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Sample records for beam sputtering source

  1. Argonne inverted sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yntema, J.L.; Billquist, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The emittance of the inverted sputter source with immersion lenses was measured to be about 5π mm mrad MeV/sup 1/2/ at the 75% level over a wide range of beam intensities. The use of the source in experiments with radioactive sputter targets and hydrogen loaded targets is described. Self contamination of the source is discussed

  2. Technology and applications of broad-beam ion sources used in sputtering. Part II. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.; Kaufman, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The developments in broad-beam ion source technology described in the companion paper (Part I) have stimulated a rapid expansion in applications to materials processing. These applications are reviewed here, beginning with a summary of sputtering mechanisms. Next, etching applications are described, including microfabrication and reactive ion beam etching. The developing area of surface layer applications is summarized, and related to the existing fields of oxidation and implantation. Next, deposition applications are reviewed, including ion-beam sputter deposition and the emerging technique of ion-assisted vapor deposition. Many of these applications have been stimulated by the development of high current ion sources operating in the energy range of tens of hundreds of eV. It is in this energy range that ion-activated chemical etching is efficient, self-limiting compound layers can be grown, and the physical properties of vapor-deposited films can be modified. In each of these areas, broad ion beam technology provides a link between other large area plasma processes and surface analytical techniques using ion beams

  3. Production of intensive negative lithium beam with caesium sputter-type ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, Nikolai R.

    2018-01-01

    Compounds of lithium oxide, hydroxide and carbonate, mixed with silver, were prepared for use as a cathode in caesium-sputter ion source. The intention was to determine the procedure which would produce the highest intensity negative lithium beams over extended period and with maximum stability. The chemical composition and properties of the samples were analysed using mass-spectrometry, optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analyses (EDX) and Raman spectroscopy. These analyses showed that the chemical transformations with components resulted from pressing, storage and bake out were qualitatively in agreement with expectations. Intensive negative lithium ion beams >1 μA were delivered using cathodes fabricated from materials with multicomponent chemical composition when the following conditions were met: (i) use of components with moderate enthalpy of formation; (ii) low moisture content at final stage of cathode production and (iii) small concentration of water molecules in hydrate phase in the cathode mixture.

  4. Production of rare-earth atomic negative ion beams in a cesium-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, V.T.; Covington, A.M.; Duvvuri, S.S.; Kraus, R.G.; Emmons, E.D.; Kvale, T.J.; Thompson, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    The desire to study negative ion structure and negative ion-photon interactions has spurred the development of ion sources for use in research and industry. The many different types of negative ion sources available today differ in their characteristics and abilities to produce anions of various species. Thus the importance of choosing the correct type of negative ion source for a particular research or industrial application is clear. In this study, the results of an investigation on the production of beams composed of negatively-charged rare-earth ions from a cylindrical-cathode-geometry, cesium-sputter-type negative ion source are presented. Beams of atomic anions have been observed for most of the first-row rare-earth elements, with typical currents ranging from hundreds of picoamps to several nanoamps

  5. Ion beam sputter implantation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    By means of ion beam atomizing or sputtering an integrally composed coating, the composition of which continuously changes from 100% of the substrate to 100% of the coating, can be surfaced on a substrate (e.g. molten quartz on plastic lenses). In order to do this in the facility there is directed a primary beam of accelerated noble gas ions on a target from the group of the following materials: SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , Corning Glass 7070, Corning Glass 7740 or borosilicate glass. The particles leaving the target are directed on the substrate by means of an acceleration potential of up to 10 KV. There may, however, be coated also metal layers (Ni, Co) on a mylar film resulting in a semireflecting metal film. (RW) [de

  6. Directed ion beam sputter etching of polytetrafluorethylene (teflon) using an argon ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, C E; Gabriel, S B; Kuo, Y S

    1982-09-24

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) tubes of outside diameter 375-625 ..mu..m were perforated by bombarding the tubes with an argon ion beam. Holes of diameter 18 ..mu..m and 40 ..mu..m on a side and open-are ratios of 55% and 65% respectively were formed using electroformed nickel mesh masks. Scanning electron micrographs of the hole walls reveal that they are relatively smooth and that the holes go completely through the tubing walls. Holes with the smoothest walls and the sharpest definition were obtained by using low beam power densities and a tubing target temperature of less than 50/sup 0/C. Volumetric flow rate measurements show that the flow rate through the perforated tubules is 0.2-0.5 cm/sup 3/ min/sup -1/ for a pressure drop across the tubes of 2.2 Torr. The perforated microtubules have an important application in medicine for sufferers of hydrocephalus, a malady which results in the build-up of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. The perforated tubing is inserted into the ventricle and serves as a shunt by draining off the excess cerebrospinal fluid into another part of the brain, where the fluid is absorbed by normal processes.

  7. Recent advancements in sputter-type heavy negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Significant advancement have been made in sputter-type negative ion sources which utilize direct surface ionization, or a plasma to form the positive ion beam used to effect sputtering of samples containing the material of interest. Typically, such sources can be used to generate usable beam intensities of a few μA to several mA from all chemically active elements, depending on the particular source and the electron affinity of the element in question. The presentation will include an introduction to the fundamental processes underlying negative ion formation by sputtering from a low work function surface and several sources will be described which reflect the progress made in this technology. 21 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  8. Cornell electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Beebe, E.N.; Janson, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    An electron beam ion source (EBIS) for the production of low energy, multiply charged ion beams to be used in atomic physics experiments has been designed and constructed. An external high perveance electron gun is used to launch the electron beam into a conventional solenoid. Novel features of the design include a distributed sputter ion pump to create the ultrahigh vacuum environment in the ionization region of the source and microprocessor control of the axial trap voltage supplies

  9. Ion beam sputter coatings for laser technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Detlev; Gross, Tobias

    2005-09-01

    The initial motivation for the development of Ion Beam Sputtering (IBS) processes was the need for optical coatings with extremely low optical scatter losses for laser gyros. Especially, backscattering of the gyro-mirrors couples the directional modes in the ring resonator leading to the lock in effect which limits the sensitivity of the gyro. Accordingly, the first patent on IBS was approved for an aircraft company (Litton) in 1978. In the course of the rapid development of the IBS-concept during the last two decades, an extremely high optical quality could be achieved for laser coatings in the VIS- and NIR-spectral region. For example, high reflecting coatings with total optical losses below 1 ppm were demonstrated for specific precision measurement applications with the Nd:YAG-laser operating at 1.064 μm. Even though the high quality level of IBS-coatings had been confirmed in many applications, the process has not found its way into the production environment of most optical companies. Major restrictions are the relatively low rate of the deposition process and the poor lateral homogeneity of the coatings, which are related to the output characteristics of the currently available ion sources. In the present contribution, the basic principles of IBS will be discussed in the context of the demands of modern laser technology. Besides selected examples for special applications of IBS, aspects will be presented for approaches towards rapid manufacturing of coatings and the production of rugate filters on the basis of IBS-techniques.

  10. The Kansas State University revolving sputter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tipping, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    It has been that the perfect ion source is one which runs in a very stable mode, runs continuously, and has the ability to change ion species without sacrificing the previous two requirements. This paper presents an approximation to the perfect ion source, the KSU Revolving Sputter Source. The source consists of an Aarhus-geometry sputter source with the addition of a rotating wheel which holds eight sputter cathodes. The wheel consists of a front plate with eight fixed Macor insulators and a back plate with eight Macor insulators held in place by the tension of eight springs. The cathode assembly consists of a copper cartridge with a threaded rod on one end and a sputter cathode with a threaded hole on the back. The cathode is screwed onto the cartridge and the whole assembly may be loaded into the wheel. A small spring on the side of the cartridge holds the assembly in the wheel

  11. Prototype inverted sputter source for negative heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minehara, Eisuke; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Shiroh

    1977-10-01

    A sputter source from which negative heavy ion beam is extracted through a tungsten wire and disc ionizer was built and tested. An alkali metal surface ionization gun with the ionizer is described, and also performance of the surface ionization gun and of the sputter source for negative heavy ions using the gun is reported. The gun was tested for three alkali metals, i.e. sodium, potassium and cesium. Total potassium beam current of 1-2mA was obtained at entrance aperture of the magnet. Sputtering materials and gases for producing negative heavy ions are carbon, copper, aluminium, molybdenum, oxygen and air. With carbon and leakage air, the beam intensities analyzed are: 2-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 4.6-11μA (at exit slit) for C - , 3-5μA (at Faraday cup) and 6.8-11μA (at exit slit) for 2C - , and 11-15μA (at Faraday cup) and 25-34μA (at exit slit) for O - . Total beam current at the entrance aperture was 200-400μA. (auth.)

  12. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Philipp, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  13. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances.

  14. Preliminary results on adhesion improvement using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang

    2013-01-01

    Sputtering is an established technique for depositing films with smooth surfaces and interfaces and good thick control. Ejection of articles from a condensed matter due to impingement of high energy particles, termed as sputtering was observed as early as in 1852, however, it is only recently that the complex process of sputtering system. Coating adhesion and environmental stability of the ion beam sputtering deposition coatings performed very well. High-energy high-current ion beam thin film synthesis of adhesion problems can be solved by using. Enhancement of adhesion in thin film synthesis, using high energy and high current ion beam, of mobile phones, car parts and other possible applications in the related industry Alternative technology of wet chrome plating, considering environment and unit cost, for car parts and esthetic improvement on surface of domestic appliances

  15. Particle beam experiments for the analysis of reactive sputtering processes in metals and polymer surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbella, Carles; Grosse-Kreul, Simon; Kreiter, Oliver; Arcos, Teresa de los; Benedikt, Jan; Keudell, Achim von [RD Plasmas with Complex Interactions, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstr. 150, 44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A beam experiment is presented to study heterogeneous reactions relevant to plasma-surface interactions in reactive sputtering applications. Atom and ion sources are focused onto the sample to expose it to quantified beams of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, noble gas ions, and metal vapor. The heterogeneous surface processes are monitored in situ by means of a quartz crystal microbalance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Two examples illustrate the capabilities of the particle beam setup: oxidation and nitriding of aluminum as a model of target poisoning during reactive magnetron sputtering, and plasma pre-treatment of polymers (PET, PP)

  16. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed. (orig.)

  17. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-28

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  18. Nanopatterning of swinging substrates by ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sun Mi; Kim, J.-S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphite substrates are azimuthally swung during ion-beam sputtering (IBS) at a polar angle θ = 78° from the surface normal. The swinging of the substrate not only causes quasi-two-dimensional mass transport but also makes various sputter effects from the different incident angles to work together. Through variation of the swing angle, both the transport and sputtering effects synergistically produce a series of salient patterns, such as asymmetric wall-like structures, which can grow to several tens of nanometers and exhibit a re-entrant orientational change with the increased swing angle. Thus, the present work demonstrates that dynamic variables such as the swing angle, which have been little utilized, offer an additional parameter space that can be exploited to diversify the sputtered patterns, thereby expanding the applicability of an IBS as well as the comprehension of the IBS nano patterning mechanism.

  19. Development of ion beam sputtering technology for mold and die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyung; Park, J.; Lee, J.; Jil, J.; Yang, D.; Noh, Y.; You, B.; You, J.

    2003-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering technique, one of the surface modification techniques, is to reduce surface roughness of materials with selective detaching atoms and micro particles from the surface by bombarding energetic ions of a few to a few tens keV onto the materials surfaces. This technique can be applied for the surfaces that need to have sub micrometer surface roughness, and it has already been used by companies and/or Institute over the world. Although this is relatively high cost process, it has been widely demanded in the industries with developing the eco-friend equipment due to its high quality of products. In the domestic industry, it has been pointed out that the mechanical polishing technique for molds and dies is relatively expensive and does not produce the required surface roughness. Therefore, in this R and D, techniques obtained from the ion source and the ion beam irradiation techniques developed for the proton accelerator has been applied to polish the surface of molds and dies to solve the above-mentioned problems that take place during mechanical polishing. In case that ion beam polishing technique is used, we expect not only producing the high quality polished surfaces but also producing the economically valuable end-products. In this R and D project, we are aiming at establishing ion beam techniques for industrialization as well as mass production of low cost products with developing the economical instrumentation techniques. Also, as a result of this R and D it is expected that importing of precise molds and dies may be reduced and technical competitiveness will be enhanced

  20. Ion source with radiofrequency mass filter for sputtering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielanko, J.; Sowa, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Kaufman ion source with radiofrequency mass filter is described. The construction as well as operating characteristics of ion source are presented. The arrangement is suitable for range distribution measurements of implanted layers, where the sputtering rate has to be constant over the wide range of sputtering time. 4 figs., 17 refs. (author)

  1. Towards a magnetic field separation in Ion Beam Sputtering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malobabic, Sina, E-mail: s.malobabic@lzh.de [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Jupé, Marco [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany); Kadhkoda, Puja [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Ristau, Detlev [Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Quest: Centre of Quantum Engineering and Space-Time Research, Leibniz Universität Hannover (Germany)

    2015-10-01

    Defects embedded in coatings due to particle contamination are considered as a primary factor limiting the quality of optical coatings in Ion Beam Sputtering. An approach combining the conventional Ion Beam Sputtering process with a magnetic separator in order to remove these particles from film growth is presented. The separator provides a bent axial magnetic field that guides the material flux towards the substrate positioned at the exit of the separator. Since there is no line of sight between target and substrate, the separator prevents that the particles generated in the target area can reach the substrate. In this context, optical components were manufactured that reveal a particle density three times lower than optical components which were deposited using a conventional Ion Beam Sputtering process. - Highlights: • We use bent magnetic fields to guide and separate the sputtered deposition material. • No line of sight between substrate and target prevents thin films from particles. • The transport efficiency of binary and ternary oxides is investigated. • The defect statistics of manufactured dielectric ternary multilayers are evaluated. • The phase separation leads to a drastically reduction of particle contamination.

  2. Studies on ion scattering and sputtering processes relevant to ion beam sputter deposition of multicomponent thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.; Ameen, M.S.; Kingon, A.I.

    1989-01-01

    Results from computer simulation and experiments on ion scattering and sputtering processes in ion beam sputter deposition of high Tc superconducting and ferroelectric thin films are presented. It is demonstrated that scattering of neutralized ions from the targets can result in undesirable erosion of, and inert gas incorporation in, the growing films, depending on the ion/target atom ass ratio and ion beam angle of incidence/target/substrate geometry. The studies indicate that sputtering Kr + or Xe + ions is preferable to the most commonly used Ar + ions, since the undesirable phenomena mentioned above are minimized for the first two ions. These results are used to determine optimum sputter deposition geometry and ion beam parameters for growing multicomponent oxide thin films by ion beam sputter-deposition. 10 refs., 5 figs

  3. A Multi-Sample Cs-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.A.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-sample Cs sputter negative-ion source, equipped with a conical-geometry, W-surface-ionizer has been designed and fabricated that permits sample changes without disruption of on-line accelerator operation. Sample changing is effected by actuating an electro-pneumatic control system located at ground potential that drives an air-motor-driven sample-indexing-system mounted at high voltage; this arrangement avoids complications associated with indexing mechanisms that rely on electronic power-supplies located at high potential. In-beam targets are identified by LED indicator lights derived from a fiber-optic, Gray-code target-position sensor. Aspects of the overall source design and details of the indexing mechanism along with operational parameters, ion optics. intensities, and typical emittances for a variety of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  4. A Multi-Sample Cs-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Ball, J.A.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Reed, C.A.; Williams, C.

    1998-10-05

    A multi-sample Cs sputter negative-ion source, equipped with a conical-geometry, W-surface-ionizer has been designed and fabricated that permits sample changes without disruption of on-line accelerator operation. Sample changing is effected by actuating an electro-pneumatic control system located at ground potential that drives an air-motor-driven sample-indexing-system mounted at high voltage; this arrangement avoids complications associated with indexing mechanisms that rely on electronic power-supplies located at high potential. In-beam targets are identified by LED indicator lights derived from a fiber-optic, Gray-code target-position sensor. Aspects of the overall source design and details of the indexing mechanism along with operational parameters, ion optics. intensities, and typical emittances for a variety of negative-ion species will be presented in this report.

  5. Sputtering of silicon and glass substrates with polyatomic molecular ion beams generated from ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuaki, E-mail: m-takeuchi@kuee.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Hoshide, Yuki; Ryuto, Hiromichi; Takaoka, Gikan H. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The effect of irradiating 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium positive (EMIM{sup +}) or dicyanamide negative (DCA{sup –}) ion beams using an ionic liquid ion source was characterized concerning its sputtering properties for single crystalline Si(100) and nonalkaline borosilicate glass substrates. The irradiation of the DCA{sup –} ion beam onto the Si substrate at an acceleration voltage of 4 and 6 kV exhibited detectable sputtered depths greater than a couple of nanometers with an ion fluence of only 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}, while the EMIM{sup +} ion beam produced the same depths with an ion fluence 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. The irradiation of a 4 kV DCA{sup –} ion beam at a fluence of 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} also yields large etching depths in Si substrates, corresponding to a sputtering yield of Si/DCA{sup – }= 10, and exhibits a smoothed surface roughness of 0.05 nm. The interaction between DCA{sup –} and Si likely causes a chemical reaction that relates to the high sputtering yield and forms an amorphous C-N capping layer that results in the smooth surface. Moreover, sputtering damage by the DCA{sup –} irradiation, which was estimated by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy with the channeling technique, was minimal compared to Ar{sup +} irradiation at the same condition. In contrast, the glass substrates exhibited no apparent change in surface roughnesses when sputtered by the DCA{sup –} irradiation compared to the unirradiated glass substrates.

  6. Development of ion beam sputtering techniques for actinide target preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, W. S.; Zevenbergen, L. A.; Adair, H. L.

    1985-06-01

    Ion beam sputtering is a routine method for the preparation of thin films used as targets because it allows the use of a minimum quantity of starting material, and losses are much lower than most other vacuum deposition techniques. Work is underway in the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at ORNL to develop the techniques that will make the preparation of actinide targets up to 100 μg/cm 2 by ion beam sputtering a routinely available service from IRML. The preparation of the actinide material in a form suitable for sputtering is a key to this technique, as is designing a sputtering system that allows the flexibility required for custom-ordered target production. At present, development work is being conducted on low-activity actinides in a bench-top system. The system will then be installed in a hood or glove box approved for radioactive materials handling where processing of radium, actinium, and plutonium isotopes among others will be performed.

  7. Influence of ion source configuration and its operation parameters on the target sputtering and implantation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalnov, K V; Kukhta, V R; Uemura, K; Ito, Y

    2012-06-01

    In the work, investigation of the features and operation regimes of sputter enhanced ion-plasma source are presented. The source is based on the target sputtering with the dense plasma formed in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. It allows operation with noble or reactive gases at low pressure discharge regimes, and, the resulting ion beam is the mixture of ions from the working gas and sputtering target. Any conductive material, such as metals, alloys, or compounds, can be used as the sputtering target. Effectiveness of target sputtering process with the plasma was investigated dependently on the gun geometry, plasma parameters, and the target bias voltage. With the applied accelerating voltage from 0 to 20 kV, the source can be operated in regimes of thin film deposition, ion-beam mixing, and ion implantation. Multi-component ion beam implantation was applied to α-Fe, which leads to the surface hardness increasing from 2 GPa in the initial condition up to 3.5 GPa in case of combined N(2)-C implantation. Projected range of the implanted elements is up to 20 nm with the implantation energy 20 keV that was obtained with XPS depth profiling.

  8. Specific power reduction of an ion source due to heating and cathode sputtering of electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.U.; Semashko, N.N.

    The potentialities and limitations of the water-cooled ion-optical system of the ion source designed for continuous operation of the high-power neutral beam injector are determined. The following problems are analyzed: thermal expansion and deformation of electrodes, electrode sputtering as a result of bombardment, and heat transfer to turbulent flow of water

  9. Development of neutral beam source using electron beam excited plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Yasuhiro; Hamagaki, Manabu; Mise, Takaya; Hara, Tamio

    2011-01-01

    A low-energy neutral beam (NB) source, which consists of an electron-beam-excited plasma (EBEP) source and two carbon electrodes, has been developed for damageless etching of ultra-large-scale integrated (ULSI) devices. It has been confirmed that the Ar ion beam energy was controlled by the acceleration voltage and the beam profile had good uniformity over the diameter of 80 mm. Dry etching of a Si wafer at the floating potential has been carried out by Ar NB. Si sputtering yield by an Ar NB clearly depends on the acceleration voltage. This result shows that the NB has been generated through the charge exchange reaction from the ion beam in the process chamber. (author)

  10. Improving depth resolutions in positron beam spectroscopy by concurrent ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Marco; Dalla, Ayham; Ibrahim, Alaa M.; Anwand, Wolfgang; Wagner, Andreas; Böttger, Roman; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard

    2018-05-01

    The depth resolution of mono-energetic positron annihilation spectroscopy using a positron beam is shown to improve by concurrently removing the sample surface layer during positron beam spectroscopy. During ion-beam sputtering with argon ions, Doppler-broadening spectroscopy is performed with energies ranging from 3 keV to 5 keV allowing for high-resolution defect studies just below the sputtered surface. With this technique, significantly improved depth resolutions could be obtained even at larger depths when compared to standard positron beam experiments which suffer from extended positron implantation profiles at higher positron energies. Our results show that it is possible to investigate layered structures with a thickness of about 4 microns with significantly improved depth resolution. We demonstrated that a purposely generated ion-beam induced defect profile in a silicon sample could be resolved employing the new technique. A depth resolution of less than 100 nm could be reached.

  11. Pattern evolution during ion beam sputtering; reductionistic view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.-H.; Kim, J.-S., E-mail: jskim@sm.ac.kr

    2016-09-15

    The development of the ripple pattern during the ion beam sputtering (IBS) is expounded via the evolution of its constituent ripples. For that purpose, we perform numerical simulation of the ripple evolution that is based on Bradley–Harper model and its non-linear extension. The ripples are found to evolve via various well-defined processes such as ripening, averaging, bifurcation and their combinations, depending on their neighboring ripples. Those information on the growth kinetics of each ripple allow the detailed description of the pattern development in real space that the instability argument and the diffraction study both made in k-space cannot provide.

  12. Superconducting oxide thin films by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobrin, P.H.; DeNatale, J.F.; Housley, R.M.; Flintoff, J.F.; Harker, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of ternary copper oxides from the Y-Ba-Cu-O and La-Sr-Cu-O systems have been deposited by ion beam sputtering of ceramic targets. Crystallographic orientation of the polycrystalline films has been shown to vary with substrate identity, deposition temperature and annealing temperature. The onset of the superconductive transition occurs near 90K in the Y-Ba-Cu-O system. Fe impurities of < 0.2% have been found to inhibit the superconducting transition, probably by migrating to the grain boundaries

  13. Nanofabrication by ion-beam sputtering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Som, Tapobrata

    2012-01-01

    Considerable attention has been paid to ion beam sputtering as an effective way to fabricate self-organized nano-patterns on various substrates. The significance of this method for patterning surfaces is that the technique is fast, simple, and less expensive. The possibility to create patterns on very large areas at once makes it even more attractive. This book reviews various fascinating results, understand the underlying physics of ion induced pattern formation, to highlight the potential applications of the patterned surfaces, and to explore the patterning behavior by different irradiation

  14. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  15. Influence of ion beam and geometrical parameters on properties of Si thin films grown by Ar ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundesmann, Carsten; Feder, Rene; Neumann, Horst [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung e.V., Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Ion beam sputtering (IBS) offers, in contrast to other physical vapour deposition techniques, such as magnetron sputtering or electron beam evaporation, the opportunity to change the properties of the layer forming particles (sputtered and scattered particles) by varying ion beam parameters (ion species, ion energy) and geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, emission angle). Consequently, these effects can be utilized to tailor thin film properties [1]. The goal is to study systematically the correlations between the primary and secondary parameters and, at last, the effects on the properties of Si thin films, such as optical properties, stress, surface topography and composition. First experimental results are presented for Ar-ion sputtering of Si.

  16. Particle beam source development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Electron beam research directed toward providing improved in-diode pinched beam sources and establishing the efficiency and feasibility for superposition of many beams progressed in three major areas. Focusing stability has been improved from large effective aspect ratio (radius/gap of emitting surface) diodes. Substantial progress toward establishing the feasibility of combining beams guided along ionized current-carrying channels has been made. Two beams have been transported and overlayed on a target. Theoretical and experimental measurements on channel formation have resulted in specifications for the capacitor bank channel initiation system for a 12-beam combination experiment on Proto II. An additional area of beam research has been the development of a small pulsed X-ray source to yield high quality flash X-radiography of pellets. A source yielding approximately 100-μm resolution of objects has been demonstrated and work continues to improve the convenience and reliability of this source. The effort to extend the capability of higher power conventional pulse power generators to accelerate ions (rather than electrons), and assess the feasibility of this technology variation for target experiments and reactors has progressed. Progress toward development of a multistage accelerator for ions with pulse power technology centered on development of a new laboratory facility and design and procurement of hardware for a five-stage test apparatus for the Pulslac concept

  17. The installation of a sputter cone ion source for the production of tritium ion beams at the Minnesota M.P. tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhurst, J.H.; Blair, J.M.; Brown, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    A description of the techniques developed for the utilization of a radioactive material in an ion source within the environment of a nuclear physics laboratory. The precautions taken to control the spread of contamination, to minimize the radioactive material inventory and to effect routine maintenance are described

  18. Characterization of Niobium Oxide Films Deposited by High Target Utilization Sputter Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, R; Ellis, A D; Loomis, G E; Rana, S I

    2007-01-01

    High quality, refractory metal, oxide coatings are required in a variety of applications such as laser optics, micro-electronic insulating layers, nano-device structures, electro-optic multilayers, sensors and corrosion barriers. A common oxide deposition technique is reactive sputtering because the kinetic mechanism vaporizes almost any solid material in vacuum. Also, the sputtered molecules have higher energies than those generated from thermal evaporation, and so the condensates are smoother and denser than those from thermally-evaporated films. In the typical sputtering system, target erosion is a factor that drives machine availability. In some situations such as nano-layered capacitors, where the device's performance characteristics depends on thick layers, target life becomes a limiting factor on the maximizing device functionality. The keen interest to increase target utilization in sputtering has been addressed in a variety of ways such as target geometry, rotating magnets, and/or shaped magnet arrays. Also, a recent sputtering system has been developed that generates a high density plasma, directs the plasma beam towards the target in a uniform fashion, and erodes the target in a uniform fashion. The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare niobia films deposited by two types of high target utilization sputtering sources, a rotating magnetron and a high density plasma source. The oxide of interest in this study is niobia because of its high refractive index. The quality of the niobia films were characterized spectroscopically in optical transmission, ellipsometrically, and chemical stoichiometry with X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The refractive index, extinction coefficients, Cauchy constants were derived from the ellipsometric modeling. The mechanical properties of coating density and stress are also determined

  19. Surfactant Sputtering: Theory of a new method of surface nanostructuring by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kree, R.; Yasseri, T.; Hartmann, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new Monte Carlo model and a new continuum theory of surface pattern formation due to 'surfactant sputtering', i.e. erosion by ion beam sputtering including a submonolayer coverage of additional, co-sputtered surfactant atoms. This setup, which has been realized in recent experiments in a controlled way leads to a number of interesting possibilities to modify pattern forming processing conditions. We will present three simple scenarios, which illustrate some potential applications of the method. In all three cases, simple Bradley-Harper type ripples appear in the absence of surfactant, whereas new, interesting structures emerge during surfactant sputtering.

  20. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziani, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France); Delmotte, F., E-mail: Franck.Delmotte@InstitutOptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Le Paven-Thivet, C. [Institut d' Electronique et de Télécommunications de Rennes (IETR) UMR-CNRS 6164, Université de Rennes 1, UEB, IUT Saint Brieuc, 18 rue Henri Wallon, 22004 Saint Brieuc cedex France (France); Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Roulliay, M. [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay UMR 8214, Univ Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay France (France); Bridou, F. [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, 2 Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau cedex France (France); Gasc, K. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse (France)

    2014-02-03

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B{sub 4}C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source.

  1. Ion beam sputtered aluminum based multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet solar imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziani, A.; Delmotte, F.; Le Paven-Thivet, C.; Meltchakov, E.; Jérome, A.; Roulliay, M.; Bridou, F.; Gasc, K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, synthesis and characterization of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors for solar imaging applications in the spectral range 17 nm–34 nm. This research is carried out in the context of the preparation of the European Space Agency Solar Orbiter mission. The purpose of this study consists in optimizing the deposition of Al-based multilayers by ion beam sputtering according to several parameters such as the ion beam current and the sputtering angle. After optimization of Al thin films, several kinds of Al-based multilayer mirrors have been compared. We have deposited and characterized bi-material and also tri-material periodic multilayers: aluminum/molybdenum [Al/Mo], aluminum/molybdenum/boron carbide [Al/Mo/B 4 C] and aluminum/molybdenum/silicon carbide [Al/Mo/SiC]. Best experimental results have been obtained on Al/Mo/SiC samples: we have measured reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm and 27.5% at 28.2 nm on a synchrotron radiation source. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of extreme ultraviolet interferential mirrors. • Optimization of aluminum thin films by adjusting several deposition parameters. • Comparison of results obtained with different types of Al-based multilayer mirrors. • Reflectivity up to 48% at 17.3 nm on a synchrotron radiation source

  2. Simulating discrete models of pattern formation by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Alexander K; Kree, Reiner; Yasseri, Taha

    2009-01-01

    A class of simple, (2+1)-dimensional, discrete models is reviewed, which allow us to study the evolution of surface patterns on solid substrates during ion beam sputtering (IBS). The models are based on the same assumptions about the erosion process as the existing continuum theories. Several distinct physical mechanisms of surface diffusion are added, which allow us to study the interplay of erosion-driven and diffusion-driven pattern formation. We present results from our own work on evolution scenarios of ripple patterns, especially for longer timescales, where nonlinear effects become important. Furthermore we review kinetic phase diagrams, both with and without sample rotation, which depict the systematic dependence of surface patterns on the shape of energy depositing collision cascades after ion impact. Finally, we discuss some results from more recent work on surface diffusion with Ehrlich-Schwoebel barriers as the driving force for pattern formation during IBS and on Monte Carlo simulations of IBS with codeposition of surfactant atoms.

  3. Novel uses of a wide beam saddle field ion source for producing targets used in nuclear physics experiments at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The wide beam ion sputter source has several unique characteristics which make it very useful for producing, reducing the thickness or cleaning the surface of targets needed for nuclear physics experiments. A discussion of these techniques as well as the sputter source characteristics will be given. Sputter yields obtained utilizing the source are presented for a variety of materials common to nuclear target production

  4. CH2 molecular beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, R.A.R.; Grosser, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    A molecular beam source of CH 2 is described. Coaxial beams of methylene halide and alkali metal react and the mixture is formed into a molecular beam. Passage through a mechanical velocity selector rotating at a suitably high speed purifies the beam, separating light, fast CH 2 from heavier, slower contaminating species

  5. Developments in broad-beam, ion-source technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, H.R.; Harper, J.M.E.; Cuomo, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Recent advances in broad-beam, ion-source technology are summarized, including low-energy ion optics, improved extraction grid fabrication, a compact ion-source design and a gridless ion-source design. Recent applications have emphasized concepts such as stress modification of vapor deposited films, very low energy ion beams to minimize the physical sputtering portion in reactive etching, and the use of multiple sources and targets to sputter deposit alloys and compounds. A comprehensive critical review by the same authors appears concurrently, describing in detail the developments in broad-beam, ion-source technology 1 and the applications of these sources. 2

  6. A high-intensity plasma-sputter heavy negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mori, Y.; Takagi, A.; Ueno, A.; Fukumoto, S.

    1989-01-01

    A multicusp magnetic field plasma surface ion source, normally used for H/sup /minus//ion beam formation, has been modified for the generation of high-intensity, pulsed, heavy negative ion beams suitable for a variety of uses. To date, the source has been utilized to produce mA intensity pulsed beams of more than 24 species. A brief description of the source, and basic pulsed-mode operational data, (e.g., intensity versus cesium oven temperature, sputter probe voltage, and discharge pressure), are given. In addition, illustrative examples of intensity versus time and the mass distributions of ion beams extracted from a number of samples along with emittance data, are also presented. Preliminary results obtained during dc operation of the source under low discharge power conditions suggest that sources of this type may also be used to produce high-intensity (mA) dc beams. The results of these investigations are given, as well, and the technical issues that must be addressed for this mode of operation are discussed. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Orientation-dependent ion beam sputtering at normal incidence conditions in FeSiAl alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batic, Barbara Setina; Jenko, Monika

    2010-01-01

    The authors have performed Ar+ broad ion beam sputtering of a polycrystalline Fe-Si-Al alloy at normal incidence at energies varying from 6 to 10 keV. Sputtering results in the formation of etch pits, which can be classified in three shapes: triangular, rectangular, and square. As each grain of individual orientation exhibits a certain type of pattern, the etch pits were correlated with the crystal orientations by electron backscattered diffraction technique.

  8. Characterization of copper thin films prepared by metal self-ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Amioka, Takao; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Junzo

    1994-01-01

    New deposition technique, 'metal-ion beam self-sputtering' method has been developed. Using metal ions which is the same element with the target material, no contamination with noble gas atoms, which are often used in the conventional sputtering, will occur. In this paper, fundamental measurement of the film purity is reported. As a result of PIXE measurements, it was clarified that only slight amount of iron is incorporated in the films. (author)

  9. Ion beam and dual ion beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1994-11-01

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual ion beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. Optical properties ie refractive index and extinction coefficient of IBS films were determined in the 250 - 1100 nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n equals 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS ie deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 - 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 - 40 (mu) A/cm2) showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy while composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford scattering spectroscopy. Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target while assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals 35 (mu) A/cm2. All

  10. Ion-beam and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition of tantalum oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevro, Mirza; Carter, George

    1995-02-01

    Ion-beam sputter deposition (IBS) and dual-ion-beam sputter deposition (DIBS) of tantalum oxide films was investigated at room temperature and compared with similar films prepared by e-gun deposition. The optical properties, i.e., refractive index and extinction coefficient, of IBS films were determined in the 250- to 1100-nm range by transmission spectrophotometry and at (lambda) equals 632.8 nm by ellipsometry. They were found to be mainly sensitive to the partial pressure of oxygen used as a reactive gas in the deposition process. The maximum value of the refractive index of IBS deposited tantalum oxide films was n equals 2.15 at (lambda) equals 550 nm and the extinction coefficient of order k equals 2 X 10-4. Films deposited by e-gun deposition had refractive index n 2.06 at (lambda) equals 550 nm. Films deposited using DIBS, i.e., deposition assisted by low energy Ar and O2 ions (Ea equals 0 to 300 eV) and low current density (Ji equals 0 to 40 (mu) A/cm2), showed no improvement in the optical properties of the films. Preferential sputtering occurred at Ea(Ar) equals 300 eV and Ji equals 20 (mu) A/cm2 and slightly oxygen deficient films were formed. Different bonding states in the tantalum-oxide films were determined by x-ray spectroscopy, whereas composition of the film and contaminants were determined by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). Tantalum oxide films formed by IBS contained relatively high Ar content (approximately equals 2.5%) originating from the reflected argon neutrals from the sputtering target whereas assisted deposition slightly increased the Ar content. Stress in the IBS-deposited films was measured by the bending technique. IBS-deposited films showed compressive stress with a typical value of s equals 3.2 X 109 dyn/cm2. Films deposited by concurrent ion bombardment showed an increase in the stress as a function of applied current density. The maximum was s approximately equals 5.6 X 109 dyn/cm2 for Ea equals 300 eV and Ji equals

  11. Ion beam sputtering of Ti: Influence of process parameters on angular and energy distribution of sputtered and backscattered particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lautenschläger, T. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Feder, R., E-mail: thomas.lautenschlaeger@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Neumann, H. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Rice, C.; Schubert, M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Center for Nanohybrid Functional Materials, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Bundesmann, C. [Leibniz-Institute of Surface Modification, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam sputter deposition under systematic variation of process parameters. • Angular and energy distribution of secondary particles. • Interaction between incorporated and impinging process gas. • Measured data compared with simulations. - Abstract: In the present study, the influence of ion energy and geometrical parameters onto the angular and energy distribution of secondary particles for sputtering a Ti target with Ar ions is investigated. The angular distribution of the particle flux of the sputtered Ti atoms was determined by the collection method, i.e. by growing Ti films and measuring their thickness. The formal description of the particle flux can be realized by dividing it into an isotropic and an anisotropic part. The experimental data show that increasing the ion energy or decreasing the ion incidence angle lead to an increase of the isotropic part, which is in good agreement with basic sputtering theory. The energy distribution of the secondary ions was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. The energy distribution of the sputtered target ions shows a maximum at an energy between 10 eV and 20 eV followed by a decay proportional to E{sup −n}, which is in principle in accordance with Thompson’s theory, followed by a high energetic tail. When the sum of incidence angle and emission angle is increased, the high-energetic tail expands to higher energies and an additional peak due to direct sputtering events may occur. In the case of backscattered primary Ar ions, a maximum at an energy between 5 eV and 10 eV appears and, depending on the scattering geometry, an additional broad peak at a higher energy due to direct scattering events is observed. The center energy of the additional structure shifts systematically to higher energies with decreasing scattering angle or increasing ion energy. The experimental results are compared to calculations based on simple elastic two-particle-interaction theory and to

  12. Influence of source parameters on the growth of metal nanoparticles by sputter-gas-aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Malak; Kresin, Vitaly V.

    2017-11-01

    We describe the production of size-selected manganese nanoclusters using a magnetron sputtering/aggregation source. Since nanoparticle production is sensitive to a range of overlapping operating parameters (in particular, the sputtering discharge power, the inert gas flow rates, and the aggregation length), we focus on a detailed map of the influence of each parameter on the average nanocluster size. In this way, it is possible to identify the main contribution of each parameter to the physical processes taking place within the source. The discharge power and argon flow supply the metal vapor, and argon also plays a crucial role in the formation of condensation nuclei via three-body collisions. However, the argon flow and the discharge power have a relatively weak effect on the average nanocluster size in the exiting beam. Here the defining role is played by the source residence time, governed by the helium supply (which raises the pressure and density of the gas column inside the source, resulting in more efficient transport of nanoparticles to the exit) and by the aggregation path length.

  13. Anode sputtering characteristics of the Berkeley 2.5 MV source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, B.

    1975-10-01

    An investigation was made of a number of parameters affecting the performance of the SuperHILAC 2.5 MV Adam injector source. The description will emphasize anode sputtered materials, and will discuss in some detail calcium and gold ion production. Parameters varied include electrode geometry, support gas type and electrode bias, to optimize beam intensity and electrode consumption. A factor of three improvement with high n + gold ions appears evident with a new displaced electrode geometry. The source is operated in cold mode, is pulsed and operates usually at less than 0.6 amperes average current. Under these conditions source life has been measured to be sixteen hours at 25 percent duty factor when generating calcium ions with neon support gas

  14. Estimation of Sputtering Damages on a Magnetron H- Ion Source Induced by Cs+ and H+ Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Alessi, J; Kalvas, t

    2013-01-01

    An H− ion source is being developed for CERN’s Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99% during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H− beams in the extraction region of BNL’s magnetron ion source. The respective contributions o...

  15. Study on the Deposition Rate Depending on Substrate Position by Using Ion Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yonggi; Kim, Bomsok; Lee, Jaesang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ion beams have been used for over thirty years to modify materials in manufacturing of integrated circuits, and improving the corrosion properties of surfaces. Recently, the requirements for ion beam processes are becoming especially challenging in the following areas : ultra shallow junction formation for LSI fabrication, low damage high rate ion beam sputtering and smoothing, high quality functional surface treatment for electrical and optical properties. Ion beam sputtering is an attractive technology for the deposition of thin film coatings onto a broad variety of polymer, Si-wafer, lightweight substrates. Demand for the decoration metal is increasing. In addition, lightweight of parts is important, because of energy issues in the industries. Although a lot of researches have been done with conventional PVD methods for the deposition of metal or ceramic films on the surface of the polymer, there are still adhesion problems.

  16. Impurity radiation from a beam-plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Impurity radiation, in a worst case evaluation for a beam-plasma neutron source (BPNS), does not limit performance. Impurities originate from four sources: (a) sputtering from walls by charge exchange or alpha particle bombardment, (b) sputtering from limiters, (c) plasma desorption of gas from walls and (d) injection with neutral beams. Sources (c) and (d) are negligible; adsorbed gas on the walls of the confinement chamber and the neutral beam sources is removed by the steady state discharge. Source (b) is negligible for impinging ion energies below the sputtering threshold (T i ≤ 0.025 keV on tungsten) and for power densities to the limiter within the capabilities of water cooling (30-40 MW/m 2 ); both conditions can be satisfied in the BPNS. Source (a) radiates 0.025 MW/m 2 to the neutron irradiation samples, compared with 5 to 10 MW/m 2 of neutrons; and radiates a total of 0.08 MW from the plasma column, compared with 60 MW of injected power. The particle bombardment that yields source (a) deposits an average of 2.7 MW/m 2 on the samples, within the capabilities of helium gas cooling (10 MW/m 2 ). An additional worst case for source (d) is evaluated for present day 2 to 5 s pulsed neutral beams with 0.1% impurity density and is benchmarked against 2XIIB. The total radiation would increase a factor of 1.5 to ≤ 0.12 MW, supporting the conclusion that impurities will not have a significant impact on a BPN. (author). 61 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Effect of Wall Material on H– Production in a Plasma Sputter-Type Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. M. Ponce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall material on negative hydrogen ion (H– production was investigated in a multicusp plasma sputter-type ion source (PSTIS. Steady-state cesium-seeded hydrogen plasma was generated by a tungsten filament, while H– was produced through surface production using a molybdenum sputter target. Plasma parameters and H– yields were determined from Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements, respectively. At an input hydrogen pressure of 1.2 mTorr and optimum plasma discharge parameters Vd = –90 V and Id = –2.25 A, the plasma parameters ne was highest and T–e was lowest as determined from Langmuir probe measurements. At these conditions, aluminum generates the highest ion current density of 0.01697 mA/cm2, which is 64% more than the 0.01085 mA/cm2 that stainless steel produces. The yield of copper, meanwhile, falls between the two materials at 0.01164 mA/cm2. The beam is maximum at Vt = –125 V. Focusing is achieved at VL = –70 V for stainless steel, Vt = –60 V for aluminum, and Vt = –50 V for copper. The results demonstrate that proper selection of wall material can greatly enhance the H– production of the PSTIS.

  18. Multilayered nanostructured coverings generated by a method of ion beam sputtering in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'yushenko, A.F.; Andreev, M.A.; Markova, L.V.; Lisovskaya, Yu. O.

    2013-01-01

    Technological process of the formation of multilayered coverings by ion -beam sputtering is developed. At research of samples by method of AFM it is established, that the heating of a substrate leads to formation of rather large grains up to 100 nanometers in size, consisting of dispersed subgrains in the size 10-25 nanometers. The obtained results allow to say that in the course of formation of coverings interphase borders of section in one layer and section border between coat layers are formed. The use of a method of Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis (EBSD) has helped to confirm that the at ion-beam sputtering, ultrafine diamonds remain their diamond-like structure when migrating to the surface of the coating. It is found that with increasing number of monolayers coating microhardness increases. However, this relationship is described by a nonlinear and exponential model. (authors)

  19. Lead-silicate glass surface sputtered by an argon cluster ion beam investigated by XPS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Josef; Jiříček, Petr; Houdková, Jana; Jurek, Karel; Gedeon, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 469, Aug (2017), s. 1-6 ISSN 0022-3093 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015088; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12580S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : lead-silicate glass * XPS * BO * NBO * Argon duster ion beam sputtering * X-ray irradiation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 2.124, year: 2016

  20. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Bejšovec, Václav; Vacík, Jiří; Lavrentiev, Vasyl; Vrňata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Daniš, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 389, DEC (2016), s. 751-759 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Copper oxide * ion beam sputtering * Van der Pauw * nuclear reaction analysis * gas sensing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  1. Simulation and beam line experiments for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, Damon S.; Leitner, Daniela; Grote, David P.; Lyneis, ClaudeM.

    2007-01-01

    The particle-in-cell code Warp has been enhanced to incorporate both two- and three-dimensional sheath extraction models giving Warp the capability of simulating entire ion beam transport systems including the extraction of beams from plasma sources. In this article we describe a method of producing initial ion distributions for plasma extraction simulations in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources based on experimentally measured sputtering on the source biased disc. Using this initialization method, we present preliminary results for extraction and transport simulations of an oxygen beam and compare them with experimental beam imaging on a quartz viewing plate for the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

  2. Systematic investigations of low energy Ar ion beam sputtering of Si and Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R., E-mail: rene.feder@iom-leipzig.de [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Frost, F.; Neumann, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Ion beam sputter deposition (IBD) delivers some intrinsic features influencing the growing film properties, because ion properties and geometrical process conditions generate different energy and spatial distributions of the sputtered and scattered particles. Even though IBD has been used for decades, the full capabilities are not investigated systematically and specifically used yet. Therefore, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the correlation between the properties of the ion beam, the generated secondary particles and backscattered ions and the deposited films needs to be done. A vacuum deposition chamber has been set up which allows ion beam sputtering of different targets under variation of geometrical parameters (ion incidence angle, position of substrates and analytics in respect to the target) and of ion beam parameters (ion species, ion energy) to perform a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the correlation between the properties of the ion beam, the properties of the sputtered and scattered particles, and the properties of the deposited films. A set of samples was prepared and characterized with respect to selected film properties, such as thickness and surface topography. The experiments indicate a systematic influence of the deposition parameters on the film properties as hypothesized before. Because of this influence, the energy distribution of secondary particles was measured using an energy-selective mass spectrometer. Among others, experiments revealed a high-energetic maximum for backscattered primary ions, which shifts with increasing emission angle to higher energies. Experimental data are compared with Monte Carlo simulations done with the well-known Transport and Range of Ions in Matter, Sputtering version (TRIM.SP) code [J.P. Biersack, W. Eckstein, Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 34 (1984) 73]. The thicknesses of the films are in good agreement with those calculated from simulated particle fluxes. For the positions of the

  3. High intensity negative proton beams from a SNICS ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, C.R.; Hollander, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    For the past year we have been involved in a project to develop an intense (> 100μA) negative proton beam from a SNICS (Source of Negative Ions by Cesium Sputtering) ion source. This report will cover how we accomplished and exceeded this goal by more than 40%. Included in these observations will be the following: A description of an effective method for making titanium hydride cathodes. How to overcome the limitations of the titanium hydride cathode. The modification of the SNICS source to improve output; including the installation of the conical ionizer and the gas cathode. A discussion of problems including: poisoning the proton beam with oxygen, alternative gas cathode materials, the clogging of the gas inlet, long burn-in times, and limited cathode life times. Finally, how to optimize source performance when using a gas cathode, and what is the mechanism by which a gas cathode operates; facts, fantasies, or myth

  4. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Holmes, S.; McCarthy, J.; Webber, R.

    1984-05-01

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x10 9 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x10 7 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  5. Growth and surface morphology of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Ambati Pulla; Sunandana, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Titanium-nickel thin films have been deposited on float glass substrates by ion beam sputtering in 100% pure argon atmosphere. Sputtering is predominant at energy region of incident ions, 1000 eV to 100 keV. The as-deposited films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscope (AFM). In this paper we attempted to study the surface morphology and elemental composition through AFM and XPS, respectively. Core level as well as valence band spectra of ion-beam sputtered Ti-Ni thin films at various Ar gas rates (5, 7 and 12 sccm) show that the thin film deposited at 3 sccm possess two distinct peaks at binding energies 458.55 eV and 464.36 eV mainly due to TiO 2 . Upon increasing Ar rate oxidation of Ti-Ni is reduced and the Ti-2p peaks begin approaching those of pure elemental Ti. Here Ti-2p peaks are observed at binding energy positions of 454.7 eV and 460.5 eV. AFM results show that the average grain size and roughness decrease, upon increasing Ar gas rate, from 2.90 μm to 0.096 μm and from 16.285 nm to 1.169 nm, respectively

  6. Differential ion beam sputtering of segregated phases in aluminum casting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Chuong L.; Wirtz, Tom; Fleming, Yves; Metson, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Novel combination of SIMS and SPM for accurate 3D chemical mapping. ► Different removal rates of metallurgical phases by ion beam. ► Faster oxidation rate of silicon vs. aluminum at room temperature in vacuum. - Abstract: Differential sputtering of materials is an important phenomenon in materials science with many implications. One of the practical applications of this phenomenon is the modification of the interface between a substrate and coating during sputter coating of materials. Aluminum casting alloys, as common materials in many applications, are suitable candidates to investigate this phenomenon due to their phase separated microstructures. Changes at the sample surface under ion bombardment can be characterized by a range of complimentary techniques. The novel SIMS–SPM instrument used here enables a thorough investigation into the evolution of topography and composition caused by ion beam sputtering. For the alloy examined in this work, the aluminum regions are removed faster than the silicon particles. The faster oxidation rate of silicon compared to aluminum in the exposed surface can also be deduced from this study.

  7. Stoichiometry of Silicon Dioxide Films Obtained by Ion-Beam Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesh, E. V.; Dostanko, A. P.; Gurevich, O. V.

    2018-03-01

    The composition of SiOx films produced by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) of silicon and quartz targets were studied by infrared spectrometry. Films with thicknesses of 150-390 nm were formed on silicon substrates. It was found that increase in the partial pressure of oxygen in the working gas, increase in the temperature of the substrate, and the presence of a positive potential on the target during reactive IBS of silicon shifted the main absorption band νas into the high-frequency region and increased the composition index from 1.41 to 1.85. During IBS of a quartz target the stoichiometry of the films deteriorates with increase of the energy of the sputtering argon ions. This may be due to increase of the deposition rate. Increase in the current of the thermionic compensator, increase of the substrate temperature, and addition of oxygen led to the formation of SiOx films with improved stoichiometry.

  8. Nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by dual ion-beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Pilar; Ruiz, Patricia; Ferrer, Isabel J.; Figuera, Juan de la; Marco, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have grown tensile and compressive strained nanocrystalline magnetite thin films by dual ion beam sputtering. • The magnetic and thermoelectric properties can be controlled by the deposition conditions. • The magnetic anisotropy depends on the crystalline grain size. • The thermoelectric properties depend on the type of strain induced in the films. • In plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy develops in magnetite thin films with grain sizes ⩽20 nm. - Abstract: We have explored the influence of an ion-assisted beam in the thermoelectric and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline magnetite thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering. The microstructure has been investigated by XRD. Tensile and compressive strained thin films have been obtained as a function of the parameters of the ion-assisted beam. The evolution of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy was attributed to crystalline grain size. In some films, magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements reveal the existence of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy induced by the deposition process related with a small grain size (⩽20 nm). Isotropic magnetic properties have observed in nanocrystalline magnetite thin film having larger grain sizes. The largest power factor of all the films prepared (0.47 μW/K 2 cm), obtained from a Seebeck coefficient of −80 μV/K and an electrical resistivity of 13 mΩ cm, is obtained in a nanocrystalline magnetite thin film with an expanded out-of-plane lattice and with a grain size ≈30 nm

  9. An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichsel, T., E-mail: tim.weichsel@fep.fraunhofer.de; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T. [Fraunhofer Institute for Electron Beam and Plasma Technology, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Zschornack, G. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden, Germany and Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Kreller, M.; Silze, A. [DREEBIT GmbH, 01900 Grossroehrsdorf (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3}, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 10{sup 18} atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al{sup +} ion beam.

  10. A description of a wide beam saddle field ion source used for nuclear target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J.P.; Schiel, S.L.; Thomas, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    A description is given of a new, wide beam saddle field sputter source used for the preparation of targets applied in nuclear physics experiments. The ion source characteristics are presented and compared with published results obtained with other sources. Deposition rates acquired utilizing this source are given for a variety of target materials encountered in nuclear target production. New applications involving target thinning and ion milling are discussed

  11. Molecular dynamics and experimental studies on deposition mechanisms of ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, T.-H.; Chang, W.-J.; Lin, C.-M.; Lien, W.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and experimental methods are used to study the deposition mechanism of ionic beam sputtering (IBS), including the effects of incident energy, incident angle and deposition temperature on the growth process of nickel nanofilms. According to the simulation, the results showed that increasing the temperature of substrate decreases the surface roughness, average grain size and density. Increasing the incident angle increases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while decreasing its density. In addition, increasing the incident energy decreases the surface roughness and the average grain size of thin film, while increasing its density. For the cases of simulation, with the substrate temperature of 500 K, normal incident angle and 14.6 x 10 -17 J are appropriate, in order to obtain a smoother surface, a small grain size and a higher density of thin film. From the experimental results, the surface roughness of thin film deposited on the substrates of Si(1 0 0) and indium tin oxide (ITO) decreases with the increasing sputtering power, while the thickness of thin film shows an approximately linear increase with the increase of sputtering power

  12. ITO/InP solar cells: A comparison of devices fabricated by ion beam and RF sputtering of the ITO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, T. J.

    1987-01-01

    This work was performed with the view of elucidating the behavior of indium tin oxide/indium phosphide (ITO/InP) solar cells prepared by RF and ion beam sputtering. It was found that using RF sputter deposition of the ITO always leads to more efficient devices than ion beam sputter deposition. An important aspect of the former technique is the exposure of the single crystal p-InP substrates to a very low plasma power prior to deposition. Substrates treated in this manner have also been used for ion beam deposition of ITO. In this case the cells behave very similarly to the RF deposited cells, thus suggesting that the lower power plasma exposure (LPPE) is the crucial process step.

  13. Magnetic and structural properties of ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, S.S.; Kane, S.N.; Gupta, A.; Mazaleyrat, F.; LoBue, M.; Coisson, M.; Celegato, F.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic and structural properties of Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films, prepared by ion beam sputtering on silicon substrates by using a target made up of amorphous ribbons of nominal composition Fe 84 Zr 3.5 Nb 3.5 B 8 Cu 1 , are reported. As-deposited thin film samples exhibit an in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which can be ascribed to the preparation technique and the coupling of quenched-in internal stresses. Structural measurements indicate no significant variation of the grain size with thickness and with the annealing temperature. Increase in surface irregularities with annealing temperature and oxidation results in aggregates that would act as pinning centers, affecting the magnetic properties leading to magnetic hardening of the specimens. The role of the magnetic anisotropy is thoroughly discussed with the help of magnetic and ferromagnetic resonance measurements. - Highlights: ►Ion beam sputtered Fe–Zr–Nb–B–Cu thin films of different thickness are prepared. ►Films exhibit in-plane uniaxial anisotropy, which reduces with thermal treatments. ►Increased surface roughness leads to wall pinning, increasing the coercive field.

  14. Titanium carbide coatings on molybdenum by means of reactive sputtering and electron beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, T.; Aida, H.; Hirohata, Y.; Mohri, M.; Yamashina, T.

    1982-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation of TiC coatings on Mo substrate by means of a reactive r.f. sputtering in the presence of CH 4 and a chemical reaction with interdiffusion in the sandwich structure of Ti/C/Mo by electron beam evaporation and heating. Using the reactive sputtering method, a homogeneous TiC coating with stoichiometric composition and good adhesion could be produced in the conditions of the partial pressure range of CH 4 , 2 approx. equal to 5 x 10 -4 Torr (total pressure, Psub(Ar) + Psub(CH) 4 = 5.6 x 10 -2 Torr) at 300 0 C (substrate). By using the electron beams, successively evaporated carbon and Ti on a Mo substrate was heated to 700 0 C to form a TiC surface layer on the top which then remained stable during further heating to 1000 0 C. Godd adhesion was brought about by interdiffusion to produce Mo 2 C layer between TiC layer and Mo substrate. It was also found that further heating of the coating layers subsequent to Ti evaporation on the TiC layer produced thicker TiC layer due to a chemical reaction between Ti and inner carbon layers. This could be a promising method of in situ replenishment for TiC coatings on the first wall and the limiter materials. (orig.)

  15. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldorf, J. [IPT Ionen- und Plasmatech. GmbH, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.).

  16. Large area ion and plasma beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldorf, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the past a number of ion beam sources utilizing different methods for plasma excitation have been developed. Nevertheless, a widespread use in industrial applications has not happened, since the sources were often not able to fulfill specific demands like: broad homogeneous ion beams, compatibility with reactive gases, low ion energies at high ion current densities or electrical neutrality of the beam. Our contribution wants to demonstrate technical capabilities of rf ion and plasma beam sources, which can overcome the above mentioned disadvantages. The physical principles and features of respective sources are presented. We report on effective low pressure plasma excitation by electron cyclotron wave resonance (ECWR) for the generation of dense homogeneous plasmas and the rf plasma beam extraction method for the generation of broad low energy plasma beams. Some applications like direct plasma beam deposition of a-C:H and ion beam assisted deposition of Al and Cu with tailored thin film properties are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Gold removal rate by ion sputtering as a function of ion-beam voltage and raster size using Auger electron spectroscopy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehning, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Gold removal rate was measured as a function of ion beam voltage and raster size using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Three different gold thicknesses were developed as standards. Two sputter rate calibration curves were generated by which gold sputter rate could be determined for variations in ion beam voltage or raster size

  18. Computer simulation of scattered ion and sputtered species effects in ion beam sputter-deposition of high temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1992-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-deposition is a technique currently used by many groups to produce single and multicomponent thin films. This technique provides several advantages over other deposition methods, which include the capability for yielding higher film density, accurate stoichiometry control, and smooth surfaces. However, the relatively high kinetic energies associated with ion beam sputtering also lead to difficulties if the process is not properly controlled. Computer simulations have been performed to determine net deposition rates, as well as the secondary erosion, lattice damage, and gas implantation in the films, associated with primary ions scattered from elemental Y, Ba and Cu targets used to produce high temperature superconducting Y-Ba-Cu-O films. The simulations were performed using the TRIM code for different ion masses and kinetic energies, and different deposition geometries. Results are presented for primary beams of Ar + , Kr + and Xe + incident on Ba and Cu targets at 0 degrees and 45 degrees with respect to the surface normal, with the substrate positioned at 0 degrees and 45 degrees. The calculations indicate that the target composition, mass and kinetic energy of the primary beam, angle of incidence on the target, and position and orientation of the substrate affect the film damage and trapped primary beam gas by up to 5 orders of magnitude

  19. Stoichiometric carbon nitride synthesized by ion beam sputtering and post nitrogen ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valizadeh, R.; Colligon, J.S.; Katardiev, I.V.; Faunce, C.A.; Donnelly, S.E.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Carbon nitride films have been deposited on Si (100) by ion beam sputtering a vitreous graphite target with nitrogen and argon ions with and without concurrent N2 ion bombardment at room temperature. The sputtering beam energy was 1000 eV and the assisted beam energy was 300 eV with ion / atom arrival ratio ranging from 0.5 to 5. The carbon nitride films were deposited both as single layer directly on silicon substrate and as multilayer between two layers of stoichiometric amorphous silicon nitride and polycrystalline titanium nitride. The deposited films were implanted ex-situ with 30 keV nitrogen ions with various doses ranging from 1E17 to 4E17 ions.cm -2 and 2 GeV xenon ion with a dose of 1E12 ions.cm -2 . The nitrogen concentration of the films was measured with Rutherford Backscattering (RBS), Secondary Neutral Mass Spectrometry (SNMS) and Parallel Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (PEELS). The nitrogen concentration for as deposited sample was 34 at% and stoichiometric carbon nitride C 3 N 4 was achieved by post nitrogen implantation of the multi-layered films. Post bombardment of single layer carbon nitride films lead to reduction in the total nitrogen concentration. Carbon K edge structure obtained from PEELS analysis suggested that the amorphous C 3 N 4 matrix was predominantly sp 2 bonded. This was confirmed by Fourier Transforrn Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the single CN layer which showed the nitrogen was mostly bonded with carbon in nitrile (C≡N) and imine (C=N) groups. The microstructure of the film was determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) which indicated that the films were amorphous

  20. Distribution of Fe atom density in a dc magnetron sputtering plasma source measured by laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibagaki, K.; Nafarizal, N.; Sasaki, K.; Toyoda, H.; Iwata, S.; Kato, T.; Tsunashima, S.; Sugai, H.

    2003-10-01

    Magnetron sputtering discharge is widely used as an efficient method for thin film fabrication. In order to achieve the optimized fabrication, understanding of the kinetics in plasmas is essential. In the present work, we measured the density distribution of sputtered Fe atoms using laser-induced fluorescence imaging spectroscopy. A dc magnetron plasma source with a Fe target was used. An area of 20 × 2 mm in front of the target was irradiated by a tunable laser beam having a planar shape. The picture of laser-induced fluorescence on the laser beam was taken using an ICCD camera. In this way, we obtained the two-dimensional image of the Fe atom density. As a result, it has been found that the Fe atom density observed at a distance of several centimeters from the target is higher than that adjacent to the target, when the Ar gas pressure was relatively high. It is suggested from this result that some gas-phase production processes of Fe atoms are available in the plasma. This work has been performed under the 21st Century COE Program by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan.

  1. A directly heated electron beam line source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Masood, K.; Rafiq, M.; Chaudhry, M.A.

    2002-05-01

    A 140-mm cathode length, Electron Beam Line Source with a high degree of focusing of the beam is constructed. The design principles and basic characteristic considerations for electron beam line source consists of parallel plate electrode geometric array as well as a beam power of 35kW are worked out. The dimensions of the beam at the work site are 1.25xl00mm. The gun is designed basically for the study of evaporation and deposition characteristic of refractory metals for laboratory use. However, it may be equally used for melting and casting of these metals. (author)

  2. Low temperature mechanical dissipation of an ion-beam sputtered silica film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I W; Craig, K; Bassiri, R; Hough, J; Robie, R; Rowan, S; Nawrodt, R; Schwarz, C; Harry, G; Penn, S; Reid, S

    2014-01-01

    Thermal noise arising from mechanical dissipation in oxide mirror coatings is an important limit to the sensitivity of future gravitational wave detectors, optical atomic clocks and other precision measurement systems. Here, we present measurements of the temperature dependence of the mechanical dissipation of an ion-beam sputtered silica film between 10 and 300 K. A dissipation peak was observed at 20 K and the low temperature dissipation was found to have significantly different characteristics than observed for bulk silica and silica films deposited by alternative techniques. These results are important for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of mechanical dissipation, and thus thermal noise, in the most commonly-used reflective coatings for precision measurements. (paper)

  3. Control of surface ripple amplitude in ion beam sputtered polycrystalline cobalt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colino, Jose M., E-mail: josemiguel.colino@uclm.es [Institute of Nanoscience, Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus de la Fabrica de Armas, Toledo 45071 (Spain); Arranz, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real 13071 (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We have grown both polycrystalline and partially textured cobalt films by magnetron sputter deposition in the range of thickness (50-200 nm). Kinetic roughening of the growing film leads to a controlled rms surface roughness values (1-6 nm) increasing with the as-grown film thickness. Ion erosion of a low energy 1 keV Ar+ beam at glancing incidence (80{sup o}) on the cobalt film changes the surface morphology to a ripple pattern of nanometric wavelength. The wavelength evolution at relatively low fluency is strongly dependent on the initial surface topography (a wavelength selection mechanism hereby confirmed in polycrystalline rough surfaces and based on the shadowing instability). At sufficiently large fluency, the ripple wavelength steadily increases on a coarsening regime and does not recall the virgin surface morphology. Remarkably, the use of a rough virgin surface makes the ripple amplitude in the final pattern can be controllably increased without affecting the ripple wavelength.

  4. Electronic properties of single Ge/Si quantum dot grown by ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Ke, S Y; Yang, J; Hu, W D; Qiu, F; Wang, R F; Yang, Y

    2015-03-13

    The dependence of the electronic properties of a single Ge/Si quantum dot (QD) grown by the ion-beam sputtering deposition technique on growth temperature and QD diameter is investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM). The Si-Ge intermixing effect is demonstrated to be important for the current distribution of single QDs. The current staircase induced by the Coulomb blockade effect is observed at higher growth temperatures (>700 °C) due to the formation of an additional barrier between dislocated QDs and Si substrate for the resonant tunneling of holes. According to the proposed single-hole-tunneling model, the fact that the intermixing effect is observed to increase as the incoherent QD size decreases may explain the increase in the starting voltage of the current staircase and the decrease in the current step width.

  5. Capability of focused Ar ion beam sputtering for combinatorial synthesis of metal films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.; Haemori, M.; Chikyow, T.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the use of focused Ar ion beam sputtering (FAIS) for combinatorial synthesis. A Langmuir probe revealed that the electron temperature and density for FAIS of metal film deposition was lower than that of other major combinatorial thin film growth techniques such as pulsed laser deposition. Combining FAIS with the combinatorial method allowed the compositional fraction of the Pt-Ru binary alloy to be systematically controlled. Pt-Ru alloy metal film grew epitaxially on ZnO substrates, and crystal structures changed from the Pt phase (cubic structure) to the Ru phase (hexagonal structure) in the Pt-Ru alloy phase diagram. The alloy film has a smooth surface, with the Ru phase, in particular, showing a clear step-and-terrace structure. The combination of FAIS and the combinatorial method has major potential for the fabrication of high quality composition-spread metal film.

  6. Capability of focused Ar ion beam sputtering for combinatorial synthesis of metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, T.; Haemori, M.; Chikyow, T. [Advanced Electric Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The authors examined the use of focused Ar ion beam sputtering (FAIS) for combinatorial synthesis. A Langmuir probe revealed that the electron temperature and density for FAIS of metal film deposition was lower than that of other major combinatorial thin film growth techniques such as pulsed laser deposition. Combining FAIS with the combinatorial method allowed the compositional fraction of the Pt-Ru binary alloy to be systematically controlled. Pt-Ru alloy metal film grew epitaxially on ZnO substrates, and crystal structures changed from the Pt phase (cubic structure) to the Ru phase (hexagonal structure) in the Pt-Ru alloy phase diagram. The alloy film has a smooth surface, with the Ru phase, in particular, showing a clear step-and-terrace structure. The combination of FAIS and the combinatorial method has major potential for the fabrication of high quality composition-spread metal film.

  7. Atom beam sputtered Ag-TiO{sub 2} plasmonic nanocomposite thin films for photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jaspal; Sahu, Kavita [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India); Pandey, A. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organization, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Kumar, Mohit [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, B. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, HBNI, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Som, T.; Varma, S. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar, Odisha 751005 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313, Uttar Pradesh (India); Mohapatra, Satyabrata, E-mail: smiuac@gmail.com [School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Dwarka, NewDelhi 110078 (India)

    2017-07-31

    The development of nanocomposite coatings with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity is important for photocatalytic purification of water and air. We report on the synthesis of Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with highly enhanced photocatalytic activity by atom beam co-sputtering technique. The effects of Ag concentration on the structural, morphological, optical, plasmonic and photocatalytic properties of the nanocomposite thin films were investigated. UV–visible DRS studies revealed the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak characteristic of Ag nanoparticles together with the excitonic absorption peak originating from TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in the nanocomposites. XRD studies showed that the nanocomposite thin films consist of Ag nanoparticles and rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The synthesized Ag-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite thin films with 5 at% Ag were found to exhibit highly enhanced photocatalytic activity for sun light driven photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue in water, indicating their potential application in water purification.

  8. Optical and tribomechanical stability of optically variable interference security devices prepared by dual ion beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinörgü-Goldenberg, Eda; Baloukas, Bill; Zabeida, Oleg; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta; Martinu, Ludvik

    2011-07-01

    Optical security devices applied to banknotes and other documents are exposed to different types of harsh environments involving the cycling of temperature, humidity, chemical agents, and tribomechanical intrusion. In the present work, we study the stability of optically variable devices, namely metameric interference filters, prepared by dual ion beam sputtering onto polycarbonate and glass substrates. Specifically, we assess the color difference as well as the changes in the mechanical properties and integrity of all-dielectric and metal-dielectric systems due to exposure to bleach, detergent and acetone agents, and heat and humidity. The results underline a significant role of the substrate material, of the interfaces, and of the nature and microstructure of the deposited films in long term stability under everyday application conditions.

  9. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  10. Development of an ion-beam sputtering system for depositing thin films and multilayers of alloys and compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mukul; Gupta, Ajay; Phase, D.M.; Chaudhari, S.M.; Dasannacharya, B.A.

    2002-01-01

    An ion-beam sputtering (IBS) system has been designed and developed for preparing thin films and multilayers of various elements, alloys and compounds. The ion source used is a 3 cm diameter, hot-cathode Kaufman type 1.5 kV ion source. The system has been successfully tested with the deposition of various materials, and the deposition parameters were optimised for achieving good quality of thin films and multilayers. A systematic illustration of the versatility of the system to produce a variety of structures is done by depositing thin film of pure iron, an alloy film of Fe-Zr, a compound thin film of FeN, a multilayer of Fe-Ag and an isotopic multilayer of 57 FeZr/FeZr. Microstructural measurements on these films using X-ray and neutron reflectivity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction are presented and discussed to reveal the quality of the microstructures obtained with the system. It is found that in general, the surface roughnesses of the film deposited by IBS are significantly smaller as compared to those for films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Further, the grain size of the IBS crystalline films is significantly refined as compared to the films deposited by e-beam evaporation. Grain refinement may be one of the reasons for reduced surface roughness. In the case of amorphous films, the roughness of the films does not increase appreciably beyond that of the substrate even after depositing thicknesses of several hundred angstroms

  11. Comparative analysis of electrophysical properties of ceramic tantalum pentoxide coatings, deposited by electron beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkov, N.; Mateev, E.; Safonov, V.; Zykova, A.; Yakovin, S.; Kolesnikov, D.; Sudzhanskaya, I.; Goncharov, I.; Georgieva, V.

    2014-12-01

    Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have been deposited on glass substrates by e-beam evaporation and magnetron sputtering methods. For the magnetron sputtering process Ta target was used. X-ray diffraction measurements show that these coatings are amorphous. XPS survey spectra of the ceramic Ta2O5 coatings were obtained. All spectra consist of well-defined XPS lines of Ta 4f, 4d, 4p and 4s; O 1s; C 1s. Ta 4f doublets are typical for Ta2O5 coatings with two main peaks. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images of the e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have revealed a relatively flat surface with no cracks. The dielectric properties of the tantalum pentoxide coatings have been investigated in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical behaviour of e-beam evaporated and magnetron sputtered Ta2O5 ceramic coatings have also been compared. The deposition process conditions principally effect the structure parameters and electrical properties of Ta2O5 ceramic coatings. The coatings deposited by different methods demonstrate the range of dielectric parameters due to the structural and stoichiometric composition changes

  12. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  13. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma

  14. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Multicharged and intense heavy ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutner, V.B.

    1981-01-01

    The cyclotron plasma-are source (PIG), duoplasmatron (DP), laser source (LS), electron beam ion source (EBIS) and electron cyclotron resonance source (ECRS) from the viewpoint of generating intense and high charge state beams are considered. It is pointed out that for the last years three types of multicharged ion sources-EBIS, ECR and LS have been essentially developed. In the EBIS source the Xe 48+ ions are produced. The present day level of the development of the electron-beam ionization technique shows that by means of this technique intensive uranium nuclei beams production becomes a reality. On the ECR source Xe 26+ approximately 4x10 10 h/s, Asub(r)sup(12+) approximately 10 12 h/s intensive ion beams are produced. In the laser source a full number of C 6+ ions during one laser pulse constitutes not less than 10 10 from the 5x10mm 2 emission slit. At the present time important results are obtained pointing to the possibility to separate the ion component of laser plasma in the cyclotron central region. On the PIG source the Xe 15+ ion current up to 10μA per pulse is produced. In the duoplasmatron the 11-charge state of xenon ion beams is reached [ru

  16. Study of Au- production in a plasma-sputter type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou.

    1991-10-01

    A negative ion source of plasma-sputter type has been constructed for the purpose of studying physical processes which take place in the ion source. Negative ions of gold are produced on the gold target which is immersed in an argon discharge plasma and biased negatively with respect to the plasma. The work function of the target surface was lowered by the deposition of Cs on the target. An in-situ method has been developed to determine the work function of the target surface in the ion source under discharge conditions. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an argon plasma was 1.3 eV, when the negative ion production rate took the maximum value. The production rate increased monotonically and saturated when the surface work function was reduced from 1.9 eV to 1.3 eV. The dependence of Au - production rate on the incident ion energy and on the number of the incident ion was studied. From the experimental results, it is shown that the sputtering process is an important physical process for the negative ion production in the plasma-sputter type negative ion source. The energy distribution function was also measured. When the bias voltage was smaller than 280 V, the high energy component in the distribution decreased as the target voltage was decreased. Therefore, the energy spread ΔE, of the observed negative ion energy distribution also decreased. This tendency is also seen in the energy spectrum of Cu atoms sputtered in normal direction by Ar + ions. (J.P.N.)

  17. Colliding-beams polarized ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trainor, T.A.; Douglas, J.G.; Badt, D.; Christiensen, C.; Herron, A.; Leach, D.; Olsen, J.; Osborne, J.L.; Zeps, V.

    1985-01-01

    This ion source was to be purchased from ANAC, Inc., a New Zealand-based supplier of beam optics hardware and atomic beam polarized ion sources in December 1982. Shortly before scheduled delivery ANAC went into receivership. During 1983 little work was done on the project as various steps were taken by us, first to get the ion source completed at ANAC, and then, failing that, to obtain the existing parts. In early 1984 we began work to finish the ion source in Seattle. The project is nearly complete, and this article presents progress to date. 2 refs

  18. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  19. Advanced Light Source beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a synchrotron radiation facility nearing completion at LBL. As a third-generation machine, the ALS is designed to produce intense light from bend magnets, wigglers, and undulators (insertion devices). The facility will include a 50 MeV electron linear accelerator, a 1.5 GeV booster synchrotron, beam transport lines, a 1--2 GeV storage ring, insertion devices, and photon beam lines. Currently, the beam injection systems are being commissioned, and the storage ring is being installed. Electron beam position monitors (BPM) are installed throughout the accelerator and constitute the major part of accelerator beam diagnostics. The design of the BPM instruments is complete, and 50 units have been constructed for use in the injector systems. We are currently fabricating 100 additional instruments for the storage ring. In this paper I discuss engineering fabrication, testing and performance of the beam pickup electrodes and the BPM electronics

  20. Highly ordered nanopatterns on Ge and Si surfaces by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziberi, B; Cornejo, M; Frost, F; Rauschenbach, B

    2009-01-01

    The bombardment of surfaces with low-energy ion beams leads to material erosion and can be accompanied by changes in the topography. Under certain conditions this surface erosion can result in well-ordered nanostructures. Here an overview of the pattern formation on Si and Ge surfaces under low-energy ion beam erosion at room temperature will be given. In particular, the formation of ripple and dot patterns, and the influence of different process parameters on their formation, ordering, shape and type will be discussed. Furthermore, the internal ion beam parameters inherent to broad beam ion sources are considered as an additional degree of freedom for controlling the pattern formation process. In this context: (i) formation of ripples at near-normal ion incidence, (ii) formation of dots at oblique ion incidence without sample rotation, (iii) transition between patterns, (iv) formation of ripples with different orientations and (v) long range ordered dot patterns will be presented and discussed.

  1. Metal negative ion beam extraction from a radio frequency ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, S.; Yamada, N.; Kasuya, T.; Romero, C. F. P.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A metal ion source of magnetron magnetic field geometry has been designed and operated with a Cu hollow target. Radio frequency power at 13.56 MHz is directly supplied to the hollow target to maintain plasma discharge and induce self-bias to the target for sputtering. The extraction of positive and negative Cu ion beams have been tested. The ion beam current ratio of Cu{sup +} to Ar{sup +} has reached up to 140% when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. Cu{sup −} ion beam was observed at 50 W RF discharge power and at a higher Ar gas pressure in the ion source. Improvement of poor RF power matching and suppression of electron current is indispensable for a stable Cu{sup −} ion beam production from the source.

  2. Fabrication of highly oriented β-FeSi2 by ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanoya, Takamitsu; Sasase, Masato; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Saito, Takeru; Hojou, Kiichi

    2002-01-01

    We have prepared the 'environmentally friendly' semiconductor, β-FeSi 2 thin films by ion beam sputter deposition method. The temperature of Si (100) substrate during the deposition and total amount of deposited Fe have been changed in order to find the optimum condition of the film formation. The crystallinity and surface morphology of the formed silicides were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. It is understood that the domain of the epitaxially grown β-FeSi 2 increases with the substrate temperature up to 700degC at the fixed amount of deposited Fe (33 nm) by XRD spectra. On the other hand, α-FeSi 2 is appeared and increased with the temperature above 700degC. Granulation of the surface is also observed by SEM images at this temperature region. At the fixed temperature condition (700degC), formation of α phase, which is obtained at the higher temperature compared with β phase, is observed for the fewer deposited samples. These results suggest the possibility of the epitaxially grown β-FeSi 2 formation at the lower (< 700degC) temperature region. (author)

  3. Nanoscale pattern formation at surfaces under ion-beam sputtering: A perspective from continuum models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuerno, Rodolfo; Castro, Mario; Munoz-Garcia, Javier; Gago, Raul; Vazquez, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Although reports on surface nanostructuring of solid targets by low to medium energy ion irradiation date back to the 1960s, only with the advent of high resolution tools for surface/interface characterization has the high potential of this procedure been recognized as a method for efficient production of surface patterns. Such morphologies are made up of periodic arrangements of nanometric sized features, like ripples and dots, with interest for technological applications due to their electronic, magnetic, and optical properties. Thus, roughly for the last ten years large efforts have been directed towards harnessing this nanofabrication technique. However, and particularly in view of recent experimental developments, we can say that the basic mechanisms controlling these pattern formation processes remain poorly understood. The lack of nanostructuring at low angles of incidence on some pure monoelemental targets, the role of impurities in the surface dynamics and other recent observations are challenging the classic view on the phenomenon as the mere interplay between the curvature dependence of the sputtering yield and surface diffusion. We review the main attempts at a theoretical (continuum) description of these systems, with emphasis on recent developments. Strong hints already exist that the nature of the morphological instability has to be rethought as originating in the material flow that is induced by the ion beam.

  4. Consideration of beam plasma ion-source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Kusano, Norimasa; Ishida, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses and their comparison were made on the plasma generation and on the beam extraction for the beam plasma ion-source. The operational principle and the structure of the ion-source are explained in the first part. Considerations are given on the electron beam-plasma interaction and the resulting generation of high frequency or microwaves which in turn increases the plasma density. The flow of energy in this system is also explained in the second part. The relation between plasma density and the imaginary part of frequency is given by taking the magnetic flux density, the electron beam energy, and the electron beam current as parameters. The relations between the potential difference between collector and drift tube and the plasma density or the ion-current are also given. Considerations are also given to the change of the plasma density due to the change of the magnetic flux density at drift tube, the change of the electron beam energy, and the change of the electron beam current. The third part deals with the extraction characteristics of the ion beam. The structure of the multiple-aperture electrode and the relation between plasma density and the extracted ion current are explained. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Ion sources for initial use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25-MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility; the choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. A high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the HRIBF because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surfaceionization sources are also under design consideration for generating negative radioactive ion beams from high electron-affinity elements. A brief review of the HRIBF will be presented, followed by a detailed description of the design features, operational characteristics, ionization efficiencies, and beam qualities (emittances) of these sources

  6. Laser damage resistance of hafnia thin films deposited by electron beam deposition, reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallais, Laurent; Capoulade, Jeremie; Natoli, Jean-Yves; Commandre, Mireille; Cathelinaud, Michel; Koc, Cian; Lequime, Michel

    2008-01-01

    A comparative study is made of the laser damage resistance of hafnia coatings deposited on fused silica substrates with different technologies: electron beam deposition (from Hf or HfO2 starting material), reactive low voltage ion plating, and dual ion beam sputtering.The laser damage thresholds of these coatings are determined at 1064 and 355 nm using a nanosecond pulsed YAG laser and a one-on-one test procedure. The results are associated with a complete characterization of the samples: refractive index n measured by spectrophotometry, extinction coefficient k measured by photothermal deflection, and roughness measured by atomic force microscopy

  7. Angular Distributions of Sputtered Atoms from Semiconductor Targets at Grazing Ion Beam Incidence Angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekowski, M.; Burenkov, A.; Martinez-Limia, A.; Hernandez-Mangas, J.; Ryssel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Angular distributions of ion sputtered germanium and silicon atoms are investigated within this work. Experiments are performed for the case of grazing ion incidence angles, where the resulting angular distributions are asymmetrical with respect to the polar angle of the sputtered atoms. The performed experiments are compared to Monte-Carlo simulations from different programs. We show here an improved model for the angular distribution, which has an additional dependence of the ion incidence angle.

  8. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Sivin, Denis O.; Verigin, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface

  9. Pseudo ribbon metal ion beam source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Igor B; Ryabchikov, Alexander I; Sivin, Denis O; Verigin, Dan A

    2014-02-01

    The paper describes high broad metal ion source based on dc macroparticle filtered vacuum arc plasma generation with the dc ion-beam extraction. The possibility of formation of pseudo ribbon beam of metal ions with the parameters: ion beam length 0.6 m, ion current up to 0.2 A, accelerating voltage 40 kV, and ion energy up to 160 kV has been demonstrated. The pseudo ribbon ion beam is formed from dc vacuum arc plasma. The results of investigation of the vacuum arc evaporator ion-emission properties are presented. The influence of magnetic field strength near the cathode surface on the arc spot movement and ion-emission properties of vacuum-arc discharge for different cathode materials are determined. It was shown that vacuum-arc discharge stability can be reached when the magnetic field strength ranges from 40 to 70 G on the cathode surface.

  10. Neutral beam source commercialization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, H.J.

    1980-06-01

    The basic tasks of this Phase II project were to: generate a set of design drawings suitable for quantity production of sources of this design; fabricate a functional neutral beam source incorporating as many of the proposed design changes as proved feasible; and document the procedures and findings developed during the contract. These tasks have been accomplished and represent a demonstrated milestone in the industrialization of this complete device

  11. Targets for neutron beam spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The meeting on Targets for Neutron Beam Spallation Sources held at the Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung at KFA Juelich on June 11 and 12, 1979 was planned as an informal get-together for scientists involved in the planning, design and future use of spallation neutron sources in Europe. These proceedings contain the papers contributed to this meeting. For further information see hints under relevant topics. (orig./FKS)

  12. Ion beam source construction and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torab, S.I.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to improve the performance of a new shape cold cathode Penning ion source to be suitable for some applications. In this work, many trials have been made to reach the optimum dimensions of the new shape of cold Molybdenum cathode Penning ion source with radial extraction. The high output ion beam can be extracted in a direction transverse to the discharge region. The new shape cold cathode Penning ion source consists of Copper cylindrical hollow anode of 40 mm length, 12 mm diameter and has two similar cone ends of 15 mm length, 22 mm upper cone diameter and 12 mm bottom cone diameter. The two movable Molybdenum cathodes are fixed in Perspex insulator and placed symmetrically at two ends of the anode. The Copper emission disc of 2 mm thickness and has central aperture of different diameters is placed at the middle of the anode for ion beam exit. The inner surface of the emission disc is isolated from the anode by Perspex insulator except an area of diameter 5 mm to confine the electrical discharge in this area. A movable Faraday cup is placed at different distances from the emission electrode aperture and used to collect the output ion beam from the ion source. The working gases are admitted to the ion source through a hole in the anode via a needle valve which placed between the gas cylinder and the ion source. The optimum anode- cathode distance, the uncovered area diameter of the emission disc, the central aperture diameter of the emission electrode, the distance between emission electrode and Faraday cup have been determined using Argon gas. The optimum distances of the ion source were found to be equal to 6 mm, 5 mm, 2.5 mm, and 3 cm respectively where stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current at low discharge current can be obtained. The discharge characteristics, ion beam characteristics, and the efficiency of the ion source have been measured at different operating conditions and different gas pressures using

  13. Nickel oxide films by thermal annealing of ion-beam-sputtered Ni: Structure and electro-optical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horák, Pavel; Remeš, Zdeněk; Bejšovec, Václav; Vacík, Jiří; Daniš, S.; Kormunda, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 640, č. 10 (2017), s. 52-59 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05053S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : NiO * ion beam sputtering * thermal annealing * nuclear analytical methods * optical properties Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Coating and films; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  14. Selection and design of ion sources for use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Haynes, D.L.; Mills, G.D.; Olsen, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory will use the 25 MV tandem accelerator for the acceleration of radioactive ion beams to energies appropriate for research in nuclear physics; negative ion beams are, therefore, required for injection into the tandem accelerator. Because charge exchange is an efficient means for converting initially positive ion beams to negative ion beams, both positive and negative ion sources are viable options for use at the facility. The choice of the type of ion source will depend on the overall efficiency for generating the radioactive species of interest. Although direct-extraction negative ion sources are clearly desirable, the ion formation efficiencies are often too low for practical consideration; for this situation, positive ion sources, in combination with charge exchange, are the logical choice. The high-temperature version of the CERN-ISOLDE positive ion source has been selected and a modified version of the source designed and fabricated for initial use at the facility because of its low emittance, relatively high ionization efficiencies, and species versatility, and because it has been engineered for remote installation, removal, and servicing as required for safe handling in a high-radiation-level ISOL facility. The source will be primarily used to generate ion beams from elements with intermediate to low electron affinities. Prototype plasma-sputter negative ion sources and negative surface-ionization sources are under design consideration for generating radioactive ion beams from high-electron-affinity elements. The design features of these sources and expected efficiencies and beam qualities (emittances) will be described in this report

  15. Ion beam texturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    A microscopic surface texture was created by sputter-etching a surface while simultaneously sputter-depositing a lower sputter yield material onto the surface. A xenon ion-beam source was used to perform the texturing process on samples as large as 3-cm diameter. Textured surfaces have been characterized with SEM photomicrographs for a large number of materials including Cu, Al, Si, Ti, Ni, Fe, stainless steel, Au, and Ag. A number of texturing parameters are studied including the variation of texture with ion-beam powder, surface temperature, and the rate of texture growth with sputter etching time.

  16. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM/sub x/ heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared with that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe 2 . An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced

  17. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, P.; Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V.; Vrnata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Danis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C-600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu2O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition - in the depth Cu2O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH)2. A limited amount of Cu2O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance RS of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing RS was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□-2.45 GΩ/□. The highest RS values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the 16O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed an increased response to hydrogen at 300 °C, while Au-covered films were more sensitive to methanol vapours at 350 °C.

  18. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, P., E-mail: phorak@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vrnata, M. [Department of Physics and Measurements, The University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kormunda, M. [Department of Physics, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Danis, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A rapid oxidation process of thin copper films. • Sheet resistance up to 10{sup 9} Ω/◊. • Mixed oxide phase at 200 °C with significant hydroxide presence. • Gas sensing response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen and methanol vapours. • Increased sensitivity with Pd and Au catalyst to hydrogen and methanol, respectively. - Abstract: Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C–600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition − in the depth Cu{sub 2}O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH){sub 2}. A limited amount of Cu{sub 2}O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance R{sub S} of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing R{sub S} was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□–2.45 GΩ/□. The highest R{sub S} values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the {sup 16}O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed

  19. Sputtering of carbon using hydrogen ion beams with energies of 60–800 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorov, Dmitry S., E-mail: dmitrisidoroff@rambler.ru [Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarina Avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Region 603950 (Russian Federation); Chkhalo, Nikolay I., E-mail: chkhalo@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation); Mikhailenko, Mikhail S.; Pestov, Alexey E.; Polkovnikov, Vladimir N. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures RAS, Academicheskaya Str. 7, Afonino, Nizhny Novgorod Region, Kstovsky District, Kstovo Region 603087 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    This article presents the result of a study on the sputtering of carbon films by low-energy hydrogen ions. In particular, the etching rate and surface roughness were measured. The range of energies where the sputtering switches from pure chemical to a combination of chemical and physical mechanisms was determined. It is shown that Sigmund’s theory for ion etching does not work well for fields of energy less than 150 eV and that it accurately describes the dependence of a sputtering coefficient on ion energy for energies greater than 300 eV. A strong smoothing effect for the surface of carbon film was also found. This result is interesting in itself and for its significance for the manufacture of super-smooth surfaces for X-ray applications.

  20. Dependence of Au- production upon the target work function in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Yushirou; Sasao, Mamiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1991-01-01

    A method to measure the work function of the target surface in a plasma-sputter-type negative ion source has been developed. The method can determine the work function by measuring the photoelectric current induced by two lasers (He-Ne, Ar + laser). The dependence of Au - production upon the work function of the target surface in the ion source was studied using this method. The time variation of the target work function and Au - production rate were measured during the cesium coverage decrease due to the plasma ion sputtering. The observed minimum work function of a cesiated gold surface in an Ar plasma was 1.3 eV. At the same time, the negative ion production rate (Au - current/target current) took the maximum value. The negative ion production rate indicated the same dependence on the incident ion energy as that of the sputtering rate when the work function was constant. (author)

  1. Determining the sputter yields of molybdenum in low-index crystal planes via electron backscattered diffraction, focused ion beam and atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, H.S., E-mail: 160184@mail.csc.com.tw [New Materials Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, 1 Chung Kang Road, Hsiao Kang, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chiu, C.H.; Hong, I.T.; Tung, H.C. [New Materials Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, 1 Chung Kang Road, Hsiao Kang, Kaohsiung 812, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chien, F.S.-S. [Department of Physics, Tunghai University, 1727, Sec. 4, Xitun Dist., Taiwan Boulevard, Taichung 407, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-09-15

    Previous literature has used several monocrystalline sputtering targets with various crystalline planes, respectively, to investigate the variations of the sputter yield of materials in different crystalline orientations. This study presents a method to measure the sputtered yields of Mo for the three low-index planes (100), (110), and (111), through using an easily made polycrystalline target. The procedure was firstly to use electron backscattered diffraction to identify the grain positions of the three crystalline planes, and then use a focused ion beam to perform the micro-milling of each identified grain, and finally the sputter yields were calculated from the removed volumes, which were measured by atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that the sputter yield of the primary orientations for Mo varied as Y{sub (110)} > Y{sub (100)} > Y{sub (111)}, coincidental with the ranking of their planar atomic packing densities. The concept of transparency of ion in the crystalline substance was applied to elucidate these results. In addition, the result of (110) orientation exhibiting higher sputter yield is helpful for us to develop a Mo target with a higher deposition rate for use in industry. By changing the deformation process from straight rolling to cross rolling, the (110) texture intensity of the Mo target was significantly improved, and thus enhanced the deposition rate. - Highlights: • We used EBSD, FIB and AFM to measure the sputter yields of Mo in low-index planes. • The sputter yield of the primary orientations for Mo varied as Y{sub (110)} > Y{sub (100)} > Y{sub (111)}. • The transparency of ion was used to elucidate the differences in the sputter yield. • We improved the sputter rate of polycrystalline Mo target by adjusting its texture.

  2. Second order nonlinear optical properties of zinc oxide films deposited by low temperature dual ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larciprete, M.C.; Passeri, D.; Michelotti, F.; Paoloni, S.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Belardini, A.; Sarto, F.; Somma, F.; Lo Mastro, S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated second order optical nonlinearity of zinc oxide thin films, grown on glass substrates by the dual ion beam sputtering technique under different deposition conditions. Linear optical characterization of the films was carried out by spectrophotometric optical transmittance and reflectance measurements, giving the complex refractive index dispersion. Resistivity of the films was determined using the four-point probe sheet resistance method. Second harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the Maker fringes technique where the fundamental beam was originated by nanosecond laser at λ=1064 nm. We found a relatively high nonlinear optical response, and evidence of a dependence of the nonlinear coefficient on the deposition parameters for each sample. Moreover, the crystalline properties of the films were investigated by x-ray diffraction measurements and correlation with second order nonlinearity were analyzed. Finally, we investigated the influence of the oxygen flow rate during the deposition process on both the second order nonlinearity and the structural properties of the samples

  3. Study of Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    In the present work, bi-layer thin films of Sb/SnO{sub 2} were produced on unheated glass substrates using ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique without post annealing treatment. The thickness of Sb layers was varied from 2 to 10 nm and the Sb layers were deposited on SnO{sub 2} layers having thicknesses of 40 nm to 115 nm. The effect of thickness was studied on the morphological, electrical and optical properties. The Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer resulted in lowering the electrical resistivity as well as reducing the optical transmittance. However, the optical and electrical properties of the bi-layer films were mainly influenced by the thickness of Sb layers due to progressive transfer in structures from aggregate to continuous films. The bi-layer films show the electrical resistivity of 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and an optical transmittance of 26% for Sb film having 10 nm thickness. - Highlights: • Bi-layer Sb/SnO{sub 2} structures were synthesized by ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. • The 6 nm-thick Sb film is a transition region in this study. • The conductivity of the bi-layer films is increased as Sb thickness increases. • The transmittance of the bi-layer films is decreased as Sb thickness increases.

  4. Comparison of the Al back contact deposited by sputtering, e-beam, or thermal evaporation for inverted perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Tina; Hanisch, Jonas; Ahlswede, Erik

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we present inverted perovskite solar cells with Al top electrodes, which were deposited by three different methods. Besides the widely used thermal evaporation of Al, we also used the industrially important high deposition rate processes sputtering and electron beam evaporation for aluminium electrodes and examined the influence of the deposition method on the solar cell performance. The current-voltage characteristics of as grown solar cells with sputtered and e-beam Al electrode show an s-shape due to damage done to the organic electronic transport layers (ETL) during Al deposition. It can be cured by a short annealing step at a moderate temperature so that fill factors  >60% and power conversion efficiencies of almost 12% with negligible hysteresis can be achieved. While solar cells with thermally evaporated Al electrode do not show an s-shape, they also exhibit a clear improvement after a short annealing step. In addition, we varied the thickness of the ETL consisting of a double layer ([6,6]-Phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester and bathocuproine) and investigated the influence on the solar cell parameters for the three different Al deposition methods, which showed distinct dependencies on ETL thickness.

  5. Acceleration of 14C beams in electrostatic accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowton, L.J.; Tesmer, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Operational problems in the production and acceleration of 14 C beams for nuclear structure research in Los Alamos National Laboratory's Van de Graaff accelerators are discussed. Methods for the control of contamination in ion sources, accelerators and personnel are described. Sputter source target fabrication techniques and the relative beam production efficiencies of various types of bound particulate carbon sputter source targets are presented

  6. Room-Temperature Growth of SiC Thin Films by Dual-Ion-Beam Sputtering Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Jin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide (SiC films were prepared by single and dual-ion-beamsputtering deposition at room temperature. An assisted Ar+ ion beam (ion energy Ei = 150 eV was directed to bombard the substrate surface to be helpful for forming SiC films. The microstructure and optical properties of nonirradicated and assisted ion-beam irradicated films have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and Raman spectra. TEM result shows that the films are amorphous. The films exposed to a low-energy assisted ion-beam irradicated during sputtering from a-SiC target have exhibited smoother and compacter surface topography than which deposited with nonirradicated. The ion-beam irradicated improves the adhesion between film and substrate and releases the stress between film and substrate. With assisted ion-beam irradicated, the density of the Si–C bond in the film has increased. At the same time, the excess C atoms or the size of the sp2 bonded clusters reduces, and the a-Si phase decreases. These results indicate that the composition of the film is mainly Si–C bond.

  7. Means for obtaining a metal ion beam from a heavy-ion cyclotron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-08-01

    A description is given of a modification to a cyclotron ion source used in producing a high intensity metal ion beam. A small amount of an inert support gas maintains the usual plasma arc, except that it is necessary for the support gas to have a heavy mass, e.g., xenon or krypton as opposed to neon. A plate, fabricated from the metal (or anything that can be sputtered) to be ionized, is mounted on the back wall of the ion source arc chamber and is bombarded by returning energetic low-charged gas ions that fail to cross the initial accelerating gap between the ion source and the accelerating electrode. Some of the atoms that are dislodged from the plate by the returning gas ions become ionized and are extracted as a useful beam of heavy ions. (auth)

  8. A High-Intensity, RF Plasma-Sputter Negative Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Bao, Y.; Cui, B.; Lohwasser, R.; Reed, C.A.; Zhang, T.

    1999-01-01

    A high-intensity, plasma-sputter negative-ion source based on the use of RF power for plasma generation has been developed that can be operated in either pulsed or dc modes. The source utilizes a high-Q, self-igniting, inductively coupled antenna system, operating at 80 MHz that has been optimized to generate Cs-seeded plasmas at low pressures (typically, - (610 microA); F - (100 microA); Si - (500 microA); S - (500 microA); P - (125 microA); Cl - (200 microA); Ni - (150 microA); Cu - (230 microA); Ge - (125 microA); As - (100 microA); Se - (200 microA); Ag - (70 microA); Pt - (125 microA); Au - (250 microA). The normalized emittance var e psilon n of the source at the 80% contour is: var e psilon n = 7.5 mm.mrad.(MeV) 1/2 . The design principles of the source, operational parameters, ion optics, emittance and intensities for a number of negative-ion species will be presented in this report

  9. Microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    This book containing the proceedings of the SPIE on microwave and particle beam sources and directed energy concepts. Topics covered include: High power microwave sources, Direct energy concepts, Advanced accelerators, and Particle beams

  10. SLC polarized beam source electron optics design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppley, K.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Early, R.A.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Miller, R.H.; Schultz, D.C.; Spencer, C.M.; Yeremian, A.D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the beam-line from the polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photocathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. The quality of the optics for the 160-kV beam is crucial since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line consists of a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Focusing is provided by a pair of Helmholtz coils and by several iron-encased solenoidal lenses. Our optics design is based on beam transport simulations using 2 1/2-D particle-in-cell codes to model the gun and to solve the fully-relativistic time-dependent equations of motion in three dimensions for electrons in the presence of azimuthally symmetric electromagnetic fields. 6 refs., 6 figs

  11. Improving the growth of Ge/Si islands by modulating the spacing between screen and accelerator grids in ion beam sputtering deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Feng; Wang, Rongfei; Yang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ge islands were prepared by ion beam sputtering with different grid-to-grid gaps. • Ge islands with larger sizes and low density are observed in 1-mm-spaced samples. • The island growth was determined by sputter energy and the quality of Si buffer. • The crystalline volume fraction of buffer must be higher than 72% to grow islands. - Abstract: Ge islands were fabricated on Si buffer layer by ion beam sputtering deposition with a spacing between the screen and accelerator grids of either 1 mm or 2 mm. The Si buffer layer exhibits mixed-phase microcrystallinity for samples grown with 1 mm spacing and crystallinity for those with 2 mm spacing. Ge islands are larger and less dense than those grown on the crystalline buffer because of the selective growth mechanism on the microcrystalline buffer. Moreover, the nucleation site of Ge islands formed on the crystalline Si buffer is random. Ge islands grown at different grid-to-grid gaps are characterized by two key factors, namely, divergence half angle of ion beam and crystallinity of buffer layer. High grid-to-grid spacing results in small divergence half angle, thereby enhancing the sputtering energy and redistribution of sputtered atoms. The crystalline volume fraction of the microcrystalline Si buffer was obtained based on the integrated intensity ratio of Raman peaks. The islands show decreased density with decreasing crystalline volume fraction and are difficult to observe at crystalline volume fractions lower than 72%.

  12. Improving the growth of Ge/Si islands by modulating the spacing between screen and accelerator grids in ion beam sputtering deposition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Bo [Institute of Optoelectronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yunnan Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Wang, Chong, E-mail: cwang@mail.sitp.ac.cn [Institute of Optoelectronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yunnan Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Qiu, Feng; Wang, Rongfei [Institute of Optoelectronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yunnan Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yang, Yu, E-mail: yuyang@ynu.edu.cn [Institute of Optoelectronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China); Yunnan Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Materials and Technology, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Ge islands were prepared by ion beam sputtering with different grid-to-grid gaps. • Ge islands with larger sizes and low density are observed in 1-mm-spaced samples. • The island growth was determined by sputter energy and the quality of Si buffer. • The crystalline volume fraction of buffer must be higher than 72% to grow islands. - Abstract: Ge islands were fabricated on Si buffer layer by ion beam sputtering deposition with a spacing between the screen and accelerator grids of either 1 mm or 2 mm. The Si buffer layer exhibits mixed-phase microcrystallinity for samples grown with 1 mm spacing and crystallinity for those with 2 mm spacing. Ge islands are larger and less dense than those grown on the crystalline buffer because of the selective growth mechanism on the microcrystalline buffer. Moreover, the nucleation site of Ge islands formed on the crystalline Si buffer is random. Ge islands grown at different grid-to-grid gaps are characterized by two key factors, namely, divergence half angle of ion beam and crystallinity of buffer layer. High grid-to-grid spacing results in small divergence half angle, thereby enhancing the sputtering energy and redistribution of sputtered atoms. The crystalline volume fraction of the microcrystalline Si buffer was obtained based on the integrated intensity ratio of Raman peaks. The islands show decreased density with decreasing crystalline volume fraction and are difficult to observe at crystalline volume fractions lower than 72%.

  13. Sputtering in a glow discharge ion source - pressure dependence: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.S.; Pichilingi, Melanie

    1994-01-01

    A simplified theoretical expression has been developed for a glow discharge to show how the average cathode erosion rate (expressed as the number of atoms per ion of the total bombarding flux) varies with primary sputter yield, pressure, 'diffusion length' and sputtered atom 'stopping' cross section. An inverse pressure dependence is predicted which correlates well with experiment in the 2 and He, tend to converge. It is suggested that this could be due to a change in the mechanism to self-sputtering. Under constant conditions, the erosion rates of different cathode materials still correlate quite well with the differences in their primary sputter yields. (author)

  14. An electromagnetically focused electron beam line source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Munawar; Masood, Khalid; Rafiq, Mohammad; Chaudhary, Maqbool A.; Aleem, Fazal-e-

    2003-01-01

    A directly heated thermionic electron beam source was constructed. A tungsten wire of length 140 mm with diameter 0.9 mm was used as a cathode. An emission current of 5000 mA was achieved at an input heating power of 600 W. Cathode to anode distance of 6 mm with acceleration voltage of 10 kV was used. A uniform external magnetic field of 50 G was employed to obtain a well-focused electron beam at a deflection of 180 deg., with cathode to work site distance of 130 mm. Dimensions of the beam (1.25x120 mm) recorded at the work site were found to be in good agreement with the designed length of cathode. The deformation of the cathode was overcome by introducing a spring action mechanism, which gives uniform emission current density throughout the emission surface. We have achieved the saturation limit of the designed source resulting in smooth and swift operation of the gun for many hours (10-15 h continuously). The design of gun is so simple that it can accommodate longer cathodes for obtaining higher emission values. This gun has made it possible to coat large substrate surfaces at much faster evaporation rate at lower cost. It can also be useful in large-scale vacuum metallurgy plants for melting, welding and heat treatment

  15. Specific features of fullerene-bearing thin film growth using ion beam vacuum sputtering of fullerene mixtures with B, Fe, Se, Gd and Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A.P.; Semenova, I.A.; Bulina, N.V.; Lopatin, V.A.; Karmanov, N.S.; Churilov, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to the growth of films containing fullerenes and doping elements is described. It is suggested that a cluster mechanism of the target sputtering by accelerated ions makes possible the deposition of fullerenes on a substrate with a certain probability for dopant atoms being introduced into the cavities of fullerene molecules and a higher probability of the doping element introduction between fullerene molecules. The proposed method has been experimentally implemented by using an Ar ion beam to sputter C 60 /C 70 fullerene mixtures, synthesized in a plasmachemical reactor at a pressure of 10 5 Pa and containing a doping element, i.e. Fe, Na, B, Gd or Se. Micron-thick films containing C 60 and C 70 fullerenes and the corresponding dopant element, i.e. Fe, Na, B, Gd or Se, were grown from dopant-containing fullerene mixtures by ion beam sputtering in a vacuum of ∼10 -2 Pa [ru

  16. Effect of argon ion beam voltages on the microstructure of aluminum nitride films prepared at room temperature by a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Han Sheng; Cheng, C.-H.; Shih, H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were successfully deposited at room temperature onto p-type (1 0 0) silicon wafers by manipulating argon ion beam voltages in a dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS). X-ray diffraction spectra showed that aluminum nitride films could be synthesized above 800 V. The (0 0 2) orientation was dominant at 800 V, above which the orientation was random. The atomic force microscope (AFM) images displayed a relatively smooth surface with the root-mean-square roughness of 2-3 nm, where this roughness decreased with argon ion beam voltage. The Al 2p 3/2 and N 1s spectra indicated that both the aluminum-aluminum bond and aluminum-nitrogen bond appeared at 600 V, above which only the aluminum-nitrogen bond was detected. Moreover, the atomic concentration in aluminum nitride films was concentrated in aluminum-rich phases in all cases. Nevertheless, the aluminum concentration markedly increased with argon ion beam voltages below 1000 V, above which the concentration decreased slightly. The correlation between the microstructure of aluminum nitride films and argon ion beam voltages is also discussed

  17. A double-stage pulsed discharge fluorine atom beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Zefeng; Qiu Minghui; Che Li; Dai Dongxu; Wang Xiuyan; Yang Xueming

    2006-01-01

    Molecular-beam intensity and speed ratio are two major limiting factors in many molecular-beam experiments. This article reports a high-intensity, high-speed-ratio, pulsed supersonic fluorine atom beam source using a double-stage discharge beam source. Its performance is indicated by the high-resolution time-of-flight spectrum in the crossed beam experiment of F( 2 P)+para-H 2

  18. Beam dynamics in Compton ring gamma sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Bulyak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron storage rings of GeV energy with laser pulse stacking cavities are promising intense sources of polarized hard photons which, via pair production, can be used to generate polarized positron beams. In this paper, the dynamics of electron bunches circulating in a storage ring and interacting with high-power laser pulses is studied both analytically and by simulation. Both the common features and the differences in the behavior of bunches interacting with an extremely high power laser pulse and with a moderate pulse are discussed. Also considerations on particular lattice designs for Compton gamma rings are presented.

  19. Particle beam generator using a radioactive source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1993-03-30

    The apparatus of the present invention selects from particles emitted by a radioactive source those particles having momentum within a desired range and focuses the selected particles in a beam having at least one narrow cross-dimension, and at the same time attenuates potentially disruptive gamma rays and low energy particles. Two major components of the present invention are an achromatic bending and focusing system, which includes sector magnets and quadrupole, and a quadrupole doublet final focus system. Permanent magnets utilized in the apparatus are constructed of a ceramic (ferrite) material which is inexpensive and easily machined.

  20. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian

    2016-05-31

    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  1. Multi-jump magnetic switching in ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co20Fe60B20 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional multi-jump magnetization reversal and significant in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA) in the ion-beam sputtered amorphous Co 20 Fe 60 B 20 (5–75 nm) thin films grown on Si/amorphous SiO 2 are reported. While such multi-jump behavior is observed in CoFeB(10 nm) film when the magnetic field is applied at 10°–20° away from the easy-axis, the same is observed in CoFeB(12.5 nm) film when the magnetic field is 45°–55° away from easy-axis. Unlike the previous reports of multi-jump switching in epitaxial films, their observance in the present case of amorphous CoFeB is remarkable. This multi-jump switching is found to disappear when the films are crystallized by annealing at 420 °C. The deposition geometry and the energy of the sputtered species appear to intrinsically induce a kind of bond orientation anisotropy in the films, which leads to the UMA in the as-grown amorphous CoFeB films. Exploitation of such multi-jump switching in amorphous CoFeB thin films could be of technological significance because of their applications in spintronic devices

  2. The influence of sequence of precursor films on CZTSe thin films prepared by ion-beam sputtering deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liang, Guangxing; Zeng, Yang; Fan, Ping; Hu, Juguang; Luo, Jingting; Zhang, Dongping

    2017-02-01

    The CuZnSn (CZT) precursor thin films are grown by ion-beam sputtering Cu, Zn, Sn targets with different orders and then sputtering Se target to fabricate Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe) absorber thin films on molybdenum substrates. They are annealed in the same vacuum chamber at 400 °C. The characterization methods of CZTSe thin films include X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) in order to study the crystallographic properties, composition, surface morphology, electrical properties and so on. The results display that the CZTSe thin films got the strongest diffraction peak intensity and were with good crystalline quality and its morphology appeared smooth and compact with a sequence of Cu/Zn/Sn/Se, which reveals that the expected states for CZTSe are Cu1+, Zn2+, Sn4+, Se2+. With the good crystalline quality and close to ideal stoichiometric ratio the resistivity of the CZTSe film with the sequence of Cu/Zn/Sn/Se is lower, whose optical band gap is about 1.50 eV. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61404086), the Basical Research Program of Shenzhen (Nos. JCYJ20150324140036866, JCYJ20150324141711581), and the Natural Science Foundation of SZU (No. 2014017).

  3. The effect of FR enhancement in reactive ion beam sputtered Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron- garnets: Bi2O3 nanocomposite films

    OpenAIRE

    Berzhansky, V.; Shaposhnikov, A.; Karavainikov, A.; Prokopov, A.; Mikhailova, T.; Lukienko, I.; Kharchenko, Yu.; Miloslavskaya, O.; Kharchenko, N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of considerable Faraday rotation (FR) and figure of merit (Q) enhancement in Bi, Gd, Al-substituted iron garnets: Bi2O3 nano-composite films produced by separate reactive ion beam sputtered Bi:YIG and Bi2O3 films was found. It reached threefold enhancement of the FR and twofold of the Q one on GGG substrates.

  4. High repetition rate intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, D.A.; Glidden, S.C.; Noonan, B.

    1992-01-01

    This final report describes a ≤ 150kV, 40kA, 100ns high repetition rate pulsed power system and intense ion beam source which is now in operation at Cornell University. Operation of the Magnetically-controlled Anode Plasma (MAP) ion diode at > 100Hz (burst mode for up to 10 pulse bursts) provides an initial look at repetition rate limitations of both the ion diode and beam diagnostics. The pulsed power systems are capable of ≥ 1kHz operation (up to 10 pulse bursts), but ion diode operation was limited to ∼100Hz because of diagnostic limitations. By varying MAP diode operating parameters, ion beams can be extracted at a few 10s of keV or at up to 150keV, the corresponding accelerating gap impedance ranging from about 1Ω to about 10Ω. The ability to make hundreds of test pulses per day at an average repetition rate of about 2 pulses per minute permits statistical analysis of diode operation as a function of various parameters. Most diode components have now survived more than 10 4 pulses, and the design and construction of the various pulsed power components of the MAP diode which have enabled us to reach this point are discussed. A high speed data acquisition system and companion analysis software capable of acquiring pulse data at 1ms intervals (in bursts of up to 10 pulses) and processing it in ≤ min is described

  5. A source of translationally cold molecular beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Laszlo C.

    Currently the fields studying or using molecules with low kinetic energies are experiencing an unprecedented growth. Astronomers and chemists are interested in chemical reactions taking place at temperatures below or around 20 K, spectroscopists could make very precise measurements on slow molecules and molecular physicists could chart the potential energy surfaces more accurately. And the list continues. All of these experiments need slow molecules, with kinetic energies from around 10 cm-1 down to 0. Several designs of cold sources have already been made. The most interesting ones are presented. This work describes the design and the testing of a cold source based on the collisional cooling technique: the molecules of interest are cooled well below their freezing point by a precooled buffer gas. This way condensation is avoided. The source is a copper cell cooled to 4.2 K by an external liquid helium bath. The cell is filled with cold buffer gas (helium). The molecules of choice (ammonia) are injected through a narrow tube in the middle of the cell. The cold molecules leave the cell through a 1 millimeter hole. Two versions of pulsing techniques have been employed: a shutter blade which covers the source hole and opens it only for short moments, and a chopper that modulates the beam further downstream. Both produced pulse lengths around 1 millisecond. The source is tested in an experiment in which the emerging molecules are focused and detected. Time of flight technique is used to measure the kinetic energies. Two detectors have been employed: a microwave cavity to analyze the state of the molecules in the beam, and a mass spectrometer to measure the number density of the particles. The molecules coming out of the source hole are formed into a beam by an electrostatic quadrupole state selector. The quantum mechanical aspects and the elements of electrodynamics involved in the focusing are described. A computer simulation program is presented, which helped

  6. Electron beam induced coloration and luminescence in layered structure of WO3 thin films grown by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karuppasamy, A.; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten oxide thin films have been deposited by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in argon and oxygen atmosphere. The as-deposited WO 3 film is amorphous, highly transparent, and shows a layered structure along the edges. In addition, the optical properties of the as-deposited film show a steplike behavior of extinction coefficient. However, the electron beam irradiation (3.0 keV) of the as-deposited films results in crystallization, coloration (deep blue), and luminescence (intense red emission). The above changes in physical properties are attributed to the extraction of oxygen atoms from the sample and the structural modifications induced by electron bombardment. The present method of coloration and luminescence has a potential for fabricating high-density optical data storage device

  7. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  8. Detailed design of the RF source for the 1 MV neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcuzzi, D.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pavei, M.; Heinemann, B.; Kraus, W.; Riedl, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the EU activities for the development of the Neutral Beam Injector for ITER, the detailed design of the Radio Frequency (RF) driven negative ion source to be installed in the 1 MV ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (NBTF) has been carried out. Results coming from ongoing R and D on IPP test beds [A. Staebler et al., Development of a RF-Driven Ion Source for the ITER NBI System, this conference] and the design of the new ELISE facility [B. Heinemann et al., Design of the Half-Size ITER Neutral Beam Source Test Facility ELISE, this conference] brought several modifications to the solution based on the previous design. An assessment was carried out regarding the Back-Streaming positive Ions (BSI+) that impinge on the back plates of the ion source and cause high and localized heat loads. This led to the redesign of most heated components to increase cooling, and to different choices for the plasma facing materials to reduce the effects of sputtering. The design of the electric circuit, gas supply and the other auxiliary systems has been optimized. Integration with other components of the beam source has been revised, with regards to the interfaces with the supporting structure, the plasma grid and the flexible connections. In the paper the design will be presented in detail, as well as the results of the analyses performed for the thermo-mechanical verification of the components.

  9. Polarizing beam-splitter device at a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shinichi; Takeda, Masayasu.

    1996-01-01

    A polarizing beam-splitter device was designed using Fe/Si supermirrors in order to obtain two polarized neutron beam lines, from one unpolarized neutron beam line, with a practical beam size for investigating the properties of condensed matter. This device was mounted after a guide tube at a pulsed neutron source, and its performance was investigated. (author)

  10. Nanoripple formation on GaAs (001) surface by reverse epitaxy during ion beam sputtering at elevated temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Debasree; Ghose, Debabrata, E-mail: debabrata1.ghose@gmail.com

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • GaAs (001) surfaces are sputtered by 1 keV Ar{sup +} at sample temperature of 450 °C. • Highly ordered defect-free ripples develop at near-normal incidence angles (θ ≈ 0–25{sup 0}). • Concurrent sample rotation does not alter the ripple orientation with respect to the ion beam. • At grazing incidence angles anisotropic structure is formed. • Concurrent sample rotation shows that the structure orientation depends on the beam direction. - Abstract: Self-organized pattern formation by the process of reverse epitaxial growth has been investigated on GaAs (001) surfaces during 1 keV Ar{sup +} bombardment at target temperature of 450 °C for a wide range of incident angles. Highly ordered ripple formation driven by diffusion instability is evidenced at near normal incidence angles. Concurrent sample rotation shows that the ripple morphology and its orientation do not depend on the incident beam direction; rather they are determined by the symmetry of the crystal face.

  11. Temperature dependence of the optical properties of ion-beam sputtered ZrN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larijani, M.M. [NSTRI, AEOI, Radiation Applications Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kiani, M. [Azad University, South Tehran Branch, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari-Khamse, E. [NSTRI, AEOI, Radiation Applications Research School, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); University of Kashan, Department of Physics, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathollahi, V. [Nuclear Science Research School, NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    The reflectivity of sputtered Zirconium nitride films on glass substrate has been investigated in the spectral energy range of 0.8-6.1 eV as a function of deposition temperature varying between 373 and 723 K. Optical constants of the prepared films have been determined using the Drude analysis. Experimental results showed strong dependency of optical properties of the films, such as optical resistivity on the substrate temperature. The temperature increase of the substrate has shown an increase in both the plasmon frequency and electron scattering time. The electrical behavior of the films showed a good agreement between their optical and electrical resistivity. (orig.)

  12. Structural and corrosion characterization of hydroxyapatite/zirconium nitride-coated AZ91 magnesium alloy by ion beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim, E-mail: rkiahoseyni@yahoo.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, Abdollah [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefpour, Mardali [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, 35131-19111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The thickness of HA coatings increase by ion beam sputtering time. • The residual strain in HA structure decrease by deposition time increment. • Crystallite size of HA coatings increase by deposition time increment. • The best corrosion resistance occurs at intermediate deposition time. - Abstract: The adhesion of hydroxyapatite (HA) as a coating for the AZ91 magnesium alloy substrate can be improved by using the sputtering method and an intermediate layer, such as ZrN. In this study, HA coatings were applied on ZrN intermediate layers at a temperature of 300 °C for 180, 240, 300, 360, and 420 min by ion beam sputtering. A profilometer device was used to study the HA coating thickness, which changed from 2 μm for the 180-min deposition to 4.7 μm for 420-min deposition. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis method and the Williamson–Hall analysis were used for structural investigation. As the deposition time increased, the crystalline size increased from 50 nm to 690 nm. However, given sufficient time for stress relief on the coating structure, the lattice strain values were close to zero. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results showed that the Ca/P ratio ranged from 1.73 to 1.81. The external indentation method was used to evaluate the coating adhesion to the substrate. The slope of curve for applied force changes versus the radius of cracks in the coating (dP/dr) varied in the range of 0.2–0.07 by the deposition time, indicating that the adhesion increased with the increase in coating thickness. The potentiodynamic polarization technique was used to study the corrosion behavior. With increasing deposition time, the corrosion potential of samples did not show a significant change, and the corrosion potential of all samples (coated and uncoated substrates) was more positive than approximately 55 mV. When the deposition time increased to 360 min, the corrosion current density decreased from 5.5 μA/cm{sup 2} to 0.33

  13. Electron Beam Diagnosis and Dynamics using DIADYN Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, D.; Craciun, G.; Manaila, E.; Oproiu, C.; Marghitu, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is presenting results obtained with the DIADYN installation after replacing its vacuum electron source (VES L V) with a plasma electron source (PES L V). DIADYN is a low energy laboratory equipment operating with 10 to 50 keV electron beams and designed to help realize non-destructive diagnosis and dynamics for low energy electron beams but also to be used in future material irradiations. The results presented here regard the beam diagnosis and dynamics made with beams obtained from the newly replaced plasma source. We discuss both results obtained in experimental dynamics and dynamics calculation results for electron beams extracted from the SEP L V source.

  14. Broad beam ion sources and some surface processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, H.; Scholze, F.; Tarz, M.; Schindler, A.; Wiese, R.; Nestler, M.; Blum, T.

    2005-01-01

    Modern broad-beam multi-aperture ion sources are widely used in material and surface technology applications. Customizing the generated ion beam properties (i. e. the ion current density profile) for specific demands of the application is a main challenge in the improvement of the ion beam technologies. First we introduce ion sources based on different plasma excitation principles shortly. An overview of source plasma and ion beam measurement methods deliver input data for modelling methods. This beam profile modelling using numerical trajectory codes and the validation of the results by Faraday cup measurements as a basis for ion beam profile design are described. Furthermore possibilities for ex situ and in situ beam profile control are demonstrated, like a special method for in situ control of a linear ion source beam profile, a grid modification for circular beam profile design and a cluster principle for broad beam sources. By means of these methods, the beam shape may be adapted to specific technological demands. Examples of broad beam source application in ion beam figuring of optical surfaces, modification of stainless steel, photo voltaic processes and deposition of EUVL-multilayer stacks are finally presented. (Author)

  15. Hyperon beams as a source of polarized protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    A high energy polarized proton beam which would utilize lambda decays as a source of polarized protons was proposed. We discuss the operation of such a beam and related physics experiments. 12 references

  16. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-04-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 ˜ 7 × 10 20/m 2 s at 50 ˜ 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 ˜ 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam.

  17. Sputtering yields of carbon based materials under high particle flux with low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, K.; Nagase, A.; Dairaku, M.; Akiba, M.; Araki, M.; Okumura, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new ion source which can produce high particle flux beams at low energies has been developed. This paper presents preliminary results on the sputtering yield of the carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFCs) measured with the new ion source. The sputtering yields of 1D and 2D CFCs, which are candidate materials for the divertor armour tiles, have been measured by the weight loss method under the hydrogen and deuterium particle fluxes of 2 similar 7x10 20 /m 2 s at 50 similar 150 eV. Preferential sputtering of the matrix was observed on CFCs which included the matrix of 40 similar 60 w%. The energy dependence of the sputtering yields was weak. The sputtering yields of CFCs normally irradiated with deuterium beam were from 0.073 to 0.095, and were around three times larger than those with hydrogen beam. ((orig.))

  18. Conical pinched electron beam diode for intense ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, Yoshinobu; Nakagawa, Yoshiro

    1982-01-01

    For the purpose of improvement of the pinched electron beam diode, the production of an ion beam by a diode with electrodes in a conical shape was studied at low voltage operation (--200 kV). The ion beam is emitted from a small region of the diode apex. The mean ion beam current density near the axis at 12 cm from the diode apex is two or three times that from an usual flat parallel diode with the same dimension and impedance. The brightness and the power brightness at the otigin are 450 MA/cm 2 sr and 0.12 TW/cm 2 sr respectively. (author)

  19. Energy dependence of angular distributions of sputtered particles by ion-beam bombardment at normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshinobu; Ueda, Yasutoshi; Uchino, Kiichiro; Muraoka, Katsunori; Maeda, Mitsuo; Akazaki, Masanori; Yamamura, Yasunori.

    1986-01-01

    The angular distributions of sputtered Fe-atoms were measured using the laser fluorescence technique during Ar-ion bombardment for energies of 0.6, 1, 2 and 3 keV at normal incidence. The measured cosine distribution at 0.6 keV progressively deviated to an over-cosine distribution at higher energies, and at 3 keV the angular distribution was an overcosine distribution of about 20 %. The experimental results agree qualitatively with calculations by a recent computer simulation code, ACAT. The results are explained by the competition between surface scattering and the effects of primary knock-on atoms, which tend to make the angular distributions over-cosine and under-cosine, respectively. (author)

  20. Development of an inductively coupled impulse sputtering source for coating deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Daniel Alexander Llewellyn

    In recent years, highly ionised pulsed plasma processes have had a great impact on improving the coating performance of various applications, such as for cutting tools and ITO coatings, allowing for a longer service life and improved defect densities. These improvements stem from the higher ionisation degree of the sputtered material in these processes and with this the possibility of controlling the flux of sputtered material, allowing the regulation of the hardness and density of coatings and the ability to sputter onto complex contoured substrates. The development of Inductively Coupled Impulse Sputtering (ICIS) is aimed at the potential of utilising the advantages of highly ionised plasma for the sputtering of ferromagnetic material. In traditional magnetron based sputter processes ferromagnetic materials would shunt the magnetic field of the magnetron, thus reducing the sputter yield and ionisation efficiency. By generating the plasma within a high power pulsed radio frequency (RF) driven coil in front of the cathode, it is possible to remove the need for a magnetron by applying a high voltage pulsed direct current to the cathode attracting argon ions from the plasma to initiate sputtering. This is the first time that ICIS technology has been deployed in a sputter coating system. To study the characteristics of ICIS, current and voltage waveforms have been measured to examine the effect of increasing RF-power. Plasma analysis has been conducted by optical emission spectroscopy to investigate the excitation mechanisms and the emission intensity. These are correlated to the set RF-power by modelling assumptions based on electron collisions. Mass spectroscopy is used to measure the plasma potential and ion energy distribution function. Pure copper, titanium and nickel coatings have been deposited on silicon with high aspect ratio via to measure the deposition rate and characterise the microstructure. For titanium and nickel the emission modelling results are in

  1. Titanium dioxide fine structures by RF magnetron sputter method deposited on an electron-beam resist mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiba, Hideomi; Miyazaki, Yuta; Matsushita, Sachiko

    2013-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been draw attention for wide range of applications from photonic crystals for visible light range by its catalytic characteristics to tera-hertz range by its high refractive index. We present an experimental study of fabrication of fine structures of TiO2 with a ZEP electron beam resist mask followed by Ti sputter deposition techniques. A TiO2 thin layer of 150 nm thick was grown on an FTO glass substrate with a fine patterned ZEP resist mask by a conventional RF magnetron sputter method with Ti target. The deposition was carried out with argon-oxygen gases at a pressure of 5.0 x 10 -1 Pa in a chamber. During the deposition, ratio of Ar-O2 gas was kept to the ratio of 2:1 and the deposition ratio was around 0.5 Å/s to ensure enough oxygen to form TiO2 and low temperature to avoid deformation of fine pattern of the ZPU resist mask. Deposited TiO2 layers are white-transparent, amorphous, and those roughnesses are around 7 nm. Fabricated TiO2 PCs have wider TiO2 slabs of 112 nm width leaving periodic 410 x 410 nm2 air gaps. We also studied transformation of TiO2 layers and TiO2 fine structures by baking at 500 °C. XRD measurement for TiO2 shows that the amorphous TiO2 transforms to rutile and anatase forms by the baking while keeping the same profile of the fine structures. Our fabrication method can be one of a promising technique to optic devices on researches and industrial area.

  2. Manufacturing of neutral beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, E.D.; Duffy, T.J.; Harter, G.A.; Holland, E.D.; Kloos, W.A.; Pastrone, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Over 50 neutral beam sources (NBS) of the joint Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL)/Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) design have been manufactured, since 1973, in the LLL Neutral Beam Source Facility. These sources have been used to provide start-up and sustaining neutral beams for LLL mirror fusion experiments, including 2XIIB, TMX, and Beta II. Experimental prototype 20-kV and 80-kV NBS have also been designed, built, and tested for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF)

  3. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for HIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1995-04-01

    A high current low emittance high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver HIF (heavy ion fusion) driver accelerator scale beam. Using high-charge-state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system which consists of the gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 2D beam envelope simulations and experimental feasibility studies' results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector

  4. Improvements for extending the time between maintenance periods for the Heidelberg ion beam therapy center (HIT) ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, Tim, E-mail: tim.winkelmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Cee, Rainer; Haberer, Thomas; Naas, Bernd; Peters, Andreas; Schreiner, Jochen [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapie Centrum (HIT), D -69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The clinical operation at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) started in November 2009; since then more than 1600 patients have been treated. In a 24/7 operation scheme two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce protons and carbon ions. The modification of the low energy beam transport line and the integration of a third ion source into the therapy facility will be shown. In the last year we implemented a new extraction system at all three sources to enhance the lifetime of extraction parts and reduce preventive and corrective maintenance. The new four-electrode-design provides electron suppression as well as lower beam emittance. Unwanted beam sputtering effects which typically lead to contamination of the insulator ceramics and subsequent high-voltage break-downs are minimized by the beam guidance of the new extraction system. By this measure the service interval can be increased significantly. As a side effect, the beam emittance can be reduced allowing a less challenging working point for the ion sources without reducing the effective beam performance. This paper gives also an outlook to further enhancements at the HIT ion source testbench.

  5. Prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype ion source for JT-60 neutral beam injectors has been fabricated and tested. Here, we review the construction of the prototype ion source and report the experimental results about the source characteristics that has been obtained at this time. The prototype ion source is now installed at the prototype unit of JT-60 neutral beam injection units and the demonstration of the performances of the ion source and the prototype unit has just started

  6. Silicon oxynitride films deposited by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering using nitrous oxide as a single-source precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hänninen, Tuomas, E-mail: tuoha@ifm.liu.se; Schmidt, Susann; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars; Högberg, Hans [Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Silicon oxynitride thin films were synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of silicon in argon/nitrous oxide plasmas. Nitrous oxide was employed as a single-source precursor supplying oxygen and nitrogen for the film growth. The films were characterized by elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, scanning electron microscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Results show that the films are silicon rich, amorphous, and exhibit a random chemical bonding structure. The optical properties with the refractive index and the extinction coefficient correlate with the film elemental composition, showing decreasing values with increasing film oxygen and nitrogen content. The total percentage of oxygen and nitrogen in the films is controlled by adjusting the gas flow ratio in the deposition processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the film oxygen-to-nitrogen ratio can be tailored by the high power impulse magnetron sputtering-specific parameters pulse frequency and energy per pulse.

  7. Low temperature growth of Co{sub 2}MnSi films on diamond semiconductors by ion-beam assisted sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiwaki, M.; Ueda, K., E-mail: k-ueda@numse.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Asano, H. [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    High quality Schottky junctions using Co{sub 2}MnSi/diamond heterostructures were fabricated. Low temperature growth at ∼300–400 °C by using ion-beam assisted sputtering (IBAS) was necessary to obtain abrupt Co{sub 2}MnSi/diamond interfaces. Only the Co{sub 2}MnSi films formed at ∼300–400 °C showed both saturation magnetization comparable to the bulk values and large negative anisotropic magnetoresistance, which suggests half-metallic nature of the Co{sub 2}MnSi films, of ∼0.3% at 10 K. Schottky junctions formed using the Co{sub 2}MnSi films showed clear rectification properties with rectification ratio of more than 10{sup 7} with Schottky barrier heights of ∼0.8 eV and ideality factors (n) of ∼1.2. These results indicate that Co{sub 2}MnSi films formed at ∼300–400 °C by IBAS are a promising spin source for spin injection into diamond semiconductors.

  8. Very broad beam metal ion source for large area ion implantation application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.; Yao, X.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have made and operated a very broad beam version of vacuum arc ion source and used it to carry out high energy metal ion implantation of a particularly large substrate. A multiple-cathode vacuum arc plasma source was coupled to a 50 cm diameter beam extractor (multiple aperture, accel-decel configuration) operated at a net extraction voltage of up to 50 kV. The metal ion species chosen were Ni and Ta. The mean ion charge state for Ni and Ta vacuum arc plasmas is 1.8 and 2.9, respectively, and so the mean ion energies were up to about 90 and 145 keV, respectively. The ion source was operated in a repetitively pulsed mode with pulse length 250 μs and repetition rate several pulses per second. The extracted beam had a gaussian profile with FWHM about 35 cm, giving a nominal beam area of about 1,000 cm 2 . The current of Ni or Ta metal ions in the beam was up to several amperes. The targets for the ion implantation were a number of 24-inch long, highly polished Cu rails from an electromagnetic rail gun. The rails were located about 80 cm away from the ion source extractor grids, and were moved across a diameter of the vessel in such a way as to maximize the uniformity of the implant along the rail. The saturation retained dose for Ta was limited to about 4 x 10 16 cm -2 because of the rather severe sputtering, in accordance with the theoretical expectations for these implantation conditions. Here they describe the ion source, the implantation procedure, and the kinds of implants that can be produced in this way

  9. Ion beam production with sub-milligram samples of material from an ECR source for AMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R., E-mail: scott@phy.anl.gov; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R. [Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bauder, W. [Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS), Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nuclear Structure Laboratory, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Current accelerator mass spectrometry experiments at the Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System facility at Argonne National Laboratory push us to improve the ion source performance with a large number of samples and a need to minimize cross contamination. These experiments can require the creation of ion beams from as little as a few micrograms of material. These low concentration samples push the limit of our current efficiency and stability capabilities of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source. A combination of laser ablation and sputtering techniques coupled with a newly modified multi-sample changer has been used to meet this demand. We will discuss performance, stability, and consumption rates as well as planned improvements.

  10. Spectral artefacts post sputter-etching and how to cope with them - A case study of XPS on nitride-based coatings using monoatomic and cluster ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Erik; Counsell, Jonathan; Patscheider, Jörg

    2018-06-01

    The issue of artefacts due to sputter-etching has been investigated for a group of AlN-based thin film materials with varying thermodynamical stability. Stability of the materials was controlled by alloying AlN with the group 14 elements Si, Ge or Sn in two different concentrations. The coatings were sputter-etched with monoatomic Ar+ with energies between 0.2 and 4.0 keV to study the sensitivity of the materials for sputter damage. The use of Arn+ clusters to remove an oxidised surface layer was also evaluated for a selected sample. The spectra were compared to pristine spectra obtained after in-vacuo sample transfer from the synthesis chamber to the analysis instrument. It was found that the all samples were affected by high energy (4 keV) Ar+ ions to varying degrees. The determining factors for the amount of observed damage were found to be the materials' enthalpy of formation, where a threshold value seems to exist at approximately -1.25 eV/atom (∼-120 kJ/mol atoms). For each sample, the observed amount of damage was found to have a linear dependence to the energy deposited by the ion beam per volume removed material. Despite the occurrence of sputter-damage in all samples, etching settings that result in almost artefact-free spectral data were found; using either very low energy (i.e. 200 eV) monoatomic ions, or an appropriate combination of ion cluster size and energy. The present study underlines that analysis post sputter-etching must be carried out with an awareness of possible sputter-induced artefacts.

  11. An evaluation of the methods of determining excited state population distributions from sputtering sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowdon, K.J.; Andresen, B.; Veje, E.

    1978-01-01

    The method of calculating relative initial level populations of excited states of sputtered atoms is developed in principle and compared with those in current use. The reason that the latter, although mathematically different, have generally led to similar population distributions is outlined. (Auth.)

  12. Direct growth of Ge quantum dots on a graphene/SiO2/Si structure using ion beam sputtering deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Wang, R F; Zhang, J; Li, H S; Zhang, J; Qiu, F; Yang, J; Wang, C; Yang, Y

    2016-07-29

    The growth of Ge quantum dots (QDs) using the ion beam sputtering deposition technique has been successfully conducted directly on single-layer graphene supported by SiO2/Si substrate. The results show that the morphology and size of Ge QDs on graphene can be modulated by tuning the Ge coverage. Charge transfer behavior, i.e. doping effect in graphene has been demonstrated at the interface of Ge/graphene. Compared with that of traditional Ge dots grown on Si substrate, the positions of both corresponding photoluminescence (PL) peaks of Ge QDs/graphene hybrid structure undergo a large red-shift, which can probably be attributed to the lack of atomic intermixing and the existence of surface states in this hybrid material. According to first-principles calculations, the Ge growth on the graphene should follow the so-called Volmer-Weber mode instead of the Stranski-Krastanow one which is observed generally in the traditional Ge QDs/Si system. The calculations also suggest that the interaction between Ge and graphene layer can be enhanced with the decrease of the Ge coverage. Our results may supply a prototype for fabricating novel optoelectronic devices based on a QDs/graphene hybrid nanostructure.

  13. Spin pumping in ion-beam sputtered C o2FeAl /Mo bilayers: Interfacial Gilbert damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sajid; Kumar, Ankit; Barwal, Vineet; Behera, Nilamani; Akansel, Serkan; Svedlindh, Peter; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2018-02-01

    The spin-pumping mechanism and associated interfacial Gilbert damping are demonstrated in ion-beam sputtered C o2FeAl (CFA)/Mo bilayer thin films employing ferromagnetic resonance spectroscopy. The dependence of the net spin-current transportation on Mo layer thickness, 0 to 10 nm, and the enhancement of the net effective Gilbert damping are reported. The experimental data have been analyzed using spin-pumping theory in terms of spin current pumped through the ferromagnet/nonmagnetic metal interface to deduce the real spin-mixing conductance and the spin-diffusion length, which are estimated to be 1.56 (±0.30 ) ×1019m-2 and 2.61 (±0.15 )nm , respectively. The damping constant is found to be 8.8 (±0.2 ) ×10-3 in the Mo(3.5 nm)-capped CFA(8 nm) sample corresponding to an ˜69 % enhancement of the original Gilbert damping 5.2 (±0.6 ) ×10-3 in the Al-capped CFA thin film. This is further confirmed by inserting the Cu dusting layer which reduces the spin transport across the CFA/Mo interface. The Mo layer thickness-dependent net spin-current density is found to lie in the range of 1 -4 MA m-2 , which also provides additional quantitative evidence of spin pumping in this bilayer thin-film system.

  14. Effect of heat treatment on properties of HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huasong; Jiang, Yugang; Wang, Lishuan; Li, Shida; Yang, Xiao; Jiang, Chenghui; Liu, Dandan; Ji, Yiqin; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Deying

    2017-11-01

    The effects of atmosphere heat treatment on optical, stress, and microstructure properties of an HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering were systematically researched. The relationships among annealing temperature and refractive index, extinction coefficient, physical thickness, forbidden-band width, tape trailer width, Urbach energy, crystal phase structure, and stress were assessed. The results showed that 400 °C is the transformation point, and the microstructure of the HfO2 film changed from an amorphous into mixed-phase structure. Multistage phonons appeared on the HfO2 film, and the trends of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, forbidden-band width change, and Urbach energy shifted from decrease to increase. With the elevation of the annealing temperature, the film thickness increased monotonously, the compressive stress gradually turned to tensile stress, and the transformation temperature point for the stress was between 200 °C and 300 °C. Therefore, the change in the stress is the primary cause for the shifts in thin-film thickness.

  15. Neutron production by neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkner, K.H.; Massoletti, D.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.

    1979-11-01

    Neutron yields, from interactions of multiampere 40- to 120-keV deuterium beams with deuterium atoms implanted in copper targets, have been measured in order to provide input data for shielding of neutral-deuterium beam facilities for magnetic fusion experiments

  16. Neutron production by neutral beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.H.; Massoletti, D.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.

    1979-11-01

    Neutron yields, from interactions of multiampere 40- to 120-keV deuterium beams with deuterium atoms implanted in copper targets, have been measured in order to provide input data for shielding of neutral-deuterium beam facilities for magnetic fusion experiments.

  17. Beam Loss Detection at Radiation Source ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, P; Schurig, R; Langenhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The Rossendorf superconducting Electron Linac of high Brilliance and low Emittance (ELBE) delivers an 40 MeV, 1 mA cw-beam for different applications such as bremsstrahlung production, electron channelling, free-electron lasers or secondary particle beam generation. In this energy region in case of collisions of the electron beam with the pipe nearly all beam power will be deposited into the pipe material. Therefore a reliable beam loss monitoring is essential for machine protection at ELBE. Different systems basing on photo multipliers, compton diodes and long ionization chambers were studied. The pros and cons of the different systems will be discussed. Ionization chambers based on air-isolated RF cables installed some cm away parallel to the beam line turned out to be the optimal solution. The beam shut-off threshold was adjusted to 1 μC integral charge loss during a 100 ms time interval. Due to the favourable geometry the monitor sensitivity varies less than ±50% along the beam line (di...

  18. Electron beam dynamics in Pasotron microwave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmel, Y.; Shkvarunets, A.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Rodgers, J.; Bliokh, Yu.P.; Goebel, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Pasotron is a high efficiency (∼50%), plasma-assisted microwave generator in which the beam electrons exhibit two-dimensional motion in the slow wave structure. The electron beam propagates in the ion-focusing regime (Bennett pinch regime) because there is no applied magnetic field. Since initially only the neutral gas is present in the vacuum system and the ions in the neutralizing plasma channel are produced only due to the beam impact ionization, the beam dynamics in Pasotrons is inherently a nonstationary process, and important for efficient operation. The present paper contains results of experimental studies of stationary and nonstationary effects in the beam dynamics in Pasotrons and their theoretical interpretation

  19. Thermoelectric properties of bismuth antimony tellurium thin films through bilayer annealing prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhuang-hao [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, 518060 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Fan, Ping, E-mail: fanping308@126.com [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, 518060 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Luo, Jing-ting [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, 518060 (China); Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Cai, Xing-min; Liang, Guang-xing; Zhang, Dong-ping [College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenzhen University, 518060 (China); Ye, Fan [Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Sensor Technology, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Bismuth antimony tellurium is one of the most important tellurium-based materials for high-efficient thermoelectric application. In this paper, ion beam sputtering was used to deposit Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} bilayer thin films on borosilicate substrates at room-temperature. Then the bismuth antimony tellurium thin films were synthesized via post thermal treatment of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} bilayer thin films. The effect of annealing temperature and compositions on the thermoelectric properties of the thin films was investigated. After the thin films were annealed from 150 °C to 350 °C for 1 h in the high vacuum condition, the Seebeck coefficient changed from a negative sign to a positive sign. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the synthesized tellurium-based thermoelectric thin film exhibited various alloys phases, which contributed different thermoelectricity conductivity to the synthesized thin film. The overall Seebeck coefficient of the synthesized thin film changed from negative sign to positive sign, which was due to the change of the primary phase of the tellurium-based materials at different annealing conditions. Similarly, the thermoelectric properties of the films were also associated with the grown phase. High-quality thin film with the Seebeck coefficient of 240 μV K{sup −1} and the power factor of 2.67 × 10{sup −3} Wm{sup −1} K{sup −2} showed a single Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} phase when the Sb/Te thin film sputtering time was 40 min. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} thermoelectric thin films synthesized via bilayer annealing • The film has single Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} phase with best thermoelectric performance. • The film has high thermoelectric properties comparable with other best results.

  20. Beam Instrumentation for the Spallation Neutron Source Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Cameron, P. R.; Shea, T. J.; Connolly, R. C.; Kesselman, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will be constructed by a multi-laboratory collaboration with BNL responsible for the transfer lines and ring. The 1 MW beam power necessitates careful monitoring to minimize un-controlled loss. This high beam power will influence the design of the monitors in the high energy beam transport line (HEBT) from linac to ring, in the ring, and in the ring-to-target transfer line (RTBT). The ring instrumentation must cover a 3-decade range of beam intensity during accumulation. Beam loss monitoring will be especially critical since un-controlled beam loss must be kept below 10 -4 . A Beam-In-Gap (BIG) monitor is being designed to assure out-of-bucket beam will not be lost in the ring

  1. Improvement of ionizer and power supply of 860 A sputtering negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Kun; Yu Lingda; Wu Bingbing; Wang Guangfu

    2014-01-01

    A transmission surface type ionizer was developed with a φ2.5 mm stainless steel sheath core heating cable, and the ion source power supply was also improved. A continuous adjustable DC switching power supply was employed instead of the original AC power supply as the ionizer power supply, and a 0 - -20 kV DC power supply at the ground potential as the power of the immersion lens replaced the original 10 kV DC power supply suspended in -20 kV. The variation of the beam intensity of H"- in the front Faraday cup of the GIC4117 2 × 1.7 MV tandetron with the ionizer heating current was also shown. (authors)

  2. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  3. Surface structuring in polypropylene using Ar+ beam sputtering: Pattern transition from ripples to dot nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Meetika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Ojha, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    Temporal variations in nano-scale surface morphology generated on Polypropylene (PP) substrates utilizing 40 keV oblique argon ion beam have been presented. Due to controlled variation of crucial beam parameters i.e. ion incidence angle and erosion time, formation of ripple patterns and further its transition into dot nanostructures have been realized. Experimental investigations have been supported by evaluation of Bradley and Harper (B-H) coefficients estimated using SRIM (The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter) simulations. Roughness of pristine target surfaces has been accredited to be a crucial factor behind the early time evolution of nano-scale patterns over the polymeric surface. Study of Power spectral density (PSD) spectra reveals that smoothing mechanism switch from ballistic drift to ion enhanced surface diffusion (ESD) which can be the most probable cause for such morphological transition under given experimental conditions. Compositional analysis and depth profiling of argon ion irradiated specimens using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) has also been correlated with the AFM findings.

  4. Electron Beam Diagnosis and Dynamics using DIADYN Plasma Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toader, D; Craciun, G; Manaila, E; Oproiu, C [National Institute of Research for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics Bucuresti (Romania); Marghitu, S [ICPE Electrostatica S.A - Bucuresti (Romania)

    2009-11-15

    This paper is presenting results obtained with the DIADYN installation after replacing its vacuum electron source (VES{sub L}V) with a plasma electron source (PES{sub L}V). DIADYN is a low energy laboratory equipment operating with 10 to 50 keV electron beams and designed to help realize non-destructive diagnosis and dynamics for low energy electron beams but also to be used in future material irradiations. The results presented here regard the beam diagnosis and dynamics made with beams obtained from the newly replaced plasma source. We discuss both results obtained in experimental dynamics and dynamics calculation results for electron beams extracted from the SEP{sub L}V source.

  5. Beam-plasma discharge in a Kyoto beam-plasma-ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, J.; Takagi, T.

    1983-01-01

    A beam-plasma type ion source employing an original operating principle has been developed by the present authors. The ion source consists of an ion extraction region with an electron gun, a thin long drift tube as the plasma production chamber, and a primary electron beam collector. An electron beam is effectively utilized for the dual purpose of high density plasma production as a result of beam-plasma discharge, and high current ion beam extraction with ion space-charge compensation. A high density plasma of the order of 10 11 --10 13 cm -3 was produced by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge which was caused by the interaction between a space-charge wave on the electron beam and a high frequency plasma wave. The plasma density then produced was 10 2 --10 3 times the density produced only by collisional ionization by the electron beam. In order to obtain a stable beam-plasma discharge, a secondary electron beam emitted from the electron collector should be utilized. The mechanism of the beam-plasma discharge was analyzed by use of a linear theory in the case of the small thermal energy of the electron beam, and by use of a quasilinear theory in the case of the large thermal energy. High current ion beams of more than 0.1 A were extracted even at a low extraction voltage of 1--5 kV

  6. The influence of target structure on topographical features produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.; Grant, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Ion beam erosion of solid surfaces often results in the development of distinctive topographical features. The relationship between the type of features formed by ion erosion and target structure has been investigated. Single crystals of copper and nickel and the amorphous alloy Metglas have been bombarded to high doses (approx. >=10 19 ions cm -2 ) with 40 keV Ar + and P + . Topography changes were monitored using SEM and structural changes by TEM. Targets that retain their long range crystallinity show sharply defined, regular features that are related to the target structure. Targets that are highly disordered, either intrinsically or as a result of the ion bombardment, produce diffuse, smaller features. Those differences are observed at all stages in topographical evolution. (orig.)

  7. Beam Collimation Studies for the ILC Positron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozhdin, A.; /Fermilab; Nosochkov, Y.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2008-06-26

    Results of the collimation studies for the ILC positron source beam line are presented. The calculations of primary positron beam loss are done using the ELEGANT code. The secondary positron and electron beam loss, the synchrotron radiation along the beam line and the bremsstrahlung radiation in the collimators are simulated using the STRUCT code. The first part of the collimation system, located right after the positron source target (0.125 GeV), is used for protection of the RF Linac sections from heating and radiation. The second part of the system is used for final collimation before the beam injection into the Damping Ring at 5 GeV. The calculated power loss in the collimation region is within 100 W/m, with the loss in the collimators of 0.2-5 kW. The beam transfer efficiency from the target to the Damping Ring is 13.5%.

  8. Low-energy beam transport studies supporting the spallation neutron source 1-MW beam operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B X; Kalvas, T; Tarvainen, O; Welton, R F; Murray, S N; Pennisi, T R; Santana, M; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    The H(-) injector consisting of a cesium enhanced RF-driven ion source and a 2-lens electrostatic low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system supports the spallation neutron source 1 MW beam operation with ∼38 mA beam current in the linac at 60 Hz with a pulse length of up to ∼1.0 ms. In this work, two important issues associated with the low-energy beam transport are discussed: (1) inconsistent dependence of the post-radio frequency quadrupole accelerator beam current on the ion source tilt angle and (2) high power beam losses on the LEBT electrodes under some off-nominal conditions compromising their reliability.

  9. Ion source techniques for high-speed processing of material surface by ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo

    1990-01-01

    The present paper discusses some key or candidate techniques for future ion source development and such ion sources developed by the author. Several types of microwave ion sources for producing low charge state ions have been developed in Japan. When a microwave plasma cathode developed by the author is adapted to a Kaufman type ion source, the electron emission currents are found to be 2.5 A for argon gas and 0.5-0.9 A for oxygen gas. An alternative ionization method for metal atoms is strongly required for high-speed processing of material surface by metal-ion beams. Detailed discussion is made of collisional ionization of vaporized atoms, and negative-ion production (secondary negative-ion emission by sputtering). An impregnated electrode type liquid-metal ion source developed by the author, which has a porous tip structure, is described. The negative-ion production efficiency is quite high. The report also presents a neutral and ionized alkaline-metal bombardment type heavy negative-ion source, which consists of a cesium plasma ion source, suppressor, target electrode, negative-ion extraction electrode, and einzel lens. (N.K.)

  10. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline ITO thin films on glass and clay substrates by ion-beam sputter deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalam, S.; Nanjo, H.; Kawasaki, K.; Wakui, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Ebina, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were prepared on clay-1 (Clay-TPP-LP-SA), clay-2 (Clay-TPP-SA) and glass substrates using ion-beam sputter deposition method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the as-deposited ITO films on both clay-1 and clay-2 substrates were a mixture of amorphous and polycrystalline. But the as-deposited ITO films on glass substrates were polycrystalline. The surface morphologies of as-deposited ITO/glass has smooth surface; in contrast, ITO/clay-1 has rough surface. The surface roughnesses of ITO thin films on glass and clay-1 substrate were calculated as 4.3 and 83 nm, respectively. From the AFM and SEM analyses, the particle sizes of nanocrystalline ITO for a film thickness of 712 nm were calculated as 19.5 and 20 nm, respectively. Optical study showed that the optical transmittance of ITO/clay-2 was higher than that of ITO/clay-1. The sheet resistances of as-deposited ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were calculated as 76.0 and 63.0 Ω/□, respectively. The figure of merit value for as-deposited ITO/clay-2 (12.70 x 10 -3 /Ω) was also higher than that of ITO/clay-1 (9.6 x 10 -3 /Ω), respectively. The flexibilities of ITO/clay-1 and ITO/clay-2 were evaluated as 13 and 12 mm, respectively. However, the ITO-coated clay-2 substrate showed much better optical and electrical properties as well as flexibility as compared to clay-1.

  11. Depth profile investigation of the incorporated iron atoms during Kr{sup +} ion beam sputtering on Si (001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbabaee, B., E-mail: khanbabaee@physik.uni-siegen.de [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Arezki, B.; Biermanns, A. [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany); Cornejo, M.; Hirsch, D. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V. (IOM), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D. [Abteilung Physik, Bergische Universität Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Frost, F. [Leibniz-Institut für Oberflächenmodifizierung e. V. (IOM), Permoserstraße 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Pietsch, U. [Solid State Physics, University of Siegen, D-57068 Siegen (Germany)

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the incorporation of iron atoms during nano-patterning of Si surfaces induced by 2 keV Kr{sup +} ion beam erosion under an off-normal incidence angle of 15°. Considering the low penetration depth of the ions, we have used X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) under grazing-incidence angles in order to determine the depth profile and phase composition of the incorporated iron atoms in the near surface region, complemented by secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy. XRR analysis shows the accumulation of metallic atoms within a near surface layer of a few nanometer thickness. We verify that surface pattern formation takes place only when the co-sputtered Fe concentration exceeds a certain limit. For high Fe concentration, the ripple formation is accompanied by the enhancement of Fe close to the surface, whereas no Fe enhancement is found for low Fe concentration at samples with smooth surfaces. Modeling of the measured XANES spectra reveals the appearance of different silicide phases with decreasing Fe content from the top towards the volume. - Highlights: ► We investigate the incorporation of iron atoms during nano-patterning of Si surfaces. ► Pattern formation occurs when the areal density of Fe exceeds a certain threshold. ► X-ray reflectivity shows a layering at near surface due to incorporated Fe atoms. ► It is shown that the patterning is accompanied with the appearance of Fe-rich silicide.

  12. Study of ion beam sputtered Fe/Si interfaces as a function of Si layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Singh, Priti

    2018-01-01

    The exchange interaction in metal/semiconductor interfaces is far from being completely understood. Therefore, in this paper, we have investigated the nature of silicon on the Fe interface in the ion beam deposited Fe/Si/Fe trilayers keeping the thickness of the Fe layers fixed at 3 nm and varying the thickness of the silicon sandwich layer from 1.5 nm to 4 nm. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques were used, respectively, to study the structural and morphological changes in the deposited films as a function of layer thickness. The structural studies show silicide formation at the interfaces during deposition and better crystalline structure of Fe layers at a lower spacer layer thickness. The magnetization behavior was investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, which clearly shows that coupling between the ferromagnetic layers is highly influenced by the semiconductor spacer layer thickness. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for a value of tSi = 2.5 nm but above this value an unexpected behavior of hysteresis loop (step like) with two coercivity values is recorded. For spacer layer thickness greater than 2.5 nm, an elemental amorphous Si layer starts to appear in the spacer layer in addition to the silicide layer at the interfaces. It is observed that in the trilayer structure, Fe layers consist of various stacks, viz., Si doped Fe layers, ferromagnetic silicide layer, and nonmagnetic silicide layer at the interfaces. The two phase hysteresis loop is explained on the basis of magnetization reversal of two ferromagnetic layers, independent of each other, with different coercivities. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy technique was also used to study interfaces characteristics as a function of tSi.

  13. Automation of neutral beam source conditioning with artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.W.; Lager, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance

  14. Scalar and vector vortex beams from the source

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available . Advanced Solid State Lasers 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC), OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2016), 30 October–3 November 2016, Boston, Massachusetts United States Scalar and vector vortex beams from the source Naidoo, Darryl Roux...

  15. Automation of neutral beam source conditioning with artificial intelligence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.; Lager, D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance

  16. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems.

  17. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  18. Negative ions as a source of low energy neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    Little consideration has been given to the impact of recent developments in negative ion source technology on the design of low energy neutral beam injectors. However, negative ion sources of improved operating efficiency, higher gas efficiency, and smaller beam divergence will lead to neutral deuterium injectors, operating at less than 100 keV, with better operating efficiencies and more compact layouts than can be obtained from positive ion systems

  19. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyash, K; Froehlich, M; Kersten, H; Thieme, G; Schneider, R; Hannemann, M; Hippler, R

    2004-01-01

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed

  20. Rotating dust ring in an RF discharge coupled with a dc-magnetron sputter source. Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyash, K [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Froehlich, M [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Kersten, H [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Thieme, G [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hannemann, M [Institut fuer Niedertemperaturplasmaphysik Greifswald, Fr.-L.-Jahn-Strasse 19, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Hippler, R [Institut fuer Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2004-10-07

    During an experiment involving coating of dust grains trapped in an RF discharge using a sputtering dc-magnetron source, a rotating dust ring was observed and investigated. After the magnetron was switched on, the dust cloud levitating above the RF electrode formed a ring rotating as a rigid body. Langmuir probe diagnostics were used for the measurement of plasma density and potential. It was discovered that the coupling of the dc-magnetron source to the RF discharge causes steep radial gradients in electron density and plasma potential. The rotation of the dust ring is attributed to the azimuthal component of the ion drag force, which appears due to the azimuthal drift of the ions caused by crossed radial electric and axial magnetic fields. In order to get more insight into the mechanism of dust ring rotation, a Particle-in-Cell simulation of a rotating dust cloud was performed. The results of the experiment and simulation are presented and discussed.

  1. Application of ECR ion source beams in atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    The availability of intense, high charge state ion beams from ECR ion sources has had significant impact not only on the upgrading of cyclotron and synchrotron facilities, but also on multicharged ion collision research, as evidenced by the increasing number of ECR source facilities used at least on a part time basis for atomic physics research. In this paper one such facility, located at the ORNL ECR source, and dedicated full time to the study of multicharged ion collisions, is described. Examples of applications of ECR ion source beams are given, based on multicharged ion collision physics studies performed at Oak Ridge over the last few years. 21 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Fundamental limits on beam stability at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G. A.

    1998-01-01

    Orbit correction is now routinely performed at the few-micron level in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. Three diagnostics are presently in use to measure and control both AC and DC orbit motions: broad-band turn-by-turn rf beam position monitors (BPMs), narrow-band switched heterodyne receivers, and photoemission-style x-ray beam position monitors. Each type of diagnostic has its own set of systematic error effects that place limits on the ultimate pointing stability of x-ray beams supplied to users at the APS. Limiting sources of beam motion at present are magnet power supply noise, girder vibration, and thermal timescale vacuum chamber and girder motion. This paper will investigate the present limitations on orbit correction, and will delve into the upgrades necessary to achieve true sub-micron beam stability

  3. Large area negative ion source for high voltage neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    A source of negative deuterium ions in the multi-ampere range is described that is readily extrapolated to reactor size, 10 amp or more of neutral beam, that is of interest in future experiments and reactors. The negative ion source is based upon the double charge exchange process. A beam of positive ions is created and accelerated to an energy at which the attachment process D + M → D - + M + proceeds efficiently. The positive ions are atomically neutralized either in D 2 or in the charge exchange medium M. Atomic species make a second charge exchange collision in the charge target to form D - . For a sufficiently thick target, the beam reaches an equilibrium fraction of negative ions. For reasons of efficiency, the target is typically alkali metal vapor; this experiment uses sodium. The beam of negative ions can be accelerated to high (>200 keV) energy, the electrons stripped from the ions, and a high energy neutral beam formed

  4. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A. E-mail: shcherbakov@kipt.kharkov.ua; Zelinsky, A

    2002-05-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  5. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkikh, P.; Karnaukhov, I.; Telegin, Yu.; Shcherbakov, A.; Zelinsky, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center

  6. Beam dynamics simulation in the X-ray Compton source

    CERN Document Server

    Gladkikh, P; Telegin, Yu P; Shcherbakov, A; Zelinsky, A

    2002-01-01

    At the National Science Center 'Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' the X-ray source based on Compton scattering has been developed. The computer code for simulation of electron beam dynamics with taking into account the Compton scattering effect based on Monte Carlo method is described in this report. The first results of computer simulation of beam dynamics with electron-photon interaction, parameters of electron and photon beams are presented. Calculations were carried out with the lattice of synchrotron light source SRS-800 Ukrainian Synchrotron Center.

  7. Beam optics study of a negative ion source for neutral beam injection application at ASIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jiang-Long; Liang, Li-Zhen [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Cai-Chao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Ya-Hong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chun-Dong; Li, Jun; Gu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Qian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jing-Yong; Wu, Ming-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-04-15

    In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a negative ion source is being designed and constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Through a four electrode grids system inside the accelerator, a negative ion beam will be extracted and accelerated up to −60 kV on a reduced scale extraction area of 12 × 50 cm{sup 2} (the area of PG apertures is 185 cm{sup 2}). The beam optics is a key issue for the accelerator design, and greatly determine the source experimental performance in term of beam current, heat load on the grid, beam divergence, and so on. In this paper, the trajectories of electrons and negative ions were simulated in the electrode grids of the negative ion source. The filter capability of electron deflection magnet on the co-extracted electrons is evaluated and confirmed. The negative ion beam optics was designed according to the calculated results of beam divergence and beam radius along the beamlet in different acceleration voltages. The deflection effect of the electron deflection magnet on the negative ion beam was investigated in the single beamlet case and multi-beamlets case.

  8. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures ∼ 10 -5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10 -4 -10 -1 Torr and electron densities in the range of 10 8 -10 11 cm -3 . Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10 -6 Torr range with densities of 10 11 cm -3 . Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun

  9. RF Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, P. C.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2003-10-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 - 100 times the ion beam density and at a length 0.1-0.5 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An ECR source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 0-10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures 10-5 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10-4 - 10-1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 10^8 - 10^11 cm-3 have been achieved. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10-6 Torr range with densities of 10^11 cm-3. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with NTX and is being used in the experiments. The plasma is approximately 10 cm in length in the direction of the beam propagation. Modifications to the source will be presented that increase its length in the direction of beam propagation.

  10. Geometric considerations in magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The recent development of high performance magnetron type discharge sources has greatly enhaced the range of coating applications where sputtering is a viable deposition process. Magnetron sources can provide high current densities and sputtering rates, even at low pressures. They have much reduced substrate heating rates and can be scaled to large sizes. Magnetron sputter coating apparatuses can have a variety of geometric and plasma configurations. The target geometry affects the emission directions of both the sputtered atoms and the energetic ions which are neutralized and reflected at the cathode. This fact, coupled with the long mean free particle paths which are prevalent at low pressures, can make the coating properties very dependent on the apparatus geometry. This paper reviews the physics of magnetron operation and discusses the influences of apparatus geometry on the use of magnetrons for rf sputtering and reactive sputtering, as well as on the microstructure and internal stresses in sputtered metallic coatings. (author) [pt

  11. Stress, microstructure and evolution under ion irradiation in thin films grown by ion beam sputtering: modelling and application to interfacial effects in metallic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.

    2006-09-01

    We have investigated the formation of the interfacial chemical mixing in Mo/Ni multilayers, and particularly the influence of ballistic effects during the growth. For this purpose, hetero-epitaxial b.c.c./f.c.c. Mo(110)/Ni(111) multilayers were grown by two deposition methods: thermal evaporation and direct ion beam sputtering. As a preliminary, an accurate description of the stress state in pure sputtered Mo thin films was required. Microstructural and stress state analyses were essentially carried out by X-ray diffraction, and ion irradiation was used as a powerful tool to control the stress level. We showed that thermal evaporated thin films exhibit a weak tensile growth stress (∼ 0.6 GPa) that can be accounted for by the grain boundary relaxation model, whereas sputtered thin films develop large compressive growth stress (- 2 to - 4 GPa). This latter results from the bombardment of the growing film by the energetic particles involved during the sputtering process (atomic peening phenomenon), which induces the formation of defects in the layers, generating volume distortions. We thus developed a stress model that includes a hydrostatic stress component to account for these volume strains. This model allowed us to determine the 'unstressed and free of defects lattice parameter' a 0 , solely linked to chemical effects. For epitaxial Mo layers, it was possible to separate coherency stress from growth stress due to their distinct kinetic evolution during ion irradiation. Therefore, the stress analysis enabled us to determine the a 0 values in Mo sub-layers of Mo/Ni superlattices. A tendency to the formation of an interfacial alloy is observed independently of the growth conditions, which suggests that thermodynamic forces favour the exchange mechanism. However, the extent of the intermixing effect is clearly enhanced by ballistic effects. (author)

  12. Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodo, G; Ferrari, A; Massaglia, S [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Turin (Italy). Lab. di Cosmo-Geofisica; Turin Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica)

    1981-08-01

    An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed.

  13. Bending of electromagnetic beams and head-tail radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Turin Univ.

    1981-01-01

    An interpretation is presented of bridge bending in head-tail radio sources in the framework of an electromagnetic beam model. The physical effect responsible for the structural distortion is proposed to be the refraction of a large-amplitude wave in a medium with a density gradient perpendicular to the wave propagation vector; this gradient is consistently produced by the relative motion of the beam source in the surrounding medium with a velocity higher than the speed of sound. These effects are calculated in some detail and a quantitative fit of model parameters to the typical radio source associated with NGC 1265 is discussed. (author)

  14. Pulsed Cs beam development for the BNL polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    A pulsed Cs + beam has been developed for use on a polarized H - source. Cesium ion production is by surface ionization using a porous tungsten ionizer. While satisfactory current pulses (5 to 10 mA greater than or equal to 0.5 ms) can be obtained, the pulse shapes are a sensitive function of the ionizer temperature and Cs surface coverage. The beam optical requirements are stringent, and the optics have been studied experimentally for both Cs + and Cs 0 beams. Computer calculations are in good agreement with the observed results. The present source has delivered 2.6 mA of Cs + through the interaction region of the polarized ion source, and as much as 2.0 particle mA of Cs 0 . A new source is being built which is designed to give 15 mA through the interaction region

  15. Source reconstruction using phase space beam summation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graubart, Gideon.

    1990-10-01

    In this work, the phase-space beam summation technique (PSBS), is applied to back propagation and inverse source problems. The PSBS expresses the field as a superposition of shifted and tilted beams. This phase space spectrum of beams is matched to the source distribution via an amplitude function which expresses the local spectrum of the source function in terms of a local Fourier transform. In this work, the emphasis is on the phase space processing of the data, on the information content of this data and on the back propagation scheme. More work is still required to combine this back propagation approach in a full, multi experiment inverse scattering scheme. It is shown that the phase space distribution of the data, computed via the local spectrum transform, is localized along lines that define the local arrival direction of the wave data. We explore how the choice of the beam width affects the compactification of this distribution, and derive criteria for choosing a window that optimizes this distribution. It should be emphasized that compact distribution implies fewer beams in the back propagation scheme and therefore higher numerical efficiency and better physical insight. Furthermore it is shown how the local information property of the phase space representation can be used to improve the performance of this simple back propagation problem, in particular with regard to axial resolution; the distance to the source can be determined by back propagating only the large angle phase space beams that focus on the source. The information concerning transverse distribution of the source, on the other hand, is contained in the axial phase space region and can therefore be determined by the corresponding back propagating beams. Because of the global nature of the plane waves propagators the conventional plane wave back propagation scheme does not have the same 'focusing' property, and therefore suffers from lack of information localization and axial resolution. The

  16. Experimental research on a double pulsed beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Liansheng; Zhang Linwen; Huang Ziping; Gao Feng; Shi Jinshui; Deng Jianjun

    2004-01-01

    A double pulsed beam generator is built based on 2 MeV linear induction accelerator (LIA) injector. The second power source and 8 inductive cells of the injector are divided into two groups and work alternatively. Electron energy of each beam is up to 1 MeV and the beam duration is 120 ns with adjustable pulse interval (from 200 ns to 800 ns). The voltage amplitude difference of the two pulses can be less than 2%. The electron beams are emitted from a velvet cathode in a vacuum diode. The beam currents are up to 3 kA, measured both by a Faraday cup in anode hole and by a shunt resistor at the rail of the LIA injector. This device can be used to study multi-pulse diode physics and emitting physics of different materials under multi-pulse mode. (author)

  17. Beam position monitor data acquisition for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Kahana, E.; Votaw, A.J.; Decker, G.A.; Chung, Y.; Ciarlette, D.J.; Laird, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) data acquisition scheme for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) storage ring. The storage ring contains 360 beam position monitors distributed around its 1104-meter circumference. The beam position monitor data acquisition system is capable of making turn-by-turn measurements of all BPMs simultaneously. It is VXI-based with each VXI crate containing the electronics for 9 BPMS. The VXI Local Bus is used to provide sustained data transfer rates of up to 13 mega-transfers per second to a scanner module. The system provides single-bunch tracking, bunch-to-bunch measurements, fast digital-averaged positions, beam position history buffering, and synchronized multi-turn measurements. Data is accessible to the control system VME crates via an MXI bus. Dedicated high-speed ports are provided to supply position data to beam orbit feedback systems

  18. Design development of bellows for the DNB beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Venkata Nagaraju, M.; Joshi, Jaydeep; Patel, Hitesh; Yadav, Ashish; Pillai, Suraj; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Chakraborty, A.K.; Sharma, Dheeraj

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a procedure and mechanism for alignment of Ion beams in Neutral Beam (NB) sources for ITER like systems are complex due to large traversal distances (∼21 m) and restricted use of flexible elements into the system. For the beam source of DNB, movement requirements for beam alignment are the combination of tilting (±9mrad), rotation (±9mrad) and translation (±25mm). The present work describes the design development of a system composed of three single ply ‘Gimbal’ type bellow system, placed in series, in L-shaped hydraulic lines (size DN50, DN20 and DN15). The paper shall detail out the generation of initial requirements, transformation of movements at bellow locations, selection of bellows/combination of bellows, minimizing the induced movements by optimization of bellows location, estimation of movements through CEASAR II and the design compliance with respect to EJMA code

  19. Beam focusing by aperture displacement in multiampere ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.D.; Kim, J.; Matsuda, S.

    1975-05-01

    Results are given of an experimental study of beam focusing by aperture displacement (Δx) in duoPIGatron ion sources. Measurements with a single aperture, accel-decel electrode geometry show that the beam deflection angle is linear with Δx/z for the round aperture and with Δx/z* 2 for the slit aperture where z and z* are respectively the extraction gap distance and the effective gap distance. Applying the result of the single aperture study to the multiaperture, duoPIGatron sources, it was possible to increase the neutral beam injection power to the ORMAK plasma by approximately 40 percent. Also presented are discussion and comparison of other work on the effect of aperture displacement on beam deflection. (U.S.)

  20. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, D., E-mail: diego.marcuzzi@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti, 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  1. Beam intensity increases at the intense pulsed neutron source accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potts, C.; Brumwell, F.; Norem, J.; Rauchas, A.; Stipp, V.; Volk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) accelerator system has managed a 40% increase in time average beam current over the last two years. Currents of up to 15.6μA (3.25 x 10 12 protons at 30 Hz) have been successfully accelerated and cleanly extracted. Our high current operation demands low loss beam handling to permit hands-on maintenance. Synchrotron beam handling efficiencies of 90% are routine. A new H - ion source which was installed in March of 1983 offered the opportunity to get above 8 μA but an instability caused unacceptable losses when attempting to operate at 10 μA and above. Simple techniques to control the instabilities were introduced and have worked well. These techniques are discussed below. Other improvements in the regulation of various power supplies have provided greatly improved low energy orbit stability and contributed substantially to the increased beam current

  2. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ting; Kong, Cuicui; Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu; Wang, Aiying

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ti/Al co-doped diamond-like carbon films were fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method. • Process parameters affected the structure and chemical state of co-doped Ti and Al. • The relation between microstructure and properties was investigated systematically. • The guidance to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance was provided. - Abstract: Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C_2H_2 or CH_4 source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/Al co-doped DLC films: Dependence on sputtering current, source gas, and substrate bias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ting [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Kong, Cuicui [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Ningbo University, Ningbo 315201 (China); Li, Xiaowei, E-mail: lixw@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Guo, Peng; Wang, Zhenyu [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Wang, Aiying, E-mail: aywang@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Related Technologies, Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Marine Materials and Protective Technologies, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ti/Al co-doped diamond-like carbon films were fabricated by a hybrid ion beam method. • Process parameters affected the structure and chemical state of co-doped Ti and Al. • The relation between microstructure and properties was investigated systematically. • The guidance to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance was provided. - Abstract: Co-doping two metal elements into diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can reach the desirable combined properties, but the preparation and commercialized application of metal co-doped DLC films with well-defined structural properties are currently hindered by the non-comprehensive understanding of structural evolutions under different process parameters. Here, we fabricated the Ti/Al-DLC films using a unique hybrid ion beam system which enabled the independent control of metal content and carbon structure. The evolutions of microstructure, residual compressive stress and mechanical properties induced by the different process parameters including sputtering currents, C{sub 2}H{sub 2} or CH{sub 4} source gases and bias voltages were investigated systematically in order to perform in-depth analysis on the relation between the structure and properties in Ti/Al-DLC films. Results revealed that the variations of process parameters seriously affected the concentration and chemical bond state of co-doped Ti/Al atoms in amorphous carbon matrix or incident energies of C ions, which brought the complicated effect on amorphous carbon structures, accounting for the change of residual compressive stress, hardness and toughness. The present results provide the guidance for suitable, effective parameters selection to tailor the Ti/Al-DLC films with high performance for further applications.

  4. Electron temperature effects for an ion beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1979-05-01

    A hydrogen high temperature plasma up to 200 eV is produced by acceleration of electrons in a hot hollow cathode discharge and is used as an ion beam source. Then, two characteristics are observed: A rate of the atomic ion (H + ) number increases above 70%. A perveance of the ion beam increases above 30 times compared with that of a cold plasma, while a floating potential of an ion acceleration electrode approaches an ion acceleration potential (- 500 V) according as an increment of the electron temperature. Moreover, a neutralized ion beam can be produced by only the negative floating electrode without an external power supply. (author)

  5. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology in microfabrications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Lili

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 (micro)m-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance

  6. Development of the ion source for PDX neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Gardner, W.L.; Barber, G.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the ion source for neutral beam injection heating of PDX plasma. After a brief description of the plasma generator, the performance characteristics of the source, with different types of grids, are described. Based on test stand results it is concluded that at least two different versions of the source should be able to meet and even exceed the neutral power and energy requirements expected out of PDX injectors

  7. Detail design of the beam source for the SPIDER experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcuzzi, D.; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Pavei, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Tollin, M.; Trevisan, L.

    2010-01-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA-Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated) is planned to be built at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: a full size plasma source with low voltage extraction called SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) and a full size neutral beam injector at full beam power called MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advancement). SPIDER is the first experimental device to be built and operated, aiming at testing the extraction of a negative ion beam (made of H - and in a later stage D - ions) from an ITER size ion source. The main requirements of this experiment are a H - /D - current of approximately 70 A/50 A and an energy of 100 keV. This paper presents an overview of the SPIDER beam source design, with a particular focus on the main design choices, aiming at reaching the best compromise between physics, optics, thermo-mechanical, cooling, assembly and electrical requirements.

  8. Effects of deposition and post-annealing conditions on electrical properties and thermal stability of TiAlN films by ion beam sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2006-01-01

    TiAlN films were deposited by ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) using a Ti-Al (90/10) alloy target in a nitrogen atmosphere on thermal oxidized Si wafers. Effects of ion beam voltage, substrate temperature (T s ) and post-annealing conditions on electrical properties and oxidation resistance of TiAlN films were studied. According to the experimental results, the proper kinetic energy provided good crystallinity and a dense structure of the films. Because of their better crystallinity and predomination of (200) planes, TiAlN films deposited with 900 V at low T s (50 deg. C) have shown lower resistivity than those at high T s (250 deg. C). They also showed better oxidation resistance. If the beam voltage was too high, it caused some damage to the film surfaces, which caused poor oxidation resistance of films. When sufficient kinetic energy was provided by the beam voltage, the mobility of adatoms was too high due to their extra thermal energy, thus reducing the crystallinity and structure density of the films. A beam voltage of 900 V and a substrate temperature of 50 deg. C were the optimum deposition conditions used in this research. They provided good oxidation resistance and low electrical resistivity for IBSD TiAlN films

  9. Phase II beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomlinson, W.

    1984-06-01

    The expansion of the National Synchrotron Light Source has been funded by the US Department of Energy. The Phase II program consists of both increased conventional facilities and six new beam lines. In this paper, an overview of the six beam lines which will be constructed during Phase II is presented. For five of the lines special radiation sources are necessary and the designs of four of the devices are complete. The relevant parameters of the insertion devices under construction and development are presented

  10. Beam shaping of light sources using circular photonic crystal funnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mrityunjay; Kumar, Mithun; Dinesh Kumar, V.

    2012-10-01

    A novel two-dimensional circular photonic crystal (CPC) structure with a sectorial opening for shaping the beam of light sources was designed and investigated. When combined with light sources, the structure acts like an antenna emitting a directional beam which could be advantageously used in several nanophotonic applications. Using the two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (2D FDTD) method, we examined the effects of geometrical parameters of the structure on the directional and transmission properties of emitted radiation. Further, we examined the transmitting and receiving properties of a pair of identical structures as a function of distance between them.

  11. Long plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grant Logan, Larry B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William

    2009-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage (∼8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO 3 source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5x10 10 cm -3 density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios ∼120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high-energy-density physics applications.

  12. Ferroelectric plasma source for heavy ion beam space charge neutralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Grisham, Larry; Grant Logan, B.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon S.

    2007-01-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size and compress their axial pulse length. The plasma source should be able to operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally applied electric or magnetic fields. To produce 1 m-long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients are being developed. The sources utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO 3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic material, and high voltage (∼7 kV) will be applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A prototype ferroelectric source, 20 cm in length, has produced plasma densities of 5x10 11 cm -3 . It was integrated into the Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K + ion beam. A 1 m-long source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested. Simply connecting the five sources in parallel to a single pulse forming network power supply yielded non-uniform performance due to the time-dependent nature of the load that each of the five plasma sources experiences. Other circuit combinations have been considered, including powering each source by its own supply. The 1-m-long source has now been successfully characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma over the 1 m length of the source in the mid-10 10 cm -3 density range. This source will be integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments

  13. Pumping requirements and options for molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCollum, M.J.; Plano, M.A.; Haase, M.A.; Robbins, V.M.; Jackson, S.L.; Cheng, K.Y.; Stillman, G.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of gas sources in growth by MBE as a result of current interest in growth of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs lattice matched to InP. For gas flows greater than a few sccm, pumping speed requirements dictate the use of turbomolecular or diffusion pumps. GaAs samples with high p-type mobilities have been grown with diffusion pumped molecular beam epitaxial system. According to the authors, this demonstration of the inherent cleanliness of a properly designed diffusion pumping system indicates that a diffusion pump is an excellent inexpensive and reliable choice for growth by molecular beam epitaxy and gas source molecular beam epitaxy/chemical beam epitaxy

  14. Sputtered catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyerman, W.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for preparing a supported catalyst by a sputtering process. A material that is catalytic, or which is a component of a catalytic system, is sputtered on to the surface of refractory oxide particles that are compatible with the sputtered material and the sputtered particles are consolidated into aggregate form. The oxide particles before sputtering should have a diameter in the range 1000A to 50μ and a porosity less than 0.4 ml/g, and may comprise MgO, Al 2 O 3 or SiO 2 or mixtures of these oxides, including hydraulic cement. The particles may possess catalytic activity by themselves or in combination with the catalytic material deposited on them. Sputtering may be effected epitaxially and consolidation may be effected by compaction pelleting, extrusion or spray drying of a slurry. Examples of the use of such catalysts are given. (U.K.)

  15. Heavy ion beams from the new Hungarian ECR ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biri, S.; Valek, A.; Ditroi, F.; Koivisto, H.; Arje, J.; Stiebing, K.; Schmidt, L.

    1998-01-01

    The first beams of highly charged ions in Hungary were obtained in fall of 1996. The new 14.5 GHz ECR ion source of ATOMKI produced beams of multiply charged ions with remarkable intensities at first experiments. Since then, numerous further developments were carried out. An external electrondonor electrode drastically increased the plasma density and, consequently, the intensity of highly charged ions. These upgrades concentrated mainly on beams from gaseous elements and were carried out by the ECRIS team of ATOMKI. Another series of experiments - ionising from solids - however, was done in the framework of an international collaboration. The first metal ion beam has been extracted from the ECRIS in November 1997 using the known method of Metal Ions from Volatile Compounds (MIVOC). The possibility to put the MIVOC chamber inside the ion source was also tested and the dosing regulation problem of metal vapours inside the ion source was solved. As a result, beams of more than 10 μA of highly charged Fe and Ni ions were produced. (author)

  16. A Compact, High-Flux Cold Atom Beam Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James R.; Kohel, James M.; Thompson, Robert J.; Aveline, David C.; Yu, Nan; Schlippert, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cold atom experiments relying on three-dimensional magneto-optical trap techniques can be greatly enhanced by employing a highflux cold atom beam to obtain high atom loading rates while maintaining low background pressures in the UHV MOT (ultra-high vacuum magneto-optical trap) regions. Several techniques exist for generating slow beams of cold atoms. However, one of the technically simplest approaches is a two-dimensional (2D) MOT. Such an atom source typically employs at least two orthogonal trapping beams, plus an additional longitudinal "push" beam to yield maximum atomic flux. A 2D atom source was created with angled trapping collimators that not only traps atoms in two orthogonal directions, but also provides a longitudinal pushing component that eliminates the need for an additional push beam. This development reduces the overall package size, which in turn, makes the 2D trap simpler, and requires less total optical power. The atom source is more compact than a previously published effort, and has greater than an order of magnitude improved loading performance.

  17. Electron beam welding of iridium heat source capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaleski, T.M.; Yearwood, J.C.; Burgan, C.E.; Green, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the welding procedures for the production of DOP-26 iridium alloy cups for heat source encapsulation is described. All the final assembly welds were made using the electron beam welding process. The welding of the 0.13-mm weld shield required the use of computer controlled X-Y table and a run-off tab. Welding of the frit vent to the cup required that a laser weld be made to hold the frit assembly edges together for the final electron beam weld. Great care is required in tooling design and beam placement to achieve acceptable results. Unsuccessful attempts to use laser beam welding for heat shield butt weld are discussed

  18. Localisation of beam offset jitter sources at ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Pfingstner, J; Patecki, M; Schulte, D; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    For the commissioning and operation of modern particle accelerators, automated error detection and diagnostics methods are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we present two such methods, which are capable of localising sources of beam offset jitter with a combination of correlation studies and so called degree of freedom plots. The methods were applied to the ATF2 beam line at KEK, where one of the major goals is the reduction of the beam offset jitter. Results of this localisation are shown in this paper. A big advantage of the presented method is its high robustness especially to varying optics parameters. Therefore, we believe that the developed beam offset jitter localisation methods can be easily applied to other accelerators.

  19. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and {gamma}-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries.

  20. Preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Jeong, Young Uk; Cho, Sung Oh; Yoo, Jae Gwon; Park, Seong Hee

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary design of the advanced quantum beam source based on a superconducting electron accelerator is presented. The advanced quantum beams include: high power free electron lasers, monochromatic X-rays and γ-rays, high-power medium-energy electrons, high-flux pulsed neutrons, and high-flux monochromatic slow positron beam. The AQBS system is being re-designed, assuming that the SPS superconducting RF cavities used for LEP at CERN will revived as a main accelerator of the AQBS system at KAERI, after the decommissioning of LEP at the end of 2000. Technical issues of using the SPS superconducting RF cavities for the AQBS project are discussed in this report. The advanced quantum beams will be used for advanced researches in science and industries

  1. ECR plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Kolchin, Pavel; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-01-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being considered as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus beyond the space-charge limit. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1 100 times the ion beam density and at a length [similar]0.1 2 m would be suitable for achieving a high level of charge neutralization. An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) to support a joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The ECR source operates at 13.6 MHz and with solenoid magnetic fields of 1 10 gauss. The goal is to operate the source at pressures [similar]10[minus sign]6 Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10[minus sign]4 10[minus sign]1 Torr. Electron densities in the range of 108 to 1011 cm[minus sign]3 have been achieved. Low-pressure operation is important to reduce ion beam ionization. A cusp magnetic field has been installed to improve radial confinement and reduce the field strength on the beam axis. In addition, axial confinement is believed to be important to achieve lower-pressure operation. To further improve breakdown at low pressure, a weak electron source will be placed near the end of the ECR source. This article also describes the wave damping mechanisms. At moderate pressures (> 1 mTorr), the wave damping is collisional, and at low pressures (< 1 mTorr) there is a distinct electron cyclotron resonance.

  2. Optimization of atomic beam sources for polarization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Martin; Nass, Alexander; Stroeher, Hans [IKP, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    For experiments with spin-polarized protons and neutrons a dense target is required. In current atomic beam sources an atomic hydrogen or deuterium beam is expanded through a cold nozzle and a system of sextupole magnets and RF-transition units selects a certain hyperfine state. The achievable flux seems to be limited to about 10{sup 17} particles per second with a high nuclear polarization. A lot of experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken to understand all effects and to increase the flux. However, improvements have remained marginal. Now, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the DSMC part of the open source C++ library OpenFOAM is set up in order to get a better understanding of the flow and to optimize the various elements. It is intended to include important effects like deflection from magnetic fields, recombination on the walls and spin exchange collisions in the simulation and make quantitative predictions of changes in the experimental setup. The goal is to get a tool that helps to further increase the output of an atomic beam source. So far, a new binary collision model, magnetic fields, RF-transition units and a tool to measure the collision age are included. The next step will be to couple the whole simulation with an optimization algorithm implementing Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) in order to automatically optimize the atomic beam source.

  3. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  4. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  5. Nuclear fusion ion beam source composed of optimum channel wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukaw, T.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Numerical and experimental researches of the hall-type beam accelerator was conducted by highlighting both neutral species and material of acceleration channel wall. The hall-type beam accelerator is expected as ion beam source for nuclear fusion since it could product ion beam density over 10 3 times as high as that of electrostatic accelerator, which is used regularly as beam heating device, because it is proven that the beam heating method could accelerate ion to high energy beam by electric field and heat plasma to ultra high temperature of 100 million degrees or more. At high-voltage mode of DC regime that is normal operational condition, however, the various plasma MHD (magneto-hydrodynamic) instabilities are generated. In particular, the large-amplitude and low-frequency plasma MHD instability in the tens of kHz among them has been a serious problem that should be solved to improve the operational stability and the system durability. So, we propose a hall-type beam accelerator with new design concepts; both acquisition of simultaneous solution for reducing the plasma MHD instability and the accelerator core overheating and optimum combination of the acceleration channel wall material. The technologies for this concept are as follows: 1) To increase neutral species velocity-inlet in acceleration channel by preheating propellant through circularly propellant conduit line inside accelerator system could bring about the lower amplitude of the instability. 2) Through this method, the accelerator system is cooled, and the higher thrust and specific-impulse is produced with hardly changing thrust efficiency at the same time. 3) To select BN (Boron- Nitride) and Al 2 O 3 as wall material of ionization- and acceleration-zone in acceleration channel respectively having different secondary-electron emission-coefficient could achieve the higher-efficiency and -durability. The hall-type beam accelerator designed using these technologies

  6. Flat-beam Rf photocathode sources for linear collider applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Laser driven rf photocathodes represent a recent advance in high-brightness electron beam sources. The authors investigate here a variation on these devices, that obtained by using a ribbon laser pulse to illuminate the cathode, yielding a flat beam (σ x much-gt σ y ) which has asymmetric emittances at the cathode proportional to the beam size each transverse dimension. The flat-beam geometry mitigates space charge forces which lead to intensity dependent transverse and longitudinal emittance growth, thus limiting the beam brightness. The fundamental limit on achievable emittance and brightness is set by the transverse momentum distribution and peak current density of the photoelectrons (photon energy and cathode material dependent effects) and appears to allow, taking into account space charge and rf effects, normalized emittances ε x -5 m-rad and ε -6 m-rad, with Q = 5 nC and σ z = 1 mm. These source emittances are adequate for superconducting linear collider applications, and could preclude the use of a damping ring for the electrons in these schemes

  7. Development of high-polarization Fe/Ge neutron polarizing supermirror: Possibility of fine-tuning of scattering length density in ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, R.; Yamazaki, D.; Akutsu, K.; Hanashima, T.; Miyata, N.; Aoki, H.; Takeda, M.; Soyama, K.

    2018-04-01

    The multilayer structure of Fe/Si and Fe/Ge systems fabricated by ion beam sputtering (IBS) was investigated using X-ray and polarized neutron reflectivity measurements and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The obtained result revealed that the incorporation of sputtering gas particles (Ar) in the Ge layer gives rise to a marked reduction in the neutron scattering length density (SLD) and contributes to the SLD contrast between the Fe and Ge layers almost vanishing for spin-down neutrons. Bundesmann et al. (2015) have shown that the implantation of primary Ar ions backscattered at the target is responsible for the incorporation of Ar particles and that the fraction increases with increasing ion incidence angle and increasing polar emission angle. This leads to a possibility of fine-tuning of the SLD for the IBS, which is required to realize a high polarization efficiency of a neutron polarizing supermirror. Fe/Ge polarizing supermirror with m = 5 fabricated under the same condition showed a spin-up reflectivity of 0.70 at the critical momentum transfer. The polarization was higher than 0.985 for the qz range where the correction for the polarization inefficiencies of the beamline works properly. The result of the polarized neutron reflectivity measurement suggests that the "magnetically-dead" layers formed at both sides of the Fe layer, together with the SLD contrast, play a critical role in determining the polarization performance of a polarizing supermirror.

  8. LEVIS ion source and beam characterization on PBFA-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renk, T.J.; Tisone, G.C.; Adams, R.G.; Bailey, J.E.; Filuk, A.B.; Johnson, D.J.; Pointon, T.D.

    1993-01-01

    We report on the continuing development of the LEVIS (Laser Evaporation Ion Source) lithium active ion source for the 15-cm radial focussing ion diode on PBFA-11. We found previously that DC-heating of the anode surface to 150 degrees C maximum for 5 hours resulted in a pure lithium beam. This paper discusses the characterization of LEVIS source uniformity by Faraday cup arrays and multiple lines of sight for visible light spectroscopy. These diagnostics give some evidence of nonuniformity in both A-K gap electric fields and ion current density. Despite this, however, the measured focal spot size appears smaller than with a passive LiF source operated in the same magnetic field topology. Experiments using a curved anode for vertical beam focussing show reduced ion beam turn-on delay by 5 ns by altering the magnetic field topology as well as anode curvature. Another 3--5 ns reduction was achieved by switching from a passive LiF to the active LEVIS source

  9. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y. [Energy Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm{sup 2} at the peak of the pulse.

  10. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  11. Extraction design and low energy beam transport optimization of space charge dominated multispecies ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delferriere, O.; De Menezes, D.

    2004-01-01

    In all accelerator projects, the low energy part of the accelerator has to be carefully optimized to match the beam characteristic requirements of the higher energy parts. Since 1994 with the beginning of the Injector of Protons for High Intensity (IPHI) project and Source of Light Ions with High Intensities (SILHI) electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source development at CEA/Saclay, we are using a set of two-dimensional (2D) codes for extraction system optimization (AXCEL, OPERA-2D) and beam transport (MULTIPART). The 95 keV SILHI extraction system optimization has largely increased the extracted current, and improved the beam line transmission. From these good results, a 130 mA D + extraction system for the International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility project has been designed in the same way as SILHI one. We are also now involved in the SPIRAL 2 project for the building of a 40 keV D + ECR ion source, continuously tunable from 0.1 to 5 mA, for which a special four-electrode extraction system has been studied. In this article we will describe the 2D design process and present the different extraction geometries and beam characteristics. Simulation results of SILHI H + beam emittance will be compared with experimental measurements

  12. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomic fraction >90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  13. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm 2 and with atomic fraction > 90% was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D + beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. They observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  14. The rf-power dependences of the deposition rate, the hardness and the corrosion-resistance of the chromium nitride film deposited by using a dual ion beam sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jongmin; Lee, Chongmu

    2006-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium used in chromium plating is so toxic that it is very hazardous to human body and possibly causes cancer in humans. Therefore, it is indispensable to develop an alternative deposition technique. Dependences of the deposition rate, the phases, the hardness, the surface roughness and the corrosion-resistance of CrN x deposited on the high speed steel substrate by using a dual ion beam sputtering system on the rf-power were investigated to see the feasibility of sputtering as an alternative technique for chromium plating. The dual ion beam sputtering system used in this study was designed in such a way as the primary argon ion beam and the secondary nitrogen ion beam are injected toward the target and the substrate, respectively so that the chromium atoms at the chromium target surface may not nearly react with nitrogen atoms. The hardness and the surface roughness were measured by a micro-Vicker's hardness tester and an atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. X-ray diffraction analyses were performed to identify phases in the films. The deposition rate of CrN x depends more strongly upon the rf-power for argon ion beam than that for nitrogen ion beam. The hardness of the CrN x film is highest when the volume percent of the Cr 2 N phase in the film is highest. Amorphous films are obtained when the rf-power for nitrogen ion beam is much higher than that for argon ion beam. The CrN x film deposited by using the sputtering technique under the optimal condition provides corrosion-resistance comparable to that of the electroplated chromium

  15. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-11-15

    plasma physics group of the Technische Universitat Darmstadt initiated the development of a test stand to transport, focus and bunch rotate these beams by conventional ion optics and RF technology. The field strength of 7.5 T enabled collimation of protons with an energy of >10 MeV for the first time. In addition, the focusing capability of the solenoid provided a flux increase in the focal spot of about a factor of 174 at a distance of 40 cm from the source, compared to a beam without using the magnetic field. For a quantitative analysis of the experiment numerical simulations with the WarpRZ code were performed. The code, which was originally developed to study high current ion beams and aid in the pursuit of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion, was modified to enable the use of laser-accelerated proton beams as particle source. The calculated energy-resolved beam parameters of RIS could be included, and the plasma simulation criteria were studied in detail. The geometrical boundaries of the experimental setup were used in the simulations. 2.99 x 10{sup 9} collimated protons in the energy range of 13.5{+-}1 MeV could be transported over a distance of 40 cm. In addition, 8.42 x 10{sup 9} protons in the energy range of 6.7{+-}0.2 MeV were focused into a spot of <2 mm in diameter. The transmission through the solenoid for both cases was about 18%. (orig.)

  16. Laser-accelerated proton beams as a new particle source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberg, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Darmstadt initiated the development of a test stand to transport, focus and bunch rotate these beams by conventional ion optics and RF technology. The field strength of 7.5 T enabled collimation of protons with an energy of >10 MeV for the first time. In addition, the focusing capability of the solenoid provided a flux increase in the focal spot of about a factor of 174 at a distance of 40 cm from the source, compared to a beam without using the magnetic field. For a quantitative analysis of the experiment numerical simulations with the WarpRZ code were performed. The code, which was originally developed to study high current ion beams and aid in the pursuit of heavy-ion driven inertial confinement fusion, was modified to enable the use of laser-accelerated proton beams as particle source. The calculated energy-resolved beam parameters of RIS could be included, and the plasma simulation criteria were studied in detail. The geometrical boundaries of the experimental setup were used in the simulations. 2.99 x 10 9 collimated protons in the energy range of 13.5±1 MeV could be transported over a distance of 40 cm. In addition, 8.42 x 10 9 protons in the energy range of 6.7±0.2 MeV were focused into a spot of <2 mm in diameter. The transmission through the solenoid for both cases was about 18%. (orig.)

  17. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  18. Low-temperature growth of (2 1-bar 1-bar 0) ZnO nanofilm on NaCl (0 0 1) surface by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Jung-Hsiung; Yeh, Sung-Wei; Huang, Hsing-Lu; Gan, Dershin

    2009-01-01

    ZnO nanofilm of the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) surface was prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition. The nanofilm was prepared on NaCl (0 0 1) surface at 200 o C to produce nearly pure (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO texture and the orientation relationship was determined and the interface discussed. Transmission electron microscopy lattice images were used to find the interface formed between ZnO nanocrystals. The ZnO nanocrystals coalesced to form a straight (0 1 -bar 1 -bar 2) interface. The photoluminescence spectrum from the (2 1 -bar 1 -bar 0) ZnO surface showed only a near-band-edge UV emission peak.

  19. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Oxygen Flow in the Properties of Ion Beam Sputtered SnO-₂x Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Min; Huang, Chun-Chieh; Kuo, Jui-Chao; Sahu, Dipti Ranjan; Huang, Jow-Lay

    2015-08-14

    Tin oxide (SnO 2-x ) thin films were prepared under various flow ratios of O₂/(O₂ + Ar) on unheated glass substrate using the ion beam sputtering (IBS) deposition technique. This work studied the effects of the flow ratio of O₂/(O₂ + Ar), chamber pressures and post-annealing treatment on the physical properties of SnO₂ thin films. It was found that annealing affects the crystal quality of the films as seen from both X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. In addition, the surface RMS roughness was measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) analysis was used to obtain the changes of elemental distribution between tin and oxygen atomic concentration. The electrical property is discussed with attention to the structure factor.

  20. Realization of synaptic learning and memory functions in Y2O3 based memristive device fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mangal; Kumar, Amitesh; Singh, Rohit; Than Htay, Myo; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-02-01

    Single synaptic device with inherent learning and memory functions is demonstrated based on a forming-free amorphous Y2O3 (yttria) memristor fabricated by dual ion beam sputtering system. Synaptic functions such as nonlinear transmission characteristics, long-term plasticity, short-term plasticity and ‘learning behavior (LB)’ are achieved using a single synaptic device based on cost-effective metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure. An ‘LB’ function is demonstrated, for the first time in the literature, for a yttria based memristor, which bears a resemblance to certain memory functions of biological systems. The realization of key synaptic functions in a cost-effective MIS structure would promote much cheaper synapse for artificial neural network.

  1. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of ion beam sputtered indium tin oxide films as a function of oxygen pressure during deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.J.; Aharoni, H.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was performed on ion beam sputter deposited films of indium tin oxide as a function of O 2 partial pressure during deposition. The oxygen partial pressure was varied over the range of 2.5 x 10 -6 --4.0 x 10 -5 Torr. Changes in composition as well as in the deconvoluted In 3d 5 /sub // 2 , Sn 3d 5 /sub // 2 , and O 1s core level spectra were observed and correlated with the variation of the oxygen partial pressure during deposition. Results show that the films become increasingly stoichiometric as P/sub =/ is increased and that the excess oxygen introduced during deposition is bound predominantly to the Sn and has little or no effect on the In--O bonding

  2. Effect of Annealing Temperature and Oxygen Flow in the Properties of Ion Beam Sputtered SnO—2x Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Min Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide (SnO2—x thin films were prepared under various flow ratios of O2/(O2 + Ar on unheated glass substrate using the ion beam sputtering (IBS deposition technique. This work studied the effects of the flow ratio of O2/(O2 + Ar, chamber pressures and post-annealing treatment on the physical properties of SnO2 thin films. It was found that annealing affects the crystal quality of the films as seen from both X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM analysis. In addition, the surface RMS roughness was measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES analysis was used to obtain the changes of elemental distribution between tin and oxygen atomic concentration. The electrical property is discussed with attention to the structure factor.

  3. A modified high-intensity Cs sputter negative-ion source with multi-target mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Houzhi; Zhang Weizhong; Zhu Jinhau; Du Guangtian; Zhang Tiaorong; Gao Xiang

    1993-01-01

    The source is based on Middleton's high-intensity mode, but modified to a multi-target version. It is equipped with a spherical molybdenum ionizer, a 20-position target wheel and a vacuum lock for loading and unloading sample batches. A metal-ceramic bonded section protected by a specially designed labyrinth shielding system results in reliable insulation of the cathode and convenient control of cesium vapor. The latter is particularly important when an oversupply of cesium occurs. The source was developed for accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications. Recently, three versions based on the prototype of the source have been successfully tested to meet different requirements: (a) Single target version, (b) multi-target version with manual sample change, and (c) multi-target version with remote control sample change. Some details of the technical and operational characteristics are presented. (orig.)

  4. The Spallation Neutron Source Beam Commissioning and Initial Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Stuart [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Aleksandrov, Alexander V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allen, Christopher K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Assadi, Saeed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bartoski, Dirk [University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center; Blokland, Willem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Casagrande, F. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Campisi, I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chu, C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Cousineau, Sarah M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crofford, Mark T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Danilov, Viatcheslav [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Deibele, Craig E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dodson, George W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feshenko, A. [Inst. for Nuclear Research (INR), Moscow (Russian Federation); Galambos, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Han, Baoxi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hardek, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holmes, Jeffrey A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Holtkamp, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Howell, Matthew P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jeon, D. [Inst. for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea); Kang, Yoon W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kasemir, Kay [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kim, Sang-Ho [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kravchuk, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), Moscow (Russian Federation); Long, Cary D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McManamy, T. [McManamy Consulting, Inc., Middlesex, MA (United States); Pelaia, II, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Piller, Chip [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Plum, Michael A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pogge, James R. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States); Purcell, John David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shea, T. [European Spallation Source, Lund (Sweden); Shishlo, Andrei P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sibley, C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stockli, Martin P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stout, D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Tanke, E. [European Spallation Source, Lund (Sweden); Welton, Robert F [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Y. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Zhukov, Alexander P [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator delivers a one mega-Watt beam to a mercury target to produce neutrons used for neutron scattering materials research. It delivers ~ 1 GeV protons in short (< 1 us) pulses at 60 Hz. At an average power of ~ one mega-Watt, it is the highest-powered pulsed proton accelerator. The accelerator includes the first use of superconducting RF acceleration for a pulsed protons at this energy. The storage ring used to create the short time structure has record peak particle per pulse intensity. Beam commissioning took place in a staged manner during the construction phase of SNS. After the construction, neutron production operations began within a few months, and one mega-Watt operation was achieved within three years. The methods used to commission the beam and the experiences during initial operation are discussed.

  5. Identification and roles of nonstoichiometric oxygen in amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films deposited by electron beam and sputtering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannequin, Cedric, E-mail: MANNEQUIN.Cedricromuald@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Tsuruoka, Tohru [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi [Department of Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Aono, Masakazu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A detail study of the composition and morphology of amorphous tantalum oxide films obtained by electron-beam evaporation and radio-frequency sputtering is carried out. • The mechanisms for moisture absorption by tantalum oxides are proposed. • Deposition-dependent high oxygen stoichiometry of the films is revealed. • Formations of dangling bonds, hydroxyls groups and bidendate water bridges are identified to support the moisture absorption. - Abstract: The morphology and composition of tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films prepared by electron-beam (EB) evaporation and radio-frequency sputtering (SP) were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectometry (XRR), atomic force microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). GIXRD revealed an amorphous nature for both films, and XRR showed that the density of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-EB films was lower than that of the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-SP films; both films have lower density than the bulk value. A larger amount of molecular water and peroxo species were detected for the Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-EB films by FTIR performed in ambient atmosphere. XPS analyses performed in vacuum confirmed the presence of hydroxyl groups, but no trace of chemisorbed molecular water was detected. In addition, a higher oxygen nonstoichiometry (higher O/Ta ratio) was found for the EB films. From these results, we conclude that the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the EB film accounted for its lower density and higher amount of absorbed molecular water. The results also suggest the importance of understanding the dependence of the structural and chemical properties of thin amorphous oxide films on the deposition process.

  6. Growth stress buildup in ion beam sputtered Mo thin films and comparative study of stress relaxation upon thermal annealing or ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelle, A.; Abadias, G.; Michel, A.; Jaouen, C.; Pelosin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to address the understanding of the origin of growth stress in thin films deposited under very energetic conditions, the authors investigated the stress state and microstructure of Mo thin films grown by ion beam sputtering (IBS) as well as the stress relaxation processes taking place during subsequent thermal annealing or ion irradiation. Different sets of samples were grown by varying the IBS deposition parameters, namely, the energy E 0 and the flux j of the primary ion beam, the target-to-sputtering gas mass ratio M 1 /M 2 as well as film thickness. The strain-stress state was determined by x-ray diffraction using the sin 2 ψ method and data analyzed using an original stress model which enabled them to correlate information at macroscopic (in terms of stress) and microscopic (in terms of defect concentration) levels. Results indicate that these refractory metallic thin films are characterized by a high compressive growth stress (-2.6 to -3.8 GPa), resulting from the creation of a large concentration (up to ∼1.4%) of point or cluster defects, due to the atomic peening mechanism. The M 1 /M 2 mass ratio enables tuning efficiently the mean deposited energy of the condensing atoms; thus, it appears to be the more relevant deposition parameter that allows modifying both the microstructure and the stress level in a significant way. The growth stress comes out to be highly unstable. It can be easily relaxed either by postgrowth thermal annealing or ion irradiation in the hundred keV range at very low dose [<0.1 dpa (displacement per atom)]. It is shown that thermal annealing induces deleterious effects such as oxidation of the film surface, decrease of the film density, and in some cases adhesion loss at the film/substrate interface, while ion irradiation allows controlling the stress level without generating any macroscopic damage

  7. Negative hydrogen ion sources for neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.

    1977-01-01

    Negative ion sources offer an attractive alternative in the design of high energy neutral beam injectors. The requirements call for a single source unit capable of yielding H - or D - beam currents of up to 10 A, operating with pulses of 1 s duration or longer, with gas and power efficiencies comparable to or better than achievable with double electron capture systems. H - beam currents of up to 1 A have already been achieved in pulses of 10 ms; gas and power efficiencies were, however, lower than required. In order to increase the H - yield, extend the pulse length and improve gas and power efficiencies fundamental processes in the source plasma and on cesium covered electrode surfaces have to be analyzed; these processes will be briefly reviewed and scaling rules established. Based on these considerations as well as on results obtained with 1 A source models a larger model was designed and constructed, having a 7.5 cm long cathode with forced cooling. Results of initial tests will be presented and possible scaling up to 10 A units discussed

  8. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; ET AL.

    2005-02-28

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linac. The highly successful development of an EBIS at BNL now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based pre-injectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The new RFQ and Linac that are used to accelerate beams from the EBIS to an energy sufficient for injection into the Booster are both very similar to existing devices already in operation at other facilities. Injection into the Booster will occur at the same location as the existing injection from the Tandem.

  9. Ion-beam mixed ultra-thin cobalt suicide (CoSi2) films by cobalt sputtering and rapid thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, S.; Kasko, I.; Ryssel, H.

    1995-10-01

    The influence of ion-beam mixing on ultra-thin cobalt silicide (CoSi2) formation was investigated by characterizing the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films. A Ge+ ion-implantation through the Co film prior to silicidation causes an interface mixing of the cobalt film with the silicon substrate and results in improved silicide-to-silicon interface roughness. Rapid thermal annealing was used to form Ge+ ion mixed and unmixed thin CoSi2 layer from 10 nm sputter deposited Co film. The silicide films were characterized by secondary neutral mass spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, tunneling electron microscopy (TEM), Rutherford backscattering, and sheet resistance measurements. The experi-mental results indicate that the final rapid thermal annealing temperature should not exceed 800°C for thin (micrographs of the ion-beam mixed and unmixed CoSi2 films reveals that Ge+ ion mixing (45 keV, 1 × 1015 cm-2) produces homogeneous silicide with smooth silicide-to-silicon interface.

  10. Beam dynamics simulation of the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.; Billen, J.H.; Bhatia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerating structure for Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) consists of a radio-frequency-quadrupole-linac (RFQ), a drift-tube-linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity-drift-tube-linac (CCDTL), and a coupled-cavity-linac (CCL). The linac is operated at room temperature. The authors discuss the detailed design of linac which accelerates an H - pulsed beam coming out from RFQ at 2.5 MeV to 1000 MeV. They show a detailed transition from 402.5 MHz DTL with a 4 βλ structure to a CCDTL operated at 805 MHz with a 12 βλ structure. After a discussion of overall feature of the linac, they present an end-to-end particle simulation using the new version of the PARMILA code for a beam starting from the RFQ entrance through the rest of the linac. At 1000 MeV, the beam is transported to a storage ring. The storage ring requires a large (±500-keV) energy spread. This is accomplished by operating the rf-phase in the last section of the linac so the particles are at the unstable fixed point of the separatrix. They present zero-current phase advance, beam size, and beam emittance along the entire linac

  11. Development of a dc, broad beam, Mevva ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.

    1991-09-01

    We are developing an embodiment of metal vapor vacuum arc (Mevva) ion source which will operate dc and have very large area beam. In preliminary testing, a dc titanium ion beam was formed with a current of approximately 0.6 amperes at an extraction voltage of 9kV (about 18 keV ion energy, by virtue of the ion charge state distribution) and using an 18 cm diameter set of multi-aperture. Separately, we have tested and formed beam from a 50 cm diameter (2000 cm 2 ) set of grids using a pulsed plasma gun. This configuration appears to be very efficient in terms of plasma utilization, and we have formed beams with diameter 33 cm (FWHM) and ion current up to 7 amperes at an extraction voltage of 50 kV (about 100 keV mean ion energy) and up to 20 amperes peak at the current overshoot part of the beam pulse. Here we describe this Part Of our Mevva development program and summarize the results obtained to-date

  12. Cherenkov Radiation from a Pseudospark-sourced Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, A.D.R.; Yin, H.; Cross, A.W.; He, W.; Ronald, K.

    2003-01-01

    Electron beam generation from a multi-gap pseudospark discharge was investigated. A pseudospark-sourced electron beam has two phases, an initial hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam followed by a conductive phase (CP) beam. The beam brightness was measured by a field-free collimator to be 109 and 1011 Am-2rad-2 for the hollow cathode phase (HCP) beam and the conductive phase (CP) beam respectively. The initial HCP beam from an eight-gap pseudospark discharge was applied in a Cherenkov interaction between the electron beam and the TM01 mode of a 60-cm long alumina-lined waveguide. It was found experimentally that significant microwave radiation was generated only when the dielectric was present in the interaction space. If there was no dielectric in the cylindrical waveguide, then a very small background microwave output was detected even when the guide B-field was absent. This demonstrated, in conjunction with the observation that the microwave output signal was independent of the guide magnetic field over the range 0.13 to 0.26 T, that the radiation from the experiment was due to the Cherenkov interaction mechanism. In addition, two components of the microwave pulse were observed corresponding to the two energy components of the electron beam during the pseudospark discharge breakdown. These results demonstrated that the microwave radiation was generated by Cherenkov amplification of the broadband emission from the pseudospark discharge itself. A background signal level of around 100 W was measured in the frequency range 20 - 50 GHz with a percentage of (2.7 ± 0.6)% in the frequency range 25.5 - 28.6 GHz, when the dielectric lining was removed from the maser. The frequency of the microwave output after the Cherenkov maser interaction was measured to be mainly around 25.5 GHz and the dominating mode was identified as being TM01. The duration of the microwave pulse was approximately 80 ns, with a peak power of around 2 ± 0.2 kW. The gain of this amplifier was measured

  13. Triplasmatron sources for broad and reactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejeune, C.; Grandchamp, J.P.; Kessi, O.; Gilles, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Two alternative discharge structures, which are both convenient for the extraction of broad and reactive ion beams, are described. They have been designed in order to overcome both lifetime and beam contamination problems while preserving a high ionization efficiency and a smooth plasma uniformity. They both use a hot cathode duoplasmatron discharge to inject ionizing electrons into the main ionization chamber, according to the triplasmatron concept. The triplasmatron multipolar ion source (TMIS) uses the magnetic multipolar containment of both electrons and ions, whereas the triplasmatron reflex ion source (TRIS) uses the electrostatic and geometric containment of the ionizing electrons. The behaviour and performance of both structures are reported and discussed with a special emphasis to the operation with either oxygen or fluorocarbon gases. (author)

  14. Verification of high efficient broad beam cold cathode ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel Reheem, A. M., E-mail: amreheem2009@yahoo.com [Accelerators and Ion Sources Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, P.N.13759, Cairo (Egypt); Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt); Ahmed, M. M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt); Abdelhamid, M. M.; Ashour, A. H. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Atomic Energy Authority (AEA), Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    An improved form of cold cathode ion source has been designed and constructed. It consists of stainless steel hollow cylinder anode and stainless steel cathode disc, which are separated by a Teflon flange. The electrical discharge and output characteristics have been measured at different pressures using argon, nitrogen, and oxygen gases. The ion exit aperture shape and optimum distance between ion collector plate and cathode disc are studied. The stable discharge current and maximum output ion beam current have been obtained using grid exit aperture. It was found that the optimum distance between ion collector plate and ion exit aperture is equal to 6.25 cm. The cold cathode ion source is used to deposit aluminum coating layer on AZ31 magnesium alloy using argon ion beam current which equals 600 μA. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction techniques used for characterizing samples before and after aluminum deposition.

  15. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polášek, J.; Mašek, K.; Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O"− ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  16. Effects of oxygen addition in reactive cluster beam deposition of tungsten by magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polášek, J., E-mail: xpolasekj@seznam.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Mašek, K. [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physic, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, Prague 8, CZ-18000 (Czech Republic); Marek, A.; Vyskočil, J. [HVM Plasma Ltd., Na Hutmance 2, Prague 5, CZ-158 00 (Czech Republic)

    2015-09-30

    In this work, we investigated the possibilities of tungsten and tungsten oxide nanoclusters generation by means of non-reactive and reactive magnetron sputtering with gas aggregation. It was found that in pure argon atmosphere, cluster aggregation proceeded in two regimes depending on argon pressure in the aggregation chamber. At the lower pressure, cluster generation was dominated by two-body collisions yielding larger clusters (about 5.5 nm in diameter) at lower rate. At higher pressures, cluster generation was dominated by three-body collisions yielding smaller clusters (3–4 nm in diameter) at higher rate. The small amount of oxygen admixture in the aggregation chamber had considerable influence on cluster aggregation process. At certain critical pressure, the presence of oxygen led to the raise of deposition rate and cluster size. Resulting clusters were composed mostly of tungsten trioxide. The oxygen pressure higher than critical led to the target poisoning and the decrease in the sputtering rate. Critical oxygen pressure decreased with increasing argon pressure, suggesting that cluster aggregation process was influenced by atomic oxygen species (namely, O{sup −} ion) generated by oxygen–argon collisions in the magnetron plasma. - Highlights: • Formation of tungsten and tungsten oxide clusters was observed. • Two modes of cluster aggregation in pure argon atmosphere were found. • Dependence of cluster deposition speed and size on oxygen admixture was observed. • Changes of dependence on oxygen with changing argon pressure were described.

  17. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations compared with continuum models and experimental properties of pattern formation during ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chason, E; Chan, W L

    2009-01-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations model the evolution of surfaces during low energy ion bombardment using atomic level mechanisms of defect formation, recombination and surface diffusion. Because the individual kinetic processes are completely determined, the resulting morphological evolution can be directly compared with continuum models based on the same mechanisms. We present results of simulations based on a curvature-dependent sputtering mechanism and diffusion of mobile surface defects. The results are compared with a continuum linear instability model based on the same physical processes. The model predictions are found to be in good agreement with the simulations for predicting the early-stage morphological evolution and the dependence on processing parameters such as the flux and temperature. This confirms that the continuum model provides a reasonable approximation of the surface evolution from multiple interacting surface defects using this model of sputtering. However, comparison with experiments indicates that there are many features of the surface evolution that do not agree with the continuum model or simulations, suggesting that additional mechanisms are required to explain the observed behavior.

  18. On plasma ion beam formation in the Advanced Plasma Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harhausen, J; Foest, R; Hannemann, M; Ohl, A; Brinkmann, R P; Schröder, B

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Plasma Source (APS) is employed for plasma ion-assisted deposition (PIAD) of optical coatings. The APS is a hot cathode dc glow discharge which emits a plasma ion beam to the deposition chamber at high vacuum (p ≲ 2 × 10 −4 mbar). It is established as an industrial tool but to date no detailed information is available on plasma parameters in the process chamber. As a consequence, the details of the generation of the plasma ion beam and the reasons for variations of the properties of the deposited films are barely understood. In this paper the results obtained from Langmuir probe and retarding field energy analyzer diagnostics operated in the plasma plume of the APS are presented, where the source was operated with argon. With increasing distance to the source exit the electron density (n e ) is found to drop by two orders of magnitude and the effective electron temperature (T e,eff ) drops by a factor of five. The parameters close to the source region read n e ≳ 10 11 cm −3 and T e,eff ≳ 10 eV. The electron distribution function exhibits a concave shape and can be described in the framework of the non-local approximation. It is revealed that an energetic ion population leaves the source region and a cold ion population in the plume is build up by charge exchange collisions with the background neutral gas. Based on the experimental data a scaling law for ion beam power is deduced, which links the control parameters of the source to the plasma parameters in the process chamber. (paper)

  19. GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitors for spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croci, G.; Claps, G.; Caniello, R.; Cazzaniga, C.; Grosso, G.; Murtas, F.; Tardocchi, M.; Vassallo, E.; Gorini, G.; Horstmann, C.; Kampmann, R.; Nowak, G.; Stoermer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new large area and high flux thermal neutron detectors for future neutron spallation sources, like the European Spallation Source (ESS) is motivated by the problem of 3 He shortage. In the framework of the development of ESS, GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) is one of the detector technologies that are being explored as thermal neutron sensors. A first prototype of GEM-based thermal neutron beam monitor (bGEM) has been built during 2012. The bGEM is a triple GEM gaseous detector equipped with an aluminum cathode coated by 1μm thick B 4 C layer used to convert thermal neutrons to charged particles through the 10 B(n, 7 Li)α nuclear reaction. This paper describes the results obtained by testing a bGEM detector at the ISIS spallation source on the VESUVIO beamline. Beam profiles (FWHM x =31 mm and FWHM y =36 mm), bGEM thermal neutron counting efficiency (≈1%), detector stability (3.45%) and the time-of-flight spectrum of the beam were successfully measured. This prototype represents the first step towards the development of thermal neutrons detectors with efficiency larger than 50% as alternatives to 3 He-based gaseous detectors

  20. Optimization of atomic beam sources for polarization experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaisser, Martin; Nass, Alexander; Stroeher, Hans [IKP, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    For experiments with spinpolarized protons and neutrons a dense target is required. In current atomic beam sources an atomic hydrogen or deuterium beam is expanded through a cold nozzle and a system of sextupole magnets and RF-transition units selects a certain hyperfine state. The achievable flux seems to be limited to about 10{sup 17} particles per second with a high nuclear polarization. A lot of experimental and theoretical effort has been undertaken to understand all effects and to increase the flux. However, improvements have remained marginal. Now, a Monte Carlo simulation based on the DSMC part of the open source C++ library OpenFOAM is set up in order to get a better understanding of the flow and to optimize the various elements. The goal is to include important effects like deflection from a magnetic field, recombination on the walls and spin exchange collisions in the simulation and make quantitative predictions of changes in the experimental setup. The goal is to get a tool that helps to further increase the output of an atomic beam source.

  1. Conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO Neutral Beam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Simonin, A.; Tran, M. Q.

    2016-12-01

    DEMO (DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant) is a proposed nuclear fusion power plant that is intended to follow the ITER experimental reactor. The main goal of DEMO will be to demonstrate the possibility to produce electric energy from the fusion reaction. The injection of high energy neutral beams is one of the main tools to heat the plasma up to fusion conditions. A conceptual design of the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor, is currently being developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. High efficiency and low recirculating power, which are fundamental requirements for the success of DEMO, have been taken into special consideration for the DEMO NBI. Moreover, particular attention has been paid to the issues related to reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability. A conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO NBI is here presented featuring 20 sub-sources (two adjacent columns of 10 sub-sources each), following a modular design concept, with each sub-source featuring its radio frequency driver, capable of increasing the reliability and availability of the DEMO NBI. Copper grids with increasing size of the apertures have been adopted in the accelerator, with three main layouts of the apertures (circular apertures, slotted apertures and frame-like apertures for each sub-source). This design, permitting to significantly decrease the stripping losses in the accelerator without spoiling the beam optics, has been investigated with a self-consistent model able to study at the same time the magnetic field, the electrostatic field and the trajectory of the negative ions. Moreover, the status on the R&D carried out in Europe on the ion sources is presented.

  2. RF ion source development for neutral beam application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.; Kippenhan, D.; Vella, M.C.

    1983-11-01

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a 24 x 24 cm 2 RF source has been tested with beam acceleration. Recently, we have been investigating the characteristics of plasmas generated with different kinds of antenna coatings. The antenna coil was installed inside a cylindrical multicusp source (20-cm diam by 24-cm long) and was driven by a 500 W amplifier. A tiny light bulb filament was used to start a background plasma. The RF was then switched on and a steady-state hydrogen plasma of moderate density (n approx. = 10 11 /cm 3 ) could be sustained even with the filament turned off

  3. High-radiance LDP source for mask inspection and beam line applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yusuke; Santos, Bárbara; Mertens, Guido; Kops, Ralf; Kops, Margarete; von Wezyk, Alexander; Bergmann, Klaus; Yabuta, Hironobu; Nagano, Akihisa; Ashizawa, Noritaka; Taniguchi, Yuta; Yamatani, Daiki; Shirai, Takahiro; Kasama, Kunihiko

    2017-04-01

    High-throughput actinic mask inspection tools are needed as EUVL begins to enter into volume production phase. One of the key technologies to realize such inspection tools is a high-radiance EUV source of which radiance is supposed to be as high as 100 W/mm2/sr. Ushio is developing laser-assisted discharge-produced plasma (LDP) sources. Ushio's LDP source is able to provide sufficient radiance as well as cleanliness, stability and reliability. Radiance behind the debris mitigation system was confirmed to be 120 W/mm2/sr at 9 kHz and peak radiance at the plasma was increased to over 200 W/mm2/sr in the recent development which supports high-throughput, high-precision mask inspection in the current and future technology nodes. One of the unique features of Ushio's LDP source is cleanliness. Cleanliness evaluation using both grazing-incidence Ru mirrors and normal-incidence Mo/Si mirrors showed no considerable damage to the mirrors other than smooth sputtering of the surface at the pace of a few nm per Gpulse. In order to prove the system reliability, several long-term tests were performed. Data recorded during the tests was analyzed to assess two-dimensional radiance stability. In addition, several operating parameters were monitored to figure out which contributes to the radiance stability. The latest model that features a large opening angle was recently developed so that the tool can utilize a large number of debris-free photons behind the debris shield. The model was designed both for beam line application and high-throughput mask inspection application. At the time of publication, the first product is supposed to be in use at the customer site.

  4. Secondary ion formation during electronic and nuclear sputtering of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, L.; Ernst, P.; Herder, M.; Meinerzhagen, F.; Bender, M.; Severin, D.; Wucher, A.

    2018-06-01

    Using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer attached to the UNILAC beamline located at the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research, we investigate the formation of secondary ions sputtered from a germanium surface under irradiation by swift heavy ions (SHI) such as 5 MeV/u Au by simultaneously recording the mass spectra of the ejected secondary ions and their neutral counterparts. In these experiments, the sputtered neutral material is post-ionized via single photon absorption from a pulsed, intensive VUV laser. After post-ionization, the instrument cannot distinguish between secondary ions and post-ionized neutrals, so that both signals can be directly compared in order to investigate the ionization probability of different sputtered species. In order to facilitate an in-situ comparison with typical nuclear sputtering conditions, the system is also equipped with a conventional rare gas ion source delivering a 5 keV argon ion beam. For a dynamically sputter cleaned surface, it is found that the ionization probability of Ge atoms and Gen clusters ejected under electronic sputtering conditions is by more than an order of magnitude higher than that measured for keV sputtered particles. In addition, the mass spectra obtained under SHI irradiation show prominent signals of GenOm clusters, which are predominantly detected as positive or negative secondary ions. From the m-distribution for a given Ge nuclearity n, one can deduce that the sputtered material must originate from a germanium oxide matrix with approximate GeO stoichiometry, probably due to residual native oxide patches even at the dynamically cleaned surface. The results clearly demonstrate a fundamental difference between the ejection and ionization mechanisms in both cases, which is interpreted in terms of corresponding model calculations.

  5. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar{sup +} beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ∼5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  6. Improved design of proton source and low energy beam transport line for European Spallation Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Ciavola, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell’Energia Sostenibile, Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89122 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Cheymol, B.; Ponton, A. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Lund (Sweden); Galatà, A. [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Patti, G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Viale dell' università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Gozzo, A.; Lega, L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni, Università degli Studi di Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    The design update of the European Spallation Source (ESS) accelerator is almost complete and the construction of the prototype of the microwave discharge ion source able to provide a proton beam current larger than 70 mA to the 3.6 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) started. The source named PS-ESS (Proton Source for ESS) was designed with a flexible magnetic system and an extraction system able to merge conservative solutions with significant advances. The ESS injector has taken advantage of recent theoretical updates and new plasma diagnostics tools developed at INFN-LNS (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare). The design strategy considers the PS-ESS and the low energy beam transport line as a whole, where the proton beam behaves like an almost neutralized non-thermalized plasma. Innovative solutions have been used as hereinafter described. Thermo-mechanical optimization has been performed to withstand the chopped beam and the misaligned focused beam over the RFQ input collimator; the results are reported here.

  7. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PREINJECTOR PROJECT (EBIS) CONCEPTUAL DESIGN REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALESSI, J.; BARTON, D.; BEEBE, E.; GASSNER, D.; GRANDINETTI, R.; HSEUH, H.; JAVIDFAR, A.; KPONOU, A.; LAMBIASE, R.; LESSARD, E.; LOCKEY, R.; LODESTRO, V.; MAPES, M.; MIRABELLA, D.; NEHRING, T.; OERTER, B.; PENDZICK, A.; PIKIN, A.; RAPARIA, D.; RITTER, J.; ROSER, T.; RUSSO, T.; SNYDSTRUP, L.; WILINSKI, M.; ZALTSMAN, A.; ZHANG, S.

    2005-09-01

    This report describes a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) based on a high charge state Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a short Linear accelerator (Linac). The highly successful development of an EBIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) now makes it possible to replace the present pre-injector that is based on an electrostatic Tandem with a reliable, low maintenance Linac-based pre-injector. Linac-based preinjectors are presently used at most accelerator and collider facilities with the exception of RHIC, where the required gold beam intensities could only be met with a Tandem until the recent EBIS development. EBIS produces high charge state ions directly, eliminating the need for the two stripping foils presently used with the Tandem. Unstable stripping efficiencies of these foils are a significant source of luminosity degradation in RHIC. The high reliability and flexibility of the new Linac-based pre-injector will lead to increased integrated luminosity at RHIC and is an essential component for the long-term success of the RHIC facility. This new pre-injector, based on an EBIS, also has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium beams and, as part of a future upgrade, might also be used to produce polarized {sup 3}He beams. These capabilities will be critical to the future luminosity upgrades and electron-ion collisions in RHIC. The proposed pre-injector system would also provide for a major enhancement in capability for the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), which utilizes heavy-ion beams from the RHIC complex. EBIS would allow for the acceleration of all important ion species for the NASA radiobiology program, such as, helium, argon, and neon which are unavailable with the present Tandem injector. In addition, the new system would allow for very rapid switching of ion species for

  8. Negative-ion-beam generation with the ORNL SITEX source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.; Kim, J.

    1982-05-01

    Parametric studies were made on a hot cathode reflex discharge H - Surface Ionization source with Transverse Extraction (SITEX) in both the pure hydrogen and the mixed hydrogen-cesium mode. Extraction current density, beam current, gas efficiency, extracted electron-to-H - current ratio, heavy negative ion impurities, optics, and long pulse operation were investigated as a function of time, arc voltage, arc current, converter voltage, H 2 gas flow, cesium feed rate, and plasma generator geometries. Initial results of the research were an extracted H - beam current density of 56 mA/cm 2 at 23 mA for 5 s pulses and, gas efficiency of 3%, theta/sub perpendicular/ (1/e) approx. 2 +- 1 0 , theta/sub parallel/ (1/e) approx. 1 +- 1 0 , at a beam energy of 25 keV. Negative heavy ion beam impurities were reduced to - ions are produced prinicpally by positive ion surface conversion using elemental cesium fractional monolayer coverage on a molybdenum converter substrate, which is biased negatively with respect to the anode

  9. Background gas density and beam losses in NIO1 beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Veltri, P.; Serianni, G. [Consorzio RFX (CNR, ENEA, INFN, Università di Padova, Acciaierie Venete SpA), C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro (PD) (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is a versatile ion source designed to study the physics of production and acceleration of H- beams up to 60 keV. In ion sources, the gas is steadily injected in the plasma source to sustain the discharge, while high vacuum is maintained by a dedicated pumping system located in the vessel. In this paper, the three dimensional gas flow in NIO1 is studied in the molecular flow regime by the Avocado code. The analysis of the gas density profile along the accelerator considers the influence of effective gas temperature in the source, of the gas temperature accommodation by collisions at walls, and of the gas particle mass. The calculated source and vessel pressures are compared with experimental measurements in NIO1 during steady gas injection.

  10. The use of an ion-beam source to alter the surface morphology of biological implant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    An electron-bombardment ion-thruster was used as a neutralized-ion-beam sputtering source to texture the surfaces of biological implant materials. The materials investigated included 316 stainless steel; titanium-6% aluminum, 4% vanadium; cobalt-20% chromium, 15% tungsten; cobalt-35% nickel, 20% chromium, 10% molybdenum; polytetrafluoroethylene; polyoxymethylene; silicone and polyurethane copolymer; 32%-carbon-impregnated polyolefin; segmented polyurethane; silicone rubber; and alumina. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine surface morphology changes of all materials after ion-texturing. Electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis was used to determine the effects of ion-texturing on the surface chemical composition of some polymers. Liquid contact angle data were obtained for ion-textured and untextured polymer samples. Results of tensile and fatigue tests of ion-textured metal alloys are presented. Preliminary data of tissue response to ion-textured surfaces of some metals, polytetrafluoroethylene, alumina, and segmented polyurethane have been obtained.

  11. Combined sputtering yield and surface topography development studies on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Lewis, G.W.; Whitton, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The sputtering yield-incidence angle function has been measured for 8 keV Ar + ions incident on Si by direct scanning electron microscope observation of the depths of sputtered craters on substrate boundaries. This function displays a maximum sputtering yield at an angle thetasub(p) approximately equal to 40 0 to the surface normal. The sequential ion fluence dependence of features developed beneath local surface contaminant was then studied, quasi dynamically, in the same on-line ion source-S.E.M. system. During erosion of the contaminant a steeply elevated pillar of Si forms, which then transforms to a cone, again of high elevation angle >>thetasub(p). This cone is gradually eroded into the surrounding surface with no special significance associated with orientations of angle thetasub(p). Pedal depressions surrounding the pillar-cone system are also noted. The reasons for these observations and their relevance to ion beam surface channel etching are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Beam position feedback system for the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and x-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4 kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and x-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back to the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the eddy current induced in the relatively thick (1/2 in.) vacuum chamber by the ac corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the x-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will also be presented

  13. Beam position feedback system for the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4 kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented. copyright 1994 American Institute of Physics

  14. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the vacuum chamber eddy current induced by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will be presented

  15. Beam position feedback system for the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) will implement both global and local beam position feedback systems to stabilize the particle and X-ray beams for the storage ring. The systems consist of 20 VME crates distributed around the ring, each running multiple digital signal processors (DSP) running at 4kHz sampling rate with a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) control algorithm. The particle and X-ray beam position data is shared by the distributed processors through networked reflective memory. A theory of closed orbit correction using the technique of singular value decomposition (SVD) of the response matrix and simulation of its application to the APS storage ring will be discussed. This technique combines the global and local feedback systems and resolves the conflict among multiple local feedback systems due to local bump closure error. Maximum correction efficiency is achieved by feeding back the global orbit data to the local feedback systems. The effect of the eddy current induced in the relatively thick (1/2 inch) vacuum chamber by the AC corrector magnet field for local feedback systems is compensated by digital filters. Results of experiments conducted on the X-ray ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source and the SPEAR at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory will also be presented

  16. A ns-pulsed high-current electron beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Gexin; Li, Youzhi; Pan, Yuli

    1988-01-01

    The behaviour of a pulse electron beam source which is composed of a gun and pulse system depends on not only the time characteristics of the gun and the pulser, but also their combination. This point become apparent if effects of the electron tansit-time between electrodes are studied. A ferrite transmission line (FTL) pulser is used as a grid driver in this source. It has advantages of providing fast risetime, large peak power output and good loading characteristics. It is these advantages of the pulser that compensates the absence of some technological conditions of manufacturing gun and makes the source better. Our testing showed that the cooperation of both the gun and the pulser produced peak currents in the range of 1 to 9 amps with widths of 2 to 2.5 ns (FWHM) at cathode-to-anode potential of 60 to 82 kv, while the grid drives are about in the range of 1 to 3 kv. In addition, the results of the testing instructed that effects of electron transit-time cannot be ignored when the pulses with widths of several nanoseconds are used as a grid drive. Based on the results, electron transit-time effects on the design of the gun and the beam performances are briefly descussed in this paper. (author)

  17. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes' efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  18. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes' efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs

  19. The status of the Electron Beam Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, M.P.

    1990-12-31

    More than twenty years after its invention, 13 examples of the Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) are in operation worldwide. The substantial progress in operation and insight, achieved over the last few years, made the EBISes become reliable tools for the production of beams of very highly charged, low-energy ions. For example, 8 EBISes produce bare argon on a standard basis. The successful production of hydrogen-like xenon presents the ions with the highest ionization energy, whereas the production of Th80+ presents the highest achieved charge state. Several synchrotrons are fed by EBIS injectors, taking advantage of the EBIS batch mode production, which yields the highest charge states. A few EBISes are used for ion source development. However, most of the EBISes` efforts are directed to research the physics of highly charged ions. Some of those are used to study the electron--ion interaction inside the source. But normally, most EBISes deliver the ions for external experiments, which so far concentrate on the recombination of the highly charged ions with atoms, molecules and surfaces. The ions are typically produced at a potential of 1 to a few kilovolts per charge; but in most cases, the EBIS is mounted on a high voltage platform or is followed by an RFQ, and therefore can generate ion energies from a few hundred volts up to a few hundred kilovolts per charge. The delivered beams have a low emittance and a low energy spread, which is an advantage for high-resolution experiments. This paper presents briefly all operational EBISes, their capabilities, their achievements, and their contribution to physics research. 5 figs., 1 tab., 59 refs.

  20. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST

  1. Mini-beam collimator applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shenglan, E-mail: sxu@anl.gov [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keefe, Lisa J.; Mulichak, Anne [IMCA CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yan Lifen; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao Jiyong [X-ray Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fischetti, Robert F. [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT, Sector 23, Advanced Photon Source) began providing mini-beam collimators to its users. These collimators contained individual, 5- or 10-{mu}m pinholes and were rapidly exchangeable, thereby allowing users to tailor the beam size to their experimental needs. The use of these collimators provided a reduction in background noise, and thus improved the signal-to-noise ratio . Recent improvements in the collimator design include construction of the device from a monolithic piece of molybdenum with multiple pinholes mounted inside . This allows users to select from various size options from within the beamline control software without the realignment that was previously necessary. In addition, a new, 20-{mu}m pinhole has been added to create a 'quad-collimator', resulting in greater flexibility for the users. The mini-beam collimator is now available at multiple crystallographic beamlines and also is a part of the first Moessbauer Microscopic system at sector 3-ID.

  2. Mini-beam collimator applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shenglan; Keefe, Lisa J.; Mulichak, Anne; Yan Lifen; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao Jiyong; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT, Sector 23, Advanced Photon Source) began providing mini-beam collimators to its users. These collimators contained individual, 5- or 10-μm pinholes and were rapidly exchangeable, thereby allowing users to tailor the beam size to their experimental needs. The use of these collimators provided a reduction in background noise, and thus improved the signal-to-noise ratio . Recent improvements in the collimator design include construction of the device from a monolithic piece of molybdenum with multiple pinholes mounted inside . This allows users to select from various size options from within the beamline control software without the realignment that was previously necessary. In addition, a new, 20-μm pinhole has been added to create a 'quad-collimator', resulting in greater flexibility for the users. The mini-beam collimator is now available at multiple crystallographic beamlines and also is a part of the first Moessbauer Microscopic system at sector 3-ID.

  3. High energy (MeV) ion beam modifications of sputtered MoS2 coatings on sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.S.; Rai, A.K.; Erdemir, A.

    1991-01-01

    The present article reports on the results of our investigations of high-energy (MeV) ion irradiation on the microstructural and tribological properties of dc magnetron sputtered MoS 2 films. Films of thicknesses 500-7500 A were deposited on NaCl, Si and sapphire substrates and subsequently ion irradiated by 2 MeV Ag + ions at a dose of 5x10 15 cm -2 . Scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray diffraction techniques were utilized to study the structural, morphological and compositional changes of the film due to ion irradiation. The friction coefficient and sliding life were determined by pin-on-disc tests. Both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films were found to be amorphous having a stoichiometry of MoS 1.8 . A low friction coefficient in the range 0.03-0.04 was measured for both as-deposited and ion-irradiated films. However, the sliding life of ion-irradiated film was found to increase more than tenfold compared to as-deposited films indicating improved bonding at the interface. (orig.)

  4. Electrostatic mechanism of shaping the wave micro-relief on the surface of a semiconductor, sputtered by an ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of the electric field formed due to the surface charging, is not accounted for in the weakly-developed theoretical models for the ordered micro-relief formation on the surface of a semiconductor under the impact of an ion beam. It is shown, that the problem on modeling the physical mechanism of forming the ordered wave micro-relief on the semiconductor surface under the impact of a high-energy ion beam may be interpreted as an electrostatic one [ru

  5. Effects of ion sputtering on semiconductor surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Ion beam sputtering has been combined with Auger spectroscopy to study the effects of ion beams on semiconductor surfaces. Observations on the mass dependence of ion selective sputtering of two component systems are presented. The effects of ion implantation are explained in terms of atomic dilution. Experimental data are presented that illustrate the super-position of selective sputtering and implantation effects on the surface composition. Sample reduction from electron and ion beam interaction is illustrated. Apparent sample changes which one might observe from the effects of residual gas contamination and electric fields are also discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Production of highly charged ion beams from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1997-09-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source development has progressed with multiple-frequency plasma heating, higher mirror magnetic fields and better technique to provide extra cold electrons. Such techniques greatly enhance the production of highly charged ions from ECR ion sources. So far at cw mode operation, up to 300 eμA of O 7+ and 1.15 emA of O 6+ , more than 100 eμA of intermediate heavy ions for charge states up to Ar 13+ , Ca 13+ , Fe 13+ , Co 14+ and Kr 18+ , and tens of eμA of heavy ions with charge states to Kr 26+ , Xe 28+ , Au 35+ , Bi 34+ and U 34+ have been produced from ECR ion sources. At an intensity of at least 1 eμA, the maximum charge state available for the heavy ions are Xe 36+ , Au 46+ , Bi 47+ and U 48+ . An order of magnitude enhancement for fully stripped argon ions (I ≥ 60 enA) also has been achieved. This article will review the ECR ion source progress and discuss key requirement for ECR ion sources to produce the highly charged ion beams

  7. Comparative study of beam losses and heat loads reduction methods in MITICA beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, E., E-mail: emanuele.sartori@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dal Bello, S.; Marcuzzi, D.; Serianni, G.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/a, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    In negative ion electrostatic accelerators a considerable fraction of extracted ions is lost by collision processes causing efficiency loss and heat deposition over the components. Stripping is proportional to the local density of gas, which is steadily injected in the plasma source; its pumping from the extraction and acceleration stages is a key functionality for the prototype of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector, and it can be simulated with the 3D code AVOCADO. Different geometric solutions were tested aiming at the reduction of the gas density. The parameter space considered is limited by constraints given by optics, aiming, voltage holding, beam uniformity, and mechanical feasibility. The guidelines of the optimization process are presented together with the proposed solutions and the results of numerical simulations.

  8. Source of the backstreaming ion beams in the foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, M.; Goodrich, C.C.; Winske, D.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1983-01-01

    A new source mechanism is proposed for the 'reflected' ion beams observed in the foreshock region of the earth's bow shock. In our model the beams originate in the magnetosheath downstream of the qausi-perpendicular portion of the shock. The quasi-perpendicular shock transition is characterized by two downstream ion populations including high-energy gyrating ions in addition to the directly transmitted anisotropic ions. We show by particle simulations that this highly anisotropic downstream ion distribution (T/sub perpendicular//T/sub parallel/ >>1) can excite electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves which, in turn, pitch angle scatter the gyrating ions in a few ion gyroperiods. As a result, some ions acquire large parallel velocities and move fast enough along the convecting downstream magnetic field to escape back across the bow shock into the upstream region. The distribution of escaping ions calculated by using the pitch-angle-scattered ions, as a source, becomes a beam with a large temperature anisotropy T/sub perpendicular/ approx.3--5 T/sub parallel/ and a mean velocity along the magnetic field of about twice that of the solar wind velocity. A significant result is the presence of the maximum angle theta/sub n/B = theta/sub c/ above which no ions can escape, where theta/sub n/B is the angle between the shock normal and the interplanetary magnetic field. A wide peak of constant escaping ion flux is formed below theta/sub c/ whose number density is 1--2% of that of the solar wind. These results are in general agreement with the ISEE observations of the 'reflected' ions

  9. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  10. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Okamura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.

    2012-01-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  11. Relativistic electron beam source with an air-core step-up transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Akihiro; Ikuta, Kazunari; Masuzaki, Masaru; Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Fujiwaka, Setsuya.

    1975-04-01

    An air-core step-up transformer with a high coupling factor has been developed to generate a high voltage pulse for charging the pulse forming line of a relativistic electron beam source. A beam source using the transformer was constructed and well operated for the beam injection into a toroidal system. (auth.)

  12. Thermally induced formation of SiC nanoparticles from Si/C/Si multilayers deposited by ultra-high-vacuum ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C-K; Wu, B-H

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach for the formation of SiC nanoparticles (np-SiC) is reported. Deposition of Si/C/Si multilayers on Si(100) wafers by ultra-high-vacuum ion beam sputtering was followed by thermal annealing in vacuum for conversion into SiC nanoparticles. The annealing temperature significantly affected the size, density, and distribution of np-SiC. No nanoparticles were formed for multilayers annealed at 500 0 C, while a few particles started to appear when the annealing temperature was increased to 700 0 C. At an annealing temperature of 900 0 C, many small SiC nanoparticles, of several tens of nanometres, surrounding larger submicron ones appeared with a particle density approximately 16 times higher than that observed at 700 0 C. The higher the annealing temperature was, the larger the nanoparticle size, and the higher the density. The higher superheating at 900 0 C increased the amount of stable nuclei, and resulted in a higher particle density compared to that at 700 0 C. These particles grew larger at 900 0 C to reduce the total surface energy of smaller particles due to the higher atomic mobility and growth rate. The increased free energy of stacking defects during particle growth will limit the size of large particles, leaving many smaller particles surrounding the large ones. A mechanism for the np-SiC formation is proposed in this paper

  13. Ion beam analysis, corrosion resistance and nanomechanical properties of TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer grown by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemón, B.; Flores, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, J. Guadalupe Zuno 48, Los Belenes, Zapopan, Jal. 45101 (Mexico); Canto, C. [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Andrade, E., E-mail: andrade@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Lucio, O.G. de [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Avenida de la Investigación S/N, Coyoacán, Mexico, DF 04510 (Mexico); Rocha, M.F. [ESIME-Z, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ALM Zacatenco, Mexico, DF 07738 (Mexico); Broitman, E. [Thin Films Physics Division, IFM, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    A novel TiAlCN/CN{sub x} multilayer coating, consisting of nine TiAlCN/CN{sub x} periods with a top layer 0.5 μm of CN{sub x}, was designed to enhance the corrosion resistance of CoCrMo biomedical alloy. The multilayers were deposited by dc and RF reactive magnetron sputtering from Ti{sub 0.5}Al{sub 0.5} and C targets respectively in a N{sub 2}/Ar plasma. The corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the multilayer coatings were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. Ion beam analysis (IBA) and X-ray diffraction tests were used to measure the element composition profiles and crystalline structure of the films. Corrosion resistance was evaluated by means of potentiodynamic polarization measurements using simulated body fluid (SBF) at typical body temperature and the nanomechanical properties of the multilayer evaluated by nanoindentation tests were analyzed and compared to CoCrMo bulk alloy. It was found that the multilayer hardness and the elastic recovery are higher than the substrate of CoCrMo. Furthermore the coated substrate shows a better general corrosion resistance than that of the CoCrMo alloy alone with no observation of pitting corrosion.

  14. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} capacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, S.-C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, No. 1, Nantai St, Yung-Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, J.-S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Huang, J.-L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-09-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO{sub 3} (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of {+-} 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10{sup -5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of {+-} 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors.

  15. ITO films realized at room-temperature by ion beam sputtering for high-performance flexible organic light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, B.; Rammal, W.; Moliton, A. [Limoges Univ., Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, CNRS, UMR 6172, Institut de Recherche XLIM, Dept. MINACOM, 87 - Limoges (France)

    2006-06-15

    Indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin layers are obtained by an IBS (Ion Beam Sputtering) deposition process. We elaborated ITO films on flexible substrates of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), under soft conditions of low temperatures and fulfilling the requirements of fabrication processes of the organic optoelectronic components. With a non thermally activated (20 Celsius degrees) ITO deposition assisted by an oxygen flow (1 cm{sup 3}/min), we got an optical transmittance of 90% in the visible range, a resistivity around 10{sup -3} {omega}.cm and a surface roughness lower than 1.5 mm. Thus we realized flexible organic light-emitting diodes (FOLEDs) with good performances: a maximum luminance of 12000 cd/m{sup 2} at a voltage of 19 V and a maximum luminous power efficiency around 1 lm/W at a voltage of 10 V (or a maximum current efficiency of 4 cd/A at 14 V) for the (PET(50 {mu}m) / ITO(200 nm) / TPD(40 nm) / Alq3(60 nm) / Ca / Al) structure. (authors)

  16. Two-dimensional electron gases in MgZnO/ZnO and ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by dual ion beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Arif Khan, Md; Sharma, Pankaj; Than Htay, Myo; Kranti, Abhinav; Mukherjee, Shaibal

    2018-04-01

    This work reports on the formation of high-density (~1013-1014 cm-2) two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in ZnO-based heterostructures, grown by a dual ion beam sputtering system. We probe 2DEG in bilayer MgZnO/ZnO and capped ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures utilizing MgZnO barrier layers with varying thickness and Mg content. The effect of the ZnO cap layer thickness on the ZnO/MgZnO/ZnO heterostructure is also studied. Hall measurements demonstrate that the addition of a 5 nm ZnO cap layer results in an enhancement of the 2DEG density by about 1.5 times compared to 1.11 × 1014 cm-2 for the uncapped bilayer heterostructure with the same 30 nm barrier thickness and 30 at.% Mg composition in the barrier layer. From the low-temperature Hall measurement, the sheet carrier concentration and mobility are both found to be independent of the temperature. The capacitance-voltage measurement suggests a carrier density of ~1020 cm-3, confined in 2DEG at the MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface. The results presented are significant for the optimization of 2DEG for the eventual realization of cost-effective and large-area MgZnO/ZnO-based high-electron-mobility transistors.

  17. The effect of substrate bias voltages on impact resistance of CrAlN coatings deposited by modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyan, Yu; Linhai, Tian; Yinghui, Wei; Shebin, Wang; Tianbao, Li; Bingshe, Xu

    2009-01-01

    CrAlN coatings were deposited on silicon and AISI H13 steel substrates using a modified ion beam enhanced magnetron sputtering system. The effect of substrate negative bias voltages on the impact property of the CrAlN coatings was studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) data show that all CrAlN coatings were crystallized in the cubic NaCl B1 structure, with the (1 1 1), (2 0 0) (2 2 0) and (2 2 2) diffraction peaks observed. Two-dimensional surface morphologies of CrAlN coatings were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results show that with increasing substrate bias voltage the coatings became more compact and denser, and the microhardness and fracture toughness of the coatings increased correspondingly. In the dynamic impact resistance tests, the CrAlN coatings displayed better impact resistance with the increase of bias voltage, due to the reduced emergence and propagation of the cracks in coatings with a very dense structure and the increase of hardness and fracture toughness in coatings.

  18. Ion beam sputter deposited TiAlN films for metal-insulator-metal (Ba,Sr)TiO3 capacitor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.-Y.; Wang, S.-C.; Chen, J.-S.; Huang, J.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated the feasibility of TiAlN films deposited using the ion beam sputter deposition (IBSD) method for metal-insulator-metal (MIM) (Ba,Sr)TiO 3 (BST) capacitors. The BST films were crystallized at temperatures above 650 deg. C. TiAlN films deposited using the IBSD method were found having smooth surface and low electrical resistivity at high temperature conditions. TiAlN films showed a good diffusion barrier property against BST components. The J-E (current density-electric field) characteristics of Al/BST/TiAlN capacitors were good, with a high break down electric field of ± 2.5 MV/cm and a leakage current density of about 1 x 10 -5 A/cm 2 at an applied field of ± 0.5 MV/cm. Thermal stress and lateral oxidation that occurred at the interface damaged the capacitor stacking structure. Macro holes that dispersed on the films resulted in higher leakage current and inconsistent J-E characteristics. Vacuum annealing with lower heating rate and furnace cooling, and a Ti-Al adhesion layer between TiAlN and the SiO 2 /Si substrate can effectively minimize the stress effect. TiAlN film deposited using IBSD can be considered as a potential electrode and diffusion barrier material for MIM BST capacitors

  19. The preparation of Zn-ferrite epitaxial thin film from epitaxial Fe3O4:ZnO multilayers by ion beam sputtering deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Hui-Chia; Dai, Jeng-Yi; Liao, Yen-Fa; Wu, Yu-Han; Huang, J.C.A.; Lee, Chih-Hao

    2010-01-01

    A new method to grow a well-ordered epitaxial ZnFe 2 O 4 thin film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate is described in this work. The samples were made by annealing the ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 multilayer which was grown with low energy ion beam sputtering deposition. Both the Fe 3 O 4 and ZnO layers were found grown epitaxially at low temperature and an epitaxial ZnFe 2 O 4 thin film was formed after annealing at 1000 o C. X-ray diffraction shows the ZnFe 2 O 4 film is grown with an orientation of ZnFe 2 O 4 (111)//Al 2 O 3 (0001) and ZnFe 2 O 4 (1-10)//Al 2 O 3 (11-20). X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies show that Zn 2+ atoms replace the tetrahedral Fe 2+ atoms in Fe 3 O 4 during the annealing. The magnetic properties measured by vibrating sample magnetometer show that the saturation magnetization of ZnFe 2 O 4 grown from ZnO/Fe 3 O 4 multilayer reaches the bulk value after the annealing process.

  20. Domain structure and magnetic properties of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by ion beam sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S H

    2000-01-01

    The domain structure of epitaxial SrRuO sub 3 thin films grown on SrTiO sub 3 (100) substrates by using ion beam sputtering has been investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SrRuO sub 3 films grown in the present study revealed a unique cube-on-cube epitaxial relationship, i.e., (100) sub S sub R sub O ll (100) sub S sub T sub O , [010] sub S sub R sub O ll [101] sub S sub T sub O , prevailing with a cubic single-domain structure. The cubic SrRuO sub 3 thin films that were inherently with free from RuO sub 6 octahedron tilting exhibited higher resistivity with suppressed magnetic properties. The Curie temperature of the thin films was suppressed by 60 K from 160 K for the bulk specimen, and the saturation magnetic moment was reduced by a significant amount. The tetragonal distortion of the SrRuO sub 3 thin films due to coherent growth with the substrate seemed to result in a strong magnetic anisotropy.

  1. Deposition and characterization of zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering with linear gas ion source and bias voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R. [Department of Physics, University College of Engineering, Anna University, Dindugal-624622 (India); Subramanian, N. Sankara [Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai -625015, Tamilnadu (India); Loganathan, S. [Ion Plating, Titan Industries Ltd., Hosur - 635126, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-04-24

    Zirconium nitride thin films have been prepared on stainless steel substrate (304L grade) by reactive cylindrical magnetron sputtering method with Gas Ion Source (GIS) and bias voltage using optimized coating parameters. The structure and surface morphologies of the ZrN films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The adhesion property of ZrN thin film has been increased due to the GIS. The coating exhibits better adhesion strength up to 10 N whereas the ZrN thin film with bias voltage exhibits adhesion up to 500 mN.

  2. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  3. Ion accumulation and space charge neutralization in intensive electron beams for ion sources and electron cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS), Electron Beam Ion Traps (EBIT) and electron beams for electron cooling application have the beam parameters in the same ranges of magnitudes. EBIS and EBIT produce and accumulate ions in the beam due to electron impact ionization. The cooling electron beam accumulates positive ions from the residual gas in the accelerator chamber during the cooling cycle. The space charge neutralization of cooling beam is also used to reduce the electron energy spread and enhance the cooling ability. The advanced results of experimental investigations and theoretical models of the EBIS electron beams are applied to analyze the problem of beam neutralization in the electron cooling techniques. The report presents the analysis of the most important processes connected with ion production, accumulation and losses in the intensive electron beams of ion sources and electron cooling systems for proton and ion colliders. The inelastic and elastic collision processes of charged particles in the electron beams are considered. The inelastic processes such as ionization, charge exchange and recombination change the charge states of ions and neutral atoms in the beam. The elastic Coulomb collisions change the energy of particles and cause the energy redistribution among components in the electron-ion beams. The characteristic times and specific features of ionization, beam neutralization, ion heating and loss in the ion sources and electron cooling beams are determined. The dependence of negative potential in the beam cross section on neutralization factor is studied. 17 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Production of microbunched beams of very highly charged ions with an electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoeckli, M.P.

    1998-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources produce very highly charged ions most efficiently in a batch mode as the confinement time can be directly optimized for the production of the desired charge state. If, after confinement, the voltage of the ion-confining downstream dam is lowered rapidly, all ions escape and form an ion beam pulse with a length of a few tens of μs. Raising the main trap voltage while maintaining a constant dam voltage in a open-quotes spill-over expulsionclose quotes reduces the energy spread of the expelled ions. The longer time periods of open-quotes slow-,close quotes open-quotes leaky batch mode-,close quotes and open-quotes direct current (dc) batch mode-close quotes expulsions allow for increasing the ion beam duty cycle. Combining the rapid expulsion with one of the latter methods allows for the expulsion of the ions of a single batch in many small microbunches with variable intervals, maintaining the low energy spread and the increased duty cycle of slow expulsions. Combining the open-quotes microbunchingclose quotes with open-quotes dc batch mode productionclose quotes and a multitrap operation will eventually allow for the production of equally intense ion bunches over a wide range of frequencies without any deadtime, and with minimal compromise on the most efficient production parameters. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  5. Simulation experiments and solar wind sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.E.; Papanastassiou, D.A.; Russell, W.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Weller, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to isolate the role played by solar wind sputtering from other lunar surface phenomena a number of simulation experiments were performed, including isotope abundance measurements of Ca sputtered from terrestrial fluorite and plagioclase by 50-keV and 130-keV 14 N beams, measurement of the energy distribution of U atoms sputtered with 80-keV 40 Ar, and measurement of the fraction of sputtered U atoms which stick on the surfaces used to collect these atoms. 10 references

  6. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  7. Ultraviolet optical and microstructural properties of MgF2 and LaF3 coatings deposited by ion-beam sputtering and boat and electron-beam evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristau, Detlev; Gunster, Stefan; Bosch, Salvador; Duparre, Angela; Masetti, Enrico; Ferre-Borrull, Josep; Kiriakidis, George; Peiro, Francesca; Quesnel, Etienne; Tikhonravov, Alexander

    2002-06-01

    Single layers of MgF2 and LaF3 were deposited upon superpolished fused-silica and CaF2 substrates by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) as well as by boat and electron beam (e-beam) evaporation and were characterized by a variety of complementary analytical techniques. Besides undergoing photometric and ellipsometric inspection, the samples were investigated at 193 and 633 nm by an optical scatter measurement facility. The structural properties were assessed with atomic-force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, TEM techniques that involved conventional thinning methods for the layers. For measurement of mechanical stress in the coatings, special silicon substrates were coated and analyzed. The dispersion behavior of both deposition materials, which was determined on the basis of various independent photometric measurements and data reduction techniques, is in good agreement with that published in the literature and with the bulk properties of the materials. The refractive indices of the MgF2 coatings ranged from 1.415 to 1.440 for the wavelength of the ArF excimer laser (193 nm) and from 1.435 to 1.465 for the wavelength of the F2 excimer laser (157 nm). For single layers of LaF3 the refractive indices extended from 1.67 to 1.70 at 193 nm to approx1.80 at 157 nm. The IBS process achieves the best homogeneity and the lowest surface roughness values (close to 1 nmrms) of the processes compared in the joint experiment. In contrast to MgF2 boat and e-beam evaporated coatings, which exhibit tensile mechanical stress ranging from 300 to 400 MPa, IBS coatings exhibit high compressive stress of as much as 910 MPa. A similar tendency was found for coating stress in LaF3 single layers. Experimental results are discussed with respect to the microstructural and compositional properties as well as to the surface topography of the coatings.

  8. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B V; Clarke, M; Hu, H; Betz, [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  10. SLC polarized beam source ultra-high-vacuum design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.; Clendenin, J.E.; Garwin, E.L.; Hoyt, E.W.; Hoyt, M.W.; Miller, R.H.; Nuttall, J.A.; Schultz, D.C.; Wright, D.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the design of the ultra-high vacuum system for the beam-line from the 160-kV polarized electron gun to the linac injector in the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC). The polarized electron source is a GaAs photocathode, requiring 10 -11 -Torr-range pressure for adequate quantum efficiency and longevity. The photo-cathode is illuminated by 3-nsec-long laser pulses. Photo-cathode maintenance and improvements require occasional substitution of guns with rapid restoration of UHV conditions. Differential pumping is crucial since the pressure in the injector is more than 10 times greater than the photocathode can tolerate, and since electron-stimulated gas desorption from beam loss in excess of 0.1% of the 20-nC pulses may poison the photocathode. Our design for the transport line contains a differential pumping region isolated by a pair of valves. Exchange of guns requires venting only this isolated region which can be restored to UHV rapidly by baking. The differential pumping is performed by non-evaporable getters (NEGs) and an ion pump. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Alkali metal adsorbate sputtering by molecular impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, J.P.; Wachman, H.Y.; Trilling, L.

    1974-01-01

    An exploratory study of the sputtering by a krypton molecular beam of rubidium adsorbed at low coverage on a tungsten substrate has been described in a previous paper. An extension of this work is reported now

  12. Jets and beams in powerful extragalatic radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelletier, G.; Roland, J.; Asseo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The simplest, but the most constraining assumption for jet modeling powerfull extragalatic radio sources is to consider a single relativistic plasma with relativistic motion from short distances (few pc) to large distances (few 100 kpc) from the nucleus. We argue that it is worth introducing more ingredients in the model. Besides the interest in developing plasma physics motivated by these objects, there are two reasons for enriching the physics. First, the interpretation of hot spots as resulting from shocks with diffusive acceleration in a thermal classical plasma with a tenuous relativistic component is consistent with data and constrain the parameters. Second, the interpretation of relativistic motions on parsec scales as resulting from a core beam relaxing in a collimated wind is consistent with data and avoid several difficulties. (author). 14 refs

  13. Industrialization and production of neutral beam ion sources for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The existing LLNL designs of the 20 and 80kV deuterium fueled Neutral Beam Ion Source Modules (NBSM) have been industrialized and are being produced successfully for the MFTF. Industrialization includes value engineering, production engineering, cost reduction, fixturing, facilitation and procurement of components. Production assembly, inspection and testing is being performed in a large electronics manufacturing plant. Decades of experience in high voltage, high vacuum power tubes is being applied to the procedures and processes. Independent quality and reliability assurance criteria are being utilized. Scheduling of the various engineering, procurement and manufacturing task is performed by the use of a Critical Path Method (CPM) computer code, Innovative, computerized grid alignment methods were also designed and installed specifically for this project. New jointing and cleaning techniques were devised for the NBSMs. Traceability and cost control are also utilized

  14. ELECTRON BEAM ION SOURCE PRE-INJECTOR DIGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WILINSKI, M.; ALESSI, J.; BEEBE, E.; BELLAVIA, S.; PIKIN, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new ion pre-injector line is currently under design at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL,). Collectively, this new line is referred to as the EBIS project. This pre-injector is based on an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS), a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (R-FQ) accelerator, and a linear accelerator. The new EBIS will be able to produce a wide range of heavy ion species as well as rapidly switching between species. To aid in operation of the pre-injector line, a suite of diagnostics is currently proposed which includes faraday cups, current transformers, profile monitors, and a pepperpot emittance measurement device

  15. Accurate argon cluster-ion sputter yields: Measured yields and effect of the sputter threshold in practical depth-profiling by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumpson, Peter J.; Portoles, Jose F.; Barlow, Anders J.; Sano, Naoko [National EPSRC XPS User' s Service (NEXUS), School of Mechanical and Systems Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-28

    Argon Gas Cluster-Ion Beam sources are likely to become widely used on x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry instruments in the next few years. At typical energies used for sputter depth profiling the average argon atom in the cluster has a kinetic energy comparable with the sputter threshold, meaning that for the first time in practical surface analysis a quantitative model of sputter yields near threshold is needed. We develop a simple equation based on a very simple model. Though greatly simplified it is likely to have realistic limiting behaviour and can be made useful for estimating sputter yields by fitting its three parameters to experimental data. We measure argon cluster-ion sputter yield using a quartz crystal microbalance close to the sputter threshold, for silicon dioxide, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polystyrene and (along with data for gold from the existing literature) perform least-squares fits of our new sputter yield equation to this data. The equation performs well, with smaller residuals than for earlier empirical models, but more importantly it is very easy to use in the design and quantification of sputter depth-profiling experiments.

  16. Ion beam pellet fusion as a CTR neutron test source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Martin, R.

    1975-07-01

    Pellet fusion, driven by nanosecond pulses containing α particles with 200 MeV energy, is being developed as a neutron source. A prototype system is in the conceptual design stage. During the coming year, engineering design of required accelerator components, storage rings, and pellet configurations, as well as experiments on energy deposition mechanisms, should be accomplished. Successful construction and tests of prototype rings, followed by two years of full scale system construction, would give a source producing a useful flux of fusion neutrons for materials testing. The system as currently envisioned would employ 100 small superconducting high field storage rings (15 cm radius, 140 kG field) which would be synchronously filled with circulating 1 nsec pulses from a 200 MeV linear accelerator over a period of 3 x 10 -4 sec. These ion pulses would all be simultaneously extracted, forming a total current of 10 kA, and focussed from all directions on a deuterium and tritium (DT) pellet with 0.17 mm radium, surrounded by a heavier (metal) coating to increase confinement time and aid compression efficiency. The overall repetition rate, limited principally by physical transport of the pellets, could reach 100/sec. Spacing between pellet and focussing elements would be about 1 m. The predominant engineering problems are the fast extraction mechanism and beam transport devices for the storage rings. Additional theoretical and experimental studies are required on the crucial energy deposition and transport mechanisms in pellets with ion beam heating before firm estimates can be given. Preliminary estimates suggest fusion neutron yields of at least 10 14 /sec and possibly 10 16 /sec are possible, with optimal pellet dynamics, but without the necessity for any large advances in the state-of-the-art in accelerator and storage ring design. (auth)

  17. A high charge state heavy ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.

    1996-01-01

    A high current, low emittance, high charge state heavy ion beam source is being developed. This is designed to deliver a heavy ion fusion (HIF) driver accelerator scale beam. Using a high charge state beam in a driver accelerator for HIF may increase the acceleration efficiency, leading to a reduction in the driver accelerator size and cost. The proposed source system, which consists of a gas beam electron stripper followed by a high charge state beam separator, can be added to existing single charge state, low emittance, high brightness ion sources and injectors. We shall report on the source physics design using 3D beam simulations and experimental feasibility study results using a neutral gas stripper and a beam separator at the exit of the LBL 2 MV injector. (orig.)

  18. Measurement of electron beams profile of pierce type electron source using sensor of used Tv tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono; Suhartono; Suprapto; Elin Nuraini

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of an electron beam profile has been performed using electron beam monitor based on method of phosphorescent materials. The main components of the electron beam monitor consists of a fluorescent sensor using a used Tv tube, CCTV camera to record images on a Tv screen, video adapter as interface between CCTV and laptop, and the laptop as a viewer and data processing. Two Pierce-type electron sources diode and triode was measured the shape of electron beam profile in real time. Results of the experiments showed that the triode electron source of Pierce type gave the shape of electron beam profiles better than that of the diode electron source .The anode voltage is not so influential on the beam profile shape. The focused voltage in the triode electron source is so influence to the shape of the electron beam profile, but above 5 kV no great effect. It can be concluded that the electron beam monitor can provide real time observations and drawings shape of the electron beam profile displayed on the used Tv tube glass screen which is the real picture of the shape of the electron beam profile. Triode electron source produces a better electron beam profile than that of the diode electron source. (author)

  19. High-intensity positive beams extracted from a compact double-chamber ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, H.; Somacal, H.; Di Gregorio, D.E.; Fernandez Niello, J.O.; Igarzabal, M.; Di Paolo, H.; Reinoso, M.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the design and development of a simple ion source, the associated ion extraction optics, and the beam transport of a low-energy and high-current proton accelerator. In its actual version, the ion source can deliver positive proton currents up to 100 mA. This rather high beam current is achieved by adding a small ionization chamber between the discharge chamber containing the filament and the extraction electrode of the ion source. Different parameters of the ion source and the injection beam line are evaluated by means of computer simulations to optimize the beam production and transmission

  20. Manufacturing of the full size prototype of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injector – The SPIDER beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Boilson, Deirdre [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Bonicelli, Tullio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Boury, Jacques [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Bush, Michael [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Ceracchi, Andrea; Faso, Diego [CECOM S.r.l., Via Tiburtina – Guidonia Montecelio, Roma (Italy); Graceffa, Joseph [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Heinemann, Bernd [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Hemsworth, Ronald [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Lievin, Christophe [Thales Electron Devices, Velizy Villacoublay (France); Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy); Masiello, Antonio [Fusion for Energy, C/Joseph Pla 2, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Sczepaniak, Bernd [Galvano-T GmbH, T, Raiffeisenstraße 8, 51570 Windeck (Germany); Singh, Mahendrajit [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Toigo, Vanni; Zaccaria, Pierluigi [Consorzio RFX, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127, Padova (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Negative ion sources are key components of neutral beam injectors for nuclear fusion. • The SPIDER experiment aims to optimize the negative ion source of MITICA and HNB. • The SPIDER Beam Source manufacturing is currently on-going. • Manufacturing and assembling technological issues encountered are presented. - Abstract: In ITER, each heating neutral beam injector (HNB) will deliver about 16.5 MW heating power by accelerating a 40 A deuterium negative ion beam up to the energy of 1 MeV. The ions are generated inside a caesiated negative ion source, where the injected H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} is ionized by a radio frequency electromagnetic field. The SPIDER test bed, currently being manufactured, is going to be the ion source test facility for the full size ion source of the HNBs and of the diagnostic neutral beam injector of ITER. The SPIDER beam source comprises an ion source with 8 radio-frequency drivers and a three-grid system, providing an overall acceleration up to energies of about 100 keV [1]. SPIDER represents a substantial step forward between the half ITER size ion source, which is currently being tested at the ELISE test bed in IPP-Garching, and the negative ion sources to be used on ITER, in terms of layout, dimensions and operating parameters. The SPIDER beam source will be housed inside a vacuum vessel which will be equipped with a beam dump and a graphite diagnostic calorimeter. The manufacturing design of the main parts of the SPIDER beam source has been completed and many of the tests on the prototypes have been successfully passed. The most complex parts, from the manufacturing point of view, of the ion source and the accelerator, developed by galvanic deposition of copper are being manufactured. The manufacturing phase will be completed within 2015, when the assembly of the device will start at the PRIMA site, in Padova (I). The paper describes the status of the procurement, the adaptations operated on the design of the beam

  1. Effects of nitrogen gas ratio on the structural and corrosion properties of ZrN thin films grown on biodegradable magnesium alloy by ion-beam sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim [Islamic Azad University, Department of Engineering, Damghan Branch, Damghan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid [Nuclear Sciences and Technology Institute, Radiation Application Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    Studies on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, which are widely applied as biomaterials, have increased in recent years. In this work, zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy through ion-beam sputtering at 473 K with 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 nitrogen proportions [F(N{sub 2})] in ionized gas. X-ray diffraction, profilometry, hardness tests, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to analyze the structure, thickness, adhesion, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of coated samples, respectively. Results showed that the (111) crystalline orientation dominated in all coatings. Williamson-Hall technique revealed that the crystallite size of ZrN films decreased from 73 to 20 nm with increasing F(N{sub 2}), and compressive microstrain increased from 0.004 to 0.030. Film thicknesses were inversely correlated with N{sub 2} amount and significantly decreased from 1.7 to 0.8 μm. The maximum dP/dr ratio, a dependent factor of adhesion, was 0.04 kg/cm for the film deposited under the F(N{sub 2}) value of 0.5. The corrosion potential of coated samples was not significantly different from that of uncoated AZ91. Under the F(N{sub 2}) value of 0.6, corrosion current density slightly decreased from 14 to 9.7 μA/cm{sup 2} and significantly increased to 13.5 μA/cm{sup 2}. Results indicated that ZrN film deposited under the F(N{sub 2}) value of 0.5 showed high adhesion and corrosion resistance. (orig.)

  2. Effects of nitrogen gas ratio on the structural and corrosion properties of ZrN thin films grown on biodegradable magnesium alloy by ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiahosseini, Seyed Rahim; Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Majid

    2017-12-01

    Studies on the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys, which are widely applied as biomaterials, have increased in recent years. In this work, zirconium nitride (ZrN) coatings were deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy through ion-beam sputtering at 473 K with 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 nitrogen proportions [F(N2)] in ionized gas. X-ray diffraction, profilometry, hardness tests, scanning electron microscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization techniques were used to analyze the structure, thickness, adhesion, microstructure, and corrosion resistance of coated samples, respectively. Results showed that the (111) crystalline orientation dominated in all coatings. Williamson-Hall technique revealed that the crystallite size of ZrN films decreased from 73 to 20 nm with increasing F(N2), and compressive microstrain increased from 0.004 to 0.030. Film thicknesses were inversely correlated with N2 amount and significantly decreased from 1.7 to 0.8 µm. The maximum d P/d r ratio, a dependent factor of adhesion, was 0.04 kg/cm for the film deposited under the F(N2) value of 0.5. The corrosion potential of coated samples was not significantly different from that of uncoated AZ91. Under the F(N2) value of 0.6, corrosion current density slightly decreased from 14 to 9.7 µA/cm2 and significantly increased to 13.5 µA/cm2. Results indicated that ZrN film deposited under the F(N2) value of 0.5 showed high adhesion and corrosion resistance.

  3. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-01-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively. (paper)

  4. Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed

  5. A combined thermal dissociation and electron impact ionization source for radioactive ion beam generationa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Williams, C.

    1996-01-01

    The probability for simultaneously dissociating and efficiently ionizing the individual atomic constituents of molecular feed materials with conventional, hot-cathode, electron-impact ion sources is low and consequently, the ion beams from these sources often appear as mixtures of several molecular sideband beams. This fragmentation process leads to dilution of the intensity of the species of interest for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications where beam intensity is at a premium. We have conceived an ion source that combines the excellent molecular dissociation properties of a thermal dissociator and the high ionization efficiency characteristics of an electron impact ionization source that will, in principle, overcome this handicap. The source concept will be evaluated as a potential candidate for use for RIB generation at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility, now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The design features and principles of operation of the source are described in this article. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  6. Microjet burners for molecular-beam sources and combustion studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, Wolfgang; Fenn, John B.

    1988-09-01

    A novel microjet burner is described in which combustion is stabilized by a hot wall. The scale is so small that the entire burner flow can be passed through a nozzle only 0.2 mm or less in diameter into an evacuated chamber to form a supersonic free jet with expansion so rapid that all collisional processes in the jet gas are frozen in a microsecond or less. This burner can be used to provide high-temperature source gas for free jet expansion to produce intense beams of internally hot molecules. A more immediate use would seem to be in the analysis of combustion products and perhaps intermediates by various kinds of spectroscopies without some of the perturbation effects encountered in probe sampling of flames and other types of combustion devices. As an example of the latter application of this new tool, we present infrared emission spectra for jet gas obtained from the combustion of oxygen-hydrocarbon mixtures both fuel-rich and fuel-lean operation. In addition, we show results obtained by mass spectrometric analysis of the combustion products.

  7. Triple GEM gas detectors as real time fast neutron beam monitors for spallation neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtas, F; Claps, G; Croci, G; Tardocchi, M; Pietropaolo, A; Cippo, E Perelli; Rebai, M; Gorini, G; Frost, C D; Raspino, D; Rhodes, N J; Schooneveld, E M

    2012-01-01

    A fast neutron beam monitor based on a triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector was developed and tested for the ISIS spallation neutron source in U.K. The test on beam was performed at the VESUVIO beam line operating at ISIS. The 2D fast neutron beam footprint was recorded in real time with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters thanks to the patterned detector readout.

  8. Saturable reactor-controlled power supply system for TCT/TFTR neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Hopkins, D.B.; Dexter, W.L.; Kuenning, R.W.; Smith, B.J.

    1975-11-01

    Each neutral beam source requires one major power supply, the acceleration supply, and four auxiliary power supplies. The power supplies are designed to permit independent interruption of current to any source and crowbarring within 20 μsec, in the event of a source spark, while not disturbing the normal pulsing of all other adjacent sources. The sources are described

  9. Study of magnetic properties and relaxation in amorphous Fe73.9Nb3.1Cu0.9Si13.2B8.9 thin films produced by ion beam sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celegato, F.; Coiesson, M.; Magni, A.; Tiberto, P.; Vinai, F.; Kane, S. N.; Modak, S. S.; Gupta, A.; Sharma, P.

    2007-01-01

    Amorphous Fe 73.9 Nb 3.1 Cu 0.9 Si 13.2 B 8.9 thin films have been produced by ion beam sputtering with two different beam energies (500 and 1000 eV). Magnetic measurements indicate that the samples display a uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, especially for samples prepared with the lower beam energy. Magnetization relaxation has been measured on both films with an alternating gradient force magnetometer and magneto-optical Kerr effect. Magnetization relaxation occurs on time scales of tens of seconds and can be described with a single stretched exponential function. Relaxation intensity turns out to be higher when measured along the easy magnetization axis

  10. Performance of a modified DuoPIGatron ion source for PLT neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, C.C.; Stirling, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.

    1978-09-01

    The performance of a modified duoPIGatron ion source for PLT neutral beam injectors is described. The 22-cm source has been operated to deliver beams of 70 A, up to 45 keV, and 0.5 sec. Following a brief review of source operation, the dominant reactions leading to an enhanced atomic ion fraction in the source plasma are emphasized. In addition to the high atomic ion species yield (about 85%), other important characteristics of the source such as high arc efficiency (about 1.1 A ion beam current per kW of arc power), long filament lifetime, high reliability, and scalability are also described

  11. Properties of H- and D- beams from magnetron and Penning sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sluyters, T.; Kovarik, V.

    1979-01-01

    The quality of negative hydrogen isotope beams are evaluated after extraction from magnetron and Penning sources. The general conclusions of these measurements are that: (a) the beam quality from these plasma sources are adequate for the transport of high current negative ion beams in bending magnets; (b) there is evidence of practically complete space charge neutralization in the drift space beyond the extractor; (c) the beam performance from the Penning source appears to be better compared with the magnetron source; and (d) it is likely that the high electric field gradient and a concave ion emission boundary are responsible for a beam cross-over near the anode aperture, which causes beam divergence practically independent of the extraction geometry

  12. A Study on the Ion Beam Extraction using Duo-PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bom Sok; Lee, Chan young; Lee, Jae Sang [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC), we have started ion beam service in the new beam utilization building since March this year. For various ion beam irradiation services, we are developed implanters such as metal (150keV/1mA), gaseous (200keV/5mA) and high current ion beam facility (20keV/150mA). One of the new one is a vertical type ion beam facility without acceleration tube (60keV/20mA) which is easy to install the sample. After the installation is complete, it is where you are studying the optimal ion beam extraction process. Detailed experimental results will be presented. Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility without acceleration tube of 60keV 20mA class was installed. We successfully extracted 60keV 20mA using Duo- PiGatron Ion source for Vertical Type Ion Beam Facility. Use the BPM and Faraday-cup, is being studied the optimum conditions of ion beam extraction.

  13. Design and capabilities of an experimental setup based on magnetron sputtering for formation and deposition of size-selected metal clusters on ultra-clean surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hannes; Popok, Vladimir; Barke, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The design and performance of an experimental setup utilizing a magnetron sputtering source for production of beams of ionized size-selected clusters for deposition in ultra-high vacuum is described. For the case of copper cluster formation the influence of different source parameters is studied...

  14. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, M.R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)], E-mail: mukti@ipr.res.in; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2008-10-15

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is {approx}0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  15. Long pulse characteristics of 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, M.R.; Mattoo, S.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Baruah, U.K.; Patel, G.B.; Jayakumar, P.K.

    2008-01-01

    We present characteristics of a 5 MW ion source for SST-1 neutral beam injector. Before the source could be tested for its performance, it was conditioned by 480 arc discharges of 1 s and beam extraction of hydrogen species at various beam voltages ranging between 19 kV and 56 kV. Breakdown free beam extraction could be secured only after about 3000 beam second extraction. The ion source is capable of delivering 1.7 MW of neutral beam power at 55 kV with horizontal and vertical focal length of 5.4 m and 7 m respectively. Beam divergence is ∼0.97 deg. Steady-state beam energy of 31 MJ at 41 kV was achieved during 14 s long beam extraction. We have not noticed any deterioration of beam parameters, including beam divergence during long pulse operation. These results indicate that 0.5 MW of neutral beam power at 30 kV required for heating of plasma in SST-1 can be delivered.

  16. Beam simulation tools for GEANT4 (and neutrino source applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V.Daniel Elvira, Paul Lebrun and Panagiotis Spentzouris email daniel@fnal.gov

    2002-01-01

    Geant4 is a tool kit developed by a collaboration of physicists and computer professionals in the High Energy Physics field for simulation of the passage of particles through matter. The motivation for the development of the Beam Tools is to extend the Geant4 applications to accelerator physics. Although there are many computer programs for beam physics simulations, Geant4 is ideal to model a beam going through material or a system with a beam line integrated to a complex detector. There are many examples in the current international High Energy Physics programs, such as studies related to a future Neutrino Factory, a Linear Collider, and a very Large Hadron Collider

  17. Deposition and properties of Al-containing diamond-like carbon films by a hybrid ion beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wei; Wang Aiying

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Weak carbide former, Al element, was incorporated into DLC films using a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. → The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms doping, which resulted in the distinct reduction of the film internal stress and hardness, but the internal stress dropped faster than the hardness. → The DLC films with low internal stress and high hardness can be acquired by Al incorporation. - Abstract: Metal incorporation is one of the most effective methods for relaxing internal stress in diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. It was reported that the chemical state of the incorporated metal atoms has a significant influence on the film internal stress. The doped atoms embedding in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms can reduce the structure disorder of the DLC films through bond angle distortion and thus relax the internal stress of the films. In present paper, Al atoms, which are inert to carbon, were incorporated into the DLC films deposited by a hybrid ion beams system comprising an anode-layer ion source and a magnetron sputtering unit. The film composition, microstructure and atomic bond structure were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The internal stress, mechanical properties and tribogoical behavior were studied as a function of Al concentration using a stress-tester, nanoindentation and ball-on-disc tribo-tester, respectively. The results indicated that the incorporated Al atoms were dissolved in the DLC matrix without bonding with C atoms and the films exhibited the feature of amorphous carbon. The structure disorder of the films tended to decrease with Al atoms incorporation. This resulted in the distinct reduction of the internal stress in the films. All Al-DLC films exhibited a lower friction coefficient compared with pure DLC film. The formation of the

  18. ECR ion source based low energy ion beam facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mass analyzed highly charged ion beams of energy ranging from a few keV to a few MeV plays an important role in various aspects of research in modern physics. In this paper a unique low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) set up at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC) for providing low and medium energy multiply charged ion ...

  19. Tests of a new axial sputtering technique in an ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.; Pardo, R.; Vondrasek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Axial and radial sputtering techniques have been used over the years to create beams from an ECRIS at multiple accelerator facilities. Operational experience has shown greater beam production when using the radial sputtering method versus axial sputtering. At Argonne National Laboratory, previous work with radial sputtering has demonstrated that the position of the sputter sample relative to the plasma chamber wall influences sample drain current, beam production and charge state distribution. The possibility of the chamber wall acting as a ground plane which influences the sputtering of material has been considered, and an attempt has been made to mimic this possible ground plane effect with a coaxial sample introduced from the injection end. Results of these tests will be shown as well as comparisons of outputs using the two methods. The paper is followed by the associated poster. (authors)

  20. Sputtering calculations with the discrete ordinated method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the applicability of the discrete ordinates (S/sub N/) method to light ion sputtering problems. In particular, the neutral particle discrete ordinates computer code, ANISN, was used to calculate sputtering yields. No modifications to this code were necessary to treat charged particle transport. However, a cross section processing code was written for the generation of multigroup cross sections; these cross sections include a modification to the total macroscopic cross section to account for electronic interactions and small-scattering-angle elastic interactions. The discrete ordinates approach enables calculation of the sputtering yield as functions of incident energy and angle and of many related quantities such as ion reflection coefficients, angular and energy distributions of sputtering particles, the behavior of beams penetrating thin foils, etc. The results of several sputtering problems as calculated with ANISN are presented

  1. Novel magnetic controlled plasma sputtering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelevich, A.; Rabinovich, E.; Golan, G.

    1996-01-01

    A novel method to improve thin film vacuum sputtering is presented. This method is capable of controlling the sputtering plasma via an external set of magnets, in a similar fashion to the tetrode sputtering method. The main advantage of the Magnetic Controlled Plasma Sputtering (MCPS) is its ability to independently control all deposition parameters without any interference or cross-talk. Deposition rate, using the MCPS, is found to be almost twice the rate of triode and tetrode sputtering techniques. Experimental results using the MCPS to deposit Ni layers are described. It was demonstrated that using the MCPS method the ion beam intensity at the target is a result of the interaction of a homogeneous external magnetic field and the controlling magnetic fields. The MCPS method was therefore found to be beneficial for the production of pure stoichiometric thin solid films with high reproducibility. This method could be used for the production of compound thin films as well. (authors)

  2. Space-charge compensation of highly charged ion beam from laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrashev, S.A.; Collier, J.; Sherwood, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of matching an ion beam delivered by a high-intensity ion source with an accelerator is considered. The experimental results of highly charged ion beam transport with space-charge compensation by electrons are presented. A tungsten thermionic cathode is used as a source of electrons for beam compensation. An increase of ion beam current density by a factor of 25 is obtained as a result of space-charge compensation at a distance of 3 m from the extraction system. The process of ion beam space-charge compensation, requirements for a source of electrons, and the influence of recombination losses in a space-charge-compensated ion beam are discussed. (author)

  3. Ion source for ion beam deposition employing a novel electrode assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. V.; Kanarov, V.; Yevtukhov, R.; Hegde, H.; Druz, B.; Yakovlevitch, D.; Cheesman, W.; Mirkov, V.

    2000-02-01

    A rf inductively coupled ion source employing a novel electrode assembly for focusing a broad ion beam on a relatively small target area was developed. The primary application of this ion source is the deposition of thin films used in the fabrication of magnetic sensors and optical devices. The ion optics consists of a three-electrode set of multiaperture concave dished grids with a beam extraction diameter of 150 mm. Also described is a variation in the design providing a beam extraction diameter of 120 mm. Grid hole diameters and grid spacing were optimized for low beamlet divergence and low grid impingement currents. The radius of curvature of the grids was optimized to obtain an optimally focused ion beam at the target location. A novel grid fabrication and mounting design was employed which overcomes typical limitations of such grid assemblies, particularly in terms of maintaining optimum beam focusing conditions after multiple cycles of operation. Ion beam generation with argon and xenon gases in energy ranges from 0.3 to 2.0 keV was characterized. For operation with argon gas, beam currents greater than 0.5 A were obtained with a beam energy of 800 eV. At optimal beam formation conditions, beam profiles at distances about equal to the radius of curvature were found to be close to Gaussian, with 99.9% of the beam current located within a 150 mm target diameter. Repeatability of the beam profile over long periods of operation is also reported.

  4. Recent negative ion source developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes recent results obtained from studies associated with the development of negative ion sources which utilize sputtering in a diffuse cesium plasma as a means of ion beam generation. Data are presented which relate negative ion yield and important operational parameters such as cesium oven temperature and sputter probe voltage from each of the following sources: (1) A source based in principle according to the University of Aarhus design and (2) an axial geometry source. The important design aspects of the sources are given--along with a list of the negative ion intensities observed to date. Also a qualitative description and interpretation of the negative ion generation mechanism in sources which utilize sputtering in the presence of cesium is given

  5. Cesium-enhanced D sup - beam characteristics from a high-brightness volume source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debiak, T.W. (Grumman Corporate Research Center, Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Previous experiments have demonstrated that the H{sup -} beam extracted from a volume ion source may increase by a factor of 4 or more when cesium vapor is introduced into the arc discharge chamber. We have extended these experiments to cesiated D{sup -} beams transported with and without space-charge neutralization by xenon gas. The D{sup -} results show qualitatively similar characteristics to those obtained with H{sup -}. In particular, a factor of almost 7 in current enhancement was obtained compared with noncesiated beams accompanied by a dramatic reduction in electron current. A study of the beam divergence as a function of extracted equivalent current showed that the divergence of the cesiated beams was larger than the uncesiated beams at the same equivalent current. Introduction of xenon gas at a partial pressure of 2.5x10{sup -5} Torr reduced the divergence of the cesiated beams to the value obtained for the uncesiated beams. (orig.).

  6. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  7. High-resolution spectral analysis of light from neutral beams and ion source plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, D.H.; Kim, J.

    1980-05-01

    The spectral distributions of Balmer alpha emission from 7- and 22-cm-diam neutral hydrogen beams have been measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to obtain information on the beam energy, divergence, and species composition. Results of these measurements are compared with other data on the beam properties to evaluate high-resolution spectroscopy as a beam diagnostic technique. Measurements on ion source plasmas and on beam-produced background plasmas yield average neutral atom energies of approximately 0.3 and 2.5 eV, respectively

  8. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A.

    2012-01-01

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H - ion sources largely affects the extracted H - ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H - ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H - ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  9. Summary test results of the particle-beam diagnostics for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) subsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Wang, X.; Sellyey, W.; Patterson, D.; Kahana, E.

    1994-01-01

    During the first half of 1994, a number of the diagnostic systems for measurement of the charged-particle beam parameters throughout the subsystems of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been installed and tested. The particle beams eventually will involve 450-MeV to 7-GeV positrons and with different pulse formats. The first test and commissionin results for beam profiles, beam position monitors, loss rate monitors, current monitors, and synchrotron radiation photon monitors hve been obtained using 200- to 350-MeV electron beams injected into the subsystems. Data presented are principally from the transport lines and the positron accumulator ring

  10. Benchmarking of Touschek Beam Lifetime Calculations for the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, A.; Yang, B.

    2017-06-25

    Particle loss from Touschek scattering is one of the most significant issues faced by present and future synchrotron light source storage rings. For example, the predicted, Touschek-dominated beam lifetime for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Upgrade lattice in 48-bunch, 200-mA timing mode is only ~ 2 h. In order to understand the reliability of the predicted lifetime, a series of measurements with various beam parameters was performed on the present APS storage ring. This paper first describes the entire process of beam lifetime measurement, then compares measured lifetime with the calculated one by applying the measured beam parameters. The results show very good agreement.

  11. Ion-beam technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This compilation of figures and diagrams reviews processes for depositing diamond/diamond-like carbon films. Processes addressed are chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD, PACVD, etc.), plasma vapor deposition (plasma sputtering, ion beam sputtering, evaporation, etc.), low-energy ion implantation, and hybrid processes (biased sputtering, IBAD, biased HFCVD, etc.). The tribological performance of coatings produced by different means is discussed.

  12. Deuterium sputtering of Li and Li-O films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew; Buzi, Luxherta; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    Lithium wall coatings have been shown to enhance the operational plasma performance of many fusion devices, including NSTX and other tokamaks, by reducing the global wall recycling coefficient. However, pure lithium surfaces are extremely difficult to maintain in experimental fusion devices due to both inevitable oxidation and codeposition from sputtering of hot plasma facing components. Sputtering of thin lithium and lithium oxide films on a molybdenum target by energetic deuterium ion bombardment was studied in laboratory experiments conducted in a surface science apparatus. A Colutron ion source was used to produce a monoenergetic, mass-selected ion beam. Measurements were made under ultrahigh vacuum conditions as a function of surface temperature (90-520 K) using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD). Results are compared with computer simulations conducted on a temperature-dependent data-calibrated (TRIM) model.

  13. Design of a neutrino source based on beta beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wildner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available “Beta beams” produce collimated pure electron (antineutrino beams by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a racetrack shaped storage ring of 7 km circumference, the decay ring. EUROnu beta beams are based on CERN infrastructures and existing machines. Using existing machines may be an advantage for the cost evaluation, but will also constrain the physics performance. The isotope pair of choice for the beta beam is ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne. However, before the EUROnu studies one of the required isotopes, ^{18}Ne, could not be produced in rates that satisfy the needs for physics of the beta beam. Therefore, studies of alternative beta emitters, ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, with properties interesting for a beta beam have been proposed and have been studied within EUROnu. These alternative isotopes could be produced by using a small storage ring, in which the beam traverses a target, creating the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B isotopes. This production ring, the injection linac and the target system have been evaluated. Measurements of the cross section of the reactions to produce the beta beam isotopes show interesting results. A device to collect the produced isotopes from the target has been developed and tested. However, the yields of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, using the production ring for production of ^{8}Li and ^{8}B, is not yet, according to simulations, giving the rates of isotopes that would be needed. Therefore, a new method of producing the ^{18}Ne isotope has been developed and tested giving good production rates. A 60 GHz ECRIS prototype, the first in the world, was developed and tested for ion production with contributions from EUROnu. The decay ring lattices for the ^{8}Li and ^{8}B have been developed and the lattice for ^{6}He and ^{18}Ne has been optimized to ensure the high intensity ion beam stability.

  14. Multisample matrix-assisted laser desorption source for molecular beams of neutral peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupulescu, C.; Abd El Rahim, M.; Antoine, R.; Barbaire, M.; Broyer, M.; Dagany, X.; Maurelli, J.; Rayane, D.; Dugourd, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    We developed and tested a multisample laser desorption source for producing stable molecular beams of neutral peptides. Our apparatus is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption technique. The source consists of 96 different targets which may be scanned by a software control procedure. Examples of molecular beams of neutral peptides are presented, as well as the influence of the different source parameters on the jet

  15. The broad beam ion implanter with the use of radio frequency source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A [Accelerators Dept., Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The project started with the design of the broad beam RF ion source and the single gap accelerating column. The preliminary results of the source show that the ion current extracted from the source could reach 30 m A with extraction voltage = 2 kV. The beam uniformity was made by the use of multi apertures graphite cathode designed to make perveance matching to the normal Gaussian distribution of the ion beam. The beam uniformity could reach 66% of the beam width of 6 cm. The design of the single gap accelerating column based on tracing of beam lines inside the accelerating gap and estimation of the minimum value of the electric field required to contain the beam against space charge expansion in order to achieve minimum beam emittance without aberrations. The preliminary results of the acceleration of the ion beams up to 20 KeV show an increase of the extracted ion current with increase of the extraction voltage. This increase is due to decrease of the angular divergence of the beam due to the effect of increasing the axial velocity component of the accelerated field. 9 figs.

  16. The effect of space charge force on beams extracted from ECR ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.Q.

    1989-01-01

    A new 3 dimensional ray tracing code BEAM-3D, with a simple model to calculate the space charge force of multiple ion species, is under development and serves as a theoretical tool to study the ECRIS beam formation. Excellent agreement between the BEAM-3D calculations and beam profile and emittance measurements of the total extracted helium 1+ beam from the RTECR ion source was obtained when a low degree of beam neutralization was assumed in the calculations. The experimental evidence indicates that the positive space charge effects dominate the early RTECR ion source beam formation and beamline optics matching process. A review of important beam characteristics is made, including a conceptual model for the space charge beam blow up. Better beam transport through the RTECR beamline analysis magnet has resulted after an extraction geometry modification in which the space charge force was more correctly matched. This work involved the development of an online beam characteristic measuring apparatus which will also be described

  17. Beam losses and beam halos in accelerators for new energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Large particle accelerators are proposed as drivers for new ways to produce electricity from nuclear fusion and fission reactions. The accelerators must be designed to deliver large particle beam currents to a target facility with very little beam spill along the accelerator itself, in order that accelerator maintenance can be accomplished without remote manipulators. Typically, particle loss is preceded by the formation of a tenuous halo of particles around the central beam core, caused by beam dynamics effects, often coupled with the slight imperfections inevitable in a practical design. If the halo becomes large enough, particles may be scraped off along the accelerator. The tolerance for beam spill in different applications is discussed, halo mechanisms and recent work to explore and understand their dynamics are reviewed, and possible directions for future investigation are outlined. 17 refs., 10 figs

  18. Advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) for 2-nd generation carbon radiotherapy facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Shornikov, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we analyze how advanced Electron Beam Ion Sources (EBIS) can facilitate the progress of carbon therapy facilities. We will demonstrate that advanced ion sources enable operation of 2-nd generation ion beam therapy (IBT) accelerators. These new accelerator concepts with designs dedicated to IBT provide beams better suited for therapy and, are more cost efficient than contemporary IBT facilities. We will give a sort overview of the existing new IBT concepts and focus on those where ion source technology is the limiting factor. We will analyse whether this limitation can be overcome in the near future thanks to ongoing EBIS development.

  19. LONGITUDINAL MISMATCH IN SCL AS A SOURCE OF BEAM HALO.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RUGGIERO,A.G.

    2003-06-19

    An advantage of a proton Super-conducting Linac (SCL) is that RF cavities can be operated independently, allowing easier beam transport: and acceleration. But cavities are to be separated by drifts long enough to avoid they couple to each other. Moreover, cavities are placed in cryostats that include inactive insertions for cold-warm transitions; and interspersed are warm insertions for magnets and other devices. The SCL is then an alternating sequence of accelerating elements and drifts. No periodicity is present, and the longitudinal motion is not adiabatic. This has the consequence that the beam bunch ellipse will tumble, dilute and create a halo in the momentum plane because of inherent nonlinearities. When this is coupled to longitudinal space-charge forces, it may cause beam loss with latent activation of the accelerator components.

  20. Beam heat load investigations with a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics in a synchrotron light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutta, Robert

    2016-04-22

    The beam heat load is a crucial input parameter for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. To understand the discrepancies between the predicted heat load of an electron beam to a cold bore and the heat load observed in superconducting devices, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics has been built. Extensive beam heat load measurements were performed at the Diamond light source. They are analysed systematically and combined with complementary impedance bench measurements.

  1. Reconstruction of Sound Source Pressures in an Enclosure Using the Phased Beam Tracing Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2009-01-01

    . First, surfaces of an extended source are divided into reasonably small segments. From each source segment, one beam is projected into the field and all emitted beams are traced. Radiated beams from the source reach array sensors after traveling various paths including the wall reflections. Collecting...... all the pressure histories at the field points, source-observer relations can be constructed in a matrix-vector form for each frequency. By multiplying the measured field data with the pseudo-inverse of the calculated transfer function, one obtains the distribution of source pressure. An omni......-directional sphere and a cubic source in a rectangular enclosure were taken as examples in the simulation tests. A reconstruction error was investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in terms of field point locations. When the source information was reconstructed by the present method, it was shown that the sound power...

  2. Beam diagnostic tools for the negative hydrogen ion source test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Riccardo; Fantz, Ursel; Franzen, Peter; Froeschle, Markus; Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Ruf, Benjamin; Wuenderlich, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We present an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for the new testbed ELISE. ► A sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter allows beam profile measurement. ► A tungsten wire mesh in the beam path provides a qualitative picture of the beam. ► Stripping losses and beam divergence are measured by H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. -- Abstract: The test facility ELISE, presently being commissioned at IPP, is a first step in the R and D roadmap for the RF driven ion source and extraction system of the ITER NBI system. The “half-size” ITER-like test facility includes a negative hydrogen ion source that can be operated for 1 h. ELISE is expected to extract an ion beam of 20 A at 60 kV for 10 s every 3 min, therefore delivering a total power of 1.2 MW. The extraction area has a geometry that closely reproduces the ITER design, with the same width and half the height, i.e. 1 m × 1 m. This paper presents an overview of beam diagnostic tools foreseen for ELISE. For the commissioning phase, a simple beam dump with basic diagnostic capabilities has been installed. In the second phase, the beam dump will be substituted by a more sophisticated diagnostic calorimeter to allow beam profile measurement. Additionally, a tungsten wire mesh will be introduced in the beam path to provide a qualitative picture of beam size and position. Stripping losses and beam divergence will be measured by means of H α Doppler shift spectroscopy. An absolute calibration is foreseen in order to measure beam intensity

  3. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jeffrey A. [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)], E-mail: jaw7@cornell.edu; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken [CHESS, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850-8001 (United States)

    2007-11-11

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring.

  4. E-line: A new crystal collimator beam line for source size measurements at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Jeffrey A.; Revesz, Peter; Finkelstein, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A new X-ray beam line has been constructed at cornell high energy synchrotron source (CHESS) to measure the vertical and horizontal source size of the positron particle beam. The cornell laboratory of elementary particle physics (LEPP) operates the storage ring (CESR) for X-ray generation for the CHESS user community by circulating electrons and their antimatter counterpart positrons in counter-rotating beams. As the laboratory reduces the emittances of particle beams to increase X-ray brilliance, there has been an increasing need for diagnostic tools to measure and monitor source size. A beam line front end that accesses the positron synchrotron light has been fitted with an experimental chamber and apparatus of compact design capable of horizontal and vertical source size measurement using the 'crystal collimator' technique, and an additional setup for vertical beam position monitoring using a luminescence-based X-ray video beam position monitoring system. The crystal collimators each consist of two Si(2 2 0) crystals in a dispersive (+,+) arrangement that diffract X-rays to a fluorescent material coated on a view port observed with a CCD camera. Measurements of the positron vertical beam size using the crystal collimation method at E-line are compared with measurements of visible synchrotron light at a remotely located dedicated port on the storage ring

  5. The gyrotron - a natural source of high-power orbital angular momentum millimeter-wave beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, M.; Sawant, A.; Choe, M. S.; Choi, E. M.

    2017-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of electromagnetic-wave beams provides further diversity to multiplexing in wireless communication. The present report shows that higher-order mode gyrotrons are natural sources of high-power OAM millimeter (mm) wave beams. The well-defined OAM of their rotating cavity modes operating at near cutoff frequency has been derived by photonic and electromagnetic wave approaches.

  6. Description of a laser vaporization source and a supersonic cluster beam apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doverstaal, M.; Lindgren, B.; Sassenberg, U.; Yu, H.

    1993-11-01

    Laser vaporization of an appropriate target and recent developments in molecular beam technology have now made it possible to produce supersonic cluster beams of virtually any element in the periodic table. This paper describes the design and principles of a cluster source combined with a time of flight mass spectrometer built for reaction experiments and spectroscopic investigations at Stockholm University

  7. BEAM-LOSS DRIVEN DESIGN OPTIMIZATION FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) RING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEI,J.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; CAMERON,P.; DANBY,G.; GARDNER,C.J.; JACKSON,J.; LEE,Y.Y.; LUDEWIG,H.; MALITSKY,N.; RAPARIA,D.; TSOUPAS,N.; WENG,W.T.; ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-03-29

    This paper summarizes three-stage design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.).

  8. Beam-Loss Driven Design Optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes three-state design optimization for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring: linear machine design (lattice, aperture, injection, magnet field errors and misalignment), beam core manipulation (painting, space charge, instabilities, RF requirements), and beam halo consideration (collimation, envelope variation, e-p issues etc.)

  9. Tool steel ion beam assisted nitrocarburization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagonel, L.F.; Alvarez, F.

    2007-01-01

    The nitrocarburization of the AISI-H13 tool steel by ion beam assisted deposition is reported. In this technique, a carbon film is continuously deposited over the sample by the ion beam sputtering of a carbon target while a second ion source is used to bombard the sample with low energy nitrogen ions. The results show that the presence of carbon has an important impact on the crystalline and microstructural properties of the material without modification of the case depth

  10. High-intensity pulsed beam source with tunable operation mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashilevskiy, A. V.; Kanaev, G. G.; Ezhov, V. V.; Shamanin, V. I.

    2017-05-01

    The report presents the design of an electron and an ion pulsed accelerator. The powerful high-voltage pulse generator of the accelerator and the vacuum bushing insulator is able to change the polarity of the output voltage. The low-inductance matching transformer provides an increase in the DFL output impedance by 4 times. The generator based on a high voltage pulse transformer and a pseudo spark switch is applied for DFL charging. The high-impedance magnetically insulated focusing diode with Br magnetic field and the “passive” anode was used to realize the ion beam generation mode. The plasma is formed on the surface of the anode caused by an electrical breakdown at the voltage edge pulse; as a result, the carbon ion and proton beam is generated. This beam has the following parameters: the current density is about 400 A/cm2 (in focus): the applied voltage is up to 450 kV. The accelerator is designed for the research on the interaction of the charged particle pulsed beams with materials and for the development of technological processes of a material modification.

  11. Development of zeolite ion source for beam probe measurements of high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shinsuke; Fujisawa, Akihide; Shimizu, Akihiro; Nakano, Haruhisa

    2005-10-01

    A zeolite ion source has been developed for plasma diagnostics. Extracted beam current is increased by a factor of ∼10 after redesigning the ion source structure and improving the method to make emitter material (zeolite). The paper introduces an experiment on making desirable ion emitter, together with properties of the newly developed ion source. (author)

  12. Beam experiments with the Grenoble test electron cyclotron resonance ion source at iThemba LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomae, R., E-mail: rthomae@tlabs.ac.za; Conradie, J.; Fourie, D.; Mira, J.; Nemulodi, F. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Kuechler, D.; Toivanen, V. [CERN, BE/ABP/HSL, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    At iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences (iThemba LABS) an electron cyclotron ion source was installed and commissioned. This source is a copy of the Grenoble Test Source (GTS) for the production of highly charged ions. The source is similar to the GTS-LHC at CERN and named GTS2. A collaboration between the Accelerators and Beam Physics Group of CERN and the Accelerator and Engineering Department of iThemba LABS was proposed in which the development of high intensity argon and xenon beams is envisaged. In this paper, we present beam experiments with the GTS2 at iThemba LABS, in which the results of continuous wave and afterglow operation of xenon ion beams with oxygen as supporting gases are presented.

  13. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun; Jadhali, Rasha Al; Zhang, Likun; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation

  14. The Stark effect of 1H and 4He+ in the beam foil source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doobov, M.H.; Hay, H.J.; Sofield, C.J.; Newton, C.S.

    1974-01-01

    The appearance of Stark patterns obtained with a beam-foil source differed from those characteristically obtained from gas discharge sources. In the former source excitation of the hydrogenic ions occurred in a brief time interval ( 14 s) during the passage of a high velocity unidirectional beam of ions which produces non-statistical population distributions for the Stark perturbed states. The relative intensities of Stark perturbed components of the Hsub(β) hydrogen line and the Fsub(α) ionized helium line have been measured in a beam-foil source. In each case an initial population of states of principal quantum number n = 4 due to radiative decay and Stark mixing, and comparing the resultant patterns with the observed patterns. The inferred population distributions indicate that the states of low orbital angular momentum (L) are preferentially populated, and alignment referred to the beam axis is produced such that states with lower z component of L are preferentially populated. (author)

  15. Studies on space charge neutralization and emittance measurement of beam from microwave ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Anuraag; Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Srivastava, S.; Pandit, V. S., E-mail: pandit@vecc.gov.in, E-mail: vspandit12@gmail.com [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2015-11-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source together with a beam transport system has been developed at VECC to study the problems related with the injection of high current beam into a compact cyclotron. This paper presents the results of beam profile measurement of high current proton beam at different degrees of space charge neutralisation with the introduction of neon gas in the beam line using a fine leak valve. The beam profiles have been measured at different pressures in the beam line by capturing the residual gas fluorescence using a CCD camera. It has been found that with space charge compensation at the present current level (∼5 mA at 75 keV), it is possible to reduce the beam spot size by ∼34%. We have measured the variation of beam profile as a function of the current in the solenoid magnet under the neutralised condition and used these data to estimate the rms emittance of the beam. Simulations performed using equivalent Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky beam envelope equations with space charge neutralization factor are also presented to interpret the experimental results.

  16. Faraday screen sputtering on TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The TPX design stipulates that the ion-cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) antenna must have a Faraday screen (FS). The author considers here possible low Z coatings for the screen, as well as sputtering behavior of the Ni and Ti substrates. The theory of rf-induced sputtering has been developed, and he follows those theoretical approaches. The author's emphasis will be on both impurity generation as a possible source of increased Z eff , and also on actual erosion-lifetime of the materials under worst case conditions

  17. EPOS-An intense positron beam project at the ELBE radiation source in Rossendorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause-Rehberg, R.; Sachert, S.; Brauer, G.; Rogov, A.; Noack, K.

    2006-01-01

    EPOS, the acronym of ELBE Positron Source, describes a running project to build an intense pulsed beam of mono-energetic positrons (0.2-40 keV) for materials research. Positrons will be created via pair production at a tungsten target using the pulsed 40 MeV electron beam of the superconducting linac electron linac with high brilliance and low emittance (ELBE) at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf (near Dresden, Germany). The chosen design of the system under construction is described and results of calculations simulating the interaction of the electron beam with the target are presented, and positron beam formation and transportation is also discussed

  18. Use of reactive gases with broad-beam radio frequency ion sources for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, St.; Jolly, T.W.; Kohlstedt, H.; Waser, R.

    2004-01-01

    Broad-beam ion sources are used for a number of important industrial etching and deposition applications, and the use of inductively coupled plasmas has greatly increased the feasibility of using beams of reactive gases, especially of chlorine and oxygen, but also of CO, CO 2 , CF 4 , CHF 3 , SF 6 , etc. In order to gain more understanding of the factors that affect the composition of beams of these gases, we have used a Hiden energy-dispersive quadrupole mass spectrometer to analyze the flux of ions and energetic particles produced by an Oxford Instruments 15 cm rf ion source. For all of the above gases, we have analyzed the effects of changing the operating conditions on the composition of the ion beam, and the fractional production of multiply charged ions; on the plasma potential (and the consequential divergence of the ion beam) and on the spread in energy of the ion beam. We discuss how these factors influence the correct use of the ion source in etching applications with these gases. It is important that the design of the ion source should be optimized for the process gases that are used. The source was originally optimized for use on argon. We discuss the effect of the design on the source's performance with the different gases, and we consider whether design changes would be appropriate for optimum performance on different gases

  19. Ion-induced sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasumichi; Shimizu, Ryuichi; Shimizu, Hazime; Ito, Noriaki.

    1983-01-01

    The research on ion-induced sputtering has been continued for a long time, since a hundred or more years ago. However, it was only in 1969 by Sigmund that the sputtering phenomena were theoretically arranged into the present form. The reason why the importance of sputtering phenomena have been given a new look recently is the application over wide range. This paper is a review centering around the mechanism of causing sputtering and its characteristics. Sputtering is such a phenomenon that the atoms in the vicinity of a solid surface are emitted into vacuum by receiving a part of ion energy, or in other words, it is a kind of irradiation damage in the vicinity of a solid surface. In this meaning, it can be considered that the sputtering based on the ions located on the clean surface of a single element metal is simple, and has already been basically understood. On the contrary, the phenomena can not be considered to be fully understood in the case of alloys and compounds, because these surface conditions under irradiation are not always clear due to segregation and others. In the paper, the physical of sputtering, single element sputtering, the sputtering in alloys and compounds, and the behaviour of emitted particles are explained. Finally, some recent topics of the sputtering measurement by laser resonant excitation, the sputtering by electron excitation, chemical sputtering, and the sputtering in nuclear fusion reactors are described. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Beam commission of the high intensity proton source developed at INFN-LNS for the European Spallation Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Miraglia, A.; Leonardi, O.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Mascali, D.; Mazzaglia, M.; Allegra, L.; Amato, A.; Calabrese, G.; Caruso, A.; Chines, F.; Gallo, G.; Longhitano, A.; Manno, G.; Marletta, S.; Maugeri, A.; Passarello, S.; Pastore, G.; Seminara, A.; Spartà, A.; Vinciguerra, S.

    2017-07-01

    At the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) the beam commissioning of the high intensity Proton Source for the European Spallation Source (PS-ESS) started in November 2016. Beam stability at high current intensity is one of the most important parameter for the first steps of the ongoing commissioning. Promising results were obtained since the first source start with a 6 mm diameter extraction hole. The increase of the extraction hole to 8 mm allowed improving PS-ESS performances and obtaining the values required by the ESS accelerator. In this work, extracted beam current characteristics together with Doppler shift and emittance measurements are presented, as well as the description of the next phases before the installation at ESS in Lund.

  1. Beam Current Increase and Cathode Lifetime Improvement of KOTRON-13 Ion Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. K.; Chae, S. K.; Song, J. Y.; Im, G. S.; Cho, B. O.

    2010-01-01

    Technology of cyclotron has been actively developed to meet the increasing requirement output of medical radioactive isotopes for PET. KOTRON-13 is produced with low negative hydrogen ion beam current owing to the low efficiency of proton beam current compared with foreign cyclotron. In the defect there from, the lifetime of cathode is around 5,000min, which requires frequent maintenance period, and the target beam current is maximum 50uA at a poor efficiency compared with the inflow quantity of hydrogen gas and that of inflicting arc current. Considering above affairs, we have to improve the PIG ion source extraction efficiency of KOTRON-13 in order to lift beam current. Mostly the ion source of cyclotron less than 30Mev comes from the use of PIG ion source mainly with the method of cold cathode or hot cathode. However, the cyclotron of 30Mev grade of EBCO or IBA uses the external ion source and uses ion source with cusp type of good withdrawal efficiency. This type requires high voltage, and transports ion from ion source to cyclotron, which requires precise transportation equipment. And entering cyclotron requires a high quality of inflictor with a high defect rate, but high current cyclotron has no choice but to use ion source of such a method. But the cyclotron using PET with the beam current less than 100uA uses PIG ion source of KOTRON-13 with a reasonable maintenance cost

  2. Sputter crater formation in the case of microsecond pulsed glow discharge in a Grimm-type source. Comparison of direct current and radio frequency modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Varvara; Hoffmann, Volker; Eckert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Depth profiling with pulsed glow discharge is a promising technique. The application of pulsed voltage for sputtering reduces the sputtering rate and thermal stress and hereby improves the analysis of thin layered and thermally fragile samples. However pulsed glow discharge is not well studied and this limits its practical use. The current work deals with the questions which usually arise when the pulsed mode is applied: Which duty cycle, frequency and pulse length must be chosen to get the optimal sputtering rate and crater shape? Are the well-known sputtering effects of the continuous mode valid also for the pulsed regime? Is there any difference between dc and rf pulsing in terms of sputtering? It is found that the pulse length is a crucial parameter for the crater shape and thermal effects. Sputtering with pulsed dc and rf modes is found to be similar. The observed sputtering effects at various pulsing parameters helped to interpret and optimize the depth resolution of GD OES depth profiles.

  3. An intense lithium ion beam source using vacuum baking and discharge cleaning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moschella, J.J.; Kusse, B.R.; Longfellow, J.P.; Olson, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a high-purity, intense, lithium ion beam source which operates at 500 kV and 120 A/cm 2 with pulse widths of 125 ns full width half maximum. The beams were generated using a lithium chloride anode in planar magnetically insulated geometry. We have found that the combination of vacuum baking of the anode at 250 degree C followed by the application of 100 W of pure argon, steady-state, glow discharge cleaning reduced the impurity concentration in the beam to approximately 10% (components other than chlorine or lithium were considered impurities). Although the impurities were low, the concentration of chlorine in the 1+ and 2+ charge states was significant (∼25%). The remaining 65% of the beam consisted of Li + ions. Without the special cleaning process, over half the beam particles were impurities. It was determined that these impurities entered the beam at the anode surface but came originally from material in the vacuum chamber. After the cleaning process, recontamination was observed to occur in approximately 6 min. This long recontamination time, which was much greater than the expected monolayer formation time, was attributed to the elevated temperature of the anode. We also compared the electrical characteristics of the beams produced by LiCl anodes to those generated by a standard polyethylene proton source. In contrast to the polyethylene anode, the LiCl source exhibited a higher impedance, produced beams of lower ion current efficiency and had longer turn on times

  4. The diagnostic neutral beam injector with arc-discharge plasma source on the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpushov, Alexander N. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)], E-mail: alexander.karpushov@epfl.ch; Andrebe, Yanis; Duval, Basil P.; Bortolon, Alessandro [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-06-15

    The diagnostic neutral beam injector (DNBI) together with a charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) system has been used on the TCV Tokamak as a diagnostic tool for local measurements of plasma ion temperature, velocity and carbon impurity density based on analysis of the beam induced impurity radiation emission since 2000. To improve the performance of the CXRS diagnostic, several upgrades of both the optical system and the neutral beam were performed. An increase of the plasma source size together with beam optimization in 2003 resulted in a twofold increase the beam current. The RF plasma generator was replaced by an arc-discharge plasma source together with a new ion optical system (IOS) in 2006 and subsequent beam optimization is presented herein. This was designed to increase the line brightness of the beam in the CXRS observation region without increasing of the injected power (to avoid plasma perturbation by the beam). The beam characteristics are measured by a multi-chord scanning of Doppler-shifted H{sub {alpha}} emission, thermal measurements on a movable calorimeter and visible optical measurements inside the Tokamak vessel.

  5. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L. T.; Shang, Y.; Ma, B. H.; Zhang, X. Z.; Feng, Y. C.; Li, X. X.; Wang, H.; Guo, X. H.; Song, M. T.; Zhao, H. Y.; Zhang, Z. M.; Zhao, H. W.; Xie, D. Z.

    2008-01-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed

  6. An electron cyclotron resonance ion source based low energy ion beam platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L T; Shang, Y; Ma, B H; Zhang, X Z; Feng, Y C; Li, X X; Wang, H; Guo, X H; Song, M T; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, Z M; Zhao, H W; Xie, D Z

    2008-02-01

    To satisfy the requirements of surface and atomic physics study in the field of low energy multiple charge state ion incident experiments, a low energy (10 eV/q-20 keV/q) ion beam platform is under design at IMP. A simple test bench has been set up to test the ion beam deceleration systems. Considering virtues such as structure simplicity, easy handling, compactness, cost saving, etc., an all-permanent magnet ECRIS LAPECR1 [Lanzhou all-permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source No. 1] working at 14.5 GHz has been adopted to produce intense medium and low charge state ion beams. LAPECR1 source has already been ignited. Some intense low charge state ion beams have been produced on it, but the first test also reveals that many problems are existing on the ion beam transmission line. The ion beam transmission mismatches result in the depressed performance of LAPECR1, which will be discussed in this paper. To obtain ultralow energy ion beam, after being analyzed by a double-focusing analyzer magnet, the selected ion beam will be further decelerated by two afocal deceleration lens systems, which is still under design. This design has taken into consideration both ions slowing down and also ion beam focusing. In this paper, the conceptual design of deceleration system will be discussed.

  7. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  8. Beam dynamics design of an SP-FEL compact THz source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Dongdong; Dai Zhimin

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, people are looking for a new compact THz source with high emission power, one potential choice is to build small accelerator with Smith-Purcell radiation. The main difficulty is how to obtain high quality electron beam. In this paper, the beam dynamics design of a compact THz source is presented. The electron beam is produced by an electron gun and compressed by permanent magnets. The electron gun is similar to the Shanghai EBIT, but permanent magnets are used, instead of the superconducting magnets in Shanghai EBIT. With this design, we can reduce the size and cost of the whole device. Poisson/Pandira was employed to simulate and optimize the magnetic field. Egun was used to simulate the beam trajectories from the electron gun to the collector. Within 2 centimeters around the center of longitudinal magnetic field, the calculation showed that the beam satisfies to our design aim. (authors)

  9. Simulation of ultrasonic surface waves with multi-Gaussian and point source beam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Schmerr, Lester W. Jr.; Li, Xiongbing; Sedov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, multi-Gaussian beam models have been developed to solve many complicated bulk wave propagation problems. However, to date those models have not been extended to simulate the generation of Rayleigh waves. Here we will combine Gaussian beams with an explicit high frequency expression for the Rayleigh wave Green function to produce a three-dimensional multi-Gaussian beam model for the fields radiated from an angle beam transducer mounted on a solid wedge. Simulation results obtained with this model are compared to those of a point source model. It is shown that the multi-Gaussian surface wave beam model agrees well with the point source model while being computationally much more efficient

  10. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber.

  11. Transverse Beam Halo Measurements at High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) using Vibrating Wire Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, M.; Hanna, B.; Scarpine, V.; Shiltsev, V.; Steimel, J.; Artinian, S.; Arutunian, S.

    2015-02-26

    The measurement and control of beam halos will be critical for the applications of future high-intensity hadron linacs. In particular, beam profile monitors require a very high dynamic range when used for the transverse beam halo measurements. In this study, the Vibrating Wire Monitor (VWM) with aperture 60 mm was installed at the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS) front-end to measure the transverse beam halo. A vibrating wire is excited at its resonance frequency with the help of a magnetic feedback loop, and the vibrating and sensitive wires are connected through a balanced arm. The sensitive wire is moved into the beam halo region by a stepper motor controlled translational stage. We study the feasibility of the vibrating wire for the transverse beam halo measurements in the low-energy front-end of the proton linac.

  12. Preliminary design of bellows for the DNB beam source by EJMA and FE linear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapasiya, Shobhit; Muvvala, Venkata Nagaraju; Rambilas, P.; Gangadharan, Roopesh; Rotti, Chandramouli; Chakraborty, Arun Kumar; Sharma, Dheeraj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In piping system, U-shaped Bellows are widely used among flexible elements. In general, bellows are typically design for Fatigue behavior according to the EJMA standard based on empirically generated fatigue curves. The present work proposes a methodology in the design of bellows by design by analyses and validates its design by EJMA standard. A linear FE approach is chosen to in line with the EJMA standard. The proposed methodology is benchmarked with the available literatures. The same practice is implemented in the preliminary design of a U-shaped bellows in the water line circuits of DNB beam source. DNB Beam Source is a negative ion source-based neutral beam generator for ITER operates at 100KV. The beam divergence (intrinsic) and magnetic fields from ITER torus causes deflection of beams. This calls for beam optic alignment, which are assured by BS Movement mechanism system. To accomplish the above movement requirements, bellows, which is a stringent of its kind (± 22 mm axial, ± 45 mm lateral within 400mm available space with single ply), is designed between the beam source and possible rigid interface-cooling lines coming from HVB. The paper describes right from conceptual stage to preliminary design. Optimization tools are adopted in the selecting bellow dimensions using MATLAB. At the end a coordinated approach between FE based assessment (in ANSYS) and widely applied code, EJMA is implemented for the validation of design and found FE approach is a very conservative than later in the present case. (author)

  13. Ion beam sputtering and depth profiling: on the characteristics of the induced roughness and the means to cure it at best

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limoge, Y.; Maurice, F.; Zemskoff, A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to report the first results of a study devoted to the understanding of the surface roughness due either to statistical fluctuations in sputtering or sample microstructural inhomogeneities. In a second part, we shall propose a new method to correct the experimental profiles from the blurring effect of the sample roughness in typical cases of in-depth analysis

  14. A novel approach for the characterization of a bilayer of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester and pentacene using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and argon gas cluster ion beam sputtering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Jung, Changhoon; Chung, Yeonji; Kim, SeongHeon; Lee, Seunghyup; Kim, Ki-Hong; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, SungHoon

    2013-01-01

    The material arrangement and energy level alignment of an organic bilayer comprising of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM-71) and pentacene were studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and the argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering process. Although there is a small difference in the full width at half maximum of the carbon C 1s core level peaks and differences in the oxygen O 1s core levels of an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectra, these differences are insufficient to clearly distinguish between PCBM-71 and pentacene layers and to classify the interface and bulk regions. On the other hand, the valence band structures in the UPS spectra contain completely distinct configurations for the PCBM-71 and pentacene layers, even when they have similar atomic compositions. According to the valence band structures of the PCBM-71/pentacene/electrodes, the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) region of pentacene is at least 0.8 eV closer to the Fermi level than that of PCBM-71 and it does not overlap with any of the chemical states in the valence band structure of PCBM-71. Therefore, by just following the variations in the area of the HOMO region of pentacene, the interface/bulk regions of the PCBM/pentacene layers were distinctly categorized. Besides, the variation of valence band structures as a function of the Ar GCIB sputtering time fully corroborated with the surface morphologies observed in the atomic force microscope images. In summary, we believe that the novel approach, which involves UPS analysis in conjunction with Ar GCIB sputtering, can be one of the best methods to characterize the material distribution and energy level alignments of stacks of organic layers

  15. A novel approach for the characterization of a bilayer of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester and pentacene using ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and argon gas cluster ion beam sputtering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Jung, Changhoon; Chung, Yeonji; Kim, SeongHeon; Lee, Seunghyup; Kim, Ki-Hong; Han, Hyouksoo; Park, Gyeong-Su; Park, SungHoon [Analytical Science Laboratory of Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 14-1, Yongin 446-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-07

    The material arrangement and energy level alignment of an organic bilayer comprising of phenyl-c71-butyric-acid-methyl ester (PCBM-71) and pentacene were studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and the argon gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering process. Although there is a small difference in the full width at half maximum of the carbon C 1s core level peaks and differences in the oxygen O 1s core levels of an X-ray photoemission spectroscopy spectra, these differences are insufficient to clearly distinguish between PCBM-71 and pentacene layers and to classify the interface and bulk regions. On the other hand, the valence band structures in the UPS spectra contain completely distinct configurations for the PCBM-71 and pentacene layers, even when they have similar atomic compositions. According to the valence band structures of the PCBM-71/pentacene/electrodes, the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) region of pentacene is at least 0.8 eV closer to the Fermi level than that of PCBM-71 and it does not overlap with any of the chemical states in the valence band structure of PCBM-71. Therefore, by just following the variations in the area of the HOMO region of pentacene, the interface/bulk regions of the PCBM/pentacene layers were distinctly categorized. Besides, the variation of valence band structures as a function of the Ar GCIB sputtering time fully corroborated with the surface morphologies observed in the atomic force microscope images. In summary, we believe that the novel approach, which involves UPS analysis in conjunction with Ar GCIB sputtering, can be one of the best methods to characterize the material distribution and energy level alignments of stacks of organic layers.

  16. Simulation of carbon sputtering due to molecular hydrogen impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laszlo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Simulated results are compared to experimental data on the sputtering yield of carbon due to atomic and to molecular hydrogen impact. The experimental sputtering yields of carbon (graphite) due to low energy hydrogen bombardment have been found to be higher than the simulated ones. Efforts are made to obtain high enough simulated yields by considering the formation of dimer, H 2 and D 2 molecules in the primary beam. The molecular beam model applies full neutralization and full dissociation at the surface. The simulation of sputtering yields of target materials up to Z 2 ≤ 30 is also included for the low primary energy regime for deuterium projectiles. It is found that, although the sputtering yields really tend to increase, the effect of molecule formation in the beam in itself cannot be made responsible for the deviation between measured and simulated sputtering yields. (orig.)

  17. Beam calorimetry at the large negative ion source test facility ELISE: Experimental setup and latest results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, Riccardo; Bonomo, Federica; Ricci, Marina; Pimazzoni, Antonio; Fantz, Ursel; Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Wünderlich, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • ELISE is the first step in the European roadmap for the development of the ITER NBI. • Several beam diagnostic tools have been installed, the latest results are presented. • A gaussian fit procedure has been implemented to characterize the large ion beam. • Average beamlet group inhomogeneity is maximum 13%, close to the ITER target of 10%. • Beam divergence measured by calorimeter agrees with the BES measurements within 30%. - Abstract: The test facility ELISE is the first step within the European roadmap for the development of the ITER NBI system. ELISE is equipped with a 1 × 0.9 m"2 radio frequency negative ion source (half the ITER source size) and an ITER-like 3-grid extraction system which can extract an H"− or D"− beam for 10 s every 3 min (limited by available power supplies) with a total acceleration voltage of up to 60 kV. In the beam line of ELISE several beam diagnostic tools have been installed with the aim to evaluate beam intensity, divergence and uniformity. A copper diagnostic calorimeter gives the possibility to measure the beam power density profile with high resolution. The measurements are performed by an IR micro-bolometer camera and 48 thermocouples embedded in the calorimeter. A gaussian fit procedure has been implemented in order to characterize the large negative ion beam produced by ELISE. The latest results obtained from the beam calorimetry at ELISE show that the average beamlet group inhomogeneity is maximum 13%. The measured beam divergence agrees with the one measured by beam emission spectroscopy within 30%.

  18. Status of the SNS H- ion source and low-energy beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-01-01

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H - ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that will satisfy the operational needs through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. The ion source was derived from the SSC ion source, and many of its original features have been improved to achieve reliable operation at 6% duty factor, producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. The LEBT utilizes purely electrostatic focusing and includes static beam-steering elements and a pre-chopper. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on relevant commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ accelerator. Perspectives for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks

  19. Preliminary results of a broad beam RF ion source with electron plasma interaction. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, M E; Zakhary, S G; Ghanem, A A; Abdel-Ghaffar, A M [Ion Sources and Accelerators Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    A new design of a broad beam RF ion source is made to be capable to deliver wide and uniform beam with currents reaching (100 {mu} A up to 30 mA) at extraction voltages (200 V up to 2 kV). Its plasma intensifying system is made with the addition of electrons from an immersed filament in the discharge and axial magnetic field (70 up to 300 G). A uniform beam distribution is made with a planner graphite cathode which has a number of holes arranged to produce perveance matching with the normal Gaussian distribution of the beam density. These holes are arranged in a consequent orbits with equal distance between the adjacent holes in each orbit. These holes increase in diameter with increasing the orbit radius. This allows increasing the extracted ion currents at the source outer edges and decreases its value at the source inner region; producing wide and uniform beam which is suitable for material modifications. The beam profiles are traced with electromechanical scanner and X-Y recorder. The perveance matching is found to produce a beam uniformity of =66% of its width which reaches =6 cm. The variation of the output currents are with the variation of extraction voltages, magnetic field, discharge pressure and electron injection into the plasma. The extracted current increases with the increase of the discharge pressure, RF power and magnetic field intensity. The influence of electron plasma interaction is found to have a great effect on increasing the ion currents to about four times its value without electron interaction, however, this increase is limited due to presence of breakdown at V{sub ex} > 2 kV. The simple design of this source, its cleanness due to the use of pyrex discharge bottle, easy operation and maintenance adds other features to this broad beam type ion source which makes it suitable for metallurgical applications in broad beam accelerators. 6 figs.

  20. Status report on the development of a tubular electron beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donets, E.D.; Donets, E.E.; Becker, R.; Liljeby, L.; Rensfelt, K.-G.; Beebe, E.N.; Pikin, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical estimations and numerical simulations of tubular electron beams in both beam and reflex mode of source operation as well as the off-axis ion extraction from a tubular electron beam ion source (TEBIS) are presented. Numerical simulations have been done with the use of the IGUN and OPERA-3D codes. Numerical simulations with IGUN code show that the effective electron current can reach more than 100 A with a beam current density of about 300-400 A/cm 2 and the electron energy in the region of several KeV with a corresponding increase of the ion output. Off-axis ion extraction from the TEBIS, being the nonaxially symmetric problem, was simulated with OPERA-3D (SCALA) code. The conceptual design and main parameters of new tubular sources which are under consideration at JINR, MSL, and BNL are based on these simulations

  1. Electrical shielding box measurement of the negative hydrogen beam from Penning ion gauge ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Yang, Z; Dong, P; long, J D; He, X Z; Wang, X; Zhang, K Z; Zhang, L W

    2012-06-01

    The cold-cathode Penning ion gauge (PIG) type ion source has been used for generation of negative hydrogen (H(-)) ions as the internal ion source of a compact cyclotron. A novel method called electrical shielding box dc beam measurement is described in this paper, and the beam intensity was measured under dc extraction inside an electrical shielding box. The results of the trajectory simulation and dc H(-) beam extraction measurement were presented. The effect of gas flow rate, magnetic field strength, arc current, and extraction voltage were also discussed. In conclusion, the dc H(-) beam current of about 4 mA from the PIG ion source with the puller voltage of 40 kV and arc current of 1.31 A was extrapolated from the measurement at low extraction dc voltages.

  2. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  3. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  4. Scaling of electron beam sources for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, L.G.; Bradley, L.P.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a scheme for constructing electron beam machines capable of pumping large volumes of gas, to analyze their performance within the framework of existing knowledge of the physical mechanisms involved, to use this analysis to assess the viability of the overall concept, pinpoint weaknesses in the understanding of the physics, identify the most important limiting physical processes, and hence to propose a program to prepare for the eventual construction of a large scale gas laser system. (auth)

  5. First beam for the SESAME light source in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiro, M.

    2017-01-01

    On January 2017, 12. the third generation synchrotron SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) located at Allan in Jordan was commissioned. At first SESAME will operate with 2 beam lines: one producing infra-red light and the other X-rays. SESAME was developed under the auspices of the UNESCO. The CERN brought its know-how in the domain of accelerator technology and supplied the magnet system of the SESAME main ring. Today, SESAME members are Jordan, the Palestinian Authority, Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and Turkey. SESAME welcomes a community of about 300 users from the region. (A.C.)

  6. Industrial ion source technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed to describe the development of a coned surface texture with ion bombardment and simultaneous deposition of an impurity. A mathematical model of sputter deposition rate from a beveled target was developed in conjuction with the texturing models to provide an important input to that model. The establishment of a general procedure that will allow the treatment of manay different sputtering configurations is outlined. Calculation of cross sections for energetic binary collisions was extened to Ar, Kr.. and Xe with total cross sections for viscosity and diffusion calculated for the interaction energy range from leV to 1000eV. Physical sputtering and reactive ion etching experiments provided experimental data on the operating limits of a broad beam ion source using CF4 as a working gas to produce reactive species in a sputtering beam. Magnetic clustering effects are observed when Al is seeded with Fe and sputtered with Ar(?) ions. Silicon was textured at a micron scale by using a substrate temperature of 600 C.

  7. High flux, beamed neutron sources employing deuteron-rich ion beams from D2O-ice layered targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Krygier, A. G.; Ahmed, H.; Morrison, J. T.; Clarke, R. J.; Fuchs, J.; Green, A.; Green, J. S.; Jung, D.; Kleinschmidt, A.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H.; Norreys, P.; Notley, M.; Oliver, M.; Roth, M.; Vassura, L.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Freeman, R. R.; Kar, S.

    2017-06-01

    A forwardly-peaked bright neutron source was produced using a laser-driven, deuteron-rich ion beam in a pitcher-catcher scenario. A proton-free ion source was produced via target normal sheath acceleration from Au foils having a thin layer of D2O ice at the rear side, irradiated by sub-petawatt laser pulses (˜200 J, ˜750 fs) at peak intensity ˜ 2× {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The neutrons were preferentially produced in a beam of ˜70° FWHM cone along the ion beam forward direction, with maximum energy up to ˜40 MeV and a peak flux along the axis ˜ 2× {10}9 {{n}} {{sr}}-1 for neutron energy above 2.5 MeV. The experimental data is in good agreement with the simulations carried out for the d(d,n)3He reaction using the deuteron beam produced by the ice-layered target.

  8. Electrical resistivity change in Al:ZnO thin films dynamically deposited by bipolar pulsed direct-current sputtering and a remote plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2010-01-01

    The Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for a transparent conducting oxide in solar cell devices were deposited by bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. This work was performed in an in-line type system and investigated AZO films in a static deposition mode and dynamic one, which is more important in the practical fields. Because of this dynamic deposition process, the zigzagged columnar structure was observed. This resulted in the decreasing electrical property, optical properties, and surface roughness. As a deposition in the dynamic mode, the resistivity increased from 1.64x10 -3 to 2.50x10 -3 Ω cm, as compared to that in the static mode, and the transmittance also decreased from 83.9% to 78.3%. To recover the disadvantage, a remote plasma source (RPS) was supported between the substrate and target for reducing zigzagged formation during the deposition. The deposition rate decreased by using RPS, but the electrical and optical properties of films got better than only dynamic mode. The resistivity and transmittance in the dynamic mode using RPS were 2.1x10 -3 Ω cm and 85.5%, respectively. In this study, the authors found the possibility to advance the electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films in the industry mode.

  9. A compact CMA spectrometer with axially integrated hybrid electron-ion gun for ISS, AES and sputter depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, E.; Bas, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the combined application of electrons and ions in surface analysis required two separate sources for electrons and ions with different incidence angles. The newly developed hybrid electron-ion gun, however, allows bombardment of the same sample area both with noble gas ions and with electrons coming from the same direction. By integrating such a hybrid gun axially in a cylindrical mirror energy analyser (CMA) a sensitive compact single flange spectrometer obtains for ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and sputtering all within normal beam incidence. This concept makes accurate beam centering very easy. Additionally, the bombardment from the same direction both for sputtering and for surface analysis brings advantages in depth profiling. The scattering angle for ISS has a constant value of about 138 0 . The hybrid gun delivers typically an electron beam current of -20μA at 3keV for AES, and an ion beam current of +40 nA and +1.2μA at 2 keV for ISS and sputtering respectively. The switching time between ISS, AES, and sputtering mode is about 0.1 s. So this system is best suited for automatically controlled depth profile analysis. The design and operation of this new system will be described and some applications will be discussed. (author)

  10. The beam based alignment technique for the measurements of beam position monitors offsets and beam offsets from quadrupoles in the Pohang Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Huang, J.Y.; Ko, I.S.

    1999-01-01

    The beam based alignment (BBA) technique is applied to the 2-GeV storage ring of the Pohang Light Source to measure the offsets of beam position monitors. This measurement is particularly necessary for beam position monitors (BPMs) plugged into a long (∼10 m) aluminum chamber, since the mechanical deformation of the vacuum chamber is experienced after repeated heating for the outgassing process, and the BPM positions are changed accordingly. A part of the excitation current of each quadrupole magnet is shunted through an electronic shunt circuit. Then, the closed orbit receives a perturbation due to the current reduction. Using two quadrupole magnets, we can measure the offset of each BPM. Also, the BBA technique is applied to measure the beam offsets from the center of quadrupole magnets, and gives information to the survey team about which quadrupole magnets should be aligned mostly. In this process, we introduce the merit function to reduce various errors such as BPM characteristic changes and the lattice imperfection. By minimizing the merit function, we can get the beam offset as the maximized expectation value. This paper presents the BBA technique used and experimental results taken from the 2-GeV Pohang Light Source (PLS) storage ring. When the BPM offset is measured, it is observed that a 3% of the shunt current is suitable. (author)

  11. Ion beam exposure apparatus using a liquid metal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, M.

    1982-01-01

    A field effect liquid metal ion source is described. The current-voltage characteristics, the angular intensity distribution and the total energy distribution were measured for gallium, gold and lead sources. The results are presented and the effect of space charge on the emission current is discussed. Optimum working conditions for the use of the ion sources in probe formation are derived. On the basis of the experimental results, an apparatus operating at 50 kV or less was designed. Details of the design, which includes a triode ion gun and an einzel lens, are given together with preliminary results of pattern delineation with the apparatus. (Auth.)

  12. Study of a microwave power source for a two-beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of a microwave power source suitable for driving a linear e + e - collider is reported. The power source is based on the Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator (RK-TBA) concept, is driven by a 5-MeV, 1-kA induction accelerator electron beam, and operates at X-band frequencies. The development of a computer code to simulate the transverse beam dynamics of an intense relativistic electron beam transiting a system of microwave resonant structures is presented. This code is time dependent with self-consistent beam-cavity interactions and uses realistic beam parameters. Simulations performed with this code are compared with analytical theory and experiments. The concept of spacing resonant structures at distances equal to the betatron wavelength of the focusing system to suppress the growth of transverse instabilities is discussed. Simulations include energy spread over the beam to demonstrate the effect of Landau damping and establish the sensitivity of the betatron wavelength spacing scheme to errors in the focusing system. The design of the Reacceleration Experiment is described in detail and includes essentially all the issues related to a full scale RK-TBA microwave source. A total combined power from three output structures in excess of 170 MW with an amplitude stability of ±4% over a 25 ns pulse was achieved. The results of the experiment are compared to simulations used during the design phase to validate the various codes and methods used. The primary issue for the RK-TBA concept is identified as transverse beam instability associated with the excitation of higher order modes in the resonant structures used for extracting microwave power from the modulated beam. This work represents the first successful experimental demonstration of repeated cycles of microwave energy extraction from and reacceleration of a modulated beam

  13. About possibilities of obtaining focused beams of thermal neutrons of radionuclide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, G.A.; Kurbanov, B.I.; Sulaymanov, N.T.; Ergashev, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In the last years significant progress is achieved in development of neutron focusing methods (concentrating neutrons in a given direction and a small area). In this, main attention is given to focusing of neutron beams of reactor, particularly cold neutrons and their applications. [1,2]. However, isotope sources also let obtain intensive neutron beams and solve quite important (tasks) problems (e.g. neutron capture therapy for malignant tumors) [3], and an actual problems is focusing of neutrons. We developed a device on the basis of californium source of neutrons, allowing to obtain focused (preliminarily) beam of thermal neutrons with the aid of respective choice of moderators, reflectors and geometry of their disposition. Here, fast neutrons and gamma rays in the beam are minimized. With the aid of the model we developed on the basis of Monte-Carlo method, it is possible to modify aforementioned device and dynamics of output neutrons in wide energy range and analyze ways of optimization of neutron beams of isotope sources with different neutron outputs. Device of preliminary focusing of thermal neutrons can serve as a basis for further focus of neutrons using micro- and nano-capillar systems. It is known that, capillary systems performed with certain technology can form beam of thermal neutrons increasing its density by more than two orders of magnitude and effectively divert beams up to 20 o with length of system 15 cm

  14. About possibilities of obtaining focused beams of thermal neutrons of radionuclide source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aripov, G.A.; Kurbanov, B.I.; Sulaymanov, N.T.; Ergashev, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the last years significant progress is achieved in development of neutron focusing methods (concentrating neutrons in a given direction and a small area). In this, main attention is given to focusing of neutron beams of reactor, particularly cold neutrons and their applications. [1,2]. However, isotope sources also let obtain intensive neutron beams and solve quite important (tasks) problems (e.g. neutron capture therapy for malignant tumors) [3], and an actual problems is focusing of neutrons. We developed a device on the basis of californium source of neutrons, allowing to obtain focused (preliminarily) beam of thermal neutrons with the aid of respective choice of moderators, reflectors and geometry of their disposition. Here, fast neutrons and gamma rays in the beam are minimized. With the aid of the model we developed on the basis of Monte-Carlo method, it is possible to modify aforementioned device and dynamics of output neutrons in wide energy range and analyze ways of optimization of neutron beams of isotope sources with different neutron outputs. Device of preliminary focusing of thermal neutrons can serve as a basis for further focus of neutrons using micro- and nano-capillary systems. It is known that, capillary systems performed with certain technology can form beam of thermal neutrons increasing its density by more than two orders of magnitude and effectively divert beams up to 20 o with length of system 15 cm. (author)

  15. Survey, alignment, and beam stability at the Advanced Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, G.F.

    1997-10-01

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1997. The ALS is a third generation light source requiring magnet alignment to within 150 microns. To accomplish this, a network of monuments was established and maintained. Monthly elevation surveys show the movement of the floor over time. Inclinometers have recently been employed to give real time information about magnet, vacuum tank and magnet girder motion in the ALS storage ring

  16. High Power Modulator/regulators for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, J.Q.; Deitz, A.

    1975-01-01

    PPPL has recently completed two new Modulator/Regulators for neutral injection sources used on the ATC machine and is constructing four new ones for use with sources on the PLT machine. The ATC modulator uses the well proven 4CX35,000C tetrode as the main switch tube, while the PLT modulators will be using the new but significantly higher powered X-2170 tetrodes. Some interesting circuit and manufacturing techniques are discussed

  17. X-ray spectra from the Cornell Electron-Beam Ion Source (CEBIS I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.M.; Jones, K.W.; Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Janson, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation emitted from the Cornell electron beam ion source (CEBIS I) has been surveyed with a Si(Li) x-ray detector. These spectra can be used to estimate backgrounds from electron bremsstrahlung and to evaluate the feasibility of atomic physics experiments using the CEBIS I source in this configuration. 1 ref., 2 figs

  18. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Midttun, Ø. [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, 0316 Oslo (Norway); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A. [Departamento de Investigación en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  19. Correction of Beam Distortion in Negative Hydrogen Ion Source with Multi-Slot Grounded Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Oka, Yoshihide; Osakabe, Masaki; Ikeda, Katsunori; Nagaoka, Kenichi; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Asano, Eiji; Sato, Mamoru; Kondo, Tomoki; Watanabe, Junko; Asano, Shiro; Suzuki, Yasuo

    2005-01-01

    The new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed to increase the port-through power into large helical device (LHD). Using the accelerator, the maximum power of 5.7 MW was achieved at the beam energy of 186 keV in the beam injection to LHD plasma last year. Although the port-through power increased compared with conventional accelerators with multi-hole grounded grid (MHGG), the accelerator with the MSGG includes a disadvantage of bi-focal condition in parallel and perpendicular direction to the long side of the slots. When the beam width in one of those directions gets narrower, the width in another direction becomes wider. This disadvantage includes the loss of beam port-through power and induces internal damages in neutral beam line. In order to reduce the disadvantage, an experiment has been done using a small-scaled negative ion source with racetrack-shaped apertures for the steering grid installed at beam upstream of the MSGG. By applying the racetrack apertures to the accelerator, it is observed that the beam widths in the parallel and perpendicular directions to the slot long side have almost the same focal condition to obtain minimal beam widths

  20. Lattice design of medium energy beam transport line for n spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhingra, Rinky; Kulkarni, Nita S.; Kumar, Vinit

    2015-01-01

    A 1 GeV H - injector linac is being designed at RRCAT for the proposed Indian Spallation Neutron Source (ISNS). The front-end of the injector linac will consist of Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac, which will accelerate the H - beam from 50 keV to 3 MeV. The beam will be further accelerated in superconducting Single Spoke Resonators (SSRs). A Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line will be used to transport the beam from the exit of RFQ to the input of SSR. The main purpose of MEBT is to carry out beam matching from RFQ to SSR, and beam chopping. In this paper, we describe the optimization criteria for the lattice design of MEBT. The optimized lattice element parameters are presented for zero and full (15 mA) current case. Beam dynamics studies have been carried out using an envelope tracing code Trace-3D. Required beam deflection angle due to the chopper housed inside the MEBT for beam chopping has also been estimated. (author)

  1. A study on virtual source position for electron beams from a Mevatron MD linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindran, B.P.

    1999-01-01

    The virtual source position (VSP) for electron beams of energies 5, 7, 9 10, 12 and 14 MeV and for the applicators (cones) available in the department have been measured for a Mevatron MD class linear accelerator. Different methods of obtaining the virtual source position for electron beams have been investigated in the present study. The results obtained have been compared with those of other workers. It is observed that the VSP is very much machine dependent and needs to be measured for each linear accelerator. The effect of shielding on virtual source position for the type of applicators available in the department has also been investigated. (author)

  2. Directional sound beam emission from a configurable compact multi-source system

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Jiajun

    2018-01-12

    We propose to achieve efficient emission of highly directional sound beams from multiple monopole sources embedded in a subwavelength enclosure. Without the enclosure, the emitted sound fields have an indistinguishable or omnidirectional radiation directivity in far fields. The strong directivity formed in the presence of the enclosure is attributed to interference of sources under degenerate Mie resonances in the enclosure of anisotropic property. Our numerical simulations of sound emission from the sources demonstrate the radiation of a highly directed sound beam of unidirectional or bidirectional patterns, depending on how the sources are configured inside the enclosure. Our scheme, if achieved, can solve the challenging problem of poor directivity of a subwavelength sound system, and can guide beam forming and collimation by miniaturized devices.

  3. Performance test of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, K.; Sawada, J.; Sakata, T.; Uno, K.; Okanishi, K.; Harada, H.; Itano, A.; Higashi, A.; Akagi, T.; Yamada, S.; Noda, K.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.

    2000-02-01

    Two electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources were manufactured for the accelerator facility at the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center. H2+, He2+, and C4+ were chosen as the accelerating ions because they have the highest charge to mass ratio among ion states which satisfy the required intensity and quality. The sources have the same structure as the 10 GHz ECR source at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba except for a few improvements in the magnetic structure. Their performance was investigated at the Sumitomo Heavy Industries factory before shipment. The maximum intensity was 1500 μA for H2+, 1320 μA for He2+, and 580 μA for C4+ at the end of the ion source beam transport line. These are several times higher than required. Sufficient performance was also observed in the flatness and long-term stability of the pulsed beams. These test results satisfy the requirements for medical use.

  4. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  5. European contributions to the beam source design and R and D of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massmann, P.; Bayetti, P.; Bucalossi, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reports on the progress made by the European Home Team in strong interaction with the ITER JCT and JAERI regarding several key aspects of the beam source for the ITER injectors: integration of the SINGAP accelerator into the ITER injector design. This is a substantially simpler concept than the MAMuG accelerator of the ITER NBI 'reference design', which has potential for significant cost savings, and which avoids some of the weaknesses of the reference design such as the need for intermediate high voltage potentials from the HV power supply and pressurised gas insulation; high energy negative ion acceleration using a SINGAP accelerator; long pulse (i.e. >1000 s) negative ion source operation in deuterium; RF source development, which could reduce the scheduled maintenance of the ITER injectors (as it uses no filaments), and simplify the transmission line and the auxiliary power supplies for the ion source. (author)

  6. European contributions to the beam source design and R and D of the ITER neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massmann, P.; Bayetti, P.; Bucalossi, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper reports on the progress made by the European Home Team in strong interaction with the ITER JCT and JAERI regarding several key aspects of the beam source for the ITER injectors: integration of the SINGAP accelerator into the ITER injector design. This is a substantially simpler concept than the MAMuG accelerator of the ITER NBI 'reference design', which has potential for significant cost savings, and which avoids some of the weaknesses of the reference design such as the need for intermediate high voltage potentials from the HV power supply and pressurised gas insulation; high energy negative ion acceleration using a SINGAP accelerator; long pulse (i.e. >1000 s) negative ion source operation in deuterium; RF source development, which could reduce the scheduled maintenance of the ITER injectors (as it uses no filaments), and simplify the transmission line and the auxiliary power supplies for the ion source. (author)

  7. In situ study of interface reactions of ion beam sputter deposited (Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3 films on Si, SiO2, and Ir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y.; Mueller, A.H.; Irene, E.A.; Auciello, O.; Krauss, A.; Schultz, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    (Ba 0.5 ,Sr 0.5 )TiO 3 (BST) thin films were deposited on MgO, Si, SiO 2 and Ir surfaces by ion beam sputter deposition in oxygen at 700 degree C. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to investigate the evolution of the BST films on different surfaces during both deposition and postannealing processes. First, the optical constants of the BST films in the photon energy range of 1.5 - 4.5 eV were determined by SE analysis on crystallized BST films deposited on MgO single crystal substrates. The interfaces in BST/Si and BST/SiO 2 /Si structure were examined by SE and Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiles. Subcutaneous oxidation in the BST/Ir structure was observed by in situ SE during both ion beam sputter deposition and postdeposition annealing in oxygen at 700 degree C. A study of the thermal stability of the Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure in oxygen at 700 degree C was carried out using in situ SE. The oxidation of Ir was confirmed by x-ray diffraction. The surface composition and morphology evolution after oxidation were investigated by time of flight mass spectroscopy of recoiled ions (TOF-MSRI) and atomic force microscopy. It has been found that Ti from the underlying TiN barrier layer diffused through the Ir layer onto the surface and thereupon became oxidized. It was also shown that the surface roughness increases with increasing oxidation time. The implications of the instability of Ir/TiN/SiO 2 /Si structure on the performance of capacitor devices based on this substrate are discussed. It has been shown that a combination of in situ SE and TOF-MSRI provides a powerful methodology for in situ monitoring of complex oxide film growth and postannealing processes. copyright 1999 American Vacuum Society

  8. Performance of the Lancelot Beam Position Monitor at the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagani, H.; Garcia-Nathan, T. B.; Jiang, C.; Kachatkou, A.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.; van Silfhout, R. G.; Williams, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Lancelot beam position and profile monitor records the scattered radiation off a thin, low-density foil, which passes through a pinhole perpendicular to the path of the beam and is detected by a Medipix3RX sensor. This arrangement does not expose the detector to the direct beam at synchrotrons and results in a negligible drop in flux downstream of the module. It allows for magnified images of the beam to be acquired in real time with high signal-to-noise ratios, enabling measurements of tiny displacements in the position of the centroid of approximately 1 μm. It also provides a means for independently measuring the photon energy of the incident monoenergetic photon beam. A constant frame rate of up to 245 Hz is achieved. The results of measurements with two Lancelot detectors installed in different environments at the Diamond Light Source are presented and their performance is discussed.

  9. Meniscus and beam halo formation in a tandem-type negative ion source with surface production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2012-06-04

    A meniscus of plasma-beam boundary in H{sup -} ion sources largely affects the extracted H{sup -} ion beam optics. Although it is hypothesized that the shape of the meniscus is one of the main reasons for the beam halo observed in experiments, a physical mechanism of the beam halo formation is not yet fully understood. In this letter, it is first shown by the 2D particle in cell simulation that the H{sup -} ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus cause a beam halo since the surface produced H{sup -} ions penetrate into the bulk plasma, and, thus, the resultant meniscus has a relatively large curvature.

  10. Beam-dynamics simulation of a polarized source for the S-DALINAC (SPIN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Georg Bastian

    2009-01-01

    First the physical and mathematical foundations are explained. Thereby especially those aspects are pronounced, which are necessary for the optimization of the beam dynamics and the field calculation of the single components. For this the foundations of beam dynamics, the method of the finite integration, and the Vlasov approach are described. Then the new injector concept is presented. Beside the description of the principal injector construction the tasks for the single beam-guiding elements are presented and the design requirements specified. The next chapter contains the study, optimization, and the design of the single beam-guiding components. Thereby the source, the alpha-magnet, the quadrupole triplets, the Wien filter, and the chopper/prebuncher system are considered. Finally the study and optimization of the whole beam guiding for the test facility and the injector at the S-DALINAC are described and the optimized design of the test facility and injector presented.

  11. Study of SiO2 surface sputtering by a 250-550 keV He+ ion beam during high-resolution Rutherford backscattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusanagi, Susumu; Kobayashi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Decreases in oxygen signal intensities in spectra of high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (HRBS) were observed during measurements on a 5-nm thick SiO 2 layer on a Si substrate when irradiated by 250-550 keV He + ions. Shifts in an implanted arsenic profile in a 5-nm thick SiO 2 /Si substrate were also observed as a result of He + ion irradiation. These results lead to the conclusion that the SiO 2 surface was sputtered by He + ions in this energy range

  12. X-ray emission as a diagnostic from pseudospark-sourced electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowes, D., E-mail: david.bowes@strath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Yin, H.; He, W.; Zhang, L.; Cross, A.W.; Ronald, K.; Phelps, A.D.R. [Department of Physics, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Chen, D.; Zhang, P. [Computed Tomography Lab, School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China); Chen, X.; Li, D. [Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    X-ray emission has been achieved using an electron beam generated by a pseudospark low-pressure discharge and utilised as a diagnostic for beam detection. A 300 A, 34 kV PS-sourced electron beam pulse of 3 mm diameter impacting on a 0.1 mm-thick molybdenum target generated X-rays which were detected via the use of a small, portable X-ray detector. Clear X-ray images of a micro-sized object were captured using an X-ray photodetector. This demonstrates the inducement of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) not only as an indicator of beam presence but also as a future X-ray source for small-spot X-ray imaging of materials.

  13. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be ∼70 π mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was ∼25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  14. Suppression of propagating TE modes in the FNAL antiproton source stochastic beam cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.C.

    1985-05-01

    A method of attenuating the propagation of waveguide modes in the stochastic cooling array beam pipes to be utilized in the accumulator and debuncher rings of the Fermilab antiproton source is described. The attenuation method treated involves lining the vertical walls of the beam pipes with a ferrimagnetic material. The general solution for propagation in a nonhomogeneously loaded waveguide is presented along with numerical results specific to the antiproton source beam cooling system. Also described is a broadband, automated technique for the simultaneous measurement of complex μ and epsilon developed to aid in the characterization of different ferrite materials. Permittivity and permeability data for a typical ferrite are presented along with a discussion of the effects of these parameters on waveguide mode attenuation in the ferrite lined beam pipes

  15. C60 ion sputtering of layered organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shard, Alexander G.; Green, Felicia M.; Gilmore, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    Two different organic materials, Irganox1010 and Irganox3114, were vacuum deposited as alternating layers. The layers of Irganox3114 were thin (∼2.5 nm) in comparison to the Irganox1010 (∼55 or ∼90 nm); we call these 'organic delta layers'. Both materials are shown to have identical sputtering yields and the alternating layers may be used to determine some of the important metrological parameters for cluster ion beam depth profiling of organic materials. The sputtering yield for C 60 ions is shown to diminish with ion dose. Comparison with atomic force microscopy data from films of pure Irganox1010, demonstrates that the depth resolution is limited by the development of topography. Secondary ion intensities are a well-behaved function of sputtering yield and may be employed to obtain useful analytical information. Organic delta layers are shown to be valuable reference materials for comparing the capabilities of different cluster ion sources and experimental arrangements for the depth profiling of organic materials.

  16. Intense beams from gases generated by a permanent magnet ECR ion source at PKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Yan, S.; Zhou, Q. F.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, Z. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is designed for the production of high-current ion beams of various gaseous elements. At the Peking University (PKU), the primary study is focused on developing suitable permanent magnet ECR ion sources (PMECRs) for separated function radio frequency quadrupole (SFRFQ) accelerator and for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility. Recently, other kinds of high-intensity ion beams are required for new acceleration structure demonstration, simulation of fusion reactor material irradiation, aviation bearing modification, and other applications. So we expanded the ion beam category from O{sup +}, H{sup +}, and D{sup +} to N{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and He{sup +}. Up to now, about 120 mA of H{sup +}, 83 mA of D{sup +}, 50 mA of O{sup +}, 63 mA of N{sup +}, 70 mA of Ar{sup +}, and 65 mA of He{sup +} extracted at 50 kV through a {phi} 6 mm aperture were produced by the PMECRs at PKU. Their rms emittances are less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. Tungsten samples were irradiated by H{sup +} or He{sup +} beam extracted from this ion source and H/He holes and bubbles have been observed on the samples. A method to produce a high intensity H/He mixed beam to study synergistic effect is developed for nuclear material irradiation. To design a He{sup +} beam injector for coupled radio frequency quadruple and SFRFQ cavity, He{sup +} beam transmission experiments were carried out on PKU low energy beam transport test bench and the transmission was less than 50%. It indicated that some electrode modifications must be done to decrease the divergence of He{sup +} beam.

  17. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yangmei; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang

    2014-01-01

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined

  18. A new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yangmei, E-mail: sunberry1211@hotmail.com; Zhang, Xiaoping; Qi, Zumin; Dang, Fangchao; Qian, Baoliang [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-05-15

    We present a new coaxial high power microwave source based on dual beams, which combines a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) (noted as the inner sub-source below) and a coaxial transit-time oscillator (TTO) (noted as the outer sub-source). The cathode consists of an inner and an outer annular cathode, which provides the inner and the outer annular electron beam for the sub-sources, respectively. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation results demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies of the two sub-sources with an identical frequency of 9.74 GHz are 29% and 25%, respectively. It is furthermore found that phase locking between the inner and the outer sub-sources can be realized, which suggests a feasibility to obtain a higher power output if the two microwave signals are coherently combined.

  19. Plasma properties of a modified beam-plasma type ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Sano, Fumimichi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ektessabi, A.M.; Takagi, Toshinori

    1978-01-01

    The properties of the plasma produced by beam-plasma discharge were experimentally investigated. The ion source used for this work consists of three parts, that is, the ion-extracting region with an electron gun, the drift space and the collector region. Primary and secondary electron beams are injected in to the drift tube. The interaction between plasma and these electron beams causes production of high density plasma by virtue of the beam-plasma discharge. The gas inlet is located in the middle of the drift tube, so that the gas conductance is high. The energy of the primary and secondary electron beams is transferred to that microwaves through beam-plasma interaction. The microwaves heat the plasma electrons by the cyclotron resonance or other mechanism. The amount of the energetic plasma electrons is much larger than that of the beam electrons, so that neutral gas is ionized. The density of the produced plasma is 10 2 or 10 3 times as large as the plasma produced by impact ionization. With a probe located in the middle of the drift tube, the plasma density and the electron temperature can be measured, and the power and spectra of the microwaves can be detected. The microwave oscillation, the primary electron beam characteristics, and the gas pressure characteristics were studied. Larger current of the high energy primary of secondary electron beam is required for the effective discharge. The ion source has to be operated at the minimum gas pressure. The length of beam-plasma interaction and the magnetic field intensity in the drift tube are also important parameters. (Kato, T.)

  20. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  1. Abnormally large energy spread of electron beams extracted from plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1976-07-01

    Intense electron beams extracted from DUOPLASMATRON-plasma cathodes show a high degree of modulation in intensity and an abnormally large energy spread; these facts cannot be explained simply by the temperature of the plasma electrons and the discharge structure. However, an analysis of the discharge stability behaviour and the interaction of source- and extracted beam-plasma leads to an explanation for the observed effects.

  2. Charge breeding of radioactive isotopes at the CARIBU facility with an electron beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrasek, R. C.; Dickerson, C. A.; Hendricks, M.; Ostroumov, P.; Pardo, R.; Savard, G.; Scott, R.; Zinkann, G.

    2018-05-01

    An Electron Beam Ion Source Charge Breeder (EBIS-CB) has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory as part of the californium rare ion breeder upgrade. For the past year, the EBIS-CB has been undergoing commissioning as part of the ATLAS accelerator complex. It has delivered both stable and radioactive beams with A/Q 18% into a single charge state. The operation of this device, challenges during the commissioning phase, and future improvements will be discussed.

  3. Sputtering as a means of depth profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitton, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Probably the most common technique for determination of depth profiles by sputtering is that of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Many problems occur in the important step of converting the time (of sputtering) scale to a depth scale and these problems arise before the secondary ions are ejected. An attempt is made to present a comprehensive list of the effects that should be taken into consideration in the use of sputtering as a means of depth profiling. The various parameters liable to affect the depth profile measurements are listed in four sections: beam conditions; target conditions; experimental environment; and beam-target interactions. The effects are discussed and where interplay occurs, cross-reference is made and examples are provided where possible. (B.R.H.)

  4. Structural design study of a proton beam window for a 1-MW spallation neutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Teraoku, T; Ishikura, S; Kaminaga, M; Maekawa, F; Meigo, S I; Terada, A

    2003-01-01

    A 1-MW spallation neutron source aiming at materials and life science researches will be constructed under the JAERI-KEK High-intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC). A proton beam passes through a proton beam window, and be injected into a target of the neutron source. The proton beam window functions as a boundary wall between a high vacuum area in the proton beam line and a helium atmosphere at about atmospheric pressure in a helium vessel which contains the target and moderators. The proton beam window is cooled by light water because high heat-density is generated in the window material by interactions with the proton beam. Then, uniformity of the water flow is requested at the window to suppress a hot-spot that causes excessive thermal stress and cooling water boiling. Also, the window has to be strong enough in its structure for inner stress due to water pressure and thermal stress due to heat generation. In this report, we propose two types of proton beam windows; one flat-type that is easy to m...

  5. Molecular beam (1-50eV) production by duoplasmatron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delmas, M.; Gautherin, G.; Lejeune, C.

    1974-01-01

    The duoplasmatron discharge is commonly used to produce intense ion beams. A theoretical model of this discharge has been previously developed. The analysis of charge exchange processes between ions and neutral within the discharge shows that the source is able to deliver intense neutral beams (10 16 part s -1 ), the energy being in the range 1-50 eV. The intensity and energy distribution may be controlled from the discharge parameter variations. An experimental device has been realized in order to separate the neutral beam and the flux of charged particles; these latter are injected axially in a toroidal magnetic field configuration [fr

  6. Simple emittance measurement of H- beams from a large plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guharay, S.K.; Tsumori, K.; Hamabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Kuroda, T.

    1996-03-01

    An emittance meter is developed using pepper-pot method. Kapton foils are used to detect intensity distributions of small beamlets at the 'image' plane of the pepper-pot. Emittance of H - beams from a large plasma source for the neutral beam injector of the Large Helical Device (LHD) has been measured. The normalized emittance (95%) of a 6 mA H - beam with emission current density of about 10 mA/cm 2 is ∼0.59 mm mrad. The present system is very simple, and it eliminates many complexities of the existing schemes. (author)

  7. Measurements of Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source beam with a magnetized Einzel lens electron dump

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, O; Scrivens, R

    2014-01-01

    Linac4 is a part of the upgrade of CERN’s accelerator complex for increased luminosity in the LHC. A new system to extract the ion beam from the plasma generator has been designed and tested, in order to improve the reliability and beam optics of the pulsed H- ion source. This paper presents the successfully implemented extraction system and three different beam measurements. The simulations compare well to the measurements and show that the plasma density was too low for the extraction system design during the measurements.

  8. A Study on Mono-energetic Beam Source Using Characteristic X-ray for Substance Identification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Soo

    2009-02-01

    A new mono-energetic beam source was developed by using characteristic X-ray for improving performance of the substance identification system. Most of inspection systems use X-ray tubes for their source modules. However, the broad energy spectrum of X-ray tube causes an increase of uncertainty. In this study, it was found that mono-energetic beam sources can be generated by using X-ray tube and the designed target filter assembly. In order to investigate the monoenergetic beam source, the sensitivity study was conducted with a series of different X-ray tube potentials, radiator and filter materials using Monte Carlo simulation. The developed beam sources have a mono-energy peak at 69 keV, 78 keV and 99 keV, and they are named as characteristic X-ray beam BEAM69, BEAM78 and BEAM99, respectively. The characteristic X-ray beam intensity was over thirty three times more than that of hardening beam used previous work at Hanyang University. And BEAM69 and BEAM99 were applied to the substance identification system as a source. The relative error between results of characteristic X-ray beams and 69 keV and 99 keV photons was about 2% on the average for five unknown materials. In comparison with experiment results by using hardening beam, characteristic X-ray beam achieves better accuracy which is about 6.46 % on the average. Hence, it is expected that the developed characteristic X-ray beam source helps lower uncertainty of the inspection system, and the inspection time will be reduced considerably due to its high beam intensity

  9. Power supply for the LBL 40 keV neutral beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.R.; Fitzgerald, M.L.; Honey, V.J.

    1975-11-01

    A 20 keV, 50 Amp, 10 millisec pulse D 0 Neutral Beam Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory that serves as the prototype for 12 similar sources now in operation on the 2XIIB Mirror Machine at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has been recently upgraded to operate at 40 keV. The system of electronically regulated and controlled power supplies that drive the Source is described

  10. Concept of a tunable source of coherent THz radiation driven by a plasma modulated electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Konoplev, I. V.; Doucas, G.; Smith, J.

    2018-04-01

    We have carried out numerical studies which consider the modulation of a picosecond long relativistic electron beam in a plasma channel and the generation of a micro-bunched train. The subsequent propagation of the micro-bunched beam in the vacuum area was also investigated. The same numerical model was then used to simulate the radiation arising from the interaction of the micro-bunched beam with a metallic grating. The dependence of the radiation spectrum on the parameters of the micro-bunched beam has been studied and the tunability of the radiation by the variation of the micro-bunch spacing has been demonstrated. The micro-bunch spacing can be changed easily by altering the plasma density without changing the beam energy or current. Using the results of these studies, we develop a conceptual design of a tunable source of coherent terahertz (THz) radiation driven by a plasma modulated beam. Such a source would be a potential and useful alternative to conventional vacuum THz tubes and THz free-electron laser sources.

  11. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osher, J.E.; Perkins, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D 0 and T 0 beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T 0 + T + space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D 2 target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 10 15 /s, 7 x 10 15 /s, or 1.6 x 10 16 /s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm 2

  12. Full data consistency conditions for cone-beam projections with sources on a plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clackdoyle, Rolf; Desbat, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Cone-beam consistency conditions (also known as range conditions) are mathematical relationships between different cone-beam projections, and they therefore describe the redundancy or overlap of information between projections. These redundancies have often been exploited for applications in image reconstruction. In this work we describe new consistency conditions for cone-beam projections whose source positions lie on a plane. A further restriction is that the target object must not intersect this plane. The conditions require that moments of the cone-beam projections be polynomial functions of the source positions, with some additional constraints on the coefficients of the polynomials. A precise description of the consistency conditions is that the four parameters of the cone-beam projections (two for the detector, two for the source position) can be expressed with just three variables, using a certain formulation involving homogeneous polynomials. The main contribution of this work is our demonstration that these conditions are not only necessary, but also sufficient. Thus the consistency conditions completely characterize all redundancies, so no other independent conditions are possible and in this sense the conditions are full. The idea of the proof is to use the known consistency conditions for 3D parallel projections, and to then apply a 1996 theorem of Edholm and Danielsson that links parallel to cone-beam projections. The consistency conditions are illustrated with a simulation example. (paper)

  13. Study and characterization of a phosphorous ion source and development of a emittancemeter suited to multi-beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Gia Tuong.

    1982-12-01

    The ionization process which is used is the electronic bombardment. Phosphorus choice for the source experimentation is motivated by its principal destination: ionic implantation. Heavy ion applications are also quoted. Operating conditions allowing good results to be obtained are determined after a study of different parameters such as the electron current, the neutron pressure and the extraction voltage: the ion current obtained is of the order of mA. The source emittance, representing the quality of the ionic beam, is measured by a method suited to multibeam sources [fr

  14. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor; Martin, Ian; Fielder, Richard; Bartolini, Riccardo

    2015-06-01

    In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS) to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  15. Beam-based model of broad-band impedance of the Diamond Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Smaluk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, the interaction between a single-bunch beam and a vacuum chamber impedance affects the beam parameters, which can be measured rather precisely. So we can develop beam-based numerical models of longitudinal and transverse impedances. At the Diamond Light Source (DLS to get the model parameters, a set of measured data has been used including current-dependent shift of betatron tunes and synchronous phase, chromatic damping rates, and bunch lengthening. A matlab code for multiparticle tracking has been developed. The tracking results and analytical estimations are quite consistent with the measured data. Since Diamond has the shortest natural bunch length among all light sources in standard operation, the studies of collective effects with short bunches are relevant to many facilities including next generation of light sources.

  16. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important develop- ments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification tech- niques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffus- ing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, lead- ing to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms a...

  17. A high-efficiency positive (negative) surface ionization source for radioactive ion beam (abstract)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ≡5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered to φ≡1.43 eV by continually feeding cesium vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing considerably the efficiency for negative surface ionization of atoms and molecules with intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in use at the Holifield radioactive beam facility. The design features and operational principles of the source will be described in this report. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. A positive (negative) surface ionization source concept for radioactive ion beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.

    1996-01-01

    A novel, versatile, new concept, spherical-geometry, positive (negative) surface-ionization source has been designed and fabricated which will have the capability of generating both positive- and negative-ion beams without mechanical changes to the source. The source utilizes a highly permeable, high-work-function Ir ionizer (φ ≅ 5.29 eV) for ionizing highly electropositive atoms/molecules; while for negative-surface ionization, the work function is lowered by continually feeding a highly electropositive vapor through the ionizer matrix. The use of this technique to effect low work function surfaces for negative ion beam generation has the potential of overcoming the chronic poisoning effects experienced with LaB 6 while enhancing the probability for negative ion formation of atomic and molecular species with low to intermediate electron affinities. The flexibility of operation in either mode makes it especially attractive for radioactive ion beam (RIB) applications and, therefore, the source will be used as a complementary replacement for the high-temperature electron impact ionization sources presently in the use at the Holifield radioactive ion beam facility (HRIBF). The design features and operational principles of the source are described in this report. (orig.)

  19. Heavy ion beams from an Alphatross source for use in calibration and testing of diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R. J.; Brown, G. M.; Ho, D.; Stockler, B. F. O. F.; Freeman, C. G.; Padalino, S. J.; Regan, S. P.

    2016-10-01

    Ion beams from the 1.7 MV Pelletron Accelerator at SUNY Geneseo have been used to test and calibrate many inertial confinement fusion (ICF) diagnostics and high energy density physics (HEDP) diagnostics used at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). The ion source on this accelerator, a radio-frequency (RF) alkali-metal charge exchange source called an Alphatross, is designed to produce beams of hydrogen and helium isotopes. There is interest in accelerating beams of carbon, oxygen, argon, and other heavy ions for use in testing several diagnostics, including the Time Resolved Tandem Faraday Cup (TRTF). The feasibility of generating these heavy ion beams using the Alphatross source will be reported. Small amounts of various gases are mixed into the helium plasma in the ion source bottle. A velocity selector is used to allow the desired ions to pass into the accelerator. As the heavy ions pass through the stripper canal of the accelerator, they emerge in a variety of charge states. The energy of the ion beam at the high-energy end of the accelerator will vary as a function of the charge state, however the maximum energy deliverable to target is limited by the maximum achievable magnetic field produced by the accelerator's steering magnet. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Sources of electron contamination for the Clinac-35 25-MV photon beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, P.L.; Goodman, M.S.; Sisterson, J.M.; Biggs, P.J.; Gabriel, T.A.; Mohan, R.

    1983-01-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo approach has been employed to investigate the sources of electron contamination for the 25-MV photon beam generated by Varian's Clinac-35. Three sources of contamination were examined: (a) the flattening filter and beam monitor chamber, (b) the fixed primary collimators downstream from the monitor chamber and the adjustable photon jaws, and (c) the air volume separating the treatment head from the observation point. Five source-to-surface distances (SSDs) were considered for a single field size, 28 cm in diameter at 80 cm SSD. It was found that for small SSDs (80-100 cm), the dominant sources of electron contamination were the flattening filter and the beam monitor chamber which accounted for 70% of the unwanted electrons. Thirteen percent of the remaining electrons originated in the downstream primary collimators and the photon jaws, and 17% were produced in air. At larger SSDs, the fraction of unwanted electrons originating in air increased. At 400 cm SSD, 61% of the contaminating electrons present in the beam were produced in air, 34% originated in the flattening filter and beam monitor chamber, and 5% were due to interactions in the fixed collimators downstream from the monitor chamber and the adjustable photon jaws. These calculated results are substantiated by recent experiments

  1. Simulation of 10 A electron-beam formation and collection for a high current electron-beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Batazova, M.; Tiunov, M.

    1998-01-01

    Presented is a report on the development of an electron-beam ion source (EBIS) for the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which requires operating with a 10 A electron beam. This is approximately an order of magnitude higher current than in any existing EBIS device. A test stand is presently being designed and constructed where EBIS components will be tested. It will be reported in a separate paper at this conference. The design of the 10 A electron gun, drift tubes, and electron collector requires extensive computer simulations. Calculations have been performed at Novosibirsk and BNL using two different programs, SAM and EGUN. Results of these simulations will be presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  2. Simulation of 10 A electron-beam formation and collection for a high current electron-beam ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kponou, A.; Beebe, E.; Pikin, A.; Kuznetsov, G.; Batazova, M.; Tiunov, M.

    1998-02-01

    Presented is a report on the development of an electron-beam ion source (EBIS) for the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) which requires operating with a 10 A electron beam. This is approximately an order of magnitude higher current than in any existing EBIS device. A test stand is presently being designed and constructed where EBIS components will be tested. It will be reported in a separate paper at this conference. The design of the 10 A electron gun, drift tubes, and electron collector requires extensive computer simulations. Calculations have been performed at Novosibirsk and BNL using two different programs, SAM and EGUN. Results of these simulations will be presented.

  3. Developing electron beam bunching technology for improving light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsten, B.E.; Chan, K.C.D.; Feldman, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project was to develop a new electron bunch compression technology, experimentally demonstrate subpicosecond compression of bunches with charges on the order of 1 nC, and to theoretically investigate fundamental limitations to electron bunch compression. All of these goals were achieved, and in addition, the compression system built for this project was used to generate 22 nm light in a plasma-radiator light source

  4. Engineering issues of a 1000 S neutral beam ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, P.K.; Jana, M.R.; Bisai, N.; Bajpai, M.; Singh, N.P.; Baruah, U.K.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakrapani, C.; Patel, D.; Patel, G.B.; Patel, P.J.; Prahlad, V.; Rao, N.V.M.; Rotti, C.; Sreedhar, V.; Mattoo, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering features incorporated in the mechanical and the electrical design of the ion source for 1000 S pulse length operation. The design has made extensive use of the finite element analysis code ANSYS, for simulating the thermal and electrical features. In this paper, erosion of the grids is discussed in Section II, the new engineering features of the back panel in Section III, the electric design of the stress shields in Section IV and a summary recommendation for the operational parameters in Section V. (author)

  5. Ion beam production and study of radioactive isotopes with the laser ion source at ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosseev, Valentin; Chrysalidis, Katerina; Day Goodacre, Thomas; Marsh, Bruce; Rothe, Sebastian; Seiffert, Christoph; Wendt, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    At ISOLDE the majority of radioactive ion beams are produced using the resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS). This ion source is based on resonant excitation of atomic transitions by wavelength tunable laser radiation. Since its installation at the ISOLDE facility in 1994, the RILIS laser setup has been developed into a versatile remotely operated laser system comprising state-of-the-art solid state and dye lasers capable of generating multiple high quality laser beams at any wavelength in the range of 210-950 nm. A continuous programme of atomic ionization scheme development at CERN and at other laboratories has gradually increased the number of RILIS-ionized elements. At present, isotopes of 40 different elements have been selectively laser-ionized by the ISOLDE RILIS. Studies related to the optimization of the laser-atom interaction environment have yielded new laser ion source types: the laser ion source and trap and the versatile arc discharge and laser ion source. Depending on the specific experimental requirements for beam purity or versatility to switch between different ionization mechanisms, these may offer a favourable alternative to the standard hot metal cavity configuration. In addition to its main purpose of ion beam production, the RILIS is used for laser spectroscopy of radioisotopes. In an ongoing experimental campaign the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of long isotopic chains have been measured by the extremely sensitive in-source laser spectroscopy method. The studies performed in the lead region were focused on nuclear deformation and shape coexistence effects around the closed proton shell Z = 82. The paper describes the functional principles of the RILIS, the current status of the laser system and demonstrated capabilities for the production of different ion beams including the high-resolution studies of short-lived isotopes and other applications of RILIS lasers for ISOLDE experiments. This article belongs to the Focus on

  6. Brightness measurement of an electron impact gas ion source for proton beam writing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, N.; Santhana Raman, P. [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore); Xu, X.; Pang, R.; Kan, J. A. van, E-mail: phyjavk@nus.edu.sg [Centre for Ion Beam Applications, Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Khursheed, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)

    2016-02-15

    We are developing a high brightness nano-aperture electron impact gas ion source, which can create ion beams from a miniature ionization chamber with relatively small virtual source sizes, typically around 100 nm. A prototype source of this kind was designed and successively micro-fabricated using integrated circuit technology. Experiments to measure source brightness were performed inside a field emission scanning electron microscope. The total output current was measured to be between 200 and 300 pA. The highest estimated reduced brightness was found to be comparable to the injecting focused electron beam reduced brightness. This translates into an ion reduced brightness that is significantly better than that of conventional radio frequency ion sources, currently used in single-ended MeV accelerators.

  7. Protection and fault detection for Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, D.B.; Baker, W.R.; Berkner, K.H.; Ehlers, K.W.; Honey, V.J.; Lietzke, A.F.; Milnes, K.A.; Owren, H.M.

    1979-11-01

    Testing of TFTR neutral beam (NB) sources has begun at the LBL Neutral Beam System Test Facility (NBSTF). Operation at 120 kV, 65 A, 0.5 sec should be achieved soon. Because NB sources spark down frequently during conditioning, the main accelerating (accel) power supply must be interrupted within a few microseconds to avoid degrading the voltage holding capability, or even the damaging, of the NB source. A variety of improper magnitudes and/or ratios of voltages, currents, and times can occur and must be recognized as fault conditions in order to initiate a prompt interruption of the accel power supply. This paper discusses in detail the key signals which must be monitored and the manner in which they are processed in fault detector circuitry for safe operation of LBL NB sources. The paper also reviews the more standard interlocks and protective features recommended for these sources

  8. Beam emittance and output waveforms of high-flux laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, M.; Asahina, M.; Horioka, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, J.; Ogawa, M. [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    A laser ion source with short drift distance has been developed for a driver of heavy ion fusion (HIF). It supplies a copper ion beam of 200 mA (255 mA/cm{sup 2}) with duration of 400 ns and beam emittance is about 0.8{pi} mm{center_dot}mrad. Moreover it has fast rising (30 ns), flat-top current waveform and a potential to deliver pure charge states between 1{sup +} - 3{sup +}. Experimental results indicate that the laser ion source is a good candidate for the HIF driver. (author)

  9. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25 0 rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm -2 ) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator

  10. Applying neural networks to control the TFTR neutral beam ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagin, L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of neural networks to the control of the neutral beam long-pulse positive ion source accelerators on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) at Princeton University. Neural networks were used to learn how the operators adjust the control setpoints when running these sources. The data sets used to train these networks were derived from a large database containing actual setpoints and power supply waveform calculations for the 1990 run period. The networks learned what the optimum control setpoints should initially be set based uon desired accel voltage and perveance levels. Neural networks were also used to predict the divergence of the ion beam

  11. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; Chan, C.F.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H - beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H - injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H - beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  12. Increasing of charge of uranium ion beam in vacuum-arc-type source (MEVVA)

    CERN Document Server

    Kulevoj, T V; Petrenko, S V; Seleznev, D N; Pershin, V I; Batalin, V A; Kolomiets, A A

    2002-01-01

    Research efforts with MEVVA type source (Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc) and with its modifications are in progress now in the ITEP. In the course of research one revealed possibility to increase charge state of generated beam of uranium ions. Increase of charge results from propagation of high-current vacuum-arc charge from the source cathode to the extra anode located in increasing axial magnetic field. One obtained uranium ion beam with 150 mA output current 10% of which were contributed by U sup 7 sup + uranium ions

  13. The proposed INEL intense slow positron source, beam line, and positron microscope facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makowitz, H.; Denison, A.B.; Brown, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program is currently underway at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to design and construct an Intense Slow Positron Beam Facility with an associated Positron Microscope. Positron beams have been shown to be valuable research tools and have potential application in industrial processing and nondestructive evaluation (microelectronics, etc.). The limit of resolution or overall usefulness of the technique has been limited because of lack of sufficient intensity. The goal of the INEL positron beam is ≥ 10 12 slow e+/s over a 0.03 cm diameter which represents a 10 3 to 10 4 advancement in beam current over existing beam facilities. The INEL is an ideal site for such a facility because of the nuclear reactors capable of producing intense positron sources and the personnel and facilities capable of handling high levels of radioactivity. A design using 58 Co with moderators and remoderators in conjunction with electrostatic positron beam optics has been reached after numerous computer code studies. Proof-of-principle electron tests have demonstrated the feasibility of the large area source focusing optics. The positron microscope development is occurring in conjunction with the University of Michigan positron microscope group. Such a Beam Facility and associated Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) can also be utilized for the generation and study of positron, and positron electron plasmas at ≤ 10 14 particles/cm 3 with plasma temperatures ranging from an eV to many keV, as well as an intense x-ray source via positron channeling radiation. The possibility of a tunable x-ray laser based on channeling positron radiation also exists. In this discussion the authors will present a progress report on various activities associated with the INEL ISPS

  14. A high-flux low-energy hydrogen ion beam using an end-Hall ion source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Sligte, E. te; Janssen, J.P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Most ion sources that produce high-flux hydrogen ion beams perform best in the high energy range (keV). Alternatively, some plasma sources produce very-lowenergy ions (<< 10 eV). However, in an intermediate energy range of 10-200 eV, no hydrogen ion sources were found that produce high-flux beams.

  15. Beam property measurement of a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Yu-Seok

    2016-09-01

    The KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300-kV ion source test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator for industrial purposes. A RF ion source was operated at 200 MHz with its matching circuit. The beam profile and emittance were measured behind an accelerating column to confirm the beam property from the RF ion source. The beam profile was measured at the end of the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using a beam profile monitor (BPM) and wire scanner. An Allison-type emittance scanner was installed behind the beam profile monitor (BPM) to measure the beam density in phase space. The measurement results for the beam profile and emittance are presented in this paper.

  16. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  17. DISSOLVED OXYGEN REDUCTION IN THE DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM ION SOURCE COOLING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YIP, H.; BUSATH, J.; HARRISON, S.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 Neutral beam ion sources (NBIS) are critical components for the neutral beam injection system supporting the DIII-D tokamak. The NBIS must be cooled with 3028 (ell)/m (800 gpm) of de-ionized and de-oxygenated water to protect the sources from overheating and failure. These ions sources are currently irreplaceable. Since the water cooled molybdenum components will oxidize in water almost instantaneously in the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO), de-oxygenation is extremely important in the NBIS water system. Under normal beam operation the DO level is kept below 5 ppb. However, during weeknights and weekends when neutral beam is not in operation, the average DO level is maintained below 10 ppb by periodic circulation with a 74.6 kW (100 hp) pump, which consumes significant power. Experimental data indicated evidence of continuous oxygen diffusion through non-metallic hoses in the proximity of the NBIS. Because of the intermittent flow of the cooling water, the DO concentration at the ion source(s) could be even higher than measured downstream, and hence the concern of significant localized oxidation/corrosion. A new 3.73 kW (5 hp) auxiliary system, installed in the summer of 2003, is designed to significantly reduce the peak and the time-average DO levels in the water system and to consume only a fraction of the power

  18. Development of target ion source systems for radioactive beams at GANIL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajeat, O., E-mail: bajeat@ganil.fr [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Delahaye, P. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); Couratin, C. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France); LPC Caen, 6 bd Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex (France); Dubois, M.; Franberg-Delahaye, H.; Henares, J.L.; Huguet, Y.; Jardin, P.; Lecesne, N.; Lecomte, P.; Leroy, R.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Sjodin, M. [GANIL, BP 55027, 14076 CAEN Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • For Spiral 1, a febiad ion source has been connected to a graphite target. • For Spiral 2, an oven made with a carbon resistor is under development. • We made some measurement of effusion in the Spiral 2 target. • A laser ion source is under construction. -- Abstract: The GANIL facility (Caen, France) is dedicated to the acceleration of heavy ion beams including radioactive beams produced by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) method at the SPIRAL1 facility. To extend the range of radioactive ion beams available at GANIL, using the ISOL method two projects are underway: SPIRAL1 upgrade and the construction of SPIRAL2. For SPIRAL1, a new target ion source system (TISS) using the VADIS FEBIAD ion source coupled to the SPIRAL1 carbon target will be tested on-line by the end of 2013 and installed in the cave of SPIRAL1 for operation in 2015. The SPIRAL2 project is under construction and is being design for using different production methods as fission, fusion or spallation reactions to cover a large area of the chart of nuclei. It will produce among others neutron rich beams obtained by the fission of uranium induced by fast neutrons. The production target made from uranium carbide and heated at 2000 °C will be associated with several types of ion sources. Developments currently in progress at GANIL for each of these projects are presented.

  19. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, J. J.; Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Twedt, K. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Wilson, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga+ liquid metal ion source. In this review we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future. PMID:27239245

  20. Bright focused ion beam sources based on laser-cooled atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, J. J.; Wilson, T. M. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Steele, A. V.; Knuffman, B.; Schwarzkopf, A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); zeroK NanoTech, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20878 (United States); Twedt, K. A. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland Nanocenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Nanoscale focused ion beams (FIBs) represent one of the most useful tools in nanotechnology, enabling nanofabrication via milling and gas-assisted deposition, microscopy and microanalysis, and selective, spatially resolved doping of materials. Recently, a new type of FIB source has emerged, which uses ionization of laser cooled neutral atoms to produce the ion beam. The extremely cold temperatures attainable with laser cooling (in the range of 100 μK or below) result in a beam of ions with a very small transverse velocity distribution. This corresponds to a source with extremely high brightness that rivals or may even exceed the brightness of the industry standard Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source. In this review, we discuss the context of ion beam technology in which these new ion sources can play a role, their principles of operation, and some examples of recent demonstrations. The field is relatively new, so only a few applications have been demonstrated, most notably low energy ion microscopy with Li ions. Nevertheless, a number of promising new approaches have been proposed and/or demonstrated, suggesting that a rapid evolution of this type of source is likely in the near future.