened with externally bonded CFRP strips with three side bonding and one or two layers of CFRP strips. From the test results, it was found that all schemes were found to be effective in enhancing the shear strength of RC beams. It was observed that the strength increases with the number of sheet layers provided the most effective strengthening for RC continuous T- beam. Beam strengthened using this scheme showed 23.21% increase in shear capacity as compared to the control beam. Two prediction models available in literature were used for computing the contribution of CFRP strips and compared with the experimental results.

  1. Precipitation stripping of neodymium from carboxylate extractant with aqueous oxalic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Yasuhiro; Asai, Satoru; Murai, Tetuya

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a precipitation stripping method in which neodymium ions are stripped from carboxylate extractant in organic solvent and simultaneously precipitated with aqueous oxalic acid solution. For the single-stage process, a quantitative criterion for precipitating oxalate powders was derived theoretically, and stripping experiments were done under the precipitation conditions. The resultant precipitates were neodymium oxalate, which is completely free from contamination by the carboxylate extractant and the organic solvent. The overall rate of stripping was controlled by the transfer of neodymium carboxylate in the organic solution, indicating that the presence of oxalic acid in the aqueous phase has no effect on the stripping rate. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of combining the conventional stripping and precipitation stages in a solvent extraction process for separation and purification of rare earths

  2. Results from a beam test of silicon strip sensors manufactured by Infineon Technologies AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragicevic, M., E-mail: marko.dragicevic@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Auzinger, G. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Gamerith, S.; Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); König, A. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Kröner, F.; Kucher, E.; Moser, J.; Neidhart, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Schulze, H.-J. [Infineon Technologies AG, Munich (Germany); Schustereder, W. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Wübben, T. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria)

    2014-11-21

    Most modern particle physics experiments use silicon based sensors for their tracking systems. These sensors are able to detect particles generated in high energy collisions with high spatial resolution and therefore allow the precise reconstruction of particle tracks. So far only a few vendors were capable of producing silicon strip sensors with the quality needed in particle physics experiments. Together with the European-based semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG (Infineon) the Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (HEPHY) developed planar silicon strip sensors in p-on-n technology. This work presents the first results from a beam test of strip sensors manufactured by Infineon.

  3. Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors for the Beam Profile Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Pugatch, V M; Fedorovitch, O A; Mikhailenko, A V; Prystupa, S V; Pylypchenko, Y

    2005-01-01

    The Micro-strip Metal Foil Detectors (MMFD) designed and used for the Beam Profile Monitoring (BPM) are discussed. Fast particles hitting a metal strip initiate Secondary Electron Emission (SEE) which occurs at 10 - 50 nm surface layers of a strip. The SEE yield is measured by a sensitive Charge Integrator with built-in current-to-frequency converter (1 Hz per 1 fA). The MMFD (deposited onto the 20 μm thick Si-wafer) with 32 Al strips (10 μm wide, 32 μm pitch) has been used for the BPM of the 32 MeV alpha-particle beam at the MPIfK (Heidelberg) Tandem generator for Single-Event-Upset studies of the BEETLE micro-chip. Similar MMFD (0.5 μm thick Ni-strips) with totally removed Si-wafer (by plasma-chemistry, at the working area of 8 x 10 mm2) has been applied for the on-line X-ray BPM at the HASYLAB (DESY). The number of photons (11.3 GeV, mean X-ray energy 18 keV) producing out of a strip a single SEE was evaluated as (1.5 ±0.5)* 104. MMFD has demonstrated stable...

  4. stripping of uranium from DEHPA/TOPO solvent by ammonium carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorfan, S.; Shino, O.; Wahood, A.; Dahdouh, A.

    2002-01-01

    Uranium is recovered from phosphoric acid by the DEHPA/TOPO process. In this process uranium is stripped from the loaded DEHPA/TOPO solvent in the second cycle by an ammonium carbonate solution. This paper studied stripping of uranium from 0.3 Mol DEHPA/0.075 Mol TOPO in kerosene by different ammonium carbonate solutions. The ammonium carbonate solutions tested were either made locally from ammonia and carbon dioxide gases or commercial and laboratory grades available on the market. A comparison was made between these carbonate solutions in terms of purity, stripping efficiency and phase separation. Both stripping and phase separation were carried out under different conditions of phase ratio and concentrations. The results obtained showed that ammonium carbonate prepared from direct synthesis of ammonia and carbon dioxide gases had a high purity and gave the same stripping yield as the laboratory grade. The phase separation was also slightly improved using a pure synthesized ammonium carbonate solution. the phase separation was found to be best at concentration of 0.5 Mol/L ammonium carbonate solution and at a phase A/O of 1/1 and a temperature of 50 degree centigrade. It was possible to obtain >99% yield by operating 2 stripping stages counter currently under these conditions. (authors)

  5. Strip Ionization Chamber as Beam Monitor in the Proton Therapy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, F.; Cirio, R.; Garella, M. A.; Giordanengo, S.; Boriano, A.; Givehchi, N.; La Rosa, A.; Peroni, C.; Donetti, M.; Bourhaleb, F.; Pitta', G.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-04-01

    Since spring 2002, ocular pathologies have been treated in Catania at the Centro di AdroTerapia e Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate (CATANA) within a collaboration between INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Physics Department, Ophthalmology Institute, Radiology Institute of the Catania University and CSFNSM Catania. A beam line from a 62 MeV Superconducting Cyclotron is used to treat shallow tumors. The beam is conformed to the tumor shape with a passive delivery system. A detector system has been developed in collaboration with INFN-Torino to be used as real time beam monitor. The detector, placed upstream of the patient collimator, consists of two parallel plate ionization chambers with the anode segmented in strips. Each anode is made of 0.5 mm-wide 256 strips corresponding to (12.8 × 12.8) cm2 sensitive area. With the two strip ionization chambers one can measure the relevant beam parameters during treatment to probe both asymmetry and flatness. In the test carried out at CATANA the detector has been used under different and extreme beam conditions. Preliminary results are given for profiles and skewness, together with a comparison with reference detectors.

  6. Initial beam test results from a silicon-strip detector with VLSI readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Litke, A.; Schwarz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon detectors with 256 strips, having a pitch of 25 μm, and connected to two 128 channel NMOS VLSI chips each (Microplex), have been tested in relativistic charged particle beams at CERN and at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The readout chips have an input channel pitch of 47.5 μm and a single multiplexed output which provides voltages proportional to the integrated charge from each strip. The most probable signal height from minimum ionizing tracks was 15 times the rms noise in any single channel. Two-track traversals with a separation of 100 μm were cleanly resolved

  7. The energy broadening resulting from electron stripping process of a low energy Au- beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniike, Akira; Sasao, Mamiko; Hamada, Yasuji; Fujita, Junji; Wada, Motoi.

    1994-12-01

    Energy loss spectra of Au + ions produced from Au - ions by electron stripping in He, Ar, Kr and Xe have been measured in the impact energy range of 24-44 keV. The energy broadening of the Au + beam increases as the beam energy increases, and the spectrum shows a narrower energy width for heavy target atoms. The dependence of the spectrum width upon the beam energy and that upon the target mass are well described by the calculation based on the unified potential and semi-classical internal energy transfer model of Firsov's. (author)

  8. Low-resistance strip sensors for beam-loss event protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullán, M.; Benítez, V.; Quirion, D.; Zabala, M.; Pellegrini, G.; Lozano, M.; Lacasta, C.; Soldevila, U.; García, C.; Fadeyev, V.; Wortman, J.; DeFilippis, J.; Shumko, M.; Grillo, A.A; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.

    2014-01-01

    AC-coupled silicon strip sensors can be damaged in case of a beam loss due to the possibility of a large charge accumulation in the bulk, developing very high voltages across the coupling capacitors which can destroy them. Punch-through structures are currently used to avoid this problem helping to evacuate the accumulated charge as large voltages are developing. Nevertheless, previous experiments, performed with laser pulses, have shown that these structures can become ineffective in relatively long strips. The large value of the implant resistance can effectively isolate the “far” end of the strip from the punch-through structure leading to large voltages. We present here our developments to fabricate low-resistance strip sensors to avoid this problem. The deposition of a conducting material in contact with the implants drastically reduces the strip resistance, assuring the effectiveness of the punch-through structures. First devices have been fabricated with this new technology. Initial results with laser tests show the expected reduction in peak voltages on the low resistivity implants. Other aspects of the sensor performance, including the signal formation, are not affected by the new technology

  9. Stripping reactions in a three-body system. Comparison of DWBA and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinati, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Stripping reactions 'a estados no continuo' are studied in a three particle system. Since the three-body problem has an exact treatment, comparison will be made between the exact solution and the DWBA model solution. This problem is more complex in the continuous case, as shown in the convergence problem of the standard DWBA amplitude radial integral

  10. Beam loss studies on silicon strip detector modules for the CMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrer, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The large beam energy of the LHC demands for a save beam abort system. Nevertheless, failures cannot be excluded with last assurance and are predicted to occur once per year. As the CMS experiment is placed in the neighboured LHC octant, it is affected by such events. The effect of an unsynchronized beam abort on the silicon strip modules of the CMS tracking detector has been investigated in this thesis by performing one accelerator and two lab experiments. The dynamical behaviour of operational parameters of modules and components has been recorded during simulated beam loss events to be able to disentangle the reasons of possible damages. The first study with high intensive proton bunches at the CERN PS ensured the robustness of the module design against beam losses. A further lab experiment with pulsed IR LEDs clarified the physical and electrical processes during such events. The silicon strip sensors on a module are protected against beam losses by a part of the module design that originally has not been...

  11. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriano, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [Fondazione TERA, Via Puccini 1, 1-28100 Novara (Italy); Cirio, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale e INFN, Via P.Giuria 1, 1-10125 Turin (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-01-15

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  12. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape

  13. Preliminary results with a strip ionization chamber used as beam monitor for hadrontherapy treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriano, A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Donetti, M.; Garelli, E.; Giordanengo, S.; Luparia, A.; Marchette, F.; Peroni, C.; Raffaele, L.; Sabini, M. G.; Valastro, L.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from a test of a parallel plate ionization chamber with the anode segmented in strips (MOPI) to be used as a beam monitor for therapeutical treatments on the 62 MeV proton beam line of the INFN-LNS Superconducting Cyclotron. Ocular pathologies have been treated at the Catana facility since March 2002. The detector, placed downstream of the patient collimator, will allow the measurement of the relevant beam diagnostic parameters during treatment such as integrated beam fluence, for dose determination; the beam baricentre, width and asymmetry will be obtained from the fluence profile sampled with a resolution of about 100 Urn at a rate up to 1 kHz with no dead time. In this test, carried out at LNS, the detector has been exposed to different beam shapes and the integrated fluence derived by the measured beam profiles has been compared with that obtained with other dosimeters normally used for treatment. The skewness of the beam profile has been measured and shown to be suitable to on-line check variations of the beam shape.

  14. Beam handling and transport solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maggiore, M. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, INFN, Via Universita' 2, Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Institute of Physics Czech Academy of Science, ELI-Beamlines project, Na Slovance 2, Prague (Czech Republic); Carpinelli, M. [INFN Sezione di Cagliari, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); Cuttone, G.; Romano, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via Santa Sofia 62, Catania, Italy and Universita' degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the possibility to characterize the particle beams produced by the laser-target interaction in terms of collection, focusing and energy selection in order to evaluate the feasibility of a laser-driven facility in the field of medical application and, in particular, for hadrontherapy.

  15. Beam handling and transport solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Cuttone, G.; Romano, F.; Tramontana, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the possibility to characterize the particle beams produced by the laser-target interaction in terms of collection, focusing and energy selection in order to evaluate the feasibility of a laser-driven facility in the field of medical application and, in particular, for hadrontherapy

  16. Test beam studies of the light yield, time and coordinate resolutions of scintillator strips with WLS fibers and SiPM readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab, Batavia IL (United States); Evdokimov, Valery [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Lukić, Strahinja; Ujić, Predrag [Vinča Institute, University of Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-03-11

    Prototype scintilator+WLS strips with SiPM readout for large muon detection systems were tested in the muon beam of the Fermilab Test Beam Facility. Light yield of up to 137 photoelectrons per muon per strip has been observed , as well as time resolution of 330 ps and position resolution along the strip of 5.4 cm.

  17. Method of stripping plutonium from tributyl phosphate solution which contains dibutyl phosphate-plutonium stable complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochsenfeld, W.; Schmieder, H.

    1976-01-01

    Fast breeder fuel elements which have been highly burnt-up are reprocessed by extracting uranium and plutonium into an organic solution containing tributyl phosphate. The tributyl phosphate degenerates at least partially into dibutyl phosphate and monobutyl phosphate, which form stable complexes with tetravalent plutonium in the organic solution. This tetravalent plutonium is released from its complexed state and stripped into aqueous phase by contacting the organic solution with an aqueous phase containing tetravalent uranium. 6 claims, 1 drawing figure

  18. Recovery of Tin and Nitric Acid from Spent Solder Stripping Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ryu, Seong-Hyung; Kim, Tae-young

    2015-01-01

    Spent solder-stripping solutions containing tin, copper, iron, and lead in nitric acid solution, are by-products of the manufacture of printed-circuit boards. The recovery of these metals and the nitric acid, for re-use has economic and environmental benefits. In the spent solder-stripping solution, a systematic method to determine a suitable process for recovery of valuable metals and nitric acid was developed. Initially, more than 90% of the tin was successfully recovered as high-purity SnO 2 by thermal precipitation at 80 ℃ for 3 hours. About 94% of the nitric acid was regenerated effectively from the spent solutions by diffusion dialysis, after which there remained copper, iron, and lead in solution. Leakage of tin through the anion-exchange membrane was the lowest (0.026%), whereas Pb-leakage was highest (4.26%). The concentration of the regenerated nitric acid was about 5.1 N.

  19. Preloading Effect on Strengthening Efficiency of RC Beams Strengthened with Non- and Pretensioned NSM Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The near surface mounted (NSM technique has been shown to be one of the most promising methods for upgrading reinforced concrete (RC structures. Many tests carried out on RC members strengthened in flexure with NSM fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP systems have demonstrated greater strengthening efficiency than the use of externally-bonded (EB FRP laminates. Strengthening with simultaneous pretensioning of the FRP results in improvements in the serviceability limit state (SLS conditions, including the increased cracking moment and decreased deflections. The objective of the reported experimental program, which consisted of two series of RC beams strengthened in flexure with NSM CFRP strips, was to investigate the influence of a number of parameters on the strengthening efficiency. The test program focused on an analysis of the effects of preloading on the strengthening efficiency which has been investigated very rarely despite being one of the most important parameters to be taken into account in strengthening design. Two preloading levels were considered: the beam self-weight only, which corresponded to stresses on the internal longitudinal reinforcement of 25% and 14% of the yield stress (depending on a steel reinforcement ratio, and the self-weight with the additional superimposed load, corresponding to 60% of the yield strength of the unstrengthened beam and a deflection equal to the allowable deflection at the SLS. The influence of the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio was also considered in this study. To reflect the variability seen in existing structures, test specimens were varied by using different steel bar diameters. Finally, the impact of the composite reinforcement ratio and the number of pretensioned FRP strips was considered. Specimens were divided into two series based on their strengthening configuration: series “A” were strengthened with one pretensioned and two non-pretensioned carbon FRP (CFRP strips, while series

  20. On solution of the integral equations for the potential problems of two circular-strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sampath

    1988-01-01

    Dirichlet and Newmann boundary value problems of two equal infinite coaxial circular strips in various branches of potential theory. For illustration, these solutions are applied to solve some boundary value problems in electrostatics, hydrodynamics, and expressions for the physical quantities of interest are derived.

  1. Strip waves in vibrated shear-thickening wormlike micellar solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, T.; Deegan, R. D.

    2010-06-01

    We present an instability in vertically vibrated dilute wormlike micellar solutions. Above a critical driving acceleration the fluid forms elongated solitary domains of high amplitude waves. We model this instability using a Mathieu equation modified to account for the non-Newtonian character of the fluid. We find that our model successfully reproduces the observed transitions.

  2. Performance of a micro-strip gas chamber in solution X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Toyokawa, H; Inoko, Y; Nagayoshi, T; Nishi, Y; Nishikawa, Y; Ochi, A; Suzuki, M; Tanimori, T

    2001-01-01

    The performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber in solution X-ray scattering was studied at the RIKEN structural biology beamline I of the SPring-8 facility. The practical dynamic range was confirmed to be approx 1,000,000 : 1 by measuring S sup - sup 4 decay from a polystyrene latex solution. Steep troughs of scattering profile from an apoferritin solution were clearly obtained without smearing. An unfolding process of a pH jump of cytochrome c was measured. A time resolution of 500 mu s was achieved.

  3. Fracture analysis of a transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor strip based on real fundamental solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Zhou, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We studied fracture problem in HTS based on real fundamental solutions. • When the thickness of HTS strip increases the SIF decrease. • A higher applied field leads to a larger stress intensity factor. • The greater the critical current density is, the smaller values of the SIF is. - Abstract: Real fundamental solution for fracture problem of transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor (HTS) strip is obtained. The superconductor E–J constitutive law is characterized by the Bean model where the critical current density is independent of the flux density. Fracture analysis is performed by the methods of singular integral equations which are solved numerically by Gauss–Lobatto–Chybeshev (GSL) collocation method. To guarantee a satisfactory accuracy, the convergence behavior of the kernel function is investigated. Numerical results of fracture parameters are obtained and the effects of the geometric characteristics, applied magnetic field and critical current density on the stress intensity factors (SIF) are discussed

  4. INVESTIGATION OF CLINOPTILOLITE NATURAL ZEOLITE REGENERATION BY AIR STRIPPING FOLLOWED BY ION EXCHANGE FOR REMOVAL OF AMMONIUM FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rahmani ، M. T. Samadi ، H. R. Ehsani

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to regenerate clinoptilolite natural zeolite by air stripping followed by removal of ammonium from aqueous solutions. The research was carried out in continuous system. The characteristics of graded clinoptilolite from Semnan (one of the central provinces in Iran mines were determined and then regeneration tests were done by contacting of 1 N NaCl solution with given weights of ammonium saturated zeolite. Then the brine of column was transferred to the air stripping column for regeneration. The pH of brine solution before entrance to a stripping column was increased to 11. Air stripped ammonia from the brine was converted to the ammonium ion by using acid scrubber. The outlet effluent from stripping column was collected for reuse. The results showed that the cation exchange capacities were 17.31 to 18.38 mg NH4+/g of zeolite weight. Regeneration efficiency of zeolite by NaCl solution and air stripping was in the range of 92%-97% under various operational conditions. However, the efficiency of acid absorption of released ammonia in stripping process was 55% with a major rejection of the surplus ammonia to the atmosphere. It could be concluded that the method studied may be considered as an advanced and supplementary process for treating effluents of aqueous solution and fishponds in existing treatment plants.

  5. Uncoupled thermoelasticity solutions applied on beam dumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ouzia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In particle accelerators the process of beam absorption is vital. At CERN particle beams are accelerated at energies of the order of TeV. In the event of a system failure or following collisions, the beam needs to be safely absorbed by dedicated protecting blocks. The thermal shock caused by the rapid energy deposition within the absorbing block causes thermal stresses that may rise above critical levels. The present paper provides a convenient expression of such stresses under hypotheses described hereafter. The temperature field caused by the beam energy deposition is assumed to be Gaussian. Such a field models a non-diffusive heat deposition. These effects are described as thermoelastic as long as the stresses remain below the proportional limit and can be analytically modeled by the coupled equations of thermoelasticity. The analytical solution to the uncoupled thermoelastic problem in an infinite domain is presented herein and matched with a finite unit radius sphere. The assumption of zero diffusion as well as the validity of the match with a finite geometry is quantified such that the obtained solutions can be rigorously applied to real problems. Furthermore, truncated series solutions, which are not novel, are used for comparison purposes. All quantities are nondimensional and the problem reduces to a dependence of five dimensionless parameters. The equations of elasticity are presented in the potential formulation where the shear potential is assumed to be nil due to the source being a gradient and the absence of boundaries. Nevertheless equivalent three-dimensional stresses are computed using the compressive potential and optimized using standard analytical optimization methods. An alternative algorithm for finding the critical points of the three-dimensional stress function is presented. Finally, a case study concerning the proton synchrotron booster dump is presented where the aforementioned analytical solutions are used and the

  6. Beam test of novel n-in-p strip sensors for high radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, T.; Kishida, T.; Jinnouchi, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Unno, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S.; Tamii, A.; Aoi, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Kimura, N.; Takashima, R.; Takubo, Y.; Tojo, J.; Nagai, K.; Nakano, I.; Yorita, K.

    2013-12-01

    Highly radiation tolerant n-in-p strip sensors have been developed for the high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). This paper reports the results of measurements with 392 MeV kinetic energy proton beam at RCNP in December 2011. The data was taken with a new DAQ system consisting of an universal read-out board ‘SEABAS’ and beam tracking telescopes whose spacial resolution is better than 5 μm. The aim of this beam test is to evaluate the new 1 cm×1 cm n-in-p miniature sensors before and after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation. The median charge of un-irradiated sensor is 6.2 fC at full depletion voltage, while the median charge after 1015 neq cm-2 irradiation of the sensor is 4.2 fC. The novel Punch-Through-Protection (PTP) has been implemented in these sensors. The length of active region of the sensor around PTP is observed to be decreased by 12 μm in the irradiated sensors at 1015 neq cm-2.

  7. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  8. Simulation of electron beam from two strip electron guns and control of power density by rotation of gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, G K; Baruah, S; Thakur, K B

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam is preferably used for large scale evaporation of refractory materials. Material evaporation from a long and narrow source providing a well collimated wedge shaped atomic beam has applications in isotopic purification of metals relevant to nuclear industry. The electron beam from an electron gun with strip type filament provides a linear heating source. However, the high power density of the electron beam can lead to turbulence of the melt pool and undesirable splashing of molten metal. For obtaining quiet surface evaporation, the linear electron beam is generally scanned along its length. To further reduce the power density to maintain quiet evaporation the width of the vapour source can be controlled by rotating the electron gun on its plane, thereby scanning an inclined beam over the molten pool. The rotation of gun has further advantages. When multiple strip type electron guns are used for scaling up evaporation length, a dark zone appears between two beams due to physical separation of adjacent guns. This dark zone can be reduced by rotating the gun and thereby bringing two adjacent beams closer. The paper presented here provides the simulation results of the electron beam trajectory and incident power density originating from two strip electron guns by using in-house developed code. The effect of electron gun rotation on the electron beam trajectory and power density is studied. The simulation result is experimentally verified with the image of molten pool and heat affected zone taken after experiment. This technique can be gainfully utilized in controlling the time averaged power density of the electron beam and obtaining quiet evaporation from the metal molten pool.

  9. Test beam results of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a secondary-electron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Anderson, D.F.; Zimmerman, J.; Sbarra, C.; Salomon, M.

    1994-10-01

    We present recent results, from a beam test, on the angular dependence of the efficiency and the distribution of the signals on the anode strips of a low-pressure microstrip gas chamber with a thick CsI layer as a secondary-electron emitter. New results of CVD diamond films as secondary-electron emitters are discussed

  10. Glulam beams reinforced with FRP strips and their application in architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solarov Radivoj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes the advantage of using carbon polymers while producing and strengthening glulam beams. Due to advanced research carried out in this field, the first application of carbon polymers based products was implemented in Western countries. Structural elements containing carbon polymers, or being reinforced by them, show higher resistance and durability properties, as well as the ability to be produced in various shapes. These features can find best application in architecture so the architects’ imagination in design could be realized. Many attractive buildings were constructed over the last decade, each of them showing exceptional safety, resistance to atmospheric influences, durability and cost-efficiency. Beside application of carbon polymers in the construction of new buildings, they are even more important in the field of historic heritage restoration. The original research carried out on ten samples in the laboratory is presented in the second part of the paper. Position of the reinforcement on the samples was chosen as it would be done in practical retrofit cases. Deformations of the samples exposed to pure bending were measured, so their behaviour in the elastic range could be analysed based on the results. Measured results were compared to those calculated by using FEM model, developed with software package AxisVM. Based on performed analysis, the conclusion was made that by strengthening timber glulam beams with FRP strips, the simple and efficient static load bearing capacity upgrade is gained.

  11. Fracture analysis of a transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor strip based on real fundamental solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiwen; Zhou, Youhe

    2015-04-01

    Real fundamental solution for fracture problem of transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor (HTS) strip is obtained. The superconductor E-J constitutive law is characterized by the Bean model where the critical current density is independent of the flux density. Fracture analysis is performed by the methods of singular integral equations which are solved numerically by Gauss-Lobatto-Chybeshev (GSL) collocation method. To guarantee a satisfactory accuracy, the convergence behavior of the kernel function is investigated. Numerical results of fracture parameters are obtained and the effects of the geometric characteristics, applied magnetic field and critical current density on the stress intensity factors (SIF) are discussed.

  12. Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of heavy metals in solutions containing humic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labuda, J.; Saur, D.; Neeb, R.

    1994-01-01

    Various simultaneous effects of humic acids on the current and potential of differential pulse anodic stripping peaks of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in weakly alkaline and acidic (pH 2) solutions have been investigated and interpreted with regard to metal complexation and the adsorption of humic acid on the mercury electrode. The applicability of the standard additions method for metal quantitation and the experimental conditions for UV-photolysis with a high-pressure mercury lamp have been examined in model as well as real water samples. (orig.)

  13. Periodic solutions of nonlinear vibrating beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Berkovits

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove new existence and multiplicity results for periodic semilinear beam equation with a nonlinear time-independent perturbation in case the period is not prescribed. Since the spectrum of the linear part varies with the period, the solvability of the equation depends crucially on the period which can be chosen as a free parameter. Since the period of the external forcing is generally unknown a priori, we consider the following natural problem. For a given time-independent nonlinearity, find periods T for which the equation is solvable for any T-periodic forcing. We will also deal with the existence of multiple solutions when the nonlinearity interacts with the spectrum of the linear part. We show that under certain conditions multiple solutions do exist for any small forcing term with suitable period T. The results are obtained via generalized Leray-Schauder degree and reductions to invariant subspaces.

  14. Hadron-therapy beam monitoring: Towards a new generation of ultra-thin p-type silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouterfa, M.; Aouadi, K.; Bertrand, D.; Olbrechts, B.; Delamare, R.; Raskin, J. P.; Gil, E. C.; Flandre, D.

    2011-01-01

    Hadron-therapy has gained increasing interest for cancer treatment especially within the last decade. System commissioning and quality assurance procedures impose to monitor the particle beam using 2D dose measurements. Nowadays, several monitoring systems exist for hadron-therapy but all show a relatively high influence on the beam properties: indeed, most devices consist of several layers of materials that degrade the beam through scattering and energy losses. For precise treatment purposes, ultra-thin silicon strip detectors are investigated in order to reduce this beam scattering. We assess the beam size increase provoked by the Multiple Coulomb Scattering when passing through Si, to derive a target thickness. Monte-Carlo based simulations show a characteristic scattering opening angle lower than 1 mrad for thicknesses below 20 μm. We then evaluated the fabrication process feasibility. We successfully thinned down silicon wafers to thicknesses lower than 10 μm over areas of several cm 2 . Strip detectors are presently being processed and they will tentatively be thinned down to 20 μm. Moreover, two-dimensional TCAD simulations were carried out to investigate the beam detector performances on p-type Si substrates. Additionally, thick and thin substrates have been compared thanks to electrical simulations. Reducing the pitch between the strips increases breakdown voltage, whereas leakage current is quite insensitive to strips geometrical configuration. The samples are to be characterized as soon as possible in one of the IBA hadron-therapy facilities. For hadron-therapy, this would represent a considerable step forward in terms of treatment precision. (authors)

  15. Exact solution for the Poisson field in a semi-infinite strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yossi; Rothman, Daniel H

    2017-04-01

    The Poisson equation is associated with many physical processes. Yet exact analytic solutions for the two-dimensional Poisson field are scarce. Here we derive an analytic solution for the Poisson equation with constant forcing in a semi-infinite strip. We provide a method that can be used to solve the field in other intricate geometries. We show that the Poisson flux reveals an inverse square-root singularity at a tip of a slit, and identify a characteristic length scale in which a small perturbation, in a form of a new slit, is screened by the field. We suggest that this length scale expresses itself as a characteristic spacing between tips in real Poisson networks that grow in response to fluxes at tips.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Effectiveness of Strengthening Concrete Slab in Tension of the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam Using Pretensioned CFRP Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowiak Iwona

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods to increase the load carrying capacity of the reinforced concrete (RC structure is its strengthening by using carbon fiber (CFRP strips. There are two methods of strengthening using CFRP strips - passive method and active method. In the passive method a strip is applied to the concrete surface without initial strains, unlike in the active method a strip is initially pretensioned before its application. In the case of a steel-concrete composite beam, strips may be used to strengthen the concrete slab located in the tension zone (in the parts of beams with negative bending moments. The finite element model has been developed and validated by experimental tests to evaluate the strengthening efficiency of the composite girder with pretensioned CFRP strips applied to concrete slab in its tension zone.

  17. Numerical Analysis of Effectiveness of Strengthening Concrete Slab in Tension of the Steel-Concrete Composite Beam Using Pretensioned CFRP Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Iwona; Madaj, Arkadiusz

    2017-12-01

    One of the methods to increase the load carrying capacity of the reinforced concrete (RC) structure is its strengthening by using carbon fiber (CFRP) strips. There are two methods of strengthening using CFRP strips - passive method and active method. In the passive method a strip is applied to the concrete surface without initial strains, unlike in the active method a strip is initially pretensioned before its application. In the case of a steel-concrete composite beam, strips may be used to strengthen the concrete slab located in the tension zone (in the parts of beams with negative bending moments). The finite element model has been developed and validated by experimental tests to evaluate the strengthening efficiency of the composite girder with pretensioned CFRP strips applied to concrete slab in its tension zone.

  18. The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G.

    2004-01-01

    The T10 beam produces a few hits per event. In ALICE the SSD will have to cope with many hits per strip. In the three centimeters of aluminium the beam will produce many secondary particles. This increases the chance of multiple hits per strip, although not to the level in ALICE.

  19. Construction, test and operation in a high intensity beam of a small system of micro-strip gas chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, A.; Bachmann, S.; Boimska, B.; Bouclier, R.; Braem, A.; Camps, C.; Capeáns, M.; Commichau, V.; Dominik, W.; Flügge, G.; Gómez, F.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hangarter, K.; Hoch, M.; Labbé, J. C.; Macke, D.; Manzin, G.; Meijers, F.; Million, G.; Muhlemann, K.; Nagaslaev, V.; Peisert, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Runolfsson, O.; Sauli, F.; Schulte, R.; Schulz, M.; Sharma, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Wolff, C.

    1998-02-01

    We describe the construction, test and installation procedures, and the experience gained with the operation of a small but complete system of high-rate Micro-Strip Gas Chambers, made on thin borosilicate glass with a diamond-like coating with chromium or gold strips. A set of detectors, fully equipped with read-out electronics and each with an active area of 100 × 100 mm 2, was exposed during six months to a high-intensity muon beam at CERN with a peak intensity of ˜ 10 4 mm -2s -1. Continuous monitoring of the performance of the chambers during the beam runs allowed the evaluation of detection efficiency and the monitoring of accidental rates, as well as the study of ambient induced variations and aging in realistic beam conditions. No significant difference has been found in the operation of under-and over-coated plates. Efficiencies could reach ˜ 98% in best operating conditions, although local lower values were often observed due to missing channels (open strips, broken bonds and dead electronic channels). The long-term operation of the chambers has been more difficult than expected, with the appearance of break-downs and loss of efficiency in some detectors, possibly induced by the presence of small gas leaks, to water permeation or to residual reactivity of the quencher gas (dimethylether).

  20. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, L.S.R. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Conti, C.C., E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecão e Dosimetria, CNEN/IRD (Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, CNEN/IRD), Av. Salvador Allende s/no, P.O. Box 37750, 22783-127 Barra da Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Amorim, A.S.; Balthar, M.C.V. [Centro Tecnológico do Exército, CTEx (Brazilian Army Technological Center), Av. das Américas n° 28705, 23085-470 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2013-03-21

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector’s materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  1. NaI(Tl) scintillator detectors stripping procedure for air kerma measurements of diagnostic X-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, L. S. R.; Conti, C. C.; Amorim, A. S.; Balthar, M. C. V.

    2013-03-01

    Air kerma is an essential quantity for the calibration of national standards used in diagnostic radiology and the measurement of operating parameters used in radiation protection. Its measurement within the appropriate limits of accuracy, uncertainty and reproducibility is important for the characterization and control of the radiation field for the dosimetry of the patients submitted to diagnostic radiology and, also, for the assessment of the system which produces radiological images. Only the incident beam must be considered for the calculation of the air kerma. Therefore, for energy spectrum, counts apart the total energy deposition in the detector must be subtracted. It is necessary to establish a procedure to sort out the different contributions to the original spectrum and remove the counts representing scattered photons in the detector's materials, partial energy deposition due to the interactions in the detector active volume and, also, the escape peaks contributions. The main goal of this work is to present spectrum stripping procedure, using the MCNP Monte Carlo computer code, for NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors to calculate the air kerma due to an X-ray beam usually used in medical radiology. The comparison between the spectrum before stripping procedure against the reference value showed a discrepancy of more than 63%, while the comparison with the same spectrum after the stripping procedure showed a discrepancy of less than 0.2%.

  2. Performance Test Results of a Single-sided Silicon Strip Detector with a Radioactive Source and a Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Y. I.; Kah, D. H.; Son, D. H.; Kang, H. D.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, H. O.; Bae, J. B.; Ryu, S.; Park, H.; Kim, K. R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to high intrinsic precision and high speed properties of a silicon material, the silicon detector has been used in various applications such as medical imaging detector, radiation detector, positioning detectors in space science and experimental particle physics. High technology, modern equipment, and deep expertise are required to design and fabricate good quality of silicon sensors. Only few facilities in the world can develop silicon sensors which meet requirements of sensor performances. That is one of main reasons that the silicon sensor is so expensive and it takes time to purchase the silicon sensor once it is ordered. We designed and fabricated AC-coupled single-sided silicon strip sensors and developed front-end electronics and DAQ system to read out sensor signals. The silicon strip sensors were fabricated on a 5-in. n-type silicon wafer which has an orientation, high resistivity (>5 kΩ · cm) and a thickness of 380 μm. We measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of each channel by using a radioactive source and a 45 MeV proton beam from the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) in Seoul. We present the measurement results of the SNRs of the silicon strip sensor with a proton beam and radioactive sources

  3. Apparatus for irradiating a continuous line metallic strip with electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shozo; Tanaka, Tadashi; Okamoto, Tadaaki; Ueno, Nagaharu.

    1970-01-01

    The secondary X-rays from an irradiated object are completely shielded by providing direction-change rollers between applicator rollers and irradiation devices. The substrate strip turns its direction of travel by 90 0 through idle rollers and before it enters a front side applicator roller. After the application of coatings, the strip travels over a roller to turn upwardly, so that the applicator is isolated from the following irradiation enclosure. Next, the irradiated strip changes its direction by 90 0 through a roller to enter a bake side coating applicator. After a direction change through a roller, the strip enters the irradiation enclosure. In this way, the applicators can prevent leakage of secondary X-rays. (Iwakiri, K.)

  4. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G.

    1996-01-01

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.)

  5. Solution Améliorée Pour La Détermination Des Contraintes d’interfaces d’une Poutre En Béton Armé Renforcée Avec Une Plaque En Composite. Improved closed-form solution to interfacial stresses in RC beams strengthened with FRP strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tounsi A.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Le renforcement des structures en béton armé en utilisant les matériaux composites est devenu une technique très répandue dans le domaine de la réparation et de la réhabilitation des ouvrages existants. Cependant, le décollement des plaques de renforcement par rapport à la structure renforcée empêche de profiter pleinement de cette technique. L’analyse des contraintes d’interface joue un rôle prépondérant dans la compréhension du phénomène de décollement. Dans ce travail, il est question d’étudier une poutre en flexion, simplement appuyée et renforcée par une plaque en composite en développant une nouvelle approche théorique basée sur la prise en compte de l’effet du cisaillement. En effet une distribution parabolique des contraintes de cisaillement le long des épaisseurs des adhérents est considérée. Contrairement à d’autres travaux qui reposent sur l’hypothèse d’une même courbure pour les adhérents ce travail propose une nouvelle approche considérant la moyenne des courbures au niveau de l’adhésif. Une modélisation par éléments finis est réalisée dans le but de la comparer avec le modèle analytique proposé. Les résultats de cette étude semblent concorder avec ceux de la littérature et apporte ainsi une nouvelle contribution dans le calcul des structures hybrides. The strengthening of concrete structures in situ with externally bonded fiberreinforced plastic (FRP composite sheets is increasingly being used for the repair and rehabilitation of existing structures. However, debonding along the FRP-concrete interface can lead to premature failure of the structures. The interfacial stresses have played a significant role in understanding this premature debonding failure of such repaired structures. In this paper, an improved theoretical analysis of the interfacial stresses is presented for a simply supported concrete beam bonded with a FRP plate. The shear strains of the adherends have

  6. Beam tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices and a silicon strip preshower detector for the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Auffray, Etiennette; Barney, D; Bassompierre, Gabriel; Benhammou, Ya; Blick, A M; Bloch, P; Bonamy, P; Bourotte, J; Buiron, L; Cavallari, F; Chipaux, Rémi; Cockerill, D J A; Dafinei, I; Davies, G; Depasse, P; Deiters, K; Diemoz, M; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Donskov, S V; Mamouni, H E; Ercoli, C; Faure, J L; Felcini, Marta; Gautheron, F; Géléoc, M; Givernaud, Alain; Gninenko, S N; Godinovic, N; Graham, D J; Guillaud, J P; Guschin, E; Haguenauer, Maurice; Hillemanns, H; Hofer, H; Ille, B; Inyakin, A V; Jääskeläinen, S; Katchanov, V A; Kirn, T; Kloukinas, Kostas C; Korzhik, M V; Lassila-Perini, K M; Lebrun, P; Lecoq, P; Lecoeur, Gérard; Lecomte, P; Leonardi, E; Locci, E; Loos, R; Longo, E; MacKay, C K; Martin, E; Mendiburu, J P; Musienko, Yu V; Nédélec, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Organtini, G; Paoletti, S; Pansart, J P; Peigneux, J P; Puljak, I; Qian, S; Reid, E; Renker, D; Rosowsky, A; Rosso, E; Rusack, R W; Rykaczewski, H; Schneegans, M; Seez, Christopher J; Semeniouk, I N; Shagin, P M; Sillou, D; Singovsky, A V; Sougonyaev, V; Soric, I; Verrecchia, P; Vialle, J P; Virdee, Tejinder S; Zhu, R Y

    1998-01-01

    Tests of lead tungstate crystal matrices carried out in high-energy electron beams in 1996, using new crystals, new APDs and an improved test set-up, confirm that an energy resolution of better than 0 .6% at 100 GeV can be obtained when the longitudinal uniformity of the struck crystal is adequate. Light loss measurements under low dose irradiation are reported. It is shown that there is no loss of energy resolution after irradiation and that the calibration change due to light loss can be tracked with a precision monitoring system. Finally, successuful tests with a preshower device, equipped wi th silicon strip detector readout, are described.

  7. Creating intense polarized electron beam via laser stripping and spin-orbit interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilov, V.; Ptitsyn, V.; Gorlov, T.

    2010-01-01

    The recent advance in laser field make it possible to excite and strip electrons with definite spin from hydrogen atoms. The sources of hydrogen atoms with orders of magnitude higher currents (than that of the conventional polarized electron cathods) can be obtained from H - sources with good monochromatization. With one electron of H - stripped by a laser, the remained electron is excited to upper state (2P 3/2 and 2P 1/2 ) by a circular polarization laser light from FEL. Then, it is excited to a high quantum number (n=7) with mostly one spin direction due to energy level split of the states with a definite direction of spin and angular momentum in an applied magnetic field and then it is stripped by a strong electric field of an RF cavity. This paper presents combination of lasers and fields to get high polarization and high current electron source.

  8. Solution of Contact Problems for Nonlinear Gao Beam and Obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Machalová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact problem for a large deformed beam with an elastic obstacle is formulated, analyzed, and numerically solved. The beam model is governed by a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation developed by Gao, while the obstacle is considered as the elastic foundation of Winkler’s type in some distance under the beam. The problem is static without a friction and modeled either using Signorini conditions or by means of normal compliance contact conditions. The problems are then reformulated as optimal control problems which is useful both for theoretical aspects and for solution methods. Discretization is based on using the mixed finite element method with independent discretization and interpolations for foundation and beam elements. Numerical examples demonstrate usefulness of the presented solution method. Results for the nonlinear Gao beam are compared with results for the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam model.

  9. Commissioning and experience in stripping, filtering and measuring the 4.2 MeV/u lead ion beam at CERN Linac 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheras, N. Catalan; Crescenti, M.; Vretenar, M.

    1996-01-01

    The new CERN Heavy Ion Linac (Linac3) accelerates a Pb 27+ beam to 4.2 MeV/u. The beam is then stripped to Pb 53+ by a carbon foil, and, after stripping, a 12 m filter line prepares the beam for the injection into the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB). The filter line eliminates the unwanted charge states, checks the beam quality (energy, energy spread, transverse emittance and intensity), and finally transports the beam in the lines leading to the PSB. The paper summarises the transverse beam dynamics of the line, and reports on its commissioning, especially focusing on the experiments that led to the stripper choice, and on the measurements performed with a specially developed single pulse multislit emittance device. The operational experience is also reported. (author)

  10. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  11. Laser based stripping system for measurement of the transverse emittance of H-beams at the CERN Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, T; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Cheymol, B

    2013-01-01

    The new LINAC4 at CERN will accelerate H- particles to 160 MeV and allow high brightness proton beam transfers to the Proton Synchrotron Booster, via a charge-exchange injection scheme. This paper describes the conceptual design of a laser system proposed for transverse profile and emittance measurements based on photon detachment of electrons from the H- ions. The binding energy of the outer electron is only 0.75 eV and can easily be stripped with a laser beam. Measuring the electron signal as function of the laser position allows the transverse beam profile to be reconstructed. A downstream dipole can also be used to separate the laser neutralized H0 atoms from the main H- beam. By imaging these H0 atoms as a function of laser position the transverse emittance can be reconstructed in the same way as in traditional slit-and-grid systems. By properly dimensioning the laser power and spot size, this method results in negligible beam losses and is therefore non-destructive. In addition, the absence of material ...

  12. Technology Development on P-type Silicon Strip Detectors for Proton Beam Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aouadi, K.; Bouterfa, M.; Delamare, R.; Flandre, D.; Bertrand, D.; Henry, F.

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a technology for the fabrication of n-in-p silicon strip detectors, which is based on the use of Al 2 O 3 oxide compared to p-spray insulation scheme. This technology has been developed using the best technological parameters deduced from simulations, particularly for the p-spray implantation parameters. Different wafers were processed towards the fabrication of the radiation detectors with p-spray insulation and Al 2 O 3 . The evaluation of the prototype detectors has been carried out by performing the electrical characterization of the devices through the measurement of current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics, as well as the measurement of detection response under radiation. The results of electrical measurements indicate that detectors fabricated with Al 2 O 3 exhibit a dark current several times lower than p-spray detectors and show an excellent electrical insulation between strips with a higher inter-strip resistance. Response of Al 2 O 3 strip detector under radiation has been found better. The resulting improved output signal dynamic range finally makes the use of Al 2 O 3 more attractive. (authors)

  13. Semi-analytical solution to arbitrarily shaped beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Huayong; Sun, Yufa

    2017-07-01

    Based on the field expansions in terms of appropriate spherical vector wave functions and the method of moments scheme, an exact semi-analytical solution to the scattering of an arbitrarily shaped beam is given. For incidence of a Gaussian beam, zero-order Bessel beam and Hertzian electric dipole radiation, numerical results of the normalized differential scattering cross section are presented to a spheroid and a circular cylinder of finite length, and the scattering properties are analyzed concisely.

  14. Regeneration of an aqueous solution from an acid gas absorption process by matrix stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T [Austin, TX; Oyenekan, Babatunde A [Katy, TX

    2011-03-08

    Carbon dioxide and other acid gases are removed from gaseous streams using aqueous absorption and stripping processes. By replacing the conventional stripper used to regenerate the aqueous solvent and capture the acid gas with a matrix stripping configuration, less energy is consumed. The matrix stripping configuration uses two or more reboiled strippers at different pressures. The rich feed from the absorption equipment is split among the strippers, and partially regenerated solvent from the highest pressure stripper flows to the middle of sequentially lower pressure strippers in a "matrix" pattern. By selecting certain parameters of the matrix stripping configuration such that the total energy required by the strippers to achieve a desired percentage of acid gas removal from the gaseous stream is minimized, further energy savings can be realized.

  15. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, L.; Blue, A.; Bates, R.; Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Fleta, C.; Gallop, B.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.-M.; Hara, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Lacasta, C.; Lohwasser, K.; Maneuski, D.; Nagorski, S.; Pape, I.; Phillips, P. W.; Sperlich, D.; Sawhney, K.; Soldevila, U.; Ullan, M.; Unno, Y.; Warren, M.

    2016-07-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity up to 6·1034 cm-2s-1. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb-1 after ten years of operation, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand fluences to over 1·1016 1 MeV neq/cm2. In order to cope with the consequent increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 μm FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 μm thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 μm thick full size radial (end-cap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout chips (ABCN-25). A resolution better than the inter strip pitch of the 74.5 μm strips was achieved for both detectors. The effect of the p-stop diffusion layers between strips was investigated in detail for the wire bond pad regions. Inter strip charge collection measurements indicate that the effective width of the strip on the silicon sensors is determined by p-stop regions between the strips rather than the strip pitch.

  16. Selective Electron Beam Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Strips: Effect of Build Orientation, Columnar Grain Orientation, and Hot Isostatic Pressing on Tensile Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Tang, H. P.; Yang, K.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2018-03-01

    Many novel designs for additive manufacturing (AM) contain thin-walled (≤ 3 mm) sections in different orientations. Selective electron beam melting (SEBM) is particularly suited to AM of such thin-walled titanium components because of its high preheating temperature and high vacuum. However, experimental data on SEBM of Ti-6Al-4V thin sections remains scarce because of the difficulty and high cost of producing long, thin and smooth strip tensile specimens (see Fig. 1). In this study, 80 SEBM Ti-6Al-4V strips (180 mm long, 42 mm wide, 3 mm thick) were built both vertically (V-strips) and horizontally (H-strips). Their density, microstructure and tensile properties were investigated. The V-strips showed clearly higher tensile strengths but lower elongation than the H-strips. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) produced the same lamellar α-β microstructures in terms of the average α-lath thickness in both types of strips. The retained prior-β columnar grain boundaries after HIP showed no measurable influence on the tensile properties, irrespective of their length and orientation, because of the formation of randomly distributed fine α-laths.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. Response of multi-strip multi-gap resistive plate chamber using pulsed electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta Pramanik, U.; Chakraborty, S.; Rahaman, A.; Ray, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Kempe, M.; Sobiella, M.; Stach, D.; Wagner, A.; Yakorev, D.; Leifels, Y.; Simon, H.

    2011-01-01

    A prototype of Multi-strip Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MMRPC) with active area 40 cm x 20 cm has been developed at SINP, Kolkata. Electron response of the developed detector was studied using the electron linac ELBE at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The development of this detector started with the aim of developing a neutron detector but this ultrafast timing detector can be used efficiently for the purpose of medical imaging, security purpose and detection of minimum ionising particle. In this article detailed analysis of electron response to our developed MMRPC will be presented

  18. Characterisation of edgeless technologies for pixellated and strip silicon detectors with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Christophersen, M.; Eklund, L.; Ely, S.; Fadeyev, V.; Gimenez, E.; Kachkanov, V.; Kalliopuska, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Maneuski, D.; Phlips, B. F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Stewart, G.; Tartoni, N.; Zain, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Reduced edge or ``edgeless'' detector design offers seamless tileability of sensors for a wide range of applications from particle physics to synchrotron and free election laser (FEL) facilities and medical imaging. Combined with through-silicon-via (TSV) technology, this would allow reduced material trackers for particle physics and an increase in the active area for synchrotron and FEL pixel detector systems. In order to quantify the performance of different edgeless fabrication methods, 2 edgeless detectors were characterized at the Diamond Light Source using an 11 μm FWHM 15 keV micro-focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were: a 150 μm thick silicon active edge pixel sensor fabricated at VTT and bump-bonded to a Medipix2 ROIC; and a 300 μm thick silicon strip sensor fabricated at CIS with edge reduction performed by SCIPP and the NRL and wire bonded to an ALiBaVa readout system. Sub-pixel resolution of the 55 μm active edge pixels was achieved. Further scans showed no drop in charge collection recorded between the centre and edge pixels, with a maximum deviation of 5% in charge collection between scanned edge pixels. Scans across the cleaved and standard guard ring edges of the strip detector also show no reduction in charge collection. These results indicate techniques such as the scribe, cleave and passivate (SCP) and active edge processes offer real potential for reduced edge, tiled sensors for imaging detection applications.

  19. Minimization of the emittance growth of multi-charge particle beams in the charge stripping section of RAON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji-Gwang [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@knu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Jin, E-mail: hjkim87@ibs.re.kr [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Dong-O [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-11

    The charge stripping section of the Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness (RAON), which is one of the critical components to achieve a high power of 400 kW with a short lianc, is a source of transverse emittance growth. The dominant effects are the angular straggling in the charge stripper required to increase the charge state of the beam and chromatic aberrations in the dispersive section required to separate the selected ion beam from the various ion beams produced in the stripper. Since the main source of transverse emittance growth in the stripper is the angular straggling, it can be compensated for by changing the angle of the phase ellipse. Therefore the emittance growth is minimized by optimizing the Twiss parameters at the stripper. The emittance growth in the charge selection section is also minimized by the correction of high-order aberrations using six sextupole magnets. In this paper, we present a method to minimize the transverse emittance growth in the stripper by changing the Twiss parameters and in the charge selection section by using sextupole magnets.

  20. Effect of releasing pretension for Rc Beams Bonded with Prestressed Fr Strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao-yang, Z.; Xue-jun, H.; Xing-guo, W.; Fei-fei, X

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of releasing pretension is theoretically and experimentally investigated for flexural members externally bonded with prestressed FRP laminate or near-surface-mounted with prestressed FRP plate or rod. The stresses of FRP on the interface and at cross sections of a beam are analyzed on the basis of linear elastic theory. The expressions are derived for effective prestress, prestress loss and camber at the midspan of the beam. Tests are performed on two reinforced concrete beams bonded with prestressed GFRP plate. The comparison between the analytical and the measured results shows the analyses in this paper are rational and correct. (author)

  1. Uniform Decay for Solutions of an Axially Moving Viscoelastic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleche, Abdelkarim, E-mail: kellecheabdelkarim@gmail.com [Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Faculté des Mathématiques (Algeria); Tatar, Nasser-eddine, E-mail: tatarn@Kfupm.edu.sa [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-06-15

    The paper deals with an axially moving viscoelastic structure modeled as an Euler–Bernoulli beam. The aim is to suppress the transversal displacement (transversal vibrations) that occur during the axial motion of the beam. It is assumed that the beam is moving with a constant axial speed and it is subject to a nonlinear force at the right boundary. We prove that when the axial speed of the beam is smaller than a critical value, the dissipation produced by the viscoelastic material is sufficient to suppress the transversal vibrations. It is shown that the rate of decay of the energy depends on the kernel which arise in the viscoelastic term. We consider a general kernel and notice that solutions cannot decay faster than the kernel.

  2. Analysis of the multi-strip solution for the ZAZIA project; Analyse de la solution multipiste dans le cadre du projet FAZIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, Eric [Conservatoire National des Artes et Metiers, Centre Regional Associe de Basse Normandie, 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    Since 1993 at the Great National Heavy Ion Accelerator (GANIL) at Caen a 4{pi} multidetector called INDRA (Identification de Noyaux et Detection avec Resolutions Accrues) is in use. In 2001 a group of research was formed to develop a new multi-detector called FAZIA (Four-pi A and Z Identification Array) consisting of 10,000 elementary modules. The purpose of FAZIA detector is to study the products of nuclear reactions with a better angular resolution and clarity than today's multi-detectors. The telescopes are made with three layers, two silicone layers and one scintillator layer with photodiodes, which will lie next to the target. Two technological approaches using the silicone layer are studied. The first approach uses the mono cell of silicone and the second approach is the multi-strip silicone. This paper will demonstrate two points. The first point is to show the advantages and disadvantages of the multi-strip silicone configuration. The second point is an experimental phase to show a characteristic from energy resolution of the measure chain. In this part, we also estimated some influences between the channel energy measures. In Project FAZIA, we shall see that the multi-strip silicone detector is a very interesting solution for the future four pi multi-detector. (author)

  3. The ATLAS inner detector semiconductor tracker (Si and GaAs strips): review of the 1995 beam tests at the CERN SPS H8 beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    This talk will consist of a brief review of the ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) strip detector (both silicon and gallium arsenide) beam tests conducted at the ATLAS test beam facility at the CERN SPS H8 beamline. It will include a brief overview of the H8 facilities, the experimental layout of the SCT/Strip apparatus, the data acquisition system, some of the online software tools and the high precision silicon hodoscope and timing modules used. A very brief indication of some of the main varieties of detector systems tested and the measurements performed will be given. Throughout some emphasis will be placed on the contributions and-interests of members of the Melbourne group. (author)

  4. Stripping Voltammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Milivoj

    Electrochemical stripping means the oxidative or reductive removal of atoms, ions, or compounds from an electrode surface (or from the electrode body, as in the case of liquid mercury electrodes with dissolved metals) [1-5]. In general, these atoms, ions, or compounds have been preliminarily immobilized on the surface of an inert electrode (or within it) as the result of a preconcentration step, while the products of the electrochemical stripping will dissolve in the electrolytic solution. Often the product of the electrochemical stripping is identical to the analyte before the preconcentration. However, there are exemptions to these rules. Electroanalytical stripping methods comprise two steps: first, the accumulation of a dissolved analyte onto, or in, the working electrode, and, second, the subsequent stripping of the accumulated substance by a voltammetric [3, 5], potentiometric [6, 7], or coulometric [8] technique. In stripping voltammetry, the condition is that there are two independent linear relationships: the first one between the activity of accumulated substance and the concentration of analyte in the sample, and the second between the maximum stripping current and the accumulated substance activity. Hence, a cumulative linear relationship between the maximum response and the analyte concentration exists. However, the electrode capacity for the analyte accumulation is limited and the condition of linearity is satisfied only well below the electrode saturation. For this reason, stripping voltammetry is used mainly in trace analysis. The limit of detection depends on the factor of proportionality between the activity of the accumulated substance and the bulk concentration of the analyte. This factor is a constant in the case of a chemical accumulation, but for electrochemical accumulation it depends on the electrode potential. The factor of proportionality between the maximum stripping current and the analyte concentration is rarely known exactly. In fact

  5. Corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys in slightly alkaline chloride solutions studied by stripping voltammetry and microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosev, I; Minović, A

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of corrosion of Cu-xZn alloys (x = 10-40 wt %) in slightly alkaline chloride solutions was investigated by analysing solid reaction products by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) and dissolved reaction products by differential anodic pulse stripping (DAPS) voltammetry. The corrosion process was studied under open circuit and under potentiostatic conditions at selected potentials. Pure metals were studied comparatively so that an interacting effect of particular metal components in the alloy could be determined. All four Cu-xZn alloys show an improved behaviour compared to pure metals. Under open-circuit condition both components dissolve simultaneously in the solution. With increasing immersion time the preferential, dissolution of zinc in the solution becomes pronounced. It is the highest for Cu-10Zn and the lowest for Cu-30Zn alloy. Under potentiostatic control the dissolution mechanism depends on the electrode potential and changes from exclusive dissolution of zinc to simultaneous dissolution of both components with preferential dissolution of zinc. The latter decreases, as the electrode potential becomes more positive.

  6. Determination of triazines in hemodialysis saline solutions by adsorptive stripping voltammetry after extraction in acetonitrile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Paulo Cícero do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the voltammetric determination of 2-methylthio-4,6-dialkylamino-1,3,5-triazine (triazines herbicides in hemodialysis (HD saline solutions was developed. The herbicides were detected in the saline solutions at the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE with high sensitivities only after extraction of the analytes in acetonitrile (ACN. The salting out effect originated by the saline environment existing in the solutions enabled the extractions. The volume ratio between the saline and ACN phases was investigated in order to find the best sensitivity to detect the triazines. The speciation amongst them (ametryn, desmetryn, prometryn and terbutryn was not possible. Recoveries between 88 and 107% were calculated in spiked samples, and detection limits of 0.03 mumol L-1 were calculated for the triazines in the saline samples using this methodology.

  7. Limit load solution for electron beam welded joints with single edge weld center crack in tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Shi, Yaowu; Li, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yongping

    2012-05-01

    Limit loads are widely studied and several limit load solutions are proposed to some typical geometry of weldments. However, there are no limit load solutions exist for the single edge crack weldments in tension (SEC(T)), which is also a typical geometry in fracture analysis. The mis-matching limit load for thick plate with SEC(T) are investigated and the special limit load solutions are proposed based on the available mis-matching limit load solutions and systematic finite element analyses. The real weld configurations are simplified as a strip, and different weld strength mis-matching ratio M, crack depth/width ratio a/ W and weld width 2H are in consideration. As a result, it is found that there exists excellent agreement between the limit load solutions and the FE results for almost all the mis-matching ration M, a/ W and ligament-to-weld width ratio ( W-a)/ H. Moreover, useful recommendations are given for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structure with SEC(T). For the EBW joints with SEC(T), the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal, when M changing from 1.6 to 0.6. When M decreasing to 0.4, the mis-matching limit loads can be obtained assuming that the components are wholly made of base metal only for large value of ( W-a)/ H. The recommendations may be useful for evaluating the limit loads of the EBW structures with SEC(T). The engineering simplifications are given for assessing the limit loads of electron beam welded structure with SEC(T).

  8. Studying signal collection in the punch-through protection area of a silicon micro-strip sensor using a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    Poley, Anne-luise; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    For the Phase-II Upgrade of the ATLAS detector, a new, all-silicon tracker will be constructed in order to cope with the increased track density and radiation level of the High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider. While silicon strip sensors are designed to minimise the fraction of dead material and maximise the active area of a sensor, concessions must be made to the requirements of operating a sensor in a particle physics detector. Sensor geometry features like the punch-through protection deviate from the standard sensor architecture and thereby affect the charge collection in that area. In order to study the signal collection of silicon strip sensors over their punch-through-protection area, ATLAS silicon strip sensors were scanned with a micro-focused X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source. Due to the highly focused X-ray beam ($\\unit[2\\times3]{\\upmu\\text{m}}^2$) and the short average path length of an electron after interaction with an X-ray photon ($\\unit[\\leq2]{\\upmu\\text{m}}$), local signal collection i...

  9. Travelling Wave Solutions to Stretched Beam's Equation: Phase Portraits Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betchewe, Gambo; Victor, Kuetche Kamgang; Thomas, Bouetou Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, following the phase portraits analysis, we investigate the integrability of a system which physically describes the transverse oscillation of an elastic beam under end-thrust. As a result, we find that this system actually comprises two families of travelling waves: the sub- and super-sonic periodic waves of positive- and negative-definite velocities, respectively, and the localized sub-sonic loop-shaped waves of positive-definite velocity. Expressing the energy-like of this system while depicting its phase portrait dynamics, we show that these multivalued localized travelling waves appear as the boundary solutions to which the periodic travelling waves tend asymptotically. (general)

  10. Extraction and selective stripping of uranium and molybdenum in sulfate solution using amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sialino, E.; Mignot, C.; Michel, P.; Vial, J.

    1977-01-01

    The uranium solutions issued from leaching of AKOUTA ores and containing lot of molybdenum are purified using solvent extraction. During the first test run precipitation of complexes such as amine phosphomolybdate was observed. It was pointed out that the precipitation could be prevented if the molybdenum is oxidized in the feed prior to solvent extraction. Informations on the basic studies carried out to ensure the reliability of the process are given in the complete paper

  11. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions

  12. Characterisation of strip silicon detectors for the ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade with a micro-focused X-ray beam

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00407830; Blue, Andrew; Bates, Richard; Bloch, Ingo; Diez, Sergio; Fernandez-Tejero, Javier; Fleta, Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Hara, Kazuhiko; Ikegami, Yoichi; Lacasta, Carlos; Lohwasser, Kristin; Maneuski, Dzmitry; Nagorski, Sebastian; Pape, Ian; Phillips, Peter W.; Sperlich, Dennis; Sawhney, Kawal; Soldevila, Urmila; Ullan, Miguel; Unno, Yoshinobu; Warren, Matt

    2016-07-29

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) in 2025 is being designed to maximise the physics potential through a sizable increase in the luminosity, totalling 1x10^35 cm^-2 s^-1 after 10 years of operation. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage at 3000 fb^-1, requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over 1x10^16 1 MeV neutrons per cm^2. With the addition of increased readout rates, a complete re-design of the current ATLAS Inner Detector (ID) is being developed as the Inner Tracker (ITk). Two proposed detectors for the ATLAS strip tracker region of the ITk were characterized at the Diamond Light Source with a 3 micron FWHM 15 keV micro focused X-ray beam. The devices under test were a 320 micron thick silicon stereo (Barrel) ATLAS12 strip mini sensor wire bonded to a 130 nm CMOS binary readout chip (ABC130) and a 320 micron thick full size radial (Endcap) strip sensor - utilizing bi-metal readout layers - wire bonded to 250 nm CMOS binary readout...

  13. Magnetic stripping studies for SPL

    CERN Document Server

    Posocco, P; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic stripping of H- can seriously enhance the beam losses along the SPL machine. These losses depend on the beam energy, on the beam transverse distribution and on the intensity of the magnetic field. For radioprotection issues the losses must be limited to 1 W/m. In this paper we will concentrate on the stripping phenomena inside the quadrupole magnets with the aim of defining the quadrupole range for the design phase of SPL.

  14. Test beam results of the first CMS double-sided strip module prototypes using the CBC2 read-out chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harb, Ali, E-mail: ali.harb@desy.de; Mussgiller, Andreas; Hauk, Johannes

    2017-02-11

    The CMS Binary Chip (CBC) is a prototype version of the front-end read-out ASIC to be used in the silicon strip modules of the CMS outer tracking detector during the high luminosity phase of the LHC. The CBC is produced in 130 nm CMOS technology and bump-bonded to the hybrid of a double layer silicon strip module, the so-called 2S-p{sub T} module. It has 254 input channels and is designed to provide on-board trigger information to the first level trigger system of CMS, with the capability of cluster-width discrimination and high-p{sub T} track identification. In November 2013 the first 2S-p{sub T} module prototypes equipped with the CBC chips were put to test at the DESY-II test beam facility. Data were collected exploiting a beam of positrons with an energy ranging from 2 to 4 GeV. In this paper the test setup and the results are presented.

  15. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-01-01

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We

  16. Effect of humic acid on the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry of copper in acetic acid soil extract solutions at mercaptoacetic acid-modified gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Gregoire; Beni, Valerio; Dillon, Patrick H.; Barry, Thomas; Arrigan, Damien W.M

    2004-05-24

    Electrochemical measurements were undertaken for the investigation of the underpotential deposition-stripping process of copper at bare and modified gold electrodes in 0.11 M acetic acid, the first fraction of the European Union's Bureau Communautaire de References (BCR) sequential extraction procedure for fractionating metals within soils and sediments. Gold electrodes modified with mercaptoacetic acid showed higher sensitivity for the detection of copper than bare gold electrodes, both in the absence and in the presence of humic acid in acetic acid solutions, using the underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) method. In the presence of 50 mg l{sup -1} of humic acid, the mercaptoacetic acid modified electrode proved to be 1.5 times more sensitive than the bare gold electrode. The mercaptoacetic acid monolayer formed on the gold surface provided efficient protection against the adsorption of humic acid onto the gold electrode surface. Variation of the humic acid concentration in the solution showed little effect on the copper stripping signal at the modified electrode. UPD-SV at the modified electrode was applied to the analysis of soil extract samples. Linear correlation of the electrochemical results with atomic spectroscopic results yielded the straight-line equation y ({mu}g l{sup -1}) = 1.10x - 44 (ppb) (R=0.992, n=6), indicating good agreement between the two methods.

  17. Microstructural and tribological investigations of CrN coated, wet-stripped and recoated functional substrates used for cutting and forming tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebole, R.; Martinez, A.; Rodriguez, R.; Fuentes, G.G.; Spain, E.; Watson, N.; Avelar-Batista, J.C.; Housden, J.; Montala, F.; Carreras, L.J.; Tate, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Recent breakthroughs in wet-stripping Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) CrN coatings on standard high speed and stainless steels and on hard metal substrates are reported in this work. Validation of the stripping process was evaluated in terms of substrate damage after exposure to the chemical agents and also in terms of the tribological properties of the PVD CrN layers before (Pristine) and after stripping and re-coating (Recoated). The investigation was focussed on the influence of the stripping processes on the hardness, roughness, adherence and wear resistance of the Recoated CrN coatings deposited by electron beam PVD (e-beam) after stripping. Analysis of the chemically stripped and Recoated steel substrates showed that: (a) hardness and elastic modulus of the Recoated e-beam CrN did not change significantly compared to Pristine e-beam CrN, and (b) surface roughness of the Recoated e-beam CrN layers was greater by a factor of 50-60% than the initial. For hard-metal substrates, the surface damage and its effect on the re-deposited coating performance in terms of the chemical reactions during the stripping process were discussed. It was observed that wet-stripping in a basic solution led to depletion of tungsten and carbon at the surface of the stripped WC-Co specimens

  18. A New Solution for the Compression of a Two-Layer Strip and Its Application to Analysis of Bonding by Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Alexandrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical study on the compression of a two-layer strip of strain-hardening rigid-plastic materials between rigid platens. Semianalytical solutions are obtained for stress and velocity fields in each layer. Special attention is devoted to the conditions corresponding to the beginning of cold bond formation between the layers. Depending on input parameters various general deformation patterns are possible. In particular, there exists such a range of process parameters that the soft metal layer yields while the hard metal layer is rigid at the beginning of the process. As the deformation proceeds, yielding also starts in the hard metal layer and the entire strip becomes plastic. This is a typical deformation pattern adopted in describing the process of joining by rolling. However, at a certain range of input parameters plastic deformation of the entire strip begins at the initial instant. Moreover, it is possible that only the hard metal layer yields while the soft metal layer does not. This deformation pattern takes place when the thickness of the soft metal layer is much smaller than that of the hard metal layer.

  19. LYCORIS - A Large Area Strip Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, U; Stanitzki, M; Wu, M

    2018-01-01

    The LYCORIS Large Area Silicon Strip Telescope for the DESY II Test Beam Facility is presented. The DESY II Test Beam Facility provides elec- tron and positron beams for beam tests of up to 6 GeV. A new telescope with a large 10 × 20 cm2 coverage area based on a 25 μm pitch strip sensor is to be installed within the PCMAG 1 T solenoid. The current state of the system is presented.

  20. An analytical approach to the solution of in-itself strong focusing beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulin, A.; Ticar, I.; Zoric, T.; Znidarsic, K.; Bezic, N.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is a description of the problem, how to represent the high current, high current density charged particle beam with straightforward analytical expressions. The principal difficulties in the solution of differential equation for stationary, axial and radial distribution of charged particles in the high current, high current density beam are mentioned. In all the derivations, an accomplished space charge effects compensation with suitable combined beam of oppositely charged particles is assumed. (author)

  1. The Numerical Solution of the Equilibrium Problem for a Stretchable Elastic Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdiyeva, G. Y.; Aliyev, A. Y.

    2017-08-01

    The boundary value problem under consideration describes the equilibrium of an elastic beam that is stretched or contracted by specified forces. The left end of the beam is free of load, and the right end is rigidly lapped. To solve the problem numerically, an appropriate difference problem is constructed. Solving the difference problem, we obtain an approximate solution of the problem. We estimate the approximate solution of the stated problem.

  2. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchata Theinchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM. The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  3. Application of ADM Using Laplace Transform to Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Deformation for Cantilever Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Theinchai, Ratchata; Chankan, Siriwan; Yukunthorn, Weera

    2016-01-01

    We investigate semianalytical solutions of Euler-Bernoulli beam equation by using Laplace transform and Adomian decomposition method (LADM). The deformation of a uniform flexible cantilever beam is formulated to initial value problems. We separate the problems into 2 cases: integer order for small deformation and fractional order for large deformation. The numerical results show the approximated solutions of deflection curve, moment diagram, and shear diagram of the presented method.

  4. Analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated curled beam problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-07-24

    This works presents analytical expressions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. The formulation is based on the continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximation. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models are shown to yield accurate results. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Dynamic Beam Solutions for Real-Time Simulation and Control Development of Flexible Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; King, Cecilia K.; Clark, Scott R.; Griffin, Edwin D.; Suhey, Jeffrey D.; Wolf, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flexible rockets are structurally represented by linear beams. Both direct and indirect solutions of beam dynamic equations are sought to facilitate real-time simulation and control development for flexible rockets. The direct solution is completed by numerically integrate the beam structural dynamic equation using an explicit Newmark-based scheme, which allows for stable and fast transient solutions to the dynamics of flexile rockets. Furthermore, in the real-time operation, the bending strain of the beam is measured by fiber optical sensors (FOS) at intermittent locations along the span, while both angular velocity and translational acceleration are measured at a single point by the inertial measurement unit (IMU). Another study in this paper is to find the analytical and numerical solutions of the beam dynamics based on the limited measurement data to facilitate the real-time control development. Numerical studies demonstrate the accuracy of these real-time solutions to the beam dynamics. Such analytical and numerical solutions, when integrated with data processing and control algorithms and mechanisms, have the potential to increase launch availability by processing flight data into the flexible launch vehicle's control system.

  6. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Hee-Sub; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 deg. C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Hee-Sub; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Kwang-Won; Chung, Young-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 °C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  8. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of carboxymethylcellulose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hee-Sub [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwang-Won [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 302-799 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Jin [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2008-12-15

    In this study, the effects of an electron beam irradiation on the viscosity of a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) solution were investigated. The viscosity of the CMC solution was decreased with an increase in the irradiation dose. Interestingly, the extent of the degradation of the CMC was found to decrease with an increase of the CMC concentration in the solution. The change of the average molar mass confirmed the decrease in the viscosity due to the degradation of the polymer. The energy of the electron beam also affected the degradation of the CMC. Lower degradation of the CMC was obtained with a decreasing electron beam energy due to its lower penetration. Addition of vitamin C as a radical scavenger to the solution and an irradiation at -70 deg. C were shown to be moderately effective in preventing a decrease in the viscosity of the solution by irradiation.

  9. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTIONS FOR AN ELASTIC CURVED BEAM EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Kovacs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the existence of positive solutions for a sixth-order differential equations. By using the Leggett-Williams fixed point theorem we give some new existence results.

  10. Exact analytical solutions of continuity equation for electron beams precipitating in Coulomb collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranskis, R. R.; Zharkova, V. V., E-mail: valentina.zharkova@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and Information Sciences, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 2XP (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-10

    The original continuity equation (CE) used for the interpretation of the power law energy spectra of beam electrons in flares was written and solved for an electron beam flux while ignoring an additional free term with an electron density. In order to remedy this omission, the original CE for electron flux, considering beam's energy losses in Coulomb collisions, was first differentiated by the two independent variables: depth and energy leading to partial differential equation for an electron beam density instead of flux with the additional free term. The analytical solution of this partial differential continuity equation (PDCE) is obtained by using the method of characteristics. This solution is further used to derive analytical expressions for mean electron spectra for Coulomb collisions and to carry out numeric calculations of hard X-ray (HXR) photon spectra for beams with different parameters. The solutions revealed a significant departure of electron densities at lower energies from the original results derived from the CE for the flux obtained for Coulomb collisions. This departure is caused by the additional exponential term that appeared in the updated solutions for electron differential density leading to its faster decrease at lower energies (below 100 keV) with every precipitation depth similar to the results obtained with numerical Fokker-Planck solutions. The effects of these updated solutions for electron densities on mean electron spectra and HXR photon spectra are also discussed.

  11. Chilled beams. A versatile solution; Plafondconvectoren. Trendy en tochtvrij

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, G. [Swegon AB, Tomelila (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    When carefully selected and installed chilled beams provide a comfortable indoor climate. However, draught should always be avoided. Computer programs for calculating the required cooling and heating capacity are very useful. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is often used for large and complicated projects in order to predict the air currents, air flow and room temperatures. Chilled beams can flexibly be applied in open offices. Furthermore, they can easily be installed and serviced, and are very energy efficient. [Dutch] Plafondconvectoren zorgen voor een aangenaam en comfortabel binnenklimaat indien de selectie en de situering ervan in de te conditioneren ruimten zorgvuldig wordt uitgevoerd. Tochtverschijnselen moeten echter altijd worden voorkomen. Computerprogramma's voor het berekenen van het benodigde koel- en verwarmingsvermogen zijn hierbij een uitstekend hulpmiddel. Voor grote en complexe projecten wordt vaak gebruikgemaakt van CFD-simulatieprogramma's om de luchtstromen, de luchtsnelheid en de temperaturen van tevoren te kunnen voorspellen. Plafondconvectoren kunnen ook bij open kantoren flexibel worden toegepast. Ze kunnen voor alle toepassingen gemakkelijk worden gemonteerd, zijn onderhoudsvriendelijk en zorgen tevens voor een hoge mate van energie-efficiency.

  12. Degradation and detoxification of aqueous nitrophenol solutions by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Weihua; Zheng Zheng; Rami, Abual-Suud; Zhou Tao; Hang Desheng

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the degradation of nitrophenol solutions by high-energy electron beam irradiation. The results showed that the degradation processes obey an apparent first-order degradation. At the higher irradiation doses the pH of solutions decreased; however, the dissolved organic carbon of the solutions was essentially unchanged. To investigate the toxicity of the radiolytic products the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge was determined. The toxicity of irradiated nitrophenol solutions decreased from the initial non-irradiated solutions

  13. One dimensional beam. Asymptotic and self similar solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feix, M.R.; Duranceau, J.L.; Besnard, D.

    1982-06-01

    Rescaling transformations provide a useful tool to solve nonlinear problems described by partial derivative equations. A brief review of this method is presented together with the connection with the self similar solutions obtained by compacting the independent variable with one of them (the time). The general theory is reported through examples found in Plasma Physics with a careful distinction between systems described by Hamiltonian and others where irreversible phenomena, like diffusion, are taken into account

  14. The unbounded solution of a periodic mixed Sturm–Liouville problem in an infinite strip for the Laplacian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Elsheikh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The unbounded solution, at the points where the boundary conditions change, for a mixed Sturm–Liouville problem of the Dirichlet–Neumann type can be obtained using the method of the integral equation formulation. Since this formulation is usually reduced to an infinite algebraic system in which the unknowns are the Fourier coefficients of the unknown unbounded entity, a study of ℓp-solutions imposes itself concerning the influence of the truncation on such systems. This study is achieved and the well-known theorem on the ℓ2-solutions of the infinite algebraic systems is generalized.

  15. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirrone, G.A.P. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Scuderi, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Amato, A. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Candiano, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Cuttone, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Giove, D. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Via Celoria 16, Milano (Italy); Korn, G.; Krasa, J. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Leanza, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Manna, R. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Maggiore, M. [INFN-LNL, Viale dell' Universitá 2 - 35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy); Marchese, V. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Margarone, D. [Institute of Physics ASCR, v.v.i. (FZU), ELI-Beamlines Project, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague (Czech Republic); Milluzzo, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Universitá degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy); Petringa, G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Sabini, M.G. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliera Cannizzaro, Via Messina 829 - 95100 Catania (Italy); Schillaci, F. [INFN-LNS, Via S. Sofia 62 - 95125 Catania (Italy); Medical Physics School, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 64 - 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-10-01

    Within 2017, the ELIMED (ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) transport beam-line and dosimetric systems for laser-generated beams will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility in Prague (CZ), inside the ELIMAIA (ELI Multidisciplinary Applications of laser–Ion Acceleration) interaction room. The beam-line will be composed of two sections: one in vacuum, devoted to the collecting, focusing and energy selection of the primary beam and the second in air, where the ELIMED beam-line dosimetric devices will be located. This paper briefly describes the transport solutions that will be adopted together with the main dosimetric approaches. In particular, the description of an innovative Faraday Cup detector with its preliminary experimental tests will be reported.

  16. Laser welding of galvanized steel: analytical study in view of dual-beam solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Gualini, M.M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the solution of a new dual laser beam method to lap weld galvanized steel sheets is being discussed, modeled and analyzed. This method involves a pre-cursor beam and a higher-power actual beam used on the job in tandem, generated independently or otherwise split from the same source. The pre-cursor beam cuts a slot, thus making an exit path for the zinc vapours, while the second beam performs the needed welding. After giving detailed theoretical coverage and diverse mathematical simulations, the paper also presents and discusses some experimental results of the method. Along with this, a comparison is being made with some other methods proposed till today to solve this problem including some quantitative analysis. As presented, general view in industrial perspective supports this method to be easier to implement on the production lines along with yielding desired results. (author)

  17. Magnetic ring for stripping enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selph, F.

    1992-10-01

    A ring designed to recycle ions through a stripping medium offers the possibility for increasing output of the desired charge state by up to 4x. This could be a very important component of a Radioactive Nuclear Beam Facility. In order for such a ring to work effectively it must satisfy certain design conditions. These include achromaticity at the stripper, a dispersed region for an extraction magnet, and a number of first and higher order optics constraints which are necessary to insure that the beam emittance is not degraded unduly by the ring. An example is given of a candidate design of a stripping ring

  18. Sequential Determination of Total Arsenic and Cadmium in Concentrated Cadmium Sulphate Solutions by Flow-Through Stripping Chronopotentiometry after Online Cation Exchanger Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frantisek Cacho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow-through stripping chronopotentiometry with a gold wire electrode was used for the determination of total arsenic and cadmium in cadmium sulphate solutions for cadmium production. The analysis is based on the online separation of arsenic as arsenate anion from cadmium cations by means of a cation exchanger. On measuring arsenate in the effluent, the trapped cadmium is eluted by sodium chloride solution and determined in a small segment of the effluent by making use of the same electrode. The elaborated protocol enables a full automatic measurement of both species in the same sample solution. The accuracy of the results was confirmed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The LOD and LOQ for Arsenic were found to be 0.9 μg dm-3 and 2.7 μg dm-3, respectively. A linear response range was observed in the concentration range of 1 to 300 μg dm-3 for sample volumes of 4 mL. The repeatability and reproducibility were found to be 2.9% and 5.2%, respectively. The linear response range for cadmium was found to be 0.5 to 60 g/L. The method was tested on samples from a cadmium production plant.

  19. Fluctuating twistor-beam solutions and Pre-Quantum Kerr-Schild geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burinskii, Alexander, E-mail: bur@ibrae.ac.r [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, NSI Russian Academy of Sciences, B.Tulskaya 52, Moscow, 115191 (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-01

    Kerr-Schild (KS) geometry is based on a congruence of twistors which is determined by the Kerr theorem. We describe time-dependent KS solutions for electromagnetic excitations of black-holes taking into account the consistent back-reaction to metric. The exact solutions have the form of singular beam-like pulses supported on twistor null lines of the Kerr congruence. The twistor-beams have very strong back reaction to metric and BH horizon and produce a fluctuating KS geometry which takes an intermediate position between the Classical and Quantum gravity.

  20. Fluctuating twistor-beam solutions and Pre-Quantum Kerr-Schild geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Kerr-Schild (KS) geometry is based on a congruence of twistors which is determined by the Kerr theorem. We describe time-dependent KS solutions for electromagnetic excitations of black-holes taking into account the consistent back-reaction to metric. The exact solutions have the form of singular beam-like pulses supported on twistor null lines of the Kerr congruence. The twistor-beams have very strong back reaction to metric and BH horizon and produce a fluctuating KS geometry which takes an intermediate position between the Classical and Quantum gravity.

  1. An analytical solution for the magneto-electro-elastic bimorph beam forced vibrations problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, A; Orlando, C; Alaimo, A

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Timoshenko beam theory and on the assumption that the electric and magnetic fields can be treated as steady, since elastic waves propagate very slowly with respect to electromagnetic ones, a general analytical solution for the transient analysis of a magneto-electro-elastic bimorph beam is obtained. General magneto-electric boundary conditions can be applied on the top and bottom surfaces of the beam, allowing us to study the response of the bilayer structure to electromagnetic stimuli. The model reveals that the magneto-electric loads enter the solution as an equivalent external bending moment per unit length and as time-dependent mechanical boundary conditions through the definition of the bending moment. Moreover, the influences of the electro-mechanic, magneto-mechanic and electromagnetic coupling on the stiffness of the bimorph stem from the computation of the beam equivalent stiffness constants. Free and forced vibration analyses of both multiphase and laminated magneto-electro-elastic composite beams are carried out to check the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed analytic solution

  2. Simple and Accurate Analytical Solutions of the Electrostatically Actuated Curled Beam Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2014-08-17

    We present analytical solutions of the electrostatically actuated initially deformed cantilever beam problem. We use a continuous Euler-Bernoulli beam model combined with a single-mode Galerkin approximation. We derive simple analytical expressions for two commonly observed deformed beams configurations: the curled and tilted configurations. The derived analytical formulas are validated by comparing their results to experimental data in the literature and numerical results of a multi-mode reduced order model. The derived expressions do not involve any complicated integrals or complex terms and can be conveniently used by designers for quick, yet accurate, estimations. The formulas are found to yield accurate results for most commonly encountered microbeams of initial tip deflections of few microns. For largely deformed beams, we found that these formulas yield less accurate results due to the limitations of the single-mode approximations they are based on. In such cases, multi-mode reduced order models need to be utilized.

  3. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-07-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a "first-order" reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  4. Beam polarization at the ILC. The physics impact and the accelerator solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurand, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Phys. Inst.; Bailey, I. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Cockcroft Inst.; Bartels, C. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); DESY, Zeuthen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-03-15

    In this contribution accelerator solutions for polarized beams and their impact on physics measurements are discussed. Focus are physics requirements for precision polarimetry near the interaction point and their realization with polarized sources. Based on the ILC baseline programme as described in the Reference Design Report (RDR), recent developments are discussed and evaluated taking into account physics runs at beam energies between 100 GeV and 250 GeV, as well as calibration runs on the Z-pole and options as the 1 TeV upgrade and GigaZ. (orig.)

  5. Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

    2009-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a 'first-order' reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

  6. A complete solution of cartographic displacement based on elastic beams model and Delaunay triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.

    2014-04-01

    In map production and generalization, it is inevitable to arise some spatial conflicts, but the detection and resolution of these spatial conflicts still requires manual operation. It is become a bottleneck hindering the development of automated cartographic generalization. Displacement is the most useful contextual operator that is often used for resolving the conflicts arising between two or more map objects. Automated generalization researches have reported many approaches of displacement including sequential approaches and optimization approaches. As an excellent optimization approach on the basis of energy minimization principles, elastic beams model has been used in resolving displacement problem of roads and buildings for several times. However, to realize a complete displacement solution, techniques of conflict detection and spatial context analysis should be also take into consideration. So we proposed a complete solution of displacement based on the combined use of elastic beams model and constrained Delaunay triangulation (CDT) in this paper. The solution designed as a cyclic and iterative process containing two phases: detection phase and displacement phase. In detection phase, CDT of map is use to detect proximity conflicts, identify spatial relationships and structures, and construct auxiliary structure, so as to support the displacement phase on the basis of elastic beams. In addition, for the improvements of displacement algorithm, a method for adaptive parameters setting and a new iterative strategy are put forward. Finally, we implemented our solution on a testing map generalization platform, and successfully tested it against 2 hand-generated test datasets of roads and buildings respectively.

  7. Decoloration and degradation of Reactive Red-120 dye by electron beam irradiation in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Jhimli; Rawat, K.P.; Sarma, K.S.S.; Sabharwal, S.

    2011-01-01

    The decoloration and degradation of aqueous solution of the reactive azo dye viz. Reactive Red-120 (RR-120) was carried out by electron beam irradiation. The change in decoloration percentage, removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC), solution pH and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ) were investigated with respect to the applied dose. However, the concentration of the dye in the solution showed a great influence on all these observables. During the radiolysis process, it was found that the decoloration of dye was caused by the destruction of the chromophore group of the dye molecule, whereas COD and TOC removal were depended on the extent of mineralization of the dye. The decrease in pH during the radiolysis process indicated the fragmentation of the large dye molecule into smaller organic components mostly like smaller organic acids. The BOD 5 /COD ratio of the unirradiated dye solution was in the range of 0.1-0.2, which could be classified as non-biodegradable wastewater. However, the BOD 5 /COD ratio increased upon irradiation and it indicated the transformation of non-biodegradable dye solution into biodegradable solution. This study showed that electron beam irradiation could be a promising method for treatment of textile wastewater containing RR-120 dye.

  8. Closed-Form Solutions for Gradient Elastic Beams with Geometric Discontinuities by Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Özgür Yayli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The static bending solution of a gradient elastic beam with external discontinuities is presented by Laplace transform. Its utility lies in the ability to switch differential equations to algebraic forms that are more easily solved. A Laplace transformation is applied to the governing equation which is then solved for the static deflection of the microbeam. The exact static response of the gradient elastic beam with external discontinuities is obtained by applying known initial conditions when the others are derived from boundary conditions. The results are given in a series of figures and compared with their classical counterparts. The main contribution of this paper is to provide a closed-form solution for the static deflection of microbeams under geometric discontinuities.

  9. Exact analytical solution of shear-induced flexural vibration of functionally graded piezoelectric beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pankaj, E-mail: psharma@rtu.ac.in; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail: parashar2@yahoo.com [Mechanical Engineering Department, Rajasthan Technical University, Kota (India)

    2016-05-06

    The priority of this paper is to obtain the exact analytical solution for free flexural vibration of FGPM beam actuated using the d{sub 15} effect. In piezoelectric actuators, the potential use of d{sub 15} effect has been of particular interest for engineering applications since shear piezoelectric coefficient d15 is much higher than the other piezoelectric coupling constants d{sub 31} and d{sub 33}. The applications of shear actuators are to induce and control the flexural vibrations of beams and plates. In this study, a modified Timoshenko beam theory is used where electric potential is assumed to vary sinusoidaly along the thickness direction. The material properties are assumed to be graded across the thickness in accordance with power law distribution. Hamilton's principle is employed to obtain the equations of motion along with the associated boundary conditions for FGPM beams. Exact analytical solution is derived thus obtained equations of motion. Results for clamped-clamped and clamped-free boundary conditions are presented. The presented result and method shell serve as benchmark for comparing the results obtained from the other approximate methods.

  10. Analytical solution for beam with time-dependent boundary conditions versus response spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, P.F.; Panahi, K.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the responses of a uniform simple beam for which the supports are subjected to time-dependent conditions. Analytical solution in terms of series was presented for two cases: (1) Two supports of a simple beam are subjected to a harmonic motion, and (2) One of the two supports is stationary while the other is subjected to a harmonic motion. The results of the analytical solution were investigated and compared with the results of conventional response spectrum method using the beam finite element model. One of the applications of the results presented in this paper can be used to assess the adequacy and accuracy of the engineering approaches such as response spectra methods. It has been found that, when the excitation frequency equals the fundamental frequency of the beam, the results from response spectrum method are in good agreement with the exact calculation. The effects of initial conditions on the responses are also examined. It seems that the non-zero initial velocity has pronounced effects on the displacement time histories but it has no effect on the maximum accelerations. (author)

  11. Determination of Periodic Solution for Tapered Beams with Modified Iteration Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mashinchi Joubari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implemented the Modified Iteration Perturbation Method (MIPM for approximating the periodic behavior of a tapered beam. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear ordinary differential equation with linear and nonlinear terms. The solution is quickly convergent and does not need to complicated calculations. Comparing the results of the MIPM with the exact solution shows that this method is effective and convenient. Also, it is predicated that MIPM can be potentially used in the analysis of strongly nonlinear oscillation problems accurately.

  12. Explicit thin-lens solution for an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balandin, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Orlov, S. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics

    2011-10-15

    In the design of beam transport lines one often meets the problem of constructing a quadrupole lens system that will produce desired transfer matrices in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Nowadays this problem is typically approached with the help of computer routines, but searching for the numerical solution one has to remember that it is not proven yet that an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix can be represented by using a finite number of drifts and quadrupoles (representation problem) and the answer to this questions is not known not only for more or less realistic quadrupole field models but also for the both most commonly used approximations of quadrupole focusing, namely thick and thin quadrupole lenses. In this paper we make a step forward in resolving the representation problem and, by giving an explicit solution, we prove that an arbitrary four by four uncoupled beam transfer matrix actually can be obtained as a product of a finite number of thin-lenses and drifts. (orig.)

  13. slice of LEP beamtube with getter strip

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    A section of the LEP beam pipe. This is the chamber in which LEP's counter-rotating electron and positron beams travel. It is made of lead-clad aluminium. The beams circulate in the oval cross-section part of the chamber. In the rectangular cross-section part, LEP's innovative getter-strip vacuum pump is installed. After heating to purify the surface of the getter, the strip acts like molecular sticky tape, trapping any stray molecules left behind after the accelerator's traditional vacuum pumps have done their job.

  14. [Enhancement effect of double-beam laser processed aqueous solution on ICP emission spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-zhong; Xu, Li-jing; Su, Hong-xin; Li, Xu; Wang, Shu-fang

    2015-01-01

    In order to change the physical properties of aqueous solution and improve the radiation intensity of the ICP emission spectrum, the effects of different laser power density and irradiation time on the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution were investigated by using near infrared laser at 976 nm and CO2 laser at 10. 6 µm to irradiate aqueous solution orthogonally, then the enhancement of ICP spectral intensity with processed solution was discussed. The results showed that the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution reduced by 42. 13% and 14. 03% compared with the untreated, and the atomization efficiency increased by 51.26% at the laser power density 0. 265 7 W . cm-2 of 976 nm and 0. 206 9 W . cm-2 of CO2 laser with 40 min irradiation time. With the optimized aqueous solution introduced into the ICP source, the spectral line intensity of sample elements As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb was enhanced by 46.29%, 94. 65%, 30. 76%, 33.07% and 94. 58% compared to the untreated aqueous solution, while the signal-to-background ratio increased by 43. 84%, 85. 35%, 28. 71%, 34. 37% and 90. 91%, respectively. Plasma temperature and electron density also increased by 5. 94% and 1. 18% respectively. It is obvious that the method of double-beam laser orthogonal irradiation on solution can reduce the surface tension and viscosity of aqueous solution significantly, and raise the radiationintensity of ICP source, and will provide a better condition for detecting the trace heavy metal elements in water samples.

  15. Numerical Solution of the Kzk Equation for Pulsed Finite Amplitude Sound Beams in Thermoviscous Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang-Sub

    A time-domain numerical algorithm for solving the KZK (Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov) nonlinear parabolic wave equation is developed for pulsed, axisymmetric, finite amplitude sound beams in thermoviscous fluids. The KZK equation accounts for the combined effects of diffraction, absorption, and nonlinearity at the same order of approximation. The accuracy of the algorithm is established via comparison with analytical solutions for several limiting cases, and with numerical results obtained from a widely used algorithm for solving the KZK equation in the frequency domain. The time domain algorithm is used to investigate waveform distortion and shock formation in directive sound beams radiated by pulsed circular piston sources. New results include predictions for the entire process of self-demodulation, and for the effect of frequency modulation on pulse envelope distortion. Numerical results are compared with measurements, and focused sources are investigated briefly.

  16. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 μA). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  17. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equations with quintic quasi-periodic nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuju Tuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider the one-dimensional nonlinear beam equations with quasi-periodic quintic nonlinearities $$ u_{tt}+u_{xxxx}+(B+ \\varepsilon\\phi(tu^5=0 $$ under periodic boundary conditions, where B is a positive constant, $\\varepsilon$ is a small positive parameter, $\\phi(t$ is a real analytic quasi-periodic function in t with frequency vector $\\omega=(\\omega_1,\\omega_2,\\dots,\\omega_m$. It is proved that the above equation admits many quasi-periodic solutions by KAM theory and partial Birkhoff normal form.

  18. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Jing [College of Information Technology, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Gao, Yixian, E-mail: gaoyx643@nenu.edu.cn; Li, Yong [School of Mathematics and Statistics, and Center for Mathematics and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation u{sub tt} + u{sub xxxx} + mu + u{sup 3} = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form. .

  19. Quasi-periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equation with prescribed frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jing; Gao, Yixian; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Consider the one dimensional nonlinear beam equation u tt + u xxxx + mu + u 3 = 0 under Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that for any m > 0 but a set of small Lebesgue measure, the above equation admits a family of small-amplitude quasi-periodic solutions with n-dimensional Diophantine frequencies. These Diophantine frequencies are the small dilation of a prescribed Diophantine vector. The proofs are based on an infinite dimensional Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser iteration procedure and a partial Birkhoff normal form. 

  20. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  1. A closed form solution for the response of a long elastic beam to dynamic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.K.

    1989-01-01

    Closed form solutions have been obtained using Fourier transform method for the deflection, curvature and particle velocity of a long elastic beam when it is subjected to a concentrated transverse force which is varying with time. These solutions have been illustrated with the help of two force histories, i.e. a half-sine pulse and a rectangular pulse. Dimensionless parameters representing deflection, curvature and particle velocity have been plotted as functions of dimensionless distance and dimensionless time. Furthermore, the particular case of constant velocity impact which has been studied by other authors using different techniques has also been considered in the present paper and the results compare within numerical errors involved in the evaluation of integrals. (orig.) [de

  2. Dynamic rheology behavior of electron beam-irradiated cellulose pulp/NMMO solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Ruimin; Deng Bangjun; Hao Xufeng; Zhou Fei; Wu Xinfeng; Chen Yongkang

    2008-01-01

    The rheological behavior of irradiated cellulose pulp solution by electron beam was investigated. Storage modulus G', loss modulus G'', the dependence of complex viscosity η* and frequency ω of cellulose solutions were measured by DSR-200 Rheometer (Rheometrics co., USA). The molecular weight of irradiated cellulose was measured via the intrinsic viscosity measurement using an Ubbelohde capillary viscometer. The crystalline structure was studied by FTIR Spectroscopy. The results congruously showed that the molecular weight of pulp cellulose decrease and the molecular weight distribution of cellulose become narrow with increase in the irradiation dose. Moreover, the crystalline structure of the cellulose was destroyed, the force of the snarl between the cellulose molecules weakens and the accessibility of pulp spinning is improved. The study supplies some useful data for spinnability of irradiated cellulose and technical data to the filature industry

  3. The construction and operating characteristics of a cathode strip chamber system designed to measure the reaction vertices of a stopping kaon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.W. Ahmed; D. Androic; I. Bertovic; J. Bjoraker; R. Chrien; X. Cui; D. Dehnhard; Anton Empl; M. Furic; J. Gerald; R. Gill; E.V. Hungerford; H. Jungst; K.J. Lan; Jinghua Liu; C.L. Morris; J.M. O'Donnell; J.C. Peng; T. Petkovic; P. Pile; M. Planinic; C.M. Riedel; A. Rusek; R. Sutter; Liguang Tang; H.A. Thiessen; M. Youn; V. Zeps

    2001-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a segmented-target, cathode-strip, tracking-detector is discussed. The chamber was made of low-Z materials in order to allow photons to leave the target region. It was used to determine the reaction vertex of stopping kaons, and was successfully operated in a high-intensity kaon beamline at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The vertical and horizontal resolutions of the stopping kaon reaction positions were sigma X∼ 0.454mm and sigma Y∼ 1.180mm, respectively. The uncertainty in the longitudinal (Z) direction is given by one-half the thickness of a target segment

  4. Dicolorization of Reactive Dyes in Aqueous Solutions Using Ionizing Electron Beam Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Behjat

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were carried out to study the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on reactive azo dyes (Remazol blue 133%, and Remazol red which are widely used in Yazd textile plants. Laboratory scale experiments were carried out using advanced 10 MeV electron beam accelerator service in Yazd Radiation Processing Center (YRPC. The irradiation dose was varied over 1, 3, 5, 8, and11 kGy. Dicoloration of the prepared dye solution was monitored by comparing the absorption spectra of the samples before and after irradiation. Mineralization of the dye solutions were estimated by measuring COD and PH of the irradiated samples. Our results show a color removal efficeincy of 83% in from different samples by applying 1 kGy irradiation dose. This value increases by up to 96%  under 3kGy irradiation. pH and COD values decrease with increasing absorbed doses.  COD removals for Remazol blue 133% and Remazol  red samples were calculated as 20% and 18% for an absorbed dose of 1 kGy and 60% and 72% for an absorbed dose of 11 kGy, respectively.

  5. Optical signal response pf the alanine gel solution for photons and electrons clinical beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2009-01-01

    Alanine gel dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on previous alanine systems developed by Costa (1994). The measure technique is based on the transformation of ferrous ions (Fe 2+ ) in ferric ions (Fe 3+ ) after irradiation. The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an aminoacid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the comparison of optical signal response of the alanine gel solution for photons and electrons clinical beams. It was observed that the calibration factor can be considered independent of quality of the radiation for photons and electrons clinical beams. Therefore, it can be used the same calibration factor for evaluating the absorbed dose in photons and electrons fields in the energy of 6 MeV. Alanine Gel Dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area using MRI technique for 3D dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  6. Biphasic kinetic investigations on the evaluation of non-salt forming reductants for Pu(IV) stripping from tributyl phosphate and N,N-dihexyl octanamide solutions in n-dodecane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, D.R.; Neelam Kumari; Kanekar, A.S.; Pathak, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    The relative stability of different oxidation states of actinide elements is influenced by the nature of complexes formed and redox equilibria in aqueous/non-aqueous solutions. The reduction/stripping studies on Pu(IV) ions from loaded organic phases of 1.1 M tributyl phosphate and of 1.1 M N,N-dihexyl octanamide in n-dodecane were studied using organic soluble tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBH) and aqueous soluble reductants like acetaldoxime (AX) and hydroxyurea (HU). These studies were carried out as a function of reductant and nitric acid concentration (0.5-4 M HNO 3 ) and of time. The changes in Pu oxidation states were followed by spectrophotometry for TBH and by distribution ratio values for AX and HU as reductants. Spectrophotometric investigations using TBH as reductant showed that it was desirable to strip Pu(III) formed after reduction of Pu(IV) in the organic phase, which may otherwise be reconverted to extractable Pu(IV) by in situ generated HNO 2 from oxidative degradation of TBH to tert-butyl quinone. Similarly, the biphasic reduction/stripping of Pu(IV) using AX and HU as reductant rate was affected adversely with increased aqueous phase acidity. This data will help in the accurate simulation of Pu separation processes using these reductants in mixer-settlers/pulsed columns or centrifugal contactors. (author)

  7. Varicose vein stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stripping; Venous reflux - vein stripping; Venous ulcer - veins Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Varicose veins - what to ask your doctor Images Circulatory system References American Family Physician. Management of varicose veins. www.aafp.org/afp/2008/ ...

  8. Semi-Broad-Beam Gamma Spectrometry of Some Mixtures and Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kateb, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The 33- and 662-keV X rays and gamma rays from 137 Cs and the 1173- and 1333-keV gamma rays from 60 Co have been employed as single and dual beams to study the attenuation of applied materials. These materials are soil containing water, dextrose solutions, and solutions of lithium chloride, sodium chloride, and potassium chloride. In soil the measurements covered water content ranging from saturation to nearly dry points. For dextrose, the content ranged from 0.25 g.cm -3 to zero. For the chloride solutions, the salt mass fraction was varied up to the ratio 0.1667. The setup geometry was arranged with a source-detector angle of 8.63 deg to allow good reception of the 33-keV line. The results were analyzed on the basis of the dependence of the absorption of intensity (intensities) on the content of the added component. The curves are fitted with concentration-dependent expansions, the coefficients of which are tabulated. It is concluded that soft X rays (33 keV) produce the most sensitive responses to concentrations. Correspondingly, a dual energy of 33 and 1250 keV (or 1333 keV) is the preferred combination to detect a desired component in a sample

  9. The construction and operating characteristics of a cathode strip chamber system designed to measure the reaction vertices of a stopping kaon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.W.; Androic, D.; Bertovic, I.; Bjoraker, J.; Chrien, R.; Cui, X.; Dehnhard, D.; Empl, A.; Furic, M.; Gerald, J.; Gill, R.; Hungerford, E.V.; Juengst, H.; Lan, K.J.; Liu, J.H.; Morris, C.L.; O'Donnell, J.M.; Peng, J.C.; Petkovic, T.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Riedel, C.M.; Rusek, A.; Sutter, R.; Tang, L.; Thiessen, H.A.; Youn, M.; Zeps, V.

    2001-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a segmented-target, cathode-strip, tracking-detector is discussed. The chamber was made of low-Z materials in order to allow photons to leave the target region. It was used to determine the reaction vertex of stopping kaons, and was successfully operated in a high-intensity kaon beamline at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The vertical and horizontal resolutions of the stopping kaon reaction positions were σ X ∼0.454 mm and σ Y ∼1.180 mm, respectively. The uncertainty in the longitudinal (Z) direction is given by one-half the thickness of a target segment

  10. The construction and operating characteristics of a cathode strip chamber system designed to measure the reaction vertices of a stopping kaon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, M W; Bertovic, I; Bjoraker, J; Chrien, R; Cui, X; Dehnhard, D; Empl, A; Furic, M; Gerald, J; Gill, R; Hungerford, E V; Juengst, H; Lan, K J; Liu, J H; Morris, C L; O'donnell, J M; Peng, J C; Petkovic, T; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Riedel, C M; Rusek, A; Sutter, R; Tang, L; Thiessen, H A; Youn, M; Zeps, V

    2001-01-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a segmented-target, cathode-strip, tracking-detector is discussed. The chamber was made of low-Z materials in order to allow photons to leave the target region. It was used to determine the reaction vertex of stopping kaons, and was successfully operated in a high-intensity kaon beamline at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The vertical and horizontal resolutions of the stopping kaon reaction positions were sigma sub X approx 0.454 mm and sigma sub Y approx 1.180 mm, respectively. The uncertainty in the longitudinal (Z) direction is given by one-half the thickness of a target segment.

  11. The new silicon strip detectors for the CMS tracker upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragicevic, M.

    2010-01-01

    The first introductory part of the thesis describes the concept of the CMS experiment. The tasks of the various detector systems and their technical implementations in CMS are explained. To facilitate the understanding of the basic principles of silicon strip sensors, the subsequent chapter discusses the fundamentals in semiconductor technology, with particular emphasis on silicon. The necessary process steps to manufacture strip sensors in a so-called planar process are described in detail. Furthermore, the effects of irradiation on silicon strip sensors are discussed. To conclude the introductory part of the thesis, the design of the silicon strip sensors of the CMS Tracker are described in detail. The choice of the substrate material and the complex geometry of the sensors are reviewed and the quality assurance procedures for the production of the sensors are presented. Furthermore the design of the detector modules are described. The main part of this thesis starts with a discussion on the demands on the tracker caused by the increase in luminosity which is proposed as an upgrade to the LHC accelerator (sLHC). This chapter motivates the work I have conducted and clarifies why the solutions proposed by myself are important contributions to the upgrade of the CMS tracker. The following chapters present the concepts that are necessary to operate the silicon strip sensors at sLHC luminosities and additional improvements to the construction and quality assurance of the sensors and the detector modules. The most important concepts and works presented in chapters 7 to 9 are: Development of a software framework to enable the flexible and quick design of test structures and sensors. Selecting a suitable sensor material which is sufficiently radiation hard. Design, implementation and production of a standard set of test structures to enable the quality assurance of such sensors and any future developments. Electrical characterisation of the test structures and analysis

  12. Irradiation with benzene, toluene and phenol electron beams in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo O, E.L.; Lopez V, H.; Vazquez A, O.; Lizama S, B.E.; Garcia F, M.

    1998-01-01

    It is described a methodology for waste water treatment which is simulated doing a benzene-toluene-phenol mixture in aqueous solution. Three different concentrations of them ones were used which were irradiated with electron beams coming from a Pelletron Accelerator carrying out the degradation effect of these compounds in CO 2 and H 2 O. By mean of gas chromatography the analytical determinations were realized finding that in lower concentration of benzene and toluene performances of degradation higher than 95 % were obtained, but higher concentrations (100 ppm) the performance diminishes at 89 %, while for phenol in higher concentrations its degradation is over 60 % and in lower concentrations the degradation is under 80 %. The results are obtained with a constant irradiation time of 12 seconds and neutral pH. (Author

  13. Influence of physical and chemical parameters on the irradiation of aqueous solutions of phenol by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzari, Fabien

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was the study of the influence of different parameters by electron beam irradiation on the decomposition of phenol in aqueous solution. A simulation based on a simplified mechanism emphasized the importance of the oxygenation of the solutions in the removal of phenol by ionisation. A model of the reactor used was proposed from the study of the influence of the beam energy on the decomposition of phenol. Penetration depths of the electrons were determined. Phenol degradation was found to increase with the dose rate. The fraction of the dose into several passages under the electron beam improved the abatement of the phenol. The reoxygenation of the solutions between each passage and the kinetic expressions of irradiation could explain this effect. As expected, the first by-products identified were originated from the reaction of phenol with hydroxyl radicals. [fr

  14. Theoretical study of H- stripping with a wiggler magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutson, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The first step for injecting protons into the LAMPF Proton Storage Ring (PSR) at LANL is to strip a beam of 800-MeV H - ions to H 0 with a 1.8-T dipole magnet. Because of the finite lifetime of energetic H - ions in the magnetic field, their trajectories bend before stripping causing the angular spread of the beam, and therefore its emittance, to grow during the stripping process. In the case of the PSR, the horizontal beam emittance grows by a factor of roughly three during injection. As a consequence, beam losses in the ring are significantly greater than they would be if there were not emittance growth. A speculative technique is proposed in which the beam divergence growth and resulting emittance growth is reduced by stripping the H - in a wiggler magnet whose transverse field alternates in direction as a function of position along the beam axis. The wiggler field configuration is adjusted so that the angular beam spread introduced during passage through one unidirectional-field increment of path is relatively small and so that 99.99% of the beam is stripped after passing through the whole magnet. With careful field design the net added angular beam spread is reduced because the incremental angular spreads are painted back and forth over the same small range. In the hypothetical case described, the calculated emittance growth and beam loss increase are significantly smaller than those calculated for a conventional stripper magnet. 3 refs., 3 figs

  15. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Linda; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D 1cc , V 60GyEq , V 40GyEq , and D mean between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality

  16. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Linda, E-mail: l.rossi@erasmusmc.nl; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D{sub 1cc}, V{sub 60GyEq}, V{sub 40GyEq}, and D{sub mean} between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality.

  17. Separation of americium and neodymium by selective stripping and subsequent extraction with HDEHP using DTPA-lactic acid solution in a closed loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svantesson, I.; Hangstroem, I.; Persson, G.; Liljenzin, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    A method for the separation of trivalent actinides and lanthanides is proposed. The method is based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1M HDEHP into an aqueous phase containing ammonia, DTPA and lactic acid followed by subsequent extraction into a second organic phase also containing 1M HDEHP. The aqueous phase is recycled in a closed loop, thereby reducing the amounts of secondary waste. Distribution ratios for Am and Nd have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. The distribution of ammonia was also measured. (author)

  18. Lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions for high-dose dosimetry with 10-MeV electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amraei, R.; Kheirkhah, M.; Raisali, G.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, dosimetric characterisation of aqueous solutions of lactose and sucrose was analysed by UV spectrometry following irradiation using 10-MeV electron beam at doses between 0.5 and 10.5 kGy. As a dosimetric index, absorbance is selected at 256 and 264 nm for lactose and sucrose aqueous solutions, respectively. The intensity of absorbance for irradiated solutions depends on the pre-irradiation concentration of lactose and sucrose. The post-irradiation stability of both solutions was investigated at room temperature for a measurement period of 22 d. (authors)

  19. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M

    2000-10-11

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  20. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD Diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zoeller, M M

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  1. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.

    2000-01-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation

  2. Micro-strip sensors based on CVD diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    2000-10-01

    In this article we present the performance of recent chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond micro-strip sensors in beam tests. In addition, we present the first comparison of a CVD diamond micro-strip sensor before and after proton irradiation.

  3. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  4. The existence of periodic solutions for nonlinear beam equations on Td by a para-differential method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bochao; Li, Yong; Gao, Yixian

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the construction of periodic solutions of nonlinear beam equations on the $d$-dimensional tori. For a large set of frequencies, we demonstrate that an equivalent form of the nonlinear equations can be obtained by a para-differential conjugation. Given the non-resonant conditions on each finite dimensional subspaces, it is shown that the periodic solutions can be constructed for the block diagonal equation by a classical iteration scheme.

  5. New target solution for a muon collider or a muon-decay neutrino beam facility: The granular waterfall target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jie Cai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A new target solution, the granular waterfall target, is proposed here for a muon collider or a muon-decay neutrino beam facility, especially for the moment which adopts a 15 MW continuous-wave (cw superconducting linac. Compared to the mercury jet target, the granular waterfall target works by a much simpler mechanism which can operate with a much more powerful beam, which are indicated by the detailed investigations into the heat depositions and the evaluations of the temperature increases for different target concepts. By varying proton beam kinetic energy and the geometrical parameters of the waterfall target, an overall understanding of the figure of merit concerning muon production for this target concept as the target solutions of the long-baseline neutrino factory and the medium-baseline moment is obtained. With 8 GeV beam energy and the optimal geometrical parameters, the influence on muon yield by adopting different beam-target interaction parameters is explored. Studies and discussions of the design details concerning beam dumping are also presented.

  6. Measurements of urea and glucose in aqueous solutions with dual-beam near-infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, P.S.; Bak, J.

    2002-01-01

    of these two modes of operation. The concentrations of aqueous solutions of urea and glucose in the ranges 0-40 mg/dL and 0-250 mg/dL, respectively, were determined by principal component regression using both modes. The dual-beam technique eliminated instrumental variations present in the single...

  7. Hybrid Vapor Stripping-Vapor Permeation Process for Recovery and Dehydration of 1-Butanol and Acetone/Butanol/Ethanol from Dilute Aqueous Solutions. Part 2. Experimental Validation with Simple Mixtures and Actual Fermentation Broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: In Part1 of this work, a process integrating vapor stripping, vapor compression, and a vapor permeation membrane separation step, Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was predicted to produce energy savings compared to traditional distillation systems for separat...

  8. Determination of boron in aqueous solutions by solid state nuclear track detectors technique, using a filtered neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.; Khouri, M.T.F.C.

    1985-11-01

    The solid state nuclear track detectors technique has been used for determination of boron in aqueous solutions, using a filtered neutron beam. The particles tracks from the 10 B(n,α)Li 7 reaction were registered in the CR-39 film, chemically etched in a (30%) KOH solution 70 0 C during 90 minutes. The obtained results showed the usefulness of this technique for boron determination in the ppm range. The inferior detectable limit was 9 ppm. The combined track registration efficiency factor K has been evaluated in the solutions, for the CR-39 detector and its values is K= (4,60 - + 0,06). 10 -4 cm. (Author) [pt

  9. Analysis of products of thymine irradiated by 18O8+ ion beam in N2O saturated aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xichen; Wei Zengquan; Li Wenjian; Liang Jianping; Li Qiang

    1999-01-01

    Some methods of capillary gas chromatography, such as GC, GC-MS GC-FT-IR, are used to analyze the products of thymine irradiated by 18 O 8+ ion beam in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution. From the results of GC-MS the molecular weight of products can be determined, and from the results of GC-FT-IR some molecular structure information of products can be obtained. By this way the products, 5,6-Dihydro-thymine, 5-Hydroxyl-5-Methylhydantoin, 5-Hydroxyl-6-Hydro-thymine, 5-Hydro-6-Hydroxyl thymine, 5-Hydroxymethyluracil, Trans-Thymine glycol, Cis-Thymine glycol and dimers are determined without separation of them from samples. Though these products are as same as those products of thymine irradiated by γ rays in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution, the mechanism of thymine irradiated by heavy ion beam in aqueous solution is different from that by γ rays. The main products of thymine irradiated by 18 O 8+ ion beam in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution are hydroxyl adducts at 5-6 band of thymine, while the main products of thymine irradiated by γ ray in N 2 O saturated aqueous solution are dimers of thymine

  10. Stress corrosion cracking tests on electron beam welded carbon steel specimens in carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkins, R.N.

    1985-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking tests have been performed on tapered carbon steel test pieces containing electron beam welds with a view to defining susceptibility to such cracking in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution at 90 C and an appropriate electrode potential. The tests involved applying cyclic loads to the specimens and it is shown that the threshold stress for cracking reduces linearly with increase in the magnitude of the cyclic load component. Extrapolation of these trends to zero fluctuating stress indicates static load threshold stresses in the vicinity of the yield stress (i.e. about 300 N/mm 2 for parent plate without a weld, 400 N/mm 2 for specimens with welds on one side only and 600 N/mm 2 for specimens having welds penetrating through the thickness of the specimen). The averages of the maximum crack velocities observed were least for parent plate material and greatest for weld metal, the former being essentially intergranular in morphology and the latter mostly transgranular, with heat affected zone material being intermediate between these extremes. (author)

  11. Dynamic Response of a Beam Resting on a Nonlinear Foundation to a Moving Load: Coiflet-Based Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Koziol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new semi-analytical solution for the Timoshenko beam subjected to a moving load in case of a nonlinear medium underneath. The finite series of distributed moving loads harmonically varying in time is considered as a representation of a moving train. The solution for vibrations is obtained by using the Adomian's decomposition combined with the Fourier transform and a wavelet-based procedure for its computation. The adapted approximating method uses wavelet filters of Coiflet type that appeared a very effective tool for vibration analysis in a few earlier papers. The developed approach provides solutions for both transverse displacement and angular rotation of the beam, which allows parametric analysis of the investigated dynamic system to be conducted in an efficient manner. The aim of this article is to present an effective method of approximation for the analysis of complex dynamic nonlinear models related to the moving load problems.

  12. The Strip Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tommy

    1996-01-01

    When the behaviour of a ship in waves is to be predicted it is convenient to have a tool which includes different approaches to the problem.The aim of this project is to develop such a tool named the strip theory module. The strip theory module will consist of submodules dependent on the I...

  13. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  14. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  15. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-04-28

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm{sup 2} floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the

  16. Development of floating strip micromegas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortfeldt, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Micromegas are high-rate capable, high-resolution micro-pattern gaseous detectors. Square meter sized resistive strip Micromegas are foreseen as replacement of the currently used precision tracking detectors in the Small Wheel, which is part of the forward region of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. The replacement is necessary to ensure tracking and triggering performance of the muon spectrometer after the luminosity increase of the Large Hadron Collider beyond its design value of 10 34 cm -2 s -1 around 2020. In this thesis a novel discharge tolerant floating strip Micromegas detector is presented and described. By individually powering copper anode strips, the effects of a discharge are confined to a small region of the detector. This reduces the impact of discharges on the efficiency by three orders of magnitude, compared to a standard Micromegas. The physics of the detector is studied and discussed in detail. Several detectors are developed: A 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas with exchangeable SMD capacitors and resistors allows for an optimization of the floating strip principle. The discharge behavior is investigated on this device in depth. The microscopic structure of discharges is quantitatively explained by a detailed detector simulation. A 48 x 50 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas is studied in high energy pion beams. Its homogeneity with respect to pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution is investigated. The good performance in high-rate background environments is demonstrated in cosmic muon tracking measurements with a 6.4 x 6.4 cm 2 floating strip Micromegas under lateral irradiation with 550 kHz 20 MeV proton beams. A floating strip Micromegas doublet with low material budget is developed for ion tracking without limitations from multiple scattering in imaging applications during medical ion therapy. Highly efficient tracking of 20 MeV protons at particle rates of 550 kHz is possible. The reconstruction of the track inclination in a single

  17. Beam Loss in Linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Beam loss is a critical issue in high-intensity accelerators, and much effort is expended during both the design and operation phases to minimize the loss and to keep it to manageable levels. As new accelerators become ever more powerful, beam loss becomes even more critical. Linacs for H- ion beams, such as the one at the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source, have many more loss mechanisms compared to H+ (proton) linacs, such as the one being designed for the European Spallation Neutron Source. Interesting H- beam loss mechanisms include residual gas stripping, H+ capture and acceleration, field stripping, black-body radiation and the recently discovered intra-beam stripping mechanism. Beam halo formation, and ion source or RF turn on/off transients, are examples of beam loss mechanisms that are common for both H+ and H- accelerators. Machine protection systems play an important role in limiting the beam loss.

  18. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of acid treated strip cast AM50 and AZX310 magnesium alloys in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Arthanari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of acid treatments on the surface morphology and electrochemical corrosion behavior of strip-cast AM50 and AZX310 alloys have been studied in the present investigation. The alloys were acid treated using H3PO4 (AT-1, HF (AT-2 and HNO3 (AT-3 for different treatment durations viz., 60, 300 and 600 s. The acid treatments produced a surface layer consisting of corresponding magnesium salts of the acids and were confirmed from the X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX. AT-1 treatment produced cracked and network porous morphology for AM50 and AZX310 alloys respectively and AT-3 treatment exhibited dense creaked surface layer formation while AT-2 does not produce any significant change in the morphology. Polarization studies revealed that, the acid treatment significantly altered the corrosion process by altering anodic and cathodic reaction rates of AM50 and AZX310 alloys. The HNO3 (AT-3 treatment was effective compared to other treatments to control the corrosion rate in the studied treatment conditions. The surface morphology and chemical composition of surface layer produced during the treatment was correlated to explain the corrosion results.

  19. A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Valvo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.

  20. Summary and presentation of the international workshop on beam induced energy deposition (issues, concerns, solutions)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soundranayagam, R.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses: energy deposition and radiation shielding in antriproton source at FNAL; radiation issues/problems at RHIC; radiation damage to polymers; radiation effects on optical fibre in the SSC tunnel; capabilities of the Brookhaven Radiation Effects Facility; the SSC interaction region; the FLUKA code system, modifications, recent extension and experimental verification; energy particle transport calculations and comparisons with experimental data; Los Alamos High Energy Transport code system; MCNP features and applications; intercomparison of Monte Carlo codes designed for simulation of high energy hadronic cascades; event generator, DTUJET-90 and DTUNUC; Preliminary hydrodynamic calculations of beam energy deposition; MESA code calculations of material response to explosive energy deposition; Smooth particle hydrodynamic; hydrodynamic effects and mass depletion phenomena in targets; beam dump: Beam sweeping and spoilers; Design considerations to mitigate effects of accidental beam dump; SSC beam abort and absorbed; beam abort system of SSC options; unconventional scheme for beam spoilers; low β quadrupoles: Energy deposition and radioactivation; beam induces energy deposition in the SSC components; extension of SSC-SR-1033 approach to radioactivation in LHC and SSC detectors; energy deposition in the SSC low-β IR-quads; beam losses and collimation in the LHC; and radiation shielding around scrapers

  1. Effect of trace solute hydrogen on the fatigue life of electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Junhui; Hu, Shubing, E-mail: 187352581@qq.com; Ji, Longbo

    2017-01-27

    This paper describes an experimental hydrogenating treatment on a Ti-6Al-4V fatigue specimen containing an electron beam welding joint. The effect of trace solute hydrogen on the microstructures and fatigue behavior of welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy joints was investigated using an optical microscope, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and other methodologies. The results demonstrated that no hydride formed in the hydrogenated weld joint at a hydrogen concentration of less than 0.140 wt%. Internal hydrogen, which was present in the alloy in the form of solid solution atoms, caused lattice distortion in the β phase. The fatigue properties of the Ti-6Al-4V weld joint hydrogenated with trace solute hydrogen decreased significantly. The solute hydrogen led to an increase in the brittleness of the hydrogenated weld joint. The dislocation densities in the secondary α and β phase were higher. Fatigue cracks nucleated at the α/β interfaces. The effect of solute hydrogen accelerated the separation of the persistent slip bands, which decreased the threshold required for fatigue crack growth. Solute hydrogen also accelerated the fatigue crack growth rate. These two factors contributed to the degradation of the fatigue life in the electron beam welded Ti-6Al-4V alloy joints.

  2. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  3. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  4. The Honeycomb Strip Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Harry van der; Buskens, Joop; Rewiersma, Paul; Koenig, Adriaan; Wijnen, Thei

    1991-06-01

    The Honeycomb Strip Chamber (HSC) is a new position sensitive detector. It consists of a stack of folded foils, forming a rigid honeycomb structure. In the centre of each hexagonal cell a wire is strung. Conducting strips on the foils, perpendicular to the wires, pick up the induced avalanche charge. Test results of a prototype show that processing the signals form three adjacent strips nearest to the track gives a spatial resolution better than 64 μm for perpendicular incident tracks. The chamber performance is only slightly affected by a magnetic field. (author). 25 refs.; 21 figs

  5. Comparison of PZT and FBG sensing technologies for debonding detection on reinforced concrete beams strengthened with external CFRP strips subjected to bending loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevillano, E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of monitoring technologies particularly suitable to be used with novel CFRP strengthening techniques has gained great attention in recent years. However, in spite of the high performance of these advanced composite materials in the strengthening and repairing of structures in service, they are usually associated with brittle and sudden failure mainly caused by debonding phenomena, originated either at the CFRP-plate end or at the intermediate areas in the vicinity of flexural cracks in the RC beam. Thus, it is highly recommended for these structures to be monitored in order to ensure their integrity while in service. Specifically, the feasibility of smart sensing technologies such as Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG sensors and piezo-impedance transducers (PZT has been studied. To the knowledge of the authors, none serious study has been carried out until now concerned to the topic of damage detection due to debonding in rehabilitated structures with CFRP composites.El desarrollo de tecnologías de monitorización aplicables junto con las novedosas técnicas de refuerzo basadas en materiales CFRP ha recibido una atención creciente los últimos años. Sin embargo, a pesar del alto rendimiento de estos avanzados materiales compuestos en la reparación y refuerzo de estructuras en servicio, están habitualmente asociados a fallos frágiles y repentinos causados principalmente por fenómenos de despegue, originados bien en los extremos del refuerzo, bien en áreas intermedias en las proximidades de grietas de flexión existentes en la viga. Por tanto, es altamente recomendable monitorizar estas soluciones estructurales de cara a garantizar su integridad en servicio. Específicamente, se ha estudiado la viabilidad de sensores inteligentes tales como los sensores Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG o los transductores piezoeléctricos (PZT. Hasta donde los autores saben, no se han realizado estudios serios hasta la fecha abordando la detección de da

  6. Optical and energy dependent response of the alanine gel solution produced at IPEN to clinical photons and electrons beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cleber F.

    2011-01-01

    The DL-Alanine (C 3 H 7 NO 2 ) is an amino acid tissue equivalent traditionally used as standard dosimetric material in EPR dosimetry. Recently, it has been studied to be applied in gel dosimetry, considering that the addition of Alanine in the Fricke gel solution improves the production of ferric ions radiation induced. The spectrophotometric evaluation technique can be used comparing the two spectrum wavelengths bands: 457 nm band that corresponds to ferrous ions and 588 nm band that corresponds to ferric ions concentration to evaluate the dosimetric properties of this material. The performance of the Alanine gel solution developed at IPEN has been firstly studied using the spectrophotometric technique aiming to apply this material to 3D clinical doses evaluations using MRI technique. In this work, the optical and the energy dependent response of this solution submitted to clinical photons and electrons beams were studied. Different batches of gel solutions were prepared and maintained at low temperature during 12 h to solidification. Before irradiation, the samples were maintained during 1 h at room temperature. The photons and electrons irradiations were carried out using a Varian 2100C Medical Linear Accelerator of the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas of the University of Sao Paulo with absorbed doses between 1 and 40 Gy; radiation field of 10 x 10 cm 2 ; photon energies of 6 MeV and 15 MeV; and electron with energies between 6 and 15 MeV. The obtained results indicate that signal response dependence for clinical photons and electrons beams, to the same doses, for Alanine gel dosimeter is better than 3.6 % (1σ), and the energy dependence response, to the same doses, is better 3% (1σ) for both beams. These results indicate that the same calibration factor can be used and the optical response is energy independent in the studied dose range and clinical photons and electrons beams energies. (author)

  7. Final product analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of aqueous solutions of metoprolol tartrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@cham.ucl.ac.be; Tilquin, Bernard [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    The radiostability of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions and the influence of the absorbed dose (0-50 kGy), dose rate (e-beam (EB) vs. gamma ({gamma})) and radioprotectors (pharmaceutical excipients) are investigated by HPLC-UV analyses and through computer simulations. The use of radioprotecting excipients is more promising than an increase in the dose rate to lower the degradation of metoprolol tartrate aqueous solutions for applications such as radiosterilization. The decontamination of metoprolol tartrate from waste waters by EB processing appears highly feasible.

  8. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-01-01

    particles is studied. • The 3D CPML FDTD technique is applied in the solution of OAM laser beam scattering. • Forward-scattering peak disappears when laser beam has orbital angular momentum. • This feature of OAM beam scattering may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers.

  9. Structure in defocused beams of x-ray mirrors: causes and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, John P.; Alcock, Simon G.; Rust, Fiona; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Grazing incidence mirrors are now a standard optic for focusing X-ray beams. Both bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors are widely used at Diamond Light Source because they permit a wide choice of focal lengths. They can also be deliberately set out of focus to enlarge the X-ray beam, and indeed many beamline teams now wish to generate uniform beam spots of variable size. However, progress has been slowed by the appearance of fine structure in these defocused beams. Measurements showing the relationship between the medium-frequency polishing error and this structure over a variety of beam sizes will be presented. A theoretical model for the simulations of defocused beams from general mirrors will then be developed. Not only the figure error and its first derivative the slope error, but also the second derivative, the curvature error, must be considered. In conclusion, possible ways to reduce the defocused beam structure by varying the actuators' configuration and settings will be discussed.

  10. The use of electron beam for solution of some ecological problems in pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Ryazantsev, A.A.; Spiridonov, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    In the report, results of research on possibility of using a beam of accelerated electrons for a decrease of exhaust in an environment of detrimental smelling nasty substances generated during sulfate cellulose-paper production are presented. The two methods of radiation usage are described: with a direct action of beam on detrimental substances containing gas or water on a so-called 'tailing' of production process and at the beginning of production with influence of electron beam on wood chips before the boiling process

  11. Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

    CERN Document Server

    SAE Aerospace Standards. London

    2012-01-01

    Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Sheet, Strip, and Plate 72Ni - 15.5Cr - 0.95 (Cb (Nb) + Ta) - 2.5Ti - 0.70Al - 7.0Fe Consumable Electrode, Remelted or Vacuum Induction Melted, Solution Heat Treated, Precipitation-Hardenable

  12. Quasistationary model of high-current relativistic electron beam. 1. Exact solution of Poisson equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, S.E.; Gandyl', E.M.; Podkopaev, A.P.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of high-current relativistic electron beam moving trough the cylindrical drift space has been modelled by the large particles, the shape of which allows to solve the Poisson equations exactly, and in such a way to avoid the linearization being usually used in those problems. The expressions for the components of own electric field of electron beam passing through the cylindrical drift space have been obtained. (author). 11 refs., 1 fig

  13. Formal solution for the fields within a beam-bug calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenden, T J.

    1998-01-01

    For some time I was bothered by the fact that measurements of offsets in the various bug calibration setups never agreed with the simple formulae (2) used for determining electron beam position in the Livermore induction linacs and transport systems. About 1983 I realized that the discrepancy arises from the way the bug calibrator simulates an electron beam in a conducting pipe. At that time I solved the problem using the method presented here. Unfortunately, I did not write it up at that time. After considerable effort, I was able to repeat the calculation. Since I have little confidence that after a few years I could ever do it again, I felt obliged to write it up in some detail. Our beam bug calibrator consists of two conducting cylinders, nominally concentric, that simulate the electron beam within a drift tube. The radii of the larger cylinder is 2.3 times that of the smaller giving an electrical impedance of 50 Ohms to the coaxial combination. To simulate a beam off-axis within a drift tube, the inner tube is moved relative to the outer tube. This only approximately simulates the motion of a beam because the surface current on the inner tube redistributes in response to the translation. Fortunately, the fields of the translated inner cylinder can be found exactly using complex variable theory (1)

  14. Testbeam evaluation of silicon strip modules for ATLAS Phase - II Strip Tracker Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Blue, Andrew; The ATLAS collaboration; Ai, Xiaocong; Allport, Phillip; Arling, Jan-Hendrik; Atkin, Ryan Justin; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Carli, Ina; Casse, Gianluigi; Chen, Liejian; Chisholm, Andrew; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cunningham, William Reilly; Dervan, Paul; Diez Cornell, Sergio; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dopke, Jens; Dreyer, Etienne; Dreyling-Eschweiler, Jan Linus Roderik; Escobar, Carlos; Fabiani, Veronica; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Fernandez Tejero, Javier; Fleta Corral, Maria Celeste; Gallop, Bruce; Garcia-Argos, Carlos; Greenall, Ashley; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Greig, Graham George; Guescini, Francesco; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hauser, Marc Manuel; Huang, Yanping; Hunter, Robert Francis Holub; Keller, John; Klein, Christoph; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Kotek, Zdenek; Kroll, Jiri; Kuehn, Susanne; Lee, Steven Juhyung; Liu, Yi; Lohwasser, Kristin; Meszarosova, Lucia; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mi\\~nano Moya, Mercedes; Mori, Riccardo; Moser, Brian; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Peschke, Richard; Pezzullo, Giuseppe; Phillips, Peter William; Poley, Anne-luise; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Ravotti, Federico; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The planned HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) is being designed to maximise the physics potential of the LHC with 10 years of operation at instantaneous luminosities of \\mbox{$7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$}. A consequence of this increased luminosity is the expected radiation damage requiring the tracking detectors to withstand hadron equivalences to over $1x10^{15}$ 1 MeV neutron equivalent per $cm^{2}$ in the ATLAS Strips system. The silicon strip tracker exploits the concept of modularity. Fast readout electronics, deploying 130nm CMOS front-end electronics are glued on top of a silicon sensor to make a module. The radiation hard n-in-p micro-strip sensors used have been developed by the ATLAS ITk Strip Sensor collaboration and produced by Hamamatsu Photonics. A series of tests were performed at the DESY-II test beam facility to investigate the detailed performance of a strip module with both 2.5cm and 5cm length strips before irradiation. The DURANTA telescope was used to obtain a pointing...

  15. Polymer Inclusion Membranes with Strip Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsien Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the permeation of indium ions through a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM, prepared with cellulose triacetate (CTA as the base polymer, tris(2-butoxyethyl phosphate (TBEP as the plasticizer and di-(2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA as the extractant. With 5 M HCl aqueous solution as the strip solution, we observed an initial indium permeability of 2.4 × 10−4 m/min. However, the permeability decreases with time, dropping to about 3.4 × 10−5 m/min after 200 min of operation. Evidence was obtained showing that hydrolysis of CTA occurred, causing a dramatic decrease in the feed pH (protons transported from strip to feed solutions and a loss of extractant and plasticizer from the membrane, and then leading to the loss of indium permeability. To alleviate the problem of hydrolysis, we proposed an operation scheme called polymer inclusion membranes with strip dispersion: dispersing the strip solution in extractant-containing oil and then bringing the dispersion to contact with the polymer membrane. Since the strong acid was dispersed in oil, the membrane did not directly contact the strong acid at all times, and membrane hydrolysis was thus alleviated and the loss of indium permeability was effectively prevented. With the proposed scheme, a stable indium permeability of 2.5 × 10−4 m/min was obtained during the whole time period of the permeation experiment.

  16. Analytical solutions for thermal transient profile in solid target irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Henrique B. de; Brazao, Nei G.; Sciani, Valdir

    2009-01-01

    There were obtained analytical solutions for thermal transient in solid targets, used in short half-life radioisotopes production, when irradiated with low energy and high beam current protons, in the cyclotron accelerator Cyclone 30 of the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN/CNEN-SP). The beam spatial profile was considered constant and the time depended heat distribution equation was resolved for a continuous particles flow entering the target. The problem was divided into two stages: a general solution was proposed which is the sum of two functions, the first one related to the thermal equilibrium situation and the second one related to a time dependent function that was determinate by the setting of the contour conditions and the initial conditions imposed by the real problem. By that one got an analytic function for a complete description of the heat transport phenomenon inside the targets. There were used both, numerical and symbolic computation methods, to obtain temperature maps and thermal gradients and the results showed an excellent agreement when compared with purely numerical models. The results were compared with obtained data from Gallium-67 and Thallium-201 irradiation routines conducted by the IPEN Cyclotrons accelerators center, showing excellent agreement. The objective of this paper is to develop solid targets irradiation systems (metals and oxides) so that one can operate with high levels of current beam, minimizing the irradiation time and maximizing the final returns. (author)

  17. In-vivo dosimetric study of carcinoma of uterine cervix with FBX solution in external beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, Challapalli; Shenoy, K. Kamalaksh; Dinesh, M.; Savitha, K.S.; Kasturi, Dinesh Pai; Supe, S.S.; Nagesha, Y.N.

    1999-01-01

    To ensure accurate dose delivery to target site in external beam therapy and brachytherapy, various authors have conducted tests to assess the process of manual dose calculations. In vivo dosimetric measurement is one of these methods to verify these calculations. In this study, an attempt has been made to compare the manually calculated dose to dose estimated using a chemical dosimeter (FBX) solution (in-vivo method, using polypropylene vials), on 12 patients of carcinoma of uterine cervix in external beam therapy. Dose measured by FBX vial varies in the range of ± 2 to 6.75%, as compared with manual calculations. These variations seen may be attributed to the location of the vial position in the vagina, with reference to the beam axis (may not be horizontal), off axis position, manual calculation variations and reproducibility of the FBX system etc. FBX dosimetry offers itself as an in-vivo method to estimate the dose delivered to the target site in external beam therapy. (author)

  18. Elasticity Theory Solution of the Problem on Plane Bending of a Narrow Layered Cantilever Beam by Loads at Its Free End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goryk, A. V.; Koval'chuk, S. B.

    2018-05-01

    An exact elasticity theory solution for the problem on plane bending of a narrow layered composite cantilever beam by tangential and normal loads distributed on its free end is presented. Components of the stress-strain state are found for the whole layers package by directly integrating differential equations of the plane elasticity theory problem by using an analytic representation of piecewise constant functions of the mechanical characteristics of layer materials. The continuous solution obtained is realized for a four-layer beam with account of kinematic boundary conditions simulating the rigid fixation of its one end. The solution obtained allows one to predict the strength and stiffness of composite cantilever beams and to construct applied analytical solutions for various problems on the elastic bending of layered beams.

  19. Numerical Solution of Uncertain Beam Equations Using Double Parametric Form of Fuzzy Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Tapaswini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper proposes a new technique to solve uncertain beam equation using double parametric form of fuzzy numbers. Uncertainties appearing in the initial conditions are taken in terms of triangular fuzzy number. Using the single parametric form, the fuzzy beam equation is converted first to an interval-based fuzzy differential equation. Next, this differential equation is transformed to crisp form by applying double parametric form of fuzzy number. Finally, the same is solved by homotopy perturbation method (HPM to obtain the uncertain responses subject to unit step and impulse loads. Obtained results are depicted in terms of plots to show the efficiency and powerfulness of the methodology.

  20. MUST, a set of strip detectors for studying radioactive beams induced reactions; MUST, un ensemble de detecteurs a pistes pour l`etude des reactions induites par faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumenfeld, Y.; Barbier, A.; Beaumel, D.; Charlet, D.; Clavelin, J.F.; Douet, R.; Engrand, M.; Lebon, S.; Lelong, P.; Lesage, A.; Leven, V.; Lhenry, I.; Marechal, F.; Petizon, L.; Pouthas, J.; Richard, A.; Rougier, D.; Soulet, C.; Suomijaervi, T.; Volkov, P.; Voltolini, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Auger, F.; Ottini, S.; Alamanos, N. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee; Sauvestre, J.E.; Bonnereau, B.; Champion, L.; Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Ethvignot, T.; Szmigiel, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    1996-12-31

    This report states the specificity of light particles elastic scattering, and the need of detecting recoil protons to improve angular resolution. Then the development of a specific MUST strip detector is detailed: 60 strips detectors with Si O sub 2 dielectric, that yield 500 ps time resolution, and Si (Li) detectors following next. A versatile data acquisition system has been developed too, with CAMAC interface to suit to any experimental plant. (D.L.). 27 refs.

  1. Movement of the patient and the cone beam computed tomography scanner: objectives and possible solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzelka, T.; Dušek, J.; Ocásek, F.; Kučera, J.; Šedý, Jiří; Beneš, J.; Pavlíková, G.; Foltán, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 6 (2013), s. 769-773 ISSN 2212-4403 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cone beam computed tomography * movement artifacts * dry-run scan Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.265, year: 2013

  2. micro strip gas chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    About 16 000 Micro Strip Gas Chambers like this one will be used in the CMS tracking detector. They will measure the tracks of charged particles to a hundredth of a millimetre precision in the region near the collision point where the density of particles is very high. Each chamber is filled with a gas mixture of argon and dimethyl ether. Charged particles passing through ionise the gas, knocking out electrons which are collected on the aluminium strips visible under the microscope. Such detectors are being used in radiography. They give higher resolution imaging and reduce the required dose of radiation.

  3. Meshless Solution of the Problem on the Static Behavior of Thin and Thick Laminated Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, S.; Kang, G. W.

    2018-03-01

    For the first time, the static behavior of laminated composite beams is analyzed using the meshless collocation method based on a thin-plate-spline radial basis function. In the approximation of a partial differential equation by using a radial basis function, the shape parameter has an important role in ensuring the numerical accuracy. The choice of a shape parameter in the thin plate spline radial basis function is easier than in other radial basis functions. The governing differential equations are derived based on Reddy's third-order shear deformation theory. Numerical results are obtained for symmetric cross-ply laminated composite beams with simple-simple and cantilever boundary conditions under a uniform load. The results found are compared with available published ones and demonstrate the accuracy of the present method.

  4. Slow positron beam study of corrosion behavior of AM60B magnesium alloy in NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, W.; Zhu, Z.J.; Wang, J.J.; Wu, Y.C.; Zhai, T.; Song, G.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positron annihilation is a sensitive tool to characterize the corrosion layer. • The interfacial voids promoted the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. • Mg(OH) 2 precipitated during early corrosion stage provided a temporary protection. - Abstract: The corrosion behavior of super vacuum die-cast AM60B magnesium alloys immersed in a 5 wt% NaCl solution was investigated by slow positron beam technique, XRD, XPS, SEM and potentiodynamic polarization tests. The XRD and XPS results indicated that Mg(OH) 2 was main corrosion product in the salt solution. With prolonging the immersion time, a significant decrease of Doppler-broadened annihilation line-width parameter near the surface after corrosion was observed and interpreted that the pre-existing interfacial voids between oxide film and matrix might promote the formation of Mg(OH) 2 corrosion layer. Polarization tests found that Mg(OH) 2 could provide a temporary protection.

  5. Displacement potential solution of a guided deep beam of composite materials under symmetric three-point bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Muzibur; Ahmad, S. Reaz

    2017-12-01

    An analytical investigation of elastic fields for a guided deep beam of orthotropic composite material having three point symmetric bending is carried out using displacement potential boundary modeling approach. Here, the formulation is developed as a single function of space variables defined in terms of displacement components, which has to satisfy the mixed type of boundary conditions. The relevant displacement and stress components are derived into infinite series using Fourier integral along with suitable polynomials coincided with boundary conditions. The results are presented mainly in the form of graphs and verified with finite element solutions using ANSYS. This study shows that the analytical and numerical solutions are in good agreement and thus enhances reliability of the displacement potential approach.

  6. Photothermal beam deflection calorimetry in solution photochemistry: recent progress and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falvey, D E

    1997-01-01

    Photothermal beam deflection (PBD) calorimetry is a technique that measures changes in the solvent's refractive index that accompanies photothermal heating. This method is capable of extracting both kinetic and thermodynamic information from photochemical reactions. A qualitative description of physical basis of time-resolved PBD is presented. Several recent examples of its application to photochemical and photobiological problems are discussed. Finally, the advantages and limitations of PBD are described.

  7. Selective chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    At the end of the 80's, some of the large European airlines expressed a wish for paint systems with improved strippability on their aircraft, allowing the possibility to strip down to the primer without altering it, using 'mild' chemical strippers based on methylene chloride. These improvements were initially intended to reduce costs and stripping cycle times while facilitating rapid repainting, and this without the need to change the conventionally used industrial facilities. The level of in-service performance of these paint systems was to be the same as the previous ones. Requirements related to hygiene safety and the environment were added to these initial requirements. To meet customers' expectations, Aerospatiale, within the Airbus Industry GIE, formed a work group. This group was given the task of specifying, following up the elaboration and qualifying the paint systems allowing requirements to be met, in relation with the paint suppliers and the airlines. The analysis made in this report showed the interest of transferring as far upstream as possible (to paint conception level) most of the technical constraints related to stripping. Thus, the concept retained for the paint system, allowing selective chemical stripping, is a 3-coat system with characteristics as near as possible to the previously used paints.

  8. ALICE Silicon Strip Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Nooren, G

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Detector (SSD) constitutes the two outermost layers of the Inner Tracking System (ITS) of the ALICE Experiment. The SSD plays a crucial role in the tracking of the particles produced in the collisions connecting the tracks from the external detectors (Time Projection Chamber) to the ITS. The SSD also contributes to the particle identification through the measurement of their energy loss.

  9. The Investigation of Electron Beam Catalytical Oxidation Process Efficiency with Potassium Persulfate in Removal Humic Acid from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Ghaneian

    2015-05-01

    Results: Based on the results, changes in pH had little effect on the Humic acid removal efficiency. The average, with increasing of pH from 4 to 10, the removal efficiency of humic acid from 72.59% to 73.36% increased, respectively. The results showed that increasing of the dose from 1 to 15 kGy, humic acid removal efficiency increases. Based on results by increasing of persulfate concentration, the removal efficiency increased so that with increasing of concentration of potassium persulfate from 0.1 to 0.5 mmol/100cc, removal efficiency from 69.43% to 83.82% was increased. Kinetic experiments showed that the decomposition of humic acid by electron beam radiation followed the second-order kinetic. Conclusion: The data from this study showed that the aqueous solution containing acid Humic is decomposed effectively by electron beams irradiation. Addition of potassium persulfate can be have significant improvements in removal efficiency of humic acid in the presence of electron beam.

  10. Kinetic modeling and simulation of PCE and TCE removal in aqueous solutions by electron-beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickelsen, Michael G.; Cooper, William J.; Secker, David A.; Rosocha, Louis A.; Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.

    2002-01-01

    The irradiation of aqueous solutions of TCE and PCE using a high-energy electron-beam results in the rapid decomposition of both chemicals. It is known that both TCE and PCE react with the aqueous electron and the hydroxyl radical with bimolecular rate constants greater than 10 9 M -1 s -1 for each reaction. The fact that high-energy electrons produce significant concentrations of both e aq - and ·OH radicals in water makes it an effective process for the removal of TCE and PCE from aqueous solution. We have employed steady state and computer-based chemical kinetic models to simulate and better understand the chemistry and kinetics of e-beam irradiation when applied to natural water systems. Model results were benchmarked to experimental data, allowing for the optimization of the reaction of DOC with the ·OH radical. Values for the associated second-order reaction rate constant were found to be 2.5x10 8 and 4.0x10 8 M -1 s -1 , consistent with reported values for k OH,DOC . The models were also used to investigate the possibility of incomplete irradiation during treatment and the presence of proposed chemical reactions of by-products. The reactions involve radicals and radical-adduct species formed by the reaction of TCE and PCE with the hydroxyl radical

  11. Strip interpolation in silicon and germanium strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, E. A.; Phlips, B. F.; Johnson, W. N.; Kurfess, J. D.; Lister, C. J.; Kondev, F.; Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2004-01-01

    The position resolution of double-sided strip detectors is limited by the strip pitch and a reduction in strip pitch necessitates more electronics. Improved position resolution would improve the imaging capabilities of Compton telescopes and PET detectors. Digitizing the preamplifier waveform yields more information than can be extracted with regular shaping electronics. In addition to the energy, depth of interaction, and which strip was hit, the digitized preamplifier signals can locate the interaction position to less than the strip pitch of the detector by looking at induced signals in neighboring strips. This allows the position of the interaction to be interpolated in three dimensions and improve the imaging capabilities of the system. In a 2 mm thick silicon strip detector with a strip pitch of 0.891 mm, strip interpolation located the interaction of 356 keV gamma rays to 0.3 mm FWHM. In a 2 cm thick germanium detector with a strip pitch of 5 mm, strip interpolation of 356 keV gamma rays yielded a position resolution of 1.5 mm FWHM

  12. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  13. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  14. zBEAMS: a unified solution for supernova cosmology with redshift uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Ethan; Lochner, Michelle; Bassett, Bruce A.; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Agarwal, Shankar [African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, 7945, Cape Town (South Africa); Fonseca, José, E-mail: rbreth001@myuct.ac.za, E-mail: michelle@aims.ac.za, E-mail: jfonseca@uwc.ac.za, E-mail: bruce.a.bassett@gmail.com, E-mail: plablanche@aims.ac.za, E-mail: agarwalshankar@aims.ac.za [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa)

    2017-10-01

    Supernova cosmology without spectra will be an important component of future surveys such as LSST. This lack of supernova spectra results in uncertainty in the redshifts which, if ignored, leads to significantly biased estimates of cosmological parameters. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian formalism— zBEAMS—that addresses this problem by marginalising over the unknown or uncertain supernova redshifts to produce unbiased cosmological estimates that are competitive with supernova data with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts. zBEAMS provides a unified treatment of both photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification (occurring due to chance galaxy alignments or faint hosts), effectively correcting the inevitable contamination in the Hubble diagram. Like its predecessor BEAMS, our formalism also takes care of non-Ia supernova contamination by marginalising over the unknown supernova type. We illustrate this technique with simulations of supernovae with photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification. A novel feature of the photometric redshift case is the important role played by the redshift distribution of the supernovae.

  15. zBEAMS: a unified solution for supernova cosmology with redshift uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Ethan; Lochner, Michelle; Bassett, Bruce A.; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Agarwal, Shankar; Fonseca, José

    2017-01-01

    Supernova cosmology without spectra will be an important component of future surveys such as LSST. This lack of supernova spectra results in uncertainty in the redshifts which, if ignored, leads to significantly biased estimates of cosmological parameters. Here we present a hierarchical Bayesian formalism— zBEAMS—that addresses this problem by marginalising over the unknown or uncertain supernova redshifts to produce unbiased cosmological estimates that are competitive with supernova data with spectroscopically confirmed redshifts. zBEAMS provides a unified treatment of both photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification (occurring due to chance galaxy alignments or faint hosts), effectively correcting the inevitable contamination in the Hubble diagram. Like its predecessor BEAMS, our formalism also takes care of non-Ia supernova contamination by marginalising over the unknown supernova type. We illustrate this technique with simulations of supernovae with photometric redshifts and host galaxy misidentification. A novel feature of the photometric redshift case is the important role played by the redshift distribution of the supernovae.

  16. Continuous liquid sheet generator for ion stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.; Batson, P.; Leemann, B.; Rude, B.

    1984-10-01

    Many of the technical problems of generating a large thin liquid sheet from 0.02 to 0.20 μm thick (3 to 40 μgm/cm 2 ) have been solved. It is shown that this perennial sheet is stable and consonant in dimension. Several ion beam species from the SuperHILAC have been used for evaluation; at 0.11 MeV/n. In one of three modes this sheet serves as an equivalent substitute for a carbon foil. The second mode is characterized by a solid-like charge state distribution but with a varying fraction of unstripped ions. The third mode gives stripping performance akin to a vapor stripping medium. 9 references, 7 figures

  17. Photosensitive Strip RETHGEM

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir; Nappi, E.; Oliveira, R.; Paic, G.; Pietropaolo, F.; Picchi, P.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative photosensitive gaseous detector, consisting of a GEM like amplification structure with double layered electrodes (instead of commonly used metallic ones) coated with a CsI reflective photocathode, is described. In one of our latest designs, the inner electrode consists of a metallic grid and the outer one is made of resistive strips; the latter are manufactured by a screen printing technology on the top of the metallic strips grid The inner metallic grid is used for 2D position measurements whereas the resistive layer provides an efficient spark protected operation at high gains - close to the breakdown limit. Detectors with active areas of 10cm x10cm and 10cm x20cm were tested under various conditions including the operation in photosensitive gas mixtures containing ethylferrocene or TMAE vapors. The new technique could have many applications requiring robust and reliable large area detectors for UV visualization, as for example, in Cherenkov imaging devices.

  18. Transport and dosimetric solutions for the ELIMED laser-driven beam line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cirrone, G.A.P.; Romano, F.; Scuderi, Valentina; Amato, A.; Candiano, G.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Korn, Georg; Krása, Josef; Leanza, R.; Manna, R.; Maggiore, M.; Marchese, V.; Margarone, Daniele; Milluzzo, G.; Petringa, G.; Sabini, M.G.; Schillaci, F.; Tramontana, A.; Valastro, L.; Velyhan, Andriy

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 796, Oct (2015), s. 99-103 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0061; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0279; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.1.05/1.1.00/02.0061; LaserZdroj (OP VK 3)(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0279; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-driven ion * beam-transport * Faraday cup dosimetry * absolute dosimetry Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2015

  19. Multiple beam mask writers: an industry solution to the write time crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Lloyd C.

    2010-09-01

    The semiconductor industry is under constant pressure to reduce production costs even as technology complexity increases. Lithography represents the most expensive process due to its high capital equipment costs and the implementation of low-k1 lithographic processes, which has added to the complexity of making masks through the greater use of optical proximity correction, pixelated masks, and double or triple patterning. Each of these mask technologies allows the production of semiconductors at future nodes while extending the utility of current immersion tools. Low k1 patterning complexity combined with increased data due to smaller feature sizes is driving extremely long mask write times. While a majority of the industry is willing to accept mask write times of up to 24 hours, evidence suggests that the write times for many masks at the 22 nm node and beyond will be significantly longer. It has been estimated that $50M+ in non-recurring engineering (NRE) costs will be required to develop a multiple beam mask writer system, yet the business case to recover this kind of investment is not strong. Moreover, funding such a development is a high risk for an individual supplier. The problem is compounded by a disconnect between the tool customer (the mask supplier) and the final mask customer that will bear the increased costs if a high speed writer is not available. Since no individual company will likely risk entering this market, some type of industry-wide funding model will be needed. Because SEMATECH's member companies strongly support a multiple beam technology for mask writers to reduce the write time and cost of 193 nm and EUV masks, SEMATECH plans to pursue an advanced mask writer program in 2011 and 2012. In 2010, efforts will focus on identifying a funding model to address the investment to develop such a technology.

  20. Thermo-mechanical efficiency of the bimetallic strip heat engine at the macro-scale and micro-scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, A; Boughaleb, J; Monfray, S; Boeuf, F; Skotnicki, T; Cugat, O

    2015-01-01

    Bimetallic strip heat engines are energy harvesters that exploit the thermo-mechanical properties of bistable bimetallic membranes to convert heat into mechanical energy. They thus represent a solution to transform low-grade heat into electrical energy if the bimetallic membrane is coupled with an electro-mechanical transducer. The simplicity of these devices allows us to consider their miniaturization using MEMS fabrication techniques. In order to design and optimize these devices at the macro-scale and micro-scale, this article proposes an explanation of the origin of the thermal snap-through by giving the expressions of the constitutive equations of composite beams. This allows us to evaluate the capability of bimetallic strips to convert heat into mechanical energy whatever their size is, and to give the theoretical thermo-mechanical efficiencies which can be obtained with these harvesters. (paper)

  1. Degradation of Some Pesticides in Aqueous Solutions by Electro Beam and Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessouki, A.M.; Abdel Aal, S.E.; Sokker, H.H.

    2000-01-01

    Decomposition of two pesticides as active ingredient (Lannate and Fenvalarate) present in aqueous solution by ionizing radiations has been studied on laboratory-scale experiments. The effect of ph of the solution, the concentration of the pesticide and the irradiation dose on the degradation process was investigated carried out alone and in combination with other additives such as nitrogen, oxygen and ozone. A synergistic effect was detected which enhanced the degradation process remarkably. Lannate showed more degradation than Fenvalarte under conditions investigated. Radiation alone was not enough to achieve the complete decomposition of the pesticides. Adsorption of the un degraded pollutants was achieved using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) and two anion exchangers (Dowex 1-X 8 and Lewatit AP 246) It may be concluded that irradiation followed by adsorption resulted in the removal of these organic pollutants from wastewater

  2. Three-dimensional transport theory: An analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.M.R.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a number of methods for obtaining analytical solutions and numerical results for three-dimensional one-speed neutron transport problems in a half-space containing a variety of source shapes which emit neutrons mono-directionally. For example, we consider an off-centre point source, a ring source and a disk source, or any combination of these, and calculate the surface scalar flux as a function of the radial and angular co-ordinates. Fourier transforms in the transverse directions are used and a Laplace transform in the axial direction. This enables the Wiener-Hopf method to be employed, followed by an inverse Fourier-Hankel transform. Some additional transformations are introduced which enable the inverse Hankel transforms involving Bessel functions to be evaluated numerically more efficiently. A hybrid diffusion theory method is also described which is shown to be a useful guide to the general behaviour of the solutions of the transport equation.

  3. LC-MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slegers, Catherine [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: catherine.slegers@skynet.be; Maquille, Aubert [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Deridder, Veronique [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium); Sonveaux, Etienne [Unite de Chimie Pharmaceutique et de Radiopharmacie, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium); Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis [Laboratoire de Spectrometrie de Masse, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Tilquin, Bernard [Unite d' Analyse Chimique et Physico-chimique des Medicaments, Universite Catholique de Louvain, CHAM 72.30, Avenue E. Mounier, 72, B-1200, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-09-15

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ({+-})-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of ({+-})-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed.

  4. LC-MS analysis in the e-beam and gamma radiolysis of metoprolol tartrate in aqueous solution: Structure elucidation and formation mechanism of radiolytic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, Catherine; Maquille, Aubert; Deridder, Veronique; Sonveaux, Etienne; Habib Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Tilquin, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    E-beam and gamma products from the radiolysis of aqueous solutions of (±)-metoprolol tartrate, saturated in nitrogen, are analyzed by HPLC with on-line mass and UV detectors. The structures of 10 radiolytic products common to e-beam and gamma irradiations are elucidated by comparing their fragmentation pattern to that of (±)-metoprolol. Two of the radiolytic products are also metabolites. Different routes for the formation of the radiolytic products are proposed

  5. Properties of a six-gap timing resistive plate chamber with strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammosov, V.V.; Gapienko, V.A.; Semak, A.A.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Zaets, V.G.; Gavrishchuk, O.P.; Kuz'min, N.A.; Sychkov, S.Ya.; Usenko, E.A.; Yukaev, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    Six-gap glass timing resistive plate chamber with strip readout was tested using IHEP U-70 PS test beam. The time resolution of ∼ 45 ps at efficiency larger than 98% was achieved. Position resolution along strip was estimated to be ∼1 cm

  6. Brookhaven four-stage accel-decel production of low-energy highly stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.; Thieberger, P.

    1981-01-01

    The dual MP tandem facility at Brookhaven has been used in a four-stage accel-decel mode to produce highly stripped S ion beams (Q = 10-16 + ). Fully stripped S ions were obtained at energies down to 8 MeV. The low energy limit is presently due to the inclined field configuration of the last acceleration tube

  7. Effect of solution heat treatment on the precipitation behavior and strengthening mechanisms of electron beam smelted Inconel 718 superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Xiaogang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Tan, Yi, E-mail: tanyi@dlut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Shi, Shuang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China); Yang, Jenn-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wang, Yinong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Li, Jiayan; You, Qifan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Laboratory for New Energy Material Energetic Beam Metallurgical Equipment Engineering of Liaoning Province, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2017-03-24

    Inconel 718 superalloy was fabricated by electron beam smelting (EBS) technique. The effect of solution heat treatment on the precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of EBS 718 superalloys were studied, the strengthening mechanisms were analyzed and related to the mechanical properties. The results indicate that the optimized microstructures can be acquired by means of EBS, which is attributed to the rapid cooling rate of approximately 280 ℃/min. The solution heat treatment shows a great impact on the microstructures, precipitation behavior and mechanical properties of EBS 718 superalloy. The γ'' phase shows an apt to precipitate at relatively lower solution temperatures followed by aging, while the γ' precipitates are prone to precipitate at higher temperatures. When solution treated at 1150 ℃, the γ' precipitates are dispersively distributed in the matrix with size and volume fraction of 8.43 nm and 21.66%, respectively, a Vickers hardness of approximately 489 HV{sub 0.1} is observed for the aged superalloy. The precipitation strengthening effect of EBS 718 superalloy could be elucidated by considering the interaction between the dislocations and γ''/γ' precipitates. The shearing of γ' is resisted by the coherency strengthening and formation of antiphase boundary (APB), which shows equal effect as weakly coupled dislocation (WCD) model. And for γ'', the strengthening effect is much more prominent with the primary strengthening mechanism of ordering. Moreover, it is interestingly found that the strengthening mechanism of stacking fault (SF) shearing coexists with APB shearing, and SF shearing plays a major role in strengthening of EBS 718 superalloy.

  8. Beam-energy and laser beam-profile monitor at the BNL LINAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Briscoe, B.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.; Raparia, D.; Russo, T.

    2010-05-02

    We are developing a non-interceptive beam profile and energy monitor for H{sup -} beams in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. Electrons that are removed from the beam ions either by laser photodetachment or stripping by background gas are deflected into a Faraday cup. The beam profile is measured by stepping a narrow laser beam across the ion beam and measuring the electron charge vs. transverse laser position. There is a grid in front of the collector that can be biased up to 125kV. The beam energy spectrum is determined by measuring the electron charge vs. grid voltage. Beam electrons have the same velocity as the beam and so have an energy of 1/1836 of the beam protons. A 200MeV H{sup -} beam yields 109keV electrons. Energy measurements can be made with either laser-stripped or gas-stripped electrons.

  9. Negative ion beam processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, T.D.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.; Malanify, J.J.; Jackson, J.A.

    1975-06-01

    Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory fiscal year 1975 work on production of intense, very bright, negative hydrogen (H - ), ion beams and conversion of a high-energy (a few hundred MeV) negative beam into a neutral beam are described. The ion source work has used a cesium charge exchange source that has produced H - ion beams greater than or equal to 10 mA (about a factor of 10 greater than those available 1 yr ago) with a brightness of 1.4 x 10 9 A/m 2 -rad 2 (about 18 times brighter than before). The high-energy, neutral beam production investigations have included measurements of the 800-MeV H - -stripping cross section in hydrogen gas (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 4 x 10 -19 cm 2 ), 3- to 6-MeV H - -stripping cross sections in a hydrogen plasma (sigma/sub -10/, tentatively 2 to 4 x 10 -16 cm 2 ), and the small-angle scattering that results from stripping an 800-MeV H - ion beam to a neutral (H 0 ) beam in hydrogen gas. These last measurements were interrupted by the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility shutdown in December 1974, but should be completed early in fiscal year 1976 when the accelerator resumes operation. Small-angle scattering calculations have included hydrogen gas-stripping, plasma-stripping, and photodetachment. Calculations indicate that the root mean square angular spread of a 390-MeV negative triton (T - ) beam stripped in a plasma stripper may be as low as 0.7 μrad

  10. Distortional solutions for loaded semi-discretized thin-walled beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    distortional displacement fields which decouple the reduced order differential equations. In this process the cross section is discretized into finite cross-section elements, and the natural distortional modes as well as the related axial variations are found as solutions to the established coupled fourth...... order homogeneous differential equations of GBT.In this paper the non-homogeneous distortional differential equations of GBT are formulated using this novel semi-discretization process. Transforming these non-homogeneous distortional differential equations into the natural eigenmode space by using...... the distortional modal matrix found for the homogeneous system, we get the uncoupled set of differential equations including the distributed loads. This uncoupling is very important in GBT, since the shear stiffness contribution from St. Venant torsional shear stress as well as “Bredt's shear flow” cannot...

  11. Removal of nitrogen from swine manure by ammonia stripping; Reduccion del contenido en nitrogeno amoniacal del purin procino mediante la tecnica de stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, M. D.; Alamo, J. del; Nunez, U.; Irusta, R. [Grupo de Tecnologia Ambiental . Laboratorio de Analisis y Estudios Medioambientales. Valladolid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Lab scale experiments were undertaken to investigate air stripping as method for removing ammonia from cattle effluents and, more concretely, from the liquid fraction of swine manure. The effects of packet size, influent pH, air to liquid flow ratio and liquid recirculation flow in the stripping tower were investigated. The high ammonia removal efficiency of the air stripping method indicates that it could provide an interim solution for current waste management problems in the swine industry. (Author) 5 refs.

  12. Dynamic Underground Stripping Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Udell, K.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; Udell, K.

    1992-01-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving the contaminated site in FY 92

  13. Beam-beam phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    In colliding beam storage rings the beam collision regions are generally so short that the beam-beam interaction can be considered as a series of evenly spaced non-linear kicks superimposed on otherwise stable linear oscillations. Most of the numerical studies on computers were carried out in just this manner. But for some reason this model has not been extensively employed in analytical studies. This is perhaps because all analytical work has so far been done by mathematicians pursuing general transcendental features of non-linear mechanics for whom this specific model of the specific system of colliding beams is too parochial and too repugnantly physical. Be that as it may, this model is of direct interest to accelerator physicists and is amenable to (1) further simplification, (2) physical approximation, and (3) solution by analogy to known phenomena

  14. Strip casting apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R.S.; Baker, D.F.

    1988-09-20

    Strip casting apparatus including a molten-metal-holding container and a nozzle to deposit molten metal onto a moving chill drum to directly cast continuous metallic strip. The nozzle body includes a slot bounded between a back and a front lip. The slot width exceeds about 20 times the gap distance between the nozzle and the chill drum surface. Preferably, the slot width exceeds 0.5 inch. This method of strip casting minimizes pressure drop, insuring better metal-to-chill-drum contact which promotes heat transfer and results in a better quality metallic strip. 6 figs.

  15. Stripping Foil Issues for H- Injection into the CERN PSB at 160 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Bracco, C; Carli, C; Meddahi, M; Weterings, W J M

    2010-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the 160 MeV PSB H- injection systems are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The different beam loss mechanisms are quantified in the context of the aperture limits, operational considerations and collimation requirements.

  16. Single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.

    1979-06-01

    The results of a Bevalac experiment to measure the single electron attachment and stripping cross sections for relativistic (0.5 1 , and fully stripped, N 0 , ion beams emerging from the targets. Separate counters measured the number of ions in each charge state. The ratios N 1 /N 0 for different target thicknesses were fit to a simple growth curve to yield electron attachment and stripping cross sections. The data are compared to relativistic extrapolations of available theories. Clear evidence for two separate attachment processes, radiative and non-radiative, is found. Data are compared to a recently improved formulation for the stripping cross sections

  17. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  18. A new strips tracker for the upgraded ATLAS ITk detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, C.

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS detector has been designed and developed to function in the environment of the present Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the next-generation tracking detector proposed for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the so-called ATLAS Phase-II Upgrade, the fluences and radiation levels will be higher by as much as a factor of ten. The new sub-detectors must thus be faster, of larger area, more segmented and more radiation hard while the amount of inactive material should be minimized and the power supply to the front-end systems should be increased. For those reasons, the current inner tracker of the ATLAS detector will be fully replaced by an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large area strip tracker surrounding it. This document gives an overview of the design of the strip inner tracker (Strip ITk) and summarises the intensive R&D activities performed over the last years by the numerous institutes within the Strips ITk collaboration. These studies are accompanied with a strong prototyping effort to contribute to the optimisation of the Strip ITk's structure and components. This effort culminated recently in the release of the ATLAS Strips ITk Technical Design Report (TDR).

  19. Study of the beam-cavity interaction in the CERN PS 10 MHz cavities and investigation of hardware solutions to reduce beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2086984; Palumbo, Luigi

    In the Proton Synchrotron (PS), where the LHC protons longitudinal structure (bunch spacing) is determined as the result of a sophisticated series of Radio Frequency (RF) gymnastics, collective effects were identified as a major limitation to the achievable beam current delivered to the LHC. Dedicated machine development studies pointed out the RF cavities to be one of the major source of instability in the PS. In particular, the 10 MHz RF system, responsible for beam acceleration, was identified as the most probable impedance source in the machine. The cavity impedance limits the circulating intensity in the accelerator since the beam-induced voltage could trigger longitudinal instabilities causing beam losses. For this reason the cavity impedance seen by the beam must be kept as low as possible. In the framework of the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, the present PS 10 MHz RF system requires an upgrade, in order to reach higher beam intensities and to reduce beam loading. This thesis focuses on the impro...

  20. Digital simulation of anodic stripping voltammetry from thin film electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallanes, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is routinely applied to control of Cu(II) in heavy water in the primary cooling loop of the Nuclear Power Reactor. The anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) is a very well-known technique in electroanalytical chemistry. However, due to the complexity of the phenomena, it is practised with the fundamentals of empiric considerations. A geometric model for the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) from thin film electrodes which can be calculated by explicit digital simulation method is proposed as a possibility of solving the electrochemically reversible, cuasi-reversible and irreversible reactions under linear potential scan and multiple potential scans. (Until now the analytical mathematical method was applied to reversible reactions). All the results are compared with analytical solutions and experimental results and it permits to conclude that the anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) can be studied with the simplicity and potentialities of explicit digital simulation methods. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. A variable-coefficient unstable nonlinear Schroedinger model for the electron beam plasmas and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in nonuniform plasmas: Solutions and observable effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yitian; Tian Bo

    2003-01-01

    A variable-coefficient unstable nonlinear Schroedinger model is hereby investigated, which arises in such applications as the electron-beam plasma waves and Rayleigh-Taylor instability in nonuniform plasmas. With computerized symbolic computation, families of exact analytic dark- and bright-soliton-like solutions are found, of which some previously published solutions turn out to be the special cases. Similarity solutions also come out, which are expressible in terms of the elliptic functions and the second Painleve transcendent. Some observable effects caused by the variable coefficient are predicted, which may be detected in the future with the relevant space or laboratory plasma experiments with nonuniform background existing

  2. Resonance Raman scattering of β-carotene solution excited by visible laser beams into second singlet state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Luyao; Shi, Lingyan; Secor, Jeff; Alfano, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to use self-absorption correction to determine the Raman enhancement of β-carotene. The Raman spectra of β-carotene solutions were measured using 488nm, 514nm, 532nm and 633nm laser beams, which exhibited significant resonance Raman (RR) enhancement when the laser energy approaches the electronic transition energy from S 0 to S 2 state. The Raman intensity and the actual resonance Raman gain without self-absorption from S 2 state by β-carotene were also obtained to evaluate the effect of self-absorption on RR scattering. Moreover, we observed the Raman intensity strength followed the absorption spectra. Our study found that, although 488nm and 514nm pumps seemed better for stronger RR enhancement, 532nm would be the optimum Raman pump laser with moderate RR enhancement due to reduced fluorescence and self-absorption. The 532nm excitation will be helpful for applying resonance Raman spectroscopy to investigate biological molecules in tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Efficient electron beam deposition for repetitively pulsed krypton fluoride lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegeler, F.; Myers, M.C.; Friedman, M.; Sethian, J.D.; Swanekamp, S.B.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have demonstrated that we can significantly increase the electron beam transmission efficiency through a pressure foil structure (hibachi) by segmenting the beam into strips to miss the hibachi support ribs. In order to increase the electron beam transmission, the cathode strips are adjusted to compensate for beam rotation and pinching. The beam propagation through the hibachi has been both measured and simulated with 1-D and 3-D codes

  4. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  5. Three-dimensional thermal simulations of thin solid carbon foils for charge stripping of high current uranium ion beams at a proposed new heavy-ion linac at GSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Tahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive numerical study of heating of thin solid carbon foils by 1.4  MeV/u uranium ion beams to explore the possibility of using such a target as a charge stripper at the proposed new Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac. These simulations have been carried out using a sophisticated 3D computer code that accounts for physical phenomena that are important in this problem. A variety of beam and target parameters have been considered. The results suggest that within the considered parameter range, the target will be severely damaged by the beam. Thus, a carbon foil stripper does not seem to be a reliable option for the future Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung high energy heavy–ion linac, in particular, at FAIR design beam intensities.

  6. Reactivity of OH· and e-aq from electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions of EDTA and aminopolycarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vel Leitner, N.K.; Guilbault, I.; Legube, B.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of aqueous solutions of EDTA, EDDA NN', NTA, IDA and Cu-EDTA was performed in the presence of scavengers for the hydroxyl radicals (methanol) or for the solvated electrons (hydrogen peroxide). Experiments showed that for each molecule, the G-value decreases as the radiation dose increases from 1 to 25 kGy, and for EDTA, when the initial concentration decreases from 10 to 0.1 mmol l -1 . At pH 8 and for 5 kGy, the G-values of NTA, IDA, EDTA and EDDA NN' removal ascribed to OH · radicals are, respectively, 0.06, 0.06, 0.15 and 0.20 μmol J -1 , whereas for the solvated electrons the G-values were, respectively, 0.01, 0.01, 0.06 and 0.04 μmol J -1 . The rate constants of hydroxyl radicals and solvated electrons were determined by comparison with one competitor. For each active species (hydroxyl radical or solvated electron), the reactivity is connected to the number of nitrogen atoms and acetate groups. The rate constants of OH · radicals are above 10 10 and 8.6x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 for EDDA NN' and EDTA, respectively, 2.1x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 for IDA and 6.1x10 8 l mol -1 s -1 for NTA. The reactivity of solvated electrons is smaller and the rate constants are in the range 1.9x10 6 -3.7x10 6 l mol -1 s -1 for NTA, IDA and EDDA NN' and equal 1.4x10 7 l mol -1 s -1 for EDTA. The reactivity of the complex Cu-EDTA towards OH · does not differ to a large extent from EDTA whereas with e - aq the reactivity of Cu-EDTA is better than EDTA since k e - /Cu-EDTA reaches 2.2x10 9 l mol -1 s -1 . It follows that when both active entities (OH · and e - aq ) are involved in the electron beam irradiation process, the removal of free aminopolycarboxylic acids is mainly due to OH · radicals. However, the complex Cu-EDTA is concerned by both e - aq and OH · radicals

  7. Characterization of galvannealed strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreas, G.; Hardy, Y.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of enhancing coating quality control during galvannealing process, an online microscopic image acquisition sensor has been developed at CRM. In galvannealing process, the ζ phase surface density is a coating quality characteristic, and the on-line microscope, equipped with optics placed at 20 mm from the surface, grabs 250 μm x 190 μm images on which ζ crystals (approximate dimensions: 1 μm x 10 μm) can be clearly identified. On-line, the sensor is mounted in front of a roll where the strip has a stable position. The coating surface to sensor optics distance is continuously measured by an accurate triangulation sensor (1 μm repeatability) and is adjusted in such a way that, due to roll eccentricity, the image is focused at least twice per revolution. When focused, image of moving product is frozen by a short (10 ns) laser light pulse and is grabbed. The obtained image is then processed to extract ζ phase percentage and allows adjustment of process parameters to reach the desired coating characteristics. (author)

  8. Removal of toxicity the pharmaceutical propranolol and your mixture with fluoxetine hydrochloride in aqueous solution using radiation with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiani, Nathalia Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health has been damage due to incorrect disposal of products and by-products. Among emerging pollutants it is possible to account with several pharmaceuticals, causing those problems when disposed in the environment by effluents. Conventional processing techniques are insufficient in removal of the pharmaceuticals, for having resistant waste and low biodegradability. Thus the advanced oxidation processes have been studied as an alternative for the treatment of different types of effluents. The objective of this study was to apply the process of irradiation with electron beam in order to reduce the toxic effects of propranolol, and the mixture with fluoxetine hydrochloride in aqueous solution. Ecotoxicological tests conducted with propranolol, and the mixture with fluoxetine hydrochloride, for Daphnia similis microcrustacean, and the Vibrio fischeri bacterium. It was observed that D. similis was more sensitive to propranolol drug and to the mixture, when compared to bacterium V.fischeri. After being subjected to the treatment with ionizing radiation, all applied doses to the propranolol and the mixture, showed significant reduction of toxicity, for D. similis. Different were the results for V. fischeri, when only 5.0 kGy reduced toxicity to propranolol. The mixture of pharmaceuticals required 2.5 and 5.0 kGy for reducing toxicity. 5.0 kGy showed the best removal efficiency for toxicity: 79.94 % for D. similis and 15.64 % for V. fischeri, when exposed to propranolol. The mixture reduction efficacy were 81.59% and 26.93 % for D.similis and V.fischeri, respectively. (author)

  9. Buffers and vegetative filter strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew J. Helmers; Thomas M. Isenhart; Michael G. Dosskey; Seth M. Dabney

    2008-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of buffers and vegetative filter strips relative to water quality. In particular, we primarily discuss the herbaceous components of the following NRCS Conservation Practice Standards.

  10. BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winckler, N., E-mail: n.winckler@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Rybalchenko, A. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Shevelko, V.P. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Al-Turany, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, 1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Kollegger, T. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Stöhlker, Th. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  11. submitter BREIT code: Analytical solution of the balance rate equations for charge-state evolutions of heavy-ion beams in matter

    CERN Document Server

    Winckler, N; Shevelko, V P; Al-Turany, M; Kollegger, T; Stöhlker, Th

    2017-01-01

    A detailed description of a recently developed BREIT computer code (Balance Rate Equations of Ion Transportation) for calculating charge-state fractions of ion beams passing through matter is presented. The code is based on the analytical solutions of the differential balance equations for the charge-state fractions as a function of the target thickness and can be used for calculating the ion evolutions in gaseous, solid and plasma targets. The BREIT code is available on-line and requires the charge-changing cross sections and initial conditions in the input file. The eigenvalue decomposition method, applied to obtain the analytical solutions of the rate equations, is described in the paper. Calculations of non-equilibrium and equilibrium charge-state fractions, performed by the BREIT code, are compared with experimental data and results of other codes for ion beams in gaseous and solid targets. Ability and limitations of the BREIT code are discussed in detail.

  12. Advancements of floating strip Micromegas detectors for medical imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klitzner, Felix; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard [LS Schaile, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Magallanes, Lorena [LS Parodi, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, Katia [LS Parodi, LMU Muenchen (Germany); Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (Germany); Voss, Bernd [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Floating strip Micromegas have proven to be high-rate capable tracking detectors with excellent spatial and temporal resolution for particle fluxes up to 7 MHz/cm{sup 2}. To further increase the high-rate capability a Ne:CF{sub 4} 86:14 vol.% gas mixture has been used as detector gas. We present results from measurements with a seven detector system consisting of six low material budget floating strip Micromegas, a GEM detector and a scintillator based particle range telescope. The gaseous and the scintillation detectors were read out with APV25 frontend boards, allowing for single strip readout with pulse height and timing information. A two-dimensional readout anode for floating strip Micromegas has been tested for the first time. The Micromegas detectors were operated with minimal additional drift field, which significantly improves the timing resolution and also the spatial resolution for inclined tracks. We discuss the detector performance in high-rate carbon and proton beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) and present radiographies of phantoms, acquired with the system.

  13. Low material budget floating strip Micromegas for ion transmission radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortfeldt, J., E-mail: jonathan.bortfeldt@cern.ch [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Biebel, O.; Flierl, B.; Hertenberger, R.; Klitzner, F.; Lösel, Ph. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Magallanes, L. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 672, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Müller, R. [LMU Munich, LS Schaile, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Parodi, K. [LMU Munich, LS Parodi, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Schlüter, T. [LMU Munich, Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Voss, B. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Zibell, A. [JMU Würzburg, Sanderring 2, D-97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2017-02-11

    Floating strip Micromegas are high-accuracy and discharge insensitive gaseous detectors, able to track single particles at fluxes of 7 MHz/cm{sup 2} with 100 μm resolution. We developed low-material-budget detectors with one-dimensional strip readout, suitable for tracking at highest particle rates as encountered in medical ion transmission radiography or inner tracker applications. Recently we additionally developed Kapton-based floating strip Micromegas with two-dimensional strip readout, featuring an overall thickness of 0.011 X{sub 0}. These detectors were tested in high-rate proton and carbon-ion beams at the tandem accelerator in Garching and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center, operated with an optimized Ne:CF{sub 4} gas mixture. By coupling the Micromegas detectors to a new scintillator based range detector, ion transmission radiographies of PMMA and tissue-equivalent phantoms were acquired. The range detector with 18 layers is read out via wavelength shifting fibers, coupled to a multi-anode photomultiplier. We present the performance of the Micromegas detectors with respect to timing and single plane track reconstruction using the μTPC method. We discuss the range resolution of the scintillator range telescope and present the image reconstruction capabilities of the combined system.

  14. An energy harvesting solution based on the post-buckling response of non-prismatic slender beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Pengcheng; Borchani, Wassim; Hasni, Hassene; Alavi, Amir H.; Lajnef, Nizar

    2017-04-01

    Systems based on post-buckled structural elements have been extensively used in many applications such as actuation, remote sensing and energy harvesting thanks to their efficiency enhancement. The post-buckling snap- through behavior of bilaterally constrained beams has been used to create an efficient energy harvesting mechanism under quasi-static excitations. The conversion mechanism has been used to transform low-rate and low-frequency excitations into high-rate motions. Electric energy can be generated from such high-rate motions using piezoelectric transducers. However, lack of control over the post-buckling behavior severely limits the mechanism's efficiency. This study aims to maximize the levels of the harvestable power by controlling the location of the snapping point along the beam at different buckling transitions. Since the snap-through location cannot be controlled by tuning the geometry properties of a uniform cross-section beam, non-uniform cross sections are examined. An energy-based theoretical model is herein developed to predict the post-buckling response of non-uniform cross-section beams. The total potential energy is minimized under constraints that represent the physical confinement of the beam between the lateral boundaries. Experimentally validated results show that changing the shape and geometry dimensions of non- uniform cross-section beams allows for the accurate control of the snap-through location at different buckling transitions. A 78.59% increase in harvested energy levels is achieved by optimizing the beam's shape.

  15. Optics. Observation of optical polarization Möbius strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Banzer, Peter; Karimi, Ebrahim; Orlov, Sergej; Rubano, Andrea; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico; Boyd, Robert W; Leuchs, Gerd

    2015-02-27

    Möbius strips are three-dimensional geometrical structures, fascinating for their peculiar property of being surfaces with only one "side"—or, more technically, being "nonorientable" surfaces. Despite being easily realized artificially, the spontaneous emergence of these structures in nature is exceedingly rare. Here, we generate Möbius strips of optical polarization by tightly focusing the light beam emerging from a q-plate, a liquid crystal device that modifies the polarization of light in a space-variant manner. Using a recently developed method for the three-dimensional nanotomography of optical vector fields, we fully reconstruct the light polarization structure in the focal region, confirming the appearance of Möbius polarization structures. The preparation of such structured light modes may be important for complex light beam engineering and optical micro- and nanofabrication. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarin, G; Agostinetti, P; Marconato, N; Marcuzzi, D; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Sonato, P

    2012-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  17. Magazine for handling stripping foils in a particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, A.J. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Thin foils for stripping a particle beam are stored in a magazine that is operable remotely to display an individual foil, release it when it is spent, and repeat this process. The magazine is operable in the high-vacuum, high-radiation environment in the interior of a particle accelerator, and it uses the magnetic field of the accelerator to operate the display and dropping mechanism. (U.S.)

  18. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  19. Numerical simulations of stripping effects in high-intensity hydrogen ion linacs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Carneiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of H^{-} stripping losses from blackbody radiation, electromagnetic fields, and residual gas have been implemented into the beam dynamics code TRACK. Estimates of the stripping losses along two high-intensity H^{-} linacs are presented: the Spallation Neutron Source linac currently being operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an 8 GeV superconducting linac currently being designed at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.

  20. Stripping study of U(VI) from loaded TBP/n-paraffin using ammonium nitrate bearing waste as strippant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrishma Paik; Biswas, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Stripping studies of U(VI) from loaded solvent TBP/n-paraffin was carried out using ammonium nitrate solution as strippant. Effects of various stripping parameters such as concentration of ammonium nitrate solution, U(VI) concentration in organic phase, initial pH of strippant, temperature etc. have been investigated in detail. Kinetics of the stripping process by ammonium nitrate was found to be slower than that of stripping with water. It was observed that with the increase in ammonium nitrate concentration in aqueous solution, stripping of U(VI) decreased. With the increase in U(VI) loading in the organic phase, there was an increase in uranium stripping for ammonium nitrate whereas for distilled water it becomes reverse. With the increase in pH of the aqueous ammonium nitrate solution, stripping increased up to a certain pH of 8.5 and after that precipitation of uranium started. Increase in temperature of the biphasic system shows an enhancing effect of U(VI) stripping. Evaluation of thermodynamic data such as ΔH indicated that the process is endothermic. Based on the optimized conditions, McCabe-Thiele diagram was constructed for U(VI) stripping using ammonium nitrate solution at room temperature. (author)

  1. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Francis, K.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S.T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A.P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N.K.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, D.R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Carloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G.C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J.G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Goettlicher, P.; Guenter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krueger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubueser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G.W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P.D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J-C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M.S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Poeschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouene, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J-C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T.H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D.H.; Kong, D.J.; Oh, Y.D.; Goetze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45x10x3 mm3 plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  2. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, A.E.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Cheremukhin, A.E.; Golutvin, I.A.; Urkinbaev, A.R.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Loukas, D.

    2001-01-01

    Strongly irradiated (2.3·10 14 n/cm 2 ) silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the interstrip and the guard ring region and cross-talk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross-talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance

  3. Two methods to estimate the position resolution for straw chambers with strip readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Movchan, S.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Preda, T.

    1992-01-01

    The centroid and charge-ratio methods are presented to estimate the position resolution of the straw chambers with strip readout. For the straw chambers of 10 mm in diameter, the highest position resolution was obtained for a strip pitch of 5 mm. With the centroid method and perpendicular X-ray beam, the position resolution was ≅120 μm, for the signal-to-noise ratio of 60-65. The charge-ratio method has demonstrated ≅10% better position resolution at the edges of the strip. 6 refs.; 5 figs

  4. AN EXACT ELASTO-PLASTIC SOLUTION OF METAL-MATRIX COMPOSITE CANTILEVER BEAM LOADED BY A SINGLE FORCE AT ITS FREE END

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur SAYMAN

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an elastic-plastic stress analysis is carried out in a metal matrix composite cantilever beam loaded by a single force at its free end. A composite consisting of stainless-steel reinforced aluminium was produced for this work. The orientation angle of the fibers is chosen as 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°. The material is assumed to be perfectly plastic in the elasto-plastic solution. An analytical solution is performed for satisfying both the governing differential equation in the plane stress case and boundary conditions for small plastic deformations. The solution is carried out under the assumption of the Bernoulli-Navier hypotheses. The composite material is assumed as hardening linearly. The Tsai-Hill theory is used as a yield criterion.

  5. A FDTD solution of scattering of laser beam with orbital angular momentum by dielectric particles: Far-field characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenbo; Hu, Yongxiang; Weimer, Carl; Ayers, Kirk; Baize, Rosemary R.; Lee, Tsengdar

    2017-02-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) may have great potential applications in communication technology and in remote sensing of the Earth-atmosphere system and outer planets. Study of their interaction with optical lenses and dielectric or metallic objects, or scattering of them by particles in the Earth-atmosphere system, is a necessary step to explore the advantage of the OAM EM beams. In this study, the 3-dimensional (3D) scattered-field (SF) finite-difference time domain (FDTD) technique with the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) is applied to calculate the scattering of the purely azimuthal (the radial mode number is assumed to be zero) Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams with the OAM by dielectric particles. We found that for OAM beam's interaction with dielectric particles, the forward-scattering peak in the conventional phase function (P11) disappears, and light scattering peak occurs at a scattering angle of 15° to 45°. The disappearance of forward-scattering peak means that, in laser communications most of the particle-scattered noise cannot enter the receiver, thus the received light is optimally the original OAM-encoded signal. This feature of the OAM beam also implies that in lidar remote sensing of the atmospheric particulates, most of the multiple-scattering energy will be off lidar sensors, and this may result in an accurate profiling of particle layers in the atmosphere or in the oceans by lidar, or even in the ground when a ground penetration radar (GPR) with the OAM is applied. This far-field characteristics of the scattered OAM light also imply that the optical theorem, which is derived from plane-parallel wave scattering case and relates the forward scattering amplitude to the total cross section of the scatterer, is invalid for the scattering of OAM beams by dielectric particles.

  6. Generalized thick strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Y.; Palacios, R.; Graham, M.; Sherwin, S.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip-theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into “thick” strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this approach is able to cover the full spectrum for fully resolved 3D modelling to 2D strip theory. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single “thick” strip would fill the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip–structure interactions. Numerical tests on both laminar and turbulent flows as well as the comparison against the fully resolved DNS are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.

  7. Generalized thick strip modelling for vortex-induced vibration of long flexible cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Y., E-mail: ybao@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Civil Engineering, School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, No. 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai (China); Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London (United Kingdom); Palacios, R., E-mail: r.palacios@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London (United Kingdom); Graham, M., E-mail: m.graham@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London (United Kingdom); Sherwin, S., E-mail: s.sherwin@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-15

    We propose a generalized strip modelling method that is computationally efficient for the VIV prediction of long flexible cylinders in three-dimensional incompressible flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional strip-theory-based 2D models, the fluid domain is divided into “thick” strips, which are sufficiently thick to locally resolve the small scale turbulence effects and three dimensionality of the flow around the cylinder. An attractive feature of the model is that we independently construct a three-dimensional scale resolving model for individual strips, which have local spanwise scale along the cylinder's axial direction and are only coupled through the structural model of the cylinder. Therefore, this approach is able to cover the full spectrum for fully resolved 3D modelling to 2D strip theory. The connection between these strips is achieved through the calculation of a tensioned beam equation, which is used to represent the dynamics of the flexible body. In the limit, however, a single “thick” strip would fill the full 3D domain. A parallel Fourier spectral/hp element method is employed to solve the 3D flow dynamics in the strip-domain, and then the VIV response prediction is achieved through the strip–structure interactions. Numerical tests on both laminar and turbulent flows as well as the comparison against the fully resolved DNS are presented to demonstrate the applicability of this approach.

  8. Enabling inspection solutions for future mask technologies through the development of massively parallel E-Beam inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Matt; Thiel, Brad; Bunday, Benjamin D.; Wurm, Stefan; Jindal, Vibhu; Mukhtar, Maseeh; Quoi, Kathy; Kemen, Thomas; Zeidler, Dirk; Eberle, Anna Lena; Garbowski, Tomasz; Dellemann, Gregor; Peters, Jan Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    The new device architectures and materials being introduced for sub-10nm manufacturing, combined with the complexity of multiple patterning and the need for improved hotspot detection strategies, have pushed current wafer inspection technologies to their limits. In parallel, gaps in mask inspection capability are growing as new generations of mask technologies are developed to support these sub-10nm wafer manufacturing requirements. In particular, the challenges associated with nanoimprint and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask inspection require new strategies that enable fast inspection at high sensitivity. The tradeoffs between sensitivity and throughput for optical and e-beam inspection are well understood. Optical inspection offers the highest throughput and is the current workhorse of the industry for both wafer and mask inspection. E-beam inspection offers the highest sensitivity but has historically lacked the throughput required for widespread adoption in the manufacturing environment. It is unlikely that continued incremental improvements to either technology will meet tomorrow's requirements, and therefore a new inspection technology approach is required; one that combines the high-throughput performance of optical with the high-sensitivity capabilities of e-beam inspection. To support the industry in meeting these challenges SUNY Poly SEMATECH has evaluated disruptive technologies that can meet the requirements for high volume manufacturing (HVM), for both the wafer fab [1] and the mask shop. Highspeed massively parallel e-beam defect inspection has been identified as the leading candidate for addressing the key gaps limiting today's patterned defect inspection techniques. As of late 2014 SUNY Poly SEMATECH completed a review, system analysis, and proof of concept evaluation of multiple e-beam technologies for defect inspection. A champion approach has been identified based on a multibeam technology from Carl Zeiss. This paper includes a discussion on the

  9. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D E

    1999-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  10. Radiolysis ob benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions utilizing high energy electron beam; Radiolisis de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa utilizando haces de electrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Vanderhaghen, D.E

    1998-12-31

    In a search for solutions to environmental pollution problems, radiolysis has proved to be an innovative technique for the removal of organic chemical pollutants in aqueous solution. Radiolysis has shown many advantages over many other techniques, as highly reactive species formed in water by ionizing radiation oxidize organic pollutants breaking down organic molecules to final simple products by oxidation to carbon dioxide and water in a complete oxidation. Our work consisted in doing some experiments in radiolysis with simulated polluted water to help us understand this technique and also develop, in a near future, a project for large scale water treatment. Our project includes the application of a Pelletron type Mexican made Electron Accelerator, which will affirm its capability and usefulness in performing investigation in this field of study. Experiments consisted in treating benzene, toluene and phenol aqueous solutions with an Electron Beam (0.48-0.55 MeV; 24 {mu}A). Two concentrations were used for each compound: 5 and 20 ppm (mg/l) for benzene and toluene; 10 and 50 ppm for phenol. Solutions were prepared with pure, mineral free water and two different p H (5.9), in order to study the effect of concentration and p H on removal efficiency, but avoiding the interference of radical scavengers. Results obtained coincide with the ones reported by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz; highly efficient removal was achieved for benzene (>99.8%), toluene (>98.0%) and phenol (>88%). There was no visible important effect of p H on radiolysis efficiency for benzene nor toluene, phenol however, showed lower removal efficiency in acidic conditions. Concentration of aqueous solutions, nevertheless, did show an important effect at low doses for phenol. Results obtained reveal the importance of this technique in water pollution control and water remedial as expressed by Cooper, Nickelsen and Kurucz, who have studied radiolysis of organic compounds and apply this technique in water

  11. Engineering test of stripping performance by multi-centrifugal contactors system for spent nuclear reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Takeuchi; Tadahiro Washiya; Hiroki Nakabayashi; Takashi Suganuma; Shinnichi Aose

    2005-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing centrifugal contactors which are compact and high performance for solvent extraction process in industrial reprocessing plant. The stripping performance including equilibrium time for distribution and hydraulic behavior of the multi-centrifugal contactors were mainly evaluated by using uranium nitrite solution on engineering scale (10 kgHM/hr). In particular, the effects of feed temperature of stripping solution and O/A on the stripping performance were focused in this test. As results, no hydraulic problem such as overflow and entrainment were observed in multi-centrifugal contactors system through all conditions, and the uranium and acid concentrations showed desirable profiles which were nearly consistent with calculated one by MIXSET-X code. As to stripping performance, uranium leak concentration in solvent reached to less than 0.01 g/L, which is target of the stripping performance on this centrifugal contactors system, within nine stages on all conditions. It was also found that the effect of feed temperature of stripping solution (35 degree C → 60 degree C) or O/A (1.0→0.8) on stripping performance corresponds to distribution capacity of two contactors, respectively. The stage efficiency for a contactor was estimated as 97-98% on stripping stage. There were no uranium leaks (less than 40μg/L) in spent solvent discharged from the final stage. The profiles of uranium concentration in multi-contactors become stable within 10 minutes after the stripping test starting. In this way, it was demonstrated that the centrifugal contactors system has good stripping performance on engineering scale. (authors)

  12. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Barbisan, M.; Cristofaro, S.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Riedl, R.; Serianni, G.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the Hα light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of Hα spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region.

  13. Beam-Beam Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, W; Pieloni, T

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities

  14. Ammonia removal from landfill leachate by air stripping and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fernanda M; Povinelli, Jurandyr; Vieira, Eny Maria

    2013-01-01

    An old landfill leachate was pre-treated in a pilot-scale aerated packed tower operated in batch mode for total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) removal. The stripped ammonia was recovered with a 0.4 mol L(-1) H2SO4 solution, deionized water and tap water. Ca(OH)2 (95% purity) or commercial hydrated lime was added to the raw leachate to adjust its pH to 11, causing removal of colour (82%) and heavy metals (70-90% for Zn, Fe and Mn). The 0.4 molL(-1) H2SO4 solution was able to neutralize 80% of the stripped ammonia removed from 12 L of leachate. The effectiveness of the neutralization of ammonia with deionized water was 75%. Treating 100 L of leachate, the air stripping tower removed 88% of TAN after 72 h of aeration, and 87% of the stripped ammonia was recovered in two 31 L pilot-scale absorption units filled with 20 L of tap water.

  15. Using Comic Strips in Language Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csabay, Noémi

    2006-01-01

    The author believes that using comic strips in language-learning classes has three main benefits. First, comic strips motivate younger learners. Second, they provide a context and logically connected sentences to help language learning. Third, their visual information is helpful for comprehension. The author argues that comic strips can be used in…

  16. Corrosion Behavior in 3.5% NaCl Solutions of γ-TiAl Processed by Electron Beam Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiful Hossain Seikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the corrosion behavior of γ-TiAl alloy produced by electron beam melting (EBM process in 3.5% NaCl solution was reported. The study has been performed using potentiodynamic polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques and complemented by scanning electron microscopy investigations. All measurements were carried out after different periods of alloy exposure in the chloride solutions and at different temperatures. The results showed that the EBM produced γ-TiAl alloy has excellent corrosion resistance confirmed by the high values of polarization resistance and the low values of corrosion current and corrosion rate. With increase in immersion time, the corrosion potential moved to a higher positive value with a decrease in corrosion current and corrosion rate, which suggests an improvement in corrosion resistance. On the other hand, the increase of temperature was found to significantly increase the corrosion of the processed γ-TiAl alloy.

  17. Dynamic behaviour of a planar micro-beam loaded by a fluid-gap: Analytical and numerical approach in a high frequency range, benchmark solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, A.; Honzik, P.; Bruneau, M.

    2017-08-01

    Miniaturized vibrating MEMS devices, active (receivers or emitters) or passive devices, and their use for either new applications (hearing, meta-materials, consumer devices,…) or metrological purposes under non-standard conditions, are involved today in several acoustic domains. More in-depth characterisation than the classical ones available until now are needed. In this context, the paper presents analytical and numerical approaches for describing the behaviour of three kinds of planar micro-beams of rectangular shape (suspended rigid or clamped elastic planar beam) loaded by a backing cavity or a fluid-gap, surrounded by very thin slits, and excited by an incident acoustic field. The analytical approach accounts for the coupling between the vibrating structure and the acoustic field in the backing cavity, the thermal and viscous diffusion processes in the boundary layers in the slits and the cavity, the modal behaviour for the vibrating structure, and the non-uniformity of the acoustic field in the backing cavity which is modelled in using an integral formulation with a suitable Green's function. Benchmark solutions are proposed in terms of beam motion (from which the sensitivity, input impedance, and pressure transfer function can be calculated). A numerical implementation (FEM) is handled against which the analytical results are tested.

  18. Optical fiber cable chemical stripping fixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, John R. (Inventor); Coleman, Alexander M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An elongated fixture handle member is connected to a fixture body member with both members having interconnecting longitudinal central axial bores for the passage of an optical cable therethrough. The axial bore of the fixture body member, however, terminates in a shoulder stop for the outer end of a jacket of the optical cable covering both an optical fiber and a coating therefor, with an axial bore of reduced diameter continuing from the shoulder stop forward for a predetermined desired length to the outer end of the fixture body member. A subsequent insertion of the fixture body member including the above optical fiber elements into a chemical stripping solution results in a softening of the exposed external coating thereat which permits easy removal thereof from the optical fiber while leaving a desired length coated fiber intact within the fixture body member.

  19. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  20. New Concept of Cultivation Using Limited Strip-Tillage with Strip Shallow Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazid Ismi Intara

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Dry land is one of land resources which potentially used for food crop cultivation, especially in the areas which have light to medium technical obstacles. The development of technology to improve soil quality in marginal lands to be productive lands is still widely open for agricultural development in Indonesia. Rooting medium quality can be improved by changing soil tillage method and observing the proper crop irrigation technology. It can be the solution for crop cultivation in clay loam soil. This study aimed to obtain water movement model in a minimally-tilled clay soil with strip shallow irrigation. The concept is limited soil-tillage with strip shallow irrigation method, water supply technique, and crop water requirement. Method used in this study includes developing water movement model (software development in a minimally-tilled clay soil with subsurface irrigation. In the final stages, research also conducted water movement analysis testing apparatus in the laboratory, field validation of the subsurface irrigation performance, and cultivation technique testing to chili pepper growth (Capsicum annuumL.. The development of water movement simulation on a limited strip-tillage with subsurface irrigation uses the concept to quantify the amount of water in the soil. The analysis of movement pattern was demonstrated on contour patterns. It showed that the wetting process can reach depth zone – 5 cm to the rooting zone. It was an important discovery on the development of minimum stripe tillage soil with subsurface irrigation. Specifically, it can be concluded that: the result of fitting by eyes to diffusivity graphic and water content obtained the required parameter values for soil physical properties. It was then simulated on horizontal water movement model on a minimum strip-tillage with strip shallow irrigation /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso

  1. Exact solutions for the static bending of Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y. B. [Department of Mathematics, ShaoXing University, No.900, ChengNan Avenue 312000, ShaoXing, Zhejiang (China); Zhu, X. W., E-mail: xiaowuzhu1026@znufe.edu.cn [School of Statistics and Mathematics, Zhongnan University of Economics and Law, Wuhan 430073 (China); Dai, H. H. [Department of Mathematics, City University of HongKong, 83 Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-08-15

    Though widely used in modelling nano- and micro- structures, Eringen’s differential model shows some inconsistencies and recent study has demonstrated its differences between the integral model, which then implies the necessity of using the latter model. In this paper, an analytical study is taken to analyze static bending of nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model. Firstly, a reduction method is proved rigorously, with which the integral equation in consideration can be reduced to a differential equation with mixed boundary value conditions. Then, the static bending problem is formulated and four types of boundary conditions with various loadings are considered. By solving the corresponding differential equations, exact solutions are obtained explicitly in all of the cases, especially for the paradoxical cantilever beam problem. Finally, asymptotic analysis of the exact solutions reveals clearly that, unlike the differential model, the integral model adopted herein has a consistent softening effect. Comparisons are also made with existing analytical and numerical results, which further shows the advantages of the analytical results obtained. Additionally, it seems that the once controversial nonlocal bar problem in the literature is well resolved by the reduction method.

  2. Exact solutions for the static bending of Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y. B.; Zhu, X. W.; Dai, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Though widely used in modelling nano- and micro- structures, Eringen’s differential model shows some inconsistencies and recent study has demonstrated its differences between the integral model, which then implies the necessity of using the latter model. In this paper, an analytical study is taken to analyze static bending of nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli beams using Eringen’s two-phase local/nonlocal model. Firstly, a reduction method is proved rigorously, with which the integral equation in consideration can be reduced to a differential equation with mixed boundary value conditions. Then, the static bending problem is formulated and four types of boundary conditions with various loadings are considered. By solving the corresponding differential equations, exact solutions are obtained explicitly in all of the cases, especially for the paradoxical cantilever beam problem. Finally, asymptotic analysis of the exact solutions reveals clearly that, unlike the differential model, the integral model adopted herein has a consistent softening effect. Comparisons are also made with existing analytical and numerical results, which further shows the advantages of the analytical results obtained. Additionally, it seems that the once controversial nonlocal bar problem in the literature is well resolved by the reduction method.

  3. BATMAN beam properties characterization by the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, F.; Ruf, B.; Schiesko, L.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D.; Barbisan, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Cristofaro, S.

    2015-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam heating systems are based on the production and acceleration of negative ions (H/D) up to 1 MV. The requirements for the beam properties are strict: a low core beam divergence (< 0.4 °) together with a low source pressure (≤ 0.3 Pa) would permit to reduce the ion losses along the beamline, keeping the stripping particle losses below 30%. However, the attainment of such beam properties is not straightforward. At IPP, the negative ion source testbed BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) allows for deepening the knowledge of the determination of the beam properties. One of the diagnostics routinely used to this purpose is the Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES): the H α light emitted in the beam is detected and the corresponding spectra are evaluated to estimate the beam divergence and the stripping losses. The BES number of lines of sight in BATMAN has been recently increased: five horizontal lines of sight providing a vertical profile of the beam permit to characterize the negative ion beam properties in relation to the source parameters. Different methods of H α spectra analysis are here taken into account and compared for the estimation of the beam divergence and the amount of stripping. In particular, to thoroughly study the effect of the space charge compensation on the beam divergence, an additional hydrogen injection line has been added in the tank, which allows for setting different background pressure values (one order of magnitude, from about 0.04 Pa up to the source pressure) in the beam drift region

  4. Performance of a large-area GEM detector read out with wide radial zigzag strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Aiwu, E-mail: azhang@fit.edu; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Hansen, Eric; Hohlmann, Marcus; Khanal, Shreeya; Phipps, Michael; Starling, Elizabeth; Twigger, Jessie; Walton, Kimberly

    2016-03-01

    A 1-meter-long trapezoidal Triple-GEM detector with wide readout strips was tested in hadron beams at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility in October 2013. The readout strips have a special zigzag geometry and run radially with an azimuthal pitch of 1.37 mrad to measure the azimuthal ϕ-coordinate of incident particles. The zigzag geometry of the readout reduces the required number of electronic channels by a factor of three compared to conventional straight readout strips while preserving good angular resolution. The average crosstalk between zigzag strips is measured to be an acceptable 5.5%. The detection efficiency of the detector is (98.4±0.2)%. When the non-linearity of the zigzag-strip response is corrected with track information, the angular resolution is measured to be (193±3) μrad, which corresponds to 14% of the angular strip pitch. Multiple Coulomb scattering effects are fully taken into account in the data analysis with the help of a stand-alone Geant4 simulation that estimates interpolated track errors.

  5. High efficiency beam splitting for H- accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Stipp, V.; Krieger, C.; Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Beam splitting for high energy accelerators has typically involved a significant loss of beam and radiation. This paper reports on a new method of splitting beams for H - accelerators. This technique uses a high intensity flash of light to strip a fraction of the H - beam to H 0 which are then easily separated by a small bending magnet. A system using a 900-watt (average electrical power) flashlamp and a highly efficient collector will provide 10 -3 to 10 -2 splitting of a 50 MeV H - beam. Results on the operation and comparisons with stripping cross sections are presented. Also discussed is the possibility for developing this system to yield a higher stripping fraction

  6. Method of stripping solid particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of stripping loaded solid particles is specified in which uniform batches of the loaded particles are passed successively upwardly through an elution column in the form of discrete plugs, the particles of which do not intermingle substantially with the particles of the vertically adjacent plug(s), and are contacted therein with eluant liquid flowed downwardly, strong eluate being withdrawn from the lower region of the column, the loaded particles being supplied as a slurry in a carrier liquid, and successive batches of loaded particles being isolated as measured batches and being separated from their carrier liquid before being contacted with strong eluate and slurried with the strong eluate into the lower region of the column. An example describes the stripping of ion exchange resin particles loaded with complex uranium ions. (author)

  7. Note: Simulation and test of a strip source electron gun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Islam, G U; Misbah, I; Iqbal, O; Zhou, Z

    2014-06-01

    We present simulation and test of an indirectly heated strip source electron beam gun assembly using Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) electron beam trajectory program. The beam is now sharply focused with 3.04 mm diameter in the post anode region at 15.9 mm. The measured emission current and emission density were 1.12 A and 1.15 A/cm(2), respectively, that corresponds to power density of 11.5 kW/cm(2), at 10 kV acceleration potential. The simulated results were compared with then and now experiments and found in agreement. The gun is without any biasing, electrostatic and magnetic fields; hence simple and inexpensive. Moreover, it is now more powerful and is useful for accelerators technology due to high emission and low emittance parameters.

  8. Prestressed CFRP Strips with Gradient Anchorage for Structural Concrete Retrofitting: Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Michels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC beams strengthened with externally bonded (EB carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP strips prestressed up to 0.6% in strain. At the strip ends, the innovative gradient anchorage is used instead of conventional mechanical fasteners. This method, based on the epoxy resin’s ability to rapidly cure under high temperatures, foresees a sector-wise heating followed by a gradual decrease of the initial prestress force towards the strip ends. The experimental investigation shows a promising structural behavior, resulting in high strip tensile strains, eventually almost reaching tensile failure of the composite strip. Additionally, ductility when considering deflection at steel yielding and at ultimate load is satisfying, too. From a practical point of view, it is demonstrated that premature strip grinding in the anchorage zone is not beneficial. In addition, a non-commercial 1D finite element code has been enlarged to an EB reinforcement with prestressed composite strips. A bilinear bond stress-slip relation obtained in earlier investigations is introduced as an additional failure criterion to the code. The numerical code is able to almost perfectly predict the overall structural behavior. Furthermore, the calculations are used for comparison purposes between an initially unstressed and a prestressed externally bonded composite reinforcement. The increase in cracking and yielding load, as well as differences in structural stiffness are apparent.

  9. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  10. Strip detectors read-out system user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, G.; Dulinski, W.; Lounis, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Strip Detector Read-out System consists of two VME modules: SDR-Flash and SDR-seq completed by a fast logic SDR-Trig stand alone card. The system is a self-consistent, cost effective and easy use solution for the read-out of analog multiplexed signals coming from some of the front-end electronics chips (Viking/VA chips family, Premus 128 etc...) currently used together with solid (silicon) or gas microstrip detectors. (author)

  11. Design of a tapered stripline fast Faraday cup for measurements on heavy ion beams: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcellini, F.; Poggi, M.

    1998-01-01

    The design of a tapered stripline fast Faraday cup (TSFFC) to perform the impedance matching between the fast cup itself and the signal line (connector, cable, and amplifier) is reported here. The frequency response of the TSFFC as a high-pass filter is analyzed from a theoretical point of view and some solutions to achieve a broadband response are given

  12. Nonlinear Analysis of External Prestressed Reinforced Concrete Beams with BFRP and CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleem K. Hussain

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional strengthening methods for concrete structure (girders, beams, columns…. consuming time and could be an economical, a new modern repair methods using the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP and Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP as a laminate strips or bars,and considered a competitive solution that will increase the life-cycle of repaired structures. This study investigated the strengthen reinforced concrete girder. Nonlinear analysis have been adopted to the models using FEM analysis (ANSYS to simulate the theoretical results compared with experimental results.Using finite element packages, more efficient and better analyses can be made to fully understand the response of individual structural components and their contribution to a structure as a whole.Three type of material are used in this study as an external prestressed wire (steel, CFRP and BFRP. The prestressed beam is modeled as simply supported beam with two concentrated point load. The results showed that all tested strengthening beam increased the load carryingcapacity of the beams depend on prestressing force. Obtained Result was compared for different type of beam.This study also was enlarged to include using CFRP and BFRPbarwhich are light weight and moredurable, lead to ease of handling and maintenance. The research conducted analytical work to evaluate the effectiveness of concrete beams reinforced normally by the use of CFRP and BFRP bars. The results showed a significant gain in the beam’s ultimate capacities using CFRP bars comparing with beam reinforced with BFRP bar and reference beam

  13. Standard addition strip for quantitative electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry analysis: determination of caffeine in drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobolkina, Elena; Qiao, Liang; Roussel, Christophe; Girault, Hubert H

    2014-12-01

    Standard addition strips were prepared for the quantitative determination of caffeine in different beverages by electrostatic spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESTASI-MS). The gist of this approach is to dry spots of caffeine solutions with different concentrations on a polymer strip, then to deposit a drop of sample mixed with an internal standard, here theobromine on each spot and to measure the mass spectrometry signals of caffeine and theobromine by ESTASI-MS. This strip approach is very convenient and provides quantitative analyses as accurate as the classical standard addition method by MS or liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  15. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) is made by focused ion beam. •Au N Rs d coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au N Rs d as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10 −12 M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au N Rs d ) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au N Rs d was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au N Rs d and Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au N Rs d was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10 7 in magnitude, which increased ≈10 12 in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au N Rs d . A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au N Rs d was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10 −3 to 10 −12 M) in water or milk solution upon Au N Rs d or Ag NPs/Au N Rs d were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm −1 for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm −1 was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au N Rs d ) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au N Rs d ) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au N Rs d and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au N Rs d is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for

  16. A double sided silicon strip detector as a DRAGON end detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wrede, C; Rogers, J G; D'Auria, J M

    2003-01-01

    The new DRAGON facility (detector of recoils and gammas of nuclear reactions), located at the TRlUMF-ISAC Radioactive Beams facility in Vancouver, Canada is now operational. This facility is used to study radiative proton capture reactions in inverse kinematics (heavy ion beam onto a light gaseous target) with both stable beams and radioactive beams of mass A=13-26 in the energy range 0.15-1.5 MeV/u. A double sided silicon strip detector (DSSSD) has been used to detect recoil ions. Tests have been performed to determine the performance of this DSSSD.

  17. Beam position monitor for energy recovered linac beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Thomas; Evtushenko, Pavel

    2017-06-06

    A method of determining the beam position in an energy recovered linac (ERL). The method makes use of in phase and quadrature (I/Q) demodulation techniques to separate the pickup signal generated by the electromagnetic fields generated by the first and second pass beam in the energy recovered linac. The method includes using analog or digital based I/Q demodulation techniques in order to measure the relative amplitude of the signals from a position sensitive beam pickup such as a button, strip line or microstripline beam position monitor.

  18. Study of the granular electromagnetic calorimeter with PPDs and scintillator strips for ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, Katsushige, E-mail: coterra@azusa.shinshu-u.ac.j [Shinshu University, Asahi 3-1-1, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    A prototype module of a fine-granular electromagnetic calorimeter has been constructed by the CALICE collaboration and tested in the period August-September 2008 at the FNAL meson beam test facility. The calorimeter is one of the proposed concepts for a highly granular electromagnetic calorimeter for the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiment, which is designed to have an effective 10 mmx10 mm lateral segmentation using 10 mmx45 mm scintillator strips. The strips in the 15 odd layers are orthogonal with respect to those in the 15 even layers. A total of 2160 strip scintillators are individually read out using a Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) or MPPC. As a preliminary result of the first stage analysis, we obtain a relative energy resolution for single electrons of {sigma}{sub E}/E=(15.15{+-}0.03)%/{radical}(E{sub beam}(GeV))+(1.44{+-}0.02)%, the quoted uncertainties are purely statistical.

  19. A conceptual solution for a beam halo collimation system for the Future Circular hadron-hadron Collider (FCC-hh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiascaris, M.; Bruce, R.; Redaelli, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present the first conceptual solution for a collimation system for the hadron-hadron option of the Future Circular Collider (FCC-hh). The collimation layout is based on the scaling of the present Large Hadron Collider collimation system to the FCC-hh energy and it includes betatron and momentum cleaning, as well as dump protection collimators and collimators in the experimental insertions for protection of the final focus triplet magnets. An aperture model for the FCC-hh is defined and the geometrical acceptance is calculated at injection and collision energy taking into account mechanical and optics imperfections. The performance of the system is then assessed through the analysis of normalized halo distributions and complete loss maps for an ideal lattice. The performance limitations are discussed and a solution to improve the system performance with the addition of dispersion suppression collimators around the betatron cleaning insertion is presented.

  20. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  1. The GLAST silicon-strip tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma-ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4x4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm2

  2. The GLAST Silicon-Strip Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R

    2004-01-01

    The GLAST instrument concept is a gamma-ray pair conversion telescope that uses silicon microstrip detector technology to track the electron-positron pairs resulting from gamma ray conversions in thin lead foils. A cesium iodide calorimeter following the tracker is used to measure the gamma-ray energy. Silicon strip technology is mature and robust, with an excellent heritage in space science and particle physics. It has many characteristics important for optimal performance of a pair conversion telescope, including high efficiency in thin detector planes, low noise, and excellent resolution and two-track separation. The large size of GLAST and high channel count in the tracker puts demands on the readout technology to operate at very low power, yet with sufficiently low noise occupancy to allow self triggering. A prototype system employing custom-designed ASIC's has been built and tested that meets the design goal of approximately 200 (micro)W per channel power consumption with a noise occupancy of less than one hit per trigger per 10,000 channels. Detailed design of the full-scale tracker is well advanced, with non-flight prototypes built for all components, and a complete 50,000 channel engineering demonstration tower module is currently under construction and will be tested in particle beams in late 1999. The flight-instrument conceptual design is for a 4 x 4 array of tower modules with an aperture of 2.9 m 2 and an effective area of greater than 8000 cm 2

  3. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  4. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    . Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  5. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin; Blue, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  6. Investigations into the impact of bond pads and p-stop implants on the detection efficiency of silicon micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poley, Luise; Lohwasser, Kristin [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Blue, Andrew [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy; and others

    2016-11-15

    The High Luminosity Upgrade of the LHC will require the replacement of the Inner Detector of ATLAS with the Inner Tracker (ITk) in order to cope with higher radiation levels and higher track densities. Prototype silicon strip detector modules are currently developed and their performance is studied in both particle test beams and X-ray beams. In previous test beam studies of prototype modules, silicon sensor strips were found to respond in regions varying from the strip pitch of 74.5 μm. The variations have been linked to local features of the sensor architecture. This paper presents results of detailed sensor measurements in both X-ray and particle beams investigating the impact of sensor features (metal pads and p-stops) on the responding area of a sensor strip.

  7. Irradiation with benzene, toluene and phenol electron beams in aqueous solution; Irradiacion con haces de electrones de benceno, tolueno y fenol en solucion acuosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo O, E L; Lopez V, H; Vazquez A, O; Lizama S, B E; Garcia F, M [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1998-07-01

    It is described a methodology for waste water treatment which is simulated doing a benzene-toluene-phenol mixture in aqueous solution. Three different concentrations of them ones were used which were irradiated with electron beams coming from a Pelletron Accelerator carrying out the degradation effect of these compounds in CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. By mean of gas chromatography the analytical determinations were realized finding that in lower concentration of benzene and toluene performances of degradation higher than 95 % were obtained, but higher concentrations (100 ppm) the performance diminishes at 89 %, while for phenol in higher concentrations its degradation is over 60 % and in lower concentrations the degradation is under 80 %. The results are obtained with a constant irradiation time of 12 seconds and neutral pH. (Author.

  8. Dynamic Underground Stripping Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aines, R.; Newmark, R.; McConachie, W.; Rice, D.; Ramirez, A.; Siegel, W.; Buettner, M.; Daily, W.; Krauter, P.; Folsom, E.; Boegel, A.J.; Bishop, D.; udel, K.

    1992-03-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation and underground imaging techniques for use in rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called ''Dynamic Stripping'' to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first 8 months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques before moving to the contaminated site in FY 92

  9. Periodic solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation by the shooting method: A technique for beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabella, W.E.; Ruth, R.D.; Warnock, R.L.

    1988-05-01

    Periodic solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation determine invariant tori in phase space. The Fourier spectrum of a torus with respect to angular coordinates gives useful information about nonlinear resonances and their potential for causing instabilities. We describe a method to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for an arbitrary accelerator lattice. The method works with Fourier modes of the generating functions, and imposes periodicity in the machine azimuth by a shooting method. We give examples leading to three-dimensional plots in a surface of section. It is expected that the technique will be useful in lattice optimization. 14 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Stress-strain state of the elastic strip with nearly rectangular cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaeva, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    The article considers behavior of elastic strip in the framework of plane strain under compression. Conditions are formulated in integral form on the boundaries where the forces are imposed. All the boundary conditions are imposed on the boundary of the body in the strained state, which is necessary for investigating the continuous dependence of the solution to the corresponding task on the functions describing the difference between the shape of cross-section of the strip and a rectangle. The study of the analyticity of the problem solution with respect to small near zero parameters is carried out. The solution is found by perturbation method up to the first order of terms.

  11. Depletive stripping chronopotentiometry : a major step forward in electrochemical stripping techniques for metal ion speciation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Town, R.M.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the utility of the various modes of stripping chronopotentiometry (SCP) for trace metal speciation analysis is presented in the broad context of stripping voltammetric techniques. The remarkable fundamental advantages of depletive SCP at scanned deposition potential

  12. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to 7.5E34 per second and cm2 corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of 3000/fb and hadron fluencies over 1E16 1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm2, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker (ITk) with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six discs on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector Technical Design Report (TDR), which starts the pre-production readiness phase at the ...

  13. ATLAS ITk Strip Detector for High-Luminosity LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is currently preparing for an upgrade of the tracking system in the course of the High-Luminosity LHC that is scheduled for 2026. The expected peak instantaneous luminosity up to $7.5\\times10^{34}\\;\\mathrm{cm}^{-2}\\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ corresponding to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton interactions per beam crossing, radiation damage at an integrated luminosity of $3000\\;\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and hadron fluencies over $2\\times10^{16}\\;\\mathrm{n}_{\\mathrm{eq}}/\\mathrm{cm}^{2}$, as well as fast hardware tracking capability that will bring Level-0 trigger rate of a few MHz down to a Level-1 trigger rate below 1 MHz require a replacement of existing Inner Detector by an all-silicon Inner Tracker with a pixel detector surrounded by a strip detector. The current prototyping phase, that is working with ITk Strip Detector consisting of a four-layer barrel and a forward region composed of six disks on each side of the barrel, has resulted in the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector Technical Design R...

  14. Potential profile in a conducting polymer strip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Lasse; West, Keld; Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos

    2002-01-01

    Many conjugated polymers show an appreciable difference in volume between their oxidized and reduced forms. This property can be utilized in soft electrochemically driven actuators, "artificial muscles". Several geometries have been proposed for the conversion of the volume expansion into useful...... mechanical work. In a particularly simple geometry, the length change of polymer strips is exploited. The polymer strips are connected to the driving circuit at the end of the strip that is attached to the support of the device. The other end of the strip is connected to the load. The advantage of this set...

  15. Optimizing the Stripping Procedure for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment faces a major challenge from the large amounts of data received while the LHC is running. The ability to sort this information in a useful manner is important for working groups to perform physics analyses. Both hardware and software triggers are used to decrease the data rate and then the stripping process is used to sort the data into streams and further into stripping lines. This project studies the hundreds of stripping lines to look for overlaps between them in order to make the stripping process more efficient.

  16. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  17. The Whipple Strip Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertzman, M. P.

    As part of the normal operation of the Whipple 10m Gamma Ray telescope, ten minute drift scan “zenith” runs are made each night of observation for use as calibration. Most of the events recorded during a zenith run are due to the background of cosmic ray showers. However, it would be possible for a hitherto unknown source of gamma rays to drift through the field. This paper reports the results of a search for serendipitous high energy gamma ray sources in the Whipple 10m nightly calibration zenith data. From 2000-2004 nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 89 º. A 2- D analysis of these drift scan runs produces a strip of width ~ 3.5º in declination and spanning the full range of right ascension. In the 2004-05 observing season the calibration runs were taken at elevations of 86° and 83°. Beginning in the 2005-06 season, the nightly calibration runs were taken at an elevation of 80º. Collectively, these drift scans cover a strip approximately 12.5º wide in declination, centered at declination 37.18º, and spanning the full range of RA. The analysis procedures developed for drift scan data, the sensitivity of the method, and the results will be presented.

  18. The 'KATOD-1' strip readout ASIC for cathode strip chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golutvin, I.A.; Gorbunov, N.V.; Karzhavin, V.Yu.; Khabarov, V.S.; Movchan, S.A.; Smolin, D.A.; Dvornikov, O.V.; Shumejko, N.M.; Chekhovskij, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The 'KATOD-1', a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2 : +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology

  19. The "KATOD-1" Strip Readout ASIC for Cathode Strip Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Karjavin, V Yu; Khabarov, V S; Movchan, S A; Smolin, D A; Dvornikov, O V; Shumeiko, N M; Tchekhovski, V A

    2001-01-01

    The "KATOD-1", a 16-channels readout ASIC, has been designed to perform tests of P3 and P4 full-scale prototypes of the cathode strip chamber for the ME1/1 forward muon station of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment. The ASIC channel consists of two charge-sensitive preamplifiers, a three-stage shaper with tail cancellation, and an output driver. The ASIC is instrumented with control of gain, in the range of (-4.2\\div +5.0) mV/fC, and control of output pulse-shape. The equivalent input noise is equal to 2400 e with the slope of 12 e/pF for detector capacity up to 200 pF. The peaking time is 100 ns for the chamber signal. The ASIC has been produced by a microwave Bi-jFET technology.

  20. Mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the mechanical behaviour of a creased thin strip under opposite-sense bending was investigated. It was found that a simple crease, which led to the increase of the second moment of area, could significantly alter the overall mechanical behaviour of a thin strip, for example the peak moment could be increased by 100 times. The crease was treated as a cylindrical segment of a small radius. Parametric studies demonstrated that the geometry of the strip could strongly influence its flexural behaviour. We showed that the uniform thickness and the radius of the creased segment had the greatest and the least influence on the mechanical behaviour, respectively. We further revealed that material properties could dramatically affect the overall mechanical behaviour of the creased strip by gradually changing the material from being linear elastic to elastic-perfect plastic. After the formation of the fold, the moment of the two ends of the strip differed considerably when the elasto-plastic materials were used, especially for materials with smaller tangent modulus in the plastic range. The deformation patterns of the thin strips from the finite element simulations were verified by physical models made of thin metal strips. The findings from this study provide useful information for designing origami structures for engineering applications using creased thin strips.

  1. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  2. On the mechanism of dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induced by electron beam irradiation in aqueous and aqueous micellar solutions, transformer oil, and sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaychian, M.; Silverman, J.; Al-Sheirkhly, M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The widespread release of PCBs into the environment presents a serious problem due to their persistence and toxicity. Ionizing radiation, such as gamma rays and high-energy electron beam, is remarkably effective in dechlorinating PCBs into biphenyls. The kinetics of the reductive dechlorination of PCBs in aqueous and aqueous micellar solutions and in transformer oil is being studied by pulse radiolysis and steady-state radiolysis. In aqueous micellar solutions, dichlori-, tetrachloro-, and decachlorobiphenyl congeners were solubilized in water using a commercially available non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, and subsequently pulse irradiated by electron accelerator using optical detection method. The reaction rate constant between decachlorobiphenyl and aqueous electrons e aq ·- , and Triton with e aq ·- in the 2% Triton solution, were measured as 2.6 x 10 9 Lmol -1 s -1 and 1.2 x 10 7 Lmol -1 s -1 , respectively. We have also measured in aqueous solutions, the reaction rate constant of e aq ·- with dichlorobiphenyl as 3.8 x 10 9 Lmol -1 s -1 . In aqueous-propanol, the reaction rate constants of e aq ·- with dichlorobiphenyl, tetrachlorobiphenyl, and dechachlorobiphenyl are 2 x 10 9 Lmol -1 s -1 , 3 x 10 9 Lmol -1 s -1 , and 7 x 10 9 Lmol -1 s -1 , respectively. In addition to the presence of PCBs as high-dielectric component, transformer oil contains many aromatic hydrocarbons; the most abundant being biphenyl, fluorine, and phenanthrene. Solvated electrons formed by irradiation of the oil react either with PCB to lead to dechlorination or with the aromatic hydrocarbons present in the oil to form radical anions. These species are shown to transfer an electron to chlorinated biphenyls relative rapidly, leading to dechlorination. The rate constants for several such reactions, determined in 2-propanol solutions, are in the range of 10 7 - 10 8 Lmol -1 s -1 . These rapid reactions explain why PCB can be dechlorinated in oil

  3. Acrylamide reduction in fried potato slices and strips by using asparaginase in combination with conventional blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedreschi, Franco; Risum, Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    then dried at 85°C for 10 min and immediately partially fried at 175°C for 1min. Finally, frozen par-fried potatoes were fried at 175°C for 3min to obtain French fries. Pre-drying of raw or blanched potato strips did not generate acrylamide formation as expected. Partial frying of pre-dried control potato...... strips generated 370μg/kg of acrylamide and the final frying determined French fries with 2075μg/kg of acrylamide. When control potato strips were treated with a 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min, the acrylamide formation in French fries was reduced by 30%. When blanched potato strips...... were treated in the same way, the produced French fries have 60% less acrylamide content than blanched strips without the enzyme treatment. Soaking of blanched potato strips (75°C, 10min) in an 10000 ASNU/l asparaginase solution at 40°C for 20min is an effective way to reduce acrylamide formation after...

  4. CMS Silicon Strip Tracker Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Agram, Jean-Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), consisting of 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules and covering an area of 198 square meters, needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly reconstruct the events recorded. Calibration constants are derived from different workflows, from promptly reconstructed events with particles as well as from commissioning events gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. The performance of the SST has been carefully studied since the beginning of data taking: the noise of the detector, data integrity, signal-over-noise ratio, hit reconstruction efficiency and resolution have been all investigated with time and for different conditions. In this paper we describe the reconstruction strategies, the calibration procedures and the detector performance results from the latest CMS operation.

  5. The CMS silicon strip tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focardi, E.; Albergo, S.; Angarano, M.; Azzi, P.; Babucci, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bader, A.; Bagliesi, G.; Bartalini, P.; Basti, A.; Biggeri, U.; Bilei, G.M.; Bisello, D.; Boemi, D.; Bosi, F.; Borrello, L.; Bozzi, C.; Braibant, S.; Breuker, H.; Bruzzi, M.; Candelori, A.; Caner, A.; Castaldi, R.; Castro, A.; Catacchini, E.; Checcucci, B.; Ciampolini, P.; Civinini, C.; Creanza, D.; D'Alessandro, R.; Da Rold, M.; Demaria, N.; De Palma, M.; Dell'Orso, R.; Marina, R. Della; Dutta, S.; Eklund, C.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Feld, L.; Fiore, L.; French, M.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuertjes, A.; Giassi, A.; Giraldo, A.; Glessing, B.; Gu, W.H.; Hall, G.; Hammerstrom, R.; Hebbeker, T.; Hrubec, J.; Huhtinen, M.; Kaminsky, A.; Karimaki, V.; Koenig, St.; Krammer, M.; Lariccia, P.; Lenzi, M.; Loreti, M.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Lustermann, W.; Maettig, P.; Maggi, G.; Mannelli, M.; Mantovani, G.; Marchioro, A.; Mariotti, C.; Martignon, G.; Evoy, B. Mc; Meschini, M.; Messineo, A.; My, S.; Paccagnella, A.; Palla, F.; Pandoulas, D.; Parrini, G.; Passeri, D.; Pieri, M.; Piperov, S.; Potenza, R.; Raffaelli, F.; Raso, G.; Raymond, M.; Santocchia, A.; Schmitt, B.; Selvaggi, G.; Servoli, L.; Sguazzoni, G.; Siedling, R.; Silvestris, L.; Skog, K.; Starodumov, A.; Stavitski, I.; Stefanini, G.; Tempesta, P.; Tonelli, G.; Tricomi, A.; Tuuva, T.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P.G.; Viertel, G.; Xie, Z.; Wang, Y.; Watts, S.; Wittmer, B.

    1999-01-01

    The Silicon Strip Tracker (SST) is the intermediate part of the CMS Central Tracker System. SST is based on microstrip silicon devices and in combination with pixel detectors and the Microstrip Gas Chambers aims at performing pattern recognition, track reconstruction and momentum measurements for all tracks with p T ≥2 GeV/c originating from high luminosity interactions at √s=14 TeV at LHC. We aim at exploiting the advantages and the physics potential of the precise tracking performance provided by the microstrip silicon detectors on a large scale apparatus and in a much more difficult environment than ever. In this paper we describe the actual SST layout and the readout system. (author)

  6. Ultrasonic examination of JBK-75 strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, K.V.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.; Lewis, J.C.; McClung, R.W.

    1982-12-01

    An ultrasonic inspection system was assembled to inspect the JBK-75 stainless steel sheath material (for the Large Coil Project) for the Westinghouse-Airco superconducting magnet program. The mechanical system provided for handling the 180-kg (400-lb) coils of strip material [1.6 mm thick by 78 mm wide by 90 to 120 m long (0.064 by 3.07 in. by 300 to 400 ft)], feeding the strip through the ultrasonic inspection and cleaning stations, and respooling the coils. We inspected 54 coils of strip for both longitudinal and laminar flaws. Simulated flaws were used to calibrate both inspections. Saw-cut notches [0.28 mm deep (0.011 in., about 17% of the strip thickness)] were used to calibrate the longitudinal flaw inspections; 1.59-mm-diam (0.063-in.) flat-bottom holes drilled halfway through a calibration strip were used to calibrate the laminar flaw tests

  7. Lorentz laser-assisted stripping (Lolas) for H-/H0 injection into proton drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastaldi, Ugo

    2002-01-01

    We discuss the main components of schemes for Lorentz laser-assisted stripping (abbreviated Lolas henceforth) proposed for injection into proton driver accumulators: H- → H0 + e- Lorentz stripping, H0→H0(n) laser excitation, H0(n)→p+ + e- Lorentz stripping. We mention results obtained in practice of H- beam transport and storage and of experiments addressing physics of the H- ion, of the H0 atom and of vacuum, which prove the feasibility of each Lolas component. For high enough injection energies, it is feasible to split without losses the H0 beam sent towards the accumulator into a fraction stripped to p+s and stored inside the accumulator and a complementary fraction of H0s delivered to high duty-cycle users. The fraction of stored beam can exceed 50% with one single Fabry-Perot cavity used to enhance the laser power density. Aspects of Lolas integration and optimization are pointed out

  8. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, M.

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N + - strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P + - strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade

  9. Evaluation of FOXFET biased ac-coupled silicon strip detector prototypes for CDF SVX upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland))

    1992-03-01

    Silicon microstrip detectors for high-precision charged particle position measurements have been used in nuclear and particle physics for years. The detectors have evolved from simple surface barrier strip detectors with metal strips to highly complicated double-sided AC-coupled junction detectors. The feature of AC-coupling the readout electrodes from the diode strips necessitates the manufacture of a separate biasing structure for the strips, which comprises a common bias line together with a means for preventing the signal from one strip from spreading to its neighbors through the bias line. The obvious solution to this is to bias the strips through individual high value resistors. These resistors can be integrated on the detector wafer by depositing a layer of resistive polycrystalline silicon and patterning it to form the individual resistors. To circumvent the extra processing step required for polysilicon resistor processing and the rather difficult tuning of the process to obtain uniform and high enough resistance values throughout the large detector area, alternative methods for strip biasing have been devised. These include the usage of electron accumulation layer resistance for N{sup +}{minus} strips or the usage of the phenomenon known as the punch-through effect for P{sup +}{minus} strips. In this paper we present measurement results about the operation and radiation resistance of detectors with a punch-through effect based biasing structure known as a Field OXide Field-Effect Transistor (FOXFET), and present a model describing the FOXFET behavior. The studied detectors were prototypes for detectors to be used in the CDF silicon vertex detector upgrade.

  10. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good

  11. Model for prediction of strip temperature in hot strip steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panjkovic, Vladimir [BlueScope Steel, TEOB, 1 Bayview Road, Hastings Vic. 3915 (Australia)]. E-mail: Vladimir.Panjkovic@BlueScopeSteel.com

    2007-10-15

    Proper functioning of set-up models in a hot strip steel mill requires reliable prediction of strip temperature. Temperature prediction is particularly important for accurate calculation of rolling force because of strong dependence of yield stress and strip microstructure on temperature. A comprehensive model was developed to replace an obsolete model in the Western Port hot strip mill of BlueScope Steel. The new model predicts the strip temperature evolution from the roughing mill exit to the finishing mill exit. It takes into account the radiative and convective heat losses, forced flow boiling and film boiling of water at strip surface, deformation heat in the roll gap, frictional sliding heat, heat of scale formation and the heat transfer between strip and work rolls through an oxide layer. The significance of phase transformation was also investigated. Model was tested with plant measurements and benchmarked against other models in the literature, and its performance was very good.

  12. Improved four-stage accel-decel production of low-energy stripped heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieberger, P.; Barrette, J.; Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Meron, M.; Wegner, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    The two model MP Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators at Brookhaven have been used in a four-stage accel-decel configuration to produce highly stripped low energy heavy ions. The performance in this mode of operation has now been substantially improved by modifications of the second accelerator. The inclined field acceleration tube electrodes at the exit of this accelerator were replaced by straight electrodes, the vacuum was improved and the maximum negative terminal potential was increased. Higher intensity beams of heavier highly stripped ions can now be produced at lower energies than before

  13. Development of a Compton camera for medical applications based on silicon strip and scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimmer, J., E-mail: j.krimmer@ipnl.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Ley, J.-L. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Abellan, C.; Cachemiche, J.-P. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, 13288 Marseille (France); Caponetto, L.; Chen, X.; Dahoumane, M.; Dauvergne, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3 UMR 5822, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Freud, N. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Joly, B.; Lambert, D.; Lestand, L. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); Létang, J.M. [Université de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA - Lyon, Université Lyon 1, Centre Léon Bérard (France); Magne, M. [Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand (France); and others

    2015-07-01

    A Compton camera is being developed for the purpose of ion-range monitoring during hadrontherapy via the detection of prompt-gamma rays. The system consists of a scintillating fiber beam tagging hodoscope, a stack of double sided silicon strip detectors (90×90×2 mm{sup 3}, 2×64 strips) as scatter detectors, as well as bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation detectors (38×35×30 mm{sup 3}, 100 blocks) as absorbers. The individual components will be described, together with the status of their characterization.

  14. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torresi D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  15. The development of two ASIC's for a fast silicon strip detector readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christain, D.; Haldeman, M.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Newcomer, F.M.; VanBerg, R.

    1989-01-01

    A high speed, low noise readout system for silicon strip detectors is being developed for Fermilab E771, which will begin taking data in 1989. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experimental apparatus consists of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification and a 16000 channel silicon microstrip vertex detector. This paper reviews the design and prototyping of two application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's) an amplifier and a discriminator, which are being produced for the silicon strip detector readout system

  16. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-24

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is made by focused ion beam. •Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) is competent to sense target molecules in a solution. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} SERS active substrate can detect a single molecule of crystal violet. •Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} as a SERS-active substrate can distinguish melamine contaminants at low concentrations (e.g., 10{sup −12} M). -- Abstract: A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10{sup 7} in magnitude, which increased ≈10{sup 12} in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10{sup −3} to 10{sup −12} M) in water or milk solution upon Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} or Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm{sup −1} for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm{sup −1} was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d}) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au{sub N}Rs{sub d} and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and

  17. Performance of the Scintillator-Strip Electromagnetic Calorimeter Prototype for the Linear Collider Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uozumi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    The scintillator-strip electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) is one of fine granular calorimeters proposed to realize Particle Flow Algorithm for the International Linear Collider experiment. The ScECAL is a sandwitch calorimeter with tungsten and scintillator layers, where the scintillator layer consists of plastic scintillator strips which size of 1 cm x 4.5 cm x 0.2 cm with a small photo-sensor (MPPC) attached at the its edge. In alternate scintillator layers, strips are orthogonally aligned to make a virtual 1x 1 cm 2 cell with its crossing area. To establish the ScECAL technology, we have built a prototype of the ScECAL which consists of 30 layers of tungsten and scintillator layers with 2160 scintillator strips in total. In 2008 and 2009 the beam test has been performed at Fermilab meson test beam line to evaluate performance of the ScECAL prototype with various types of beams ranging 1 to 32 GeV. As a preliminary result of the beam test in 2008, we have obtained linearity of energy measurement less than 6% from the perfect linear response. Energy resolution is measured to be σ/E(15.15±0.03)%/√E+(1.44±0.02)%. Although detailed analyses are still ongoing, those results already establishes feasibility of the ScECAL as the fine granular calorimeter. However as the next step to precisely measure even higher energy jets, we will proceed to even more finely segmented calorimeter with 5 mm width scintillator strips.

  18. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  19. Prototype Strip Barrel Modules for the ATLAS ITk Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sawyer, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The module design for the Phase II Upgrade of the new ATLAS Inner Tracker (ITk) detector at the LHC employs integrated low mass assembly using single-sided flexible circuits with readout ASICs and a powering circuit incorporating control and monitoring of HV, LV and temperature on the module. Both readout and powering circuits are glued directly onto the silicon sensor surface resulting in a fully integrated, extremely low radiation length module which simultaneously reduces the material requirements of the local support structure by allowing a reduced width stave structure to be employed. Such a module concept has now been fully demonstrated using so-called ABC130 and HCC130 ASICs fabricated in 130nm CMOS technology to readout ATLAS12 n+-in-p silicon strip sensors. Low voltage powering for these demonstrator modules has been realised by utilising a DCDC powerboard based around the CERN FEAST ASIC. This powerboard incorporates an HV multiplexing switch based on a Panasonic GaN transistor. Control and monitori...

  20. Transfusion and blood donation in comic strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Danic, Bruno

    2013-07-01

    The representation of blood transfusion and donation of blood in the comic strip has never been studied. The comic strip, which is a relatively recent art, emerged in the 19th century before becoming a mass medium during the 20th century. We have sought, by calling on collectors and using the resources of Internet, comic strips devoted, wholly or in part, to the themes of transfusion and blood donation. We present some of them here in chronologic order, indicating the title, country of origin, year of publication, and names of authors. The theme of the superhero using transfusion to transmit his virtues or his powers is repeated throughout the 20th century in North American comic strips. More recently, comic strips have been conceived from the outset with a promotional aim. They perpetuate positive images and are directed toward a young readership, wielding humor to reduce the fear of venipuncture. Few comic strips denounce the abuse of the commercialization of products derived from the human body. The image of transfusion and blood donation given by the comic strips is not to be underestimated because their readership is primarily children, some of whom will become blood donors. Furthermore, if some readers are transfused during their lives, the impact of a memory more or less conscious of these childhood readings may resurface, both in hopes and in fears. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ram Pressure Stripping Made Easy: An Analytical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köppen, J.; Jáchym, P.; Taylor, R.; Palouš, J.

    2018-06-01

    The removal of gas by ram pressure stripping of galaxies is treated by a purely kinematic description. The solution has two asymptotic limits: if the duration of the ram pressure pulse exceeds the period of vertical oscillations perpendicular to the galactic plane, the commonly used quasi-static criterion of Gunn & Gott is obtained which uses the maximum ram pressure that the galaxy has experienced along its orbit. For shorter pulses the outcome depends on the time-integrated ram pressure. This parameter pair fully describes the gas mass fraction that is stripped from a given galaxy. This approach closely reproduces results from SPH simulations. We show that typical galaxies follow a very tight relation in this parameter space corresponding to a pressure pulse length of about 300 Myr. Thus, the Gunn & Gott criterion provides a good description for galaxies in larger clusters. Applying the analytic description to a sample of 232 Virgo galaxies from the GoldMine database, we show that the ICM provides indeed the ram pressures needed to explain the deficiencies. We also can distinguish current and past strippers, including objects whose stripping state was unknown.

  2. Energy-Efficient Bioalcohol Recovery by Gel Stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbole, Rutvik; Ma, Lan; Hedden, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    Design of energy-efficient processes for recovering butanol and ethanol from dilute fermentations is a key challenge facing the biofuels industry due to the high energy consumption of traditional multi-stage distillation processes. Gel stripping is an alternative purification process by which a dilute alcohol is stripped from the fermentation product by passing it through a packed bed containing particles of a selectively absorbent polymeric gel material. The gel must be selective for the alcohol, while swelling to a reasonable degree in dilute alcohol-water mixtures. To accelerate materials optimization, a combinatorial approach is taken to screen a matrix of copolymer gels having orthogonal gradients in crosslinker concentration and hydrophilicity. Using a combination of swelling in pure solvents, the selectivity and distribution coefficients of alcohols in the gels can be predicted based upon multi-component extensions of Flory-Rehner theory. Predictions can be validated by measuring swelling in water/alcohol mixtures and conducting h HPLC analysis of the external liquid. 95% + removal of butanol from dilute aqueous solutions has been demonstrated, and a mathematical model of the unsteady-state gel stripping process has been developed. NSF CMMI Award 1335082.

  3. Kinematic GPS survey as validation of LIDAR strips accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gordini

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the catastrophic hydrogeological events which occurred in May 1998 in Campania, in the south of Italy, the distinctive features of airborne laser scanning mounted on a helicopter were used to survey the landslides at Sarno and Quindici. In order to survey the entire zone of interest, approximately 21 km2, it was necessary to scan 12 laser strips. Many problems arose during the survey: difficulties in receiving the GPS signal, complex terrain features and unfavorable atmospheric conditions. These problems were investigated and it emerged that one of the most influential factors is the quality of GPS signals. By analysing the original GPS data, the traces obtained by fixing phase ambiguity with an On The Fly (OTF algorithm were isolated from those with smoothed differential GPS solution (DGPS. Processing and analysis of laser data showed that not all the overlapping laser strips were congruent with each other. Since an external survey to verify the laser data accuracy was necessary, it was decided to utilize the kinematic GPS technique. The laser strips were subsequently adjusted, using the kinematic GPS data as reference points. Bearing in mind that in mountainous areas like the one studied here it is not possible to obtain nominal precision and accuracy, a good result was nevertheless obtained with a Digital Terrain Model (DTM of all the zones of interest.

  4. Stripping voltammetry in environmental and food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainina, K Z; Malakhova, N A; Stojko, N Y

    2000-10-01

    The review covers over 230 papers published mostly in the last 5 years. The goal of the review is to attract the attention of researchers and users to stripping voltammetry in particular, its application in environmental monitoring and analysis of foodstuffs. The sensors employed are impregnated graphite, carbon paste, thick film carbon/graphite and thin film metallic electrodes modified in-situ or beforehand. Hanging mercury drop electrodes and mercury coated glassy carbon electrodes are also mentioned. Strip and long-lived sensors for portable instruments and flow through systems are discussed as devices for future development and application of stripping voltammetry.

  5. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  6. Numerical and experimental study on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Besufekad N.; Kumar, Vikash; Dixit, Uday S.; Echempati, Raghu

    2018-02-01

    Laser bending is a process of bending of plates, small sized sheets, strips and tubes, in which a moving or stationary laser beam heats the workpiece to achieve the desired curvature due to thermal stresses. Researchers studied the effects of different process parameters related to the laser source, material and workpiece geometry on laser bending of metal sheets. The studies are focused on large sized sheets. The workpiece geometry parameters like sheet thickness, length and width also affect the bend angle considerably. In this work, the effects of width and thickness on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips were studied experimentally and numerically. Finite element model using ABAQUS® was developed to investigate the size effect on the prediction of the bend angle. Microhardness and flexure tests showed an increase in the flexural strength as well as microhardness in the scanned zone. The microstructures of the bent strips also supported the physical observations.

  7. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  8. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weterings, W.; Bracco, C.; Noulibos, R.; Sillanoli, Y.; Trappen van, P.

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H - beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H - charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H - into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  9. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  10. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  11. Dynamic underground stripping demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    LLNL is collaborating with the UC Berkeley College of Engineering to develop and demonstrate a system of thermal remediation techniques for rapid cleanup of localized underground spills. Called dynamic stripping to reflect the rapid and controllable nature of the process, it will combine steam injection, direct electrical heating, and tomographic geophysical imaging in a cleanup of the LLNL gasoline spill. In the first eight months of the project, a Clean Site engineering test was conducted to prove the field application of the techniques. Tests then began on the contaminated site in FY 1992. This report describes the work at the Clean Site, including design and performance criteria, test results, interpretations, and conclusions. We fielded 'a wide range of new designs and techniques, some successful and some not. In this document, we focus on results and performance, lessons learned, and design and operational changes recommended for work at the contaminated site. Each section focuses on a different aspect of the work and can be considered a self-contained contribution

  12. A Portable Colloidal Gold Strip Sensor for Clenbuterol and Ractopamine Using Image Processing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A portable colloidal golden strip sensor for detecting clenbuterol and ractopamine has been developed using image processing technology, as well as a novel strip reader has achieved innovatively with this imaging sensor. Colloidal gold strips for clenbuterol and ractopamine is used as first sensor with given biomedical immunication reaction. After three minutes the target sample dropped on, the color showing in the T line is relative to the content of objects as clenbuterol, this reader can finish many functions like automatic acquit ion of colored strip image, quantatively analysis of the color lines including the control line and test line, and data storage and transfer to computer. The system is integrated image collection, pattern recognition and real-time colloidal gold quantitative measurement. In experiment, clenbuterol and ractopamine standard substance with concentration from 0 ppb to 10 ppb is prepared and tested, the result reveals that standard solutions of clenbuterol and ractopamine have a good secondary fitting character with color degree (R2 is up to 0.99 and 0.98. Besides, through standard sample addition to the object negative substance, good recovery results are obtained up to 98 %. Above all, an optical sensor for colloidal strip measure is capable of determining the content of clenbuterol and ractopamine, it is likely to apply to quantatively identifying of similar reaction of colloidal golden strips.

  13. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  14. Method of stabilizing superconducting diffusion Nb3Sn strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, M.; Hlasnik, I.; Sabo, M.; Okali, D.

    1982-01-01

    The claim of the patent is a method consisting in the etching of the remnant of tin or bronze with HCl or a solution of HCl and HNO 3 or another suitable etching agent after the end of the diffusion process. Then the strip is copper coated in an alkaline solution containing Seignette salt, NaOH and CuSO 4 with a layer of copper 1 μm thick. On this layer is electrolytically plated the stabilizing copper in an acid copper-plating solution. This method makes it possible to obtain a contact resistance between the superconducting material and the copper stabilizing layer as low as 6 to 8x10 - 9 Ohm.cm - 2 and to increase the mechanical cohesion of the superconducting material and the stabilizing layer. (Ha)

  15. Comparative limnology of strip-mine lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, J D

    1964-01-01

    Lakes were classified according to chemical properties. The concentration of the ferric iron oxides was responsible for a reddish-black turbidity which, in turn, played a major role in the thermal stratification of red strip-mine lakes. Owing to the lack of measurable turbidity and as a result of selective absorption of visible solar radiation, other strip-mine lakes appeared blue in color. The annual heat budget and the summer heat budget are essentially equivalent under saline conditions. Regardless of the physical and chemical conditions of the strip-mine lakes, heat income was a function of the circulating water mass. The progressive oxidation and precipitation of the iron oxides is the key to the classification of strip-mine lakes.

  16. Buffer Strips for Riparian Zone Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    This study provides a review of technical literature concerning the width of riparian buffer strips needed to protect water quality and maintain other important values provided by riparian ecosystem...

  17. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  18. Flexible strip supercapacitors for future energy storage

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, R-R; Xu, Y-M; Harrison, D; Fyson, J; Qiu, F-L; Southee, D

    2015-01-01

    Flexible strip supercapacitors are developed and their electrochemical properties are characterized. Activated carbon is used as the electrode material and it is found to have a good porous structure which provides a large surface area for energy storage. Furthermore, this activated carbon performs well. The manufacturing processes for the supercapacitors are described in detail and the preparation process has good reproducibility. The strip supercapacitors are combined in series and parallel...

  19. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative comparison of 3 enamel-stripping devices in vitro: how precisely can we strip teeth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johner, Alexander Marc; Pandis, Nikolaos; Dudic, Alexander; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2013-04-01

    In this in-vitro study, we aimed to investigate the predictability of the expected amount of stripping using 3 common stripping devices on premolars. One hundred eighty extracted premolars were mounted and aligned in silicone. Tooth mobility was tested with Periotest (Medizintechnik Gulden, Modautal, Germany) (8.3 ± 2.8 units). The selected methods for interproximal enamel reduction were hand-pulled strips (Horico, Hapf Ringleb & Company, Berlin, Germany), oscillating segmental disks (O-drive-OD 30; KaVo Dental, Biberach, Germany), and motor-driven abrasive strips (Orthofile; SDC Switzerland, Lugano-Grancia, Switzerland). With each device, the operator intended to strip 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4 mm on the mesial side of 15 teeth. The teeth were scanned before and after stripping with a 3-dimensional laser scanner. Superposition and measurement of stripped enamel on the most mesial point of the tooth were conducted with Viewbox software (dHal Software, Kifissia, Greece). The Wilcoxon signed rank test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied; statistical significance was set at alpha ≤ 0.05. Large variations between the intended and the actual amounts of stripped enamel, and between stripping procedures, were observed. Significant differences were found at 0.1 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.05) for the hand-pulled method and at 0.4 mm of intended stripping (P ≤ 0.001 to P = 0.05) for all methods. For all scenarios of enamel reduction, the actual amount of stripping was less than the predetermined and expected amount of stripping. The Kruskal-Wallis analysis showed no significant differences between the 3 methods. There were variations in the stripped amounts of enamel, and the stripping technique did not appear to be a significant predictor of the actual amount of enamel reduction. In most cases, actual stripping was less than the intended amount of enamel reduction. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights

  1. Studies on the application of silicon strip counters in the ELAN experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listl, R.

    1989-02-01

    In this thesis it had to be shown whether it is possible to perform at the external electron beam at ELSA with its high background particle identification and track reconstruction with a strip counter. In order to have an as good as possible separation between true and false events a coincidence apparture was constructed. Because the signals which the strip counter yields are very small, it had to be provided that all disturbing signals are suppressed. The evaluation shows that by means of the taken measures coincident events can be well separated from background events. In 60% of all events a unique assignment of the event to only one strip is possible. The random rate can be reduced by additional detectors and the by this possible track reconstruction. By improvement of the duty cycle here a further improvement should arise. It is thus possible to perform with a silicon strip counter measurements at the ELAN experiment. By this the possibility results to improve the start-position resolution, the start-angle measurement, and the momentum reconstruction by this, that now a point (track) near to the target can be obtained. If the strip counter is added to the trigger one has a quite strong suppression of the background. (orig./HSI) [de

  2. Fully stripped heavy ion yield vs energy for Xe and Au ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Alonzo, J.; Gould, H.; Anholt, R.E.; Meyerhof, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Bevalac is now capable of accelerating U-238 ions to approximately 1 GeV/amu and measurements have shown that fully stripped U-238 ions are produced with good yield at these energies. However, knowing the stripping yields at different energies for U-238 does not allow an accurate prediction for other, lower Z projectiles. Consequently, extensive stripping yield measurements were made for Au-197 and Xe-139 ions. In addition to the stripping measurements from the direct Bevalac beam, pickup measurements were also made with specially prepared bare, one electron, and two electron ions. Since many research groups are considering heavy ion storage rings and/or synchrotrons, the pickup cross section for bare ions is important to estimate beam lifetime in terms of the average machine vacuum. Since the Mylar target provides a pickup probability similar to air, a preliminary analysis of the Xe 54+ and U 92+ data are presented along with predictions for other ions ranging down to Fe 26+ . 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  3. Fully stripped heavy ion yield vs energy for Xe and Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieberger, P.; Wegner, H.E.; Alonzo, J.; Gould, H.; Anholt, R.E.; Meyerhof, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Bevalac is now capable of accelerating U-238 ions to approximately 1 GeV/amu and measurements have shown that fully stripped U-238 ions are produced with good yield at these energies. However, knowing the stripping yields at different energies for U-238 does not allow an accurate prediction for other, lower Z projectiles. Consequently, extensive stripping yield measurements were made for Au-197 and Xe-139 ions. In addition to the stripping measurements from the direct Bevalac beam, pickup measurements were also made with specially prepared bare, one electron, and two electron ions. Since many research groups are considering heavy ion storage rings and/or synchrotrons, the pickup cross section for bare ions is important to estimate beam lifetime in terms of the average machine vacuum. Since the Mylar target provides a pickup probability similar to air, a preliminary analysis of the Xe/sup 54 +/ and U/sup 92 +/ data are presented along with predictions for other ions ranging down to Fe/sup 26 +/. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde from a loaded TBP phase containing Np

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Lim, Jae Kwan; Chung, Dong Yong; Yang, Han Beom; Kim, Kwang Wook

    2008-01-01

    The reductive stripping of Np using a n-butyraldehyde (NBA) from loaded organic solution containing Np, which was oxidative-extracted in a system of a 30 % TBP/NDD-2M HNO 3 and O/A=2 containing 0.005 M K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np, was studied. The stripping yields of Np was increased with an increasing the NBA concentration, with a decreasing the nitric acid concentration of stripping solution and with a decreasing the reaction temperature. The apparent reductive stripping rate equation was shown by the following equation : -d [Np]-O-r-g/dt = 1,524 exp(-2,906/T) [NBA] 0.92 [Np] Org . At 1.04 M NBA and 2 M HNO 3 , the stripping yield of Np and U was 70.1 %, and 7.1 %, respectively, and the separation factor of U over Np (=D U /D Np ) was about 30.4. Therefore, it was found that U and Np co-extracted in a system of TBP-NHO 3 could be effectively mutual-separated by the NBA.

  5. Adsorptive stripping voltammetry in lipophilic vitamins determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Sýs

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this contribution was to check if adsorptive stripping differential pulse voltammetry (AdSDPV is suitable tool for sensitive simultenous electrochemical detection of lipophilic vitamins. Retinol (vitamin A1, cholecalciferol (vitamin D3, α-tocopherol (vitamin E and phylloquinone (vitamin K1 were selected as representatives. All electrochemical measurements were performed in two separate steps due to the lipophilic character of the analytes. In the first step, an accumulation of lipophilic vitamin on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE was done by immersing working electrode into the aqueous‑acetonitrile solutions (50%, v/v of each vitamin (50.0 µmol.L-1 at 400 rpm for 5 min. In the second one, differential pulse voltammetry of accumulated vitamins was performed in 0.01 mol.L-1 acetate (pH 4.5 buffer at potential step (Estep 5 mV, potential of amplitude (Eampl 25 mV, interval time (t 0.1 s and scan rate (ν 50 mV.s-1. It was observed that electrochemical behaviour of lipophilic vitamins adsorbed on surface of solid GCE in the aqueous electrolyte was very similar to those performed in organic/aqueous electrolyte in literature. Due to reversible electrochemical behaviour of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone/phyllohydroquinone redox couple, it was possible to detect all lipophilic vitamins only in one analysis. Observed values of peak potentials (Ep were sufficiently different for their recognition which was confirmed by the analysis of real sample. The results obtained in this study showed that simultaneous determination of some lipophilic vitamins is possible requiring further optimization study. For this reason, it is necessary to understand this work as an initial step in simultaneous determination of lipophilic vitamins without application of any chromatographic technique.

  6. Calculation of the Strip Foundation on Solid Elastic Base, Taking into Account the Karst Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, R.; Lodigina, N.

    2017-07-01

    Karst processes greatly complicate the construction and operation of buildings and structures. Due to the karstic deformations at different times there have been several major accidents, which analysis showed that in all cases the fundamental errors committed at different stages of building development: site selection, engineering survey, design, construction or operation of the facilities. Theory analysis of beams on elastic foundation is essential in building practice. Specialist engineering facilities often have to resort to multiple designing in finding efficient forms of construction of these facilities. In work the calculation of stresses in cross-sections of the strip foundation evenly distributed load in the event of karst. A comparison of extreme stress in the event of karst and without accounting for the strip foundation as a beam on an elastic foundation.

  7. Development of readout electronics for monolithic integration with diode strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosticka, B.J.; Wrede, M.; Zimmer, G.; Kemmer, J.; Hofmann, R.; Lutz, G.

    1984-03-01

    Parallel in - serial out analog readout electronics integrated with silicon strip detectors will bring a reduction of two orders of magnitude in external electronics. The readout concept and the chosen CMOS technology solve the basic problem of low noise and low power requirements. A hybrid solution is an intermediate step towards the final goal of monolithic integration of detector and electronics. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of damping potential of strip damper on a real turbine blade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afzal, M.; Lopez Arteaga, I.; Kari, L.; Kharyton, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the damping potential of strip dampers on a real turbine bladed disk. A 3D numerical friction contact model is used to compute the contact forces by means of the Alternate Frequency Time domain method. The Jacobian matrix required during the iterative solution is computed in

  9. Stripping methods studies for HVOF WC-10Co-4Cr coating removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menini, Richard; Salah, Nihad Ben; Nciri, Rachid

    2004-04-01

    The use of high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) cermet coatings is considered to be a valuable and innovative alternative technology to replace Cr(VI) electroplating. Among others, a WC-10Co-4Cr coating is one of the best choices for landing gear components due to its excellent tribology and corrosion properties. The stripping process of such a cermet coating was studied due to its importance for the repair and overhaul of landing gear components. Stripping solutions fulfill the following criteria: keep substrate integrity; exhibit a high strip rate (SR); lead to uniform dissolution; show no galvanic corrosion; and be environmentally friendly. Three different high-strength steel substrates (4340, 300M, and Aermet100) were studied. Five different stripping solutions were selected for the electrochemical study. Only three met the targeted criteria: the meta-nitrobenzane sulfonate-sodium cyanide solution; the Rochelle salt; and a commercial nickel stripper. It was found that the process must be electrolytic, and that ultrasonic agitation is needed to enhance the overall mass transport and removal of WC particles and metallic matrix residues. When choosing the most efficient solution and conditions, the SR was found to be as high as 162 µm h-1, which is a very acceptable SR for productivity sake.

  10. Technical Design Report for the ATLAS Inner Tracker Strip Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Collaboration, ATLAS

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of two Technical Design Report documents that describe the upgrade of the central tracking system for the ATLAS experiment for the operation at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) starting in the middle of 2026. At this time the LHC will have been upgraded to reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of 7.5x10^34 cm^[-2]s^[-1], which corresponds to approximately 200 inelastic proton-proton collisions per beam crossing. The new Inner Tracker (ITk) will be operational for more than ten years, during which ATLAS aims to accumulate a total data set of 3,000 fb^[-1]. Meeting these requirements presents a unique challenge for the design of an all-silicon tracking system that consists of a pixel detector at small radius close to the beam line and a large-area strip tracking detector surrounding it. This document presents in detail the requirements of the new tracker, its layout and expected performance including the results of several benchmark physics studies at the highest numbers of collisions per beam...

  11. THIN DIAMOND FILMS FOR SNS H INJECTIONS STRIPPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHAW, R.W.; HERR, A.D.; FEIGERLE, C.S.; CUTLER, R.J.; LIAW, C.J.; LEE, Y.Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated the preparation and testing of thin diamond foils for use in stripping the SNS H - Linac beam. A long useful lifetime for these foils is desirable to improve operational efficiency. Preliminary data presented at PAC 2001 indicated that diamond foils were superior to conventional evaporated carbon foils, exhibiting lifetimes approximately five-fold longer [1]. That work employed a fully supported diamond foil, a format that is not acceptable for the SNS application; at least two edges of the approximately 1 x 1 cm foils must be free standing to allow for beam rastering. Residual stress in a chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond foil results in film distortion (scrolling) when the film is released from its silicon growth substrate. We have attacked this problem by initially patterning the surface of CVD growth substrates with a 50 or 100 line/inch trapezoidal grating, followed by conformal diamond film growth on the patterned substrate. Then removal of the substrate by chemical etching produced a foil that possessed improved mechanical integrity due to its corrugation. The high nucleation density required to grow continuous, pinhole free diamond foils of the desired thickness (1 (micro)m, 350 (micro)g/cm 2 ) was achieved by a combination of substrate surface scratching and seeding. A variety of diamond foils have been tested using the BNL 750 keV Radio Frequency Quadrupole H - beam to simulate energy loss in the SNS. Those include flat, corrugated, microcrystalline, and nanocrystalline foils. Foil lifetimes are reported

  12. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15 /cm 2 ) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10 15 p/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10 15 π/cm 2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations

  13. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D' Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; Eijk, B. van; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K.K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D. E-mail: dirk.meier@cern.ch; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L.S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J.L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R.J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A.M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S.V.; Thomson, G.B

    2002-01-11

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a {beta}-source and the performance before and after intense (>10{sup 15}/cm{sup 2}) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9x10{sup 15} {pi}/cm{sup 2} lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  14. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Deneuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S R; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R J; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a $\\beta$-source and the performance before and after intense ($>10^{15}/{\\rm cm^2}$) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiations increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiations with protons ($2.2\\times 10^{15}~p/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions ($2.9\\times 10^{15}~\\pi/{\\rm cm^2}$) lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  15. Performance of irradiated CVD diamond micro-strip sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, W.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bertuccio, G.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; D'Angelo, P.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Hallewell, G.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Koeth, T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; mac Lynne, L.; Manfredotti, C.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Moroni, L.; Noomen, J.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Perera, L.; Pirollo, S.; Procario, M.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Rousseau, L.; Rudge, A.; Russ, J.; Sala, S.; Sampietro, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trischuk, W.; Tromson, D.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; Wetstein, M.; White, C.; Zeuner, W.; Zoeller, M.; Plano, R.; Somalwar, S. V.; Thomson, G. B.

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond detectors are of interest for charged particle detection and tracking due to their high radiation tolerance. In this article, we present, for the first time, beam test results from recently manufactured CVD diamond strip detectors and their behavior under low doses of electrons from a β-source and the performance before and after intense (>10 15/cm 2) proton- and pion-irradiations. We find that low dose irradiation increase the signal-to-noise ratio (pumping of the signal) and slightly deteriorate the spatial resolution. Intense irradiation with protons 2.2×10 15 p/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio slightly. Intense irradiation with pions 2.9×10 15 π/ cm2 lowers the signal-to-noise ratio more. The spatial resolution of the diamond sensors improves after irradiations.

  16. Gold recovery from organic solvents using galvanic stripping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.; O`Keefe, T.J. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-08-01

    A novel process using solid metals for the direct reduction of more noble metal ions from solvent extraction organics has been developed. Base metals recovery has been the principal focus of investigations to date but feasibility tests have now also been made on galvanically stripping selected precious metals. In this study gold (III) was loaded from an aqueous HAuCl{sub 4}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O solution into a mixed organic 40 vol.% TBP, 10 vol.% D2EHPA in kerosene. The direct precipitation of metallic gold from the loaded organic phase using zinc powder and iron, aluminum and copper slabs at 70 C was successfully demonstrated. The gold reduction rates were relatively fast even though the conductivity of the organic solutions is very low. The reaction rates were studied as a function of the variables zinc particulate size, oxygen and nitrogen atmosphere, water content in the organic phase, organic ratios and temperature. The gold morphology was usually powdery or dendritic in nature but continuous films were obtained in some instances. Activation energies were calculated and possible reaction mechanisms are discussed. In general, the results obtained were very promising and showed that gold can be successfully cemented from selected organic solvents by galvanic stripping using less noble solid metal reductants.

  17. Superconducting nano-strip particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Casaburi, A; Zen, N; Ohkubo, M

    2015-01-01

    We review progress in the development and applications of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors. Particle detectors based on superconducting nano-strips stem from the parent devices developed for single photon detection (SSPD) and share with them ultra-fast response times (sub-nanosecond) and the ability to operate at a relatively high temperature (2–5 K) compared with other cryogenic detectors. SSPDs have been used in the detection of electrons, neutral and charged ions, and biological macromolecules; nevertheless, the development of superconducting nano-strip particle detectors has mainly been driven by their use in time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MSs) where the goal of 100% efficiency at large mass values can be achieved. Special emphasis will be given to this case, reporting on the great progress which has been achieved and which permits us to overcome the limitations of existing mass spectrometers represented by low detection efficiency at large masses and charge/mass ambiguity. Furthermore, such progress could represent a breakthrough in the field. In this review article we will introduce the device concept and detection principle, stressing the peculiarities of the nano-strip particle detector as well as its similarities with photon detectors. The development of parallel strip configuration is introduced and extensively discussed, since it has contributed to the significant progress of TOF-MS applications. (paper)

  18. Factors affecting hydrocarbon removal by air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper includes an overview of the theory of air stripping design considerations and the factors affecting stripper performance. Effects of temperature, contaminant characteristics, stripping tower geometry and air/water ratios on removal performance are discussed. The discussion includes treatment of groundwater contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents such as TCE and PCE. Control of VOC emissions from air strippers has become a major concern in recent years, due to more stringent restrictions on air quality in many areas. This paper includes an overview of available technology to control air emissions (including activated carbon adsorption, catalytic oxidation and steam stripping) and the effects of air emission control on overall efficiency of the treatment process. The paper includes an overview of the relative performance of various packing materials for air strippers and explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of comparative packing materials. Field conditions affecting selection of packing materials are also discussed. Practical guidelines for the design of air stripping systems are presented, as well as actual case studies of full-scale air stripping projects

  19. Properties isotropy of magnesium alloy strip workpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Р. Кавалла

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the issue of obtaining high quality cast workpieces of magnesium alloys produced by strip roll-casting. Producing strips of magnesium alloys by combining the processes of casting and rolling when liquid melt is fed continuously to fast rolls is quite promising and economic. In the process of sheet stamping considerable losses of metal occur on festoons formed due to anisotropy of properties of foil workpiece, as defined by the macro- and microstructure and modes of rolling and annealing. The principal causes of anisotropic mechanical properties of metal strips produced by the combined casting and rolling technique are the character of distribution of intermetallic compounds in the strip, orientation of phases of metal defects and the residual tensions. One of the tasks in increasing the output of fit products during stamping operations consists in minimizing the amount of defects. To lower the level of anisotropy in mechanical properties various ways of treating the melt during casting are suggested. Designing the technology of producing strips of magnesium alloys opens a possibility of using them in automobile industry to manufacture light-weight body elements instead of those made of steel.

  20. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  1. Chronopotentiometric stripping analysis of selenium using mercury film electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suturović Zvonimir J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most important experimental factors in chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CSA of selenium( IV using mercury film working electrode was examined. Interferences of copper, iron and lead were investigated as well. The possibility of avoiding prolonged deaeration of the solution was examined by applying medium exchange modification of the technique, where the dissolution of the deposit was performed in calcium-chloride solution. Detection limits obtained for the modification of the CSA with prior deaeration and medium exchange modification were 0.4 μg/dmJ and 1.15μg/dmJ, respectively. Accuracy of the defined techniques has been confirmed by analysing reference material (RM 8436 -wheat durum flour. The results obtained by applying both modifications of the technique showed a very good agreement of total selenium content with declareted value.

  2. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, Timo Hannu Tapani

    2014-01-01

    A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching to measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide the expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's...

  3. Analyses of edge effects on residual stresses in film strip/substrate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, Chun-Hway

    2000-01-01

    The residual stress distribution in a thin-film strip overlaid on a substrate is influenced by the edges of the strip. An analytical model is developed to derive a closed-form solution for the stress distribution along the film width. Because the film is much thinner than the substrate, the stress variation through the film thickness is ignored; however, the stress variation through the substrate thickness is considered in the analysis. Compared to the existing analytical models, the present model is more rigorous and the analytical results agree better with both finite element results and experimental measurements. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  4. Separation method for rare-earths using high-voltage electrophoresis on paper strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarence, J.

    1966-01-01

    The equipment includes an electrophoresis set running at 3 000 V and 20 mA. Two cooling plates are used as heat exchanger, and a pneumatic pressure device to insure an uniform pressure on the paper strip laid flat. The mobilities and the separations of the rare earths in lactic, and, α hydroxy-isobutyric acid solutions are investigated on cellulose acetate strip. Better results are obtained with α hydroxy-isobutyric acid. The method is rapid and allows a fine fractionation of rare earth elements within less than an hour. A complete separation of a Ce - Pr - Nd - Pm - Eu mixture, and a Y - Tb mixture is obtained. (author) [fr

  5. Influence for high intensity irradiation on characteristics of silicon strip-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Pugatch, V.M.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Silicon strip detectors (SSD) are widely used for the coordinate determination of short-range as well as minimum ionizing particles with high spatial resolution. Submicron position sensitivity of strip-detectors for short-range particles has been studied by means of two dimensional analyses of charges collected by neighboring strips as well as by measurement of charge collection times [1]. Silicon strip detectors was also used for testing high energy electron beam [2]. Under large fluences the radiation defects are stored and such characteristics of strip-detectors as an accuracy of the coordinate determination and the registration efficiency are significantly changed. Radiation defects lead to a decrease of the lifetime and mobility of charge carriers and therefore to changes of conditions for the charge collection in detectors. The inhomogeneity in spatial distribution if defects and electrical field plays an important role in the charge collection. In this report the role of the diffusion and drift in the charge collection in silicon strip-detectors under irradiation up to 10 Mrad has been studied. The electric field distribution and its dependence on the radiation dose in the detector have been calculated. It is shown that for particles incident between adjacent strips the coordinate determination precision depends strongly on the detector geometry and the electric field distribution, particularly in the vicinity of strips. Measuring simultaneously the collected charges and collection times on adjacent strips one can essentially improve reliability of the coordinate determination for short-range particles. Usually SSD are fabricated on n-type wafers. It is well known that under high intensity irradiation n-Si material converts into p-Si as far as p-type silicon is more radiative hard than n-type silicon [3] it is reasonable to fabricate SSD using high resistivity p-Si. Characteristics of SSD in basis n-and P-Si have been compared and higher

  6. Design, construction and measurements of an alpha magnet as a solution for compact bunch compressor for the electron beam from Thermionic RF Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, A.; Jazini, J.; Fathi, M.; Sharifian, M.; Shokri, B.

    2018-03-01

    The beam produced by a thermionic RF gun has wide energy spread that makes it unsuitable for direct usage in photon sources. Here in the present work, we optimize the extracted beam from a thermionic RF gun by a compact economical bunch compressor. A compact magnetic bunch compressor (Alpha magnet) is designed and constructed. A comparison between simulation results and experimental measurements shows acceptable conformity. The beam dynamics simulation results show a reduction of the energy spread as well as a compression of length less than 1 ps with 2.3 mm-mrad emittance.

  7. Optimal Cluster Mill Pass Scheduling With an Accurate and Rapid New Strip Crown Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, Arif S.; Grandhi, Ramana V.; Zipf, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    and predict the strip crown, a new customized semi-analytical modeling technique that couples the Finite Element Method (FEM) with classical solid mechanics was developed to model the deflection of the rolls and strip while under load. The technique employed offers several important advantages over traditional methods to calculate strip crown, including continuity of elastic foundations, non-iterative solution when using predetermined foundation moduli, continuous third-order displacement fields, simple stress-field determination, and a comparatively faster solution time

  8. Analysis of 'Coma strip' galaxy redshift catalog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klypin, A.A.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Lebedev, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    We present results of the analysis of a galaxy redshift catalog made at the 6-m telescope by Karachentsev and Kopylov (1990. Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc., 243, 390). The catalog covers a long narrow strip on the sky (10 arcmin by 63 0 ) and lists 283 galaxies up to limiting blue magnitude m B = 17.6. The strip goes through the core of Coma cluster and this is called the 'Coma strip' catalog. The catalog is almost two times deeper than the CfA redshift survey and creates the possibility of studying the galaxy distribution on scales of 100-250 Mpc. Due to the small number of galaxies in the catalog, we were able to estimate only very general and stable parameters of the distribution. (author)

  9. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  10. Selectivity in stripping of alkali-metal cations from crown ether carboxylate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Walkowiak, W.; Robison, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    To probe the effect of structural variations within the ionophore upon the efficiency and selectivity of solvent extraction, a variety of crown ether carboxylic acids and phosphonic acid monoesters have been synthesized. In other studies the influence of the organic diluent upon extraction efficiency and selectivity has been probed for such proton-ionizable crown ethers. In the present investigation, attention is focused upon selectivity in the stripping step. Although the efficiency of metal ion stripping is often examined in solvent extraction studies, the selectivity of competitive metal ion release under different conditions is much less frequently considered. In this study, competitive stripping of metal ions from chloroform solutions of five-alkali-metal crown ether carboxylates by varying concentrations of aqueous hydrochloric acid is examined. Alkali metals used were Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs

  11. Test strip and method for its use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test strip device is described which is useful in performing binding assays involving antigens, antibodies, hormones, vitamins, metabolites or pharmacological agents. The device is capable of application to analytical methods in which a set of sequential test reactions is involved and in which a minute sample size may be used. This test strip is particularly useful in radioimmunoassays. The use of the device is illustrated in radioimmunoassays for 1) thyroxine in serum, 2) the triiodothyronine binding capacity of serum and 3) folic acid and its analogues in serum. (U.K.)

  12. Stage- vs. Channel-strip Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Korsgaard, Dannie Michael; Büchert, Morten

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the stage metaphor and the channel strip metaphor in terms of performance. Traditionally, music mixing consoles employ a channels strip control metaphor for adjusting parameters such as volume and panning of each track. An alternative control metaphor, the so-called stage meta...... is surprisingly similar and thus we are not able to detect any significant difference in performance between the two interfaces. Qualitative data however, suggests that the stage metaphor is largely favoured for its intuitive interaction - confirming earlier studies....

  13. Comparative characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapienko, V.A.; Denisov, A.G.; Mel'nikov, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are provided for a study of the main characteristics of polystyrene scintillation strips with a cross-section of 200 x 10 mm with two different scintillation-additive compositions: 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% POPOP and 1.5% p-terphenyl + 0.01% DBP. The mean light-attenuation lengths are 180 cm and 260 cm, respectively, for strips with POPOP and DBP. The emittances of the polystyrene scintillators with DBP and POPOP additives have a ratio of 0.8:1.0 as recorded by an FEU-110 photomultiplier. 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. Wide Strip Casting Technology of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, W.-J.; Kim, J. J.; Kim, I. J.; Choo, D.

    Extensive investigations relating to the production of high performance and low cost magnesium sheet by strip casting have been performed for the application to automotive parts and electronic devices. Research on magnesium sheet production technology started in 2004 by Research Institute of Industrial Science and Technology (RIST) with support of Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). POSCO has completed the world's first plant to manufacture magnesium coil. Another big project in order to develop wide strip casting technology for the automotive applications of magnesium sheets was started in succession.

  15. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  16. Method and apparatus for laser-controlled proton beam radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    A proton beam radiology system provides cancer treatment and proton radiography. The system includes an accelerator for producing an H.sup.- beam and a laser source for generating a laser beam. A photodetachment module is located proximate the periphery of the accelerator. The photodetachment module combines the H.sup.- beam and laser beam to produce a neutral beam therefrom within a subsection of the H.sup.- beam. The photodetachment module emits the neutral beam along a trajectory defined by the laser beam. The photodetachment module includes a stripping foil which forms a proton beam from the neutral beam. The proton beam is delivered to a conveyance segment which transports the proton beam to a patient treatment station. The photodetachment module further includes a laser scanner which moves the laser beam along a path transverse to the cross-section of the H.sup.- beam in order to form the neutral beam in subsections of the H.sup.- beam. As the scanning laser moves across the H.sup.- beam, it similarly varies the trajectory of the proton beam emitted from the photodetachment module and in turn varies the target location of the proton beam upon the patient. Intensity modulation of the proton beam can also be achieved by controlling the output of the laser.

  17. Splitting of high power, cw proton beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for splitting a high power, continuous wave (cw proton beam in two or more branches with low losses has been developed in the framework of the EURISOL (European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility design study. The aim of the system is to deliver up to 4 MW of H^{-} beam to the main radioactive ion beam production target, and up to 100 kW of proton beams to three more targets, simultaneously. A three-step method is used, which includes magnetic neutralization of a fraction of the main H^{-} beam, magnetic splitting of H^{-} and H^{0}, and stripping of H^{0} to H^{+}. The method allows slow raising and individual fine adjustment of the beam intensity in each branch.

  18. Solvent wash solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neace, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution comprising an admixture of an organic extractant for uranium and plutonium and a non-polar organic liquid diluent, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. Comprising combining a wash solution consisting of: (a) water; and (b) a positive amount up to about, an including, 50 volume percent of at least one highly-polar water-miscible organic solvent, based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent, with the solvent extraction solution after uranium and plutonium values have been stripped from the solvent extraction solution, the diluent degradation products dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent and the extractant and diluent of the extraction solution not dissolving in the highly-polar organic solvent, and separating the highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solution to obtain a purified extraction solution

  19. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  20. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  1. Impurities that cause difficulty in stripping actinides from commercial tetraalkylcarbamoylmethylphosphonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahner, C.T.; Shoun, R.R.; McDowell, W.J.

    1977-09-01

    Dihexyl[(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl]phosphonate (DHDECMP) in diethylbenzene extracts actinides well from 6 M nitric acid solution, but commercially available DHDECMP contains impurities which interfere with stripping the actinides from the organic extract. DHDECMP purified by molecular distillation does not contain these impurities, but the pot residue contains increased concentrations of them. Heating the purified DHDECMP causes the formation of products which interfere with stripping in the same way, suggesting that high temperatures employed in the manufacture of DHDECMP may produce the offending impurities. These impurities can be separated from the heat-decomposed material or the pot residues by dilution with a large volume of hexanes (causing part of the impurities to separate as a second liquid phase) followed by equilibration of the hexane solution with dilute alkali. After the treatment with hexane and dilute alkali, the DHDECMP is readily recovered and functions well in the actinide extraction process. Dibutyl[(dibutylcarbamoyl)methyl]-phosphonate (DBDBCMP) and di(2-ethylhexyl)[(diethylcarbamoyl)-methyl]phosphonate (DEHDECMP) are purified less effectively by these methods. Similar separation methods using diethylbenzene or CCl 4 as solvent do not remove impurities as completely as the hexane process. Impurities can also be removed from a benzene solution of the DHDECMP pot residue by passing it through a column packed with silica gel or diethylaminoethyl cellulose. These impurities have been separated into fractions for analytical examination by use of various solvents and by column chromatography. Hexyl hydrogen [(diethylcarbamoyl)methyl]-phosphonate has been identified tentatively as a principal objectionable impurity. Dihexyl phosphoric acid and possibly dihexylphosphonate have been identified in other fractions

  2. Linear sweep anodic stripping voltammetry: Determination of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of this work is to determine Cr(VI) in water resources by anodic stripping voltammetry using SPE-. AuNPs modified electrode .... surface area about 4 fold). 3.2 Optimization of Parameters ..... in water samples. The above system offers a.

  3. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  4. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  5. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  6. Nanoscale Test Strips for Multiplexed Blood Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eugene

    2015-01-01

    A critical component of the DNA Medicine Institute's Reusable Handheld Electrolyte and Lab Technology for Humans (rHEALTH) sensor are nanoscale test strips, or nanostrips, that enable multiplexed blood analysis. Nanostrips are conceptually similar to the standard urinalysis test strip, but the strips are shrunk down a billionfold to the microscale. Each nanostrip can have several sensor pads that fluoresce in response to different targets in a sample. The strips carry identification tags that permit differentiation of a specific panel from hundreds of other nanostrip panels during a single measurement session. In Phase I of the project, the company fabricated, tested, and demonstrated functional parathyroid hormone and vitamin D nanostrips for bone metabolism, and thrombin aptamer and immunoglobulin G antibody nanostrips. In Phase II, numerous nanostrips were developed to address key space flight-based medical needs: assessment of bone metabolism, immune response, cardiac status, liver metabolism, and lipid profiles. This unique approach holds genuine promise for space-based portable biodiagnostics and for point-of-care (POC) health monitoring and diagnostics here on Earth.

  7. KRITIK SOSIAL DALAM KOMIK STRIP PAK BEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudhi Novriansyah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to do interpret the marking which flange social criticism and know laboring ideology in story of Comic Strip Pak Bei. Research based on theory of structural semiotic according to Ferdinand De Saussure. Using analysis of Syntagmatic as first level of meaning to the text network and also picture, and analysis of Paradigmatic as second level of meaning or implicit meaning (connota-tion, myth, ideology Analysis done to six Comic choice edition of Strip Pak Bei period of November 2004 - Februari 2005 which tend to flange social criticism. At band of syntagmatic, result of research indicate that story theme lifted from social problems that happened in major society. The fact clear progressively when connected by Intertextual with information and texts which have preexisted. At band of Paradigmatic, social criticism tend to emerge dimly, is not transparent. Because of Comic Strip Pak Bei expand in the middle of Java cultural domination that developing myth of criticize as action menacing compatibility and orderliness of society. Story of Comic Strip Pak Bei also confirm dominant ideology in Java society culture, namely ideology of Patriarkhi and Feudalism which still go into effect until now. This prove ideology idea according to Louis Althusser which not again opposition between class, but have been owned and practiced by all social class.

  8. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  9. The Laser Alignment System for the CMS silicon strip tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Olzem, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The Laser Alignment System (LAS) of the CMS silicon strip Tracker has been designed for surveying the geometry of the large-scale Tracker support structures. It uses 40 laser beams ($\\lambda$ = 1075 nm) that induce signals on a subset of the Tracker silicon sensors. The positions in space of the laser spots on the sensors are reconstructed with a resolution of 30 $\\mu$m. From this, the LAS is capable of permanent in-time monitoring of the different Tracker components relative to each other with better than 30 $\\mu$m precision. Additionally, it can provide an absolute measurement of the Tracker mechanical structure with an accuracy better than 70 $\\mu$m, thereby supplying additional input to the track based alignment at detector startup. 31 out of the 40 LAS beams have been successfully operated during the CMS cosmic muon data taking campaign in autumn 2008. The alignment of the Tracker Endcap Discs and of the discs with respect to the Tracker Inner Barrel and Tracker Outer Barrel subdetectors was measured w...

  10. Incomplete charge collection in an HPGe double-sided strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Jason; Wehe, David

    2008-01-01

    For gamma-ray detection, high-purity germanium (HPGe) has long been the standard for energy resolution, and double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) offer the possibility of sub-millimeter position resolution. Our HPGe DSSD is 81 mm in diameter, 11-mm thick, and has 3-mm strip pitch with a gap width of 500 μm. In this work, we focus on characterizing just the interactions that occur between collecting strips. Simulation and measurement results for our HPGe DSSD show that the gap between strips is the most position-sensitive region. But, spectra collected from events that occur in and near the gaps are complicated by: (1) incomplete charge-carrier collection, or charge loss; (2) signal variance introduced by charge-carrier cloud size, orientation, and lateral spreading; and (3) the difficulty of distinguishing single interactions from multiple close interactions. Using tightly, collimated beams of monoenergetic gamma rays, the measured energy spectra at the gap center show that incomplete charge collection is significant in our detector at 356 and 662 keV, resulting in degradation of the photopeak efficiency. Additionally, close interactions are identifiable in the spectra. Thus, close interactions must be identified on an event-by-event basis in order to precisely identify gap interaction position or make charge-loss corrections at these energies. Furthermore, spectral differences are observed between anode and cathode gaps, and a possible reason for this asymmetry is proposed

  11. Ductility of reinforced concrete columns confined with stapled strips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, M.F.; Khan, Q.U.Z.; Shabbir, F.; Sharif, M.B.; Ijaz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Response of three 150x150x450mm short reinforced concrete (RC) columns confined with different types of confining steel was investigated. Standard stirrups, strips and stapled strips, each having same cross-sectional area, were employed as confining steel around four comer column bars. Experimental work was aimed at probing into the affect of stapled strip confinement on post elastic behavior and ductility level under cyclic axial load. Ductility ratios, strength enhancement factor and core concrete strengths were compared to study the affect of confinement. Results indicate that strength enhancement in RC columns due to strip and stapled strip confinement was not remarkable as compared to stirrup confined column. It was found that as compared to stirrup confined column, stapled strip confinement enhanced the ductility of RC column by 183% and observed axial capacity of stapled strip confined columns was 41 % higher than the strip confined columns. (author)

  12. Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gazvoda, S.; Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam

    Strip reduction testing of lubricants developed during ENFORM project. Experiments were conducted with the strip reduction test [1] in order to classify experimental lubricants, developed during concerned project. One reference lubricant was used during testing....

  13. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  14. Parallel superconducting strip-line detectors: reset behaviour in the single-strip switch regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casaburi, A; Heath, R M; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Cristiano, R; Ejrnaes, M; Nappi, C

    2014-01-01

    Superconducting strip-line detectors (SSLDs) are an important emerging technology for the detection of single molecules in time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). We present an experimental investigation of a SSLD laid out in a parallel configuration, designed to address selected single strip-lines operating in the single-strip switch regime. Fast laser pulses were tightly focused onto the device, allowing controllable nucleation of a resistive region at a specific location and study of the subsequent device response dynamics. We observed that in this regime, although the strip-line returns to the superconducting state after triggering, no effective recovery of the bias current occurs, in qualitative agreement with a phenomenological circuit simulation that we performed. Moreover, from theoretical considerations and by looking at the experimental pulse amplitude distribution histogram, we have the first confirmation of the fact that the phenomenological London model governs the current redistribution in these large area devices also after detection events. (paper)

  15. Study the Z-Plane Strip Capacitance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, H.; Swain, S.

    2005-01-01

    The BaBaR detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center is currently undergoing an upgrade to improve its muon and neutral hadron detection system. The Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) that had been used till now have deteriorated in performance over the past few years and are being replaced by Limited Streamer Tube (LSTs). Each layer of the system consists of a set of up to 10 streamer tube modules which provide one coordinate (φ coordinate) and a single ''Z-plane'' which provides the Z coordinate of the hit. The large area Z-planes (up to 12m 2 ) are 1mm thick and contain 96 copper strips that detect the induced charge from avalanches created in the streamer tube wires. All the Z-planes needed for the upgrade have already been constructed, but only a third of the planes were installed last summer. After installing the 24 Z-planes last year, it was learned that 0.7% of the strips were dead when put inside the detector. This was mainly due to the delicate solder joint between the read-out cable and the strip, and since it is difficult to access or replace the Z-planes inside the detector, it is very important to perform various tests to make sure that the Z-planes will be efficient and effective in the long term. We measure the capacitance between the copper strips and the ground plane, and compare it to the theoretical value that we expect. Instead of measuring the capacitance channel by channel, which would be a very tedious job, we developed a more effective method of measuring the capacitance. Since all the Z-planes were built at SLAC, we also built a smaller 46 cm by 30 cm Z-plane with 12 strips just to see how they were constructed and to gain a better understanding about the solder joints

  16. Investigation of Mercury Reduction in Gold Stripping Process at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudya, Irawan

    Mercury is present in many gold ores. By processing these ores, there is a potential of emitting mercury to the environment. Carbon regeneration kiln stacks have been observed as one of the primary source of mercury emission into the atmosphere. Before it is recycled back into the carbon in leach (CIL) or carbon in columns (CIC), carbon used in the gold extraction process needs to be reactivated thermally. Emission of mercury can be minimized by keeping the mercury left in the carbon low before it goes to the carbon regeneration kiln stacks. The objective of this study is establishing the optimum elution conditions of mercury cyanide from loaded carbon (which includes the eluent, concentration, temperature and elution time) with respect to gold stripping. Several methods such as acid washing (UNR-100, HCl or ethanol/UNR-100) were investigated prior to the stripping process. Furthermore, conventional pressurized Zadra and modified Zadra were also studied with regards to mercury concentration in the solution and vapor state as well as maximizing the gold stripping from industrial loaded carbon. 7% UNR-100 acid washing of loaded carbon at 80°C was able to wash out approximately 90% of mercury while maintaining the gold adsorption on the carbon (selective washing). The addition of alcohol in the UNR-100 acid washing solution was able to enhance mercury washing from 90% to 97%. Furthermore, mercury stripping using conventional pressurized (cyanide-alkaline) Zadra was best performed at 80°C (minimal amount of mercury reduced and volatilized) whereas using the same process only 40% of gold was stripped, which makes this process not viable. When alcohol was added to the stripping solution, at 80°C, 95% of gold was detected in the solution while keeping the reduction and volatilization of mercury low. The outcome of this study provides a better understanding of mercury behavior during the acid washing and stripping processes so that the risk of mercury exposure and

  17. Advection endash diffusion past a strip. II. Oblique incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knessl, C.; Keller, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Advection and diffusion of particles past an impenetrable strip is considered when the strip is oblique to the advection or drift velocity. The particle concentration p(x,y) is determined asymptotically for large values of vL/D, where v is the drift velocity, D is the diffusion coefficient, and 2L is the width of the strip. The results complement those of Part I, which treated a strip normal to the drift velocity. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  18. 7 CFR 29.6128 - Straight Stripped (X Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Straight Stripped (X Group). 29.6128 Section 29.6128... REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6128 Straight Stripped (X Group). This group consists of..., and tolerances X1 Fine Quality Straight Stripped. Heavy, ripe, firm, semielastic, normal strength and...

  19. Transparent silicon strip sensors for the optical alignment of particle detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, W.; Kroha, H.; Widmann, P.

    1995-05-01

    Modern large-area precision tracking detectors require increasing accuracy for the alignment of their components. A novel multi-point laser alignment system has been developed for such applications. The position of detector components with respect to reference laser beams is monitored by semi-transparent optical position sensors which work on the principle of silicon strip photodiodes. Two types of custom designed transparent strip sensors, based on crystalline and on amorphous silicon as active material, have been studied. The sensors are optimised for the typical diameters of collimated laser beams of 3-5 mm over distances of 10-20 m. They provide very high position resolution, on the order of 1 μm, uniformly over a wide measurement range of several centimeters. The preparation of the sensor surfaces requires special attention in order to achieve high light transmittance and minimum distortion of the traversing laser beams. At selected wavelengths, produced by laser diodes, transmission rates above 90% have been achieved. This allows to position more than 30 sensors along one laser beam. The sensors will be equipped with custom designed integrated readout electronics. (orig.)

  20. Performance of the CAMEX64 silicon strip readout chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarema, R.J.

    1989-06-01

    The CAMEX64 is a 64 channel full custom CMOS chip designed specifically for the readout of silicon strip detectors. CAMEX which stands for CMOS Multichannel Analog MultiplEXer for Silicon Strip Detectors was designed by members of the Franhofer Institute for Microelectronic Circuits and Systems and the Max Planck Institute for Physics and Astrophysics. Each CAMEX channel has a switched capacitor charge sensitive amplifier with 4 sampling capacitors and a multiplexing scheme for reading out each of the channels on an analog bus. The device uses multiple sampling capacitors to filter and reduce input noise. Filtering is controlled through sampling techniques using external clocks. The device operates in a double correlated sampling mode and therefore cannot separate detector leakage current from a charge input. Normal operation of this device is similar to all other silicon readout chips designed and built thus far in that there is a data acquisition cycle during which charge is simultaneously accepted on all channels for a short period of time from a detector array, followed by a readout cycle where that charge or hit information is read out. This device works especially well for colliding beam experiments where the time of charge arrival is accurately known. However it can be used in fixed target or asynchronous mode where the time of charge arrival is not well known. In the asynchronous mode it appears that gain is somewhat dependent on the time interval required to decide whether or not to accept charge input information and thus the maximum signal to noise performance found with the synchronous mode may not be achieved in the asynchronous mode. 18 figs., 5 tabs

  1. The CMS silicon strip tracker and its electronic readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, M.

    2001-05-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva, CH) will be the world's biggest accelerator machine when operation starts in 2006. One of its four detector experiments is the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), consisting of a large-scale silicon tracker and electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, all embedded in a solenoidal magnetic field of 4 T, and a muon system surrounding the magnet coil. The Silicon Strip Tracker has a sensitive area of 206m 2 with 10 million analog channels which are read out at the collider frequency of 40 MHz. The building blocks of the CMS Tracker are the silicon sensors, APV amplifier ASICs, supporting front-end ASICs, analog and digital optical links as well as data processors and control units in the back-end. Radiation tolerance, readout speed and the huge data volume are challenging requirements. The charge collection in silicon detectors was modeled, which is discussed as well as the concepts of readout amplifiers with respect to the LHC requirements, including the deconvolution method of fast pulse shaping, electronic noise constraints and radiation effects. Moreover, extensive measurements on prototype components of the CMS Tracker and different versions of the APV chip in particular were performed. There was a significant contribution to the construction of several detector modules, characterized them in particle beam tests and quantified radiation induced effects on the APV chip and on silicon detectors. In addition, a prototype of the analog optical link and the analog performance of the back-end digitization unit were evaluated. The results are very encouraging, demonstrating the feasibility of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker system and motivating progress towards the construction phase. (author)

  2. Adaptive Automatic Gauge Control of a Cold Strip Rolling Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMAN, N.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles with thickness control structure of the cold rolled strips. This structure is based on the rolls position control of a reversible quarto rolling mill. The main feature of the system proposed in the paper consists in the compensation of the errors introduced by the deficient dynamics of the hydraulic servo-system used for the rolls positioning, by means of a dynamic compensator that approximates the inverse system of the servo-system. Because the servo-system is considered variant over time, an on-line identification of the servo-system and parameter adapting of the compensator are achieved. The results obtained by numerical simulation are presented together with the data taken from real process. These results illustrate the efficiency of the proposed solutions.

  3. About solution of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method and discrete-continual finite element method. part 1: formulation of the problem and general principles of approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyakhovich Leonid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to formulation and general principles of approximation of multipoint boundary problem of static analysis of deep beam with the use of combined application of finite element method (FEM discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. The field of application of DCFEM comprises structures with regular physical and geometrical parameters in some dimension (“basic” dimension. DCFEM presupposes finite element approximation for non-basic dimension while in the basic dimension problem remains continual. DCFEM is based on analytical solutions of resulting multipoint boundary problems for systems of ordinary differential equations with piecewise-constant coefficients.

  4. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, P.

    2014-07-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 1014neqcm-2. Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors.

  5. Systematic characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip sensors for the Silicon Tracking System of the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, P

    2014-01-01

    The Silicon Tracking System (STS) is the central detector of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at future Facility for Anti-proton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt. The task of the STS is to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles originating at relatively high multiplicities from the high rate beam-target interactions. The tracker comprises of 300 μm thick silicon double-sided micro-strip sensors. These sensors should be radiation hard in order to reconstruct charged particles up to a maximum radiation dose of 1 × 10 14 n eq cm −2 . Systematic characterization allows us to investigate the sensor response and perform quality assurance (QA) tests. In this paper, systematic characterization of prototype double-sided silicon micro-strip sensors will be discussed. This procedure includes visual, passive electrical, and radiation hardness test. Presented results include tests on three different prototypes of silicon micro-strip sensors

  6. Scaling of ammonia stripping towers in the treatment of groundwater polluted by municipal solid waste landfill leachate: study of the causes of scaling and its effects on stripping performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Viotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the causes of the scaling of stripping towers used for the treatment of groundwater polluted by the leachate from an old municipal solid waste (MSW landfill in northern Italy. The effects of the scaling on the stripping performance are also reported. The whole process consists of a coagulation-flocculation pre-treatment at pH > 11, followed by an ammonia stripping stage, after heating the water to 38°C in order to improve removal efficiency. The stripped ammonia is recovered by absorption with sulfuric acid, producing a 30% solution of ammonium sulfate (reused as a base fertilizer. The effluent air stream is recirculated to the stripping towers (closed loop systems in order to avoid an excessive temperature drop inside the packings, mainly in winter, with consequent loss of efficiency and risk of icing. The progressive scaling of the packing has resulted in a loss of ammonia removal efficiency from an initial value of 98% (clean packing down to 80% after six months of continuous operation, necessitating a chemical cleaning. Optimum conditions for design and operation of the stripping process are also documented.

  7. Developing silicon strip detectors with a large-scale commercial foundry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    König, A., E-mail: axel.koenig@oeaw.ac.at [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Bartl, U. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, J. [Infineon Technologies Austria AG, Villach (Austria); Treberspurg, W. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-07-11

    Since 2009 the Institute of High Energy Physics (HEPHY) in Vienna is developing a production process for planar silicon strip sensors on 6-in. wafers together with the semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies. Four runs with several batches of wafers, each comprising six different sensors, were manufactured and characterized. A brief summary of the recently completed 6-in. campaign is given. Milestones in sensor development as well as techniques to improve the sensor quality are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on a failure causing areas of defective strips which accompanied the whole campaign. Beam tests at different irradiation facilities were conducted to validate the key capability of particle detection. Another major aspect is to prove the radiation hardness of sensors produced by Infineon. Therefore, neutron irradiation studies were performed.

  8. Imaging the Hidden Modes of Ultrathin Plasmonic Strip Antennas by Cathodoluminescence

    KAUST Repository

    Barnard, Edward S.

    2011-10-12

    We perform spectrally resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging nanoscopy using a 30 keV electron beam to identify the resonant modes of an ultrathin (20 nm), laterally tapered plasmonic Ag nanostrip antenna. We resolve with deep-subwavelength resolution four antenna resonances (resonance orders m = 2-5) that are ascribed to surface plasmon polariton standing waves that are confined on the strip. We map the local density of states on the strip surface and show that it has contributions from symmetric and antisymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes, each with a very different mode index. This work illustrates the power of CL experiments that can visualize hidden modes that for symmetry reasons have been elusive in optical light scattering experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. The control system of the multi-strip ionization chamber for the HIMM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min, E-mail: limin@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yuan, Y.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Mao, R.S., E-mail: Maorsh@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xu, Z.G.; Li, Peng; Zhao, T.C.; Zhao, Z.L. [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang, Nong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-03-11

    Heavy Ion Medical Machine (HIMM) is a carbon ion cancer treatment facility which is being built by the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) in China. In this facility, transverse profile and intensity of the beam at the treatment terminals will be measured by the multi-strip ionization chamber. In order to fulfill the requirement of the beam position feedback to accomplish the beam automatic commissioning, less than 1 ms reaction time of the Data Acquisition (DAQ) of this detector must be achieved. Therefore, the control system and software framework for DAQ have been redesigned and developed with National Instruments Compact Reconfigurable Input/Output (CompactRIO) instead of PXI 6133. The software is Labview-based and developed following the producer–consumer pattern with message mechanism and queue technology. The newly designed control system has been tested with carbon beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility at Lanzhou-Cooler Storage Ring (HIRFL-CSR) and it has provided one single beam profile measurement in less than 1 ms with 1 mm beam position resolution. The fast reaction time and high precision data processing during the beam test have verified the usability and maintainability of the software framework. Furthermore, such software architecture is easy-fitting to applications with different detectors such as wire scanner detector.

  10. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  11. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  12. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  13. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  14. Electron capture by highly stripped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenland, P.T.

    1981-06-01

    This review describes theories of electron capture suitable for the description of rearrangement collisions between atomic hydrogen and completely stripped projectiles with charge greater than unity. The region of impact velocity considered lies between 0.05 and 3 au, which is of technological importance in fusion power devices. The semiclassical, impact parameter formalism is discussed and the use of atomic expansions at medium impact velocity is described. Experimental results for both completely and partially stripped projectiles are reviewed. The use of a molecular basis at low energy, and the role of pseudocrossings peculiar to the two centre Coulomb interaction are described. Finally, purely classical techniques, in which the electron wavefunction is represented by an ensemble of Kepler orbits are considered. The review was completed in February 1981. (author)

  15. Large strip RPCs for the LEPS2 TOF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomida, N., E-mail: natsuki@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Niiyama, M. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ohnishi, H. [RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research), Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tran, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hsieh, C.-Y.; Chu, M.-L.; Chang, W.-C. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-Y. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC), Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    High time-resolution resistive plate chambers (RPCs) with large-size readout strips are developed for the time-of-flight (TOF) detector system of the LEPS2 experiment at SPring-8. The experimental requirement is a 50-ps time resolution for a strip size larger than 100 cm{sup 2}/channel. We are able to achieve 50-ps time resolutions with 2.5×100 cm{sup 2} strips by directly connecting the amplifiers to strips. With the same time resolution, the number of front-end electronics (FEE) is also reduced by signal addition. - Highlights: • Find a way to achieve a good time resolution with a large strip RPC. • 2.5 cm narrow strips have better resolutions than 5.0 cm ones. • The 0.5 mm narrow strip interval shows flat time resolutions between strips. • FEEs directly connected to strips make the signal reflection at the strip edge small. • A time resolution of 50 ps was achieved with 2.5 cm×100 cm strips.

  16. Dose field simulation for products irradiated by electron beams: formulation of the problem and its step by step solution with EGS4 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhno, I.L.; Roginets, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    When performing radiation treatment of products using an electron beam much time and money should be spent for numerous measurements to make optimal choice of treatment mode. Direct radiation treatment simulation by means of the EGS4 computer code fails to describe such measurement results correctly. In the paper a multi-step radiation treatment planning procedure is suggested which consists in fitting the EGS4 simulation results to reference measurement results, and using the fitted electron beam parameters and other ones in subsequent computer simulations. It is shown that the fitting procedure should be performed separately for each material or product type. The procedure suggested allows to replace measurements by computer simulations and therefore reduces significantly time and money required for such measurements. (author)

  17. Ram pressure stripping of tilted galaxies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jáchym, Pavel; Köppen, J.; Palouš, Jan; Combes, F.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 500, č. 2 (2009), s. 693-703 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014; GA ČR GP205/08/P556 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : interstellar medium * clusters of galaxies * gas stripping Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.179, year: 2009

  18. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.N.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Novikov, E.A.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Shafranov, M.D.; Zhiltsov, V.E.

    1995-01-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented. (orig.)

  19. Cathode readout with stripped resistive drift tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkov, V. N.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Novikov, E. A.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Shafranov, M. D.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    1995-12-01

    A straw tube drift chamber prototype has been constructed and tested. The straw tube material is mylar film covered with a carbon layer with a resistivity of 0.5, 30 and 70 kΩ/□. Both the anode wire and the cathode strip signals were detected to study the behaviour of the chamber in the presence of X-ray ionization. The construction and the results of the study are presented.

  20. A laser-wire beam-energy and beam-profile monitor at the BNL linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, R.; Degen, C.; DeSanto, L.; Meng, W.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Nayak, S.

    2011-03-28

    In 2009 a beam-energy monitor was installed in the high energy beam transport (HEBT) line at the Brookhaven National Lab linac. This device measures the energies of electrons stripped from the 40mA H{sup -} beam by background gas. Electrons are stripped by the 2.0x10{sup -7}torr residual gas at a rate of {approx}1.5x10{sup -8}/cm. Since beam electrons have the same velocities as beam protons, the beam proton energy is deduced by multiplying the electron energy by m{sub p}/m{sub e}=1836. A 183.6MeV H{sup -} beam produces 100keV electrons. In 2010 we installed an optics plates containing a laser and scanning optics to add beam-profile measurement capability via photodetachment. Our 100mJ/pulse, Q-switched laser neutralizes 70% of the beam during its 10ns pulse. This paper describes the upgrades to the detector and gives profile and energy measurements.

  1. Simetría y nuevas soluciones de la ecuación de vibraciones de una viga elástica Symmetry and new solutions of the equation for vibrations of an elastic beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Álvarez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia la “no Lie” simetría de la ecuación de viga, se construyen todos los operadores de simetría diferenciales lineales, hasta tercer orden. Se constata que el problema de resolución de dicha ecuación se reduce a la búsqueda de soluciones de dos ecuaciones de Kolmogorov. Se despejan varias clases de soluciones de la ecuación, particularmente las que verifican la ley de conservación de la velocidad areolar inicial y las que verifican la ley de conservación de elasticidad inicial. Se ilustra la equivalencia entre el problema de Cauchy y la existencia de una simetría específica. Se encuentra el paralelismo sorprendente que existe entre la ecuación de viga y la ecuación de onda. Aplicando el “método Ansatz” se construye una amplia familia de nuevas soluciones exactas que incluye particularmente las que describen la propagación de ondas con amortiguamiento. Todos los resultados del artículo son nuevos, los pocos resultados conocidos en la literatura son siempre mencionados.In this short paper it is studied the “not Lie” symmetry of the beam equation. All operators of symmetry linear differential until third order are constructed. It is noted that the resolution of this equation reduces to finding solutions of two Kolmogorov equations. Several class of new solutions of the beam equation are found, particularly those that verify the law of conservation of the initial areolar speed and other that verify the law of conservation of the initial elasticity. It is showed the equivalence between the solution of the problem Cauchy and the existence of a specific symmetry. It is found a parallelism between the beam equation and the wave equation. Using the Ansatz method a wide new family of exact solutions is built. This family includes particularly the solutions which describe the propagation of damped waves. All results of this paper are new.

  2. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  3. The Argonne silicon strip-detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuosmaa, A H; Back, B B; Betts, R R; Freer, M; Gehring, J; Glagola, B G; Happ, Th; Henderson, D J; Wilt, P [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bearden, I G [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    Many nuclear physics experiments require the ability to analyze events in which large numbers of charged particles are detected and identified simultaneously, with good resolution and high efficiency, either alone, or in coincidence with gamma rays. The authors have constructed a compact large-area detector array to measure these processes efficiently and with excellent energy resolution. The array consists of four double-sided silicon strip detectors, each 5x5 cm{sup 2} in area, with front and back sides divided into 16 strips. To exploit the capability of the device fully, a system to read each strip-detector segment has been designed and constructed, based around a custom-built multi-channel preamplifier. The remainder of the system consists of high-density CAMAC modules, including multi-channel discriminators, charge-sensing analog-to-digital converters, and time-to-digital converters. The array`s performance has been evaluated using alpha-particle sources, and in a number of experiments conducted at Argonne and elsewhere. Energy resolutions of {Delta}E {approx} 20-30 keV have been observed for 5 to 8 MeV alpha particles, as well as time resolutions {Delta}T {<=} 500 ps. 4 figs.

  4. CLOSED-LOOP STRIPPING ANALYSIS (CLSA) OF ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds have been found in surface water, fish tissues, and human breast milk. Current techniques for separating these compounds from fish tissues require tedious sample clean-upprocedures A simple method for the deterrnination of these compounds in fish tissues has been developed. Closed-loop stripping of saponified fish tissues in a I -L Wheaton purge-and-trap vessel is used to strip compounds with high vapor pressures such as synthetic musks from the matrix onto a solid sorbent (Abselut Nexus). This technique is useful for screening biological tissues that contain lipids for musk compounds. Analytes are desorbed from the sorbent trap sequentially with polar and nonpolar solvents, concentrated, and directly analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating in the selected ion monitoring mode. In this paper, we analyzed two homogenized samples of whole fish tissues with spiked synthetic musk compounds using closed-loop stripping analysis (CLSA) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The analytes were not recovered quantitatively but the extraction yield was sufficiently reproducible for at least semi-quantitative purposes (screening). The method was less expensive to implement and required significantly less sample preparation than the PLE technique. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water,

  5. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi.

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of (1)producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping, (2)excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser, and (3)ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98% and a polarization of 80% can be expected by an intense laser beam from a FEL(Free Electron Laser). (author)

  6. Hot gas stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide from simulated and actual in situ retort waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    This study proved that ammonia and carbon dioxide could be removed from retort water by hot gas stripping and that overall transfer rates were slower than for physical desorption alone. The ammonia in solution complexed with the carbonate species with the result that the CO/sub 2/ transfer rates were linked to the relatively slower desorption of NH/sub 3/ from solution. Ionic reactions in the liquid phase limited the quantity of free NH/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/, thus decreasing the driving forces for mass transfer. The retort water exhibited foaming tendencies that affected the interfacial area which should be taken into account if a stripping tower is considered on a larger scale. Transfer unit heights were calculated for the process conditions studied and correlated such that scaleup to increased capacities is possible.

  7. Noise analysis due to strip resistance in the ATLAS SCT silicon strip module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipnis, I.

    1996-08-01

    The module is made out of four 6 cm x 6 cm single sided Si microstrip detectors. Two detectors are butt glued to form a 12 cm long mechanical unit and strips of the two detectors are electrically connected to form 12 cm long strips. The butt gluing is followed by a back to back attachment. The module in this note is the Rφ module where the electronics is oriented parallel to the strip direction and bonded directly to the strips. This module concept provides the maximum signal-to-noise ratio, particularly when the front-end electronics is placed near the middle rather than at the end. From the noise analysis, it is concluded that the worst-case ΔENC (far-end injection) between end- and center-tapped modules will be 120 to 210 el. rms (9 to 15%) for a non-irradiated detector and 75 to 130 el. rms (5 to 9%) for an irradiated detector, for a metal strip resistance of 10 to 20 Ω/cm

  8. Coherent beam-beam effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1992-01-01

    There are two physical pictures that describe the beam-beam interaction in a storage ring collider: The weak-strong and the strong-strong pictures. Both pictures play a role in determining the beam-beam behavior. This review addresses only the strong-strong picture. The corresponding beam dynamical effects are referred to as the coherent beam-beam effects. Some basic knowledge of the weak-strong picture is assumed. To be specific, two beams of opposite charges are considered. (orig.)

  9. Optical signal response pf the alanine gel solution for photons and electrons clinical beams;Resposta espectrofotometrica da solucao gel de alanina para feixes clinicos de fotons e eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cleber Feijo; Campos, Leticia Lucente [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Alanine gel dosimeter is a new gel material developed at IPEN that presents significant improvement on previous alanine systems developed by Costa (1994). The measure technique is based on the transformation of ferrous ions (Fe{sup 2+}) in ferric ions (Fe{sup 3+}) after irradiation. The DL-Alanine (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}NO{sub 2}) is an aminoacid tissue equivalent that improves the production of ferric ions in the solution. This work aims to study the comparison of optical signal response of the alanine gel solution for photons and electrons clinical beams. It was observed that the calibration factor can be considered independent of quality of the radiation for photons and electrons clinical beams. Therefore, it can be used the same calibration factor for evaluating the absorbed dose in photons and electrons fields in the energy of 6 MeV. Alanine Gel Dosimeter presents good performance and can be useful as alternative dosimeter in the radiotherapy area using MRI technique for 3D dose distribution evaluation. (author)

  10. Field trial of the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strip against mosquitoes in shelters without walls (Beruga) in Lombok, Indonesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Takagi, Masahiro

    2005-01-01

    Field trials on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes present in shelters without walls (beruga) were carried out in Lombok, Indonesia. A major reduction in the incidence of human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus was achieved, and the use of two strips per beruga repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for at least 11 wk while four strips repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for more than 15 weeks. The technique was found to be a practical long-term solution for ...

  11. Field trial on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes in shelters without walls (beruga) in Lombok, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Yoshihide; Takagi, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Field trials on the spatial repellency of metofluthrin-impregnated plastic strips for mosquitoes present in shelters without walls (beruga) were carried out in Lombok, Indonesia. A major reduction in the incidence of human biting by Culex quinquefasciatus was achieved, and the use of two strips per beruga repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for at least 11 wk while four strips repelled >60% of the mosquitoes for more than 15 weeks. The technique was found to be a practical long-term solution for the prevention of mosquito bites without using electricity or heat to evaporate the metofluthrin.

  12. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Huse, T.; Tsurin, I.; Wormald, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and strip width over pitch (w/p) ratios. Moreover, some of the sensors were produced interleaving readout strips with dummy intermediate ones in order to modify the electric field profile. These geometrical solutions can influence both charge multiplication and charge sharing between adjacent strips. The initial results of this study are here presented

  13. Stripping potentiometric analysis: application to determination of metallic cations in presence of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira-Ramos, J.P.; Chivot, J.; Sarantopoulos, F.; Godard, R.

    1984-01-01

    Potentiometric stripping analysis consists of a potentiostatic deposition step of trace elements and a subsequent stripping step. The trace metals are simultaneously reduced at a rotating electrode, the working electrode being a mercury film coated glassy carbon electrode; the amalgamated metals are then re-oxidized with an oxidizing agent. The analytical signal of this method is the time required for complete re-oxidation. Influence of different parameters on the analytical signal is studied by using mercury (II) ions as oxidizing agent in 5.10 -4 M H 2 SO 4 aqueous solution. Here, we point out the main characteristics of the potentiometric stripping analysis under the same experimental conditions. The reproductibility ranges are comprised between 0.5% to 1.5% and the detection limit for cadmium (II) is estimated to be 2.10 -10 M with a plating time of 300 seconds. Small quantities, as 10 -7 M Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ and Zn 2+ are simultaneously determined in presence of U (VI) ions (UO 2 2+ ) with an accuracy of 0.5% for Cd 2+ and Zn 2+ , and 4.5% for Pb 2+ . Compared to well-known electrochemical techniques, potentiometric stripping analysis appears to be a performing method for trace analysis in a wide range of media: this method permits the analysis of elements in presence of species more concentrated and being able to oxidize the trace elements [fr

  14. Fast dissolving strips: A novel approach for the delivery of verapamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kunte

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fast dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules etc. Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker used as an antianginal, antiarrhythmic, and antihypertensive agent with extensive first pass metabolism which results in less bioavailability. This work investigated the possibility of developing verapamil fast dissolving strips allowing fast, reproducible drug dissolution in the oral cavity; thus bypassing first pass metabolism. Materials and methods: The fast dissolving strips were prepared by solvent casting technique with the help of HPMC E6 and maltodextrin. The strips were evaluated for drug content uniformity, film thickness, folding endurance, in vitro disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, surface pH study, and palatability study. Results: Official criteria for evaluation parameters were fulfilled by all formulations. Disintegration time showed by formulations was found to be in range of 20.4-28.6 sec. Based on the evaluation parameters, the formulation containing 2% HPMC E6 and 3.5% maltodextrin showed optimum performance against other formulations. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fast dissolving strips of verapamil can be made by solvent casting technique with enhanced dissolution rate, taste masking, and hence better patient compliance and effective therapy

  15. Elastic crack-tip stress field in a semi-strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Reut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the plain elasticity problem for a semi-strip with a transverse crack is investigated in the different cases of the boundary conditions at the semi-strips end. Unlike many works dedicated to this subject, the fixed singularities in the singular integral equation�s kernel are considered. The integral transformations� method is applied by the generalized scheme to reduce the initial problem to a one-dimensional problem. The one-dimensional problem is formulated as the vector boundary value problem which is solved with the help of matrix differential calculations and Green�s matrix apparatus. The solution of the problem is reduced to the solving of the system of three singular integral equations. Depending on the conditions given on the short edge of the semi-strip, the constructed singular integral equation can have one, or two fixed singularities. A special method is applied to solve this equation in regard of the singularities existence. Hence the system of the singular integral equations (SSIE is solved with the help of the generalized method. The stress intensity factors (SIF are investigated for different lengths of crack. The novelty of this work is in the application of new approach allowing the consideration of the fixed singularities in the problem about a transverse crack in the elastic semi-strip. The comparison of the numerical results� accuracy during the usage of the different approaches to the solving of SSIE is worked out

  16. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-11-21

    Electron beam ion sources technology made significant progress since 1968 when this method of producing highly charged ions in a potential trap within electron beam was proposed by E. Donets. Better understanding of physical processes in EBIS, technological advances and better simulation tools determined significant progress in key EBIS parameters: electron beam current and current density, ion trap capacity, attainable charge states. Greatly increased the scope of EBIS and EBIT applications. An attempt is made to compile some of EBIS engineering problems and solutions and to demonstrate a present stage of understanding the processes and approaches to build a better EBIS.

  17. Fine-granularity electromagnetic calorimeter using plastic scintillator strip-array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, A.; Yamauchi, S.; Matsunaga, H.; Kim, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, K.; Uchida, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Evtoukhovitch, P.; Fujii, Y.; Garutti, E.; Iba, S.; Itoh, S.; Kajino, F.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kallies, W.; Kanzaki, J.; Kawagoe, K.; Kishimoto, S.; Miyata, H.; Mzavia, D.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, R.; Ono, H.; Samoilov, V.; Sanchez, A.L.C.; Takeshita, T.; Tamura, Y.; Tsamalaidze, Z.

    2006-01-01

    For the future linear collider calorimetry, fine-granularity is indispensable for energy measurements based on particle flow algorithm, which could achieve better energy resolution for jets than the conventional method. To explore the possibility for such a calorimeter using scintillator, an electromagnetic calorimeter test module, made of scintillator-strips and lead plates, was constructed and tested with test beams. Performance of the test module is presented in this article, in terms of the shower profile studies as well as energy and spatial measurements

  18. LabVIEW-based control and acquisition system for the dosimetric characterization of a silicon strip detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovejero, M C; Pérez Vega-Leal, A; Gallardo, M I; Espino, J M; Selva, A; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Arráns, R

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new data acquisition, control, and analysis software system written in LabVIEW. This system has been designed to obtain the dosimetry of a silicon strip detector in polyethylene. It allows the full automation of the experiments and data analysis required for the dosimetric characterization of silicon detectors. It becomes a useful tool that can be applied in the daily routine check of a beam accelerator.

  19. Evaluation of radiotherapy beams attenuation and scattering caused by a printed phantom filled with an organic solution used in nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Eduardo L.; Bosch-Santos, Brianna; Veneziani, Glauco R.; Vivolo, Vitor; Carbonari, Artur W.; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.

    2015-01-01

    In the past years nanotechnology has been distinguishing as a quick growing field, with many medical applications including drug delivery and medical images. For medical procedures gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely studied. The characteristics that make this material a good option to improve radiosensitivity in a specific tissue are their stability in a biological ambient and affinity to polyethylene glycol, which reduces its toxicity in mammals. A good method to produce AuNPs for medical applications is thermal decomposition, which is known for providing homogenous nanostructures and narrow size distribution. This production process consists in mixing gold acetate in an organic solution containing diphenyl ether, oleylamine, oleic acid and 1,2 octanediol, which is kept in a temperature of 300 deg C for about two hours. After cooled the mixture must be centrifuged and washed in order to obtain the nanostructured grains. In this study a behavior comparison between water and the organic solution was made. The goal is to verify the viability of using this solution, instead of water, with a 3D printed phantom, as a dosimetric reference, since the removal process of nanoparticles from this solution to take them to water may cause a huge material loss. The comparison procedure was made in an industrial X-ray system operating in a voltage range from 10 kV to 50 kV. The results presented a variation up to 42.2 % between water and the organic solution radiation attenuation and up to 30 % for radiation scattering. (author)

  20. Statics and rotational dynamics of composite beams

    CERN Document Server

    Ghorashi, Mehrdaad

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of the nonlinear statics and dynamics of composite beams and consists of solutions with and without active elements embedded in the beams. The static solution provides the initial conditions for the dynamic analysis. The dynamic problems considered include the analyses of clamped (hingeless) and articulated (hinged) accelerating rotating beams. Two independent numerical solutions for the steady state and the transient responses are presented. The author illustrates that the transient solution of the nonlinear formulation of accelerating rotating beam converges to the steady state solution obtained by the shooting method. Other key areas considered include calculation of the effect of perturbing the steady state solution, coupled nonlinear flap-lag dynamics of a rotating articulated beam with hinge offset and aerodynamic damping, and static and dynamic responses of nonlinear composite beams with embedded anisotropic piezo-composite actuators. The book is intended as a t...

  1. Tritium stripping by a catalytic exchange stripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.; Gibson, G.W.; Ortman, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    A catalytic exchange process for stripping elemental tritium from gas streams has been demonstrated. The process uses a catalyzed isotopic exchange reaction between tritium in the gas phase and protium or deuterium in the solid phase on alumina. The reaction is catalyzed by platinum deposited on the alumina. The process has been tested with both tritium and deuterium. Decontamination factors (ration of inlet and outlet tritium concentrations) as high as 1000 have been achieved, depending on inlet concentration. The test results and some demonstrated applications are presented

  2. High pressure water jet cutting and stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, David T.; Babai, Majid K.

    1991-01-01

    High pressure water cutting techniques have a wide range of applications to the American space effort. Hydroblasting techniques are commonly used during the refurbishment of the reusable solid rocket motors. The process can be controlled to strip a thermal protective ablator without incurring any damage to the painted surface underneath by using a variation of possible parameters. Hydroblasting is a technique which is easily automated. Automation removes personnel from the hostile environment of the high pressure water. Computer controlled robots can perform the same task in a fraction of the time that would be required by manual operation.

  3. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...

  4. Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. Arizona Strip Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.C.

    1993-01-01

    Founded in 1975 by uranium pioneer, Robert W. Adams, Energy Fuels Nuclear, Inc. (EFNI) emerged as the largest US uranium mining company by the mid-1980s. Confronting the challenges of declining uranium market prices and the development of high-grade ore bodies in Australia and Canada, EFNI aggressively pursued exploration and development of breccia-pipe ore bodies in Northwestern Arizona. As a result, EFNI's production for the Arizona Strip of 18.9 million pounds U 3 O 8 over the period 1980 through 1991, maintained the company's status as a leading US uranium producer

  5. Exact Controllability and Perturbation Analysis for Elastic Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreles, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    The Rayleigh beam is a perturbation of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. We establish convergence of the solution of the Exact Controllability Problem for the Rayleigh beam to the corresponding solution of the Bernoulli-Euler beam. Convergence is related to a Singular Perturbation Problem. The main tool in solving this perturbation problem is a weak version of a lower bound for hyperbolic polynomials

  6. First experience with carbon stripping foils for the 160 MeV H- injection into the CERN PSB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, Wim; Bracco, Chiara; Jorat, Louise; Noulibos, Remy; van Trappen, Pieter

    2018-05-01

    160 MeV H- beam will be delivered from the new CERN linear accelerator (Linac4) to the Proton Synchrotron Booster (PSB), using a H- charge-exchange injection system. A 200 µg/cm2 carbon stripping foil will convert H- into protons by stripping off the electrons. The H- charge-exchange injection principle will be used for the first time in the CERN accelerator complex and involves many challenges. In order to gain experience with the foil changing mechanism and the very fragile foils, in 2016, prior to the installation in the PSB, a stripping foil test stand has been installed in the Linac4 transfer line. In addition, parts of the future PSB injection equipment are also temporarily installed in the Linac4 transfer line for tests with a 160 MeV H- commissioning proton beam. This paper describes the foil changing mechanism and control system, summarizes the practical experience of gluing and handling these foils and reports on the first results with beam.

  7. Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry for Mercury Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereștiuc Paul C.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work voltammetric investigations have been performed on HgCl2 aqueous solutions prepared from a Cz 9024 reagent. Carbon paste electrode (CPE, eriochrome black T modified carbon paste electrode (MCPE/EBT and KCl 1M as background electrolyte, were involved within the experimental procedures. Cyclic voltammetry (CV has been performed in order to compare the behaviour of the two electrodes in both K3[Fe(CN6] and mercury calibration aqueous solution. Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV was used to determine the most suitable parameters for mercury determination. All experiments were performed at 25 ± 1 ℃, using an electrochemical cell with three-electrodes connected to an Autolab PG STAT 302N (Metrohm-Autolab potentiostat that is equipped with Nova 1.11 software. The measured potential values were generated by using the silver chloride electrode (AgClE as reference and a platinum wire electrode as auxiliary. A series of time depending equations for the pre-concentration and concentration steps were established, with the observation that a higher sensitivity can be obtained while increasing the pre-concentration time. DPASV were drawn using the CPE in 11.16 % coriander, as mercury complex, the voltamograms signals indicating mercury oxidation, with signal intensity increasing in time.

  8. Apparatus for measuring profile thickness of strip material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hold, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring the thickness profile of steel strip comprises a radiation source reciprocally movable in a stepwise fashion (by a belt) across the strip width on one side thereof and a single elongated detector on the other side of the strip aligned with the scanning source. This detector may be a fluorescent scintillator detector or an ionisation chamber. Means are provided for sensing the degree of excitation in the detector in synchronism with the scanning source whereby to provide an output representative of the thickness profile of the strip. (author)

  9. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  10. Strip type radiation detector and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantsch, O.; Feigt, I.; Willig, W.R.

    1976-01-01

    An improved strip detector and a method for making such a detector in which a high resistivity N conduction semiconductor body has electrode strips formed thereon by diffusion is described. The strips are formed so as to be covered by an oxide layer at the surface point of the PN junction and in which the opposite side of the semiconductor body then has a substantial amount of material etched away to form a thin semiconductor upon which strip electrodes which are perpendicular to the electrodes on the first side are then placed

  11. Stability of barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Sakajo, Takashi; Kim, Sun-Chul

    2018-02-01

    We study the stability of a barotropic vortex strip on a rotating sphere, as a simple model of jet streams. The flow is approximated by a piecewise-continuous vorticity distribution by zonal bands of uniform vorticity. The linear stability analysis shows that the vortex strip becomes stable as the strip widens or the rotation speed increases. When the vorticity constants in the upper and the lower regions of the vortex strip have the same positive value, the inner flow region of the vortex strip becomes the most unstable. However, when the upper and the lower vorticity constants in the polar regions have different signs, a complex pattern of instability is found, depending on the wavenumber of perturbations, and interestingly, a boundary far away from the vortex strip can be unstable. We also compute the nonlinear evolution of the vortex strip on the rotating sphere and compare with the linear stability analysis. When the width of the vortex strip is small, we observe a good agreement in the growth rate of perturbation at an early time, and the eigenvector corresponding to the unstable eigenvalue coincides with the most unstable part of the flow. We demonstrate that a large structure of rolling-up vortex cores appears in the vortex strip after a long-time evolution. Furthermore, the geophysical relevance of the model to jet streams of Jupiter, Saturn and Earth is examined.

  12. Strip defect recognition in electrical tests of silicon microstrip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentan, Manfred, E-mail: valentan@mpp.mpg.de

    2017-02-11

    This contribution describes the measurement procedure and data analysis of AC-coupled double-sided silicon microstrip sensors with polysilicon resistor biasing. The most thorough test of a strip sensor is an electrical measurement of all strips of the sensor; the measured observables include e.g. the strip's current and the coupling capacitance. These measurements are performed to find defective strips, e.g. broken capacitors (pinholes) or implant shorts between two adjacent strips. When a strip has a defect, its observables will show a deviation from the “typical value”. To recognize and quantify certain defects, it is necessary to determine these typical values, i.e. the values the observables would have without the defect. As a novel approach, local least-median-of-squares linear fits are applied to determine these “would-be” values of the observables. A least-median-of-squares fit is robust against outliers, i.e. it ignores the observable values of defective strips. Knowing the typical values allows to recognize, distinguish and quantify a whole range of strip defects. This contribution explains how the various defects appear in the data and in which order the defects can be recognized. The method has been used to find strip defects on 30 double-sided trapezoidal microstrip sensors for the Belle II Silicon Vertex Detector, which have been measured at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria).

  13. Pavement Stripping in Saudi Arabia: Prediction and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. Al-Abdul Wahhab

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement weathering or stripping is a major distress in highway networks in arid regions. Using the Saudi Arabian road network as a case study area, seventeen road test sections were selected, out of which eight were stripped and nine were non-stripped. Aggregates from quarries used to build these sections were also collected and subjected to detailed physical and chemical tests to evaluate the ability of these tests to distinguish between stripped and non-stripped sections. The modified Lottman test was used to distinguish between compacted mixes. In addition, the Swedish Rolling Bottle test, was also found to be effective in being able to distinguish between different asphalt-aggregates for stripping potential. Eleven anti-stripping liquid additives, lime and cement, in addition to two polymers, were evaluated for their ability to reduce/eliminate stripping potential of stripping-prone aggregates. It was found that EE-2 Polymer, Portland cement, and their combination were effective with all aggregate sources.

  14. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mersi, S; Bainbridge, R; Cripps, N; Fulcher, J; Wingham, M; Baulieu, G; Bel, S; Delaere, C; Drouhin, F; Mirabito, L; Cole, J; Giassi, A; Gross, L; Hahn, K; Nikolic, M; Tkaczyk, S

    2008-01-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m 2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system

  15. Microwave assisted synthesis of hydroxyapatite nano strips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruban Kumar, A.; Kalainathan, S.; Saral, A.M. [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2010-07-15

    Synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nano strips was carried out by chemical precipitation method followed by microwave irradiation. The microwave assisted reactions proceed at fast rates. It is found that the presence of the complex reagent EDTA plays an important role in the morphological changes of nanostructure hydroxyapatite. EDTA acts as a hexadentate unit by wrapping itself around the Ca{sup 2+} metal ion with, four oxygen and two nitrogen atoms and forms several five member chelate rings. The relative specific surface energies associated with the facets of the crystal determines the shape of the crystal. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite nano strips with the range 50-100 nm in EDTA influenced HAP powders. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) result combined with the X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicates the presence of amorphous hydroxyapatite (HAP) in the as-prepared material. X-ray patterns collected on the powder after heat-treatment at 1100 C for 2 h in air exhibits single phase of HAP. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. The structure of the Cepheid instability strip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernie, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    About 100 classical Cepheids having color excesses on a homogeneous system with standard errors of 0.02 or less mag are used with the Feast-Walker period-luminosity-color relation to study the distribution of such stars in the instability strip. It is found that mean (B-V)mag is a better indicator of mean effective temperature than is mean B(i) - mean V(i)(i). The blue edge of the color-magnitude distribution is consistent with the theoretical blue edge for Y = 0.28 and Z = 0.02. Although the highest amplitude stars are found near the center of the period-color array, high- and low-amplitude stars can intermingle, and both kinds are to be found near the edges of the distribution. The same is true on the C-M array. Finally, it is pointed out that the Cepheids do not populate the instability strip uniformly if the red edge is taken to be parallel to the theoretical blue edge. Rather, the local instability region runs as a parallelogram in the C-M array from the theoretical blue edge upward and to the red. 24 refs

  17. Stationary nonlinear Airy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotti, A.; Faccio, D.; Couairon, A.; Papazoglou, D. G.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Tzortzakis, S.; Abdollahpour, D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an additional class of stationary accelerating Airy wave forms that exist in the presence of third-order (Kerr) nonlinearity and nonlinear losses. Numerical simulations and experiments, in agreement with the analytical model, highlight how these stationary solutions sustain the nonlinear evolution of Airy beams. The generic nature of the Airy solution allows extension of these results to other settings, and a variety of applications are suggested.

  18. Applicability of fan spray nozzles to stripping insoluble gases from viscous liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, H.H.; Johnson, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    Fan spray nozzle stripping appears to be a practical technique for separating dilute volatile solutes from nonvolatile solvents. In particular this technique can be used to strip molecular tritium and tritium fluoride at extremely small concentration (in the parts per million range) from molten salts used as blanket materials in a fusion reactor. Under adjusted operating conditions of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle, a high percentage of the theoretically maximum achievable stripping would take place from the expanding sheet of the fan spray as it leaves the nozzle and before it breaks up. Although the only available experimental data are for aqueous solutions, a new theoretical analysis of the fan spray sheet demonstrates the applicability of this technique to nonaqueous liquids. The equation derived from this analysis relates the theoretically achievable mass transfer efficiency to the properties of the liquid flowing through the fan spray nozzle and to the operating conditions of the nozzle. Any fluid with viscosity higher than or equal to that of water would be expected to follow this equation as long as a fan-shaped sheet is formed under the operating conditions of the nozzle

  19. Enrichment and stripping voltametric behavior of technetium traces at a carbon paste electrode modified with TTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R.; Ruf, H.; Ache, H.J.

    1988-06-01

    The possibility of enrichment as well as the stripping voltammetric behavior of technetium traces at a carbon paste electrode modified with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) was studied. Accumulation of Tc(IV) on the electrode surface occurs without application of a deposition voltage due to complex formation with TTA, probably resulting Tc(TTA) 4 . During the following cathodic potential scan made with the differential pulse mode a characteristic current peak is obtained at -40 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) which increases with Tc concentration and deposition time. However, Tc(IV) gives much more sensitive stripping current signals if a reductive deposition potential of -0.4 V is applied, presumably on account of the formation of Tc(TTA) 3 . In this case an anodic voltammetric scan was applied resulting a stripping peak at about +30 mV, the height of which is related to the concentration of Tc in solution as well as to the time of deposition. Calibration graphs revealed good reproducibility for analytical application. The lower detection limit for Tc(IV) achieved for 1 M sodium chloride solutions 4.6 x 10 -9 M. Tc(VII) is not enriched in the absence of reduction which takes place only from about -0.6 V on with the pH optimally set at 3.5. Therefore it is basically possible to discriminate Tc(IV) from Tc(VII). (orig.) [de

  20. The Solar System According to General Relativity: The Sun's Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Schwarzschild, by which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The ob- tained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liq- uid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun’s space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter’s space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun’s space break.

  1. Stripping of Uranium (IV) from D2EHPA + TBP system with ammonium oxalate and its recovery as uranium peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Singh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is an important fissile material for the generation of electricity by nuclear reactors. To obtain uranium as a final product meeting the stringent nuclear specifications, many process steps are involved starting from ore processing to the precipitation of yellow cake. Solvent extraction is one of the process industrially adopted worldwide to achieve such purity of uranium from leach liquor and usually uses amine or organophosphorus types of extractant depending upon the composition of feed material. In solvent extraction technique, stripping is a prominent hydrometallurgical operation which brings the metal values of interest in aqueous solution for further treatment. In the case of uranium, stripping is dependent on its oxidation state. For hexavalent state generally carbonate solutions are used, where as in the case of tetravalent form salt solution such as ammonium oxalate is effective. Use of ammonium oxalate as stripping agent for tetravalent uranium from pyrophosphoric acid has been reported in patent however the details are not disclosed. In the present investigation an effort has been made to investigate the stripping behaviour of uranium from a synthetically loaded synergistic solvent mixture of uranium in tetravalent state

  2. Evaluation of silicon micro strip detectors with large read-out pitch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyo, K.; Yamamura, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Avrillon, S.; Asano, Y.; Bozek, A.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.

    1996-01-01

    For the development of the silicon micro-strip detector with the pitch of the readout strips as large as 250 μm on the ohmic side, we made samples with different structures. Charge collection was evaluated to optimize the width of implant strips, aluminum read-out strips, and/or the read-out scheme among strips. (orig.)

  3. Beam loading

    OpenAIRE

    Boussard, Daniel

    1987-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superco...

  4. Molecular beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendelbury, J.M.; Smith, K.F.

    1987-01-01

    Studies with directed collision-free beams of particles continue to play an important role in the development of modern physics and chemistry. The deflections suffered by such beams as they pass through electric and magnetic fields or laser radiation provide some of the most direct information about the individual constituents of the beam; the scattering observed when two beams intersect yields important data about the intermolecular forces responsible for the scattering. (author)

  5. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P water before pumping and bind less (P water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  6. Resistance and sheet resistance measurements using electron beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerwinski, A.; Pluska, M.; Ratajczak, J.; Szerling, A.; KaPtcki, J.

    2006-01-01

    A method for measurement of spatially uniform or nonuniform resistance in layers and strips, based on electron beam induced current (EBIC) technique, is described. High electron beam currents are used so that the overall resistance of the measurement circuit affects the EBIC signal. During the evaluation, the electron beam is scanned along the measured object, whose load resistance varies with the distance. The variation is compensated by an adjustable resistance within an external circuit. The method has been experimentally deployed for sheet resistance determination of buried regions of lateral confinements in semiconductor laser heterostructures manufactured by molecular beam epitaxy

  7. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  8. Rolling force prediction for strip casting using theoretical model and artificial intelligence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Guang-ming; LI Cheng-gang; ZHOU Guo-ping; LIU Zhen-yu; WU Di; WANG Guo-dong; LIU Xiang-hua

    2010-01-01

    Rolling force for strip casting of 1Cr17 ferritic stainless steel was predicted using theoretical model and artificial intelligence.Solution zone was classified into two parts by kiss point position during casting strip.Navier-Stokes equation in fluid mechanics and stream function were introduced to analyze the rheological property of liquid zone and mushy zone,and deduce the analytic equation of unit compression stress distribution.The traditional hot rolling model was still used in the solid zone.Neural networks based on feedforward training algorithm in Bayesian regularization were introduced to build model for kiss point position.The results show that calculation accuracy for verification data of 94.67% is in the range of+7.0%,which indicates that the predicting accuracy of this model is very high.

  9. A Method to Simulate the Observed Surface Properties of Proton Irradiated Silicon Strip Sensors

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00335524; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichhorn, T.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.

    2015-04-23

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. To upgrade the tracker to required performance level, extensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. A defect model of Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD simulation package for the bulk properties of proton irradiated devices has been producing simulations closely matching with measurements of silicon strip detectors. However, the model does not provide expected behavior due to the fluence increased surface damage. The solution requires an approach that does not affect the accurate bulk properties produced by the proton model, but only adds to it the required radiation induced properties close to the surface. These include the observed position dependency of the strip detector's charge collec...

  10. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  11. Status of the silicon strip high-rate FASTBUS readout system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, H.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Christian, D.; Chramowicz, J.; Fachin, M.; Haldeman, M.; Hoff, J.; Holmes, S.; Rotolo, C.; Romero, A.; Slimmer, D.; Swoboda, C.; Trendler, R.; Urish, J.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Kowald, W.; MacManus, A.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Spentzouris, P.

    1991-11-01

    Our new readout system was developed in collaboration with, and largely to the specification of, the E771 experimenters. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experiment will operate at rates of up to 200 million beam protons per second and 10 million interactions per second. The experimental apparatus will consist of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification (much of which was used in E705), and a compact 16000 channel Silicon Strip Detector. In order to satisfy the experimenter's desire to instrument 16000 SSD elements in a package only 5 cm wide, 5 cm high, and 21 cm deep, and in order to meet the performance specifications, we have made extensive use of Application Specific Integrated Circuits'' (ASIC's).

  12. Status of the silicon strip high-rate FASTBUS readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, H.; Barsotti, E.; Bowden, M.; Christian, D.; Chramowicz, J.; Fachin, M.; Haldeman, M.; Hoff, J.; Holmes, S.; Rotolo, C.; Romero, A.; Slimmer, D.; Swoboda, C.; Trendler, R.; Urish, J.; Yarema, R.; Zimmerman, T.; Zimmermann, S.; Kowald, W.; MacManus, A.; Recagni, M.; Segal, J.; Spentzouris, P.

    1991-11-01

    Our new readout system was developed in collaboration with, and largely to the specification of, the E771 experimenters. E771 is a fixed target experiment designed to study the production of B hadrons by an 800 GeV/c proton beam. The experiment will operate at rates of up to 200 million beam protons per second and 10 million interactions per second. The experimental apparatus will consist of an open geometry magnetic spectrometer featuring good muon and electron identification (much of which was used in E705), and a compact 16000 channel Silicon Strip Detector. In order to satisfy the experimenter's desire to instrument 16000 SSD elements in a package only 5 cm wide, 5 cm high, and 21 cm deep, and in order to meet the performance specifications, we have made extensive use of ''Application Specific Integrated Circuits'' (ASIC's)

  13. Preliminary Evaluation Of DWPF Impacts Of Boric Acid Use In Cesium Strip FOR SWPF And MCU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the current dilute nitric acid strip solution with boric acid. To support this effort, the impact of using 0.01M, 0.1M, 0.25M and 0.5M boric acid in place of 0.001M nitric acid was evaluated for impacts on the DWPF facility. The evaluation only covered the impacts of boric acid in the strip effluent and does not address the other changes in solvents (i.e., the new extractant, called MaxCalix, or the new suppressor, guanidine). Boric acid additions may lead to increased hydrogen generation during the SRAT and SME cycles as well as change the rheological properties of the feed. The boron in the strip effluent will impact glass composition and could require each SME batch to be trimmed with boric acid to account for any changes in the boron from strip effluent additions. Addition of boron with the strip effluent will require changes in the frit composition and could lead to changes in melt behavior. The severity of the impacts from the boric acid additions is dependent on the amount of boric acid added by the strip effluent. The use of 0.1M or higher concentrations of boric acid in the strip effluent was found to significantly impact DWPF operations while the impact of 0.01M boric acid is expected to be relatively minor. Experimental testing is required to resolve the issues identified during the preliminary evaluation. The issues to be addressed by the testing are: (1) Impact on SRAT acid addition and hydrogen generation; (2) Impact on melter feed rheology; (3) Impact on glass composition control; (4) Impact on frit production; and (5) Impact on melter offgas. A new solvent system is being evaluated for use in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and in the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The new system includes the option to replace the

  14. Do repeated rumble strip hits improve driver alertness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watling, C.N.; Akerstedt, T.; Kecklund, L.G.; Anund, A.

    2016-01-01

    Driving while sleepy is associated with increased crash risk. Rumble strips are designed to alert a sleepy or inattentive driver when they deviate outside their driving lane. The current study sought to examine the effects of repeated rumble strip hits on levels of physiological and subjective

  15. Metal films with imprinted nanostructures by template stripping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, René Lynge; Pors, Anders; Dreier, Jes

    We present a novel template stripping procedure for fabricating metal films with imprinted nanostructures. The basic idea is to deposit a gold film onto a nano-structured substrate and subsequently strip the film from the substrate surface thereby revealing imprinted nanostructures in the film...... result is a thin gold film with imprinted nano-cavities....

  16. Reforestation of strip-mined lands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Spencer Potter; Sidney Weitzman; George R., Jr. Trimble

    1951-01-01

    The early 1940's witnessed a striking increase in strip-mining throughout the eastern coal region. West Virginia, with its extensive coal resources, naturally was caught in the full current of this shift in mining methods. Today the raw gash on the hillside - almost infallibly the mark of a strip-mine operation - is a familiar sight in the State.

  17. Determination of residual stresses in roll compacted titanium strips

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mothosi, KL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available residual stresses using x-ray diffraction (XRD) surface probing technique. Preliminary results were obtained for the surface residual stress at the center of the titanium strips for the 100 and 325 mesh strips rolled at 0.1 roll gap for 20 and 50 mm set...

  18. Electrode/Dielectric Strip For High-Energy-Density Capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.

    1994-01-01

    Improved unitary electrode/dielectric strip serves as winding in high-energy-density capacitor in pulsed power supply. Offers combination of qualities essential for high energy density: high permittivity of dielectric layers, thinness, and high resistance to breakdown of dielectric at high electric fields. Capacitors with strip material not impregnated with liquid.

  19. Laser stripping of relativistic H- ions with practical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlin, R.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes laser stripping of H - ions. Some applications are suggested for HEP including stripping 2GeV ions circulating in an accelerator with radius 75 meters where laser meets ion head on in a three meter interaction region. The paper describes photoionizaton cross section, laser power calculation, and how to generate the 5 micrometer light

  20. Using Comic Strips as a Book Report Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Comic strips are great to share with parents, younger students, and peers. This article presents an activity where students use a six-paneled comic strip to summarize a story. This activity allows for multiple interpretations and enhances comprehension by drawing attention to story elements.