WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam steering systems

  1. Calculation of the beam injector steering system using Helmholtz coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaro, A.; Sircilli Neto, F.; Migliano, A.C.C.

    1991-03-01

    In this work, a preliminary evaluation of the beam injector steering system of the IEAv electron linac is presented. From the existing injector configuration and with the assumptions of monoenergetic beam (100 keV) and uniform magnetic field, two pairs of Helmholtz coils were calculated for the steering system. Excitations of 105 A.turn and 37 A.turn were determined for the first and second coils, respectively. (author)

  2. Frequency Invariant Beam Steering for Short-Pulse Systems with a Rotman Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lambrecht

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising approach for beam steering of high-voltage transient signals for HPEM-systems (High Power Electro Magnetic is presented. The inherent capability of the Rotman lens to provide true time delays is used to develop a prototype beam steering device for an antielectronics HPEM system in the frequency range from 350 MHz to 5 GHz. Results of analytical calculations, simulations, and measurements from a hardware prototype are presented. The detailed mechanical setup of the Rotman lens is presented. Additionally the output pulses are investigated when inputting a Gaussian-like transient signal. Then time domain measures of quality (full width at half maximum, ringing, delay spread, maximum of transfer function are investigated for these output transients, and the simulation and measurement results are compared. A concluding analysis of the realizable time domain array pattern shows the radiated pulse form.

  3. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  4. High-gradient microelectromechanical system quadrupole electromagnets for particle beam focusing and steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Harrison

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advancements in microelectromechanical system (MEMS fabrication techniques have enabled the batch-fabrication of quadrupole MEMS electromagnets producing 100 mT-scale field across sub-mm gaps with the potential for transformational advances in the field of compact high performance charged particle focusing and steering optics. The footprint of these in-vacuum focusing and steering optics can be as small as 3  mm×3  mm×0.5  mm. The low electromagnet impedance (58  mΩ, 32 nH per pole facilitates power-efficient operation and continuous or low duty cycle operation, and the individually controlled electromagnets allow combined dipole-quadrupole fields. Here we report on an experiment where these miniature devices have been used to focus and steer a 34 keV electron beam from a DC photogun, demonstrating the first application of magnetic MEMS to particle beam focusing.

  5. Beam steering and coordinate system rotation improves accuracy of ultrasonic measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumi C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi Sumi1,2, Kento Ichimaru2, Yusuke Shinozuka21Department of Information and Communication Science, 2Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: With the proper use of beam steering and apodization, a higher resolution lateral echo image is obtained than with conventional imaging. This is achieved by superimposing crossed, steered beams, which is referred to as “lateral modulation” (LM. This type of beamforming achieves almost the same accuracy in lateral displacement measurements as in axial displacement measurements, ie, displacement vector measurements. The steering angle (ASTA can also be used instead of LM, which uses only beams with a steering angle. In this report, the accuracy of the displacement vectors and lateral displacement measurements for LM and ASTA were evaluated using simulations and agar phantom experiments. The parameters used were direction of a displacement vector, steering angles, and rotation angle for the coordinate system. Changes in the steering angle and rotation angle of the coordinate system permit control of frequencies in the respective directions of the coordinate axes. As shown, when performing a simple ASTA for displacement vector measurement, a spectra frequency division should be performed using a previously developed multidimensional autocorrelation or Doppler method instead of block-matching methods. In this version of ASTA, the combination of nonsteering and rotation of the coordinate system is also effective, because the lateral bandwidth does not decrease. In such a case, transmission of a laterally wide wave will also be effective, particularly for three-dimensional measurement/imaging using a two-dimensional array transducer. ASTA can also be used for accurate lateral displacement measurements. Although a proper beam steering and/or a proper coordinate rotation improves the

  6. Single-mirror beam steering system: analysis and synthesis of high-order conic-section scan patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajun

    2008-01-01

    The vector approach introduced in an early paper for modeling mirror-scanning devices [Y. Li, Appl. Opt. 34, 6417 (1995)] provides the basis of a rigorous study of the scan field generated by a single-mirror beam steering system, in which a hinged movable mirror is able to turn about a fixed pivot point to steering a single laser beam. Because of fewer constraints on mirror angular motion, the system may behave like a true point source for both vector and raster scanning applications. After a summary of the expressions for scan fields generated under different conditions, some fundamental and advanced topics of the single-mirror system are addressed: (1) basic parameters of high-order conic-section scan patterns, (2) scanning spot kinematics, (3) effect of input offset and pixels distortions on two-dimensional images displayed on screens of different formats, (4) mapping and its inverse between the mirror vector space and the scan vector space, and (5) single-mirror beam steering system as a one-element reflective and continuous image zooming device.

  7. Automated beam steering using optimal control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, C. K. (Christopher K.)

    2004-01-01

    We present a steering algorithm which, with the aid of a model, allows the user to specify beam behavior throughout a beamline, rather than just at specified beam position monitor (BPM) locations. The model is used primarily to compute the values of the beam phase vectors from BPM measurements, and to define cost functions that describe the steering objectives. The steering problem is formulated as constrained optimization problem; however, by applying optimal control theory we can reduce it to an unconstrained optimization whose dimension is the number of control signals.

  8. A computer algorithm for automatic beam steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drennan, E.

    1992-06-01

    Beam steering is done by modifying the current in a trim or bending magnet. If the current change is the right amount the beam can be made to bend in such a manner that it will hit a swic or BPM downstream from the magnet at a predetermined set point. Although both bending magnets and trim magnets can be used to modify beam angle, beam steering is usually done with trim magnets. This is so because, during beam steering the beam angle is usually modified only by a small amount which can be easily achieved with a trim magnet. Thus in this note, all steering magnets will be assumed to be trim magnets. There are two ways of monitoring beam position. One way is done using a BPM and the other is done using a swic. For simplicity, beam position monitoring in this paper will be referred to being done with a swic. Beam steering can be done manually by changing the current through a trim magnet and monitoring the position of the beam downstream from the magnet with a swic. Alternatively the beam can be positioned automatically using a computer which periodically updates the current through a specific number of trim magnets. The purpose of this note is to describe the steps involved in coming up with such a computer program. There are two main aspects to automatic beam steering. First a relationship between the beam position and the bending magnet is needed. Secondly a beamline setup of swics and trim magnets has to be chosen that will position the beam according to the desired specifications. A simple example will be looked at that will show that once a mathematical relationship between the needed change of the beam position on a swic and the change in trim currents is established, a computer could be programmed to calculate and update the trim currents

  9. Transverse steering of two-component beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murin, B.P.; Bondarev, B.U.; Durkin, A.P.; Lomize, L.G.; Soloviev, L.Yu.; Fedotov, A.P.

    Coherent transverse oscillations are considered which occur during simultaneous acceleration of proton and H - beams due to arbitrary displacements in elements of the focusing channel. To suppress these oscillations, a beam adjustment station is proposed, in which each quadrupole lens of two doublets is provided with a special dipole component of the magnetic field. These steering elements, together with the beam transverse position monitors, permit steering the transverse position of beams of opposite signs in both transverse planes. The number of steering stations needed is chosen, and some algorithms for control are discussed. It is shown that some of the control algorithms will permit not only the suppression of coherent oscillations, but a decrease in the radius and emittance of the beam

  10. A spatial filtering approach to electronic wideband beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Morgan, Dennis R.

    2011-06-01

    In wideband beam steering, when we need to change the beam direction frequently, the most convenient and flexible way is through digital circuits via FIR/IIR filtering. However this becomes infeasible when the signal frequency and bandwidth are extremely high. To solve this problem, instead of sampling the signals in the temporal domain for digital processing, we sample the signals spatially with more sensors positioned behind the original array of sensors. The spatially sampled signals are then processed using simple analogue circuits (variable gain amplifiers) to form the required steering delays. The delay between the spatially sampled signals is dependent on the sensor spacing and the directions of the designed beams, and is not limited by signal frequency. Design examples are provided to show that different delays can be effectively realised by a spatial filtering system to steer a nominal beam to required directions.

  11. A micromachined dual-axis beam steering actuator for use in a miniaturized optical space communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, K; Lotfi, S; Berglund, M; Thornell, G; Kratz, H

    2010-01-01

    The design, fabrication and evaluation of an electrothermally actuated micromachined beam steering device for use in a free-space optical communication system intended for use on micro- and nanospacecraft in kilometer-sized formations are presented. SU-8 confined in v-grooves is heated to create bending movement in two orthogonal directions for two-axial steering with large static bending angles and low actuation voltages. Standard MEMS processing is used to fabricate the devices with square mirror side lengths of 1, 3.5 and 5 mm. In addition, a method to prevent thermal damage to SU-8 during deep reactive ion etching has been successfully developed. Characterization shows optical scan ranges larger than 40° in both directions with the maximum driving voltage of 16 V corresponding to a total power consumption of 1.14 W. Infrared imaging is used to investigate thermal cross-talk between actuators for the two scanning directions. It is found that a silicon backbone on the joint backside is crucial for device performance. Differences from expected performance are believed to arise from the SU-8 curing process and excessive heating during fabrication. A finite element method simulation is used to find the eigenfrequencies of the structures, and these are in good agreement with the measured frequency response

  12. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gosten, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the Earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  13. ATLAS Beam Steering Mechanism Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morrell, Armando; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. The high resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of the methodology to verify performance required significant effort. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite II Mission (ICESat II), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat II primary mission is to map the earth's surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness and vegetation canopy thickness to establish long-term trends.

  14. Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM) Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A.; Cramer, Alexander K.; Gostin, Alan B.; Hakun, Claef F.; Haney, Paul G.; Hinkle, Matthew R.; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Lugo, Carlos F.; Matuszeski, Adam J.; Morell, Armando; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, testing, and lessons learned during the development of the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Beam Steering Mechanism (BSM). The BSM is a 2 degree-of-freedom tip-tilt mechanism for the purpose of pointing a flat mirror to tightly control the co-alignment of the transmitted laser and the receiver telescope of the ATLAS instrument. High resolution needs of the mission resulted in sub-arcsecond pointing and knowledge requirements, which have been met. Development of methodology to verify performance was a significant effortadvancement. The BSM will fly as part of the Ice, Cloud, and Elevation Satellite 2 Mission (ICESat 2), which is scheduled to be launched in 2017. The ICESat 2 primary mission is to map the earths surface topography for the determination of seasonal changes of ice sheet thickness as well as vegetation canopy thickness.

  15. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Gianfelice Wendt, E; Cornelis, K; Norderhaug Drosdal, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Papaphilippou, Y; Wenninger, J

    2014-01-01

    Beside producing beams for fixed target operation, the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerates beams for injection into the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During the 2012-2013 run drifts of the extracted beam horizontal trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. The feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, has been therefore investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed. As the observed drift is mainly horizontal, the horizontal plane only will be considered.

  16. SPS Beam Steering for LHC Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana [Fermilab; Bartosik, Hannes [CERN; Cornelis, Karel [CERN; Norderhaug Drøsdal, Lene [CERN; Goddard, Brennan [CERN; Kain, Verena [CERN; Meddahi, Malika [CERN; Papaphilippou, Yannis [CERN; Wenninger, Jorg [CERN

    2014-07-01

    The CERN Super Proton Synchrotron accelerates beams for the Large Hadron Collider to 450 GeV. In addition it produces beams for fixed target facilities which adds complexity to the SPS operation. During the run 2012-2013 drifts of the extracted beam trajectories have been observed and lengthy optimizations in the transfer lines were performed to reduce particle losses in the LHC. The observed trajectory drifts are consistent with the measured SPS orbit drifts at extraction. While extensive studies are going on to understand, and possibly suppress, the source of such SPS orbit drifts the feasibility of an automatic beam steering towards a “golden” orbit at the extraction septa, by means of the interlocked correctors, is also being investigated. The challenges and constraints related to the implementation of such a correction in the SPS are described. Simulation results are presented and a possible operational steering strategy is proposed.

  17. 49 CFR 570.60 - Steering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering system. 570.60 Section 570.60... 10,000 Pounds § 570.60 Steering system. (a) System play. Lash or free play in the steering system... excessive lash or free play in the steering system. Table 2. Steering Wheel Free Play Values Steering wheel...

  18. Image Processing In Laser-Beam-Steering Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.; Ansari, Homayoon; Chen, Chien-Chung; Russell, Donald W.

    1996-01-01

    Conceptual design of image-processing circuitry developed for proposed tracking apparatus described in "Beam-Steering Subsystem For Laser Communication" (NPO-19069). In proposed system, desired frame rate achieved by "windowed" readout scheme in which only pixels containing and surrounding two spots read out and others skipped without being read. Image data processed rapidly and efficiently to achieve high frequency response.

  19. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindroos, M.

    1999-01-01

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  20. Arrayed beam steering device for advanced 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jungmok; Choi, Yoon-Sun; Choi, Kyuhwan; Kim, Yunhee; Kwon, Yongjoo; Song, Hoon; Kim, Eoksu; Choi, Seungyeol; Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Sangyoon

    2013-03-01

    An arrayed beam steering device enables much simplified system architectures for high quality multiview 3D displays by adapting time multiplexing and eye tracking scheme. An array device consisting of microscale liquid prisms is presented, where the prism surface between two immiscible liquids is electrically controlled to steer light beams by the principle of electrowetting. An array prototype with 280×280μm pixels was fabricated and demonstrated of its full optical performances. The maximum tilting angle of each prism was measured to be 22.5° in average, with a tracking resolution of less than 0.04°. In this paper, we report a design and fabrication of eletrowetting based prism array, opto-fluidic simulations, optical characterizations, as well as applications to achieve low fatigue 3D displays.

  1. Data transfer through beam steering using agile lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad Assad; Reza, Syed Azer; Muhammad, Ahsan

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a data transfer scheme using multi-focus tunable lenses. The design involves the use of a standard laser source and a variable focus agile lens to steer to the laser beam that passes through the lens. In our proposed system, the beam steer angle depends on an input electrical signal which drives the tunable lens. Therefore the beam steer angle is made to follow the variations in the input electrical drive signal. This is extremely interesting for data transfer applications as the data signal can be used as the input drive signal to the lens. The laser beam is steered according to the input data voltage levels and when the beam is incident on a photo-detector of a finite size, only a fraction of its total incident optical power is received by the photo-detector. This power contribution is proportional to the fraction of the total number of photons per unit area which are incident on the active area of the detector. The remaining photons which are not incident on the photo-detector do not contribute to the received power at the photo-detector. We present the theory of beam steering through a tunable lens and present a theoretical framework which governs data transfer through the proposed method. We also present the transfer function of the proposed system which helps us to calculate its essential theoretical performance parameters such as modulation depth and bit error rates. We also present experimental results to demonstrate efficient data transfer through the proposed method. As tunable lenses are primarily deployed in motion-free multi-focus cameras hence most of the modern portable devices such as cellphones and tablets use these lenses to operate the in-built variable focus cameras that are part of these devices. Because tunable lenses are commonly present in several different portable devices, the proposed method of data transfer between two devices is highly promising as it expands the use of the already deployed tunable lenses with

  2. Multiquantum well beam-steering device for laser satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Roee; Levy, Itamar; Shlomi, Arnon

    2002-01-01

    With the increasing interest in laser satellite communications, new methods are sought to solve the existing problems of accurate and rapid laser beam deflection. Current solutions in the form of galvanometers or piezo fast steering mirrors with one or two degrees of freedom are bulky, power-consuming and slow. The Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) is a semiconductor device with unique potential to steer laser beams without any moving parts. We have conducted a preliminary evaluation of the potential application of the MQW as a laser beam-steering device for laser satellite communication, examining the performance of critical parameters for this type of communications.

  3. Effects of beam steering in pulsed-wave ultrasound velocity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Aaron H; Yu, Alfred C H; Johnston, K Wayne; Cobbold, Richard S C

    2005-08-01

    Experimental and computer simulation methods have been used to investigate the significance of beam steering as a potential source of error in pulsed-wave flow velocity estimation. By simulating a typical linear-array transducer system as used for spectral flow estimation, it is shown that beam steering can cause an angle offset resulting in a change in the effective beam-flow angle. This offset primarily depends on the F-number and the nominal steering angle. For example, at an F-number of 3 and a beam-flow angle of 70 degrees , the velocity error changed from -5% to + 5% when the steering angle changed from -20 degrees to + 20 degrees . Much higher errors can occur at higher beam-flow angles, with smaller F-numbers and greater steering. Our experimental study used a clinical ultrasound system, a tissue-mimicking phantom and a pulsatile waveform to determine peak flow velocity errors for various steering and beam-flow angles. These errors were found to be consistent with our simulation results.

  4. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  5. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  6. Coherent optical monolithic phased-array antenna steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1994-01-01

    An optical-based RF beam steering system for phased-array antennas comprising a photonic integrated circuit (PIC). The system is based on optical heterodyning employed to produce microwave phase shifting by a monolithic PIC constructed entirely of passive components. Microwave power and control signal distribution to the antenna is accomplished by optical fiber, permitting physical separation of the PIC and its control functions from the antenna. The system reduces size, weight, complexity, and cost of phased-array antenna systems.

  7. Development of steering system in network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanagawa, Fumihiro; Noguchi, So; Yamashita, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    We have been developing the steering system, which can successively observe the-data obtained during the numerical computation and change the parameters in the analysis. Moreover, this system is also extended to link the network. By using this system, a user can easily detect errors immediately and achieve the rapid and accurate analysis with lower computation cost. (Author)

  8. Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and manufacturing of mechanical steering system for parallel parking, zero turning radius, minimum turning radius with traditional turning. ... of the steering system are designed so as to meet all the configuration of steering system and to be well-matched to the power train, suspension system and body of the car.

  9. Modeling and simulations of new electrostatically driven, bimorph actuator for high beam steering micromirror deflection angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, John P.; Coutu, Ronald A.; Starman, LaVern

    2015-02-01

    There are numerous applications for micromirror arrays seen in our everyday lives. From flat screen televisions and computer monitors, found in nearly every home and office, to advanced military weapon systems and space vehicles, each application bringing with it a unique set of requirements. The microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industry has researched many ways micromirror actuation can be accomplished and the different constraints on performance each design brings with it. This paper investigates a new "zipper" approach to electrostatically driven micromirrors with the intent of improving duel plane beam steering by coupling large deflection angles, over 30°, and a fast switching speed. To accomplish this, an extreme initial deflection is needed which can be reached using high stress bimorph beams. Currently this requires long beams and high voltage for the electrostatic pull in or slower electrothermal switching. The idea for this "zipper" approach is to stack multiple beams of a much shorter length and allow for the deflection of each beam to be added together in order to reach the required initial deflection height. This design requires much less pull-in voltage because the pull-in of one short beam will in turn reduce the height of the all subsequent beams, making it much easier to actuate. Using modeling and simulation software to characterize operations characteristics, different bimorph cantilever beam configurations are explored in order to optimize the design. These simulations show that this new "zipper" approach increases initial deflection as additional beams are added to the assembly without increasing the actuation voltage.

  10. Air wedge with variable refractive index for precise laser beam steering in a small range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasińska-Kowalska, Olga

    2018-02-20

    This paper provides the results of work on a new method for metrological laser beam steering for the purpose of angular stabilization. Frequency stabilized metrological lasers are used for interference measurements of length and angle. Angular deviation of the beam may cause cosine errors when measuring displacements. This paper presents a method for metrological laser beam deflection with an air wedge of variable refractive index. The change in the index is achieved by changing the air pressure in the wedge volume. The implemented system produced a range of angular displacements of the 0.1 mrad (10 -4   rad; 100 μrad) beam with a resolution of 10 -7   rad.

  11. Fault-tolerant Actuator System for Electrical Steering of Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Sandberg; Blanke, Mogens

    2006-01-01

    Being critical to the safety of vehicles, the steering system is required to maintain the vehicles ability to steer until it is brought to halt, should a fault occur. With electrical steering becoming a cost-effective candidate for electrical powered vehicles, a fault-tolerant architecture...

  12. The steering and manipulation of ion beams for low-energy heavy ion accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beanland, D.G.; Freeman, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Both electrostatic and magnetic fields are used in low-energy accelerators. Electrostatic fields are essential in the acceleration stages and they are commonly used for ion beam scanning and focussing. Magnetic fields are only infrequently used as lenses, but they are essential for mass analysis and are sometimes employed for beam steering. The electrostatic mirror is a versatile and compact lens which has hitherto received little attention for the controlled manipulation of heavy ions. In addition to energy analysis it can be used to steer, focus and scan such beams and its flexibility and usefulness can be further increased by shaping the electrostatic field in the mirror space. The use of a computer programme to model the focussing behaviour of a variety of lens shapes is described and it is shown that the focal properties of the mirror can be controlled to produce a parallel, convergent or divergent output beam. The use of mirrors for two-dimensional beam focusing is also outlined. To permit the use of the mirror system with heavy ions an apertured front plate, without field-defining gauzes, was utilized. In consequence an additional electrode was incorporated in the lens structure to prevent penetration of the positive electric field along the beam axes outside the mirror space. This factor and the compact design of the mirror, contributed to the minimisation of space-charge defocussing effects which normally militate against the use of such electrostatic lenses with high intensity ion beams. The results of experiments confirming the computer predictions are briefly described and, in conclusion some possible applications of electrostatic mirrors in electromagnetic isotope separators and low energy accelerators are outlined. (Auth.)

  13. A Method for Eliminating Beam Steering Error for the Modulated Absorption-Emission Thermometry Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Beam Steering Error for the Modulated Absorption-Emission Thermometry Technique 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Jan 2015. PA#14562. 14. ABSTRACT Modulated absorption-emission thermometry (MAET) is a non-intrusive, radiometric technique for measuring line-of...ANSI Std. 239.18 1 Integrity  Service  Excellence A Method for Eliminating Beam Steering Error for Modulated Absorption- Emission Thermometry

  14. 5x1 Linear Antenna Array for 60 GHz Beam Steering Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Kyrö , Mikko; Titz , Diane; Kolmonen , Veli-Matti; Ranvier , Sylvain; Pons , Patrick; Luxey , Cyril; Vainikainen , Pertti

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a design process and simulation results of a 5 x 1 linear antenna array with phase shifters for 60 GHz beam steering applications. The antenna array has been designed using a membrane process in order to achieve high radiation efficiency and good radiation characteristics. The same process can be used to manufacture Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) switches and phase shifters. The maximum gain of the developed antenna array is 9.0 dBi and the...

  15. Novel Microstrip Patch Antennas with Frequency Agility, Polarization Reconfigurability, Dual Null Steering Capability and Phased Array Antenna with Beam Steering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhani, Behrouz

    Nowadays the wireless communication technology is playing an important role in our daily life. People use wireless devices not only as a conventional communication device but also as tracking and navigation tool, web browsing tool, data storage and transfer tool and so for many other reasons. Based on the user demand, wireless communication engineers try to accommodate as many as possible wireless systems and applications in a single device and therefore, creates a multifunctional device. Antenna, as an integral part of any wireless communication systems, should also be evolved and adjusted with development of wireless transceiver systems. Therefore multifunctional antennas have been introduced to support and enhance the functionality on modern wireless systems. The main focus and contribution of this thesis is design of novel multifunctional microstrip antennas with frequency agility, polarization reconfigurablity, dual null steering capability and phased array antenna with beam steering performance. In this thesis, first, a wide bandwidth(1.10 GHz to 1.60 GHz) right-handed circularly polarized (RHCP) directional antenna for global positioning system (GPS) satellite receive application has been introduced which covers all the GPS bands starting from L1 to L5. This design consists of two crossed bow-tie dipole antennas fed with sequentially phase rotated feed network backed with an artificial high impedance surface (HIS) structure to generate high gain directional radiation patterns. This design shows good CP gain and axial ratio (AR) and wide beamwidth performance. Although this design has good radiation quality, the size and the weight can be reduced as future study. In the second design, a frequency agile antenna was developed which also covers the L-band (L1 to L5) satellite communication frequencies. This frequency agile antenna was designed and realized by new implementation of varactor diodes in the geometry of a circular patch antenna. Beside wide frequency

  16. Online optimized hysteresis-based steering feel model for steer-by-wire systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kirli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In rubber-wheeled road vehicles, the mechanical connection between steering wheel and front wheels provides steering-related feedback to the driver. The torque fed back to the driver through the steering linkages and steering wheel, which is called steering feel, helps the driver in controlling the vehicle. The torque feedback is reproduced via artificial methods in steer-by-wire systems due to the lack of mechanical connection. In this work, in order to minimize the physical workload and the lateral acceleration under the consideration of handling performance, optimization of a hysteresis-based steering feel has been studied. A 2-degree-of-freedom bicycle model based on the magic formula tire model has been used for simulations and hardware-in-the-loop experiments. A mathematical model is proposed in order to create an adaptive model-based optimization of the hysteresis parameters simultaneously while driving. A hardware-in-the-loop experimental setup has been used for the driving tests. The weave and the double-lane change tests have been performed with different drivers in order to demonstrate and quantify the optimization methods that are presented in this work.

  17. 5G antenna array with wide-angle beam steering and dual linear polarizations

    KAUST Repository

    Klionovski, Kirill

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we present the design of a switched-beam antenna array at millimeter-wave frequencies for future 5G applications. The proposed antenna array is based on wideband patch antenna elements and a Butler matrix feed network. The patch antenna has a broad radiation pattern for wide-angle beam steering and allows the simultaneous operation with two orthogonal linear polarizations. A combination of two separated Butler matrices provides independent beam steering for both polarizations in the wide operating band. The antenna array has a simple multilayer construction, and it is made on a low-cost Rogers laminate.

  18. Tongue-driven sonar beam steering by a lingual-echolocating fruit bat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wu-Jung; Falk, Benjamin; Chiu, Chen; Krishnan, Anand; Arbour, Jessica H; Moss, Cynthia F

    2017-12-01

    Animals enhance sensory acquisition from a specific direction by movements of head, ears, or eyes. As active sensing animals, echolocating bats also aim their directional sonar beam to selectively "illuminate" a confined volume of space, facilitating efficient information processing by reducing echo interference and clutter. Such sonar beam control is generally achieved by head movements or shape changes of the sound-emitting mouth or nose. However, lingual-echolocating Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, which produce sound by clicking their tongue, can dramatically change beam direction at very short temporal intervals without visible morphological changes. The mechanism supporting this capability has remained a mystery. Here, we measured signals from free-flying Egyptian fruit bats and discovered a systematic angular sweep of beam focus across increasing frequency. This unusual signal structure has not been observed in other animals and cannot be explained by the conventional and widely-used "piston model" that describes the emission pattern of other bat species. Through modeling, we show that the observed beam features can be captured by an array of tongue-driven sound sources located along the side of the mouth, and that the sonar beam direction can be steered parsimoniously by inducing changes to the pattern of phase differences through moving tongue location. The effects are broadly similar to those found in a phased array-an engineering design widely found in human-made sonar systems that enables beam direction changes without changes in the physical transducer assembly. Our study reveals an intriguing parallel between biology and human engineering in solving problems in fundamentally similar ways.

  19. Tongue-driven sonar beam steering by a lingual-echolocating fruit bat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals enhance sensory acquisition from a specific direction by movements of head, ears, or eyes. As active sensing animals, echolocating bats also aim their directional sonar beam to selectively "illuminate" a confined volume of space, facilitating efficient information processing by reducing echo interference and clutter. Such sonar beam control is generally achieved by head movements or shape changes of the sound-emitting mouth or nose. However, lingual-echolocating Egyptian fruit bats, Rousettus aegyptiacus, which produce sound by clicking their tongue, can dramatically change beam direction at very short temporal intervals without visible morphological changes. The mechanism supporting this capability has remained a mystery. Here, we measured signals from free-flying Egyptian fruit bats and discovered a systematic angular sweep of beam focus across increasing frequency. This unusual signal structure has not been observed in other animals and cannot be explained by the conventional and widely-used "piston model" that describes the emission pattern of other bat species. Through modeling, we show that the observed beam features can be captured by an array of tongue-driven sound sources located along the side of the mouth, and that the sonar beam direction can be steered parsimoniously by inducing changes to the pattern of phase differences through moving tongue location. The effects are broadly similar to those found in a phased array-an engineering design widely found in human-made sonar systems that enables beam direction changes without changes in the physical transducer assembly. Our study reveals an intriguing parallel between biology and human engineering in solving problems in fundamentally similar ways.

  20. Steer-by-wire steering system with enhanced functionality for rear steered vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dillmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heckgelenkte selbstfahrende Erntemaschinen sind die zentralen Elemente moderner Ernteketten in der Landwirtschaft. Das primär auf Bodenschonung ausgelegte Fahrwerk, die aktuelle Höchstgeschwindigkeit von 40 km/h sowie die systembedingten, fahrdynamischen Nachteile einer heckgelenkten Maschine erschweren jedoch die Fahrzeugführung auf der Straße. Das Spurhalten und Stabilisieren erfordert daher viel Erfahrung und eine hohe Konzentration des Fahrers. Fahrdynamiksysteme können den Fahrzeugführer entlasten und somit das Fahren mit hohen Geschwindigkeiten sicherer und komfortabler gestalten. Im hier vorgestellten Projekt wird in diesem Kontext eine Steer-by-wire-Lenkung mit parametrierbarer Lenkcharakteristik vorgestellt, die auf die unterschiedlichen Vorzüge des Fahrers einstellbar ist und fahrzustandsabhängige Informationen über das Lenkrad an den Bediener übermittelt.

  1. 46 CFR 58.25-70 - Steering-gear control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering-gear control systems. 58.25-70 Section 58.25-70... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-70 Steering-gear control systems. (a) Each power-driven steering-gear system must be provided with at least one steering-gear control system. (b) The main steering...

  2. Research on Handling Stability of Steering-by-wire System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main function of steer-by-wire (SBW system are improving steering characteristics, security and stability of the vehicle. In this paper, the variable steering ratio of SBW system is analyzed, and the method of steering ratio based on fuzzy control and neural network are researched. In order to solve the actual working condition, the wheel angle may not reach the expected value, this paper establishes a twodegree-of-freedom (2-DOF vehicle model, and a Matlab/Simulink simulation model, in which a control strategy based on PID controller is put forward to control the front wheel steering angle. Simulation results show that proposed control strategy based on fuzzy neural network can effectively reduce lateral deviation and improve the handling stability and comfortability of the vehicle.

  3. Fabrication of solar beam steering electrowetting devices—present status and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rosengarten, G.

    2017-10-01

    Many different technologies are used to track the movement of the sun to both enable concentration of its energy and maximize the yearly energy capture. Their present main limitations are the cost, size, visual impact and wind loading, particularly for applications involving mounting to a building. A parabolic concentrator, for example, along with its steering equipment is heavy and bulky, and is not suitable for rooftop applications. Instead, thin and flat solar concentration devices are required for hassle-free rooftop applications. The use of electrowetting-controlled liquid lenses has emerged as a novel approach for solar tracking and concentration. By steering sunlight using thin electrowetting cell arrays, bulky mechanical equipment is not required. The basic concept of this technology is to change the shape of a liquid interface that is formed by two immiscible fluids of different refractive indices, by simply applying an electric field. An important challenge in electrowetting beam steering devices is the optimization of the design and fabrication process for each of their main constituent components, to maximize optical efficiency. In this paper, we report on the state-of-the-art fabrication methods for electrowetting devices for solar beam steering. We have reviewed the present status of different components types and related fabrication methods, and how they affect the efficiency and performance of such devices. The work identifies future prospects in using electrowetting beam steering devices for solar energy applications. This paper will help researchers and developers in the field to determine the components and fabrication process that affect the development of efficient beam steering electrowetting devices.

  4. Helicopter downwash measured by continuous-wave Doppler lidars with agile beam steering

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per; Hansen, Kasper Hjorth; Mikkelsen, Torben; Haga, Steinar; Silgjerd, Jon Arne; Starsmore, Neil

    2012-01-01

    A ground-based remote sensing short-range WindScanner with agile beam steering based on a modified ZephIR continuous-wave wind lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and a double prism arrangement has recently been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the DTU Risø campus. The WindScanner measures the line-of-sight component of the wind and by rapid steering of the line-of-sight and the focus position, all locations within a cone with a full top angle of 120 can be reached from about 8 m...

  5. Beam steering effects in turbulent high pressure flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmerling, B.; Kaeppeli, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    The propagation of a laser beam through a flame is influenced by variations of the optical density. Especially in turbulent high pressure flames this may seriously limit the use of laser diagnostic methods. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  6. Steering Dynamics in the Dutch Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waslander, Sietske; Hooge, Edith; Drewes, Tineke

    2016-01-01

    Based on detailed empirical analyses, we paint a layered picture of emerging steering dynamics. Inspired by Foucault, we put the focus on roles stakeholders define both for themselves and others, how they give sense to policy, how they work together in policy elaboration and implementation, and the subtle and sometimes deceitful function of soft…

  7. 49 CFR 570.7 - Steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall not exceed one-quarter of an inch. (1) Inspection procedure. Elevate the front end of the vehicle to load the ball joints. Insure that wheel bearings are correctly adjusted. Grasp the front and rear... a front wheel. If a point on the steering wheel rim moves more than the value shown in Table 1...

  8. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  9. Helicopter downwash measured by continuous-wave Doppler lidars with agile beam steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2012-01-01

    A ground-based remote sensing short-range WindScanner with agile beam steering based on a modified ZephIR continuous-wave wind lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and a double prism arrangement has recently been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the DTU Risø campus. The WindScanner me......A ground-based remote sensing short-range WindScanner with agile beam steering based on a modified ZephIR continuous-wave wind lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) and a double prism arrangement has recently been developed at the Department of Wind Energy at the DTU Risø campus. The Wind...

  10. Beam steering of the acoustic metasurface under a subwavelength periodic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wen, Jihong; Yu, Dianlong; Lu, Zhimiao; Chen, Xing; Zhao, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we introduce a subwavelength periodic thin plate array into an acoustic metasurface and investigate the modulation effect on acoustic surface waves. Both anomalous sound refraction and reflection are observed in the metasurface, and an analytic expression is derived to clarify the underlying mechanism. We theoretically prove that flexible beam steering can be realized by phase gradient acoustic metasurfaces with deep subwavelength periodic modulation. This study potentially adds another degree of freedom to controlling sound transmission by using an acoustic metasurface.

  11. Study on control schemes of flexible steering system of a multi-axle all-wheel-steering robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingxia Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a multi-axle wheeled robot possesses larger load capability and also higher drive performance. However, its steering flexibility is degraded due to the large number of wheels. In order to solve this problem, in this article, we proposed three control schemes based on the center of rotation or the steering angles of both the first- and last-axle wheels. To release these control schemes, steering mode selection and also the left wheel’s steering angle in a specific axle are added approaching a practical application. Thereafter, the remaining wheels’ steering angles can be calculated with the Ackerman steering theorem. In order to verify the control effects, a five-axle all-wheel-steering wheeled robot has been developed with the Bluetooth wireless monitor system. Based on the newly designed robot, validation experiments are carried out, such as lateral movement, situ rotation, and multi-mode steering within a narrow space. The results indicate that the proposed design in this article can ensure a more flexible and faster movement within a narrow space. It shows large potential in obstacle avoidance compared with the conventional partial-wheel steering mode.

  12. Stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Dongwei; Wang Hongli; Zhu Zhiwen; Feng Zhang

    2007-01-01

    A four-wheel-steering system subjected to white noise excitations was reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian system. Subsequently we obtained an one-dimensional Ito stochastic differential equation for the averaged Hamiltonian of the system by using the stochastic averaging method for quasi-non-integrable-Hamiltonian systems. Thus, the stochastic stability of four-wheel-steering system was analyzed by analyzing the sample behaviors of the averaged Hamiltonian at the boundary H = 0 and calculating its Lyapunov exponent. An example given at the end demonstrated that the conclusion obtained is of considerable significance

  13. A Time Modulated Printed Dipole Antenna Array for Beam Steering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Gahley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents time modulated beam steered antenna array without phase shifters. The beam steering is analyzed considering a two-element time modulated antenna array (TMAA of printed dipoles with microstrip via-hole balun. The proposed array resonates at the Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM radio bands, 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz, and offers wide bandwidth inherited due to modified structure of ground plane. Array elements are excited by complex exponential excitation signal through broadband power divider and radio frequency (RF switches to achieve amplitude and phase variation without phase shifters. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to modify the time sequences of the RF switches connected to the antennas to generate radiation pattern with optimum dynamic efficiency by suppressing sideband radiations. Also switch-on time instant of RF switch connected to the subsequent element is modulated to steer the beam towards different directions. The proposed prototype is fabricated followed by parametric optimization. The fabrication results agree significantly well with simulated results.

  14. Multifunctional Converter Drive for Automotive Electric Power Steering Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackner, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis it is shown that in the case of an automotive electric power steering system, critical pulse power loads can be decoupled from the power net with a storage element and a multifunctional converter. A multifunctional converter system is proposed because it uses the motor drive system as

  15. Utilization of an ultrasound beam steering angle for measurements of tissue displacement vector and lateral displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikayoshi Sumi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Chikayoshi SumiDepartment of Information and Communication Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Sophia University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: A number of ultrasonic displacement/velocity measurement methods have been extensively developed for measurements of blood flow, tissue motion, and strain. Lateral modulation (LM methods have also been reported using steered, crossed beams, and these methods permit measurements of displacement vectors. In this report, a new beam steering method for the transmission and reception of ultrasound is proposed, which can enable measurements of lateral displacements and of arbitrary displacement vectors with a very high degree of accuracy. Because this beam steering method uses only a steering angle, this method is referred to as ASTA. With ASTA, the number of available methods to obtain a displacement vector measurement is limited to previously developed block-matching methods, such as the multidimensional cross-spectrum phase gradient method, and the multidimensional autocorrelation method (MAM and the multidimensional Doppler method (MDM using a block-matching method (the methods using block matching are referred to as MAMb and MDMb, respectively. Being dependent on the measurement method, only a lateral displacement measurement can be made even if the methods are multidimensional, ie, previously developed MAM and MDM using a moving average and a mirror setting of the obtained steered beams, and one-dimensional (1D, such as an autocorrelation method. Considerations of beamforming schemes using LM and ASTA show that the simple ASTA beamforming method increases capabilities for real-time measurements and requires a small physical aperture when compared with LM. For lateral displacement measurements (eg, blood flow in a carotid artery, a lateral coordinate must correspond to the direction of the target’s lateral motion, and the steering angle used is as large as possible to increase the measurement accuracy

  16. Ultra-Wideband, Dual-Polarized, Beam-Steering P-Band Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    duToit, Cornelis

    2014-01-01

    A dual-polarized, wide-bandwidth (200 MHz for one polarization, 100 MHz for the orthogonal polarization) antenna array at P-band was designed to be driven by NASA's EcoSAR digital beam former. EcoSAR requires two wide P-band antenna arrays mounted on the wings of an aircraft, each capable of steering its main beam up to 35deg off-boresight, allowing the twin radar beams to be steered at angles to the flight path. The science requirements are mainly for dual-polarization capability and a wide bandwidth of operation of up to 200 MHz if possible, but at least 100 MHz with high polarization port isolation and low cross-polarization. The novel design geometry can be scaled with minor modifications up to about four times higher or down to about half the current design frequencies for any application requiring a dual-polarized, wide-bandwidth steerable antenna array. EcoSAR is an airborne interferometric P-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research application for studying two- and three-dimensional fine-scale measurements of terrestrial ecosystem structure and biomass, which will ultimately aid in the broader study of the carbon cycle and climate change. The two 2×8 element Pband antenna arrays required by the system will be separated by a baseline of about 25 m, allowing for interferometry measurements. The wide 100-to- 200-MHz bandwidth dual-polarized beams employed will allow the determination of the amount of biomass and even tree height on the ground. To reduce the size of the patches along the boresight dimension in order to fit them into the available space, two techniques were employed. One technique is to add slots along the edges of each patch where the main electric currents are expected to flow, and the other technique is to bend the central part of the patch away from the ground plane. The latter also facilitates higher mechanical rigidity. The high port isolation of more than 40 dB was achieved by employing a highly symmetrical feed mechanism for each

  17. Complex Education Systems: From Steering Change to Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The theories and approaches of steering/monitoring a process of change within education systems have evolved over the last 20 years or so as a result of many factors such as globalisation and decentralisation, a faster pace of change, increasing expectations and demands from various stakeholders (parents, employers, teacher unions, etc.) and the…

  18. Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators: An analytical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Facco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Beam steering in superconducting quarter-wave resonators (QWRs, which is mainly caused by magnetic fields, has been pointed out in 2001 in an early work [A. Facco and V. Zviagintsev, in Proceedings of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, IL, 2001 (IEEE, New York, 2001, p. 1095], where an analytical formula describing it was proposed and the influence of cavity geometry was discussed. Since then, the importance of this effect was recognized and effective correction techniques have been found [P. N. Ostroumov and K. W. Shepard, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 4, 110101 (2001PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.4.110101]. This phenomenon was further studied in the following years, mainly with numerical methods. In this paper we intend to go back to the original approach and, using well established approximations, derive a simple analytical expression for QWR steering which includes correction methods and reproduces the data starting from a few calculable geometrical constants which characterize every cavity. This expression, of the type of the Panofski equation, can be a useful tool in the design of superconducting quarter-wave resonators and in the definition of their limits of application with different beams.

  19. Single Chip Lidar with Discrete Beam Steering by Digital Micromirror Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Braden

    A novel method of beam steering that utilizes a mass-produced Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) enables a large field of view and reliable single chip Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR). Using a short pulsed laser, the micromirrors' rotation is frozen mid-transition which forms a programmable blazed grating which efficiently redistributes the light to a single diffraction order, among several. With a nanosecond 905nm laser and Si avalanche photo diode, measurement accuracy of range and with a 48° full field of view.

  20. Dynamic modeling and simulation of trailer with compliance steering system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability of a vehicle and tire wear is affected by the movement inference between the tractor and the trailer when the trailer is turning. Therefore, to solve the problem, Compliant Steering (CS system is used. The system makes the rear-wheel of the trailer steer. After establishing a dynamic model of the trailer and the CS system, the simulation result shows that the system has a smaller lateral force. This smaller force at the hinge point indicates movement inference is reduced and motion response is far better. Furthermore, this paper contains the analysis of the influence of the key parameters of CS system and the speed on the moving characteristics of the trailer.

  1. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  2. Synthesis of Steered Flat-top Beam Pattern Using Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mandal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a pattern synthesis method based on Evolutionary Algorithm is presented. A Flat-top beam pattern has been generated from a concentric ring array of isotropic elements by finding out the optimum set of elements amplitudes and phases using Differential Evolution algorithm. The said pattern is generated in three predefined azimuth planes instate of a single phi plane and also verified for a range of azimuth plane for the same optimum excitations. The main beam is steered to an elevation angle of 30 degree with lower peak SLL and ripple. Dynamic range ratio (DRR is also being improved by eliminating the weakly excited array elements, which simplify the design complexity of feed networks.

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-55 - Overcurrent protection for steering-gear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...— (1) 300% and not more than 375% of the rated full-load current of one steering-gear motor for a direct-current motor; or (2) 175% and not more than 200% of the locked-rotor current of one steering-gear... steering-gear motor, nor a motor for a steering-gear control system, may be protected by an overload...

  4. Diode laser lidar wind velocity sensor using a liquid-crystal retarder for non-mechanical beam-steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Hu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    the lidar probe beam in two different lines-of-sight (LOS) with a 60° angular separation. Dual-LOS beam-steering isimplemented optically with no moving parts by means of a controllableliquid-crystal retarder (LCR). The LCR switches the polarization betweentwo orthogonal linear states of the lidar beam so......We extend the functionality of a low-cost CW diode lasercoherent lidar from radial wind speed (scalar) sensing to wind velocity(vector) measurements. Both speed and horizontal direction of the wind at~80 m remote distance are derived from two successive radial speedestimates by alternately steering...... it either transmits throughor reflects off a polarization splitter. The room-temperature switching timebetween the two LOS is measured to be in the order of 100μs in one switchdirection but 16 ms in the opposite transition. Radial wind speedmeasurement (at 33 Hz rate) while the lidar beam is repeatedly...

  5. Beam steering mechanism for earthcare atmospheric lidar instrument ATLID: an ultra-stable piezoelectric tip tilt mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, E.; Pain, T.; Weickman, A.; Belmana, S.; Bourgain, F.; Sosnicki, O.; Claeyssen, F.

    2017-09-01

    ATLID (ATmospheric LIDar) is one of the four instruments of EarthCARE satellite, it shall determine vertical profiles of cloud and aerosol physical parameters such as altitude, optical depth, backscatter ratio and depolarisation ratio. The BSA (Beam Steering Assembly), included in emission path, aims at deviating a pulsed high energy UV laser beam to compensate the pointing misalignment between the emission and reception paths of ATLID [1]. It requires a very high stability and high resolution.

  6. Two-Dimensional Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners with Agile Beam Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2014-01-01

    for agile beam steering, a wind scanner—WindScanner—has been developed at the Department ofWind Energy at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) Risø campus. The WindScanner measures the line-of-sight component of the airflow remotely and by rapid steering, the line-of-sight direction and the focus...... and rescue helicopter are presented. Since the line-of-sight directions of the two synchronized WindScanners were scanned within the plane of interest, the influence of the wind component perpendicular to the plane was avoided. The results also demonstrate the possibilities within less demanding flows...

  7. Beam scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system for deflecting a beam of particles having different momenta, preferably through a 90 0 angle, so as to cause the beam to impinge upon a moving target and to scan across the target is described. The system includes a means responsive to a beam from a suitable source for causing the beam to periodically scan in a scanning plane and further means for deflecting the periodically scanned beam through the desired angle in a deflection plane so that the deflected beam impinges on the target. Means are included in the system for reducing the momentum dispersion at the target in both the deflection and the scanning planes and for spatially focussing the beam so as to produce a desired beam diameter at the target

  8. Study on a New Steering Mechanism for Point-the-Bit Rotary Steerable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhi Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel steering mechanism embedded in a point-the-bit rotary steerable system (RSS for oilfield exploitation. The new steering mechanism adopts a set of universal joints to alleviate the high alternative strain on drilling mandrel and employs a specially designed planetary gear small tooth number difference (PGSTD to achieve directional steering. Its principle and characteristics are explained and examined through a series of analyses. First, the eccentric displacement vector of the offset point on the drilling mandrel is formulated and kinematic solutions are established. Next, structural design for the new steering mechanism is addressed. Then, procedures and program architectures for simulating offset state of the drilling mandrel and motion trajectory of the whole steering mechanism are presented. After that, steering motion simulations of the new steering mechanism for both 2D and 3D well trajectories are then performed by combining LabVIEW and SolidWorks. Finally, experiments on the steering motion control of the new steering mechanism prototype are carried out. The simulations and experiments reveal that the steering performance of the new steering mechanism is satisfied. The research can provide good guidance for further research and engineering application of the point-the-bit RSS.

  9. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  10. 46 CFR 122.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel prior to getting underway for a...

  11. 46 CFR 185.320 - Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steering gear, controls, and communication system tests... gear, controls, and communication system tests. The master of a vessel shall have examined and tested the steering gear, signaling whistle, propulsion controls, and communication systems of the vessel...

  12. Bevalac beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Behrsing, G.; Morgado, R.; Rondeau, D.; Salsig, W.; Selph, F.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1975-03-01

    The Bevalac consists of, in part, a 200 meter long transfer line between the SuperHILAC and the Bevatron, which are at differing elevation. Unique features in the construction of the transfer line are described. The line, located largely outside, must cope with a natural environment. Part of the line passes through a hillside, requiring some unique support and alignment techniques. The dipoles are of the tape-wound variety and the steering magnets use printed circuit conductors. The vacuum system and an inexpensive and effective destructive monitoring system are described. (U.S.)

  13. A Novel Millimeter-Wave, Low-Loss, Electronically Controlled Phase Shifter for Monolithic, Beam-Steering Phased-Array Antenna Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sarabandi, Kamal

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the accomplishments made on the project entitled "A Novel Millimeter-Wave, Low-Loss, Electronically Controlled Phase Shifter for Monolithic, Beam-Steering...

  14. Adiabatically steered open quantum systems: Master equation and optimal phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmilehto, J.; Solinas, P.; Ankerhold, J.; Moettoenen, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an alternative way to derive the generalized form of the master equation recently presented by J. P. Pekola et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 030401 (2010)] for an adiabatically steered two-level quantum system interacting with a Markovian environment. The original derivation employed the effective Hamiltonian in the adiabatic basis with the standard interaction picture approach but without the usual secular approximation. Our approach is based on utilizing a master equation for a nonsteered system in the first superadiabatic basis. It is potentially efficient in obtaining higher-order equations. Furthermore, we show how to select the phases of the adiabatic eigenstates to minimize the local adiabatic parameter and how this selection leads to states which are invariant under a local gauge change. We also discuss the effects of the adiabatic noncyclic geometric phase on the master equation.

  15. Development of Estimation Force Feedback Torque Control Algorithm for Driver Steering Feel in Vehicle Steer by Wire System: Hardware in the Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Muhammad Hafiz Fahami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In conventional steering system, a feedback torque is produced from the contact between tire and road surface and its flows through mechanical column shaft directly to driver. This allows the driver to sense the steering feel during driving. However, in steer by wire (SBW system, the elimination of the mechanical column shaft requires the system to generate the feedback torque which should produce similar performance with conventional steering system. Therefore, this paper proposes a control algorithm to create the force feedback torque for SBW system. The direct current measurement approach is used to estimate torque at the steering wheel and front axle motor as elements to the feedback torque, while, adding the compensation torque for a realistic feedback torque. The gain scheduling with a linear quadratic regulator controller is used to control the feedback torque and to vary a steering feel gain. To investigate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a real-time hardware in the loop (HIL methodology is developed using Matlab XPC target toolbox. The results show that the proposed algorithm is able to generate the feedback torque similar to EPS steering system. Furthermore, the compensation torque is able to improve the steering feel and stabilize the system.

  16. Modelling and Simulation of a Hydrostatic Steering System for Agricultural Tractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zardin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering system of a vehicle impacts on the vehicle performance, safety and on the driver’s comfort. Moreover, in off-road vehicles using hydrostatic steering systems, the energy dissipation also becomes a critical issue. These aspects push and motivate innovation, research and analysis in the field of agricultural tractors. This paper proposes the modelling and analysis of a hydrostatic steering system for an agricultural tractor to calculate the performance of the system and determine the influence of its main design parameters. The focus here is on the driver’s steering feel, which can improve the driver’s behavior reducing unnecessary steering corrections during the working conditions. The hydrostatic steering system is quite complex and involves a hydraulic circuit and a mechanical mechanism to transmit the steering to the vehicle tires. The detailed lumped parameters model here proposed allows to simulate the dynamic behavior of the steering system and to both enhance the understanding of the system and to improve the design through parameters sensitivity analysis.

  17. An Innovative Steering System for a River Push Barge Operated in Environmentally Sensitive Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramowicz-Gerigk Teresa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an innovative steering system for a river push barge dedicated for operation in environmentally sensitive inland waterways. Development of the inland waterborne transport in Poland is dependent on the exploitation of rivers which can be adapted to navigation in the limited range because a high percent of their length is classified within special environment protection areas of Natura 2000 network. This is now the main reason that their better exploitation cannot be obtained without an introduction of a new generation of waterborne environment friendly inland units. In naturally winding rivers with differing and rapidly changing depths and widths it is important to equip a push barge with an efficient steering system that has a low environmental impact. The innovative steering system proposed in the paper is composed of main steering devices located at the pusher stern, auxiliary steering devices installed on the barge bow and a mechanical coupling system.

  18. Global Chassis Control System Using Suspension, Steering, and Braking Subsystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Vivas-Lopez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel Global Chassis Control (GCC system based on a multilayer architecture with three levels: top: decision layer, middle: control layer, and bottom: system layer is presented. The main contribution of this work is the development of a data-based classification and coordination algorithm, into a single control problem. Based on a clustering technique, the decision layer classifies the current driving condition. Afterwards, heuristic rules are used to coordinate the performance of the considered vehicle subsystems (suspension, steering, and braking using local controllers hosted in the control layer. The control allocation system uses fuzzy logic controllers. The performance of the proposed GCC system was evaluated under different standard tests. Simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed system compared to an uncontrolled vehicle and a vehicle with a noncoordinated control. The proposed system decreases by 14% the braking distance in the hard braking test with respect to the uncontrolled vehicle, the roll and yaw movements are reduced by 10% and 12%, respectively, in the Double Line Change test, and the oscillations caused by load transfer are reduced by 7% in a cornering situation.

  19. Mass-stiffness substructuring of an elastic metasurface for full transmission beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Lee, Jun Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Kim, Yoon Young

    2018-03-01

    The metasurface concept has a significant potential due to its novel wavefront-shaping functionalities that can be critically useful for ultrasonic and solid wave-based applications. To achieve the desired functionalities, elastic metasurfaces should cover full 2π phase shift and also acquire full transmission within subwavelength scale. However, they have not been explored much with respect to the elastic regime, because the intrinsic proportionality of mass-stiffness within the continuum elastic media causes an inevitable trade-off between abrupt phase shift and sufficient transmission. Our goal is to engineer an elastic metasurface that can realize an inverse relation between (amplified) effective mass and (weakened) stiffness in order to satisfy full 2π phase shift as well as full transmission. To achieve this goal, we propose a continuum elastic metasurface unit cell that is decomposed into two substructures, namely a mass-tuning substructure with a local dipolar resonator and a stiffness-tuning substructure composed of non-resonant multiply-perforated slits. We demonstrate analytically, numerically, and experimentally that this unique substructured unit cell can satisfy the required phase shift with high transmission. The substructuring enables independent tuning of the elastic properties over a wide range of values. We use a mass-spring model of the proposed continuum unit cell to investigate the working mechanism of the proposed metasurface. With the designed metasurface consisting of substructured unit cells embedded in an aluminum plate, we demonstrate that our metasurface can successfully realize anomalous steering and focusing of in-plane longitudinal ultrasonic beams. The proposed substructuring concept is expected to provide a new principle for the design of general elastic metasurfaces that can be used to efficiently engineer arbitrary wave profiles.

  20. Steering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeffer, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume presents basic principles as well as advanced concepts of the computational modeling of steering systems. Moreover, the book includes the components and functionalities of modern steering system, which are presented comprehensively and in a practical way. The book is written by more than 15 leading experts from the automotive industry and its components suppliers. The target audience primarily comprises practicing engineers, developers, researchers as well as graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  1. Computer control of the beam transport system of the Chalk River electron test accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMichael, G.E.; Kidner, S.H.; Fraser, J.S.

    1977-05-01

    The beam transport system of the Chalk River Electron Test Accelerator comprises steering coils and solenoidal focusing magnets driven by voltage-programmed, current-regulated power supplies. This report describes the beam transport and beam diagnostics systems presently in use. The computer controls all beam transport magnets from a single, allocatable control knob. The system is currently being expanded to two knobs and two readouts. (author)

  2. Fault Risk Assessment of Underwater Vehicle Steering System Based on Virtual Prototyping and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Deyu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the risks of steering system faults in underwater vehicles is a human-machine-environment (HME systematic safety field that studies faults in the steering system itself, the driver’s human reliability (HR and various environmental conditions. This paper proposed a fault risk assessment method for an underwater vehicle steering system based on virtual prototyping and Monte Carlo simulation. A virtual steering system prototype was established and validated to rectify a lack of historic fault data. Fault injection and simulation were conducted to acquire fault simulation data. A Monte Carlo simulation was adopted that integrated randomness due to the human operator and environment. Randomness and uncertainty of the human, machine and environment were integrated in the method to obtain a probabilistic risk indicator. To verify the proposed method, a case of stuck rudder fault (SRF risk assessment was studied. This method may provide a novel solution for fault risk assessment of a vehicle or other general HME system.

  3. Steer-by-wire system for the Motor-Kart vehicle of FH Cologne University; Steer-by-Wire-Lenkung fuer den Motor-Kart der FH Koeln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, H. [Fluidon GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Ulrich, H. [FH Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugtechnik; Hermanns, O. [LMS Deutschland GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    In the course of semester projects, students of FH Cologne, Institute of Motor Car Engineering, get their first experience with the increasingly complex development processes of modern vehicle systems. Using the example of a steer-by-wire system, the contribution outlines the steps taken by the students. One of the key elements of the project was the development of the steer-by-wire control by coupling the control unit to the detailed simulation model of the Motor-Kart vehicle. (orig.)

  4. Infrared beam-steering using acoustically modulated surface plasmons over a graphene monolayer

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Paiyen

    2014-09-01

    We model and design a graphene-based infrared beamformer based on the concept of leaky-wave (fast traveling wave) antennas. The excitation of infrared surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) over a \\'one-atom-thick\\' graphene monolayer is typically associated with intrinsically \\'slow light\\'. By modulating the graphene with elastic vibrations based on flexural waves, a dynamic diffraction grating can be formed on the graphene surface, converting propagating SPPs into fast surface waves, able to radiate directive infrared beams into the background medium. This scheme allows fast on-off switching of infrared emission and dynamic tuning of its radiation pattern, beam angle and frequency of operation, by simply varying the acoustic frequency that controls the effective grating period. We envision that this graphene beamformer may be integrated into reconfigurable transmitter/receiver modules, switches and detectors for THz and infrared wireless communication, sensing, imaging and actuation systems.

  5. Robust H2/H∞ Control for the Electrohydraulic Steering System of a Four-Wheel Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To shorten the steer diameter and to improve the maneuverability flexibility of a construction vehicle, four wheels’ steering system is presented. This steering system consists of mechanical-electrical-hydraulic assemblies. Its diagram and principle are depicted in detail. Then the mathematical models are derived step by step, including the whole vehicle model and the hydraulic route model. Considering the nonlinear and time-varying uncertainty of the steering system, robust H2/H∞ controller is put forward to guarantee both the system performance and the robust stability. The H∞ norm of the sensitive function from the parameter perturbation of the hydraulic system to the yaw velocity of the vehicle is taken as the evaluating index of the robustness and the H2 norm of the transfer function from the external disturbance to the steering angle of the wheel as the index of linear quadratic Gaussian. The experimental results showed that the proposed scheme was superior to classical PID controller and can guarantee both the control performance and the robustness of the steering system.

  6. 49 CFR 393.209 - Steering wheel systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES... ball-and-socket joints shall not be worn, faulty or repaired by welding. The steering gear box shall...

  7. Comparison of vibration damping of standard and PDCPD housing of the electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2017-08-01

    A comparison of two different types of electric power steering system housing is presented. The first considered type of the housing was a standard one that is made of an aluminium alloy. The second one is made of polydicyclopentadiene polymer (PDCPD) and was produced using the RIM technology. Considered elements were analysed in order to verify their properties of vibrations damping. This property is very important taking into account noise generated by elements of a car’s power steering system. During the carried out tests vibrations of analysed power steering housings were measured using Marco Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric transducers. Results obtained for both considered power steering housings in case of the same parameters of vibrations excitations were measured and juxtaposed. Obtained results were analysed in order to verify if the housing made of PDCPD polymer has better properties of vibration damping than the standard one.

  8. Measurement and Analysis of Strains Developed on Tie-rods of a Steering System

    OpenAIRE

    Asenov, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Modern day manufacturers research and develop vehicles that are equipped with steering assist to help drivers undertake manoeuvres. However the lack of research for a situation where one tie-rod experiences different strains than the opposite one leads to failure in the tie-rod assembly and misalignment in the wheels over time. The performance of the steering system would be improved if this information existed. This bachelor’s dissertation looks into this specific situation and cond...

  9. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  10. The beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first proton beams have been transported along the transfer beamline and the diagnostic components have thus been used and tested under real operating conditions. The various electronic systems have been linked to the control system and the equipment can now be operated from the control console. The performance of the diagnostic system for the transfer beamline is satisfactory. The beam diagnostic components for the high-energy beamlines up to the isotope production and neutron therapy vaults and the first experimental target rooms have been installed. The high-energy slits have been delivered. The scanner and harp electronics have been installed and linked to their respective components in the beamlines. The pneumatic acuator control electronics has been manufactured, installed and is operational; provision has been made for special control features of the equipment in the therapy beamline. The high-voltage bias supply for the Faraday cups has been implemented. The installation of the beam current measurement system is nearing completion although part of it is already operational. A coaxial relay multiplexer for the capacitive phase probe signals has been manufactured and installed. The diagnostic equipment for the beamlines to isotope production and neutron therapy is thus ready for operation. 4 figs

  11. Networked Control System for the Guidance of a Four-Wheel Steering Agricultural Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paciência Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in the agricultural area is the development of mobile robots and autonomous vehicles for precision agriculture (PA. One of the major challenges in the design of these robots is the development of the electronic architecture for the control of the devices. In a joint project among research institutions and a private company in Brazil a multifunctional robotic platform for information acquisition in PA is being designed. This platform has as main characteristics four-wheel propulsion and independent steering, adjustable width, span of 1,80 m in height, diesel engine, hydraulic system, and a CAN-based networked control system (NCS. This paper presents a NCS solution for the platform guidance by the four-wheel hydraulic steering distributed control. The control strategy, centered on the robot manipulators control theory, is based on the difference between the desired and actual position and considering the angular speed of the wheels. The results demonstrate that the NCS was simple and efficient, providing suitable steering performance for the platform guidance. Even though the simplicity of the NCS solution developed, it also overcame some verified control challenges in the robot guidance system design such as the hydraulic system delay, nonlinearities in the steering actuators, and inertia in the steering system due the friction of different terrains.

  12. Performance analysis for W-band antenna alignment using accurate mechanical beam steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales Vicente, Alvaro; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Gallardo, Omar

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a study of antenna alignment impact on bit error rate for a wireless link between two directive W-band horn antennas where one of them is mechanically steered by a Stewart platform. Such a technique is applied to find the optimal alignment between transmitter and receiver wi...... with an accuracy of 18 both in azimuth and elevation angles. The maximum degree of misalignment which can be tolerated is also reported for different values of optical power in the generation of W-band signals by photonic up-conversion. (C) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  13. Method of achieving ultra-wideband true-time-delay beam steering for active electronically scanned arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loui, Hung; Brock, Billy C.

    2016-10-25

    The various embodiments presented herein relate to beam steering an array antenna by modifying intermediate frequency (IF) waveforms prior to conversion to RF signals. For each channel, a direct digital synthesis (DDS) component can be utilized to generate a waveform or modify amplitude, timing and phase of a waveform relative to another waveform, whereby the generation/modification can be performed prior to the IF input port of a mixer on each channel. A local oscillator (LO) signal can be utilized to commonly drive each of the mixers. After conversion at the RF output port of each of the mixers, each RF signal can be transmitted by a respective antenna element in the antenna array. Initiation of transmission of each RF signal can be performed simultaneously at each antenna. The process can be reversed during receive whereby timing, amplitude, and phase of the received can be modified digitally post ADC conversion.

  14. An Experimental Study of the Beam-Steering Effect on the FEL Gain at LEUTL's Segmented Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Chae, Yong Chul; Lewellen, John W; Lumpkin, Alex H; Milton, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The electron trajectories at the LEUTL, a SASE FEL facility at Argonne, were routinely corrected during the user run in order to deliver maximum radiation power to the user. Even though we knew from experience that SASE gain at the segmented undulators was dependent on the trajectory, the quantitative understanding of steering effects associated with the specific trajectory was lacking. Recently Tanaka et al. proposed an analytical model for the single-kick error (SKE) effect. Since LEUTL has eight segmented undulators, we performed the first measurement of SKE on the FEL gain. In the experiments we varied the corrector strength up to the critical angle, and the gain over the undulator was measured for each corrector setting. The results were compared with the analytical model and GENESIS simulations. We also measured the e-beam positions and SASE intensities over the undulators. The experimental data were analyzed and their results were reproduced by GENESIS simulation. The simulation condition, including th...

  15. An Expert System For Tuning Particle-Beam Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lager, Darrel L.; Brand, Hal R.; Maurer, William J.; Searfus, Robert M.; Hernandez, Jose E.

    1989-03-01

    We have developed a proof-of-concept prototype of an expert system for tuning particle beam accelerators. It is designed to function as an intelligent assistant for an operator. In its present form it implements the strategies and reasoning followed by the operator for steering through the beam transport section of the Advanced Test Accelerator at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's Site 300. The system is implemented in the language LISP using the Artificial Intelligence concepts of frames, daemons, and a representation we developed called a Monitored Decision Script.

  16. Variance and Passivity Constrained Fuzzy Control for Nonlinear Ship Steering Systems with State Multiplicative Noises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jer Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The variance and passivity constrained fuzzy control problem for the nonlinear ship steering systems with state multiplicative noises is investigated. The continuous-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model is used to represent the nonlinear ship steering systems with state multiplicative noises. In order to simultaneously achieve variance, passivity, and stability performances, some sufficient conditions are derived based on the Lyapunov theory. Employing the matrix transformation technique, these sufficient conditions can be expressed in terms of linear matrix inequalities. By solving the corresponding linear matrix inequality conditions, a parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controller can be obtained to guarantee the stability of the closed-loop nonlinear ship steering systems subject to variance and passivity performance constraints. Finally, a numerical simulation example is provided to illustrate the usefulness and applicability of the proposed multiple performance constrained fuzzy control method.

  17. [Application of ICP-AES in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Dan

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied the innovative applications of the inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry in automotive hydraulic power steering system fault diagnosis. After having determined Fe, Cu and Al content in the four groups of Buick Regal 2.4 main metal power-steering fluid whose travel course was respectively 2-9 thousand kilometers, 11-18 thousand kilometers, 22-29 thousandkilometers, and 31-40 thousand kilometers, and the database of primary metal content in the Buick Regal 2.4 different mileage power-steering fluid was established. The research discovered that the main metal content increased with increasing mileage and its normal level is between the two trend lines. Determination of the power-steering fluid main metal content and comparison with its database value can not only judge the wear condition of the automotive hydraulic power steering system and maintain timely to avoid the traffic accident, but also help the automobile detection and maintenance personnel to diagnose failure reasons without disintegration. This reduced vehicle maintenance costs, and improved service quality.

  18. A Vehicle Haptic Steering by Wire System Based on High Gain GPI Observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodriguez-Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A vehicle steering by wire (SBW haptic system based on high gain generalized proportional integral (GPI observers is introduced. The observers are considered for the estimation of dynamic perturbations that are present at the tire and steering wheel. To ensure efficient tracking between the commanded steering wheel angle and the tire orientation angle, the estimated perturbations are on line canceled. As to provide a haptic interface with the driver, the estimated dynamic effects at the steering rack are fed back to the steering wheel, yielding a master-slave haptic system with bilateral communication. For implementation purposes few sensors and minimum knowledge of the dynamic model are required, which is a major advantage compared to other approaches. Only position tracking errors are fed back, while all other signals are estimated by the high gain GPI observers. The scheme is robust to uncertainty on the input gain and cancels dynamic perturbation effects such as friction and aligning forces on the tire. Experimental results are presented on a prototype platform.

  19. System Design for On-line Distributed Computational Visualization and Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qishi [ORNL; Zhu, Mengxia [ORNL; Rao, Nageswara S [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    We propose a distributed computing framework for network-optimized visualization and steering of real-time scientific simulations and computations executed on a remote host, such as workstation, cluster or supercomputer. Unlike the conventional "batch" simulations, this system enables: (i) monitoring of an ongoing remote computation using visualization tools, and (ii) on-line specification of simulation parameters to interactively steer remote computations. Using performance models for transport channels and visualization modules, we develop a dynamic programming method to optimize the realization of the visualization pipeline over a wide-area network to maximize the frame rate. We present experimental results to illustrate the effectiveness of this system.

  20. The effect of an active steering system on city bus drivers muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlström, Christer; Gink Lövgren, Maria; Nilsson, Mats; Willstrand, Tania; Anund, Anna

    2018-02-26

    City bus drivers spend hours driving under time pressure, in congested traffic and in a monotonous sitting position. This leads to unhealthy working conditions, especially in terms of physical and psychological stress. The aim of this study is to investigate if an active steering system can alleviate the musculoskeletal stress involved in manoeuvring a bus. Twenty bus drivers drove a city bus equipped with the Volvo dynamic steering (VDS) support system in real traffic. Steering effort was evaluated with fyography and with a questionnaire. Compared to baseline, VDS significantly reduced the required muscle activity by on average 15 - 25 % while turning, and with up to 68 % in the part of the manoeuvre requiring maximum effort. The bus drivers believed that VDS will help reduce neck and shoulder problems, and they expressed a desire to have VDS installed in their own bus.

  1. Near-Infrared and Optical Beam Steering and Frequency Splitting in Air-Holes-in-Silicon Inverse Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We present the design of a dielectric inverse photonic crystal structure that couples line-defect waveguide propagating modes into highly directional beams of controllable directionality. The structure utilizes a triangular lattice made of air holes drilled in an infinitely thick Si slab, and it is designed for operation in the near-infrared and optical regime. The structure operation is based on the excitation and manipulation of dark dielectric surface states, in particular on the tailoring of the dark states’ coupling to outgoing radiation. This coupling is achieved with the use of properly designed external corrugations. The structure adapts and matches modes that travel through the photonic crystal and the free space. Moreover it facilitates the steering of the outgoing waves, is found to generate well-defined, spatially and spectrally isolated beams, and may serve as a frequency splitting component designed for operation in the near-infrared regime and in particular the telecom optical wavelength band. The design complies with the state-of-the-art Si nanofabrication technology and can be directly scaled for operation in the optical regime. PMID:29541653

  2. Wheeled Vehicle Steering Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Ordnance Center and School, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

    This course is one of several subcourses that make up the entire Army correspondence course on wheeled vehicle maintenance. The subcourse is designed to provide the student with information about the operation, malfunction diagnosis, maintenance, and repair of wheeled vehicle steering systems. It provides the basic theory, and also includes…

  3. Generation of Graphene Surface Plasmons and Their Applications in Beam Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel concept that uses mechanical and electronic properties of graphene to efficiently couple light to surface plasmon polaritons. A graphene-based infrared beam-former based on the concept of surface leaky-wave is also discussed. © OSA 2015.

  4. Autonomous collision avoidance system by combined control of steering and braking using geometrically optimised vehicular trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ryuzo; Isogai, Juzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes an autonomous obstacle avoidance system not only by braking but also by steering, as one of the active safety technologies to prevent traffic accidents. The proposed system prevents the vehicle from colliding with a moving obstacle like a pedestrian jumping out from the roadside. In the proposed system, to avoid the predicted colliding position based on constant-velocity obstacle motion assumption, the avoidance trajectory is derived as connected two identical arcs. The system then controls the vehicle autonomously by the combined control of the braking and steering systems. In this paper, the proposed system is examined by real car experiments and its effectiveness is shown from the results of the experiments.

  5. Decoupling control of steering and driving system for in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Han; Zhao, Wanzhong

    2018-02-01

    To improve the maneuverability and stability of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle, a control strategy based on nonlinear decoupling control method is proposed in this paper, realizing the coordinated control of the steering and driving system. At first, the nonlinear models of the in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle and its sub-system are constructed. Then the inverse system decoupling theory is applied to decompose the nonlinear system into several independent subsystems, which makes it possible to realize the coordinated control of each subsystem. Next, the μ-Synthesis theory is applied to eliminate the influence of model uncertainty, improving the stability, robustness and tracking performance of in-wheel-motor-drive electric vehicle. Simulation and experiment results and numerical analyses, based on the electric vehicle actuated by in-wheel-motors, prove that the proposed control method is effective to accomplish the decoupling control of the steering and driving system in both simulation and real practice.

  6. Offset steering in multiamp ion sources - revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.

    1993-01-01

    Steering of the individual beamlets in multiamp ion beams by offsetting the axes of circular extraction holes in three-electrode acceleration systems is revisited. A consistent application of the Langmuir-Blodgett theory of a spherical diode gives a stronger deflection per unit offset than assumed hitherto. (orig.)

  7. Satellite guidance systems in agriculture: experimental comparison between EZ-Steer/RTK and AUTOPILOT/EGNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D’Antonio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted using two different satellite-guidance devices and two different correction systems of the GPS signal: the EZ-Steer/RTK and Autopilot/EGNOS. The machines used in the tests were the tractor New Holland T7060, the rotary harrow Alpego DG-400 and the burier Forigo DG-45, in order to determine which of the two systems ensured the best quality of work. On the basis of the results obtained it is clear that the EZ-Steer/RTK system, guarantees a lower stability of the theoretical trajectory compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, above 1,77%. From the elaboration of data of the two guidance systems behavior to manage the only width of transposition, it is observed that the EZ-Steer/RTK system is able to guarantee a better hold of the line compared to the Autopilot/EGNOS system, which provides a mistake of 164 cm on the total width of transposition and 2 cm on the mean value. In the matter of the normalized transposition surfaces, the Autopilot/EGNOS system ensures a better work quality.

  8. Control of A Five-axle, Three-steering Coupled-vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mori, Masato; Kawakami, Atsushi

    This paper presents a new type of coupled-vehicle system: a five-axle, three-steering coupled-vehicle system and its path following feedback control law. The coupled-vehicle system consists of two car-like mobile robots, two carriers and a steering system. One of the two car-like mobile robots is coupled by one of the two carriers via a revolute joint passively rotating and the other car-like mobile robot is also coupled by one remaining carrier via a passive revolute joint, and the two carriers are coupled via another passive revolute joint. The steering system is attached to one of the carriers and its steering axis is located at the same position of the rotating axis of the passive revolute joint coupling the two carriers. We first show that, by assuming virtual mechanical elements, it is possible to convert the kinematical equation of the coupled-vehicle system into three-chain, single-generator chained form in a coordinate system in which a path two times differentiable is an axis and a straight line perpendicular to the tangent of the path is another axis. Based on chained form, we secondly derive the path following feedback control law which enables the orientations of the two carriers relative to the tangent of the path to be controllable. By the feedback control law, it is possible to cause the two carriers to form a line-shaped composed carrier or a V-shaped composed carrier and to cause them to keep such shapes while performing a path following behavior, which means that the coupled-vehicle system is able to adapt the shape of the composed carrier to the shape of a transported object. The validity of the mechanical design of the coupled-vehicle system and its path following feedback control law has been verified experimentally.

  9. Vehicle having hydraulic and power steering systems using a single high pressure pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2001-06-22

    A vehicle comprises a plurality of wheels attached to a vehicle housing. Also attached to the vehicle housing is a power steering system, including a fluid flow circuit, which is operably coupled to a number of the wheels. An internal combustion engine attached to the vehicle housing is connected to a hydraulically actuated system that includes a high pressure pump. An outlet of the high pressure pump is in fluid communication with the fluid flow circuit.

  10. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described.

  11. Long radiation detector system for beam loss monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balsamo, J.; Fewell, N.M.; Klein, J.D.; Witkover, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Long Radiation Monitor (LRM) system installed at the 200 MeV linac at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. This system allows observation of both the spatial and temporal character of the losses in the linac and its transport lines. An array of large diameter gas filled coaxial cables are used as extended ion chambers to detect the losses. The output signals are available as a histogram, video waveforms, and numerical data via the computer. A fast beam interrupt is also provided. The detector characteristics and details of the processing electronics are presented. Results of studies of longitudinal, steering and focusing losses are described

  12. ADDJUST - An automated system for steering Centaur launch vehicles in measured winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    ADDJUST (Automatic Determination and Dissemination of Just-Updated Steering Terms) is an automated computer and communication system designed to provide Atlas/Centaur and Titan/Centaur launch vehicles with booster-phase steering data on launch day. Wind soundings are first obtained, from which a smoothed wind velocity vs altitude relationship is established. Design for conditions at the end of the boost phase with initial pitch and yaw maneuvers, followed by zero total angle of attack through the filtered wind establishes the required vehicle attitude as a function of altitude. Polynomial coefficients for pitch and yaw attitude vs altitude are determined and are transmitted for validation and loading into the Centaur airborne computer. The system has enabled 14 consecutive launches without a flight wind delay.

  13. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  14. Development of a Computational Steering Framework for High Performance Computing Environments on Blue Gene/P Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Danani, Bob K.

    2012-07-01

    Computational steering has revolutionized the traditional workflow in high performance computing (HPC) applications. The standard workflow that consists of preparation of an application’s input, running of a simulation, and visualization of simulation results in a post-processing step is now transformed into a real-time interactive workflow that significantly reduces development and testing time. Computational steering provides the capability to direct or re-direct the progress of a simulation application at run-time. It allows modification of application-defined control parameters at run-time using various user-steering applications. In this project, we propose a computational steering framework for HPC environments that provides an innovative solution and easy-to-use platform, which allows users to connect and interact with running application(s) in real-time. This framework uses RealityGrid as the underlying steering library and adds several enhancements to the library to enable steering support for Blue Gene systems. Included in the scope of this project is the development of a scalable and efficient steering relay server that supports many-to-many connectivity between multiple steered applications and multiple steering clients. Steered applications can range from intermediate simulation and physical modeling applications to complex computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applications or advanced visualization applications. The Blue Gene supercomputer presents special challenges for remote access because the compute nodes reside on private networks. This thesis presents an implemented solution and demonstrates it on representative applications. Thorough implementation details and application enablement steps are also presented in this thesis to encourage direct usage of this framework.

  15. A Vision-based Steering Control System for Aerial Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Viollet, Stephane; Kerhuel, Lubin; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Here we have described how a miniature tethered aerial platform equipped with a one-axis, ultrafast accurate gaze control system inspired by highly proficient, long existing natural biological systems was designed and implemented. The seemingly complex gaze control system (figure 6) was designed to hold the robot's gaze fixated onto a contrasting object in spite of any major disturbances undergone by the body. It was established that after being destabilized by a nasty thump applied to its bo...

  16. Autonomous Coil Alignment System Using Fuzzy Steering Control for Electric Vehicles with Dynamic Wireless Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An autonomous coil alignment system (ACAS using fuzzy steering control is proposed for vehicles with dynamic wireless charging. The misalignment between the power receiver coil and power transmitter coil is determined based on the voltage difference between two coils installed on the front-left/front-right of the power receiver coil and is corrected through autonomous steering using fuzzy control. The fuzzy control is chosen over other control methods for implementation in ACAS due to the nonlinear characteristic between voltage difference and lateral misalignment distance, as well as the imprecise and constantly varying voltage readings from sensors. The operational validity and feasibility of the ACAS are verified through simulation, where the vehicle equipped with ACAS is able to align with the power transmitter in the road majority of the time during operation, which also implies achieving better wireless power delivery.

  17. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT XXIII, I--MAINTAINING THE FUEL SYSTEM, PART II--CATERPILLAR DIESEL ENGINE, II--UNDERSTANDING STEERING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Education, St. Paul. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF THE DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM AND THE STEERING SYSTEM OF DIESEL POWERED VEHICLES. TOPICS ARE FUEL INJECTION SECTION, AND DESCRIPTION OF THE STEERING SYSTEM. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL BRANCH PROGRAMED TRAINING…

  18. Urban street outreach: using clinical principles to steer the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuistion, H L; D'Ercole, A; Kopelson, E

    1991-01-01

    A decade ago, urban street outreach was part of a rapid response to the epidemic of homelessness. Today it struggles to develop into a clinical craft that will define its own niche in the system of services to the homeless mentally ill.

  19. Tuning of the Compact Linear Collider Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Latina, A; Tomas, R; Snuverink, J

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) BeamDelivery System (BDS), and in particular the Final Focus (FF), is a challenging task. In simulations without misalignments, the goal is to reach 120%o f the nominal luminosity target, in order to allow for 10% loss due to static imperfections, and another 10% loss from dynamic imperfections. Various approaches have been considered to correct the magnet misalignments, including 1-1 correction, Dispersion Free Steering (DFS), and several minimization methods utilizing multipole movers. In this paper we report on the recent advancements towards a feasible tuning approach that reaches the required luminosity target.

  20. Beam steering for circular switched parasitic arrays using a combinational approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, ROM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available of parasitic elements (P): ( )PsTotal Combinations = L . (4) If an On/Off switch is assumed and the antenna system in Fig. 1 is modelled, 16=24 combinations or parasitic loading configurations can be tested [19]. A. CPLM selection criteria..., Lenght?Width=300 mm?300 mm; and ? SubMiniature version A (SMA) connector 50 ?; used for feeding the active element. Although we assumed the use of an ideal On/Off RF switch in this work, the open-circuited parasitic elements were isolated from...

  1. Piezo-based, high dynamic range, wide bandwidth steering system for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasikov, Nir; Peled, Gal; Yasinov, Roman; Feinstein, Alan

    2017-05-01

    Piezoelectric motors and actuators are characterized by direct drive, fast response, high positioning resolution and high mechanical power density. These properties are beneficial for optical devices such as gimbals, optical image stabilizers and mirror angular positioners. The range of applications includes sensor pointing systems, image stabilization, laser steering and more. This paper reports on the construction, properties and operation of three types of piezo based building blocks for optical steering applications: a small gimbal and a two-axis OIS (Optical Image Stabilization) mechanism, both based on piezoelectric motors, and a flexure-assisted piezoelectric actuator for mirror angular positioning. The gimbal weighs less than 190 grams, has a wide angular span (solid angle of > 2π) and allows for a 80 micro-radian stabilization with a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz. The OIS is an X-Y, closed loop, platform having a lateral positioning resolution better than 1 μm, a stabilization frequency up to 25 Hz and a travel of +/-2 mm. It is used for laser steering or positioning of the image sensor, based on signals from a MEMS Gyro sensor. The actuator mirror positioner is based on three piezoelectric actuation axes for tip tilt (each providing a 50 μm motion range), has a positioning resolution of 10 nm and is capable of a 1000 Hz response. A combination of the gimbal with the mirror positioner or the OIS stage is explored by simulations, indicating a <10 micro-radian stabilization capability under substantial perturbation. Simulations and experimental results are presented for a combined device facilitating both wide steering angle range and bandwidth.

  2. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  3. Interactive visual steering--rapid visual prototyping of a common rail injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matković, Kresimir; Gracanin, Denis; Jelović, Mario; Hauser, Helwig

    2008-01-01

    Interactive steering with visualization has been a common goal of the visualization research community for twenty years, but it is rarely ever realized in practice. In this paper we describe a successful realization of a tightly coupled steering loop, integrating new simulation technology and interactive visual analysis in a prototyping environment for automotive industry system design. Due to increasing pressure on car manufacturers to meet new emission regulations, to improve efficiency, and to reduce noise, both simulation and visualization are pushed to their limits. Automotive system components, such as the powertrain system or the injection system have an increasing number of parameters, and new design approaches are required. It is no longer possible to optimize such a system solely based on experience or forward optimization. By coupling interactive visualization with the simulation back-end (computational steering), it is now possible to quickly prototype a new system, starting from a non-optimized initial prototype and the corresponding simulation model. The prototyping continues through the refinement of the simulation model, of the simulation parameters and through trial-and-error attempts to an optimized solution. The ability to early see the first results from a multidimensional simulation space--thousands of simulations are run for a multidimensional variety of input parameters--and to quickly go back into the simulation and request more runs in particular parameter regions of interest significantly improves the prototyping process and provides a deeper understanding of the system behavior. The excellent results which we achieved for the common rail injection system strongly suggest that our approach has a great potential of being generalized to other, similar scenarios.

  4. Steering and evasion assist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dang, T.; Desens, J.; Franke, U.; Gavrila, D.; Schäfers, L.; Ziegler, W.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Steering and evasion assistance defines a new and future class of driver assistance systems to avoid an impending collision with other traffic participants. Dynamic and kinematic considerations reveal that an evasive steering maneuver has high potential for collision avoidance in many driving

  5. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  6. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  7. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pan-Pan; Su, Hao; Tang, Gong-You

    2018-03-14

    This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC) control for electric power steering (EPS) systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT). Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver's steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  8. Active Return-to-Center Control Based on Torque and Angle Sensors for Electric Power Steering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan-Pan Du

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complete control strategy of the active return-to-center (RTC control for electric power steering (EPS systems. We first establish the mathematical model of the EPS system and analyze the source and influence of the self-aligning torque (SAT. Second, based on the feedback signals of steering column torque and steering wheel angle, we give the trigger conditions of a state switch between the steering assist state and the RTC state. In order to avoid the sudden change of the output torque for the driving motor when the state switches frequently between the steering assist state and the RTC state, we design an undisturbed state switching logic algorithm. This state switching logic algorithm ensures that the output value of the RTC controller is set to an initial value and increases in given steps up to a maximum value after entering the RTC state, and the output value of the RTC controller will reduce in given steps down to zero when exiting the RTC state. This therefore ensures smooth switch control between the two states and improves the driver’s steering feeling. Third, we design the RTC controller, which depends upon the feedback signals of the steering wheel angle and the angular velocity. In addition, the controller increases the auxiliary control function of the RTC torque based on vehicle speed. The experimental results show that the active RTC control method does not affect the basic assist characteristics, which effectively reduces the residual angle of the steering wheel at low vehicle speed and improves the RTC performance of the vehicle.

  9. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  10. Application of MEMS Accelerometers and Gyroscopes in Fast Steering Mirror Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a charge-coupled device (CCD-based fast steering mirror (FSM tracking control system, high control bandwidth is the most effective way to enhance the closed-loop performance. However, the control system usually suffers a great deal from mechanical resonances and time delays induced by the low sampling rate of CCDs. To meet the requirements of high precision and load restriction, fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs are usually used in traditional FSM tracking control systems. In recent years, the MEMS accelerometer and gyroscope are becoming smaller and lighter and their performance have improved gradually, so that they can be used in a fast steering mirror (FSM to realize the stabilization of the line-of-sight (LOS of the control system. Therefore, a tentative approach to implement a CCD-based FSM tracking control system, which uses MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes as feedback components and contains an acceleration loop, a velocity loop and a position loop, is proposed. The disturbance suppression of the proposed method is the product of the error attenuation of the acceleration loop, the velocity loop and the position loop. Extensive experimental results show that the MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes can act the similar role as the FOG with lower cost for stabilizing the LOS of the FSM tracking control system.

  11. The ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) to be built at CERN is aimed at substantially increasing the number of antiprotons to the low energy antiproton physics community. It will be a small machine which will decelerate low intensity beams (<4x107) from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV and will be equipped with an electron cooler to avoid beam losses during the deceleration and to significantly reduce beam phase space at extraction. To measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and all the way to the experiments, many systems will be needed to ensure that the desired beam characteristics are obtained. Particular attention needs to be paid to the performance of the electron cooler which depends on reliable instrumentation in order to efficiently cool the antiprotons. This contribution will present the different monitors that have been proposed to measure the various beam parameters as well as some of the developments going on to further improve th...

  12. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  13. Observation of quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation under open systems, and its steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Fei; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Dong; Ye, Liu

    2018-01-01

    Quantum objects are susceptible to noise from their surrounding environments, interaction with which inevitably gives rise to quantum decoherence or dissipation effects. In this work, we examine how different types of local noise under an open system affect entropic uncertainty relations for two incompatible measurements. Explicitly, we observe the dynamics of the entropic uncertainty in the presence of quantum memory under two canonical categories of noisy environments: unital (phase flip) and nonunital (amplitude damping). Our study shows that the measurement uncertainty exhibits a non-monotonic dynamical behavior—that is, the amount of the uncertainty will first inflate, and subsequently decrease, with the growth of decoherence strengths in the two channels. In contrast, the uncertainty decreases monotonically with the growth of the purity of the initial state shared in prior. In order to reduce the measurement uncertainty in noisy environments, we put forward a remarkably effective strategy to steer the magnitude of uncertainty by means of a local non-unitary operation (i.e. weak measurement) on the qubit of interest. It turns out that this non-unitary operation can greatly reduce the entropic uncertainty, upon tuning the operation strength. Our investigations might thereby offer an insight into the dynamics and steering of entropic uncertainty in open systems.

  14. TFTR neutral beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Murray, H.; Winje, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR NB System will be composed of four beam lines, each containing three ion sources presently being developed for TFTR by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) will provide the necessary power required to operate these Ion Sources in both an experimental or operational mode as well as test mode. This paper describes the technical as well as the administrative/management aspects involved in the development and building of this system. The NBPS will combine the aspects of HV pulse (120 kV) and long pulse width (0.5 sec) together to produce a high power system that is unique in the Electrical Engineering field

  15. Using an automated speed, steering, and gap control system and a collision warning system when driving in clear visibility and in fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The effect on driving performance of using a speed, steering, and gap control system (SSGCS) and a collision warning system (CWS) was assessed in an experiment conducted in the Iowa Driving Simulator. Driving performance data were obtained from 52 dr...

  16. Investigation on a Power Coupling Steering System for Dual-Motor Drive Tracked Vehicles Based on Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Double-motor drive tracked vehicles (2MDTV are widely used in the tracked vehicle industry due to the development of electric vehicle drive systems. The aim of this paper is to solve the problem of insufficient propulsion motor torque in low-speed, small-radius steering and insufficient power in high-speed large-radius steering. In order to do this a new type of steering system with a coupling device is designed and a closed-loop control strategy based on speed is adopted to improve the lateral stability of the vehicle. The work done entails modeling and simulating the 2MDTV and the proposed control strategy in RecurDyn and Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results show that the 2MDTV with the coupling device outputs more torque and power in both steering cases compared to the 2MDTV without the coupling device, and the steering stability of the vehicle is improved by using the strategy based on speed.

  17. Fuzzy Stabilization for Nonlinear Discrete Ship Steering Stochastic Systems Subject to State Variance and Passivity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jer Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems, a fuzzy controller design methodology is developed in this paper subject to state variance constraint and passivity constraint. According to fuzzy model based control technique, the nonlinear discrete-time stochastic systems considered in this paper are represented by the discrete-time Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy models with multiplicative noise. Employing Lyapunov stability theory, upper bound covariance control theory, and passivity theory, some sufficient conditions are derived to find parallel distributed compensation based fuzzy controllers. In order to solve these sufficient conditions, an iterative linear matrix inequality algorithm is applied based on the linear matrix inequality technique. Finally, the fuzzy stabilization problem for nonlinear discrete ship steering stochastic systems is investigated in the numerical example to illustrate the feasibility and validity of proposed fuzzy controller design method.

  18. Robust controller design of the integrated direct drive volume control architecture for steering systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, Jihai

    2017-06-08

    Recently, much effort has been directed toward the large throttling loss and low efficiency of the valve control system widely applied in steering system of ships. This paper presents an Integrated Direct-Drive Volume Control (IDDVC) electro-hydraulic servo system with the advantages of high efficiency and energy conservation. Firstly, the simulation model of IDDVC is improved by software AMESim, including the nonlinear interaction of the motor-pump and the oil supply ignored by traditional transfer function model. Then, by establishing discrete state equations, a controller based on robust sliding control strategy has been designed to enhance the practicality and real-time performance. Finally, the accuracy of the model and the effectiveness of the controller are proved through the experiments which are conducted after constructing the IDDVC prototype. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A [Riverside, CA; Beloussov, Alexandre V [Bernardino, CA; Bakir, Julide [Alta Loma, CA; Armon, Deganit [Redlands, CA; Olsen, Howard B [Colton, CA; Salem, Dana [Riverside, CA

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  20. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  1. H- beam neutralization measurements in a solenoidal beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Pitcher, E.; Stevens, R.; Allison, P.

    1992-01-01

    H minus beam space-charge neutralization is measured for 65-mA, 35-keV beams extracted from a circular-aperture Penning surface-plasma source, the small-angle source. The H minus beam is transported to a RFQ matchpoint by a two-solenoid magnet system. Beam noise is typically ±4%. A four-grid analyzer is located in a magnetic-field-free region between the two solenoid magnets. H minus potentials are deduced from kinetic energy measurements of particles (electrons and positive ions) ejected radially from the beam channel by using a griddled energy analyzer. Background neutral gas density is increased by the introduction of additional Xe and Ar gases, enabling the H minus beam to become overneutralized

  2. Steering Performance, Tactical Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    break-in operation. d. The wheel toe, camber, and caster settings are within proper specifications for the test vehicle. e. The steering and...systems should be recorded. Particular characteristics of interest are as follows: a. Test location. b. Vehicle mileage. c. Camber, caster ...The inclination of a wheel outward from the body in the lateral plane. Caster The inclination of the steer rotation axis in the longitudinal plane

  3. Effects of feeding system on growth performance, plasma biochemical components and hormones, and carcass characteristics in Hanwoo steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Sung Chung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to compare growth performance, blood components and carcass traits by two feeding systems (concentrate with roughage separately [CON] vs total mixed ration [TMR] in Hanwoo steers, and to learn the relationship between blood components during fattening or finishing phases and carcass traits in Hanwoo steers. Methods Sixty steers aged 8 months were allotted to two feeding systems and fed similar amounts of average dry matter and total digestible nutrient throughout whole experimental period according to each feeding program. Steers were weighed monthly, taken blood at the end of growing, fattening and finishing periods, and slaughtered at 30 month of age. Results Growing performance was higher (p<0.05 in the CON group compared to the TMR group during fattening and finishing periods. The CON group was lower (p<0.05 in blood aspartic acid transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and retinol levels during growing period, but higher in triglyceride and cholesterol levels during fattening and finishing periods compared to the TMR group. The CON group was greater (p<0.05 in rib-eye area, and lighter (p<0.05 red in meat color compared to the TMR group. In the correlation coefficients between blood components of steers and carcass traits, retinol had a negative (p<0.05 correlation with marbling score and rib-eye area. Leptin had a positive (p<0.05 correlation with back fat thickness. Blood cholesterol and triglyceride were positively (p<0.05 correlated with carcass weight and rib-eye area. Conclusion Growth performance, carcass ribeye area and meat color showed a more desirable result in the CON compared to the TMR in Hanwoo steers. Assessing the accumulated data of carcass traits with blood components including hormones—particularly retinol, cholesterol, triglyceride, and leptin—during the fattening or finishing phases, it may be possible to find a biomarker for determining beef quality in living animals.

  4. Beam position monitor system of J-PARC RCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, N., E-mail: naoki.hayashi@j-parc.jp [Accelerator Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kawase, M.; Hatakeyama, S.; Hiroki, S.; Saeki, R.; Takahashi, H.; Teruyama, Y.; Toyokawa, R. [Accelerator Division, J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.; Lee, S.; Satou, K.; Tejima, M.; Toyama, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2012-06-11

    The J-PARC RCS is a 25 Hz Rapid-Cycling proton Synchrotron and its designed beam power is 1 MW. The beam position monitor (BPM) system at J-PARC RCS is described in this paper. The pre-defined diameter of the BPM detectors is larger than 250 mm, however, the system has to measure the beam position very accurately. In addition, it is necessary to have a large dynamic range. The system should work not only for the high intensity but also for low intensity, such as during beam commissioning, when the intensity is below 1% of the design intensity. There are 54 BPM detectors around the ring and most of them are placed inside steering magnets because of quite limited space. The BPM detector is an electro-static type and it has four electrodes, and a pair of electrodes gives a good linear response with a diagonal cut shape to detect the charge center precisely. The signal processing units, which are equipped with 14-bit 40 MS/s ADC and 600 MHz DSP, have been developed. They are accessed via shared memory space and controlled by EPICS. Such a processing unit is capable of recording the full 25 Hz pulse data for the so-called 'COD mode' (averaged beam position calculation) and it can also store the whole waveform data for further analysis, like turn-by-turn position calculation. The resolution was estimated to be 20{mu}m for 'COD mode' and to be 0.3 mm for the turn-by-turn mode with relatively low intensity of 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11}ppp. The position accuracy is estimated to be about 0.5 mm using a newly developed Beam Based Alignment (BBA) method.

  5. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  6. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  7. Limitations of dynamic beam delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, W.T.; Kuenning, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The heavy charged-particle beams which have been extracted from the accelerator and channeled to the treatment rooms are usually small in diameter compared to the target volumes. Many different methods have been devised to spread out the beams in order to cover the entire target volume with a uniform dose. When using the double-scattering beam delivery method, the entire target volume is irradiated simultaneously; whereas, in the other beam delivery methods, such as the wobbler system or the raster scanning system, a relatively small beam spot is moved around to cover the entire target volume with a uniform dose and only a part of the target volume is irradiated at a time. The latter methods are therefore called dynamic beam delivery methods, and the double scattering method is called a passive beam delivery method. In this note, the dose uniformities achievable using the dynamic beam delivery systems are analyzed, and the requirements placed on the systems specifications are discussed

  8. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen-Feng Wang; Ming-Ming Dong; Liang Gu; Jagat-Jyoti Rath; Ye-Chen Qin; Bin Bai

    2017-01-01

    Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steer...

  9. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  10. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  11. Steering of sub-GeV charged particle beams by use of reflections in thin crystal targets

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, S; Chirkov, P N; Giannini, G; Maisheev, V A; Yazynin, I A

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of deflection of a charged particle beam due to channeling in a bent crystal has been well investigated and successfully applied for beam extraction at high-energy accelerators, for energies about 10 GeV and higher. However, it is of a big practical interest to consider the task of bending and extracting charged particles with energies below 1 GeV, for example, for production of ultrastable beams of low emittance for medical and biological applications. However, for low energy, i.e. below 1 GeV, the bent crystal channeling is not efficient. That motivates us to consider in this article an other crystal technique, based on thin straight crystal targets, as elements for the extraction and collimation of the circulating beam in an accelerator ring. The main advantages of reflection in straight crystals, in comparison with bent crystal channeling, consist in the small length of straight crystals along the beam, that reduces the amount of nuclear interactions and improves the background.

  12. Design of a Wien filter type heavy ion beam probe system for the measurement of plasma potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizo; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleration voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  13. Design of a Wien Filter Type Heavy Ion Beam Probe System for the Measurement of Plasma Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hideki; Adati, Keizô; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Okamura, Shoichi; Sato, Teruyuki

    1987-05-01

    This paper describes the design of a Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) system to measure the two-dimensional plasma potential profile in the central mirror region of an open ended plasma confinement device (RFC-XX-M). This HIBP system incorporates three novel features. The first is a Wien filter-type guide field that reduces the required beam acceleraltion voltage. The second is a set of deflecting electrodes located at the exit position of the secondary ion beam that steers all secondary ions into the analyzer at the same angle. And the third is a new method of absolute calibration.

  14. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus collisions with a maximum centre of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch collision rate of 40MHz. In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large farms of standard computers and network devices. Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the test outcome is recorded for later analysis. The HLT-Steering is responsible for this. It foremost ensures the independent test of each signature, guarantying u...

  15. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  16. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ribeiro Pinto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN, Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP, and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method’s performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER, despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER. It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  17. Towards a Continuous Biometric System Based on ECG Signals Acquired on the Steering Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, João Ribeiro; Cardoso, Jaime S; Lourenço, André; Carreiras, Carlos

    2017-09-28

    Electrocardiogram signals acquired through a steering wheel could be the key to seamless, highly comfortable, and continuous human recognition in driving settings. This paper focuses on the enhancement of the unprecedented lesser quality of such signals, through the combination of Savitzky-Golay and moving average filters, followed by outlier detection and removal based on normalised cross-correlation and clustering, which was able to render ensemble heartbeats of significantly higher quality. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Haar transform features were extracted and fed to decision methods based on Support Vector Machines (SVM), k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN), Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP), and Gaussian Mixture Models - Universal Background Models (GMM-UBM) classifiers, for both identification and authentication tasks. Additional techniques of user-tuned authentication and past score weighting were also studied. The method's performance was comparable to some of the best recent state-of-the-art methods (94.9% identification rate (IDR) and 2.66% authentication equal error rate (EER)), despite lesser results with scarce train data (70.9% IDR and 11.8% EER). It was concluded that the method was suitable for biometric recognition with driving electrocardiogram signals, and could, with future developments, be used on a continuous system in seamless and highly noisy settings.

  18. Flagellated Magnetotactic Bacteria as Controlled MRI-trackable Propulsion and Steering Systems for Medical Nanorobots Operating in the Human Microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Felfoul, Ouajdi; Lu, Zhao; Pouponneau, Pierre

    2009-04-01

    Although nanorobots may play critical roles for many applications in the human body such as targeting tumoral lesions for therapeutic purposes, miniaturization of the power source with an effective onboard controllable propulsion and steering system have prevented the implementation of such mobile robots. Here, we show that the flagellated nanomotors combined with the nanometer-sized magnetosomes of a single Magnetotactic Bacterium (MTB) can be used as an effective integrated propulsion and steering system for devices such as nanorobots designed for targeting locations only accessible through the smallest capillaries in humans while being visible for tracking and monitoring purposes using modern medical imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Through directional and magnetic field intensities, the displacement speeds, directions, and behaviors of swarms of these bacterial actuators can be controlled from an external computer.

  19. Methodologies for steering clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadsey, Harold

    1995-01-01

    One of the concerns of the PTTI community is the coordination of one time scale with another. This is accomplished through steering one clock system to another, with a goal of a zero or constant offset in time and frequency. In order to attain this goal, rate differences are calculated and allowed for by the steering algorithm. This paper will present several of these different methods of determining rate differences. Ideally, any change in rate should not cause the offset to change sign (overshoot) by any amount, but certainly not by as much as its previous absolute value. The advantages and disadvantages of each depend on the user's situation.

  20. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  1. Driver assistance system for passive multi-trailer vehicles with haptic steering limitations on the leading unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Mandow, Anthony; Martínez, Jorge L; Reina, Antonio J; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2013-04-03

    Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  2. High-power beam combining: a step to a future laser weapon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, Rudolf; Zoz, Jürgen; Geidek, Franz; Dietrich, Stephan; Fall, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Due to the enormous progress in the field of high-power fiber lasers during the last years commercial industrial fiber lasers are now available, which deliver a near-diffraction limited beam with power levels up to10kW. For the realization of a future laser weapon system, which can be used for Counter-RAM or similar air defence applications, a laser source with a beam power at the level of 100kW or more is required. At MBDA Germany the concept for a high-energy laser weapon system is investigated, which is based on such existing industrial laser sources as mentioned before. A number of individual high-power fiber laser beams are combined together, using one common beam director telescope. By this "geometric" beam coupling scheme, sufficient laser beam power for an operational laser weapon system can be achieved. The individual beams from the different lasers are steered by servo-loops, using fast tip-tilt mirrors. This principle enables the concentration of the total laser beam power at the common focal point on a distant target, also allowing fine tracking of target movements and first order compensation of turbulence effects on laser beam propagation. The proposed beam combination concept was demonstrated using several experimental set-ups. Different experiments were performed, to investigate laser beam target interaction and target fine tracking also at large distances. Content and results of these investigations are reported. An example for the lay-out of an Air Defence High Energy Laser Weapon (ADHELW ) is given. It can be concluded, that geometric high-power beam combining is an important step for the realization of a laser weapon system in the near future.

  3. Experimental verification of multidimensional quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Che-Ming; Lo, Hsin-Pin; Chen, Liang-Yu; Yabushita, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    Quantum steering enables one party to communicate with another remote party even if the sender is untrusted. Such characteristics of quantum systems not only provide direct applications to quantum information science, but are also conceptually important for distinguishing between quantum and classical resources. While concrete illustrations of steering have been shown in several experiments, quantum steering has not been certified for higher dimensional systems. Here, we introduce a simple method to experimentally certify two different kinds of quantum steering: Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering and single-system (SS) steering (i.e., temporal steering), for dimensionality (d) up to d = 16. The former reveals the steerability among bipartite systems, whereas the latter manifests itself in single quantum objects. We use multidimensional steering witnesses to verify EPR steering of polarization-entangled pairs and SS steering of single photons. The ratios between the measured witnesses and the maximum values achieved by classical mimicries are observed to increase with d for both EPR and SS steering. The designed scenario offers a new method to study further the genuine multipartite steering of large dimensionality and potential uses in quantum information processing.

  4. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  5. Influence of Road Excitation and Steering Wheel Input on Vehicle System Dynamic Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Feng Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of increasing driving safety, the study of safety is a popular and critical topic of research in the vehicle industry. Vehicle roll behavior with sudden steering input is a main source of untripped rollover. However, previous research has seldom considered road excitation and its coupled effect on vehicle lateral response when focusing on lateral and vertical dynamics. To address this issue, a novel method was used to evaluate effects of varying road level and steering wheel input on vehicle roll behavior. Then, a 9 degree of freedom (9-DOF full-car roll nonlinear model including vertical and lateral dynamics was developed to study vehicle roll dynamics with or without of road excitation. Based on a 6-DOF half-car roll model and 9-DOF full-car nonlinear model, relationship between three-dimensional (3-D road excitation and various steering wheel inputs on vehicle roll performance was studied. Finally, an E-Class (SUV level car model in CARSIM® was used, as a benchmark, with and without road input conditions. Both half-car and full-car models were analyzed under steering wheel inputs of 5°, 10° and 15°. Simulation results showed that the half-car model considering road input was found to have a maximum accuracy of 65%. Whereas, the full-car model had a minimum accuracy of 85%, which was significantly higher compared to the half-car model under the same scenario.

  6. New ORNL neutral beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, W.L.; Davis, R.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Schnechter, D.E.; Tsai, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection systems have proven themselves to be a solid foundation on which next generation systems can be based. There are two areas in the new systems receiving particular emphasis: (a) increased power per beam line and (b) higher beam transmission efficiency. Two different methods are being investigated to improve the transmission efficiency. First the drift tube region, the region of the beam line between the vacuum chamber housing the ion source and the torus, is being enlarged. In this manner a second, large cryopump will be installed in the drift tube to lower the pressure to approx.10 -5 torr. Thus, neutral beam reionization on the background gas will be significantly reduced from the measured losses at a few 10 -4 torr of the PLT system. Second, the beam divergence will be reduced by application of one or more of three known techniques developed on a single aperture source in the laboratory. Each of these methods has shown a reduction in single beamlet divergence from theta/sub HWHM/ approx. 1 0 to approx.0.5 0 . The low beamlet divergence coupled with a differentially pumped drift tube will effectively accommodate the larger ion sources under development. All future beam line systems will benefit either directly or indirectly from the experience gained operating and upgrading the PLT beam line concept

  7. Physiological and behavioral responses of Nellore steers to artificial shading in an intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Alves da Costa Ferro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of artificial shading on environmental variables and on behavioral responses of Nellore steers in an intensive production system was evaluated in this study. The experiment was conducted in the experimental feedlot of the Department of Animal Science at Universidade Estadual de Goiás, from July to October 2014. Forty-eight male Nellore cattle with an average initial weight of 310 kg were kept in double 24-m2 stalls, in a total of 24 stalls. Of these, six were in the open air; six were covered with black shade netting of 30% light interception; six with black shade netting 50%; and six with black shade netting 80%, providing 6 m2 of shade per stall. Temperature-humidity index (THI and respiratory frequency (RF were assessed twice weekly and behavior was evaluated fortnightly during 12 h, between 06:00 h and 18.00 h. Feeding behavior, rumination, rest, and social activities such as body care and playful and abnormal activities were observed. A significant increase was found in THI and RF as the shading levels decreased, while a significant difference was recorded in rest and in other activities, water intake, and play behavior. Rest time and playful behavior increased significantly, and other activities and water intake decreased with the increase in shading levels. Shading does not change the time spent on feeding behaviors and rumination, or the frequencies of urination, defecation, cleaning other animals, self-cleaning, and social and abnormal types of behavior. The use of black shade netting of 80% light interception provides greater comfort to animals, promoting welfare and quality of life to them.

  8. Meat Production in a Feedlot System of Zebu—Holstein Steers and Heifers with Dairy Genetics: Productive and Biological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4 Zebu × (1/4 Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P<0.05 of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P<0.05 final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P<0.05 and, consequently, a greater (P<0.05 fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67 kcal/EBW0.75/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg and protein (NPg for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d=0.067×EBW0.75×  EBG1.095 and NPg=162×EBG-5.62×RE for the two sexes.

  9. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  10. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1999-01-01

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED

  11. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  12. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  13. Beam director design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30 0 beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project

  14. Beam director design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younger, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    A design and fabrication effort for a beam director is documented. The conceptual design provides for the beam to pass first through a bending and focusing system (or ''achromat''), through a second achromat, through an air-to-vacuum interface (the ''beam window''), and finally through the vernier steering system. Following an initial concept study for a beam director, a prototype permanent magnet 30/sup 0/ beam-bending achromat and prototype vernier steering magnet were designed and built. In volume II, copies are included of the funding instruments, requests for quotations, purchase orders, a complete set of as-built drawings, magnetic measurement reports, the concept design report, and the final report on the design and fabrication project. (LEW)

  15. PLS beam position measurement and feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.Y.; Lee, J.; Park, M.K.; Kim, J.H.; Won, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time orbit correction system is proposed for the stabilization of beam orbit and photon beam positions in Pohang Light Source. PLS beam position monitoring system is designed to be VMEbus compatible to fit the real-time digital orbit feedback system. A VMEbus based subsystem control computer, Mil-1553B communication network and 12 BPM/PS machine interface units constitute digital part of the feedback system. With the super-stable PLS correction magnet power supply, power line frequency noise is almost filtered out and the dominant spectra of beam obtit fluctuations are expected to appear below 15 Hz. Using DSP board in SCC for the computation and using an appropriate compensation circuit for the phase delay by the vacuum chamber, PLS real-time orbit correction system is realizable without changing the basic structure of PLS computer control system. (author)

  16. Null Steering of Adaptive Beamforming Using Linear Constraint Minimum Variance Assisted by Particle Swarm Optimization, Dynamic Mutated Artificial Immune System, and Gravitational Search Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieh Kiong, Tiong; Tariqul Islam, Mohammad; Ismail, Mahamod; Salem, Balasem

    2014-01-01

    Linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV) is one of the adaptive beamforming techniques that is commonly applied to cancel interfering signals and steer or produce a strong beam to the desired signal through its computed weight vectors. However, weights computed by LCMV usually are not able to form the radiation beam towards the target user precisely and not good enough to reduce the interference by placing null at the interference sources. It is difficult to improve and optimize the LCMV beamforming technique through conventional empirical approach. To provide a solution to this problem, artificial intelligence (AI) technique is explored in order to enhance the LCMV beamforming ability. In this paper, particle swarm optimization (PSO), dynamic mutated artificial immune system (DM-AIS), and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) are incorporated into the existing LCMV technique in order to improve the weights of LCMV. The simulation result demonstrates that received signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) of target user can be significantly improved by the integration of PSO, DM-AIS, and GSA in LCMV through the suppression of interference in undesired direction. Furthermore, the proposed GSA can be applied as a more effective technique in LCMV beamforming optimization as compared to the PSO technique. The algorithms were implemented using Matlab program. PMID:25147859

  17. Modal analysis in relation to the casing of an electric power steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, A.; Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.; Płaczek, M.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents the results of modal analysis (experimental and numerical using Finite Element Method - FEM) with reference to the power steering worm drive gear housing. The experimental analysis was performed by the Least Squares Complex Exponential (LSCE) method using a modal hammer equipped with a force sensor which allowed the measurement and recording of the excitation. Numerical analysis was based on the Finite Element Method in PLM Siemens NX 10. Based on results from the experimental modal analysis the FEM numerical model was tuned. The resulting consistency of results led to the conclusion the correctness of the model FEM. The adapted numerical model was used for further analysis with respect to modified power steering worm drive gear housing designs. The obtained results allowed to estimate how the change of the material and adjusting the geometrical form to the strength conditions will affect the frequency and form of the vibration of the modified worm drive gear housing.

  18. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...

  19. A machine protection beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, E.; Smith, S.; Fisher, A.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of the stored beam in an uncontrolled manner can cause damage to the PEP-II B Factory. We describe here a device which detects large beam position excursions or unexpected beam loss and triggers the beam abort system to extract the stored beam safely. The bad-orbit abort trigger beam position monitor (BOAT BPM) generates a trigger when the beam orbit is far off the center (>20 mm), or rapid beam current loss (dI/dT) is detected. The BOAT BPM averages the input signal over one turn (136 kHz). AM demodulation is used to convert input signals at 476 MHz to baseband voltages. The detected signal goes to a filter section for suppression of the revolution frequency, then on to amplifiers, dividers, and comparators for position and current measurements and triggering. The derived current signal goes to a special filter, designed to perform dI/dT monitoring at fast, medium, and slow current loss rates. The BOAT BPM prototype test results confirm the design concepts

  20. Performance of crossbred steers post-weaned in an integrated crop-livestock system and finished in a feedlot

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Patrícia Monteiro; Barbosa, Fabiano Alvim; Alvarenga, Ramon Costa; Guimarães, Sérgio Teixeira; Lampeão, Ângelo André; Winkelströter, Larissa Kretli; Maciel, Isabella Cristina de Faria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of crossbred steers post-weaned in an integrated crop-livestock system (ICL) and finished in a feedlot, fed either a high-level concentrate diet or whole corn with no roughage. Weaned calves of two breed groups - ½ Angus × ½ Nellore, and ½ Charolais × ¼ Angus × ¼ Nellore - were allotted in a completely randomized experimental design (CRD). During the rainy season, the ½ Angus × ½ Nellore animals showed a higher performance t...

  1. Flexible needle steering for percutaneous therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, Daniel; Shoham, Moshe

    2006-07-01

    A robotic system is presented for flexible needle steering and control in soft tissue. Flexible needle insertion into a deformable tissue is modeled as a linear beam supported by virtual springs, where the stiffness coefficients of the springs can vary along the needle. Using this simplified model, the forward and inverse kinematics of the needle are solved analytically, thus enabling both path planning and path correction in real time. Given target and obstacle locations, the computer calculates the needle tip trajectory that will avoid the obstacle and hit the target. Using the inverse kinematics algorithm, the corresponding needle base maneuver needed to follow this trajectory is calculated. It is demonstrated that the needle tip path is not unique and can be optimized to minimize lateral pressure of the needle body on the tissue. Needle steering, i.e., the needle base movements that steer the needle tip, is not intuitive. Therefore, the needle insertion procedure is best performed by a robot. The model was verified experimentally on muscle and liver tissues by robotically assisted insertion of a flexible spinal needle. During insertion, the position and shape of the needle were recorded by X-ray. This study demonstrates the ability to curve a flexible needle by its base motion in order to achieve a planned tip trajectory.

  2. Beam position alignment and its verification for therapeutic ion beams from synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Y.; Takeshita, E.; Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Saotome, N.; Tansho, R.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    Controlling beam position in three-dimensional pencil-beam scanning is important because errors in beam position disturb the uniformity of irradiated dose distribution. To suppress this, we have developed a simple procedure for beamline tuning. Beamline tuning is performed with steering magnets and fluorescent screen monitors to converge a beam's trajectory to a central orbit. The misalignment between beam position and a reference axis is determined through a verification system, which consists of a screen monitor and an acrylic phantom. If beam position deviates from the reference axis, two pairs of steering magnets, which are placed downstream of the beam transport line, correct the beam. These adjustments are iterated until the deviations for 11 energies of the beam are within 0.5 mm of the reference axis. To demonstrate the success of the proposed procedure, we used it to perform beam commissioning at the Kanagawa Cancer Center.


  3. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moelhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Noergaard; Boeggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50x50 μm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 nm. We demonstrate how the EBL system can be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition

  4. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver/vehicle system performance in discrete maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R. H.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1975-01-01

    A series of discrete maneuver tasks were used to evaluate the effects of steering gain and directional mode dynamic parameters on driver/vehicle responses. The importance and ranking of these parameters were evaluated through changes in subjective driver ratings and performance measures obtained from transient maneuvers such as a double lane change, an emergency lane change, and an unexpected obstacle. The unexpected obstacle maneuver proved more sensitive to individual driver differences than to vehicle differences. Results were based on full scale tests with an experienced test driver evaluating many different dynamic configurations plus seventeen ordinary drivers evaluating six key configurations.

  5. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation

  6. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 10 10 to 1.5 x 10 13 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  7. A beam diagnostic system for ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.; Althoff, K.H.; Drachenfels, W.; Goetz, T.; Husmann, D.; Neckenig, M.; Picard, M.; Schittko, F.J.; Schauerte, W.; Wenzel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate (max.: 10 MHz) and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements

  8. Final focus system for high intensity beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Henestroza

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The neutralized transport experiment (NTX at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final-focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final-focus scenario in a heavy ion fusion driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r_{s} at a given distance (f from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  9. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  10. dc power system for deuteron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts.

  11. Corrected electrostatic lens systems for ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgish, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has introduced a new class of electrostatic focus forming element for beams, the ELCO lens. It compares favourably with the electrostatic and magnetic quadrupole elements conventionally used for microbeam formation. The ELCO lens does however have disadvantages associated with apertures and alignment. We have continued with the development of ion beam lenses and have evolved a further class of lens element which eliminates aperture and alignment problems. This new element can be combined like optical lenses into an aberration corrected system. Experimental measurement on the basic lens element has confirmed mathematical analysis of ion trajectories through the element. This mathematical analysis predicts that the basic element can be combined into a corrected lens system for, either: (1) high resolution microprobe formation with intrinsic rastering ability, the spot size limited only by the beam properties; or (2) high quality image formation with large magnification/demagnification ratio and wide angular aperture. (orig.)

  12. The diagnostic neutral beam system for text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.P.; Burgin, D.; Coupland, J.R.; DeVere, A.P.C.; Green, T.S.; Klein, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    The detection of highly stripped impurity ions in a Tokamak plasma by means of charge exchange with a probing neutral beam is an interesting and developing technique. Such a beam system is being designed and manufactured by the Culham Laboratory under contract to the University of Texas at Austin. The specification is for a high brightness beam of hydrogen atoms of 30-50 keV energy with a current density of 30 mA/cm/sup 2/ in the target plane. The pulse length is 100 mS, and the beam has to be capable of being modulated at high frequency (≥ 1 KHz) to improve the overall detection capability of the diagnostic system. The total extracted current at 50 KV is 7.2A. The design has been based on a ''bucket'' type plasma source with a four-electrode extraction array of circular apertures. Low perveance extraction is used to obtain both high brightness and freedom from high voltage breakdown, in view of the high degree of reliability needed. Details of performance of the beam line measured during commissioning tests at Culham are given

  13. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 10 13 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 10 9 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  14. Current steering effect of GaN nanoporous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chia-Feng; Wang, Jing-Hao; Cheng, Po-Fu; Tseng, Wang-Po; Fan, Feng-Hsu; Wu, Kaun-Chun; Lee, Wen-Che; Han, Jung

    2014-01-01

    Current steering effect of InGaN light emitting diode (LED) structure was demonstrated by forming a high resistivity GaN nanoporous structure. Disk-array patterns with current-injection bridge structures were fabricated on InGaN LED devices through a focused ion beam (FIB) system. GaN nanoporous structure was formed around the FIB-drilled holes through a electrochemical (EC) wet-etching process on a n-type GaN:Si layer under the InGaN active layer. High emission intensity and small peak wavelength blueshift phenomenon of the electroluminescence spectra were observed in the EC-treated region compared with the non-treated region. The branch-like nanoporous structure was formed along the lateral etched direction to steer the injection current in 5 μm-width bridge structures. In the FIB-drilled hole structure, high light emission intensity of the central-disk region was observed by enlarging the bridge width to 10 μm, with a 5 μm EC-treated width, that reduced the current steering effect and increased the light scattering effect on the nanoporous structure. The EC-treated GaN:Si nanoporous structure acted as a high light scattering structure and a current steering structure that has potential on the current confinement for vertical cavity surface emitting laser applications. - Highlights: • High resistivity nanoporous-GaN formed in InGaN LED through electrochemical process. • Branch-like nanoporous in 5 μm-width bridge structure can steer the injection current. • Nanoporous GaN acted as s light scattering and current steering structures in InGaN LED

  15. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T.

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  16. Should drivers be operating within an automation-free bandwidth? Evaluating haptic steering support systems with different levels of authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermeijer, Sebastiaan M; Abbink, David A; de Winter, Joost C F

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare continuous versus bandwidth haptic steering guidance in terms of lane-keeping behavior, aftereffects, and satisfaction. An important human factors question is whether operators should be supported continuously or only when tolerance limits are exceeded. We aimed to clarify this issue for haptic steering guidance by investigating costs and benefits of both approaches in a driving simulator. Thirty-two participants drove five trials, each with a different level of haptic support: no guidance (Manual); guidance outside a 0.5-m bandwidth (Band1); a hysteresis version of Band1, which guided back to the lane center once triggered (Band2); continuous guidance (Cont); and Cont with double feedback gain (ContS). Participants performed a reaction time task while driving. Toward the end of each trial, the guidance was unexpectedly disabled to investigate aftereffects. All four guidance systems prevented large lateral errors (>0.7 m). Cont and especially ContS yielded smaller lateral errors and higher time to line crossing than Manual, Band1, and Band2. Cont and ContS yielded short-lasting aftereffects, whereas Band1 and Band2 did not. Cont yielded higher self-reported satisfaction and faster reaction times than Band1. Continuous and bandwidth guidance both prevent large driver errors. Continuous guidance yields improved performance and satisfaction over bandwidth guidance at the cost of aftereffects and variability in driver torque (indicating human-automation conflicts). The presented results are useful for designers of haptic guidance systems and support critical thinking about the costs and benefits of automation support systems.

  17. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  18. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  19. Implementation of EPICS based Control System for Radioisotope Beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2015-01-01

    Korea Mult-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been operating 100 MeV proton linear accelerator . For operating 100 MeV linac, various control system has been implemented such as vacuum, power supply, RCCS and etc. KOMAC is operating two beam lines so that clients can use 100 MeV proton beam for their experiment. KOMAC sends beam to beam line and target room using two dipole magnets and several quadrupole magnets. As demand for experiments and Radius Isotope using beam is increased, another beam line is under construction and RI beam line control system is need. To synchronize with KOMAC control system, RI beam line control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) software. The beam is transported to RI beam line to control magnet power supply and vacuum. Implementation of RI beam line control system is presented and some preliminary results are reported. The base RI beam line control system is implemented. It can control beam direction and vacuum. Comparing archived data and current data, RI beam line and control system will be improved. In the future, scroll pump and gate control system will be implemented using programmable logic controller PLC. RI beam interlock sequence will be added to KOMAC interlock system to protect linac

  20. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  1. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  2. RHIC beam loss monitor system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.; Zitvogel, E.; Michnoff, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized for data logging. The output is also applied to an analog multiplier which compensates the energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. High and low pass filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent programmable trip levels. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer (FEC) for real-time operation. Results with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line will be presented

  3. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  4. The CNAO dose delivery system for modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Garella, M. A.; Donetti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F.; Monaco, V.; Hosseini, M. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Physics Department, University of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A. [Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the system for the dose delivery currently used at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) for ion beam modulated scanning radiotherapy. Methods: CNAO Foundation, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Torino have designed, built, and commissioned a dose delivery system (DDS) to monitor and guide ion beams accelerated by a dedicated synchrotron and to distribute the dose with a full 3D scanning technique. Protons and carbon ions are provided for a wide range of energies in order to cover a sizable span of treatment depths. The target volume, segmented in several layers orthogonally to the beam direction, is irradiated by thousands of pencil beams which must be steered and held to the prescribed positions until the prescribed number of particles has been delivered. For the CNAO beam lines, these operations are performed by the DDS. The main components of this system are two independent beam monitoring detectors, called BOX1 and BOX2, interfaced with two control systems performing the tasks of real-time fast and slow control, and connected to the scanning magnets and the beam chopper. As a reaction to any condition leading to a potential hazard, a DDS interlock signal is sent to the patient interlock system which immediately stops the irradiation. The essential tasks and operations performed by the DDS are described following the data flow from the treatment planning system through the end of the treatment delivery. Results: The ability of the DDS to guarantee a safe and accurate treatment was validated during the commissioning phase by means of checks of the charge collection efficiency, gain uniformity of the chambers, and 2D dose distribution homogeneity and stability. A high level of reliability and robustness has been proven by three years of system activity needing rarely more than regular maintenance and working with 100% uptime. Four identical and independent DDS devices have been tested showing

  5. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  6. Extracted-beam-detection system around synchrotron saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Remy; Milleret, Gerard; Giuliani, Arlette; Lefol, Andre; Perret, Robert; Poupard, Joseph; Trogno, Andre; Van den Bossche, Maurice; N'Guyen Sieu Viet.

    1977-07-01

    The extracted-beam-detection system working around the synchrotron Saturne is presented. The whole system is composed of about forty multiwire chambers used for beam tuning and providing beams profiles. Optic beam parameters such as position, divergence, dimension, emittance can be easily measured, or calculated with a program running on a computer. They are working in large range intensity beams (10 2 to 5.10 11 p/cm 2 /s of protons, alpha particles, deutons, pions, tritons and electrons [fr

  7. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  8. MEMS Inertial Sensors-Based Multi-Loop Control Enhanced by Disturbance Observation and Compensation for Fast Steering Mirror System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Mao, Yao; Ren, Ge

    2016-11-15

    In this paper, an approach to improve the disturbance suppression performance of a fast steering mirror (FSM) tracking control system based on a charge-coupled device (CCD) and micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) inertial sensors is proposed. The disturbance observation and compensation (DOC) control method is recommended to enhance the classical multi-loop feedback control (MFC) for line-of-sight (LOS) stabilization in the FSM system. MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes have been used in the FSM system tentatively to implement MFC instead of fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOG) because of its smaller, lighter, cheaper features and gradually improved performance. However, the stabilization performance of FSM is still suffering a large number of mechanical resonances and time delay induced by a low CCD sampling rate, which causes insufficient error attenuation when suffering uncertain disturbances. Thus, in order to make further improvements on the stabilization performance, a cascaded MFC enhanced by DOC method is proposed. The sensitivity of this method shows the significant improvement of the conventional MFC system. Simultaneously, the analysis of stabilization accuracy is also presented. A series of comparative experimental results demonstrate the disturbance suppression performance of the FSM control system based on the MEMS inertial sensors can be effectively improved by the proposed approach.

  9. 46 CFR 182.620 - Auxiliary means of steering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Steering Systems § 182.620 Auxiliary means of steering. (a) Except as... personnel hazards during normal or heavy weather operation. (b) A suitable hand tiller may be acceptable as...

  10. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is experimentally verified and it is tested in one of the Light Commercial. Vehicle (LCV). Keywords. BLDC motor; EAS; steering. 1. Introduction. Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on vehicles by using external source to assist in turning the wheels. Most new generation vehicles now have power ...

  11. Internally shielded beam transport and support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildkamp, W.; Brewer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Due to environmental concerns, the Advanced Photon Source has a policy that disallows any exposed lead within the facility. This creates a real problem for the beam transport system, not so much for the pipe but for the flexible coupling (bellows) sections. A complete internally shielded x-ray transport system, consisting of long transport lines joined by flexible coupling sections, has been designed for CARS sector 14 to operate either at high vacuum or as a helium flight tube. It can effectively shield against air scattering of wiggler or undulator white beam with proper placement of apertures, collimators, and masks for direct beam control. The system makes use of male- and female-style fittings that create a labyrinth allowing for continuous shielding through the flexible coupling sections. These parts are precision machined from a ternary hypereutectic lead alloy (cast under 15 inches of head pressure to assure a pinhole-free casting) then pressed into either end (rotatable vacuum flanges) of the bellows assembly. The transport pipe itself consists of a four part construction using a stepped transition ring (Z-ring) to connect an inner tube to the vacuum flange and also to a protective and supportive outer tube. The inner tube is wrapped with 1/16 double-prime pure lead sheet to a predetermined thickness following the shape of the stepped transition ring for continuous shielding. This design has been prototyped and radiation tested. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Beam position monitoring system at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billing, M.G.; Bergan, W.F.; Forster, M.J.; Meller, R.E.; Rendina, M.C.; Rider, N.T.; Sagan, D.C.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.P.; Stedinger, M.G.; Strohman, C.R.; Palmer, M.A.; Holtzapple, R.L.

    2017-01-01

    The Cornell Electron-positron Storage Ring (CESR) has been converted from a High Energy Physics electron-positron collider to operate as a dedicated synchrotron light source for the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) and to conduct accelerator physics research as a test accelerator, capable of studying topics relevant to future damping rings, colliders and light sources. Some of the specific topics that were targeted for the initial phase of operation of the storage ring in this mode, labeled CESRTA (CESR as a Test Accelerator), included 1) tuning techniques to produce low emittance beams, 2) the study of electron cloud development in a storage ring and 3) intra-beam scattering effects. The complete conversion of CESR to CESRTA occurred over a several year period and is described elsewhere. As a part of this conversion the CESR beam position monitoring (CBPM) system was completely upgraded to provide the needed instrumental capabilities for these studies. This paper describes the new CBPM system hardware, its function and representative measurements performed by the upgraded system.

  13. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  14. Contrastive Analysis and Research on Negative Pressure Beam Tube System and Positive Pressure Beam Tube System for Mine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Shen, Jialong; Liu, Xinbo

    2018-01-01

    Against the technical defects of universally applicable beam tube monitoring system at present, such as air suction in the beam tube, line clogging, long sampling time, etc., the paper analyzes the current situation of the spontaneous combustion fire disaster forecast of mine in our country and these defects one by one. On this basis, the paper proposes a research thought that improving the positive pressure beam tube so as to substitute the negative pressure beam tube. Then, the paper introduces the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology through theoretical analysis and experiment. In the comparison with negative pressure beam tube, the paper concludes the advantage of the new system and draws the conclusion that the positive pressure beam tube is superior to the negative pressure beam tube system both in test result and test time. At last, the paper proposes prospect of the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology.

  15. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  16. Beam Position Monitor System for PEP II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Stephen R.; Aiello, G.Roberto; Hendrickson, Linda J.; Johnson, Ronald G.; Mills, Mark R.; Olsen, Jeff J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12

    We describe the beam position monitor system built for PEP-II, the B-factory at SLAC. The system reports beam position for bunches of between 5 x 10{sup 8} and 8 x 10{sup 10} electron charges, either singly or as continuous streams of bunches every 4.2 ns. Resolution at full charge is to be better than 10 microns in a single turn. Higher resolution is available via on-board multi-turn averaging. The position signal is processed in a 20 MHz bandwidth around 952 MHz. This bandwidth, rather broader than that typical of RF position monitors, allows good resolution for low charge single bunches. Additional novel features include stringent control of return losses in order to minimize cross-talk between nearby bunches which may contain very different charges. The digitizing electronics is multiplexed between the two PEP-II storage rings. Design, construction, and installation experience, as well as first results with beam are presented.

  17. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2015-01-01

    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  18. The LHC Beam Dumping System Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Voumard, N

    2005-01-01

    Two LHC beam dumping systems (LBDS) will fast-extract the counter-rotating beams safely from the LHC collider during setting-up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. They consist of 15 fast pulsed magnets per ring for beam extraction from the accelerator combined with 10 fast pulsed magnets for horizontal and vertical beam dilution. Dump requests will come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system for emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These spontaneously issued dump requests will be synchronised with the 3 µs beam abort gap within a fail-safe trigger synchronisation unit (TSU) based on a digital phase lock loop (DPLL) locked on the beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. Afterwards, the synchronised trigger pulse will be distributed to the fast pulsed magnet high voltage generators through a redundant fault tolerant trigger distribution system based on the...

  19. Status of Beam Diagnostic Systems for the PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Park Jang Ho; Choi Byung Ho; Ha Hwang Woon; Han, Sang-Hyo; Park, Sung-Ju; Woon Parc, Yong; Yun Huang Jung

    2005-01-01

    A proton linear accelerator is currently the construction at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Research Institute) to the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) in Korea. We are accomplished the technique development of beam diagnostic system to be currently the construction. We treat beam diagnostics for the high power proton linear accelerator. Prototype beam position & phase monitor (BPPM) electronics was made and tested successfully in one of the beam diagnostic systems. The beam position monitor pickup electrode is a capacitive type (electrostatic type) which has a button form. Button form electrode, in common use around electron synchrotrons and storage rings, are a variant of the electrode with small button form (e.g., sub mm diameter). However, we are designed button form electrode to measure beam position of proton beam. The BCM (Beam Current Monitor) is developed Tuned CT (Current Transformer) for collaborate with Bergoz Instruments. This paper describes the status of beam diagnostic systems for the P...

  20. The CMS Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, E.; Bacchetta, N.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A.; Guthoff, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Müller, S.; Novgorodova, O.; Pfeiffer, D.; Ryjov, V.; Stickland, D.; Schimdt, R.; Walsh, R.

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the two large, general purpose experiments situated at the LHC at CERN. As with all high energy physics experiments, knowledge of the beam conditions and luminosity is of vital importance. The Beam Conditions and Radiation Monitoring System (BRM) is installed in CMS to protect the detector and to provide feedback to LHC on beam conditions. It is composed of several sub-systems that measure the radiation level close to or inside all sub-detectors, monitor the beam halo conditions with different time resolution, support beam tuning and protect CMS in case of adverse beam conditions by firing a beam abort signal. This paper presents three of the BRM subsystems: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), which is designed for fast flux monitoring, measuring with nanosecond time resolution, both the beam halo and collision products; the Beam Scintillator Counters (BSC), that provide hit rates and time information of beam halo and collision products; and the Beam Conditions Monitors (BCM) used as a protection system that can trigger a beam dump when beam losses occur in order to prevent damage to the pixel and tracker detectors. A description of the systems and a characterization on the basis of data collected during LHC operation is presented.

  1. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  2. Studies on the beam system for the calibration of the OPAL jet chamber with laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, G.

    1988-07-01

    UV laser beams are an important tool for the calibration of the OPAL jet chamber. A beam transport system containing about 350 mirrors in total guides the beams from the laser outside the detector into the chamber. Four of the mirrors are moveable under remote control allowing to guide the beams into each of the 24 sectors and to correct the beam path in case of deviations. A program to control these moveable mirrors has been developed. Drift velocity measurements will be performed by means of double beams which are generated by appropriate beamsplitters. Accurate knowledge of the double beam distances is essential to obtain the desired accuracy of better than 0.1% or 10 μm. Using a CCD device with a pixel size of 23x23 μm 2 the beam distance could be measured with errors below the required limit. (orig.)

  3. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  4. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  5. Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi

    2014-08-01

    The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are obtained, and the concept of collective tripartite quantum steering, recently introduced by He and Reid [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 250403 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.250403], is clearly explored. It is found that both bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are sensitive functions of the initial state of the modes and distinctly different steering behavior could be observed depending on whether the modes were initially in a thermal state or not. For the modes initially in a vacuum state, the bipartite and tripartite steering occur simultaneously over the entire interaction time. This indicates that collective tripartite steering cannot be achieved. The collective steering can be achieved for the modes initially prepared in a thermal state. We find that the initial thermal noise is more effective in destroying the bipartite rather than the tripartite steering which, on the other hand, can persist even for a large thermal noise. For the initial vacuum state of a steered mode, the tripartite steering exists over the entire interaction time even if the steering modes are in very noisy thermal states. When the steered mode is initially in a thermal state, it can be collectively steered by the other modes. There are thresholds for the average number of the thermal photons above which the existing tripartite steering appears as the collective steering. Finally, we point out that the collective steering may provide a resource in a hybrid quantum network for quantum secret sharing

  6. A beam position feedback system for beam lines at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Haga, K.; Mitsuhashi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The beam position of the synchrotron radiation produced from the Storage Ring was stabilized by a twofold position feedback system. A digital feedback system was developed to suppress the diurnal beam movement (one cycle of sin-like drifting motion per day) which became a serious problem in low-emittance operation. The feedback was applied to the closed-orbit-distortion (COD) correction system in order to cancel the position variation at all the beam lines proportionately to the variation monitored at one beam line. An analog feedback system is also used to suppress frequency components faster than the slow diurnal movement

  7. Multi-Layer Traffic Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotiadis, Panagiotis; Polignano, Michele; Gimenez, Lucas Chavarria

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the potentials of traffic steering in the Radio Resource Control (RRC) Idle state by evaluating the Absolute Priorities (AP) framework in a multilayer Long Term Evolution (LTE) macrocell scenario. Frequency priorities are broadcast on the system information and RRC Idle...

  8. Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-03-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in diffraction studies are discussed.

  9. AIP Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in di ff raction studies are discussed.

  10. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  11. The Beam Energy Tracking System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Carlier, E; Gräwer, G; Voumard, N; Gjelsvik, R

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, will be installed around the straight section 6. It comprises per ring 15 horizontally deflecting extraction kickers, followed by 1 quadrupole, 15 vertically deflecting steel septum magnets, 10 dilution kickers and, in a separate cavern several hundred meters away, an external absorber assembly. A beam dump request can occur at any moment during the operation of the collider, from injection at 450 GeV up to top energy at 7 TeV. The Beam Energy Tracking System (BETS) monitors the deflection strength of each active element of the LBDS with respect to the beam energy in order to guarantee the correct extraction trajectory over the complete operational range and under all operational conditions. Its main functions are the acquisition of the beam energy, the generation of the kick strength reference signals for the extraction and dilution kickers, the continuous checking that the kicker high voltage generat...

  12. The neutron beam users tape management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, B.; Johnson, M.W.

    1977-02-01

    Systems are described for dealing with data collected at the High Flux Reactor, Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and brought on magnetic tape to the Neutron Beam Research Unit at the Rutherford Laboratory. The first system, named GNAT, was designed to archive the incoming 800 bpi tapes onto 6250 bpi tapes (to enable them to return to the ILL). The archiving program, besides choosing the archive tapes, keeping a record of the data sets archived, and writing the archive tape, should be able to cope with incoming tapes whose formats are somewhat different from the standard IBM format. The second system, named FONT, was designed to maintain a record of all the tapes in the NBRU's possession, their whereabouts and what data, if any, are on them. (U.K.)

  13. Ion optics study in a single-beamlet system for the 160-keV Joint European Torus neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.; Jequier, F.

    1986-01-01

    The optics of the 160-keV deuterium neutral beam injection for the Joint European Torus--plug-in neutral injector (JET-PINI) have been studied in a single beamlet, using the test stand ligne d'etudes d'optiques (LEO). The beamlet optical features, that is perveance-divergence relationships, beam profiles, and steering angle by aperture offset, have been measured. Computations have been compared with the experimental results obtained both in this monobeamlet experiment and in the multibeamlet system of the 160-keV PINI injector

  14. Ion optics study in a single-beamlet system for the 160-keV Joint European Torus neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Bussac, J.P.; Jequier, F.

    1986-09-01

    The optics of the 160-keV deuterium neutral beam injection for the Joint European Torus--plug-in neutral injector (JET-PINI) have been studied in a single beamlet, using the test stand ligne d'etudes d'optiques (LEO). The beamlet optical features, that is perveance-divergence relationships, beam profiles, and steering angle by aperture offset, have been measured. Computations have been compared with the experimental results obtained both in this monobeamlet experiment and in the multibeamlet system of the 160-keV PINI injector.

  15. Beam characterisation of the KIRAMS electron microbeam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, G. M.; Kim, E. H.; Song, K. B.; Jang, M.

    2006-01-01

    An electron microbeam system has been installed at the Korea Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) for use in radiation biology studies. The electron beam is produced from a commercial electron gun, and the beam size is defined by a 5 μm diameter pinhole. Beam energy can be varied in the range of 1-100 keV, covering a range of linear energy transfer from 0.4 to 12.1 keV μm -1 . The micrometer-sized electron beam selectively irradiates cells cultured in a Mylar-bottomed dish. The positioning of target cells one by one onto the beam exit is automated, as is beam shooting. The electron beam entering the target cells has been calibrated using a Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector. This paper describes the KIRAMS microbeam cell irradiation system and its beam characteristics. (authors)

  16. Design of a remote steering antenna for ECRH heating in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaum, B., E-mail: plaum@igvp.uni-stuttgart.de [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Lechte, C.; Kasparek, W.; Gaiser, S.; Zeitler, A. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Univ. Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Erckmann, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Weißgerber, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bechtold, A. [NTG Neue Technologie GmbH & Co KG, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Busch, M.; Szcepaniak, B. [Galvano-T electroplating-electroforming GmbH, D-51570 Windeck-Rosbach (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We report about the design activities for the remote steering antennas for the stellarator W7-X. • The integration into the W7-X system and the manufacturing procedure are described. • Simulations and loss measurements for the waveguide walls were done and are in good agreement. • A method for extending the steering range is presented. • A mechanical deformation analysis showed that the deformation is not critical for the beam quality. - Abstract: For the ECRH heating system of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, two remote steering antennas are developed and manufactured. The principle of remote steering antennas is based on the imaging characteristics of corrugated rectangular waveguides, which is well understood and can accurately be simulated. Several details, however, require deeper investigation. The antenna needs a miter-bend and a 24 mm gap. The positions of these elements need to be chosen carefully to reduce losses and stray radiation. The antennas are manufactured from copper by electroforming. This allows to integrate all components, including the corrugated inner walls and the cooling channels, in one vacuum-tight piece. This paper reviews the design process of the remote steering antennas for W7-X as well as technological issues and experimental results from test pieces.

  17. Steering Dynamics in Complex Education Systems. An Agenda for Empirical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisens, Henno; Hooge, Edith; Waslander, Sietske

    2016-01-01

    Many policy systems and education systems have grown more complex in the last three decades. Power has moved away from central governments in different directions: upwards towards international organisations, sideways towards private institutions and non-governmental organisations and downwards towards local governments and public enterprises such…

  18. Beam systems without failures - What can be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, M.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    The beam dumps at 3.5 TeV triggered by interlocks not related to the magnet powering are discussed. This concerns the systems like the RF, the transverse feedbacks, beam instrumentation, beam dumping system, collimators and control systems. An analysis of the reasons of these dumps is presented together with a possible strategy to mitigate the effect of these failures. It is very important to notice that no system has been identified to have any structural problem

  19. RF beam transmission of x-band PAA system utilizing large-area, polymer-based true-time-delay module developed using imprinting and inkjet printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zeyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Xu, Xiaochuan; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Xingyu; Zou, Yi; Panday, Ashwin; Guo, L. Jay; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-02-01

    Phased-array antenna (PAA) technology plays a significant role in modern day radar and communication networks. Truetime- delay (TTD) enabled beam steering networks provide several advantages over their electronic counterparts, including squint-free beam steering, low RF loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and large bandwidth control of PAAs. Chip-scale and integrated TTD modules promise a miniaturized, light-weight system; however, the modules are still rigid and they require complex packaging solutions. Moreover, the total achievable time delay is still restricted by the wafer size. In this work, we propose a light-weight and large-area, true-time-delay beamforming network that can be fabricated on light-weight and flexible/rigid surfaces utilizing low-cost "printing" techniques. In order to prove the feasibility of the approach, a 2-bit thermo-optic polymer TTD network is developed using a combination of imprinting and ink-jet printing. RF beam steering of a 1×4 X-band PAA up to 60° is demonstrated. The development of such active components on large area, light-weight, and low-cost substrates promises significant improvement in size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements over the state-of-the-art.

  20. Experimental temporal quantum steering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.; Miranowicz, A.; Nori, F.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Nov (2016), 1-8, č. článku 38076. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : temporal quantum steering * EPR steering Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Steering smog prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Liere (Robert); J.J. van Wijk (Jack)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe use of computational steering for smog prediction is described. This application is representative for many underlying issues found in steering high performance applications: high computing times, large data sets, and many different input parameters. After a short description of the

  2. Novel Approaches to Manipulating Bacterial Pathogen Biofilms: Whole-Systems Design Philosophy and Steering Microbial Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Alexandra S

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and manipulating bacterial biofilms is crucial in medicine, ecology and agriculture and has potential applications in bioproduction, bioremediation and bioenergy. Biofilms often resist standard therapies and the need to develop new means of intervention provides an opportunity to fundamentally rethink our strategies. Conventional approaches to working with biological systems are, for the most part, "brute force", attempting to effect control in an input and effort intensive manner and are often insufficient when dealing with the inherent non-linearity and complexity of living systems. Biological systems, by their very nature, are dynamic, adaptive and resilient and require management tools that interact with dynamic processes rather than inert artefacts. I present an overview of a novel engineering philosophy which aims to exploit rather than fight those properties, and hence provide a more efficient and robust alternative. Based on a combination of evolutionary theory and whole-systems design, its essence is what I will call systems aikido; the basic principle of aikido being to interact with the momentum of an attacker and redirect it with minimal energy expenditure, using the opponent's energy rather than one's own. In more conventional terms, this translates to a philosophy of equilibrium engineering, manipulating systems' own self-organisation and evolution so that the evolutionarily or dynamically stable state corresponds to a function which we require. I illustrate these ideas with a description of a proposed manipulation of environmental conditions to alter the stability of co-operation in the context of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection of the cystic fibrosis lung.

  3. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  4. Nonlinear wave-beam kinetic equilibrium in decelerating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.K.; Shaposhnikova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    The equilibrium state of the wave-beam system arising during the interaction of a particle beam and excited electromagnetic wave has been investigated on the basis of the analysis of the exact polution of a non-linear self-consistent linear equation using the complete system of conservation laws. A waveguide with a dielectric filler, into which a monoenergetic particle beam magnetized in a transverse plane is continuously injected, is used as a model of an decelerating system. A dispersion equation describing the system state and expression for the evaluation of efficiency of the beam energy conversion to the field energy have been obtained. It is concluded that larae fields and high efficiency of energy conversion are achieved during the marked beam reconstruction. States with different values of current and beam velocity but similar amplitudes of a longitudinal field are possible in the system considered [ru

  5. An elementary presentation of the PS ''beam control'' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1973-01-01

    The PS synchrotron control system is explained in general terms, covering the topics of frequency control, beam transfer, damping, stability, conservation of longitudinal emittance, and second order problems

  6. Electron Beam Size Measurements in a Cooling Solenoid

    CERN Document Server

    Kroc, Thomas K; Burov, Alexey; Seletsky, Sergey; Shemyakin, Alexander V

    2005-01-01

    The Fermilab Electron Cooling Project requires a straight trajectory and constant beam size to provide effective cooling of the antiprotons in the Recycler. A measurement system was developed using movable appertures and steering bumps to measure the beam size in a 20 m long, nearly continuous, solenoid. This paper discusses the required beam parameters, the implimentation of the measurement system and results for our application.

  7. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  8. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  9. High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Fessenden, T; Holmes, C; Nelson, S D; Selchow, N.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II applications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pick-off probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements

  10. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm

  11. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A conceptual design of a neutral beam line based on the neutralization of negative deuterium ions is presented. This work is a detailed design of a complete neutral beam line based on using negative ions from a direct extraction source. Anticipating major technological advancements, beam line components have been scaled including the negative ion sources and components for the direct energy recovery of charged beams and high speed cryogenic pumping. With application to the next step in experimental fusion reactors (TNS), the neutral beam injector system that has been designed provides 10 MW of 200 keV neutral deuterium atoms. Several arms are required for plasma ignition

  12. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  13. Fermilab Steering Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beier, Eugene; /Pennsylvania U.; Butler, Joel; /Fermilab; Dawson, Sally; /Brookhaven; Edwards, Helen; /Fermilab; Himel, Thomas; /SLAC; Holmes, Stephen; /Fermilab; Kim, Young-Kee; /Fermilab /Chicago U.; Lankford, Andrew; /UC, Irvine; McGinnis, David; /Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab; Raubenheimer, Tor; /SLAC /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    The Fermilab Steering Group has developed a plan to keep U.S. accelerator-based particle physics on the pathway to discovery, both at the Terascale with the LHC and the ILC and in the domain of neutrinos and precision physics with a high-intensity accelerator. The plan puts discovering Terascale physics with the LHC and the ILC as Fermilab's highest priority. While supporting ILC development, the plan creates opportunities for exciting science at the intensity frontier. If the ILC remains near the Global Design Effort's technically driven timeline, Fermilab would continue neutrino science with the NOVA experiment, using the NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) proton plan, scheduled to begin operating in 2011. If ILC construction must wait somewhat longer, Fermilab's plan proposes SNuMI, an upgrade of NuMI to create a more powerful neutrino beam. If the ILC start is postponed significantly, a central feature of the proposed Fermilab plan calls for building an intense proton facility, Project X, consisting of a linear accelerator with the currently planned characteristics of the ILC combined with Fermilab's existing Recycler Ring and the Main Injector accelerator. The major component of Project X is the linac. Cryomodules, radio-frequency distribution, cryogenics and instrumentation for the linac are the same as or similar to those used in the ILC at a scale of about one percent of a full ILC linac. Project X's intense proton beams would open a path to discovery in neutrino science and in precision physics with charged leptons and quarks. World-leading experiments would allow physicists to address key questions of the Quantum Universe: How did the universe come to be? Are there undiscovered principles of nature: new symmetries, new physical laws? Do all the particles and forces become one? What happened to the antimatter? Building Project X's ILC-like linac would offer substantial support for ILC development by accelerating the

  14. Beam current control system for a high-voltage accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razin, G.I.; Val'tman, D.S.; Timofeev, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    A flowsheet of the beam current control system for commercial accelerators is given. Setting and stabilization of a given beam current value are accomplished by the automatic change of a current of a diode electron gun heater or potential of a qrid of three-electrode gun. Beam current coming to an electron-optical converter generates a control signal supplying electron gun. The system operates in the beam current stabilization regime as well as in the radiation dose stabilization regime. The system response amounts to [ru

  15. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  16. Improving Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen steering inequalities with state information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Broadbent, Curtis J.; Howell, John C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between entropic Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)-steering inequalities and their underlying uncertainty relations along with the hypothesis that improved uncertainty relations lead to tighter EPR-steering inequalities. In particular, we discuss how using information about the state of a quantum system affects one's ability to witness EPR-steering. As an example, we consider the recent improvement to the entropic uncertainty relation between pairs of discrete observables (Berta et al., 2010 [10]). By considering the assumptions that enter into the development of a steering inequality, we derive correct steering inequalities from these improved uncertainty relations and find that they are identical to ones already developed (Schneeloch et al., 2013 [9]). In addition, we consider how one can use state information to improve our ability to witness EPR-steering, and develop a new continuous variable symmetric EPR-steering inequality as a result.

  17. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  18. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  19. Data acquisition system for medium power neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.R. Jr.; Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1978-06-01

    The Medium Power Neutral Beam Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed in order to develop, test, and condition powerful neutral beam lines for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors source performance, beam characteristics, and power deposition profiles to determine if the beam line is operating up to its design specifications. The speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. Analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display

  20. Data acquisition system for PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed to test and condition powerful neutral beam sources for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors the beam characteristics and power output to determine if the beam is operating at its design specifications. The high speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. The analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display

  1. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics

  2. Engineering aspects of particle beam fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting research directed toward demonstration of DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators (PBFA I and II) are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Cornell University. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications

  3. A novel estimating method for steering efficiency of the driver with electromyography signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yahui; Ji, Xuewu; Hayama, Ryouhei; Mizuno, Takahiro

    2014-05-01

    The existing research of steering efficiency mainly focuses on the mechanism efficiency of steering system, aiming at designing and optimizing the mechanism of steering system. In the development of assist steering system especially the evaluation of its comfort, the steering efficiency of driver physiological output usually are not considered, because this physiological output is difficult to measure or to estimate, and the objective evaluation of steering comfort therefore cannot be conducted with movement efficiency perspective. In order to take a further step to the objective evaluation of steering comfort, an estimating method for the steering efficiency of the driver was developed based on the research of the relationship between the steering force and muscle activity. First, the steering forces in the steering wheel plane and the electromyography (EMG) signals of the primary muscles were measured. These primary muscles are the muscles in shoulder and upper arm which mainly produced the steering torque, and their functions in steering maneuver were identified previously. Next, based on the multiple regressions of the steering force and EMG signals, both the effective steering force and the total force capacity of driver in steering maneuver were calculated. Finally, the steering efficiency of driver was estimated by means of the estimated effective force and the total force capacity, which represented the information of driver physiological output of the primary muscles. This research develops a novel estimating method for driver steering efficiency of driver physiological output, including the estimation of both steering force and the force capacity of primary muscles with EMG signals, and will benefit to evaluate the steering comfort with an objective perspective.

  4. Slow beam raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Beaufait, J.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1994-01-01

    A bedstead air-core raster magnet is being installed now, it will be used at CEBAF to scan the beam on the Hall C polarized target and the beam dump with fixed frequency 60 Hz in horizontal, 103.4 Hz in vertical. The x and y raster magnets are driven by Variac transformer and SUMIT-OMO inverter respectively. Both of them provide an approximate sine current waveform with peak current 20 A, corresponding to a maximum deflection angle 1 mr

  5. A system for online beam emittance measurements and proton beam characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesteruk, K. P.; Auger, M.; Braccini, S.; Carzaniga, T. S.; Ereditato, A.; Scampoli, P.

    2018-01-01

    A system for online measurement of the transverse beam emittance was developed. It is named 4PrOBεaM (4-Profiler Online Beam Emittance Measurement) and was conceived to measure the emittance in a fast and efficient way using the multiple beam profiler method. The core of the system is constituted by four consecutive UniBEaM profilers, which are based on silica fibers passing across the beam. The 4PrOBεaM system was deployed for characterization studies of the 18 MeV proton beam produced by the IBA Cyclone 18 MeV cyclotron at Bern University Hospital (Inselspital). The machine serves daily radioisotope production and multi-disciplinary research, which is carried out with a specifically conceived Beam Transport Line (BTL). The transverse RMS beam emittance of the cyclotron was measured as a function of several machine parameters, such as the magnetic field, RF peak voltage, and azimuthal angle of the stripper. The beam emittance was also measured using the method based on the quadrupole strength variation. The results obtained with both techniques were compared and a good agreement was found. In order to characterize the longitudinal dynamics, the proton energy distribution was measured. For this purpose, a method was developed based on aluminum absorbers of different thicknesses, a UniBEaM detector, and a Faraday cup. The results were an input for a simulation of the BTL developed in the MAD-X software. This tool allows machine parameters to be tuned online and the beam characteristics to be optimized for specific applications.

  6. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  7. Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1979-01-01

    The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...

  8. A Proposal Of Simulation Model Of A Wind-Steering System For Sailing Yachts, Based On Single-Stage Servo-Pendulum Coupled With Main Rudder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piętak Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible application of fast design prototyping methods for wind-steering systems used in offshore sailing yachts. The development of such methods would help to speed up the construction work and reduce the scope of necessary experimental research, prior to implementation of the system. In the present work, based on an analysis of existing designs of windvane systems, a preliminary selection of the system configuration has been undertaken, in terms of a compromise between efficiency, performance, and design complexity. Construction design of a single-stage, servo – pendulum system, has been developed by using the Autodesk Inventor design package. Next, based on the design data, a simulation model of the system, has been produced by using Matlab - Simulink software and SimMechanics library. The model was further verified in terms of kinematics mapping with the use of Matlab visualization tools.

  9. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  10. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Hacek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Li-beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak is an improved and compact system to allow testing of Atomic Beam Probe. • The possibility to measure background corrected density profiles on the few microseconds time scale. • First Li-beam diagnostic system with recirculating neutralizer. • The system includes the redesigned ion source with longer lifetime. - Abstract: An improved lithium beam based beam emission spectroscopy system – installed on COMPASS tokamak – is described. The beam energy enhanced up to 120 keV for Atomic Beam Probe measurement. The size of the ion source is doubled, using a newly developed thermionic heater instead of the conventionally used heating (tungsten or molybdenum) filament. The neutralizer is also improved. It produces the same sodium vapor in a cell but minimize the loss condensing the vapor on a cold surface which is led back (in fluid state) into the sodium oven. This way we call it recirculating neutralizer. The observation system consists of a CCD camera and an avalanche photodiode array.

  11. Off-line system for particle beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Komolov, L.N.; Yudin, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    An off-line system in the CAMAC standard for beam diagnostics with the help of proportional chambers and the NTA-512B analyzer is described. The maximum number of wires in the system is 512. The accuracy of beam profile presentation is increased by selection of single-wire operations. The inquire time of one proportional chamber constitutes 15-20 μs and is comparable to the analyzer recording cycle. As a result, six chambers can detect 3000 particles per one accelerator cycle at the beam extraction duration of 400 ms. The system can be connected to a computer

  12. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  13. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Optical beam transport system at FEL-SUT

    CERN Document Server

    Nomaru, K; Yokoyama, M; Oda, F; Nakayama, A; Koike, H; Kuroda, H

    2000-01-01

    Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has installed an FEL beam transport system at the IR FEL Research Center of the Science University of Tokyo (FEL-SUT). This system transports the FEL output beam from the FEL machine room to the optical diagnostic room through a vacuum tube. The in-vacuum multi-mirror synchronized system operated from the FEL control room enables the operator to control the multiple mirrors simultaneously on or off axis of the FEL beam and to distribute the FEL output to one of the laboratories. The essential component of the transport system is the passive control optics that is composed of an elliptical and parabolic mirror couple. Once the control optics is aligned, a parallel FEL beam with a good pointing stability is obtained without any active operation to tune the optical system for different wavelengths.

  15. BEAMLINE-CONTROLLED STEERING OF SOURCE-POINT ANGLE AT THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, L.; Fystro, G.; Shang, H.; Smith, M.

    2017-06-25

    An EPICS-based steering software system has been implemented for beamline personnel to directly steer the angle of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source. A script running on a workstation monitors "start steering" beamline EPICS records, and effects a steering given by the value of the "angle request" EPICS record. The new system makes the steering process much faster than before, although the older steering protocols can still be used. The robustness features of the original steering remain. Feedback messages are provided to the beamlines and the accelerator operators. Underpinning this new steering protocol is the recent refinement of the global orbit feedback process whereby feedforward of dipole corrector set points and orbit set points are used to create a local steering bump in a rapid and seamless way.

  16. A model of driver steering control incorporating the driver's sensing of steering torque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Namho; Cole, David J.

    2011-10-01

    Steering feel, or steering torque feedback, is widely regarded as an important aspect of the handling quality of a vehicle. Despite this, there is little theoretical understanding of its role. This paper describes an initial attempt to model the role of steering torque feedback arising from lateral tyre forces. The path-following control of a nonlinear vehicle model is implemented using a time-varying model predictive controller. A series of Kalman filters are used to represent the driver's ability to generate estimates of the system states from noisy sensory measurements, including the steering torque. It is found that under constant road friction conditions, the steering torque feedback reduces path-following errors provided the friction is sufficiently high to prevent frequent saturation of the tyres. When the driver model is extended to allow identification of, and adaptation to, a varying friction condition, it is found that the steering torque assists in the accurate identification of the friction condition. The simulation results give insight into the role of steering torque feedback arising from lateral tyre forces. The paper concludes with recommendations for further work.

  17. Beam Dynamics and Pulse Duration Control During Final Beam Bunching in Driver System for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Katayama, Takeshi; Kawata, Shigeo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Someya, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Beam dynamics is investigated by multi-particle simulations during a final beam bunching in a driver system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The longitudinal bunch compression causes the beam instability induced by the strong space charge effect. The multi-particle simulation can indicate the emittance growth due to the longitudinal bunch compression. Dependence in the beam pulse duration is also investigated for effective pellet implosion in HIF. Not only the spatial nonuniformity of the beam illumination, but also the errors of the beam pulse duration cause changes of implosion dynamics. The allowable regime of the beam pulse duration for the effective fusion output becomes narrow with decreasing the input beam energy. The voltage accuracy requirement at the beam velocity modulator is also estimated for the final beam bunching. It is estimated that the integrated voltage error is allowable as a few percent.

  18. Beam-plasma interaction in case of injection of the electron beam to the symmetrically open plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opanasenko, A.V.; Romanyuk, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    A beam-plasma interaction at the entrance of the symmetrically open plasma system with an electron beam injected through it is investigated. An ignition of the plasma-beam discharge on waves of upper hybrid dispersion branch of a magnetoactive plasma is found in the plasma penetrating into the vacuum contrary to the beam. It is shown that the beam-plasma discharge is localized in the inhomogeneous penetrating plasma in the zone where only these waves exist. Regularities of the beam-plasma discharge ignition and manifestation are described. It is determined that the electron beam crossing the discharge zone leads to the strong energy relaxation of the beam. It is shown possible to control the beam-plasma discharge ignition by changing the potential of the electron beam collector. (author)

  19. Research on Precision Tracking on Fast Steering Mirror and Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Lin; Yi-ming, Wu; Fan, Zhu

    2018-01-01

    Fast steering mirror is a device used for controlling the beam direction precisely. Due to the short travel of the push-pull FSM, a compound fast steering mirror system driven by both limited-angle voice coil motor and push-pull FSM together is proposed. In the compound FSM system, limited-angle voice coil motor quickly swings at wide angle, while the push-pull FSM do high frequency movement in a small range, which provides the system with the high bandwidth and long travel. In the control strategy, the method of combining feed-forward control in Kalman filtering with auto-disturbance rejection control is used to improve trajectory tracking accuracy. The simulation result shows that tracking accuracy measured by the compound method can be improved by more than 5 times than that of the conventional PID.

  20. Design study of the SPS beam dumping system

    CERN Document Server

    Faugeras, Paul E; Schröder, G H

    1973-01-01

    An internal beam dumping system is needed for the SPS, in order to prevent uncontrolled loss of the beam in the accelerator. Several possible dumping schemes have been studied and compared in Ref. (1), and the method using fast kicker magnets has been chosen. The beam dumping system will use a pair of kicker magnets, which deflect the beam verti-cally onto the absorber blocks, and the beam will be dumped in one SPS revolution. It has been shown$^{(1)}$ that dumping a ow emittance beam of 10$^{13}$ ppp at 400 GeV/c leads to severe thermal problems in the absorber blocks. In particular, dumping the beam with fast kickers induces in the absorber blocks instantaneous temperature rises. These depend on the proton density distributions in the beam and the material used for the block and can be at least as high as l000$^{°}$C in case of aluminium. Although the values of these temperature spikes cannot be calculated with good accuracy, they are certainly higher than permitted for a reliable absorber block design. It...

  1. LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System Verification Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Zamantzas, C; Jackson, S

    2011-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Mon­i­tor­ing (BLM) sys­tem is one of the most com­plex in­stru­men­ta­tion sys­tems de­ployed in the LHC. In ad­di­tion to protecting the col­lid­er, the sys­tem also needs to pro­vide a means of di­ag­nos­ing ma­chine faults and de­liv­er a feed­back of loss­es to the control room as well as to sev­er­al sys­tems for their setup and analysis. It has to trans­mit and pro­cess sig­nals from al­most 4’000 mon­i­tors, and has near­ly 3 mil­lion con­fig­urable pa­ram­e­ters. The system was de­signed with re­li­a­bil­i­ty and avail­abil­i­ty in mind. The spec­i­fied op­er­a­tion and the fail-safe­ty stan­dards must be guar­an­teed for the sys­tem to per­form its func­tion in pre­vent­ing su­per­con­duc­tive mag­net de­struc­tion caused by par­ti­cle flux. Main­tain­ing the ex­pect­ed re­li­a­bil­i­ty re­quires ex­ten­sive test­ing and ver­i­fi­ca­tion. In this paper we re­port our most re­cent ad­di­t...

  2. Beam extraction control systems of the fast-cycling synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toumanian, A.; Zapolski, N.; Nickogosian, V.; Ananian, A.; Kazarian, A.; Khoetsian, M.; Agababian, A.; Matevosian, A.

    1992-01-01

    A compact system controlling the extraction of different beams (gamma, electron, synchrotron radiation) in single and simultaneous operation modes at high electromagnetic disturbances level based on using one computer of IBM PC/AT type is described. (author)

  3. Influence of the Applied Working Fluid and the Arrangement of the Steering Edges on Multi-Vane Expander Performance in Micro ORC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Rak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Micro-power domestic organic Rankine cycle (ORC systems are nowadays of great interest. These systems are considered for combined heat and power (CHP generation in domestic and distributed applications. The main issues of ORC systems design is selection of the expander and the working fluid. Thanks to their positive features, multi-vane expanders are especially promising for application in micro-power ORC systems. These expanders are very simple in design, small in dimensions, inexpensive and feature low gas flow capacity and expansion ratio. The application of multi-vane expanders in ORC systems is innovative and currently limited to prototype applications. However, a literature review indicates the growing interest in these machines and the potential for practical implementation. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct detailed studies on the multi-vane expanders operation in ORC systems. In this paper the results of experimental and numerical investigations on the influence of the applied working fluid and the arrangement of the steering edges on multi-vane expander performance in micro ORC system are reported. The experiments were performed using the specially designed lab test-stand, i.e. the domestic ORC system. Numerical simulations were proceeded in ANSYS CFX software (ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA and were focused on determining the expander performance under various flow conditions of different working fluids. Detailed numerical analysis of the arrangement of the machine steering edges showed existence of optimal mutual position of the inlet and outlet port for which the multi-vane expander achieves maximum internal work and internal efficiency.

  4. Beam Transfer Systems for the LAGUNA-LBNO Long Baseline Neutrino Beam from the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Efthymiopoulos, I; Papaphilippou, Y; Parfenova, A

    2013-01-01

    For the Long Baseline neutrino facility under study at CERN (LAGUNA-LBNO) it is initially planned to extract a 400 GeV beam from the second long straight section in the SPS into the existing transfer channel TT20 leading to the North Area experimental zone, to a new target aligned with a far detector at a distance of 2300 km [1]. In a second phase a new High-Power Proton Synchrotron (HPPS) accelerator is proposed, to give a 2 MW beam at about 50 GeV on the same target. In this paper the required beam transfer systems are outlined, including the new sections of transfer line between the Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL), HP-PS and SPS, and from the SPS to the target, and also the injection and extraction systems in the long straight section of the HPPS. The feasibility of a 4 GeV H- injection system is discussed.

  5. Beam Tracking in Switched-Beam Antenna System for V2V Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settawit Poochaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed switched beam antenna system for V2V communication including optimum antenna half power beamwidth determination in urban road environments. SQP optimization method is selected for the computation of optimum antenna half power beamwidth. In addition, beam tracking algorithm is applied to guarantee the best beam selection with maximum RSSI. The results present the success of the proposed system with the increasing of V2V performance metrics. Also, V2V data dissemination via the proposed system introduces the enhancement of V2V link in terms of RSSI, PER, BER, Tsafe, and Rsafe. The results indicate the improvement of V2V link reliability. Consequently, the road safety is improved.

  6. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...... in the microfluidic chip or with optical fibers mounted in the chip....

  7. Beam propagation considerations in the Aurora laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosoche, L.A.; Mc Leod, J.; Hanlon, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is a high-power KrF laser system now being constructed for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) studies. It will use optical angular multiplexing and serial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF amplifiers to deliver a stacked, multikilojoule 5-ns-duration laser pulse to ICF targets. The requirements of angular multiplexing KrF lasers at the multikilojoule level dictate path lengths on the order of 1 km. The inherent complicated path crossings produced by angular multiplexing and pulse stacking do not allow isolation of individual beam lines, so the optical quality of the long beam paths must be controlled. Propagation of the 248-nm light beams over long paths in air is affected by scattering, absorption thermal gradients and turbulence, beam alignment, and control and optical component figure errors

  8. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  9. Program for beam optical computation of axial symmetrical electrostatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianlin; Wu Chunlei; Zhou Changgeng

    2012-01-01

    The beam optical computation of axial symmetrical electrostatic systems is very important in the design and test of low-energy accelerators such as Cock-Croft and Van de Graaf accelerators. In this paper, a program for the beam optical computation of these structures has been developed using transfer matrix method. The electrostatic field region is divided into several small intervals in the program, and then the beam envelope is calculated interval-to-interval from the axial potential distribution, which is calculated by other electromagnetic field simulation software such as Maxwell SV. Space charge effect is included so that the program can be used in the computation of intense beam, while nonlinear effect is beyond its ability. The program can be used in the calculation of beam optics in most complicated axial symmetrical electrostatic fields, and the computing time required is very short. (authors)

  10. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  11. Ultrafast fiber beam delivery: system technology and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Eilzer, Sebastian; Wedel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Flexible beam delivery of high power pico- and femtosecond pulses offers great advantages in industrial applications. Complex free space beam delivery as found in robot or gantry systems can be replaced, laser safety and uptime increased and system integration in production environment simplified. Only recently fiber beam delivery has become available for ultrafast lasers while it has been an established standard for cw and pulsed laser sources for many years. Using special kinds of fiber that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that would arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion with micro-structured hollow core fibers. During the last years we have developed a modular beam delivery system that suits industrial ultrafast lasers and can be integrated into existing processing machines. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. We report on the technology required for fiber beam delivery of ultrafast laser pulses and discuss requirements for successful integration into industrial production as well as achievable performance under realistic operation and show examples of micromachining applications.

  12. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  13. LHC beam dump system Consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system is one of the most critical systems concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated using particle tracking in MAD-X, including an asynchronous dump action, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setting up and operation of these protection elements are discussed.

  14. Design of fast kickers for the ISABELLE beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawrocky, R.J.; Montemurro, P.A.; Baron, J.

    1981-01-01

    The ISA beam abort (extraction) system must be highly efficient, in the sense of producing minimum beam loss, and reliable to prevent serious damage to accelerator components by the circulating high-energy beams. Since the stored beams will be debunched, the low-loss requirement can be met only with ultra-thin extraction septa and/or fast-acting kickers. This paper examines the design of the ISA extraction kickers subject to a set of extraction channel constraints and a given maximum working voltage. Expressions are derived for determining system parameters for both a lumped parameter magnet and a delay-line magnet. Using these relationships, design parameters are worked out for several possible system configurations. The paper also describes the construction of a full-scale prototype module of the kicker and summarizes the preliminary test results obtained with the module

  15. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  16. Molecular beam sampling system with very high beam-to-background ratio: The rotating skimmer concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedikt, J.; Ellerweg, D.; Keudell, A. von

    2009-01-01

    A novel method of reducing the background pressure in a vacuum system used for sampling a molecular beam from a high pressure region is presented. A triple differential pumping stage is constructed with a chopper with rotating skimmer within the first pumping stage, which serves effectively as a valve separating periodically the vacuum system from the ambient environment. The mass spectrometry measurement of the species in the molecular beam show an excellent beam-to-background ratio of 14 and a detection limit below 1 ppm. The potential of this method for detection of low density reactive species in atmospheric pressure plasmas is demonstrated for the detection of oxygen atoms generated in an atmospheric pressure microplasma source.

  17. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  18. ADVANCEMENT OF THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDBERG, J.; WARBURTON, D.

    2003-01-01

    As one of the most critical system for RHIC operation, the beam abort kicker system has to be highly available, reliable, and stable for the entire operating range. Along with the RHIC commission and operation, consistent efforts have been spend to cope with immediate issues as well as inherited design issues. Major design changes have been implemented to achieve the higher operating voltage, longer high voltage hold-off time, fast retriggering and redundant triggering, and improved system protection, etc. Recent system test has demonstrated for the first time that both blue ring and yellow ring beam abort systems have achieved more than 24 hours hold off time at desired operating voltage. In this paper, we report break down, thyratron reverse arcing, and to build a fast re-trigger system to reduce beam spreading in event of premature discharge

  19. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  20. Design of the AGS Booster beam position monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Savino, J.; Stanziani, V.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Witkover, R.L.; Schulte, E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster beam position monitor system must cover a wide range of beam intensity and bunch length for proton and heavy ion acceleration. The detector is designed to maintain 0.1 mm local tolerance following 300{degree}C bakeout. The electronics will be located in the tunnel, communicating via fiber optic links to avoid ground loops. The design will be described and test results for prototype units presented. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  1. ISABELLE accelerator software, control system, and beam diagnostic philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornacchia, M.; Humphrey, J.W.; Niederer, J.; Poole, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The ISABELLE Project combines two large proton accelerators with two storage rings in the same facility using superconducting magnet technology. This combination leads to severe constraints on beam loss in magnets and involves complex treatment of magnetic field imperfections and correction elements. The consequent demands placed upon beam diagnostics, accelerator model programs, and the computer oriented control system are discussed in terms of an illustrative operation scenario

  2. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  3. Parallel beam scanning system for flatness measurements of thin plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wu, John H.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the work to develop a Parallel Beam Scanning System (PBSS) for the non-contact measurement of surface flatness of thin plates. The PBSS consists of a He-Ne laser source having good pointing stability a scanner to create divergent scanning beams a large aplanatic meniscus lens to convert the divergent beams to parallel beams a linear stage to drive the testpiece to each sampling position a screen for the projection of reflected beams from the tested surface and an image processing unit to analyze the projected image. Due to the out-of-flatness of the surface the straight line formed by the incident parallel beams will be distorted and magnified on the screen as it is reflected from the tested surface. The stage then positions the testpiece step-by-step to carry out measurements in the line-by-line sequence. A CCD camera is employed to capture the image of the distorted line on the screen each time. With the proposed mathematical model the flatness data of the testpiece can be computed from the input image data. Experimental results by the use of this system have shown in good agreement with the results obtained from the coordinate measuring machine. This system can be applied to the flatness measurements of thin plates such as sheet metals sheet moulding compound (SMC) plates glass plates etc. which are difficult to measure by traditional methods.

  4. Comparison of Multi-Beam and Single-Beam Cytofluorometers for an Automated Screening System in Gynecologic Cytology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Norihito

    1983-09-01

    Clumps of cells often give a false nuclear fluorescence intensity in a measuring system using flow cytofluorometry. In this study, we examined signal selection procedures in multi-beam and single-beam cytofluorometers with the aim of eliminating such false signals. The signal selection in the multi-beam cytofluorometer was found to be far superior to that in a single-beam cytofluorometer, and the problem of false nuclear fluorescence intensity is effectively obviated by using the former type of cytofluarometer.

  5. Wide steering angle microscanner based on curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Yasser; Khalil, Diaa; Saadany, Bassam; Bourouina, Tarik

    2013-03-01

    Intensive industrial and academic research is oriented towards the design and fabrication of optical beam steering systems based on MEMS technology. In most of these systems, the scanning is achieved by rotating a flat micromirror around a central axis in which the main challenge is achieving a wide mirror rotation angle. In this work, a novel method of optical beam scanning based on reflection from a curved surface is presented. The scanning occurs when the optical axis of the curved surface is displaced with respect to the optical axis of the incident beam. To overcome the possible deformation of the spot with the scanning angle, the curved surface is designed with a specific aspherical profile. Moreover, the scanning exhibits a more linearized scanning angle-displacement relation than the conventional spherical profile. The presented scanner is fabricated using DRIE technology on an SOI wafer. The curved surface (reflector) is metalized and attached to a comb-drive actuator fabricated in the same lithography step. A single-mode fiber, behaving as a Gaussian beam source, is positioned on the substrate facing the mirror. The reflected optical beam angle and spotsize in the far field is recorded versus the relative shift between the fiber and the curved mirror. The spot size is plotted versus the scanning angle and a scanning spot size uniformity of about +/-10% is obtained for optical deflection angles up to 100 degrees. As the optical beam is propagating parallel to the wafer substrate, a completely integrated laser scanner can be achieved with filters and actuators self-aligned on the same chip that allows low cost and mass production of this important product.

  6. A set of dosimetry systems for electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Lin Jingwen; Chen Yundong; Li Huazhi; Xiao Zhenhong; Gao Juncheng

    1999-01-01

    To follow the rapid development of radiation processing with electron beams, it is urgent to set up a set of dosimetric standards to provide Quality Assurance (QA) of electron beam irradiation and unify the values of the quality of the absorbed dose measurements for electron beams. This report introduces a set of dosimetry systems established in Radiometrology Center of China Institute of Atomic Energy (RCCIAE), which have been or will be used as dosimetric standards in the Nuclear Industry System (NIS) in China. For instance, the potassium (silver) dichromate and ceric-cerous sulfate dosimetry systems will be used as standard dosimeters, while alanine-ESR dosimetry system as a transfer dosimeter, and FJL-01 CTA as a routine dosimeter. (author)

  7. Doublet III neutral beam multi-stream command language system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.; Garcia, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A multi-stream command language system was developed to provide control of the dual source neutral beam injectors on the Doublet III experiment at GA Technologies Inc. The Neutral Beam command language system consists of three parts: compiler, sequencer, and interactive task. The command language, which was derived from the Doublet III tokamak command language, POPS, is compiled, using a recursive descent compiler, into reverse polish notation instructions which then can be executed by the sequencer task. The interactive task accepts operator commands via a keyboard. The interactive task directs the operation of three input streams, creating commands which are then executed by the sequencer. The streams correspond to the two sources within a Doublet III neutral beam, plus an interactive stream. The sequencer multiplexes the execution of instructions from these three streams. The instructions include reads and writes to an operator terminal, arithmetic computations, intrinsic functions such as CAMAC input and output, and logical instructions. The neutral beam command language system was implemented using Modular Computer Systems (ModComp) Pascal and consists of two tasks running on a ModComp Classic IV computer. The two tasks, the interactive and the sequencer, run independently and communicate using shared memory regions. The compiler runs as an overlay to the interactive task when so directed by operator commands. The system is succesfully being used to operate the three neutral beams on Doublet III

  8. Beam position measurement system at the Fermilab main accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1975-01-01

    The beam position system of the Fermilab Main Ring contains one horizontal and one vertical Electrostatic Beam Pickup in each of the 96 cells of the machine. A pair of 75 ohm cables transmits the induced signal from the machine tunnel to the nearest service building. In each of the 24 service buildings, there is a solid-state multiplexer and a beam position detector which processes the A-B signal pairs to produce an intensity-normalized voltage proportional to beam displacement. This voltage is digitized, read into buffer of the Lockheed MAC A, and in turn transferred to the Xerox 530. Horizontal or vertical orbits can be obtained in 50 millisec. Orbits are obtained at injection and at a Main Ring Sample time, if requested, anywhere on the acceleration cycle. Injection orbits can be flattened automatically by a program that sets dipole trim magnets. (auth)

  9. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G [Port Jefferson, NY; Brennan, J Michael [East Northport, NY; Tuozzolo, Joseph E [Sayville, NY; Zaltsman, Alexander [Commack, NY

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  10. Pulsed magnet systems for high energy physics beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    During the past years pulsed magnet systems have been developed at Argonne National Laboratory to transport beam bursts of charged high energy particles of the Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS) facility. The particular features of the switching circuits, the power supplies and the magnets are described. Included are septum, quadrupole, beam shutter and bending magnets with energies ranging from 25 J to 100 kJ. The degree to which magnet current must be repeated and held constant (flattopped) during beam spill varies from +-5 percent for a beam shutter magnet to +-0.005 percent for a bending magnet; the duration of flattop ranges from a few μs to many ms. (U.S.)

  11. Application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guoqing; China Science and Technology Univ., Hefei; Yu Xiaoqi; Zhang Pengfei

    2007-01-01

    Virtual instrument is a novel computer-based technical method of measurement, which has got rapidly development and has been applied in many fields because of a variety of advantages. In this paper we mainly introduce application of virtual instrument in accelerator beam measurement system. Beam measurement system is an important part of accelerator technology and has important effect on accelerator debugging, running and machine research. Adopting new measurement methods and increasing accuracy of measurement directly affect accelerator debugging and running. Now many accelerators have been adopted virtual instrument system. (authors)

  12. Steering Your Mysterious Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    Steering the Mysterious Mind, describes a unique, novel concept for a way to gain control of your mind. The five basic elements of human life, that is; Creativity, Content­ment, Confidence, Calmness, and Concentration (C5) have been introduced in my previous book Unlock Your Personalization...... well-being is key for happy and stress free life. Mind has enormous energy. Everyone has access to tre­mendous mental energies; what matters is being aware of this and to work on concentrating your energy into creative work. To achieve mental strength, C5 is a su­preme powerful exercise for the mind....... Compare it with going to the gym where you work on the physical body. In the same way as with arms and legs, the mind is a mus­cle which you exercise through C5 practice. Steering the mind on your personal goal will help you to be creative....

  13. Multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering and genuine tripartite entanglement with optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Seiji; Wang, Meng; Teh, Run Yan; Gong, Qihuang; He, Qiongyi; Janousek, Jiri; Bachor, Hans-Albert; Reid, Margaret D.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2015-02-01

    Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) pointed out in their famous paradox that two quantum-entangled particles can have perfectly correlated positions and momenta. Such correlations give evidence for the nonlocality of quantum mechanics and form the basis for quantum cryptography and teleportation. EPR steering is the nonlocality associated with the EPR paradox and has traditionally been investigated between only two parties. Using optical networks and efficient detection, we present experimental observations of multiparty EPR steering and of the genuine entanglement of three intense optical beams. We entangle the quadrature phase amplitudes of distinct fields, in analogy to the position-momentum entanglement of the original paradox. Our experiments complement tests of quantum mechanics that have entangled small systems or have demonstrated tripartite inseparability. Our methods establish principles for the development of multiparty quantum communication protocols with asymmetric observers, and can be extended to qubits, whether photonic, atomic, superconducting, or otherwise.

  14. Steering object-oriented computations with Python

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.-Y.B.; Dubois, P.F.; Furnish, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Beazley, D.M. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1996-10-01

    We have described current approaches and future plans for steering C++ application, running Python on parallel platforms, and combination of Tk interface and Python interpreter in steering computations. In addition, there has been significant enhancement in the Gist module. Tk mega widgets has been implemented for a few physics applications. We have also written Python interface to SIJLO, a data storage package used as an interface to a visualization system named MeshTv. Python is being used to control large-scale simulations (molecular dynamics in particular) running on the CM-5 and T3D at LANL as well. A few other code development projects at LLNL are either using or considering Python as their steering shells. In summary, the merits of Python have been appreciated by more and more people in the scientific computation community.

  15. Three-bead steering microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Mohd Suhail; Farutin, Alexander; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2018-02-01

    The self-propelled microswimmers have recently attracted considerable attention as model systems for biological cell migration as well as artificial micromachines. A simple and well-studied microswimmer model consists of three identical spherical beads joined by two springs in a linear fashion with active oscillatory forces being applied on the beads to generate self-propulsion. We have extended this linear microswimmer configuration to a triangular geometry where the three beads are connected by three identical springs in an equilateral triangular manner. The active forces acting on each spring can lead to autonomous steering motion; i.e., allowing the swimmer to move along arbitrary paths. We explore the microswimmer dynamics analytically and pinpoint its rich character depending on the nature of the active forces. The microswimmers can translate along a straight trajectory, rotate at a fixed location, as well as perform a simultaneous translation and rotation resulting in complex curved trajectories. The sinusoidal active forces on the three springs of the microswimmer contain naturally four operating parameters which are more than required for the steering motion. We identify the minimal operating parameters which are essential for the motion of the microswimmer along any given arbitrary trajectory. Therefore, along with providing insights into the mechanics of the complex motion of the natural and artificial microswimmers, the triangular three-bead microswimmer can be utilized as a model for targeted drug delivery systems and autonomous underwater vehicles where intricate trajectories are involved.

  16. An automatic driving system for a Baker's garlic [Allium chinense] planter: Development of the infrared beam guidance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, H.; Iwasaki, M.; Takeda, H.

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a tractor attachment type semi-automatic Baker's garlic (shallot) planter to save hard labor requirement during planting. The velocity of the tractor in operation is so slow (2 to 3m/min) that the tractor driver is forced to tie his hands for a long time. This is an obstacle to its diffusion, because farm managers have to drive their own tractors by themselves in most Japanese farmhouses, yet they have to do other jobs during the planting season. We designed a new automatic driving system that consists of one infrared beam radiator and two infrared beam receivers to solve this problem. The infrared radiator is located in front of the tractor and shows the infrared guideline of tractor path. The infrared receivers are equipped on the front of the tractor and detect the infrared from the radiator. The receivers are arranged symmetrically at 4.5 degree from the center of the tractor. So the misalignment of the tractor creates a difference in sensitivity and it is possible to distinguish the tractor direction against the infrared beam. This system was tested under the sand dune field conditions with the tractor that was converted to automatic driving. The results show the system can effectively steer about 80 m automatically with an almost straight path, and the error from the starting point is within 0.1 m

  17. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the effect of geometric non-linearity. The forced vibration analysis is carried out in an indirect way, in which the dynamic system is assumed to satisfy the force equilibrium condition at peak load value, thus ...

  18. A high energy neutral beam system for reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Chan, C.F.; Cooper, W.S.

    1988-09-01

    High energy neutral beams provide a promising method of heating and driving current in steady-state tokamak fusion reactors. As an example, we have made a conceptual design of a neutral beam system for current drive on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The system, based on electrostatic acceleration of D/sup /minus// ions, can deliver up to 100 MW of 1.6 MeV D 0 neutrals through three ports. Radiation protection is provided by locating sensitive beamline components 35 to 50 m from the reactor. In an application to a 3300 MW power reactor, a system delivering 120 MW of 2-2.4 MeV deuterium beams assisted by 21 MW of lower hybrid wave power drives 25 MA and provides an adequate plasma power gain (Q = 24) for a commercial fusion power plant. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. RAMI Analyses of Heating Neutral Beam and Diagnostic Neutral Beam Systems for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. H.; Lee, S.; Hemsworth, R.; van Houtte, D.; Okayama, K.; Sagot, F.; Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.

    2011-09-01

    A RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Inspectability) analysis has been performed for the heating (& current drive) neutral beam (HNB) and diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) systems of the ITER device [1-3]. The objective of these analyses is to implement RAMI engineering requirements for design and testing to prepare a reliability-centred plan for commissioning, operation, and maintenance of the system in the framework of technical risk control to support the overall ITER Project. These RAMI requirements will correspond to the RAMI targets for the ITER project and the compensating provisions to reach them as deduced from the necessary actions to decrease the risk level of the function failure modes. The RAMI analyses results have to match with the procurement plan of the systems.

  20. RAMI Analyses of Heating Neutral Beam and Diagnostic Neutral Beam Systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D. H.; Lee, S.; Hemsworth, R.; Houtte, D. van; Okayama, K.; Sagot, F.; Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.

    2011-01-01

    A RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Inspectability) analysis has been performed for the heating (and current drive) neutral beam (HNB) and diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) systems of the ITER device. The objective of these analyses is to implement RAMI engineering requirements for design and testing to prepare a reliability-centred plan for commissioning, operation, and maintenance of the system in the framework of technical risk control to support the overall ITER Project. These RAMI requirements will correspond to the RAMI targets for the ITER project and the compensating provisions to reach them as deduced from the necessary actions to decrease the risk level of the function failure modes. The RAMI analyses results have to match with the procurement plan of the systems.

  1. TFTR neutral beam systems conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The functions, design requirements, and design descriptions of the injection system are described. Cost summaries are given for each system and subsystem. The costs presented are for: materials procurement; and shipping, assembly, and installation at the Princeton site. (MOW)

  2. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  3. Understanding Beam Alignment in a Coherent Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Optical beam alignment in a coherent lidar (or ladar) receiver system plays a critical role in optimizing its performance. Optical alignment in a coherent lidar system dictates the wavefront curvature (phase front) and Poynting vector) matching of the local oscillator beam with the incoming receiver beam on a detector. However, this alignment is often not easy to achieve and is rarely perfect. Furthermore, optical fibers are being increasingly used in coherent lidar system receivers for transporting radiation to achieve architectural elegance. Single mode fibers also require stringent mode matching for efficient light coupling. The detector response characteristics vary with the misalignment of the two pointing vectors. Misalignment can lead to increase in DC current. Also, a lens in front of the detector may exasperate phase front and Poynting vector mismatch. Non-Interaction of Waves, or the NIW property indicates the light beams do not interfere by themselves in the absence of detecting dipoles. In this paper, we will analyze the extent of misalignment on the detector specifications using pointing vectors of mixing beams in light of the NIW property.

  4. 46 CFR 130.140 - Steering on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must have the following: (1) A main steering gear of adequate strength for, and capable of, steering... single hydraulic sump of the “cascading overflow” type with a centerline bulkhead open only at the top, if each half has enough capacity to operate the system. (7) Control of the main steering gear from...

  5. Acousto-Optic Beam Steering Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    el / Lý .9 1.1 hp "I. ’ý &. fri1PW L-14. N- I- I& .ý W g *’.). WY a ft * - r 4&M b. Fall Time _M~t _L _ta _W _ OL OMmNVIMOWM 04.J I & a . 1/ , I m...0 YVy€ - 0 ’use s%:cessive apr~ximation to find locaticn A-3 For 1 To 5 1 1 - cI 0yyy e2 -d2 - c2 0 a yyy -(b2 4 el - b1 41@2...forth Item on each data line (if needed) Dim I A/s Integer ’local counter Dim J A.s Integer ’local counter Dim NTIJXS Aa Integer ’The numbe r of tifo

  6. Optimization of steering elements in the RIA driver linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, E. S.; Aseev, V. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The driver linac of the projected RIA facility is a versatile accelerator, a 1.4-GV, CW superconducting (SC) linac designed to simultaneously accelerate several heavy-ion charge states, providing beams from proton to uranium at 400 MeV/u at power levels at a minimum of 100 kW and up to 400 kW for most beams. Acceleration of multiple-charge-state uranium beams places stringent requirements on the linac design. A steering algorithm was derived that fulfilled the driver's real estate requirements, such as placement of steering dipole coils on SC solenoids and of beam position monitors outside cryostats, and beam-dynamics requirements, such as coupling effects induced by the focusing solenoids. The algorithm has been fully integrated into the tracking code TRACK and it is used to study and optimize the number and position of steering elements that minimize the multiple-beam centroid oscillations and preserve the beam emittance under misalignments of accelerating and transverse focusing elements in the driver linac

  7. Compact pulsed electron beam system for microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.; Deb, P.; Shukla, R.; Banerjee, P.; Prabaharan, T.; Adhikary, B.; Verma, R.; Sharma, A.; Shyam, A.

    2012-11-01

    A compact 180 kV electron beam system is designed for high power microwave generation. The electron beam system is consists of a secondary energy storage device, which can deliver energy to the load at faster rate than usual primary energy storage system such as tesla transformers or marx generator. The short duration, high voltage pulse with fast rise time and good flattop is applied to vacuum diode for high power microwave generation. The compact electron beam system is made up of single turn primary tesla transformer which charges a helical pulse forming line and transfers its energy to vacuum diode through a high voltage pressurized spark gap switch. We have used helical pulse forming line which has higher inductance as compared to coaxial pulse forming line, which in turns increases, the pulse width and reduce the length of the pulse forming line. Water dielectric medium is used because of its high dielectric constant, high dielectric strength and efficient energy storage capability. The time dependent breakdown property and high relative permittivity of water makes it an ideal choice for this system. The high voltage flat-top pulse of 90 kV, 260 ns is measured across the matched load. In this article we have reported the design details, simulation and initial experimental results of 180 kV pulsed electron beam system for high power microwave generation.

  8. System effects influencing the bending strength of timber beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Källsner, B.

    1998-01-01

    measurements of the strengths of a large number of shorttest pieces cut from the beams such that judgementally each test piece contains only a single defect cluster. The testpiece is spliced to stronger wood beam shafts in both ends. Due to the occurrence of a substantial number of splicefailures in the total...... test series of 197 tests a special maximum likelihood estimation procedure is applied to estimate theparameters. Assuming that the estimated parameters are applicable in the series system model for the full uncutbeams a theoretical bending strength distribution function is obtained in dependence......A stochastic model of hierarchical series system type for the bending strength of spruce beams isdefined from the anticipation that the bending failure takes place at a cross-section with a defect cluster formed by knots or grain irregularities. The parameters of the model are estimated from...

  9. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolò; Fabbri, Franco L; Finkel, Alexey; Orfanelli, Stella; Loos, R; Montanari, Alessandro; Rusack, R; Stickland, David P

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the cavern of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of...

  10. Fibre Monitoring System for the Beam Permit Loops at the LHC and Future Evolution of the Beam Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    García-Argos, Carlos; Gabourin, Stéphane; Martin, Christophe; Puccio, Bruno; Siemko, Andrzej P.

    The optical fibres that transmit the beam permit loop signals at the CERN accelerator complex are deployed along radiation areas. This may result in increased attenuation of the fibres, which reduces the power margin of the links. In addition, other events may cause the links to not function properly and result in false dumps, reducing the availability of the accelerator chain and affecting physics data taking. In order to evaluate the state of the fibres, an out-of-band fibre monitoring system is proposed, working in parallel to the actual beam permit loops. The future beam interlock system to be deployed during LHC long shutdown 2 will implement online, real-time monitoring of the fibres, a feature the current system lacks. Commercial off-the-shelf components to implement the optical transceivers are proposed whenever possible instead of ad-hoc designs.

  11. Experimental High-Dimensional Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Bo; Li, Pengyun; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2018-01-01

    Steering nonlocality is the fundamental property of quantum mechanics, which has been widely demonstrated in some systems with qubits. Recently, theoretical works have shown that the high-dimensional (HD) steering effect exhibits novel and important features, such as noise suppression, which appear promising for potential application in quantum information processing (QIP). However, experimental observation of these HD properties remains a great challenge to date. In this work, we demonstrate the HD steering effect by encoding with orbital angular momentum photons for the first time. More importantly, we have quantitatively certified the noise-suppression phenomenon in the HD steering effect by introducing a tunable isotropic noise. We believe our results represent a significant advance of the nonlocal steering study and have direct benefits for QIP applications with superior capacity and reliability.

  12. Development of KOMAC Beam Monitoring System Using EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2014-01-01

    The beam loss signals must be digitized and the sampling has to be synchronized to a reference signal which is an external trigger for beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)-based control system, which manages the whole accelerator control. In order to satisfy the requirement, an Input /Output Controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a CPU module with PCI express based Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) modules, has been adopted. An associated linux driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed. The IOC meets the requirements and the development and maintenance of the software for the IOC is considerably efficient. The data acquisition system running EPICS will be used in increasing phase of KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) beam power. The beam monitoring system integrates BLM and BPM signals into control system and offers real-time data to operators. The IOC, which is implemented with Linux and PCI driver, has supported data acquisition as a very flexible solution

  13. Liquid Crystal Based Optical Phased Array for Steering Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    limitations, several beam steering technologies have been proposed and developed, such as DMD/DLP by Texas Instruments technology,9-11 grating light valve...1989) 11 J.B.Sampsell, “The Digital Micromirror Device”, 7th ICSS&A, Yokohama, Japan (1993) 12 D. M. Bloom, Proc. SPIE 3013, (1998) 13 W. Kulcke

  14. Neutral beam control systems for the Tandem Mirror Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.I.

    1979-01-01

    The Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) is presently developing the technology and approaches which will be used in larger fusion systems. This paper describes some of the designs which were used in creating the control system for the TMX neutral beams. To create a system of controls that would work near these large, rapid switching current sources required a mixture of different technologies: fiberoptic data transmission, printed circuit and wirewrap techniques, etc

  15. Longitudinal beam instabilities in a double RF system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00229208; Gazis, Evangelos

    Operation with a double RF system is essential for many accelerators in order to increase beam stability, to change the bunch shape or to perform various RF manipulations. This is also the case for the operation of the CERN SPS as the LHC proton injector, where in addition to the main RF system, a fourth harmonic RF system is used in bunch shortening mode in order to increase the synchrotron frequency spread inside the bunch and thus to enhance Landau damping of the collective instabilities. In fact the double RF system operation in the SPS is one of the essential means, together with the controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up to significantly increase the longitudinal instability thresholds (single and multi-bunch) and deliver a good quality beam for the LHC. However, for the HiLumi-LHC (HL-LHC) and LHC injector upgrade (LIU) projects higher beam intensities are required. After all upgrades are in place, the main performance limitations of the LHC injector complex are beam instabilities and high intensity...

  16. Measuring and recording system for electron beam welding parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanova, N.G.; Lifshits, M.L.; Efimov, I.I.

    1987-01-01

    The observation possibility during electron beam welding of circular articles with guaranteed clearance of welding bath leading front in joint gap and flare cloud over the bath by means of television monitor is considered. The composition and operation mode of television measuring system for metric characteristics of flare cloud and altitude of welding bath leading front in the clearance are described

  17. Beam excitation and damping with the transverse feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, J.L.; Rees, J.R.

    1979-08-01

    The questions often come up, ''What is the strength if the beam excitation system? How much damping can the transverse feedback provide?'' The design is now advanced enough to answer these questions; also, laboratory tests of some components have been conducted and we know what can be expected of the hardware. This paper discusses these questions

  18. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    energy method. A. Mitra. *. ,P. Sahoo, K. N. Saha. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, INDIA. *Corresponding Author: e-mail: samik893@gmail.com. Abstract. Large amplitude forced vibration behaviour of cross-beam system under harmonic excitation is studied, incorporating the.

  19. A beam radiation monitoring and protection system for AGS secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    A commercially available radiation monitor using a scintillation detector was modified for charged particle beam monitoring. The device controls access to secondary beams of the AGS and limits beam intensity

  20. ESRF synchrotron injector beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidt, K.; Loyer, F.

    1992-01-01

    The complete lay-out of the BPM system which comprises 75 individual stations is presented from electro-static button signals down to the user level of the computer interface. The design of the electrode button and the block geometry is presented. The timing and the data-acquisition electronics permit precisely timed measurements to be taken simultaneously on all 75 BPM stations at a rate of 1 KHz. The results of this BPM system, are summarised with the performance characteristics of resolution, precision and reproductibility. (author) 4 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Daily check of the electron beams with a diode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, P. [Hospital Civil de Charleroi (Belgium). Centre for Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A fast systems to check all the accelerator beams on a daily basis has been developed. A cheap home-made detector, based on non-medical diodes (type 1N5408), has been used since July 1992 to verify all the electron beams every day. The relative energy and Top-cGy correspondence is verified with one single irradiation of less than 1 minute by 6 diodes fixed in a polystyrene phantom. The principle of construction, software implementation and results are presented.

  2. Implementation of Beam-Loss Monitor systems for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.G.

    1994-07-01

    Beam-Loss Monitors (BLM) are used with each accelerator in the Superconducting Super Collider complex. The primary purpose of these detectors is to protect the accelerators from damage due to the loss of protons. Although the range of primary beam energies to be covered is very large, 20 MeV to 20 TeV, we plan to maintain commonality of detectors and electronics as much as possible. In this report the plans for developing and implementing BLM systems for each of the accelerators will be discussed. Possible solutions to problems that have been identified are presented.

  3. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  4. Influence of vitamins A, D3 and E status on post-mortem meat quality in steers under winter housing or pasture finishing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, T.; Pickova, J.; Ertbjerg, Per

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of Swedish recommended vitamins A, D3 and E supplementation levels on muscle tenderness and fatty acid (FA) composition under indoor or outdoor finishing programmes. Swedish Red breed steer calves were divided into vitamin supplemented (n512) and non-supplemented (n515......) groups while on pasture prior to the finishing period. This trial began at the beginning of the winter housing period during which the steers were fed a 55 : 45 dry matter barley : grass silage diet indoors. The indoor finished group was comprised of vitamin supplemented (n56) and non-supplemented (n58......) steers slaughtered after about 155 days on feed. Vitamin supplemented steers were provided with 100 g mineral supplement providing 400 000 IU vitamin A, 100 000 IU D3 and 3000 IU E daily as recommended for Swedish production practices. In spring, outdoor finished vitamin supplemented (n56) and non...

  5. Applications of FASTBUS to beam diagnostics and experiment data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    A five-year effort by the North American NIM Committee, in collaboration with the ESONE Committee of European Laboratories, has resulted in a specification for the FASTBUS modular high-speed data-acquisition system. The system is designed around an emitter-coupled logic (ECL) 32-bit data bus for asynchronous data transmission at 100 ns per transaction. Initial applications of FASTBUS will be in experiment data systems at accelerator facilities worldwide--beam diagnostic data systems on the accelerator side and particle-beam experiment data systems in the experimental area. As the specification (and the resulting hardware and software) matures, real-time machine-control applications will become possible. This paper discusses the near-term use of FASTBUS in accelerator beam-diagnostics instrumentation systems, where an extra increment in system throughput and front-end processing speed can produce a greater understanding of the physical phenomena under study. The arguments and conclusions may be equally well applied to other similar data-handling problems requiring high bandwidth in the data system

  6. Design of automatic tracking system for electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Chengdan; Chinese Academy of Space Technology, Lanzhou; Li Heqi; Li Chunxu; Ying Lei; Luo Yan

    2004-01-01

    The design and experimental process of an automatic tracking system applied to local vacuum electron beam welding are dealt with in this paper. When the annular parts of an exactitude apparatus were welded, the centre of rotation of the electron gun and the centre of the annular weld are usually not superposed because of the machining error, workpiece's setting error and so on. In this teaching process, a little bundle of electron beam is used to scan the weld groove, the amount of the secondary electrons reflected from the workpiece is different when the electron beam scans the both sides and the centre of the weld groove. The difference can indicate the position of the weld and then a computer will record the deviation between the electron beam spot and the centre of the weld groove. The computer will analyze the data and put the data into the storage software. During the welding process, the computer will modify the position of the electron gun based on the deviation to make the electron beam spot centered on the annular weld groove. (authors)

  7. Beam - and drive - controlled amplifier for the ISABELLE accelerating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-01-01

    The need of very low output impedance rf systems for heavy particle accelerators has led to the development of very sophisticated amplifier configurations. Among them, the use of a common-anode final amplifier seems most promising. If the output impedance is defined in the Thevenin Theorem sense, then class-A operation seems unavoidable. However, for particle dynamics only the voltage induced by the beam is of real concern and voltage requirements do not necessarily demand a time invariant output impedance. These considerations led to investigation of the conditions that must be met to obtain control over the beam-induced voltage. It was possible to demonstrate that in the common anode case the induced voltage can be largely independent of the bias applied to the final tube, if the beam loading is very strong

  8. The Impact of Analog and Bang-Bang Steering Gear Control on Ship's Fuel Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørtoft Thomsen, J. C.; Blanke, Mogens; Reid, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    system performance is evaluated from direct measurements of speed and fuel consumption, and results from several ships are given. The results presented should enhance the ability of ship owners and steering gear manufacturers to choose and design systems, which will minimize steering generated propulsion...... it is found to be at least equally important regarding steering performance and fuel economy. The paper presents a comprehensive survey of steering gear principles commonly used, including relevant details of three analog steering gear servo principles, which have outperformed conventional designs. Control...

  9. Steering Maps and Their Application to Dimension-Bounded Steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroder, Tobias; Gittsovich, Oleg; Huber, Marcus; Uola, Roope; Gühne, Otfried

    2016-03-01

    The existence of quantum correlations that allow one party to steer the quantum state of another party is a counterintuitive quantum effect that was described at the beginning of the past century. Steering occurs if entanglement can be proven even though the description of the measurements on one party is not known, while the other side is characterized. We introduce the concept of steering maps, which allow us to unlock sophisticated techniques that were developed in regular entanglement detection and to use them for certifying steerability. As an application, we show that this allows us to go beyond even the canonical steering scenario; it enables a generalized dimension-bounded steering where one only assumes the Hilbert space dimension on the characterized side, with no description of the measurements. Surprisingly, this does not weaken the detection strength of very symmetric scenarios that have recently been carried out in experiments.

  10. Sensor Fault Tolerant Control of a Fast Steering Mirror System Using Adaptive PI-Based Sliding Mode Observer and Hardware Redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongju Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a sensor fault-tolerant control (FTC scheme for a two-axis fast steering mirror (FSM system with minimum power consumption and without changing the controller structure. In this paper, an adaptive PI-based sliding mode observer (APISMO is adopted firstly to estimate the fault signal, which does not require any prior knowledge of the fault. The estimation is then used by the fault isolation logic to identify the fault. The redundant sensor would be powered up to replace the faulty one when faults occur. During the backup sensor booting up, for maintaining the normal performance of the closed-loop system approximately, a fault-free estimation of the position provided by the APISMO is used as feedback signal. Experimental studies on a prototype system show that the proposed APISMO can effectively reconstruct the fault signals even when the two primary position sensors are faulty simultaneously. Meanwhile, the effectiveness and performance of the proposed scheme have been verified.

  11. The software for the CERN LEP beam orbit measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.

    1992-01-01

    The Beam Orbit Measurement (BOM) system of LEP consists of 504 pickups, distributed all around the accelerator, that are capable of measuring the positions of the two beams. Their activity has to be synchronized, and the data produced by them have to be collected together, for example to form a 'closed orbit measurement' or a 'trajectory measurement'. On the user side, several clients can access simultaneously the results from this instrument. An automatic acquisition mode, and an 'on request' one, can run in parallel. This results in a very flexible and powerful system. The functionality of the BOM system is fully described, as well as the structure of the software processes which constitute the system, and their interconnections. Problems solved during the implementation are emphasized. (author)

  12. Electron beam extraction system with a ring radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Kuksanov, N.K.; Polyakov, V.A.; Salimov, R.A.; Chertok, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    Description and results of testings of two electron beam extraction systems for shaping of a circular irradiation field are given. One of the systems contains three 20 cm long outlet windows arranged at 120 deg angle with respect to each other. Tests at the ILU-6 accelerator have shown that the given system provides 150 mm zone irradiation from three sides. Beam utilization factor when irradiating three 40 mm dia tubes amounted to 35% which provides capacity of 2.5 txMrad/h at 20 kW beam power. The other extraction system includes two C-form magnets producing nonuniform and opposing magnetic fields. This system tests at the EhLV-2 accelerator have shown that at 0.8-1.5 MeV electron energy it is possible to irradiate of 60 and 100 mm dia objects, accordingly. The system may be used together with both constant-action and pulse-action accelerators having extraction with linear scanning [ru

  13. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the eddy current induced in the relatively thick (1/2 inch) vacuum chamber by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will also be presented

  14. DC proton beam measurements in a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Schafstall, P.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Zaugg, T.; Taylor, T.

    1994-01-01

    High current, CW proton accelerators are being considered for a number of applications including disposition of nuclear wastes, reduction of fissionable nuclear material inventories, safe production of critical nuclear materials, and energy production. All these applications require the development of high current, reliable, hydrogen ion injectors. In 1986, a program using CW RFQ technology was undertaken at CRL in collaboration with LANL and was continued there until 1993. During this time, an accelerator was built which produced 600 keV, 75 mA and 1,250 keV, 55 mA CW proton beams. The present program at Los Alamos using this accelerator is aimed at continuing the CRL work to demonstrate long-term reliability. In the present work, the authors are seeking to determine the optimal match to and the current limit of the 1,250-keV RFQ. This paper discusses the characterization of the 50 keV beams at the exit of the single-solenoid LEBT and presents both the experimental measurements and the beam simulations done to model this system

  15. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. 40 kA dumping system for the ISR beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnuriger, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The kinetic energy of the proton beam of each ISR is W = I x E x T/sub rev/. With the maximum value of current achieved so far in the ISR I approximately equal to 30 A, a proton energy E = 26 GeV, and a revolution time T/sub rev/ = 3.15 μs, the result is a maximum kinetic energy of W = 2.45 MJ. Such an energy, if suddenly lost and instantaneously dissipated in any part of the ISR, would cause a major breakdown. It was therefore necessary to build a fast and reliable system which could dump the beam whenever safety monitors indicated a hardware fault or a beam loss. The beam in each ISR is dumped by means of four fast pulsed magnets deflecting the particles vertically onto an absorber block situated in the same long straight section. In 1970, when the ISR was first put into operation, each of the four magnets in each ring was energized independently by its own 3 Ω pulse generator. By means of a special spark-gap developed for that purpose, and by switching together the four 3 Ω pulse-forming networks, it was possible to improve significantly the reliability of the system. The 0.75 OMEGA, 40 kA pulse generator now energizing the four fast pulsed magnets is described, with special attention given to the principles and technological solutions which were adopted in order to achieve the necessary reliability of the system for each type of operation, particularly during long colliding beam experiments. (auth)

  17. An automatic beam focusing system for MeV protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalagama, C. N. B.; Bettiol, A. A.; van Kan, J. A.; Teo, E. J.; Breese, M. B. H.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2005-04-01

    An automatic focusing system for MeV protons has been developed. The focusing system utilises rapid real time proton induced secondary electron imaging of a calibration grid coupled with a modified Gaussian fit in order to take into account the enhanced secondary electron signal from the calibration grid edge. The focusing system has been successfully applied to MeV protons focused using a coupled triplet configuration of magnetic quadrupole lenses (Oxford triplet). Automatic beam focusing of a coarse beamspot of approximately (5 × 3.5) micrometres in the X and Y directions to a sub-micrometre beamspot of approximately (0.7 × 0.6) micrometers was achieved at a beam current of about 50 pA.

  18. Beam profile monitor system for the bevalac transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1985-01-01

    Incorporated in the current Bevalac transfer line upgrade project is a proposal for a new electronic beam monitoring system. It will be designed to amplify, convert, and transmit the signals of twelve 16 by 16 multi-wire grids to a central computer located in the Bevatron control room. Each station will contain interface amplifiers and a local microprocessor to convert wire grid currents into digitized values which will then be transmitted via a serial data channel to the main computer. The system will have a large dynamic range (1 nano to 1 milli-ampere of beam current), be designed for distributed operation, and will be easily expandable. This paper describes the basic electronic hardware and software components of the proposed system

  19. An automatic beam focusing system for MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udalagama, C.N.B.; Bettiol, A.A.; Kan, J.A. van; Teo, E.J.; Breese, M.B.H.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2005-01-01

    An automatic focusing system for MeV protons has been developed. The focusing system utilises rapid real time proton induced secondary electron imaging of a calibration grid coupled with a modified Gaussian fit in order to take into account the enhanced secondary electron signal from the calibration grid edge. The focusing system has been successfully applied to MeV protons focused using a coupled triplet configuration of magnetic quadrupole lenses (Oxford triplet). Automatic beam focusing of a coarse beamspot of approximately (5 x 3.5) micrometres in the X and Y directions to a sub-micrometre beamspot of approximately (0.7 x 0.6) micrometers was achieved at a beam current of about 50 pA

  20. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  1. Dose-homogeneity Driven Beam Delivery System Performance Requirements for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Palm, M; Moser, F; Benedikt, M

    2011-01-01

    MedAustron [1], the Austrian hadron therapy center is currently under construction. Irradiation will be performed using active scanning with proton and carbon ion pencil beams. Major beam delivery system contributors to dose heterogeneities are evaluated: beam position, beam size and spot weight errors. Their individual and combined effect on the dose distribution is quantified, using semianalytical models of lateral beam spread in the nozzle and target and depth-dose curves for protons and carbon ions. Deduced requirements on critical parts of the beam delivery system are presented. Preventive and active methods to suppress the impact of beam delivery inaccuracies are proposed.

  2. Electron beam cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varandas, C.A.F.; Cabral, J.A.C.

    1988-09-01

    We study the development of the electron cyclotron instability of a beam-plasma system in a magnetic beach. Beaches of positive as well as of negative B-field gradient are considered. The frequency spectrum shows either one or two cyclotron peaks depending on the B-field inhomogeneity. The central frequencies of these peaks, as opposed to their amplitudes, are independent of both the axial and radial positions of the measuring probe. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the analysis of the instability frequency spectrum theoretically constructed from the space-time evolution, in the WKB approximation, of unstable electron cyclotron waves.

  3. Fast 3D multiple fan-beam CT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlbrenner, Adrian; Haemmerle, Stefan; Laib, Andres; Koller, Bruno; Ruegsegger, Peter

    1999-09-01

    Two fast, CCD-based three-dimensional CT scanners for in vivo applications have been developed. One is designed for small laboratory animals and has a voxel size of 20 micrometer, while the other, having a voxel size of 80 micrometer, is used for human examinations. Both instruments make use of a novel multiple fan-beam technique: radiation from a line-focus X-ray tube is divided into a stack of fan-beams by a 28 micrometer pitch foil collimator. The resulting wedge-shaped X-ray field is the key to the instrument's high scanning speed and allows to position the sample close to the X-ray source, which makes it possible to build compact CT systems. In contrast to cone- beam scanners, the multiple fan-beam scanner relies on standard fan-beam algorithms, thereby eliminating inaccuracies in the reconstruction process. The projections from one single rotation are acquired within 2 min and are subsequently reconstructed into a 1024 X 1024 X 255 voxel array. Hence a single rotation about the sample delivers a 3D image containing a quarter of a billion voxels. Such volumetric images are 6.6 mm in height and can be stacked on top of each other. An area CCD sensor bonded to a fiber-optic light guide acts as a detector. Since no image intensifier, conventional optics or tapers are used throughout the system, the image is virtually distortion free. The scanner's high scanning speed and high resolution at moderately low radiation dose are the basis for reliable time serial measurements and analyses.

  4. Beam control in the ETA-II linear induction accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.J.

    1992-01-01

    Corkscrew beam motion is caused by chromatic aberration and misalignment of a focusing system. We have taken some measures to control the corkscrew motion on the ETA-II induction accelerator. To minimize chromatic aberration, we have developed an energy compensation scheme which reduces energy sweep and differential phase advance within a beam pulse. To minimize the misalignment errors, we have developed a time-independent steering algorithm which minimizes the observed corkscrew amplitude averaged over the beam pulse. The steering algorithm can be used even if the monitor spacing is much greater than the system's cyclotron wavelength and the corkscrew motion caused by a given misaligned magnet is fully developed, i.e., the relative phase advance is greater than 2π. (Author) 5 figs., 11 refs

  5. Particle beam digital phase control system for COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnase, A.

    1994-02-01

    Particle accelerators require that the orbit of the charged particles in the vacuum chamber is controlled to fulfil narrow limits. This is done by magnetic deflection systems and exactly adjusted rf-acceleration. Up to now the necessary control-functions were realised with analogue parts. This work describes a digital phase control system that works in real time and is used with the proton accelerator COSY. The physical design of the accelerator sets the accuracy-specifications of the revolution frequency (<1 Hz in the whole range from 400 kHz to 1.6 MHz), the phase-difference (<0.01 ), the signal-to-noise-ratio (<-60 dBc) and the update rate (<1 μs) of the parameters. In a typical operation the beam is first bunched and synchronised to the reference oscillator. After that the beam influences the rf-system with the help of charge detectors and now the rf-systems will be synchronised with the bunched beam. This control-loop is modelled and simulated with PSPICE. (orig.)

  6. Beam vacuum system of Brookhaven's muon storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hseuth, H.C.; Snydstrup, L.; Mapes, M.

    1995-01-01

    A storage ring with a circumference of 45 m is being built at Brookhaven to measure the g-2 value of the muons to an accuracy of 0.35 ppm.. The beam vacuum system of the storage ring will operate at 10 -7 Torr and has to be completely non-magnetic. It consists of twelve sector chambers. The chambers are constructed of aluminum and are approximately 3.5 m in length with a rectangular cross-section of 16.5 cm high by 45 cm at the widest point. The design features, fabrication techniques and cleaning methods for these chambers are described. The beam vacuum system will be pumped by forty eight non-magnetic distributed ion pumps with a total pumping speed of over 2000 ell/sec. Monte Carlo simulations of the pressure distribution in the muon storage region are presented

  7. Pattern data handling system for an electron beam exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrian, D.W.; Ward, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    A beam is blanked over a rectangular area by storing beam blanking data in a bit map memory having data words of n bits. An address counter is loaded with the x-coordinate of the location of the rectangle and inhibited (by word counter) from counting after advancing through a number of addresses corresponding to the length of the rectangle. Mask bits whose position determines the y-coordinate of the location of the rectangle and whose number determines the width of the rectangle are loaded into a mask latch having n bit locations each with an output coupled to write enable inputs of the memory corresponding to the n bits of the data words in the memory. As the address counter advances through the number of addresses corresponding to the length of the rectangle, data describing the rectangle is stored in the memory without altering masked parts of previously stored blanking data. (author)

  8. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  9. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  10. Neutral beam interlock system on TFTR using infrared pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Kozub, T.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Mastrocola, V.; Renda, G.; Young, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Although the region of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel wall which is susceptible to damage by neutral beam strike is armored with a mosaic of TiC-clad POCO graphite tiles, at power deposition levels above 2.5 kW/cm 2 the armor surface temperature exceeds 1200 0 C within 250 ms, and itself becomes susceptible to damage. In order to protect the wall armor, a neutral beam interlock system based on infrared pyrometry measurement of the armor surface temperature was installed on TFTR. For each beamline, a three-fiber-optic telescope views three areas of --30 cm diameter centered on the armor hot spots for the three ion sources. Each signal is fiber-optic coupled to a remote 900-nm pyrometer which feeds analog signals to the neutral beam interrupt circuits. The pyrometer interlock system is designed to interrupt each of the 12 ion sources independently within 10 ms of the temperature exceeding a threshold which can be set in the range of 500--2300 0 C. A description of the pyrometer interlock system and its performance will be presented

  11. Non-thermal fusion in a beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, F.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of producing fusion power with low neutron emission has been debated in the past in the framework of the magnetic confinement fusion research. Proposals are still being renewed to use advanced fuels in various plasma systems. Since today's toroidal devices cannot support plasma conditions suitable for a large fusion production with such fuels, new concepts and configurations have been studied, where the plasma components are not in a thermal equilibrium. Here, a system of a neutral beam injected into a confined plasma is considered where fusion is produced only between the beam and plasma ions. The collisional slowing down of the beam into the plasma is described by a fluid model. General considerations in this model allow conditions to be found for the fusion-produced power to breakeven against the power needed to sustain the system itself. These conditions are only necessary since the nuclear power is maximized in the present analysis by using favourable assumptions. Nevertheless, the results for different advanced fuels indicate again the very high difficulty of getting a net power produced by the fusion of such fuels, unless the plasma target temperature reaches very high and unrealistic values

  12. Implementation of a Direct Link between the LHC Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Re-Triggering Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Gabourin, S; Denz, R; Magnin, N; Uythoven, J; Wollmann, D; Zerlauth, M; Vatansever, V; Bartholdt, M; Bertsche, B; Zeiler, P

    2014-01-01

    To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump blocks must be guaranteed at all times. When a beam dump is demanded, the Beam Interlock System communicates this request to the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System of the LHC Beam Dumping System. Both systems were built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System, a new direct link from the Beam Interlock System to the re-triggering lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the start-up with beam in 2015. The link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called asynchronous beam dumps nor compromise machine availability. This paper describes the implementation choices of this link. Furthermore the results of a rel...

  13. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings. The buil...

  14. An electron beam imaging system for quality assurance in IORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casali, F.; Rossi, M.; Morigi, M. P.; Brancaccio, R.; Paltrinieri, E.; Bettuzzi, M.; Romani, D.; Ciocca, M.; Tosi, G.; Ronsivalle, C.; Vignati, M.

    2004-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy is a special radiotherapy technique, which enables a high dose of radiation to be given in a single fraction during oncological surgery. The major stumbling block to the large-scale application of the technique is the transfer of the patient, with an open wound, from the operating room to the radiation therapy bunker, with the consequent organisational problems and the increased risk of infection. To overcome these limitations, in the last few years a new kind of linear accelerator, the Novac 7, conceived for direct use in the surgical room, has become available. Novac 7 can deliver electron beams of different energies (3, 5, 7 and 9 MeV), with a high dose rate (up to 20 Gy/min). The aim of this work, funded by ENEA in the framework of a research contract, is the development of an innovative system for on-line measurements of 2D dose distributions and electron beam characterisation, before radiotherapy treatment with Novac 7. The system is made up of the following components: (a) an electron-light converter; (b) a 14 bit cooled CCD camera; (c) a personal computer with an ad hoc written software for image acquisition and processing. The performances of the prototype have been characterised experimentally with different electron-light converters. Several tests have concerned the assessment of the detector response as a function of impulse number and electron beam energy. Finally, the experimental results concerning beam profiles have been compared with data acquired with other dosimetric techniques. The achieved results make it possible to say that the developed system is suitable for fast quality assurance measurements and verification of 2D dose distributions.

  15. Performance and LHC beam stability issue related to Q/Q' diagnostics and feedback systems

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhagen, Ralph J

    2010-01-01

    The baseline tune (Q) and chromaticity (Q’) diagnostics and associated feedback systems played a crucial role during the LHC commissioning, in establishing circulating beam, the first ramps and their fill-to-fill feed-forward correction. Early on, they also allowed to identify issues such as the residual tune stability, beam spectrum interferences and beam-beam effects – all of which may impact beam lifetimes and thus need to be addressed in view of nominal LHC operation.

  16. RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM COMMISSIONING EXPERIENCE AND REMAINING ISSUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ZHANG, W.; AHRENS, L.A.; MI, J.; OERTER, B.; SANDERS, R.; SANDBERG, J.

    2001-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems commissioning experience and the remaining issues will be reported in this paper. The RHIC Blue Ring Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply System initial commissioning took place in June 1999. Its identical system in Yellow Ring was brought on line during Spring 2000. Each of the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems consists of five high voltage modulators and subsystems. These systems are critical devices for RHIC machine protection and environmental protection. They are required to be effective, reliable and operating with sufficient redundancy to safely abort the beam to its beam dump at the end of accumulation or at any time when they are commanded. To deflect 66 GeV ion beam to the beam absorbers, the RHIC Beam Abort Kicker Power Supply Systems were operated at 22 kV level. The RHIC 2000 commissioning run was very successful

  17. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  18. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  19. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  20. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams; Systeme de detection en ions radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savajols, H

    2002-07-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  1. Study of Electron Beam Curing Process Using Epoxy Resin System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitsuji, D. A.

    2006-01-01

    The competition among industries in the current globalization system has required a systematic cost reduction without affecting the quality of the final product. This fact has encouraged the use of new technologies application on productive process, especially on polymeric composites, to assure the competitiveness. The possibility of producing a new type of carbon fiber reinforced composite by radiation process with excellent thermal and mechanical properties, has been researched since 90's and it can be a potential application in aerospace, marine and automobile industries. The polymeric composites cured by thermal process (furnace or autoclave) are an example of long curing cycles, which requires time and energy consumption. Electron beam curing technology allows the process at room temperature and reduces curing time; consequently, it becomes the main difference of this technology over thermal curing process. The aim of this work was to study electron beam curable epoxy formulation for filament winding process, as well as to investigate the electron beam curing process parameters using a DC 1500/25 - Job 188 Dynamitron model linear accelerator as radiation source, with 0.5 to 1.5 MeV, 0.1 to 25 mA and 60 to 120 cm scanning electron beam. The resin system consists of commercial epoxy resin (diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A - DGEBA) and cationic initiator (diaryliodonium hexafluoantimonate) and the polymerization carried out at room temperature with controlled dose rate. Thermal post cure took part of the process to improve the degree of cure and glass transition temperature (Tg) similar to thermal curable resin properties

  2. Design of beam transport system for the 14 UD pelletron at TIFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, K.G.; Sharma, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    The beam transport system of the pelletron accelerator under installation at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research at Bombay is described in brief. Results of the study of the ion trajectories in the three sections of the system, namely low energy beam transport arrangement, high energy beam transport system, switching magnet and quadrapole lenses are described. Study was done to optimize the parameters of various components and their location along the beam path. (M.G.B.)

  3. Geometry calibration method for a cone-beam CT system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongkai; Kang, Kejun; Xing, Yuxiang

    2017-05-01

    The positioning accuracy of each component is important to ensure the image quality of cone-beam CT. However, accurate positioning is not easy and requires experience and time. The option is to calibrate the geometric parameters and then plug them into a reconstruction algorithm which is the preferred solution in practice. In this case, the image quality is determined by the accuracy and precision of the calibration method. This work describes a method to independently calibrate an imaging system in each pose (projection angle) for a cone-beam CT with a nonideal circular trajectory. The calibration method uses a phantom with 12 beads on 2 planes that are observed on the radiographic images. This pose-independent calibration method (PIC) can decorrelate the relationships among the geometric parameters so that the parameters can be estimated one-by-one. This simplifies the calibration process. Besides the pose-independent calibration method, this paper also describes an extended calibration method with additional constraints on the system geometry. Both methods are validated with numerical simulations and then experimentally on a practical system with a scanning object loosely supported by rotating wheels. The object rotates during the CT data acquisition. The angular and pose information of the CT system are not accurately known a priori in this case. The numerical simulations and the experiments both provide satisfactory results. The relative error of the calibrated source-to-detector distance in the simulation is less than 0.1%. The errors in the calibrated roll, pitch, and yaw angles are less than 0.04°. A sensitivity study using various bead position uncertainties in random directions shows that the pose-independent calibration method is robust to measurement errors. Tests were also done with a nonideal circular trajectory for further validation. Images reconstructed using the geometric parameters from both the pose-independent and the extended calibration

  4. Role of thermal noise in tripartite quantum steering

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meng; Gong, Qihuang; Ficek, Zbigniew; He, Qiongyi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of thermal noise on bipartite and tripartite quantum steering induced by a short laser pulse in a hybrid three-mode optomechanical system is investigated. The calculation is carried out under the bad cavity limit, the adiabatic approximation of a slowly varying amplitude of the cavity mode, and with the assumption of driving the cavity mode with a blue detuned strong laser pulse. Under such conditions, explicit expressions of the bipartite and tripartite steering parameters are ...

  5. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  6. Gaussian-beam-mode analysis of multibeam quasi-optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. A.; Withington, Stafford

    1998-07-01

    In this paper we discuss the extension of Gaussian beam analysis to multi-beam quasi-optical systems. The normal approach taken in analyzing the propagation of multiple beams is to ray trace the optical axes of the individual beams and then superimpose the beam evolution of the on-axis beam. This is a rather inelegant and cumbersome process. We show how an efficient paraxial description of off-axis beams using Gaussian beam modes can be developed. The computational feasibility of the beam mode description clearly depends on finding an on-axis mode set in terms of which any off-axis beam can be approximated by a modal sum of modest size. We show how the optimum choice is made, and illustrate the power of the approach with an example.

  7. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  8. Beam monitors and transverse feedback system of TRISTAN Main Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieiri, T.; Ishii, H.; Kishiro, J.; Mizumachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Nakajima, K.; Ogata, A.; Shintake, T.; Tejima, M.

    1987-01-01

    The construction of 30 GeV TRISTAN Main Ring (MR) started in 1983 soon after the commissioning of 8 GeV Accumulation Ring (AR). The authors prepared 392 position monitors, 6 synchrotron radiation monitors, 9 screen monitors, 2 DCCT's, 3 scrapers, 12 bunch monitors, transverse feedback systems for two beams and DC separators. Since the required monitoring devices of AR and MR are almost the same, the experiences in AR were very useful in the design of MR monitors. However, machine parameters of two rings are very different and the authors had to review the performance of each item. From the monitor point of view the most important is the difference of revolution frequency; 794.6 kHz for AR and 99.33 kHz for MR. This means that average beam current of MR is 1/8 as small as AR current with the same bunch number and intensity. Therefore, the sensitivity of each monitor must be better in MR. The second difference is that MR should be used as a collider from the beginning. Therefore they must prepare for multi-beam and multi-bunch operation

  9. The RF beam control system for the Brookhaven AGS synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The new 1.5 GeV Booster synchrotron completes the injector chain for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. It enables the AGS to accelerate all heavy ions to 14 GeV/c for collider operation and also in the intensity of the AGS for fixed-target experiments by a factor of four. The ultra-high vacuum enables acceleration of partially stripped ions from the Tandem Van de Graaff to energies sufficient for complete stripping. For high intensities, it accelerates the 200 MeV linac beam in four batches of three bunches per AGS cycle. At 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per batch, it has the same space charge tune spread as the AGS at 200 MeV. This variety of applications means the Booster must accommodate a very wide range of particle masses and intensities. Since it operates in a Pulse-by-Pulse Modulation mode at 7.5 Hz, the computer controlled functions of time and magnetic field, and the 64 timing triggers of the beam control system take on unique values for each of four PPM users. Beams of {sup 197}Au{sup +33} ions and protons have been accelerated in the same PPM cycle.

  10. The RF beam control system for the Brookhaven AGS synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, J.M.

    1992-09-01

    The new 1.5 GeV Booster synchrotron completes the injector chain for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC. It enables the AGS to accelerate all heavy ions to 14 GeV/c for collider operation and also in the intensity of the AGS for fixed-target experiments by a factor of four. The ultra-high vacuum enables acceleration of partially stripped ions from the Tandem Van de Graaff to energies sufficient for complete stripping. For high intensities, it accelerates the 200 MeV linac beam in four batches of three bunches per AGS cycle. At 1.5 {times} 10{sup 13} protons per batch, it has the same space charge tune spread as the AGS at 200 MeV. This variety of applications means the Booster must accommodate a very wide range of particle masses and intensities. Since it operates in a Pulse-by-Pulse Modulation mode at 7.5 Hz, the computer controlled functions of time and magnetic field, and the 64 timing triggers of the beam control system take on unique values for each of four PPM users. Beams of {sup 197}Au{sup +33} ions and protons have been accelerated in the same PPM cycle.

  11. Characteristics of Local Modulation Beam Propagating through Spatial Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kewei You

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As local defects may significantly harm beam quality and affect safe operation, a systematic analysis of the ability of a spatial filter to alleviate these adverse effects is required. Thus, the evolutional characteristics of a beam modulated by a local defect propagating through a spatial filter system at an image reply plane and a downstream plane are analyzed in detail. Modulation stripes appear at the image reply plane; these are caused by the pinhole cutoff effect. The modulation degree increases with increasing defect size. The maximum intensification factor can reach 3.2 under certain conditions. Thus, the defect size should be restricted to a reasonable size for safe operation with a specified pinhole size. Moreover, a maximal value appears at the downstream plane, and the intensity enhances with increasing defect size. To ensure beam quality, the maximum allowable defect size and angle of the spatial filter should meet special constraints. The maximum allowable defect size is calculated based on practical configuration parameters.

  12. A system for measuring the energy spread of an accelerated beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, J.F.; Ludwig, E.J.; Clegg, T.B.; Anderson, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A system has been implemented to monitor directly the energy spread of analyzed beams from a tandem electrostatic accelerator. The dispersion of a deflection magnet in the beam handling system is used to transform the energy distribution into a spatial distribution, which then is measured by electrostatically sweeping the spatially extended beam across a narrow slit. (orig.)

  13. Conditional steering under the von Neumann scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kaushiki; Paul, Biswajit; Karmakar, Sumana; Sarkar, Debasis; Mukherjee, Amit; Bhattacharya, Some Sankar; Roy, Arup

    2017-08-01

    In Phys. Lett. A 166, 293 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90711-T, Popescu and Rohrlich characterized nonlocality of pure n -partite entangled systems by studying bipartite violation of local realism when n -2 number of parties perform projective measurements on their particles. A pertinent question in this scenario is whether similar characterization is possible for n -partite mixed entangled states also. In the present work we have followed an analogous approach so as to explore whether given a tripartite mixed entangled state the conditional bipartite states obtained by performing projective measurement on the third party demonstrate a weaker form of nonlocality, quantum steering. We also compare this phenomenon of conditional steering with existing notions of tripartite correlations.

  14. A high intensity beam handling system at the KEK-PS new experimental hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.H.; Minakawa, M.; Yamanoi, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We would like to summarize newly developed technology for handling high-intensity beams. This was practically employed in the beam-handling system of primary protons at the KEK-PS new experimental hall. (author)

  15. Multi-beam backscatter image data processing techniques employed to EM 1002 system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, W.A.; Chakraborty, B.

    to compensate outer-beam backscatter strength data in such a way that the effect of angular backscatter strength is removed. In this work we have developed backscatter data processing techniques for EM1002 multi-beam system...

  16. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki [Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  17. DIII-D Neutral Beam control system operator interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.J.; Campbell, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A centralized graphical user interface has been added to the DIII-D Neutral Beam (NB) control systems for status monitoring and remote control applications. This user interface provides for automatic data acquisition, alarm detection and supervisory control of the four NB programmable logic controllers (PLC) as well as the Mode Control PLC. These PLCs are used for interlocking, control and status of the NB vacuum pumping, gas delivery, and water cooling systems as well as beam mode status and control. The system allows for both a friendly user interface as well as a safe and convenient method of communicating with remote hardware that formerly required interns to access. In the future, to enable high level of control of PLC subsystems, complete procedures is written and executed at the touch of a screen control panel button. The system consists of an IBM compatible 486 computer running the FIX DMACS trademark for Windows trademark data acquisition and control interface software, a Texas Instruments/Siemens communication card and Phoenix Digital optical communications modules. Communication is achieved via the TIWAY (Texas Instruments protocol link utilizing both fiber optic communications and a copper local area network (LAN). Hardware and software capabilities will be reviewed. Data and alarm reporting, extended monitoring and control capabilities will also be discussed

  18. Computerized treatment planning systems for external photon beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.D.C.

    2005-01-01

    Computerized treatment planning systems (TPSs) are used in external beam radiotherapy to generate beam shapes and dose distributions with the intent to maximize tumour control and minimize normal tissue complications. Patient anatomy and tumour targets can be represented as 3-D models. The entire process of treatment planning involves many steps and the medical physicist is responsible for the overall integrity of the computerized TPS to accurately and reliably produce dose distributions and associated calculations for external beam radiotherapy. The planning itself is most commonly carried out by a dosimetrist, and the plan must be approved by a radiation oncologist before implementation in actual patient treatments. Treatment planning prior to the 1970s was generally carried out through the manual manipulation of standard isodose charts on to patient body contours that were generated by direct tracing or lead wire representation, and relied heavily on the judicious choice of beam weight and wedging by an experienced dosimetrist. The simultaneous development of computed tomography (CT), along with the advent of readily accessible computing power from the 1970s on, led to the development of CT based computerized treatment planning, providing the ability to view dose distributions directly superimposed upon a patient's axial anatomy. The entire treatment planning process involves many steps, beginning from beam data acquisition and entry into the computerized TPS, through patient data acquisition, to treatment plan generation and the final transfer of data to the treatment machine. Successive improvements in treatment planning hardware and software have been most notable in the graphics, calculation and optimization aspects of current systems. Systems encompassing the 'Virtual Patient' are able to display beam's eye views (BEVs) of radiation beams and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) for arbitrary dose distributions. Dose calculations have evolved from

  19. Self-testing through EPR-steering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šupić, Ivan; Hoban, Matty J

    2016-01-01

    The verification of quantum devices is an important aspect of quantum information, especially with the emergence of more advanced experimental implementations of quantum computation and secure communication. Within this, the theory of device-independent robust self-testing via Bell tests has reached a level of maturity now that many quantum states and measurements can be verified without direct access to the quantum systems: interaction with the devices is solely classical. However, the requirements for this robust level of verification are daunting and require high levels of experimental accuracy. In this paper we discuss the possibility of self-testing where we only have direct access to one part of the quantum device. This motivates the study of self-testing via EPR-steering, an intermediate form of entanglement verification between full state tomography and Bell tests. Quantum non-locality implies EPR-steering so results in the former can apply in the latter, but we ask what advantages may be gleaned from the latter over the former given that one can do partial state tomography? We show that in the case of self-testing a maximally entangled two-qubit state, or ebit, EPR-steering allows for simpler analysis and better error tolerance than in the case of full device-independence. On the other hand, this improvement is only a constant improvement and (up to constants) is the best one can hope for. Finally, we indicate that the main advantage in self-testing based on EPR-steering could be in the case of self-testing multi-partite quantum states and measurements. For example, it may be easier to establish a tensor product structure for a particular party’s Hilbert space even if we do not have access to their part of the global quantum system. (paper)

  20. Nonlinear behaviors of a bounded electron beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear developments of a bounded electron beam-plasma system including stationary electrons are investigated experimentally. A stable double layer is formed as a result of ion trapping in a growing negative potential dip induced by the Pierce instability above the current regime of the Buneman instability. In the in-between regime of the Buneman and Pierce instabilities, energetic ions are observed. This effective ion heating is caused by ion detrapping due to double-layer disruption, being consistent with computer simulation. (author)

  1. GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF MANEUVERABILITY PERFORMANCE FOR VEHICLES WITH TWO STEERING AXLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrzej PILISIEWICZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important features of motor vehicles is their steering maneuverability. Ways of determining single axle steering are well known. This paper presents an idea of how to determine maneuverability of motor vehicles with two steering axles. The concept makes use of elements of kinematic analysis as well as of a 3D model of the steering system. It is based on the theoretical analysis of the most unfavorable situations, such as parallel and perpendicular parking techniques, on the basis of which wheel-steering angles are specified. As a result, it was possible to create a 3D model to simulate the actual operation of the steering system. This made it possible to compare the theoretical approach with the actual system design.

  2. Fault detection and protection system for neutral beam generators on the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deVries, G.J.; Chesley, K.L.; Owren, H.M.

    1983-12-01

    Neutral beam sources, their power supplies and instrumentation can be damaged from high voltage sparkdown or from overheating due to excessive currents. The Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility (NBETF) in Berkeley has protective electronic hardware that senses a condition outside a safe operating range and generates a response to terminate such a fault condition. A description of this system is presented in this paper. 8 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  3. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  4. Development of high current beam ns pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; Guan Xia Ling; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The development of high current beam ns pulsed system of CPNG and its characteristic, main technological performance and application are introduced. Firstly, important parameters of the system are calculated using theoretical model, the design requirements of some important parts are understood. Some mistakes in physics conception are corrected. Second, the chopper is designed for parallel plate deflector, chopping aperture and sine wave voltage sweeping device. It is emphasized that the conception of parallel plate load impedance is the capacitance load, but not the 50 ohm load impedance. The dynamic capacitance value has been measured. The output emphasizes the output voltage amplitude, but not the output power for sweeping device. The display system of output sweeping voltage was set up and it is sure that the maximum output voltage(V-V) is >=4000 V. The klystron buncher are re-designed. It is emphasized to overcome difficulty of support high voltage electrode in the klystron and insulator of input sine wa...

  5. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  6. Self-consistent study of space-charge-dominated beams in a misaligned transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Pandit, V.S.

    2013-01-01

    A self-consistent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method is developed to investigate the dynamics of space-charge-dominated beams through a misaligned solenoid based transport system. Evolution of beam centroid, beam envelope and emittance is studied as a function of misalignment parameters for various types of beam distributions. Simulation results performed up to 40 mA of proton beam indicate that centroid oscillations induced by the displacement and rotational misalignments of solenoids do not depend of the beam distribution. It is shown that the beam envelope around the centroid is independent of the centroid motion for small centroid oscillation. In addition, we have estimated the loss of beam during the transport caused by the misalignment for various beam distributions

  7. Fast automatic system for measurements of beam parameters of the MMF linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt-Nickulin, P.; Bragin, S.; Ilinsky, N.; Senichev, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    Fast transverse beam profile and current monitoring systems have been tested at the Linear Accelerator of Moscow Meson Factory. The signals for each system are derived from multiwire secondary emission chamber and beam current transformer. Each beam pulse is digitized by fast ADC's. There are two modes for systems. First one is for detailed beam adjustment and second one is for normal 100 Hz rate of the MMF Linac. Essential features of the hardware, software, data acquisition, measurement accuracy and beam results are presented. (author)

  8. Differential correction system of laser beam directional dithering based on symmetrical beamsplitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongwei, Yang; Wei, Tao; Xiaoqia, Yin; Hui, Zhao

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a differential correction system with a differential optical path and a symmetrical beamsplitter for correcting the directional dithering of the laser beams. This system can split a collimated laser beam into two laser beams with equal and opposite movements. Thus, the positional averages of the two split laser beams remain constant irrespective of the dithering angle. The symmetrical beamsplitter designed based on transfer matrix principle is to balance the optical paths and irradiances of the two laser beams. Experimental results show that the directional dithering is reduced to less than one-pixel value. Finally, two examples show that this system can be widely used in one-dimensional measurement.

  9. System for producing high-resolution polarized and unpolarized beams with a tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerfeldt, C.R.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Bleck, M.E.; Outlaw, D.A.; Wells, W.K.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Clegg, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    A tandem accelerator beam energy stabilizer, which utilizes an optically coupled fast feedback loop to the accelerator terminal stripper, is described. Emphasis is placed on the components of the feedback system and on the application of this system to production of high energy-resolution beams. This system produces beam energy spreads ranging from 450 to 600 eV FWHM for 2 to 16 MeV unpolarized protons. Polarized beam energy spreads range from 550 to 700 eV FWHM, for the same beam energy range

  10. Modelling Supplementation Strategies for Beef Steer Rearing and Fattening Systems in Southern Chile Modelación de Estrategias de Suplementación en la Recría y Engorda de Novillos en el Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Toro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed to analyze beef production systems in Southern Chile. The study considered the identification of the main components of systems under different beef steer management strategies, using pasture with or without supplementation and back grounding cattle on pasture followed by a winter period of confined feeding with pasture silage and concentrates. Validation of model outputs using 200 kg LW Hereford steers against real experimental data showed no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01 between simulated and observed final weights. In order to analyze the interaction between the stocking rate (SR and supplementation, three SR of 2, 2.5 and 3 steers ha-1 with and without pasture silage supplementation at the rate of 5 kg DMd-1 steer-1 for the length of the entire period were simulated. Means were compared by the least significant difference (LSD, P ≤ 0.05. Significant differences were found in terms of final weights, which decreased with increasing SR regardless of the supplementation level, although silage supplementation tended to reduce differences between SR. A second set of simulation runs was carried out to simulate on-farm finishing of the steers through a final phase of confined feeding based on a ration of silage and concentrates. Final weights differed between SR and systems and results showed that the optimum corresponded to 2.5 steers ha-1, since at this SR the largest income corresponded to the smallest mean cost. It is concluded that a stocking rate of 2.5 steers ha-1 is feasible if winter supplementation is available, independently of a finishing period in feedlot.Un modelo matemático fue desarrollado para analizar sistemas de producción de carne bovina en el Sur de Chile. El estudio consideró la identificación de los componentes en diferentes estrategias usadas en novillos de carne, usando praderas con y sin suplementación y la recría seguida por una engorda a corral en invierno con ensilaje de

  11. New Acquisition System for the PSR Beam Pulse Charge Monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellyey, William C.; Lewis, Paul S.

    2004-01-01

    A Pearson 1010 current monitor toroid has been in use for many years to measure the charge per bunch being delivered from the LANSCE Proton Storage Ring (PSR) to the Lujan Center's spallation neutron source. Improved electronics have been developed to process the toroid's signal. The new system generates a calibrated measurement of charge per pulse and is network-enabled to provide remote access to charge, current and other data via EPICS. It is experimentally demonstrated that accurate charge measurements can be made on calibration pulses that contain frequency components well above what is contained in a typical beam pulse. The new electronics consists of a National Instruments (NI) PXI-1002 chassis that contains a PXI-8176 controller, a PXI-5112 100-MS/s digitizer, and a PXI-6602 scalar and digital I/O module. The 8176 runs under the NI Real Time operating system and was programmed to integrate proton pulse waveforms acquired by the 5112 digitizer. For each beam pulse a 50-kHz pulse stream proportional to the pulse charge is generated by the 6602 and this real time information is distributed to all experimental areas

  12. Construction of Superconducting Magnet System for the J-PARC Neutrino Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, T.; Wanderer, P.; Sasaki, K.; Ajima, Y.; Araoka, O.; Fujii, Y.; Hastings, N.; Higashi, N.; Iida, M.; Ishii, T.; Kimura, N.; Kobayashi, T.; Makida, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Ogitsu, T.; Ohhata, H.; Okamura, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sugawara, S.; Suzuki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Tomaru, T.; Terashima, A.; Yamamoto, A.; Ichikawa, A.; Kakuno, H.; Anerella, M.; Escallier, J.; Ganetis, G.; gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Muratore, J.; Parker, B.; Boussuge, T.; Charrier, J.-P.; Arakawa, M.; Ichihara, T.; Minato, T.; Okada, Y.; Itou, A.; Kumaki, T.; Nagami, M.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-10-18

    Following success of a prototype R&D, construction of a superconducting magnet system for J-PARC neutrino beam line has been carried out since 2005. A new conceptual beam line with the superconducting combined function magnets demonstrated the successful beam transport to the neutrino production target.

  13. Status of the control and beam diagnostic systems of the CRYRING project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starker, J.; Engstroem, M.

    1992-01-01

    CRYRING is a facility for research in atomic, molecular and nuclear physics. It uses a cryogenic electron beam ion source, CRYSIS, together with an RFQ linear accelerator as injector into a synchrotron/storage ring for very highly charged, heavy ions. The first circulating beam was achieved in december 1990. The status of the systems for control and beam diagnostics are described. (author)

  14. Analytical formula for a circular flattened Gaussian beam propagating through a misaligned paraxial ABCD optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Li; Cai Yangjian

    2006-01-01

    Based on the generalized diffraction integral formula for treating the propagation of a laser beam through a misaligned paraxial ABCD optical system in the cylindrical coordinate system, analytical formula for a circular flattened Gaussian beam propagating through such optical system is derived. Furthermore, an approximate analytical formula is derived for a circular flattened Gaussian beam propagating through an apertured misaligned ABCD optical system by expanding the hard aperture function as a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions. Numerical examples are given

  15. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  16. Optical Matching of Slowly Extracted Beam with Transport System at HIMAC

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, Takuji; Katsumata, Masashi; Noda, Koji; Shibuya, Shinji; Shiraishi, Tadahiro; Takada, Eiichi; Torikoshi, Masami; Uesugi, Takehiro; Yamada, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    The optical matching between the ring and the transport line plays important role in order to control the beam size and profile after the transport. At HIMAC, thus, we have studied the optical matching of the slowly extracted beam. As a result, it was verified that the beam size of the slowly extracted beam were controlled owing to the optical matching. It was also found that small deviation of quadrupole strength in the ring brings orbit distortion at the transport system.

  17. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto

    1991-01-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. The authors report here procedures they have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring

  18. Beam-based alignment and tuning procedures for e+e- collider final focus systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Odian, A.; Roy, G.; Ruth, R.; Yamamoto, N.

    1991-05-01

    For future linear colliders, with very small emittances and beam sizes and demanding tolerances on final focus system alignment and magnet errors, it becomes increasingly important to use the beam as a diagnostic tool. We report here procedures we have identified and will be implemented in the Final Focus Test Beam at SLAC incorporating (1) quadrupole strength changes, (2) central orbit modifications, (3) spot size measurements, and (4) beam stability monitoring. 3 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Modeling, Validation, and Control of Electronically Actuated Pitman Arm Steering for Armored Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Rau Aparow

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 2 DOF mathematical models of Pitman arm steering system are derived using Newton’s law of motion and modeled in MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The developed steering model is included with a DC motor model which is directly attached to the steering column. The Pitman arm steering model is then validated with actual Pitman arm steering test rig using various lateral inputs such as double lane change, step steer, and slalom test. Meanwhile, a position tracking control method has been used in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the validated model to be implemented in active safety system of a heavy vehicle. The similar method has been used to test the actual Pitman arm steering mechanism using hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS technique. Additional friction compensation is added in the HILS technique in order to minimize the frictional effects that occur in the mechanical configuration of the DC motor and Pitman arm steering. The performance of the electronically actuated Pitman arm steering system can be used to develop a firing-on-the-move actuator (FOMA for an armored vehicle. The FOMA can be used as an active safety system to reject unwanted yaw motion due to the firing force.

  20. LogAmp electronics and Optical Transmission for the new SPS Beam Position Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Gonzalez, J L; Savioz, J J

    2013-01-01

    A new front-end board is under development for the CERN SPS Multi ORbit Position System (MOPOS). Based on logarithmic amplifiers, it measures the beam position over a large dynamic range of beam intensities and resolves the multi-batch structure of the SPS beams. Analogue data are digitized at 10 MS/s, packed in frames by an FPGA and on every turn sent to the readout board, via a 2.4 Gb/s optical transmission link. A first prototype has been successfully tested with several SPS beams. This paper presents an overall description of the system and its capabilities highlighted by the first beam measurements.

  1. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  2. Intense relativistic electron beam injector system for tokamak current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V.L.; Creedon, J.M.; Ecker, B.M.; Helava, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) injection system designed for tokamak current drive experiments. The injection system uses a standard high-voltage pulsed REB generator and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) to drive an REB-accelerating diode in plasma. A series of preliminary experiments has been carried out to test the system by injecting REBs into a test chamber with preformed plasma and applied magnetic field. REBs were accelerated from two types of diodes: a conventional vacuum diode with foil anode, and a plasma diode, i.e., an REB cathode immersed in the plasma. REB current was in the range of 50 to 100 kA and REB particle energy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. MITL power density exceeded 10 GW/cm 2 . Performance of the injection system and REB transport properties is documented for plasma densities from 5 x 10 12 to 2 x 10 14 cm -3 . Injection system data are compared with numerical calculations of the performance of the coupled system consisting of the generator, MITL, and diode

  3. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (∼1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design

  4. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  5. Uniform irradiation system using beam scanning method for cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo

    1994-03-01

    JAERI AVF-cyclotron is equipped with an ion beam scanner for large area irradiation. The two-dimensional fluence distribution of ion beam obtained using cellulose triacetate film dosimeter was not uniform. This is resulted from the distortion of excitation current for electromagnet of the scanner. So, the beam scanning condition, i.e., the relation between the ion species, the beam profile and the scanning width, was extremely limited to make a good uniformity. We have developed a beam scanning simulator to get fluence distributions by calculation and then compared the simulated distributions with the measured ones. It was revealed that the both of them are in good agreement and the beam scanning condition to get good uniformity was led by using this simulator. On the basis of these results, the power supply of scanner was improved. A good uniformity of beam distribution was available. (author)

  6. 2D potential measurements by applying automatic beam adjustment system to heavy ion beam probe diagnostic on the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Ido, T.; Kato, S.; Hamada, Y.; Kurachi, M.; Makino, R.; Nishiura, M.; Nishizawa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional potential profiles in the Large Helical Device (LHD) were measured with heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). To measure the two-dimensional profile, the probe beam energy has to be changed. However, this task is not easy, because the beam transport line of LHD-HIBP system is very long (∼20 m), and the required beam adjustment consumes much time. To reduce the probe beam energy adjustment time, an automatic beam adjustment system has been developed. Using this system, required time to change the probe beam energy is dramatically reduced, such that two-dimensional potential profiles were able to be successfully measured with HIBP by changing the probe beam energy shot to shot

  7. IMPROVEMENT EFFORTS TO LEARN LESSONS ACTIVITIES CHASSIS POWER TRANSFER STANDARD COMPETENCE AND CORRECT STEERING SYSTEM WITH LEARNING METHOD DISCOVERY INQUIRY CLASS XIB SMK MUHAMMADIYAH GAMPING ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Suharto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study to determine the increase learners' learning activities subjects chassis and power transfer competency standard steering system repair discovery learning through the implementation of class XI inquiry Lightweight Vehicle Technology SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping, Sleman academic year 2013/2014. This research including action research   Research conducted at SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping XIB class academic year 2013/2014 with a sample of 26 students. Techniques of data collection using questionnaire sheet, observation sheets and documentation to determine the increase in student activity. Instrument validation study using experts judgment. Analysis using descriptive statistics using the technique .   The results showed that the increased activity of the first cycle to the second cycle include an increase of 57.7 % Visual activities; Oral activities amounted to 61.6 %; Listening activities amounted to 23.04 %; Writing activities by 8.7 %; Mental activities of 73.1 %; Emotional activities of 42.3 % ( for the spirit of the students in learning activities ; Motor activities amounted to -7.7 % ( decrease negative activity . Based on these results can be known to most students in SMK Muhammadiyah Gamping gave a positive opinion on the use of inquiry and discovery learning method has a view that the use of inquiry discovery learning methods can be useful for students and schools themselves. Learners who have a good perception of the use of discovery learning method of inquiry he has known and fully aware of the standards of achievement of competence theory fix the steering system. Learning discovery learning methods on achievement of competency standards inquiry repair steering systems theory pleased with the learning process, they are also able to: 1 increase the motivation to learn, 2 improving learning achievement; 3 enhancing creativity; 4 listen, respect, and accept the opinion of the participants other students; 5 reduce boredom

  8. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail: V.I.Davydenko@inp.nsk.su; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  9. Performance of the HIMAC beam control system using multiple-energy synchrotron operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, K.; Furukawa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Hara, Y.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Tansho, R.; Sato, S.; Fujimoto, T.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple-energy synchrotron operation was developed to realize fast 3D scanning irradiation for carbon-ion radiotherapy. This type of operation can output various carbon-ion beams with different energies in a single synchrotron cycle. The beam control system used in this kind of operation was developed to quickly provide the beam energy and intensity required from the irradiation control system. The performance of the system was verified by experimental tests. The system could output beams of 197 different energies in 63 s. The beam intensity could be controlled for all the output beams without large ripples or overshooting. The experimental test of irradiation for prostate cancer treatment was also successfully performed, and the test results proved that our system can greatly reduce the irradiation time.

  10. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  11. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  12. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; /Fermilab; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  13. Ion beam probe diagnostic system for the LITE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stufflebeam, J.H.; Jennings, W.C.; Hickok, R.L.

    1974-11-01

    The problem of defocusing of the ion beam by the strong gradients in the magnetic field was discussed. It was shown this can be overcome by a linear field lens to shape the initial beam, or by proper selection of the size and position of the secondary ion detector. The results of the preliminary beam alignment were presented and the favorable comparison of the scaling formula and computer simulation was evident

  14. Development of high intensity beam handling system, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanoi, Yutaka; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Minakawa, Michifumi

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed the new counter experimental hall at the KEK 12 GeV Proton Synchrotron (KEK-PS) in order to handle high intensity primary proton beams of up to 1x10 3 pps (protons per second), which is one order of magnitude greater than the present beam intensity of the KEK-PS, 1x10 12 pps. New technologies for handling high-intensity beams have, then, been developed and employed in the construction of the new hall. A part of our R/D work on handling high intensity beams will be reported. (author)

  15. Steerable pencil beams for multi-Gbps indoor optical wireless communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C W; Tangdiongga, E; Koonen, A M J

    2014-09-15

    We report a novel optical wireless communication (OWC) system solution that supports multi-Gbps (Gigabit-per-second) capacity for indoors. Narrow beams, termed as pencil beams, are directed to wireless users using a tunable laser and a passive diffractive optical element. This enables a wide coverage of ultra-high-capacity communication links to serve multiple network users simultaneously. Experimental results demonstrating data rates of up to 10 Gbps, with on-off keying modulation format, over a distance of more than 2.5 m, are reported. Error-free links beam-steered over a total wavelength range of 130 nm, with steering angle of 17.16°, have been achieved. This system is proposed for short-range OWC and is promising for seamless integration in in-building optical networks.

  16. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  17. The beam monitor system for heavy ion shallow in tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Bin; Hu Zhengguo; Xu Zhiguo; Mao Ruishi; Zhang Xueheng; Tu Xiaolin; Guo Zhongyan; Sun Zhiyu; Wang Meng; Xiao Guoqing; Xu Hushan

    2008-01-01

    The program of heavy ion shallow tumor therapy has been started. The beam monitor system for the therapy is described in this paper. It is composed of plastic scintillator, which used to monitor the stability of beam intensity and control the irradiation dose, and PPAC which is to measure the beam homogeneity in the irradiation area. This system has shown good performance in the clinic experiments of the shallow tumor therapy. (authors)

  18. Dissipation induced asymmetric steering of distant atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guangling; Tan, Huatang; Chen, Aixi

    2018-04-01

    The asymmetric steering effects of separated atomic ensembles denoted by the effective bosonic modes have been explored by the means of quantum reservoir engineering in the setting of the cascaded cavities, in each of which an atomic ensemble is involved. It is shown that the steady-state asymmetric steering of the mesoscopic objects is unconditionally achieved via the dissipation of the cavities, by which the nonlocal interaction occurs between two atomic ensembles, and the direction of steering could be easily controlled through variation of certain tunable system parameters. One advantage of the present scheme is that it could be rather robust against parameter fluctuations, and does not require the accurate control of evolution time and the original state of the system. Furthermore, the double-channel Raman transitions between the long-lived atomic ground states are used and the atomic ensembles act as the quantum network nodes, which makes our scheme insensitive to the collective spontaneous emission of atoms.

  19. Collision-model approach to steering of an open driven qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Konstantin; Luoma, Kimmo; Strunz, Walter T.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate quantum steering of an open quantum system by measurements on its environment in the framework of collision models. As an example we consider a coherently driven qubit dissipatively coupled to a bath. We construct local nonadaptive and adaptive as well as nonlocal measurement scenarios specifying explicitly the measured observable on the environment. Our approach shows transparently how the conditional evolution of the open system depends on the type of the measurement scenario and the measured observables. These can then be optimized for steering. The nonlocal measurement scenario leads to maximal violation of the used steering inequality at zero temperature. Further, we investigate the robustness of the constructed scenarios against thermal noise. We find generally that steering becomes harder at higher temperatures. Surprisingly, the system can be steered even when bipartite entanglement between the system and individual subenvironments vanishes.

  20. Beam Techniques - Beam Control and Manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, Michiko G

    2003-04-24

    We describe commonly used strategies for the control of charged particle beams and the manipulation of their properties. Emphasis is placed on relativistic beams in linear accelerators and storage rings. After a brief review of linear optics, we discuss basic and advanced beam control techniques, such as transverse and longitudinal lattice diagnostics, matching, orbit correction and steering, beam-based alignment, and linac emittance preservation. A variety of methods for the manipulation of particle beam properties are also presented, for instance, bunch length and energy compression, bunch rotation, changes to the damping partition number, and beam collimation. The different procedures are illustrated by examples from various accelerators. Special topics include injection and extraction methods, beam cooling, spin transport and polarization.

  1. Fast and reliable control of steering mirrors with application to free-space communication

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrir, Salim

    2018-03-15

    After modeling a laser beam pointing system actuated by a piezo-electric fast steering mirror (FSM), an observer-based linear feedback controller is developed to correct the position of the laser spot communicated by the position sensing detector (PSD). The modeling and the control actions have been considered with and without the hysteresis effect induced by the piezoelectric actuators of the FSM. The design of the feedback is given through the solution of parametric matrix inequalities. It was found that the integral feedback design is very efficient in handling input and system uncertainty. The linearity of the observer-based feedback has facilitated both the real-time implementation of the control strategy and the proof of stability using dynamic-output feedbacks.

  2. A high frequency amplitude-steered array for real-time volumetric imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Catherine H.; Hughes, W. Jack; O'Brien, William D.

    2002-12-01

    Real-time three-dimensional acoustic imaging is difficult in water or tissue because of the slow speed of sound in these media. Conventional pulse-echo data collection, which uses at least one transmit pulse per line in the image, does not allow for the real-time update of a volume of data at practical ranges. Recently, a linear amplitude-steered array was presented that allows the collection of a plane of data with a single transmit pulse by spatially separating frequencies in the lateral direction. Later, by using a linear array with frequency separation in the vertical direction and rotating the array in the horizontal direction, volumetric data were collected with a small number of transmit pulses. By expanding the linear array to a two-dimensional array, data can now be collected for volumetric imaging in real time. In this study, the amplitude-steered array at the heart of a real-time volumetric sonar imaging system is described, giving the design of the array and describing how data are collected and processed to form images. An analysis of lateral resolution in the vertical and horizontal directions shows that resolution is improved in the direction of frequency separation over systems that use a broad transmit beam. Images from simulated data are presented.

  3. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the components of the Neutral Beam Lines of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will be enclosed in a 50 cubic meter box-shaped vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented

  4. Prototype system for phase advance measurements of LHC small beam oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Olexa, J; Brezovic, Z; Gasior, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnet lattice parameters of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are measured by exciting beam transverse oscillations that allow measuring their phase advance using the beam position measurement (BPM) system. However, the BPM system requires millimetre oscillation amplitudes, with which nominal high intensity beams would cause large particle loss, dangerous for the LHC superconducting magnets. Therefore, such measurements cannot be done often, as they require special low intensity beams with important set-up time. After its first long shut-down the LHC will be equipped with new collimators with embedded BPMs, for which a new front-end electronics has been developed. Its main processing channels based on compensated diode detectors are designed for beam orbit measurement with sub-micrometre resolution. It is planned to extend this system by adding dedicated channels optimised for phase advance measurement, allowing continuous LHC optics measurement with much smaller beam excitation. This subsystem will be based o...

  5. Reliability Analysis of the LHC Beam Dumping System Taking into Account the Operational Experience during LHC Run 1

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R; Magnin, N; Uythoven, J A

    2014-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system operated reliably during the Run 1 period of the LHC (2009 2013). A number of internal failures of the beam dumping system occurred that, because of built-in safety features, resulted in a safe removal of the particle beams from the machine, so called “internal beam

  6. Modelling and Testing of the Piezoelectric Beam as Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes modelling and testing of the piezoelectric beam as energy harvesting system. The cantilever beam with two piezo-elements glued onto its surface is considered in the paper. As result of carried out modal analysis of the beam the natural frequencies and modes shapes are determined. The obtained results in the way mentioned above allow to estimate such location of the piezo-actuator on the beam where the piezo generates maximal values of modal control forces. Experimental investigations carried out in the laboratory allow to verify results of natural frequencies obtained during simulation and also testing of the beam in order to obtain voltage from vibration with help of the piezo-harvester. The obtained values of voltage stored on the capacitor C0 shown that the best results are achieved for the beam excited to vibration with third natural frequency, but the worst results for the beam oscillating with the first natural frequency.

  7. Computer controlled vacuum control system for synchrotron radiation beam lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, S.M.; Wang, C.; Yang, J.

    1983-01-01

    The increasing number and complexity of vacuum control systems at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has resulted in the need to computerize its operations in order to lower costs and increase efficiency of operation. Status signals are transmitted through digital and analog serial data links which use microprocessors to monitor vacuum status continuously. Each microprocessor has a unique address and up to 256 can be connected to the host computer over a single RS232 data line. A FORTRAN program on the host computer will request status messages and send control messages via only one RS232 line per beam line, signal the operator when a fault condition occurs, take automatic corrective actions, warn of impending valve failure, and keep a running log of all changes in vacuum status for later recall. Wiring costs are thus greatly reduced and more status conditions can be monitored without adding excessively to the complexity of the system. Operators can then obtain status reports at various locations in the lab quickly without having to read a large number of meter and LED's

  8. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  9. The Analysis of The Fault of Electrical Power Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the common fault types of primary Electrical Power Steering system, meanwhile classify every fault. It provides the basis for further troubleshooting and maintenance. At the same time this paper propose a practical working principle of fault-tolerant, in order to make the EPS system more security and durability.

  10. Conceptual design of beam dividing system for J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Okabe, Kota; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2015-01-01

    At the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, a new experimental facility called the Transmutation Experimental Facility (TEF) is planned for the Accelerator-Driven System. The TEF facility will use the 400 MeV proton beam from the LINAC, which requires introducing a beam dividing system at a Beam Transport from the LINAC to the 3 GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS). However, an early feasibility study indicates that sufficient beam orbit separation is difficult to obtain at the doublet with only a pulsed bending magnet. Therefore, the beam for the TEF is extracted by using both the pulsed bending magnet and a static septum magnet. To optimize this two-step beam extraction scheme, the doublet quadrupole magnets should be improved. Moreover, the residual field of the pulse bending magnet at zero current should be corrected. By studying every possible scheme for the beam dividing system under current conditions, we expect to obtain a realistic design for the beam dividing system. In this paper, we introduce a conceptual design of the beam dividing system that is based on resent results of studies of realistic designs. (author)

  11. Developing an expert system to control a beam line at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.H.; Papcun, G.; Clark, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    High energy particle experiments require an accelerator as a source of high energy particles. To increase the productivity of an accelerator facility, we wish to develop an expert system to control beam lines. Expert Systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence where a computer program performs tasks requiring human expertise. Unlike most expert systems we have a physical model underlying our beam line and this model can be used with the expert system to improve performance. The development of the expert system will lead to an increased understanding of the beam line as well as the possibility of state-of-the-art expert system building

  12. The design of the electronic system on neutron beam monitor based on GEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Min; Zhuang Bao'an; Zhao Yubin; Chen Shaojia; Wang Na; Zhang Hongyu; Zhao Jingwei

    2012-01-01

    The Neutron Beam Monitor - a GEM based system used to monitor the neutron beams in real time - is introduced. The electronic parts are described in details, including the principles of the circuit, the system structure, the design of the Daughterboard and the logic and algorithm of the FPGA on the Monitor board. The test results are also given out in the final. (authors)

  13. Modelling and calibration of the laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.Y.; Zheng, Bing; Li, Xin; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present an approach of modelling and calibration of an active laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system. The system works with the pattern of two-dimensional beam-scanning illumination and one-dimensional slit-scanning detection with a photo-multiplier tube instead of a CCD camera. By

  14. A proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2001-01-01

    A scattering proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy is described. The beam is laterally spread out by a dual-ring double scattering system and collimated by a program-controlled multileaf collimator and patient specific fixed collimators. The proton range is adjusted and modulated by a program controlled binary filter and ridge filters

  15. SLC beam line error analysis using a model-based expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.; Kleban, S.

    1988-02-01

    Commissioning particle beam line is usually a very time-consuming and labor-intensive task for accelerator physicists. To aid in commissioning, we developed a model-based expert system that identifies error-free regions, as well as localizing beam line errors. This paper will give examples of the use of our system for the SLC commissioning. 8 refs., 5 figs

  16. Simulations of beam trajectory for position target optimization of extraction system output beams cyclotron proton Decy-13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrus Abdul Kudus; Taufik

    2015-01-01

    Positioning and track simulation beam the cyclotron Decy-13 for laying optimization the target system have been done using lorentz force function and scilab 5.4.1 simulation. Magnetic field and electric field is calculated using Opera3D/Tosca as a simulation input. Used radio frequency is 77.66 MHz with the amplitude voltage is 40 kV is obtained energy 13 MeV. The result showed that the coordinates of the laying of the target system in a vacuum chamber is located at x = -389 mm and y = 445 mm with the width of the output beam is 10 mm. The laying stripper position for the output in center target is located at x = -76 mm and y =416 mm from the center coordinate on the center of dee with the energy of proton is 13 MeV at the point of beam extraction carbon foil. The changes position laying is carried out on range x = -70; y = 424 mm until x = - 118; y = 374 mm result for shifting area stripper which is still capable of deflection the electron beam. (author)

  17. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piliero, M.A., E-mail: piliero@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Cerello, P. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Fiorina, E. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, F. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Pirrone, G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Wheadon, R. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-21

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β{sup +} annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β{sup +} isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  18. Advanced rapid prototyping by laser beam sintering of metal prototypes: design and development of an optimized laser beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Manfred; Coremans, A.; Neubauer, Norbert; Niebling, F.

    1996-08-01

    Fast technological advances and steadily increasing severe worldwide competition force industry to respond all the time faster to new and chanced customer wishes. Some of the recently emerged processes, commonly referred to as 'rapid prototyping' (RP), have proved to be powerful tools for accelerating product and process development. Early approaches aimed at the automated production of plastic models. These techniques achieved industrial maturity extremely fast and are meanwhile established as standard utilities in the field of development/design processes. So far, their applicability to metal working industry was limited to design studies because the mechanical properties of the prototypes, e.g. modulus of elasticity and mechanical strength were not comparable to the final products they represented. Therefore, RP-processes aimed at the direct production of metallic prototypes gained more and more importance during recent years. A technique belonging to this group is manufacturing of prototypes by using a laser beam sintering machine capable of directly processing metal powders. This so called laser beam sintering process showed a great potential for direct manufacturing of functional tools and prototypes in early feasibility studies. Detailed examinations were performed at several research centers to determine the attainable quality of the parts concerning roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical strength. These examinations showed, that there still is a considerable demand for quality improvements of the previously mentioned parameters. The practical application and the potential for improvement of the geometrical accuracy of laser beam sintered parts by using a dual beam concept was proven. An innovative beam guiding and forming concept, similar to the previously mentioned patented beam guiding system, was developed and built with the goal to improve the process parameters governing mechanical properties as well as geometrical accuracy. Further reaching

  19. A very sensitive nonintercepting beam average velocity monitoring system for the TRIUMF 300-keV injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Laxdal, R.E.; Zelenski, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    1997-01-01

    A nonintercepting beam velocity monitoring system has been installed in the 300-keV injection line of the TRIUMF cyclotron to reproduce the injection energy for beam from different ion sources and to monitor any beam energy fluctuations. By using a programmable beam signal leveling method the system can work with a beam current dynamic range of 50 dB. Using synchronous detection, the system can detect 0.5 eV peak-to-peak energy modulation of the beam, sensitivity is 1.7x10 -6 . The paper will describe the principle and beam measurement results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  20. The application of multilayer elastic beam in MEMS safe and arming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guozhong, E-mail: liguozhong-bit@bit.edu.cn; Shi, Gengchen; Sui, Li [National Lab of Mechatronic Engineering and Control, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, P.R.CHINA (China); Yi, Futing; Wang, Bo [Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R.CHINA (China)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, a new approach for a multilayer elastic beam to provide a driving force and driving distance for a MEMS safe and arming system is presented. In particular this is applied where a monolayer elastic beam cannot provide adequate driving force and driving distance at the same time in limited space. Compared with thicker elastic beams, the bilayer elastic beam can provide twice the driving force of a monolayer beam to guarantee the MEMS safe and arming systems work reliably without decreasing the driving distance. In this paper, the theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and experimental verification of the multilayer elastic beam is presented. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the bilayer elastic provides 1.8–2 times the driving force of a monolayer, and a method that improves driving force without reducing the driving distance.

  1. Engineering aspects of particle-beam fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting research directed toward demonstration of DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators (PBFA I and II) are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Cornell University. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications

  2. Signal Processing Strategies for Cochlear Implants Using Current Steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary cochlear implant systems, the audio signal is decomposed into different frequency bands, each assigned to one electrode. Thus, pitch perception is limited by the number of physical electrodes implanted into the cochlea and by the wide bandwidth assigned to each electrode. The Harmony HiResolution bionic ear (Advanced Bionics LLC, Valencia, CA, USA has the capability of creating virtual spectral channels through simultaneous delivery of current to pairs of adjacent electrodes. By steering the locus of stimulation to sites between the electrodes, additional pitch percepts can be generated. Two new sound processing strategies based on current steering have been designed, SpecRes and SineEx. In a chronic trial, speech intelligibility, pitch perception, and subjective appreciation of sound were compared between the two current steering strategies and standard HiRes strategy in 9 adult Harmony users. There was considerable variability in benefit, and the mean results show similar performance with all three strategies.

  3. A Parallel and Distributed Surrogate Model Implementation for Computational Steering

    KAUST Repository

    Butnaru, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Understanding the influence of multiple parameters in a complex simulation setting is a difficult task. In the ideal case, the scientist can freely steer such a simulation and is immediately presented with the results for a certain configuration of the input parameters. Such an exploration process is however not possible if the simulation is computationally too expensive. For these cases we present in this paper a scalable computational steering approach utilizing a fast surrogate model as substitute for the time-consuming simulation. The surrogate model we propose is based on the sparse grid technique, and we identify the main computational tasks associated with its evaluation and its extension. We further show how distributed data management combined with the specific use of accelerators allows us to approximate and deliver simulation results to a high-resolution visualization system in real-time. This significantly enhances the steering workflow and facilitates the interactive exploration of large datasets. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Optical diagnosis system for intense electron beam diode plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jie; Shu Ting; Zhang Jun; Fan Yuwei; Yang Jianhua; Liu Lie; Yin Yi; Luo Ling

    2012-01-01

    A nanosecond time-resolved imaging platform for diode plasmas diagnostics has been constructed based on the pulsed electron beam accelerator and high speed framing camera (HSFC). The accelerator can provide an electrical pulse with voltages of 200-500 kV, rise-time (from 10% to 90% amplitude) of 25 ns and duration of 110 ns. The diode currents up to kA level can be extracted. The trigger signal for camera was picked up by a water-resistor voltage divider after the main switch of the accelerator, which could avoid the disadvantageous influence of the time jitter caused by the breakdown of the gas gaps. Then the sampled negative electrical pulse was converted into a transistor-transistor logic (TTL) signal (5 V) with rise time of about 1.5 ns and time jitter less than 1 ns via a processor. And this signal was taken as the synchronization time base. According to the working characteristics of the camera, the synchronization scheme relying mainly on electrical pulse delay method supplemented by light signal delay method was determined to make sure that the camera can work synchronously with the light production and transportation from the diode plasma within the time scale of nanosecond. Moreover, shielding and filtering methods were used to restrain the interference on the measurement system from the accelerator. Finally, time resolved 2-D framing images of the diode plasma were acquired. (authors)

  5. Steering of Educational Processes in a Digital Medium Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    by systems theory we outline a more adequate way of teaching in the new medium environment – a teaching that can manage the new situation and use the new possibilities provided by the digital media. The argumentation builds on empirical findings from the action research project Socio Media Education (SME......This paper is about challenges to steering and leadership of educational interaction in classrooms provided by the new medium environment that comes with digital media. In the new medium environment, the old way of steering what is going on in the classroom appears not to work since...

  6. Experimental results of Tore Supra neutral beam injector in the line testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumelli, M.; Jequier, F.

    1991-04-01

    Results of the tests carried out on one of the six Tore Supra neutral beam injectors are reported. Several minor modifications of the injector design allowed us to operate up to 92 keV - 30 A beams limited by the high voltage power supplies. Results of studies on different topics like new titanium pumping system, neutron yield from neutraliser and target, beam conditioning and breakdown statistical analysis are also reported [fr

  7. Development of a computerized tomographic system based on the FAN-BEAM technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, M.M.; Santos, C.A.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory, at COPPE/UFRJ, concentrates its researches in the development of computerized tomographic systems, looking for applications in industrial and medical non destructive analysing techniques. In this work we have projected and constructed a tomographic prototype, based on the FAN-BEAM technique for irradiating the object under analysis. An algorithm previously developed to analyse parallel beams, was modified and adapted to the FAN-BEAM geometry. (Author) [pt

  8. Low-Energy Run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's Beam Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Shemyakin, A.; /Fermilab; Fedotov, A.; Kewisch, J.; /Brookhaven

    2011-03-14

    In the context of the evaluation of possibly using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for the proposed low-energy RHIC run at BNL, operating the cooler at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main conclusion of this feasibility study is that the cooler's beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. The beam recirculation was stable for all tested parameters. In particular, a beam current of 0.38 A was achieved with the cathode magnetic field up to the maximum value presently available of 250 G. The energy ripple was measured to be 40 eV. A striking difference with running the 4.3 MeV beam (nominal for operation at FNAL) is that no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed. Electron cooling proposed to increase the luminosity of the RHIC collider for heavy ion beam energies below 10 GeV/nucleon [1] needs a good quality, 0.9-5 MeV electron beam. Preliminary design studies indicate that the scheme of the Recycler's electron cooler at FNAL is suitable for low-energy RHIC cooling and most parts of the cooler can be re-used after the end of the Tevatron Run II. To analyze issues related to the generation of the electron beam in the energy recovery mode and to gain experience with the beam transport at lower beam energy, a dedicated study was performed at FNAL with a beam run through a short beam line (so called U-bend). This report summarizes our findings and observations in the course of the measurements.

  9. Electrical steering of vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, Mogens; Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this paper is systems that need be designed such that no single fault can cause failure at the overall level. A methodology is presented for analysis and design of fault-tolerant architectures, where diagnosis and autonomous reconfiguration can replace high cost triple redundancy sol...

  10. SSC detector muon sub-system beam tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, R.; Errede, S.; Gauthier, A.; Haney, M.; Karliner, I.; Liss, T.; O'Halloran, T.; Sheldon, P.; Simiatis, V.; Thaler, J.; Wiss, J.; Kunori, S.; Skuja, A.; Davisson, R.; Liang, G.; Lubatti, H.; Wilkes, R.; Zhao, T.; Carlsmith, D.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to start a test-beam experiment at Fermilab studying the problems associated with tracking extremely high energy muons through absorbers. We anticipate that in this energy range the observation of the muons will be complicated by associated electromagnetic radiation Monte Carlo simulations of this background need to be tuned by direct observations. These beam tests are essential to determine important design parameters of a SSC muon detector, such as the choice of the tracking, geometry, hardware triggering schemes, the number of measuring stations, the amount of iron between measuring stations, etc. We intend to begin the first phase of this program in November of 1990 utilizing the Tevatron muon beam. We plan to measure the multiplicity, direction, and separation of secondary particles associated with the primary muon track as it emerges from an absorber. The second phase of beam test in 1992 or later will be a full scale test for the final design chosen in our muon subsystem proposal

  11. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H- accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  12. Performance of the beam pulsing system of the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, R.; Barua, P.; Jha, V.; Sarkar, A.; Ghosh, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrostatic International Incorporation (EII), USA supplied beam pulsing system of the 15 UD Pelletron accelerator at Nuclear Science Centre consists of mainly three components viz. a chopper, a travelling wave deflector (TWD) and a buncher. The chopper is used to chop the dc beam into small portions at the repetition rate of 4 MHz. The function of TWD is to achieve the eleven different repetition rates other than 4 MHz and the buncher finally bunches the chopped beam from the chopper. The performance of this beam pulsing system improved considerably after incorporating a line voltage stabilizer to the system electronics and modifying the feedback loop of the system. The performance of TWD was also improved after some modification in its operation and adding an interlock circuit to TWD electronics. A spiral cavity is now installed in the vault area after the analyzing magnet for the efficient measurement of time resolution of the pulsed beam. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Design and initial tests of beam current monitoring systems for the APS transport lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xucheng.

    1992-01-01

    The non-intercepting beam current monitoring systems suitable for a wide, range of beam parameters have been developed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) low energy transport lines and high energy transport line. The positron or electron beam pulse in the transport lines wig have peak beam currents ranging from 8 mA to 29 A with pulse widths varying from 120 ps to 30 ns and pulse repetition rates from 2 Hz to 60 Hz. The peak beam current or total beam charge is measured with the fast or integrating current transformer, respectively, manufactured by Bergoz. In-house high speed beam signal processing electronics provide a DC level output proportional to the peak current or total charge for the digitizer input. The prototype systems were tested on the linacs which have beam pulse structures similar to that of the APS transport lines. This paper describes the design of beam signal processing electronics and grounding and shielding methods for current transformers. The results of the initial operations are presented. A short introduction on the preliminary design of current monitoring systems for the APS rings is also included

  14. An Innovative Beam Halo Monitor system for the CMS experiment at the LHC: Design, Commissioning and First Beam Results

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00344917; Dabrowski, Anne

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose experiment situated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The CMS has the mandate of searching new physics and making precise measurements of the already known mechanisms by using data produced by collisions of high-energy particles. To ensure high quality physics data taking, it is important to monitor and ensure the quality of the colliding particle beams. This thesis presents the research and design, the integration and the first commissioning results of a novel Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) that was designed and built for the CMS experiment. The BHM provides an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background particles created by interactions of the proton beam with residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber or with collimator material upstream of the CMS, separately for each beam. The system consists of two arrays of twenty direction-sensitive detectors that are distributed azimuthally around the outer forward shielding of the CMS experiment. Each detector is ...

  15. The beam intensity and positron monitoring system of the Daresbury Electron Synchrotron (NINA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.; Peters, D.G.; Allen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The beam sensing system of NINA has been redesigned and rebuilt to provide comprehensive monitoring of beam intensity and position. The reasons for the change are stated, and the requirements and performance specification for the new system are listed. The report falls under the following heads: the sensing head; the head electronics unit; the line receiver unit; performance of installed monitors; display system and computer interface. The performance of the new system is summarized. (U.K.)

  16. Control system oriented human interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barale, P.; Jacobson, V.; Kilgore, R.; Rondeau, D.

    1976-11-01

    The on-line control system interface for magnet beam steering and focusing in the Bevalac is described. An Aydin model 5205B display generator was chosen. This display generator will allow the computer to completely rewrite a monitor screen in less than 50 ms and is also capable of controlling a color monitor

  17. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  18. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  19. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures. (LEW)

  20. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures

  1. DSP-based electric power assisted steering using BLDC motor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the higher level of control architecture, the vehicle speed controller works as an assistance level controller for the steering effort. In the lower level, the torque controller gives the effort level control. This has been realized by torque sensor and vehicle sensor interfaced in the DSP. For implementing in the system, ...

  2. Interagency Advanced Power Group -- Steering group meeting minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-18

    This document contains the draft meeting minutes of the Steering Group of the Interagency Advanced Power Group. Included are the discussions resulting from the presentation of working group reports and the results of a discussion of IAPG policies and procedures. In the appendix are the reports of the following working groups: Electrical, Mechanical, Solar, and Systems.

  3. Design of RF chopper system for improving beam quality in FEL injector with thermionic gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q.; Qin, B.; Tan, P.; Hu, T.; Pei, Y.; Zhang, F.

    2014-01-01

    For a linac-based Free Electron Laser (FEL), good beam quality largely contributes to the success of the final radiation. An imperfection confronted with the HUST THz-FEL facility is the long beam tail that emerges in the electron gun and exists through the whole beam line. This paper proposes to deploy a chopper system after the electron gun to truncate the beam tails before they enter into the linac. Physical dimensions of the chopper cavity are discussed in detail and we have developed and derived new analytical expressions applying to all frequencies for the optimal design. Also, technical issues of the cavity are considered. Beam dynamic simulation is performed to examine the truncation effect and the results show that more than 78% of the beam tail can be removed effectively, while preserving the emittance and energy spread in acceptable level

  4. VME applications to the Daresbury SRS control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martlew, B.G.; McCarthy, M.; Rawlinson, W.R.

    1992-01-01

    The control system for the Daresbury SRS has recently been extended with a VME based alarm system which is operational. A further development is a steering system to provide servo control of the electron beam orbit position in the storage ring. (author)

  5. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonki Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots’ position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  6. Autonomous Shepherding Behaviors of Multiple Target Steering Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonki; Kim, DaeEun

    2017-11-25

    This paper presents a distributed coordination methodology for multi-robot systems, based on nearest-neighbor interactions. Among many interesting tasks that may be performed using swarm robots, we propose a biologically-inspired control law for a shepherding task, whereby a group of external agents drives another group of agents to a desired location. First, we generated sheep-like robots that act like a flock. We assume that each agent is capable of measuring the relative location and velocity to each of its neighbors within a limited sensing area. Then, we designed a control strategy for shepherd-like robots that have information regarding where to go and a steering ability to control the flock, according to the robots' position relative to the flock. We define several independent behavior rules; each agent calculates to what extent it will move by summarizing each rule. The flocking sheep agents detect the steering agents and try to avoid them; this tendency leads to movement of the flock. Each steering agent only needs to focus on guiding the nearest flocking agent to the desired location. Without centralized coordination, multiple steering agents produce an arc formation to control the flock effectively. In addition, we propose a new rule for collecting behavior, whereby a scattered flock or multiple flocks are consolidated. From simulation results with multiple robots, we show that each robot performs actions for the shepherding behavior, and only a few steering agents are needed to control the whole flock. The results are displayed in maps that trace the paths of the flock and steering robots. Performance is evaluated via time cost and path accuracy to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  7. Progress in the design of the ITER Neutral Beam cell Remote Handling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuff, R., E-mail: robin.shuff@f4e.europa.eu [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Van Uffelen, M.; Damiani, C. [Fusion for Energy, Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Tesini, A.; Choi, C.-H. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Meek, R. [Oxford Technologies Limited, 7 Nuffield Way, Abingdon OX14 1RL (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    The ITER Neutral Beam cell will include a suite of Remote Handling equipment for maintenance tasks. This paper summarises the current status and recent developments in the design of the ITER Neutral Beam Remote Handling System. Its concept design was successfully completed in July 2012 by CCFE in the frame of a grant agreement with F4E, in collaboration with the ITER Organisation, including major systems like monorail crane, Beam Line Transporter, beam source equipment, upper port and neutron shield equipment and associated tooling. Research and development activities are now underway on the monorail crane radiation hardened on-board control system and first of a kind remote pipe and lip seal maintenance tooling for the beam line vessel, reported in this paper.

  8. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria

  9. Multiobjective optimization of a steering linkage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleesonsom, S.; Bureerat, S. [Sustainable and Infrastructure Research and Development Center, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    In this paper, multi-objective optimization of a rack-and-pinion steering linkage is proposed. This steering linkage is a common mechanism used in small cars with three advantages as it is simple to construct, economical to manufacture, and compact and easy to operate. In the previous works, many researchers tried to minimize a steering error but minimization of a turning radius is somewhat ignored. As a result, a multi-objective optimization problem is assigned to simultaneously minimize a steering error and a turning radius. The design variables are linkage dimensions. The design problem is solved by the hybrid of multi-objective population-based incremental learning and differential evolution with various constraint handling schemes. The new design strategy leads to effective design of rack-and-pinion steering linkages satisfying both steering error and turning radius criteria.

  10. The Wigner distribution function of a super Lorentz—Gauss SLG11 beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yi-Min; Zhou Guo-Quan

    2013-01-01

    An orthonormal beam family of super Lorentz—Gauss (SLG) beam model is proposed to describe the higher-order mode beams with high divergence, which are generated by a high power diode laser. Here we consider the simplest case of the SLG beams, where there are four mutually orthogonal SLG beams, namely SLG 00 , SLG 01 , SLG 10 , and SLG 11 beams. The SLG 00 beam is just the Lorentz—Gauss beam. Based on the Collins integral formula and the Hermite—Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, an analytical expression for the Wigner distribution function (WDF) of an SLG 11 beam through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived. The properties of the WDF of an SLG 11 beam propagating in free space are demonstrated. The normalized WDFs of an SLG 11 beam at the different spatial points are depicted in several observation planes. The influence of the beam parameter on the WDF of an SLG 11 beam in free space is analyzed at different propagation distances. The second-order moments of the WDF of an SLG 11 beam in free space are also examined. This research reveals the propagation properties of an SLG 11 beam from another perspective. The WDFs of SLG 01 and SLG 10 beams can be easily obtained by using the WDFs of Lorentz—Gauss beam and the SLG 11 beam. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  11. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  12. A method of detecting a structure in a field, a method of steering an agricultural vehicle and an agricultural vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    An agricultural vehicle (2) comprises a steering system providing steering signals, said steering system comprising an imaging device (11) for imaging surroundings of the vehicle and an image processing device (13), said steering system operating to provide by means of the imaging device (11......) an image of the field (21), analyse the image to obtain texture information, assign to a plurality of areas of the image probability-values reflecting the likelihood that the respective area relates to a specific structure (12), assume at least one geometric property of said specific structure (12...

  13. Beam-transport system for high-resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Kashy, E.

    1980-01-01

    A method is given to adjust a beam-transport system to the requirements of high-energy resolution heavy-ion spectroscopy. The results of a test experiment performed on a MP tandem with a 12 C beam are shown. A drastic improvement in energy resolution is obtained for a kinematical factor K=1/p dp/dtheta=0.12 [fr

  14. Safety Analysis of the Movable Absorber TCDQ in the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2009-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System nominally dumps the beam synchronously with the passage of the particle free beam abort gap at the beam dump extraction kickers. In the case of an asynchronous beam dump the TCDQ absorber protects the machine aperture. It is a single sided collimator, positioned close to the beam and it has to follow the beam position and beam size during the energy ramp. This report assesses the different failure scenarios of TCDQ positioning and their likelihood. The failure probability for the two TCDQ systems together is estimated to be 3.6 E-05 (mean value) for one year of LHC operation. This corresponds to a SIL4 safety level, which is considered sufficient. The three dominant failure modes are highlighted. The calculated failure probability refers to scenarios that are generated and developed inside the TCDQ system. Potential failure sources not included are the interaction with external systems: the transmission of the start signal to the PLC from a dedicated timing card and the manual opti...

  15. Periodic solutions of a multi-DOF beam system with impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B

    1996-01-01

    The steady state behaviour is analyzed of a periodically driven multi-DOF beam system which has an elastic stop at its middle. The elastic stop is modelled in a continuous way by using the contact law of Hertz. The beam is modelled by using finite elements and subsequently reduced by using a

  16. In-service performance evaluation and monitoring of a hybrid composite beam bridge system : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The hybrid composite beam (HCB) technology has been presented as a system for short and medium span beam bridges as an alternative to traditional materials such as concrete and steel. An HCB consists of a concrete tied arch encased in a fiber reinfor...

  17. Performance requirements of the MedAustron beam delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073034

    The Austrian hadron therapy center MedAustron is currently under construction with patient treatment planned to commence in 2015. Tumors will be irradiated using proton and carbon ions, for which the steeply rising Bragg curve and finite range offer a better conformity of the dose to the geometrical shape of the tumor compared to conventional photon irradiation. The current trend is to move from passive scattering toward active scanning using a narrow pencil beam in order to reach an even better dose conformation and limit the need of patient specific hardware. The quality of the deposited dose will ultimately depend on the performance of the beam delivery chain: beam profile and extraction stability of the extracted beam, accuracy and ramp rate of the scanning magnet power supplies, and precision of the beam monitors used for verifying the delivered dose. With a sharp lateral penumbra, the transverse dose fall-off can be minimized. This is of particular importance in situations where the lesion is adjace...

  18. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware

  19. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOERSTER, C.

    1999-01-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of ∼ 1 x 10 -10 Torr without beam and ∼ 1 x 10 -9 Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware downstream of front ends. O-ring-sealed valves, if used, are not

  20. A theoretical model of speed-dependent steering torque for rolling tyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yintao; Oertel, Christian; Liu, Yahui; Li, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the tyre steering torque is highly dependent on the tyre rolling speed. In limited cases, i.e. parking manoeuvre, the steering torque approaches the maximum. With the increasing tyre speed, the steering torque decreased rapidly. Accurate modelling of the speed-dependent behaviour for the tyre steering torque is a key factor to calibrate the electric power steering (EPS) system and tune the handling performance of vehicles. However, no satisfactory theoretical model can be found in the existing literature to explain this phenomenon. This paper proposes a new theoretical framework to model this important tyre behaviour, which includes three key factors: (1) tyre three-dimensional transient rolling kinematics with turn-slip; (2) dynamical force and moment generation; and (3) the mixed Lagrange-Euler method for contact deformation solving. A nonlinear finite-element code has been developed to implement the proposed approach. It can be found that the main mechanism for the speed-dependent steering torque is due to turn-slip-related kinematics. This paper provides a theory to explain the complex mechanism of the tyre steering torque generation, which helps to understand the speed-dependent tyre steering torque, tyre road feeling and EPS calibration.