WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam simulation tools

  1. Implementation of depolarization due to beam-beam effects in the beam-beam interaction simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbault, C.; Le Meur, G.; Blampuy, F.; Bambade, P.; Schulte, D.

    2009-12-01

    Depolarization is a new feature in the beam-beam simulation tool GUINEA-PIG++ (GP++). The results of this simulation are studied and compared with another beam-beam simulation tool, CAIN, considering different beam parameters for the International Linear Collider (ILC) with a centre-of-mass energy of 500 GeV.

  2. Advanced Beam-Dynamics Simulation Tools for RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Garnett, Robert; Crandall, Kenneth; Ostroumov, Peter; Qiang, Ji; Ryne, Robert D; Wangler, Thomas; York, Richard; Zhao, Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Understanding beam losses is important for the high-intensity RIA driver linac. Small fractional beam losses can produce radioactivation of the beamline components that can prevent or hinder hands-on maintenance, reducing facility availability. Operational and alignment errors in the RIA driver linac can lead to beam losses caused by irreversible beam-emittance growth and halo formation. We are developing multiparticle beam-dynamics simulation codes for RIA driver-linac simulations extending from the low-energy beam transport (LEBT) line to the end of the linac. These codes run on the NERSC parallel supercomputing platforms at LBNL, which allow us to run simulations with large numbers of macroparticles for the beam-loss calculations. The codes have the physics capabilities needed for RIA, including transport and acceleration of multiple-charge-state beams, and beam-line elements such as high-voltage platforms within the linac, interdigital accelerating structures, charge-stripper foils, and capabilities for h...

  3. Modelling Beam Dynamics and RF Production in Two Beam Accelerators with a Hybrid Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steven

    2000-04-01

    A hybrid mapping and PIC code is described and applied to the study of transient-to-steady-state phenomena of beam dynamics and rf power production in relativistic-klystron two-beam accelerators. Beam and beamline parameters appropriate to a single device that produces 40-100 MW per meter over 10 meters with a 120 ns pulse length are described and used.

  4. Simulation of the Production of Secondary Particles from a Neutron Beam on Polyethylene Targets using the GEANT4 Simulation Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Ilgner, C

    2003-01-01

    In view of a beam test of RadFET semiconductor detectors and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) detectors as on-line dosimeters for radiation monitoring purposes in the caverns of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, a simulation on the production of secondary particles from a neutron beam on a polyethylene target was carried out. We describe the yield of recoil protons, scattered neutrons as well as electrons, positrons and photons, when neutrons of an average energy of 20 MeV hit polyethylene targets of several thicknesses. The simulation was carried out using the latest release 5.2 of the GEANT4 detector description and simulation tool, including advanced hadron interaction models.

  5. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  6. A GPU tool for efficient, accurate, and realistic simulation of cone beam CT projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xun; Yan, Hao; Cervino, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-12-01

    DRR against a real CBCT scanner. The calculated projections are accurate and realistic, such that beam-hardening artifacts and scatter artifacts can be reproduced using the simulated projections. The noise amplitudes in the CBCT images reconstructed from the simulated projections also agree with those in the measured images at corresponding mAs levels. A GPU computational tool, gDRR, has been developed for the accurate and efficient simulations of x-ray projections of CBCT with realistic configurations.

  7. Elemental thin film depth profiles by ion beam analysis using simulated annealing - a new tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeynes, C [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Barradas, N P [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, E.N. 10, Sacavem (Portugal); Marriott, P K [Department of Statistics, National University of Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Boudreault, G [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jenkin, M [School of Electronics Computing and Mathematics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Wendler, E [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Jena (Germany); Webb, R P [University of Surrey Ion Beam Centre, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2003-04-07

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and related techniques have long been used to determine the elemental depth profiles in films a few nanometres to a few microns thick. However, although obtaining spectra is very easy, solving the inverse problem of extracting the depth profiles from the spectra is not possible analytically except for special cases. It is because these special cases include important classes of samples, and because skilled analysts are adept at extracting useful qualitative information from the data, that ion beam analysis is still an important technique. We have recently solved this inverse problem using the simulated annealing algorithm. We have implemented the solution in the 'IBA DataFurnace' code, which has been developed into a very versatile and general new software tool that analysts can now use to rapidly extract quantitative accurate depth profiles from real samples on an industrial scale. We review the features, applicability and validation of this new code together with other approaches to handling IBA (ion beam analysis) data, with particular attention being given to determining both the absolute accuracy of the depth profiles and statistically accurate error estimates. We include examples of analyses using RBS, non-Rutherford elastic scattering, elastic recoil detection and non-resonant nuclear reactions. High depth resolution and the use of multiple techniques simultaneously are both discussed. There is usually systematic ambiguity in IBA data and Butler's example of ambiguity (1990 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 45 160-5) is reanalysed. Analyses are shown: of evaporated, sputtered, oxidized, ion implanted, ion beam mixed and annealed materials; of semiconductors, optical and magnetic multilayers, superconductors, tribological films and metals; and of oxides on Si, mixed metal silicides, boron nitride, GaN, SiC, mixed metal oxides, YBCO and polymers. (topical review)

  8. MUSTAFA a tool for numerical simulations of the beam behavior in a linac

    CERN Document Server

    Guignard, Gilbert

    1998-01-01

    MUSTAFA stands for MUltibunch Simulation and Tracking Algorithm for Future linear Accelerators and provides an environment for tracking a multibunch beam accelerated in the linac of a collider. It is made of three parts: i) an interactive utility MBUNCH which allows to run the simulations, edit the input data, systematically vary some parameters, launch statistics on misalignment realisations and select the outputs, ii) the tracking program itself MBTR that includes magnetic focusing, acceleration, wakefields, misalignments and trajectory correction, and iii) a graphcs facility called MOVIE th at provides an animated representation of the transverse motion within each bunch of a train, either in the geometric space or in the phase space. While MBTR is written in FORTRAN, the other two codes are written in QUICKBASIC (MS V4.5). They run on PC Pentium computers in a stand-alone mode, independent of any network. Hence MUSTAFA is easily transportable and offers a unique graphics facility. It has been extensively ...

  9. An Innovative Tool for Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiotherapy Simulation and Planning: Description and Initial Evaluation by Radiation Oncologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascau, Javier, E-mail: jpascau@mce.hggm.es [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Santos Miranda, Juan Antonio [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, Felipe A. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Oncologia, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Bouche, Ana; Morillo, Virgina [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Castellon (Spain); Gonzalez-San Segundo, Carmen [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Ferrer, Carlos; Lopez Tarjuelo, Juan [Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial de Castellon, Castellon (Spain); and others

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOERT) involves a modified strategy of conventional radiation therapy and surgery. The lack of specific planning tools limits the spread of this technique. The purpose of the present study is to describe a new simulation and planning tool and its initial evaluation by clinical users. Methods and Materials: The tool works on a preoperative computed tomography scan. A physician contours regions to be treated and protected and simulates applicator positioning, calculating isodoses and the corresponding dose-volume histograms depending on the selected electron energy. Three radiation oncologists evaluated data from 15 IOERT patients, including different tumor locations. Segmentation masks, applicator positions, and treatment parameters were compared. Results: High parameter agreement was found in the following cases: three breast and three rectal cancer, retroperitoneal sarcoma, and rectal and ovary monotopic recurrences. All radiation oncologists performed similar segmentations of tumors and high-risk areas. The average applicator position difference was 1.2 {+-} 0.95 cm. The remaining cancer sites showed higher deviations because of differences in the criteria for segmenting high-risk areas (one rectal, one pancreas) and different surgical access simulated (two rectal, one Ewing sarcoma). Conclusions: The results show that this new tool can be used to simulate IOERT cases involving different anatomic locations, and that preplanning has to be carried out with specialized surgical input.

  10. Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    The ENVISION Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Deliverable 6.2 - Software: upgraded MC simulation tools capable of simulating a complete in-beam ET experiment, from the beam to the detected events. Report with the description of one (or few) reference clinical case(s), including the complete patient model and beam characteristics

  11. A GPU Tool for Efficient, Accurate, and Realistic Simulation of Cone Beam CT Projections

    CERN Document Server

    Jia, Xun; Cervino, Laura; Folkerts, Michael; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-01-01

    Simulation of x-ray projection images plays an important role in cone beam CT (CBCT) related research projects. A projection image contains primary signal, scatter signal, and noise. It is computationally demanding to perform accurate and realistic computations for all of these components. In this work, we develop a package on GPU, called gDRR, for the accurate and efficient computations of x-ray projection images in CBCT under clinically realistic conditions. The primary signal is computed by a tri-linear ray-tracing algorithm. A Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is then performed, yielding the primary signal and the scatter signal, both with noise. A denoising process is applied to obtain a smooth scatter signal. The noise component is then obtained by combining the difference between the MC primary and the ray-tracing primary signals, and the difference between the MC simulated scatter and the denoised scatter signals. Finally, a calibration step converts the calculated noise signal into a realistic one by scali...

  12. Development of RFQ particle dynamics simulation tools and validation with beam tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, Johannes M.

    2010-07-01

    Two different strategies of designing RFQs have been introduced. The analytic description of the electric fields inside the quadrupole channel has been derived and the two term simplification was shown as well as the limitation of these approaches. The main work of this thesis was the implementation and analysis of a multigrid Poisson solver to describe the potential and electric field of RFQs which are needed to simulate the particle dynamics accurately. The main two ingredients of a multigrid Poisson solver are the ability of a Gauss-Seidel iteration method to smooth the error of an approximation within a few iteration steps and the coarse grid principle. The smoothing corresponds to a damping of the high frequency components of the error. After the smoothing, the error term can well be approximated on a coarser grid in which the low frequency components of the error on the fine grid are converted to high frequency errors on the coarse grid which can be damped further with the same Gauss-Seidel method. After implementation, the multigrid Poisson solver was analyzed using two different type of test problems: with and without a charge density. As a charge density, a homogeneously charged ball and cylinder were used to represent the bunched and unbunched beam and placed inside a quadruple channel. The solver showed a good performance. Next, the performance of the solver to calculate the external potentials (and fields) of RFQs was analyzed. Closing the analysis of the external field, the transmission and fraction of accelerated particles of the set of 12 RFQs for the two different methods were shown. In the last chapter of this thesis some experimental work on the MAFF (Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments) IH-RFQ is described. The MAFF RFQ was designed to accelerate very neutron-rich fission fragments for various experiments. The machine was assembled in Frankfurt and a beam test stand was built. As a part of this thesis the shunt impedance of the structure was

  13. Tools for simulation of high beam intensity ion accelerators; Simulationswerkzeuge fuer die Berechnung hochintensiver Ionenbeschleuniger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiede, Rudolf

    2009-07-09

    A new particle-in-cell space charge routine based on a fast Fourier transform was developed and implemented to the LORASR code. It provides the ability to perform up to several 100 batch run simulations with up to 1 million macroparticles each within reasonable computation time. The new space charge routine was successfully validated in the framework of the European ''High Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors'' (HIPPI) collaboration: Several static Poisson solver benchmarking comparisons were performed, as well as particle tracking comparisons along the GSI UNILAC Alvarez section. Moreover machine error setting routines and data analysis tools were developed and applied on error studies for the ''Heidelberg Cacer Therapy'' (HICAT) IH-type drift tube linear accelerator (linac), the FAIR Facility Proton Linac and the proposal of a linac for the ''International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility'' (IFMIF) based on superconducting CH-type structures. (orig.)

  14. Beam Tools for Geant4 (User's Guide)

    CERN Document Server

    Daniel, E

    2002-01-01

    Geant4 is a tool kit developed by a collaboration of physicists and computer professionals in the high energy physics field for simulation of the passage of particles through matter. The motivation for the development of the Beam Tools is to extend the Geant4 applications to accelerator physics. The Beam Tools are a set of C++ classes designed to facilitate the simulation of accelerator elements: r.f. cavities, magnets, absorbers, etc. These elements are constructed from Geant4 solid volumes like boxes, tubes, trapezoids, or spheres. There are many computer programs for beam physics simulations, but Geant4 is ideal to model a beam through a material or to integrate a beam line with a complex detector. There are many such examples in the current international High Energy Physics programs. For instance, an essential part of the R and D associated with the Neutrino Source/Muon Collider accelerator is the ionization cooling channel, which is a section of the system aimed to reduce the size of the muon beam in pha...

  15. FASTBUS simulation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, T.D. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Haney, M.J. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States))

    1991-10-01

    A generalized model of a FASTBUS master is presented. The model is used with simulation tools to aid in the specification, design, and production of FASTBUS slave modules. The model provides a mechanism to interact with the electrical schematics and software models to predict performance. The model is written in the IEEE std 1076-1987 hardware description language VHDL. A model of the ATC logic is also presented. VHDL was chosen to provide portability to various platforms and simulation tools. The models, in conjunction with most commercially available simulators, will perform all of the transactions specified in IEEE std 960-1989. The models may be used to study the behavior of electrical schematics and other software models and detect violations of the FASTBUS protocol. For example, a hardware design of a slave module could be studied, protocol violations detected and corrected before committing money to prototype development. The master model accepts a stream of high level commands from an ASCII file to initiate FASTBUS transactions. The high level command language is based on the FASTBUS standard routines listed in IEEE std 1177-1989. Using this standard-based command language to direct the model of the master, hardware engineers can simulate FASTBUS transactions in the language used by physicists and programmers to operate FASTBUS systems. 15 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Simulation of Beam-Beam Background at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, A

    2010-01-01

    The dense beams used at CLIC to achieve a high luminosity will cause a large amount of background particles through beam-beam interactions. Generator level studies with GUINEAPIG and full detector simulation studies with an ILD based CLIC detector have been performed to evaluate the amount of beam-beam back- ground hitting the vertex detector.

  17. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yongchun; Li, Peng; Kang, Xincai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yaoyao; Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Tiecheng; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yanyu; Yuan, Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. And then, EBP as a profile monitor for dense beam is simulated using fast scan method under various target beam profile, such as KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory...

  18. SNS BEAM COMMISSIONING TOOLS AND EXPERIENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishlo, Andrei P [ORNL; Galambos, John D [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) successfully met the primary construction project completion milestones in April 2006. An important ingredient of this successful commissioning was the development and use of software tools. With the increasing digitalization of beam diagnostics and increasing complexity of Integrated Control Systems of large accelerators, the need for high level software tools is critical for smooth commissioning. At SNS a special Java based infrastructure called XAL was prepared for beam commissioning. XAL provides a hierarchal view of the accelerator, is data base configured, and includes a physics model of the beam. This infrastructure and individual applications development along with a historical time line of the SNS commissioning will be discussed.

  19. T10 Beam Studies & Beam Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bergmann, Michael Georges; Van Dijk, Maarten; CERN. Geneva. EN Department

    2017-01-01

    In order to test detector components before their installation in actual experiments, one uses test beams in which one can control particle typ, momentum and size to high degree. For this project the focus of a secondary beam at T10 in the East Area at CERN was analysed using an AZALEA telescope from DESY.

  20. Tracking Simulation for Beam Loss Studies with Application to FCC

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, M

    2015-01-01

    We present first results on FCC-ee beam losses using a tracking simulation tool originally developed and successfully applied to Flav or Factories designs. After a brief description of the tool, we discuss first results obtained for FCC-ee at top energy, both for the Touschek effect and radiative Bhabha scattering.

  1. Multisymplectic Integration for Beam and Plasma Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stephen; RadiaSoft, LLC Team

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-cell methods are a standard tool for simulating charged particle systems such as fusion plasmas, intense beams, and laser- and beam-driven wakefield accelerators. Conventional methods have been successful in studying short-term dynamics, however numerical instabilities and artifacts such as grid heating make long-time simulations unreliable. A similar issue existed in single particle tracking for storage rings in the 1980s, which led to the development of symplectic algorithms. The essential insight that if the physical equations of motion derive from a least-action principle, then so too should the numerical equations of motion. The resulting update sequence preserves a symplectic 2-form, which is a strong constraint on the numerical solutions. The resulting algorithms are stable and accurate over very long simulation times. This same structure exists for field theories as well as single-particle dynamics. Such multisymplectic integrators have good stability properties and naturally encode conservation laws, making them ideal for simulations over many oscillations of the system. We present here a number of examples where multisymplectic algorithms have been used over very long time scales. This work was sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Young Investigator Program, under contract no. FA9550-15-C-0031. Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

  2. Ion trap simulation tools.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Benjamin Roger

    2009-02-01

    Ion traps present a potential architecture for future quantum computers. These computers are of interest due to their increased power over classical computers stemming from the superposition of states and the resulting capability to simultaneously perform many computations. This paper describes a software application used to prepare and visualize simulations of trapping and maneuvering ions in ion traps.

  3. Simulations of beam-beam and beam-wire interactions in RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab; Abreu, Natalia P.; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven

    2009-02-01

    The beam-beam interaction is one of the dominant sources of emittance growth and luminosity lifetime deterioration. A current carrying wire has been proposed to compensate long-range beam-beam effects in the LHC and strong localized long-range beam-beam effects are experimentally investigated in the RHIC collider. Tune shift, beam transfer function, and beam loss rate are measured in dedicated experiments. In this paper, they report on simulations to study the effect of beam-wire interactions based on diffusive apertures, beam loss rates, and beam transfer function using a parallelized weak-strong beam simulation code (BBSIMC). The simulation results are compared with measurements performed in RHIC during 2007 and 2008.

  4. Beam-beam simulation code BBSIM for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, six-dimensional tracking model for simulating interactions of colliding hadron beams in high energy ring colliders and simulating schemes for mitigating their effects is described. The model uses the weak-strong approximation for calculating the head-on interactions when the test beam has lower intensity than the other beam, a look-up table for the efficient calculation of long-range beam-beam forces, and a self-consistent Poisson solver when both beams have comparable intensities. A performance test of the model in a parallel environment is presented. The code is used to calculate beam emittance and beam loss in the Tevatron at Fermilab and compared with measurements. They also present results from the studies of stwo schemes proposed to compensate the beam-beam interactions: (a) the compensation of long-range interactions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with a current carrying wire, (b) the use of a low energy electron beam to compensate the head-on interactions in RHIC.

  5. Beam-beam simulation code BBSIM for particle accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung J.; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    A highly efficient, fully parallelized, six-dimensional tracking model for simulating interactions of colliding hadron beams in high energy ring colliders and simulating schemes for mitigating their effects is described. The model uses the weak-strong approximation for calculating the head-on interactions when the test beam has lower intensity than the other beam, a look-up table for the efficient calculation of long-range beam-beam forces, and a self-consistent Poisson solver when both beams have comparable intensities. A performance test of the model in a parallel environment is presented. The code is used to calculate beam emittance and beam loss in the Tevatron at Fermilab and compared with measurements. They also present results from the studies of stwo schemes proposed to compensate the beam-beam interactions: (a) the compensation of long-range interactions in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN with a current carrying wire, (b) the use of a low energy electron beam to compensate the head-on interactions in RHIC.

  6. Simulation and Measurements of Beam Losses on LHC Collimators During Beam Abort Failures

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Bruce, R; Goddard, B; Redaelli, S; Salvachua, B; Valentino, G; Faus-Golfe, A

    2013-01-01

    One of the main purposes of tracking simulations for collimation studies is to produce loss maps along the LHC ring, in order to identify the level of local beam losses during nominal and abnormal operation scenarios. The SixTrack program is the standard tracking tool used at CERN to perform these studies. Recently, it was expanded in order to evaluate the proton load on different collimators in case of fast beam failures. Simulations are compared with beam measurements at 4 TeV. Combined failures are assumed which provide worst-case scenarios of the load on tungsten tertiary collimators.

  7. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  8. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  9. Numerical simulation of hot stamping of side impact beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yihui; Ma Mingtu; Fang Gang; Song Leifeng; Liu Qiang; Wang Xiaona; Zhou Dianwu

    2012-01-01

    Ls-DYNA software is adopted to conduct research of numerical simulation on hot stamping of side impact beam to calculate the temperature field distribution, stress field distribution, forming limit diagram (FLD) figure, etc. in the course of hot stamping so as to predict and analyze the formability of parts. ProCAST software is employed to conduct research of numerical simulation on solid quenching course concerning hot stamping to calculate temperature field distri- bution of tools and component of muhiple stamping cycles. The results obtained from numerical simulation can provide significant reference value to hot stamping part design, formability predication and tools cooling system design.

  10. Simulating Transient Effects of Pulsed Beams on Beam Intercepting Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, Herta; Noah Messomo, Etam

    2011-01-01

    The development in the physics community towards higher beam power through the possibilities of particle accelerators lead to challenges for the developers of elements which are exposed to effect of particle beams (beam intercepting devices = BIDs). For the design of BIDs, the increasing heat load onto these devices due to energetic and focused beams and - in most cases - their highly pulsed nature has to be taken into account. The physics requirements are sometimes opposed to the current state of the art. As one possibility of many in combining the different aspects for these ambitious demands, two highly developed computer programs, namely FLUKA and ANSYS AUTODYN, were joined for this dissertation. The former is a widely enhanced Monte-Carlo-code which specializes on the interaction of particles with static matter, while the latter is a versatile explicit code for the simulation of highly dynamic processes. Both computer programs were developed intensively over years and are still continuously enhanced in o...

  11. Simulation of beam-induced plasma for the mitigation of beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, J.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Yu, K.; Litvinenko, V.

    2015-05-03

    One of the main challenges in the increase of luminosity of circular colliders is the control of the beam-beam effect. In the process of exploring beam-beam mitigation methods using plasma, we evaluated the possibility of plasma generation via ionization of neutral gas by proton beams, and performed highly resolved simulations of the beam-plasma interaction using SPACE, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The process of plasma generation is modelled using experimentally measured cross-section coefficients and a plasma recombination model that takes into account the presence of neutral gas and beam-induced electromagnetic fields. Numerically simulated plasma oscillations are consistent with theoretical analysis. In the beam-plasma interaction process, high-density neutral gas reduces the mean free path of plasma electrons and their acceleration. A numerical model for the drift speed as a limit of plasma electron velocity was developed. Simulations demonstrate a significant reduction of the beam electric field in the presence of plasma. Preliminary simulations using fully-ionized plasma have also been performed and compared with the case of beam-induced plasma.

  12. 10 CFR 434.606 - Simulation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Simulation tool. 434.606 Section 434.606 Energy DEPARTMENT... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.606 Simulation tool. 606.1 The criteria established in subsection 521 for the selection of a simulation tool shall be followed when using...

  13. Photon collider beam simulation with CAIN

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aleksander Filip Żarnecki

    2007-11-01

    The CAIN simulation program was used to study the outgoing beam profile for the photon collider at ILC. The main aim of the analysis was to verify the feasibility of the photon linear collider running with 20 mrad electron beam crossing angle. The main problem is the distorted electron beam, which has to be removed from the interaction region. It is shown that with a new design of the final dipole, it should be possible to avoid large energy losses at the face of the magnet.

  14. Beam simulation studies of ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Haitao; Pozdeyev, Eduard; Lund, Steven M; Machicoane, Guillaume; Wu, Xiaoyu; Morgan, Glenn

    2016-02-01

    To meet the beam power requirements of 400 kW at the fragmentation target for facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), simultaneous acceleration of two-charge states should be used for heavier ions. These intense multi-charged ion beams will be produced by a 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source at a high voltage of 35 kV. After extraction, the ion beam will be pre-accelerated to 12 keV/u with a 50 kV platform, transported down to an achromatic charge state selection (CSS) system followed by a vertical transport line, and then injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The TRACK code developed at ANL is used to perform the simulations of the ECR beam extraction and low energy beam transport for FRIB. In this study, we include the magnetic field of ECR ion source into simulations. Different initial beam conditions as well as different space charge neutralization levels are tested for the ECR beamline. The beam loss in CSS system and the corresponding protective measures are discussed. The detailed results about the beam dynamic simulation and beam loss in CSS system will be presented in this paper.

  15. Simulation based analysis of laser beam brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Michael; Wiethop, Philipp; Schmid, Daniel; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Laser beam brazing is a well-established joining technology in car body manufacturing with main applications in the joining of divided tailgates and the joining of roof and side panels. A key advantage of laser brazed joints is the seam's visual quality which satisfies highest requirements. However, the laser beam brazing process is very complex and process dynamics are only partially understood. In order to gain deeper knowledge of the laser beam brazing process, to determine optimal process parameters and to test process variants, a transient three-dimensional simulation model of laser beam brazing is developed. This model takes into account energy input, heat transfer as well as fluid and wetting dynamics that lead to the formation of the brazing seam. A validation of the simulation model is performed by metallographic analysis and thermocouple measurements for different parameter sets of the brazing process. These results show that the multi-physical simulation model not only can be used to gain insight into the laser brazing process but also offers the possibility of process optimization in industrial applications. The model's capabilities in determining optimal process parameters are exemplarily shown for the laser power. Small deviations in the energy input can affect the brazing results significantly. Therefore, the simulation model is used to analyze the effect of the lateral laser beam position on the energy input and the resulting brazing seam.

  16. Simulation Tool for Inventory Models: SIMIN

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiksha Saxen; Tulsi Kushwaha

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an integrated simulation optimization model for the inventory system is developed. An effective algorithm is developed to evaluate and analyze the back-end stored simulation results. This paper proposes simulation tool SIMIN (Inventory Simulation) to simulate inventory models. SIMIN is a tool which simulates and compares the results of different inventory models. To overcome various practical restrictive assumptions, SIMIN provides values for a number of performance measurement...

  17. Fast Electron Beam Simulation and Dose Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Trindade, A; Peralta, L; Lopes, M C; Alves, C; Chaves, A

    2003-01-01

    A flexible multiple source model capable of fast reconstruction of clinical electron beams is presented in this paper. A source model considers multiple virtual sources emulating the effect of accelerator head components. A reference configuration (10 MeV and 10x10 cm2 field size) for a Siemens KD2 linear accelerator was simulated in full detail using GEANT3 Monte Carlo code. Our model allows the reconstruction of other beam energies and field sizes as well as other beam configurations for similar accelerators using only the reference beam data. Electron dose calculations were performed with the reconstructed beams in a water phantom and compared with experimental data. An agreement of 1-2% / 1-2 mm was obtained, equivalent to the accuracy of full Monte Carlo accelerator simulation. The source model reduces accelerator simulation CPU time by a factor of 7500 relative to full Monte Carlo approaches. The developed model was then interfaced with DPM, a fast radiation transport Monte Carlo code for dose calculati...

  18. Process of cracking in reinforced concrete beams (simulation and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Shardakov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the mechanisms of crack formation in reinforced concrete beams subjected to quasi-static bending. The boundary-value problem has been formulated in the framework of brittle fracture mechanics and solved using the finite-element method. Numerical simulation of the vibrations of an uncracked beam and a beam with cracks of different size serves to determine the pattern of changes in the spectrum of eigenfrequencies observed during crack evolution. A series of sequential quasi-static 4-point bend tests leading to the formation of cracks in a reinforced concrete beam were performed. At each loading step, the beam was subjected to an impulse load to induce vibrations. Two stages of cracking were detected. During the first stage the nonconservative process of deformation begins to develope, but has not visible signs. The second stage is an active cracking, which is marked by a sharp change in eingenfrequencies. The boundary of a transition from one stage to another is well registered. The vibration behavior was examined for the ordinary concrete beams and the beams strengthened with a carbon-fiber polymer. The obtained results show that the vibrodiagnostic approach is an effective tool for monitoring crack formation and assessing the quality of measures aimed at strengthening concrete structures

  19. Comparison between measured and simulated beam loss patterns in the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S; Assmann, R W; Robert-Démolaize, G

    2006-01-01

    A prototype of an LHC collimator has been tested with proton beams at the CERN SPS. The interaction of the circulating proton beam with the carbon collimator jaws generated secondary proton beams that were lost in the downstream SPS aperture. The measured beam loss patterns are compared with the results of dedicated loss simulations. The simulation package includes (1) a 6D particle tracking through the SPS lattice; (2) the scattering interaction of protons with the collimator jaw material; (3) the timedependent displacement of the collimator jaws with respect to the beam orbit; (4) a detailed aperture model of the full SPS ring. It is shown that the simulation tools can reliably predict the measured location of losses. This provides an important assessment of the simulation tools in view of the beam loss studies for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  20. Simulating the Wire Compensation of LHC Long-Range Beam-beam Effects.

    CERN Document Server

    Rijoff, T

    2012-01-01

    The performance of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its minimum crossing angle are limited by long-range beam-beam collisions. Wire compensators can mitigate part of the long-range effects. We perform simulations to explore the efficiency of the compensation at possible wire locations by examining the tune footprint and the dynamic aperture. Starting from the weak-strong simulation code BBTrack we developed a new Lyapunov calculation tool, which seems to better diagnose regular or chaotic particle behavior. We also developed faster ways to execute the simulation and the post-processing. These modifications have allowed us to study different wire positions (longitudinal and transverse), varying wire currents, several wire shapes, and a range of beam-beam crossing angles, in view of a prototype wire installation in the LHC foreseen for 2014/15. Our simulations demonstrate that the wire can provide a good compensation, including for reduced crossing angle. Among the benefits of an LHC wire compensator are a b...

  1. Simulating the Farm Production System Using the MONARC Simulation Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.Wu; I.C.Legrand; 等

    2001-01-01

    The simulation program developed by the "Models of Networked Analysis at Regional Centers"(MONARC) project is a powerful and flexible tool for simulating the behavior of large scale distributed computing systems,In this study,we further validate this simulation tool in a large-scale distributed farm computing system.We also report the usage of this simulation tool to identify the bottlenecks and limitations of our farm system.

  2. Development of 3D beam-beam simulation for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-06-01

    We present status of development of a 3D Beam-Beam simulation code for simulating the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The essential features of the code are 3D particle-in-cell Poisson solver for calculating the Beam-Beam electromagnetic interactions with additional modules for linear optics, machine impedance and chromaticity, and multiple bunch tracking. The simulations match synchrobetatron oscillations measured at the VEPP-2M collider. The impedance calculations show beam instability development consistent with analytic expressions.

  3. Electron Beam Simulations on the SCSS Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Hara, Toru; Shintake, Tsumoru

    2004-01-01

    The SPring-8 Compact SASE Source (SCSS) is a SASE-FEL project aiming at soft X-ray radiation at its first stage using 1 GeV electron beams. One of the unique features of the SCSS is the use of a pulsed high-voltage electron gun with a thermionic cathode. Main reason for this choice is its high stability and the well developed technology relating to the gun. Meanwhile, the electron bunch should be compressed properly at the injector in order to obtain sufficient peak currents. In this presentation, the results of the electron beam simulations along the accelerator and the expected parameters of the electron beam will be given.

  4. Beam Delivery Simulation - Recent Developments and Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00232566; Boogert, Stewart Takashi; Garcia-Morales, H; Gibson, Stephen; Kwee-Hinzmann, Regina; Nevay, Laurence James; Deacon, Lawrence Charles

    2015-01-01

    Beam Delivery Simulation (BDSIM) is a particle tracking code that simulates the passage of particles through both the magnetic accelerator lattice as well as their interaction with the material of the accelerator itself. The Geant4 toolkit is used to give a full range of physics processes needed to simulate both the interaction of primary particles and the production and subsequent propagation of secondaries. BDSIM has already been used to simulate linear accelerators such as the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), but it has recently been adapted to simulate circular accelerators as well, producing loss maps for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this paper the most recent developments, which extend BDSIM’s functionality as well as improve its efficiency are presented. Improvement and refactorisation of the tracking algorithms are presented alongside improved automatic geometry construction for increased particle tracking speed.

  5. Simulation and track reconstruction for beam telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Maqbool, Salman

    2017-01-01

    Beam telescopes are used for testing new detectors under development. Sensors are placed and a particle beam is passed through them. To test these novel detectors and determine their properties, the particle tracks need to be reconstructed from the known detectors in the telescope. Based on the reconstructed track, it’s predicted hits on the Device under Test (DUT) are compared with the actual hits on the DUT. Several methods exist for track reconstruction, but most of them don’t account for the effects of multiple scattering. General Broken Lines is one such algorithm which incorporates these effects during reconstruction. The aim of this project was to simulate the beam telescope and extend the track reconstruction framework for the FE-I4 telescope, which takes these effects into account. Section 1 introduces the problem, while section 2 focuses on beam telescopes. This is followed by the Allpix2 simulation framework in Section 3. And finally, Section 4 introduces the Proteus track reconstruction framew...

  6. Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming

    CERN Document Server

    van Putten, T; Baring, M G; Wijers, R A M J

    2016-01-01

    Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.

  7. Radiative transfer simulations of magnetar flare beaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Putten, T.; Watts, A. L.; Baring, M. G.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Magnetar giant flares show oscillatory modulations in the tails of their light curves, which can only be explained via some form of beaming. The fireball model for magnetar bursts has been used successfully to fit the phase-averaged light curves of the tails of giant flares, but so far no attempts have been made to fit the pulsations. We present a relatively simple numerical model to simulate beaming of magnetar flare emission. In our simulations, radiation escapes from the base of a fireball trapped in a dipolar magnetic field, and is scattered through the optically thick magnetosphere of the magnetar until it escapes. Beaming is provided by the presence of a relativistic outflow, as well as by the geometry of the system. We find that a simple picture for the relativistic outflow is enough to create the pulse fraction and sharp peaks observed in pulse profiles of magnetar flares, while without a relativistic outflow the beaming is insufficient to explain giant flare rotational modulations.

  8. Physics validation of detector simulation tools for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Beringer, J

    2004-01-01

    Extensive studies aimed at validating the physics processes built into the detector simulation tools Geant4 and Fluka are in progress within all Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments, within the collaborations developing these tools, and within the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) Simulation Physics Validation Project, which has become the primary forum for these activities. This work includes detailed comparisons with test beam data, as well as benchmark studies of simple geometries and materials with single incident particles of various energies for which experimental data is available. We give an overview of these validation activities with emphasis on the latest results.

  9. Overview of Simulation Tools for Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    aim of this report “D2.1 – Overview of Simulation Tools for Smart Grids” is to provide an overview of the different simulation tools available, i.e. developed and in use, at the different research centres. Required new tool capabilities are identified and extensions to the existing packages...... are indicated. An analysis of the emerging power systems challenges together with a review of the main topics regarding smart grids is provided in Chapter 1. The requirements for the simulation tools and the list of available tools in the different research centres and their main characteristic are reported...... in Chapter 2. The main aspects of the different tools and their purpose of analysis are listed in Chapter 3 along with the main topics concerning the new requirements for tools in order to allow a proper study in the smart grid context. Gaps capabilities and model consolidation of the analysed tools...

  10. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  11. Simulation of Oscillatory Working Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Debeleac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of the resistance forces in soils cutting, with emphasis on their dependence on working tool motion during the loading process and dynamic regimes. The periodic process of cutting of soil by a tool (blade has described. Different intervals in the cycle of steady-state motion of the tool, and several interaction regimes were considered. The analysis has based on a non-linear approximation of the dependence of the soil resistance force on tool motion. Finally, the influence of frequency on the laws governing the interaction in the cyclic process was established.

  12. Theoretical tools for atom-laser-beam propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Jean-Félix; Le Coq, Yann; Impens, François; Guerin, William; Bordé, Christian,; Aspect, Alain; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the propagation of non self-interacting atom laser beams. We start from a general propagation integral equation, and we use the same approximations as in photon optics to derive tools to calculate the atom laser beam propagation. We discuss the approximations that allow to reduce the general equation whether to a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral calculated by using the stationary phase method, or to the eikonal. Within the paraxial approximation, we also introduce...

  13. Mitigation of Numerical Noise for Beam Loss Simulations Proc. HB2016 Malmo, Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Kesting, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Numerical noise emerges in self-consistent simulations of charged particles, and its mitigation is investigated since the first numerical studies in plasma physics. In accelerator physics, recent studies find an artificial diffusion of the particle beam due to numerical noise in particle-in-cell tracking, which is of particular importance for high intensity machines with a long storage time, as the SIS100 at FAIR or in context of the LIU upgrade at CERN. In beam loss simulations for these projects artificial effects must be distinguished from physical beam loss. Therefore, it is important to relate artificial diffusion to artificial beam loss, and to choose simulation parameters such that physical beam loss is well resolved. As a practical tool, we therefore suggest a scaling law to find optimal simulation parameters for a given maximum percentage of acceptable artificial beam loss.

  14. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...

  15. Investigation of focused ion beam induced damage in single crystal diamond tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Zhen [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ (United Kingdom); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Luo, Xichun, E-mail: Xichun.Luo@strath.ac.uk [Centre for Precision Manufacturing, Department of Design, Manufacture & Engineering Management, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The FIB-induced damage layer should be paid enough attention when shaping the cutting edges of nanoscale diamond tools. • During FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the Ga{sup +} collision will create a damage layer around tool tips. • The thicknesses of damaged layer and the level for amorphization of diamond significantly increase with beam energy. • The FIB-induced doping and defects during tool fabrication are responsible for the early detection of tool wear of nanoscale diamond tools. - Abstract: In this work, transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out to characterise the focused ion beam (FIB) induced damage layer in a single crystal diamond tool under different FIB processing voltages. The results obtained from the experiments and the simulations are in good agreement. The results indicate that during FIB processing cutting tools made of natural single crystal diamond, the energetic Ga{sup +} collision will create an impulse-dependent damage layer at the irradiated surface. For the tested beam voltages in a typical FIB system (from 8 kV to 30 kV), the thicknesses of the damaged layers formed on a diamond tool surface increased from 11.5 nm to 27.6 nm. The dynamic damage process of FIB irradiation and ion–solid interactions physics leading to processing defects in FIB milling were emulated by MD simulations. The research findings from this study provide the in-depth understanding of the wear of nanoscale multi-tip diamond tools considering the FIB irradiation induced doping and defects during the tool fabrication process.

  16. Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu

    2014-05-01

    A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.

  17. Modeling and simulation of LHC beam-based collimator setup

    CERN Document Server

    Valentino, G; Assmann, R W; Burkart, F; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Lari, L

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 Large Hadron Collider run, collimators were aligned for proton and heavy ion beams using a semiautomatic setup algorithm. The algorithm provided a reduction in the beam time required for setup, an elimination of beam dumps during setup and better reproducibility with respect to manual alignment. A collimator setup simulator was developed based on a Gaussian model of the beam distribution as well as a parametric model of the beam losses. A time-varying beam loss signal can be simulated for a given collimator movement into the beam. The simulation results and comparison to measurement data obtained during collimator setups and dedicated fills for beam halo scraping are presented. The simulator will then be used to develop a fully automatic collimator alignment algorithm.

  18. A novel electron-beam-based photomask repair tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Klaus; Becht, Hans; Becker, Rainer; Bert, Volker; Boegli, Volker A.; Budach, Michael; G÷hde, Susanne; Guyot, Jochen; Hofmann, Thorsten; Hoinkis, Ottmar; Kaya, Alexander; Koops, Hans W.; Spies, Petra; Weyrauch, Bernd; Bihr, Johannes

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution electron-beam assisted deposition and etching is an enabling technology for current and future generation photo mask repair. NaWoTec in collaboration with LEO Electron Microscopy has developed a mask repair beta tool capable of processing a wide variety of mask types, such as quartz binary masks, phase shift masks, EUV masks, and e-beam projection stencil masks. Specifications currently meet the 65 nm device node requirements, and tool performance is extendible to 45 nm and below. The tool combines LEO's ultra-high resolution Supra SEM platform with NaWoTec's e-beam deposition and etching technology, gas supply and pattern generation hardware, and repair software. It is expected to ship to the first customer in October this year. In this paper, we present the tool platform, its work flow oriented repair software, and associated deposition and etch processes. Unique features are automatic drift compensation, critical edge detection, and arbitrary pattern copy with automatic placement. Repair of clear and opaque programmed defects on Cr, TaN, and MoSi quartz masks, as well as on SiC and Si stencil masks is demonstrated. We show our development roadmap towards a production tool, which will be available by the end of this year.

  19. Simulator for beam-based LHC collimator alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Gianluca; Aßmann, Ralph; Redaelli, Stefano; Sammut, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    In the CERN Large Hadron Collider, collimators need to be set up to form a multistage hierarchy to ensure efficient multiturn cleaning of halo particles. Automatic algorithms were introduced during the first run to reduce the beam time required for beam-based setup, improve the alignment accuracy, and reduce the risk of human errors. Simulating the alignment procedure would allow for off-line tests of alignment policies and algorithms. A simulator was developed based on a diffusion beam model to generate the characteristic beam loss signal spike and decay produced when a collimator jaw touches the beam, which is observed in a beam loss monitor (BLM). Empirical models derived from the available measurement data are used to simulate the steady-state beam loss and crosstalk between multiple BLMs. The simulator design is presented, together with simulation results and comparison to measurement data.

  20. Dynamic fault simulation of wind turbines using commercial simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Torsten; Eek, Jarle; Uski, Sanna

    2005-01-01

    . The deviations and the reasons for the deviations between the tools are stated. The simulation models are imple-mented using the built-in library components of the simulation tools with exception of the mechanical drive-train model, which had to be user-modeled in PowerFactory and PSS/E.......This paper compares the commercial simulation tools: PSCAD/EMTDC, PowerFactory, SIMPOW and PSS/E for analysing fault sequences defined in the Danish grid code requirements for wind turbines connected to a voltage level below 100 kV. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analysed...

  1. Numerical simulation of steel-concrete composite Virender beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinggui; Cao, Xinming; Luo, Quanrui

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is proposed. The finite element analysis of the new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is carried out by using ABAQUS. To compare the mechanical properties with traditional beam, the normal reinforced concrete beam with the same section size is also analyzed by using ABAQUS. The simulation results show that the material strength of the new type steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam is fully utilized, and the flexural capacity and deformation performance of the new type of steel-concrete composite Vierendeel beam are greatly improved compared with normal reinforced concrete beam.

  2. FDTD simulation tools for UWB antenna analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the development of a set of software tools useful for analyzing ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and structures. These tools are used to perform finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of a conical antenna with continuous wave (CW) and UWB pulsed excitations. The antenna is analyzed using spherical coordinate-based FDTD equations that are derived from first principles. The simulation results for CW excitation are compared to simulation and measured results from published sources; the results for UWB excitation are new.

  3. Beam simulations for IRE and driver--status and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex E-mail: af@llnl.gov; Grote, David P.; Lee, Edward P.; Sonnendrucker, Eric

    2001-05-21

    The methods and codes employed in the US Heavy Ion Fusion program to simulate the beams in an Integrated Research Experiments (IRE) facility and a fusion driver are presented in overview. A new family of models incorporating accelerating module impedance, multi-beam, and self-magnetic effects is described, and initial WARP3D particle simulations of beams using these models are presented. Finally, plans for streamlining the machine-design simulation sequence, and for simulating beam dynamics from the source to the target in a consistent and comprehensive manner, are described.

  4. Probabilistic fire simulator - Monte Carlo simulation tool for fire scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostikka, S.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-11-01

    Risk analysis tool is developed for computing of the distributions of fire model output variables. The tool, called Probabilistic Fire Simulator, combines Monte Carlo simulation and CFAST two-zone fire model. In this work, it is used to calculate failure probability of redundant cables and fire detector activation times in a cable tunnel fire. Sensitivity of the output variables to the input variables is calculated in terms of the rank order correlations. (orig.)

  5. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  6. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  7. Stochastic Simulation Tool for Aerospace Structural Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F.; Moore, David F.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulation refers to incorporating the effects of design tolerances and uncertainties into the design analysis model and then determining their influence on the design. A high-level evaluation of one such stochastic simulation tool, the MSC.Robust Design tool by MSC.Software Corporation, has been conducted. This stochastic simulation tool provides structural analysts with a tool to interrogate their structural design based on their mathematical description of the design problem using finite element analysis methods. This tool leverages the analyst's prior investment in finite element model development of a particular design. The original finite element model is treated as the baseline structural analysis model for the stochastic simulations that are to be performed. A Monte Carlo approach is used by MSC.Robust Design to determine the effects of scatter in design input variables on response output parameters. The tool was not designed to provide a probabilistic assessment, but to assist engineers in understanding cause and effect. It is driven by a graphical-user interface and retains the engineer-in-the-loop strategy for design evaluation and improvement. The application problem for the evaluation is chosen to be a two-dimensional shell finite element model of a Space Shuttle wing leading-edge panel under re-entry aerodynamic loading. MSC.Robust Design adds value to the analysis effort by rapidly being able to identify design input variables whose variability causes the most influence in response output parameters.

  8. Simulation Tool For Energy Consumption and Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Michael; Mynderup, Henrik; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    In order to promote adoption of smart grid with the general public it is necessary to be able to visualize the benefits of a smart home. Software tools that model the effects can help significantly with this. However, only little work has been done in the area of simulating and visualizing...... the energy consumption in smart homes. This paper presents a prototype simulation tool that allows graphical modeling of a home. Based on the modeled homes the user is able to simulate the energy consumptions and compare scenarios. The simulations are based on dynamic weather and energy price data as well...... as a controller unit of the user’s choice. The results of the simulations can be compared using a dynamic reporting window that allows the user to create custom charts of the data. The application has been designed such that it can easily be extended with additional controller units, price and weather data...

  9. A Data Simulator Tool for NIRCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Bryan; Canipe, Alicia Michelle; Robberto, Massimo; NIRCam Team at STScI

    2017-06-01

    We present a new data simulator tool capable of producing high fidelity simulated data for NIRCam. This simulator produces “raw” multiaccum integrations, each composed of multiple non-destructive detector readouts. This is equivalent to data from real observations prior to the application of any calibration steps. Our primary motivation for creating this tool is to produce realistic data with which to test the JWST calibration pipeline steps, from basic calibration through the production of mosaic images and associated source catalogs. However, data created from this tool may also be useful to observers wishing to have example data to test custom data reduction or analysis software.The simulator begins with a real NIRCam dark current integration and adds synthetic astronomical sources. In this way, the simulated integration is guaranteed to contain all of the same noise characteristics and detector effects that will be present in real NIRCam observations. The output format of the simulated data is such that the files can be immediately run through the standard JWST calibration pipelines. Currently the tool supports the creation of NIRCam imaging and dispersed (wide field slitless) observations, including moving target (non-sidereal tracking) and time series observation data.

  10. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  11. A simulation tool for brassiness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Joël; Menguy, Ludovic; Campbell, Murray

    2008-04-01

    A frequency-domain numerical model of brass instrument sound production is proposed as a tool to predict their brassiness, defined as the rate of spectral enrichment with increasing dynamic level. It is based on generalized Burger's equations dedicated to weakly nonlinear wave propagation in nonuniform ducts, and is an extension of previous work by Menguy and Gilbert [Acta Acustica 86, 798-810 (2000)], initially limited to short cylindrical tubes. The relevance of the present tool is evaluated by carrying out simulations over distances longer than typical shock formation distances, and by doing preliminary simulations of periodic regimes in a typical brass trombone bore geometry.

  12. Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Simulation of Bunch Length Splitting at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Qiang, J; Pieloni, Tatiana; Ohmi, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal bunch length splitting was observed for some LHC beams. In this paper, we will report on the study of the observation using strong-strong beam-beam simulations. We explore a variety of factors including initial momentum deviation, collision crossing angle, synchrotron tune, chromaticity, working points and bunch intensity that contribute to the beam particle loss and the bunch length splitting, and try to understand the underlying mechanism of the observed phenomena.

  13. Simulations of coherent beam-beam effects with head-on compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White S.; Fischer, W.; Luo. Y.

    2012-05-20

    Electron lenses are under construction for installation in RHIC in order to mitigate the head-on beam-beam effects. This would allow operation with higher bunch intensity and result in a significant increase in luminosity. We report on recent strong-strong simulations and experiments that were carried out using the RHIC upgrade parameters to assess the impact of coherent beam-beam effects in the presence of head-on compensation.

  14. Realtime simulation tools in the CHORALE workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathala, Thierry; Le Goff, Alain; Gozard, Patrick; Latger, Jean

    2006-05-01

    CHORALE (simulated Optronic Acoustic Radar battlefield) is used by the French DGA/DET (Directorate for Evaluation of the French Ministry of Defense) to perform multi-sensors simulations. CHORALE enables the user to create virtual and realistic multi spectral 3D scenes, and generate the physical signal received by a sensor, typically an IR sensor. To evaluate their efficiency in visible and infrared wavelength, simulation tools, that give a good representation of physical phenomena, are used. This article describes the elements used to prepare data (3D database, materials, scenario, ...) for the simulation, and the set of tools (SE-FAST-IR), used in CHORALE for the Real Time simulation in the infrared spectrum. SE-FAST-IR package allows the compilation and visualization of 3D databases for infrared simulations. It enables one to visualize complex and large databases for a wide set of real and pseudo-real time applications. SE-FAST-IR is based on the physical model of the Non Real Time tool of CHORALE workshop. It automatically computes radiance textures, Open GL light source and fog-law parameters for predefined thermal and atmospheric conditions, specified by the user.

  15. Simulation of Head-on Beam-Beam Limitations in Future High Energy Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Buffat, Xavier; Florio, Adrien; Pieloni, Tatiana; Tambasco, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The Future Circular Hadron Collider (FCC-hh) project calls for studies in a new regime of beam-beam interactions. While the emittance damping due to synchrotron radiation is still slower than in past or existing lepton colliders, it is significantly larger than in other hadron colliders. The slow reduction of the emittance is profitable for higher luminosity in term of transverse beam size at the interaction points and also to mitigate long-range beam-beam effects, potentially allowing for a reduction of the crossing angle between the beams during the operation. In such conditions, the strength of head-on beam-beam interactions increases, potentially limiting the beam brightness. 4D weak-strong and strong-strong simulations are performed in order to assess these limitations.

  16. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.M.; Jost, G.; Appert, K.; Sauter, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuthrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    Experimental observations seem to indicate that the beam velocity and energy spreads are larger than those calculated from the electron trajectory codes which do not take into account the effects of beam instabilities. On the other hand, parasitic oscillations of the beam with frequencies close to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce} have been observed experimentally, suggesting the possibility that instabilities can be excited in the beam tunnels and are responsible for the beam degradation. 2D electrostatic and electromagnetic time-dependent PIC codes have been developed to simulate the beam transport in the beam tunnel. The results of extensive parametric runs, using these codes (which were ported on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer), together with the role of the beam instabilities around {omega}{sub ce} on the beam degradation will be reported. (author) 2 figs., 9 refs.

  17. Advances in Intelligent Modelling and Simulation Simulation Tools and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oplatková, Zuzana; Carvalho, Marco; Kisiel-Dorohinicki, Marek

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity to abstract complex systems and phenomena into simplified models has played a critical role in the rapid evolution of our modern industrial processes and scientific research. As a science and an art, Modelling and Simulation have been one of the core enablers of this remarkable human trace, and have become a topic of great importance for researchers and practitioners. This book was created to compile some of the most recent concepts, advances, challenges and ideas associated with Intelligent Modelling and Simulation frameworks, tools and applications. The first chapter discusses the important aspects of a human interaction and the correct interpretation of results during simulations. The second chapter gets to the heart of the analysis of entrepreneurship by means of agent-based modelling and simulations. The following three chapters bring together the central theme of simulation frameworks, first describing an agent-based simulation framework, then a simulator for electrical machines, and...

  18. Electron Beam Lifetime in SPEAR3: Measurement and Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, J.; Huang, X.; Lee, M.; Lui, P.; /SLAC; Sayyar-Rodsari, B.; /Pavilon Tech., Austin

    2007-12-19

    In this paper we report on electron beam lifetime measurements as a function of scraper position, RF voltage and bunch fill pattern in SPEAR3. We then outline development of an empirical, macroscopic model using the beam-loss rate equation. By identifying the dependence of loss coefficients on accelerator and beam parameters, a numerically-integrating simulator can be constructed to compute beam decay with time. In a companion paper, the simulator is used to train a parametric, non-linear dynamics model for the system [1].

  19. Induction generator models in dynamic simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans; Akhmatov, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    . It is found to be possible to include a transient model in dynamic stability tools and, then, obtain correct results also in dynamic tools. The representation of the rotating system influences on the voltage recovery shape which is an important observation in case of windmills, where a heavy mill is connected......For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained...

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of nanoscale focused neon ion beam sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Rack, Philip D

    2013-12-13

    A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to model the physical sputtering of aluminum and tungsten emulating nanoscale focused helium and neon ion beam etching from the gas field ion microscope. Neon beams with different beam energies (0.5-30 keV) and a constant beam diameter (Gaussian with full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 nm) were simulated to elucidate the nanostructure evolution during the physical sputtering of nanoscale high aspect ratio features. The aspect ratio and sputter yield vary with the ion species and beam energy for a constant beam diameter and are related to the distribution of the nuclear energy loss. Neon ions have a larger sputter yield than the helium ions due to their larger mass and consequently larger nuclear energy loss relative to helium. Quantitative information such as the sputtering yields, the energy-dependent aspect ratios and resolution-limiting effects are discussed.

  1. Induction generator models in dynamic simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans; Akhmatov, Vladislav

    1999-01-01

    For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained. It is fo......For AC network with large amount of induction generators (windmills) the paper demonstrates a significant discrepancy in the simulated voltage recovery after fault in weak networks when comparing dynamic and transient stability descriptions and the reasons of discrepancies are explained....... It is found to be possible to include a transient model in dynamic stability tools and, then, obtain correct results also in dynamic tools. The representation of the rotating system influences on the voltage recovery shape which is an important observation in case of windmills, where a heavy mill is connected...

  2. A Hardware Transverse Beam Frequency Response Simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Ning, Jia

    2005-01-01

    We build an electronical instrument to get the frequency response close to the pattern of transverse beam frequency response. The method is to apply 1)a time delay circuit with ADC, FIFO RAM and DAC; 2)a phase shift circuit which is an all pass filter with adjustable phase shift in the frequency range of 25kHz to 30kHz; in a feedback loop of 3)a commutating filter which is a high Q band pass filter. We can dynamically adjust the center frequency, the side band distance during the testing. With this instrument, some beam instruments can be tested without using the real beam.

  3. A Tool for Longitudinal Beam Dynamics in Synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostiguy, J.-F. [Fermilab; Lebedev, V. A. [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    A number of codes are available to simulate longitudinal dynamics in synchrotrons. Some established ones include TIBETAN, LONG1D, ESME and ORBIT. While they embody a wealth of accumulated wisdom and experience, most of these codes were written decades ago and to some extent they reflect the constraints of their time. As a result, there is an interest for updated tools taking better advantage of modern software and hardware capabilities. At Fermilab, the PIP-II project has provided the impetus for development of such a tool. In this contribution, we discuss design decisions and code architecture. A selection of test cases based on an initial prototype are also presented.

  4. High-Performance Beam Simulator for the LANSCE Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Xiaoying [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-14

    A high performance multiparticle tracking simulator is currently under development at Los Alamos. The heart of the simulator is based upon the beam dynamics simulation algorithms of the PARMILA code, but implemented in C++ on Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware using NVIDIA's CUDA platform. Linac operating set points are provided to the simulator via the EPICS control system so that changes of the real time linac parameters are tracked and the simulation results updated automatically. This simulator will provide valuable insight into the beam dynamics along a linac in pseudo real-time, especially where direct measurements of the beam properties do not exist. Details regarding the approach, benefits and performance are presented.

  5. Interactive simulations as teaching tools for engineering mechanics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Victoria; Romero, Carlos; Martínez, Elvira; Flórez, Mercedes

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to gauge the effect of interactive simulations in class as an active teaching strategy for a mechanics course. Engineering analysis and design often use the properties of planar sections in calculations. In the stress analysis of a beam under bending and torsional loads, cross-sectional properties are used to determine stress and displacement distributions in the beam cross section. The centroid, moments and products of inertia of an area made up of several common shapes (rectangles usually) may thus be obtained by adding the moments of inertia of the component areas (U-shape, L-shape, C-shape, etc). This procedure is used to calculate the second moments of structural shapes in engineering practice because the determination of their moments of inertia is necessary for the design of structural components. This paper presents examples of interactive simulations developed for teaching the ‘Mechanics and mechanisms’ course at the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Spain. The simulations focus on fundamental topics such as centroids, the properties of the moment of inertia, second moments of inertia with respect to two axes, principal moments of inertia and Mohr's Circle for plane stress, and were composed using Geogebra software. These learning tools feature animations, graphics and interactivity and were designed to encourage student participation and engagement in active learning activities, to effectively explain and illustrate course topics, and to build student problem-solving skills.

  6. Simulation studies of macroparticles falling into the LHC Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, N; Zimmermann, F; Baer, T; Giovannozzi, M; Holzer, E B; Nebot Del Busto, E; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Yang, Z

    2011-01-01

    We report updated simulations on the interaction of macroparticles falling from the top of the vacuum chamber into the circulating LHC proton beam. The path and charge state of micron size micro-particles are computed together with the resulting beam losses, which — if high enough — can lead to the local quench of superconducting (SC) magnets. The simulated time evolution of the beam loss is compared with observations in order to constrain some macroparticle parameters. We also discuss the possibility of a “multiple crossing” by the same macroparticle, the effect of a strong dipole field, and the dependence of peak loss rate and loss duration on beam current and on beam size.

  7. Beam Loss Patterns at the LHC Collimators Measurements & Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, Till Tobias

    2008-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detects particle losses of circulating beams and initiates an emergency extraction of the beam in case that the BLM thresholds are exceeded. This protection is required as energy deposition in the accelerator equipment due to secondary shower particles can reach critical levels; causing damage to the beam-line components and quenches of superconducting magnets. Robust and movable beam line elements, so-called collimators, are the aperture limitations of the LHC. Consequently, they are exposed to the excess of lost beam particles and their showers. Proton loss patterns at LHC collimators have to be determined to interpret the signal of the BLM detectors and to set adequate BLM thresholds for the protection of collimators and other equipment in case of unacceptably increased loss rates. The first part of this work investigates the agreement of BLM detector measurements with simulations for an LHC-like collimation setup. The setup consists ...

  8. OpenSimulator Interoperability with DRDC Simulation Tools: Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    conversion. iv These tools include Blender, AutoCAD , 3DS Max and SketchUp. Thus, DRDC use case (1) was demonstrated as feasible. However...supplementary support for the creation of content and resources compatible with OpenSimulator. These include programs such as Blender, GIMP, AutoCAD , 3DS MAX...support the PDS, PDMS, ACIS (.sat), MicroStation (.dgn), and AutoCAD (.dwg) formats, but not COLLADA directly [14]. An important limitation of

  9. Modeling the Biophysical Effects in a Carbon Beam Delivery Line using Monte Carlo Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Ilsung; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion beam therapy. In this study the biological effectiveness of a carbon ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulation. A carbon ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon beam transporting into media. An incident energy carbon ion beam in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model is applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetrating depth of the water phantom along the incident beam direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the water phantom depth.

  10. Modeling the biophysical effects in a carbon beam delivery line by using Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilsung; Yoo, SeungHoon; Cho, Sungho; Kim, Eun Ho; Song, Yongkeun; Shin, Jae-ik; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2016-09-01

    The Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) plays an important role in designing a uniform dose response for ion-beam therapy. In this study, the biological effectiveness of a carbon-ion beam delivery system was investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. A carbon-ion beam delivery line was designed for the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) project. The GEANT4 simulation tool kit was used to simulate carbon-ion beam transport into media. An incident energy carbon-ion beam with energy in the range between 220 MeV/u and 290 MeV/u was chosen to generate secondary particles. The microdosimetric-kinetic (MK) model was applied to describe the RBE of 10% survival in human salivary-gland (HSG) cells. The RBE weighted dose was estimated as a function of the penetration depth in the water phantom along the incident beam's direction. A biologically photon-equivalent Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP) was designed using the RBE-weighted absorbed dose. Finally, the RBE of mixed beams was predicted as a function of the depth in the water phantom.

  11. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AxelHoftert; WernerTheisen; ChristophBroeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat tleatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase tlansformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the tlansformation kinetics in tam. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the tlansient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  12. Quenching Simulation of PM Coated Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Axel H(o)fter; Werner Theisen; Christoph Broeckmann

    2004-01-01

    HIP cladding is a powder metallurgical coating technique used in the production of wear parts and tools. In many cases the composite components consist of carbide-free hot-work steel as base material and wear resistant carbide-rich PM cold-work steel as coating material. To ensure operativeness a heat treatment matched to the substrate and coating material is required. Dissimilar phase transformation behaviour and different thermal expansion coefficients of layer and substrate entail inner stresses affecting the transformation kinetics in turn. In order to get a deeper insight into these effects Finite Element simulation tools are used. On the one hand, the transient heat conduction problem of the quenching process has to be solved. Non-linear boundary conditions and phase transformation of both, substrate and layer are considered. On the other hand, the mechanical response is calculated. The overall aim of the investigation is an improvement of common heat treatment techniques used for HIP cladded wear parts.

  13. A New Three-Dimensional Code for Simulation of Ion Beam Extraction: Ion Optics Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dazhi; HUANG Tao; HU Quan; YANG Zhonghai

    2008-01-01

    A new thee-dimensional code, ion optics simulator (IOS), to simulate ion beam extraction is developed in visual C++ language. The theoretical model, the flowchart of code, and the results of calculation as an example are presented.

  14. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  15. GEOSSAV: a simulation tool for subsurface applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regli, Christian; Rosenthaler, Lukas; Huggenberger, Peter

    2004-04-01

    Geostatistical Environment fOr Subsurface Simulation And Visualization (GEOSSAV) is a tool for the integration of hard and soft data into stochastic simulation and visualization of distributions of geological structures and hydrogeological properties in the subsurface. GEOSSAV, as an interface to selected geostatistical modules (bicalib, gamv, vargplt, and sisim) from the Geostatistical Software LIBrary, GSLIB (GSLIB: Geostatistical Software Library and User's Guide, 2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, 369pp), can be used for data analysis, variogram computation of regularly or irregularly spaced data, and sequential indicator simulation of subsurface heterogeneities. Sequential indicator simulation, based on various kriging techniques (simple, ordinary, and Bayesian), is suitable for the simulation of continuous variables such as hydraulic conductivity of an aquifer or chemical concentrations at a contaminated site, and categorical variables which indicate the presence or absence of a particular lithofacies. The software integration platform and development environment of GEOSSAV is Tool command language (Tcl) with its graphical user interface, Toolkit (Tk), and a number of Tcl/Tk extensions. The standard Open Graphics Library application programming interface is used for rendering three-dimensional (3D) data distributions and for slicing perpendicular to the main coordinate axis. Export options for finite-difference groundwater models allow either files that characterize single model layers (which are saved in ASCII matrix format) or files that characterize the complete 3D flow model setup for MODFLOW-based groundwater simulation systems (which are saved in block-centered flow package files (User's documentation for MODFLOW-96, an update to the US Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-485, Reston, VA, 1996, 56pp)). GEOSSAV can be used whenever stochastic solutions are preferred

  16. Numerical Simulation of Beam-Beam Effects in the Proposed Electron-Ion Colider at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsa Terzic, Yuhong Zhang

    2010-05-01

    One key limiting factor to a collider luminosity is beam-beam interactions which usually can cause serious emittance growth of colliding beams and fast reduction of luminosity. Such nonlinear collective beam effect can be a very serious design challenge when the machine parameters are pushed into a new regime. In this paper, we present simulation studies of the beam-beam effect for a medium energy ring-ring electron-ion collider based on CEBAF.

  17. Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, Hassan, E-mail: Hassan.Abbas@Yale.Edu [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, 344 Lane Street Hamden, Connecticut 06514 (United States); Mahato, Dip N., E-mail: dip.n.mahato@intel.com [Intel Corporation, Mail-Stop RA3-410, 2501 NW 229th Avenue, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States); Satti, Jahangir, E-mail: sattij@mail.amc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albany Medical Center, 43 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, New York 12208 (United States); MacDonald, C. A., E-mail: c.macdonald@albany.edu [Department of Physics, University at Albany, SUNY, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface.

  18. Computer simulations of a low energy proton beam tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milhoretto, E.; Schelin, H.R.; Setti, J.A.P.; Denyak, V.; Paschuk, S.A.; Basilio, A.C.; Rocha, R.; Ribeiro Junior, S. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)]. E-mails: sergei@utfpr.edu.br; edneymilhoretto@yahoo.com; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; Evseev, I.; Yevseyeva, O. [Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: evseev@iprj.uerj.br; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graducao em Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; Vinagre Filho, U.M. [Instituto de Energia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    This work presents the recent development of a low energy proton beam tomograph. The proton tomograph prototype (involving UTFPR, UERJ, UFRJ and IEN/CNEN) has been installed and tested at the cyclotron CV-28 of IEN/CNEN. New computer simulations were performed in order to optimize the performance of the scattered proton beam and its aluminum collimator energy losses. The computer code simulates the tomographic measurements with two aluminum collimators (variable aperture from 0.2 mm to 0.4 mm in diameter and variable thickness from 4 mm to 8 mm), a water phantom and a Si(Li) detector. The analysis of the exit beam energy spectra in comparison with a perfectly collimated proton beam made it possible to achieve the best quality of reconstructed tomographic images of water phantom. (author)

  19. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.A.Soliman; M.M.Abdelrahman; A.G.Helal; F.W.Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7.This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics(accel-decel system)to generate an ion beam with low beam emittance and high brightness.The simulation process can provide a good study for optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam without any losses and transported to the required target.Also,a study of a simulation model for the extraction system of the ion source was used to describe the possible plasma boundary curvatures during the ion extraction that may be affected by the change in an extraction potential with a constant plasma density meniscus.

  20. Beam equipment electromagnetic interaction in accelerators: simulation and experimental benchmarking

    CERN Document Server

    Passarelli, Andrea; Vaccaro, Vittorio Giorgio; Massa, Rita; Masullo, Maria Rosaria

    One of the most significant technological problems to achieve the nominal performances in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) concerns the system of collimation of particle beams. The use of collimators crystals, exploiting the channeling effect on extracted beam, has been experimentally demonstrated. The first part of this thesis is about the optimization of UA9 goniometer at CERN, this device used for beam collimation will replace a part of the vacuum chamber. The optimization process, however, requires the calculation of the coupling impedance between the circulating beam and this structure in order to define the threshold of admissible intensity to do not trigger instability processes. Simulations have been performed with electromagnetic codes to evaluate the coupling impedance and to assess the beam-structure interaction. The results clearly showed that the most concerned resonance frequencies are due solely to the open cavity to the compartment of the motors and position sensors considering the crystal in o...

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations of Beam Losses in the Test Beam Line of CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Branger, E; Holzer, E B; Doebert, S; Lillestol, R L; Welsch, C P

    2013-01-01

    The Test Beam Line (TBL) of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) aims to validate the drive beam deceleration concept of CLIC, in which the RF power requested to boost particles to multi-TeV energies is obtained via deceleration of a high current and low energy drive beam (DB). Despite a TBL beam energy (150-80 MeV) significantly lower than the minimum nominal energy of the CLIC DB (250 MeV), the pulse time structure of the TBL provides the opportunity to measure beam losses with CLIC-like DB timing conditions. In this contribution, a simulation study on the detection of beam losses along the TBL for the commissioning of the recently installed beam loss monitoring system is presented. The most likely loss locations during stable beam conditions are studied by considering the beam envelope defined by the FODO lattice as well as the emittance growth due to the deceleration process. Moreover, the optimization of potential detector locations is discussed. Several factors are considered, namely: the distance to the bea...

  2. Nonlinear delta f Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hong Qi

    2003-01-01

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, ...

  3. Visualizing simulated learning experiences through the use of informatics tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Teri L; Warren, Judith J

    2009-01-01

    High-fidelity simulation technology is a growing educational technology. Designing effective simulations requires the use of informatics tools such as UML modeling. This poster demonstrates the steps in modeling a simulation exercise.

  4. Relativistic Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator Simulation Code Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidia, Steven; Ryne, Robert

    1997-05-01

    We present recent work on the development and testing of a 3-D simu- lation code for relativistic klystron two-beam accelerators (RK-TBAs). This new code utilizes symplectic integration techniques to push macro- particles, coupled to a circuit equation framework that advances the fields in the cavities. Space charge effects are calculated using a Green's function approach, and pipe wall effects are included in the electrostatic approximation. We present simulations of the LBNL/LLNL RK-TBA device, emphasizing cavity power development and beam dynamics, including the high- and low-frequency beam break-up instabilities.

  5. Numerical simulation of crystalline ion beams in storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Möhl, D.; Katayama, T.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Trubnikov, G.; Tsutsui, H.

    2004-10-01

    The use of crystalline ion beams can increase luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets for investigation of rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M (Proceedings of the Fourth All Union Conference on Charged Particle Accelerators, Vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975 (in Russian); Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; At. Energy 40 (1976) 49; Preprint CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979) (Novosibirsk), ESR (Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803) and SIS (Proceedings of EPAC'2000, 2000) (Darmstadt), CRYRING (Proceedings of PAC'2001, 2001) (Stockholm) and PALLAS (Proceedings of the Conference on Applications of Accelerators in Research and Industry, AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576, in preparation) (München). New criteria of the beam orderliness are derived and verified with a new program code. Molecular dynamics technique is inserted in BETACOOL program (Proceedings of Beam Cooling and Related Topics, Bad Honnef, Germany, 2001) and used for numerical simulation of crystalline beams. The sudden reduction of momentum spread in the ESR experiment is described with this code. The simulation shows a good agreement with the experimental results. The code has then been used to calculate characteristics of the ordered state of ion beams for the MUSES Ion Ring (IR) (MUSES Conceptual Design Report, RIKEN, Japan, 2001) in collider mode. A new strategy of the cooling process is proposed which permits to increase significantly the linear density of the ordered ion beam and thereby the luminosity of electron-ion colliding experiments.

  6. Simulation based optimized beam velocity in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignat, Frédéric; Béraud, Nicolas; Villeneuve, François

    2017-08-01

    Manufacturing good parts with additive technologies rely on melt pool dimension and temperature and are controlled by manufacturing strategies often decided on machine side. Strategies are built on beam path and variable energy input. Beam path are often a mix of contour and hatching strategies filling the contours at each slice. Energy input depend on beam intensity and speed and is determined from simple thermal models to control melt pool dimensions and temperature and ensure porosity free material. These models take into account variation in thermal environment such as overhanging surfaces or back and forth hatching path. However not all the situations are correctly handled and precision is limited. This paper proposes new method to determine energy input from full built chamber 3D thermal simulation. Using the results of the simulation, energy is modified to keep melt pool temperature in a predetermined range. The paper present first an experimental method to determine the optimal range of temperature. In a second part the method to optimize the beam speed from the simulation results is presented. Finally, the optimized beam path is tested in the EBM machine and built part are compared with part built with ordinary beam path.

  7. Simulating the Beam-line at CERN's ISOLDE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    McGrath, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing the optical matching along portions of the ISOLDE beam-line and automating this procedure will make it easier for scientists to determine what the strengths of the electrical elds of each beam-line element should be in order to reduce particle loss. Simulations are run using a program called MAD-X, however, certain issues were discovered that hindered an immediate success of the simulations. Specifically, the transfer matrices for electrostatic components like the switchyards, kickers, and electric quadrupoles were missing from the original coding. The primary aim of this project was to design these components using AutoCAD and then extract the transfer matrices using SIMION. Future work will then implement these transfer matrices into the MAD-X code to make the simulations of the beam-line more accurate.

  8. HAMMER: Reweighting tool for simulated data samples

    CERN Document Server

    Duell, Stephan; Ligeti, Zoltan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean

    2016-01-01

    Modern flavour physics experiments, such as Belle II or LHCb, require large samples of generated Monte Carlo events. Monte Carlo events often are processed in a sophisticated chain that includes a simulation of the detector response. The generation and reconstruction of large samples is resource-intensive and in principle would need to be repeated if e.g. parameters responsible for the underlying models change due to new measurements or new insights. To avoid having to regenerate large samples, we work on a tool, The Helicity Amplitude Module for Matrix Element Reweighting (HAMMER), which allows one to easily reweight existing events in the context of semileptonic b → q ` ̄ ν ` analyses to new model parameters or new physics scenarios.

  9. A Network Simulation Tool for Task Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Votava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed computing may be looked at from many points of view. Task scheduling is the viewpoint, where a distributed application can be described as a Directed Acyclic Graph and every node of the graph is executed independently. There are, however, data dependencies and the nodes have to be executed in a specified order. Hence the parallelism of the execution is limited. The scheduling problem is difficult and therefore heuristics are used. However, many inaccuracies are caused by the model used for the system, in which the heuristics are being tested. In this paper we present a tool for simulating the execution of the distributed application on a “real” computer network, and try to tell how the executionis influenced compared to the model.

  10. Simulation of a beam rotation system for a spallation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Reiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With a nominal beam power of nearly 1 MW on target, the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ, ranks among the world’s most powerful spallation neutron sources. The proton beam transport to the SINQ target is carried out exclusively by means of linear magnetic elements. In the transport line to SINQ the beam is scattered in two meson production targets and as a consequence, at the SINQ target entrance the beam shape can be described by Gaussian distributions in transverse x and y directions with tails cut short by collimators. This leads to a highly nonuniform power distribution inside the SINQ target, giving rise to thermal and mechanical stresses. In view of a future proton beam intensity upgrade, the possibility of homogenizing the beam distribution by means of a fast beam rotation system is currently under investigation. Important aspects which need to be studied are the impact of a rotating proton beam on the resulting neutron spectra, spatial flux distributions and additional—previously not present—proton losses causing unwanted activation of accelerator components. Hence a new source description method was developed for the radiation transport code MCNPX. This new feature makes direct use of the results from the proton beam optics code TURTLE. Its advantage to existing MCNPX source options is that all phase space information and correlations of each primary beam particle computed with TURTLE are preserved and transferred to MCNPX. Simulations of the different beam distributions together with their consequences in terms of neutron production are presented in this publication. Additionally, a detailed description of the coupling method between TURTLE and MCNPX is provided.

  11. Simulation of Proton Beam Effects in Thin Insulating Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubinko Timotijevic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of exposing several insulators, commonly used for various purposes in integrated circuits, to beams of protons have been investigated. Materials considered include silicon dioxide, silicon nitride, aluminium nitride, alumina, and polycarbonate (Lexan. The passage of proton beams through ultrathin layers of these materials has been modeled by Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport. Parameters that have been varied in simulations include proton energy and insulating layer thickness. Materials are compared according to both ionizing and nonionizing effects produced by the passage of protons.

  12. Parallelization of a beam dynamics code and first large scale radio frequency quadrupole simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and operation support of hadron (proton and heavy-ion linear accelerators require substantial use of beam dynamics simulation tools. The beam dynamics code TRACK has been originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL to fulfill the special requirements of the rare isotope accelerator (RIA accelerator systems. From the beginning, the code has been developed to make it useful in the three stages of a linear accelerator project, namely, the design, commissioning, and operation of the machine. To realize this concept, the code has unique features such as end-to-end simulations from the ion source to the final beam destination and automatic procedures for tuning of a multiple charge state heavy-ion beam. The TRACK code has become a general beam dynamics code for hadron linacs and has found wide applications worldwide. Until recently, the code has remained serial except for a simple parallelization used for the simulation of multiple seeds to study the machine errors. To speed up computation, the TRACK Poisson solver has been parallelized. This paper discusses different parallel models for solving the Poisson equation with the primary goal to extend the scalability of the code onto 1024 and more processors of the new generation of supercomputers known as BlueGene (BG/L. Domain decomposition techniques have been adapted and incorporated into the parallel version of the TRACK code. To demonstrate the new capabilities of the parallelized TRACK code, the dynamics of a 45 mA proton beam represented by 10^{8} particles has been simulated through the 325 MHz radio frequency quadrupole and initial accelerator section of the proposed FNAL proton driver. The results show the benefits and advantages of large-scale parallel computing in beam dynamics simulations.

  13. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Assmann, R. W.; Boccone, V.; Bracco, C.; Brugger, M.; Cauchi, M.; Cerutti, F.; Deboy, D.; Ferrari, A.; Lari, L.; Marsili, A.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Quaranta, E.; Redaelli, S.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Rossi, A.; Salvachua, B.; Skordis, E.; Tambasco, C.; Valentino, G.; Weiler, T.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wollmann, D.

    2014-08-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010-2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5-4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An uncontrolled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multistage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  14. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  15. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarnegin, Elham [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-11

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  16. Simulation of electron cloud effects to heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaman, Fatih; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder

    2011-07-01

    Electron cloud (EC) driven instability can cause beam loss, emittance growth, trajectory change and wake fields. Mentioned crucial effects of EC motivated researchers to understand the EC build up mechanism and the effects of EC to the beam. This motivation also induced the progress of developing new simulation codes. EC simulations can roughly be divided into two classes such as, softwares whose goals are to simulate the build up of the EC during the passage of a bunch train and the codes which model the interaction of a bunch with an EC. The aim of this study is to simulate the effects of electron cloud (EC) on the dynamics of heavy ion beams which are used in heavy ion synchrotron (SIS-18) at GSI. To do this, a 3-D and self-consistent simulation program based on particle in cell (PIC) method is used. In the PIC cycle, accurate solution of the Maxwell equations is obtained by employing discontinuous Galerkin finite element method. As a model, we assumed a perfectly conducting beam pipe which was uniformly (or randomly) loaded with the electrons. Then as parallel with the realistic cases in SIS-18, a single bunch consisting of U{sup +73} ions was extracted which could propagate in this pipe. Due to EC-ion bunch interaction, electrons gained energy and their displacements were observed. Electric and magnetic field components and EC charge density were calculated, numerically.

  17. FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Petr; Kohoutková, Alena; Jedlinský, Petr

    2017-09-01

    The paper deals with a FEM simulation of static loading test of the Omega beam. Omega beam is a precast prestressed high-performance concrete element with the shape of Greek letter omega. Omega beam was designed as a self-supporting permanent formwork member for construction of girder bridges. FEM program ATENA Science was exploited for simulation of load-bearing test of the beam. The numerical model was calibrated using the data from both static loading test and tests of material properties. Comparison of load-displacement diagrams obtained from the experiment and the model was conducted. Development of cracks and crack patterns were compared. Very good agreement of experimental data and the FEM model was reached. The calibrated model can be used for design of optimized Omega beams in the future without the need of expensive loading tests. The calibrated material model can be also exploited in other types of FEM analyses of bridges constructed with the use of Omega beams, such as limit state analysis, optimization of shear connectors, prediction of long-term deflections or prediction of crack development.

  18. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-06

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga(+) liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He(+) and Ne(+)). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic 'gold' standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne(+) beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  19. Focused particle beam nano-machining: the next evolution step towards simulation aided process prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Harald

    2015-02-01

    During the last decade, focused ion beam processing has been developed from traditionally used Ga+ liquid ion sources towards higher resolution gas field ion sources (He+ and Ne+). Process simulations not only improve the fundamental understanding of the relevant ion-matter interactions, but also enable a certain predictive power to accelerate advances. The historic ‘gold’ standard in ion-solid simulations is the SRIM/TRIM Monte Carlo package released by Ziegler, Ziegler and Biersack 2010 Nucl. Instrum. Methods B 268 1818-23. While SRIM/TRIM is very useful for a myriad of applications, it is not applicable for the understanding of the nanoscale evolution associated with ion beam nano-machining as the substrate does not evolve with the sputtering process. As a solution for this problem, a new, adapted simulation code is briefly overviewed and finally addresses these contributions. By that, experimentally observed Ne+ beam sputter profiles can be explained from a fundamental point of view. Due to their very good agreement, these simulations contain the potential for computer aided optimization towards predictable sputter processes for different nanotechnology applications. With these benefits in mind, the discussed simulation approach represents an enormous step towards a computer based master tool for adaptable ion beam applications in the context of industrial applications.

  20. Beam dynamics simulation of a double pass proton linear accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kilean; Qiang, Ji

    2017-04-01

    A recirculating superconducting linear accelerator with the advantage of both straight and circular accelerator has been demonstrated with relativistic electron beams. The acceleration concept of a recirculating proton beam was recently proposed [J. Qiang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 795, 77 (2015, 10.1016/j.nima.2015.05.056)] and is currently under study. In order to further support the concept, the beam dynamics study on a recirculating proton linear accelerator has to be carried out. In this paper, we study the feasibility of a two-pass recirculating proton linear accelerator through the direct numerical beam dynamics design optimization and the start-to-end simulation. This study shows that the two-pass simultaneous focusing without particle losses is attainable including fully 3D space-charge effects through the entire accelerator system.

  1. SPLinac Computer Simulations of SC Linac RF Systems with Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    The beam in a proton linac is very sensitive to field perturbations in the cavities. Therefore a simulation program was written modeling longitudinal beam dynamics in a realistic composite linac RF system. Fast RF vector sum feedback loops control several cavities with b-dependent transit time factors driven by one transmitter. Modeling of feedback loops covers limited transmitter power and bandwidth and possible loop-delay. Vector sum calibration errors, power splitting errors and scatter in the coupling strength to the cavities are optional as well as beam loading of the pulsing beam. Different modes of mechanical cavity perturbations including Lorentz force detuning can be chosen. A multitude of phase-space representation of bunches as well as RF quantity plots are available, most of them can be assembled as a movie, showing the system dynamics in 'real time'.

  2. PIMMS tools for capturing metadata about simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Charlotte; Devine, Gerard; Tourte, Gregory; Pascoe, Stephen; Lawrence, Bryan; Barjat, Hannah

    2013-04-01

    PIMMS (Portable Infrastructure for the Metafor Metadata System) provides a method for consistent and comprehensive documentation of modelling activities that enables the sharing of simulation data and model configuration information. The aim of PIMMS is to package the metadata infrastructure developed by Metafor for CMIP5 so that it can be used by climate modelling groups in UK Universities. PIMMS tools capture information about simulations from the design of experiments to the implementation of experiments via simulations that run models. PIMMS uses the Metafor methodology which consists of a Common Information Model (CIM), Controlled Vocabularies (CV) and software tools. PIMMS software tools provide for the creation and consumption of CIM content via a web services infrastructure and portal developed by the ES-DOC community. PIMMS metadata integrates with the ESGF data infrastructure via the mapping of vocabularies onto ESGF facets. There are three paradigms of PIMMS metadata collection: Model Intercomparision Projects (MIPs) where a standard set of questions is asked of all models which perform standard sets of experiments. Disciplinary level metadata collection where a standard set of questions is asked of all models but experiments are specified by users. Bespoke metadata creation where the users define questions about both models and experiments. Examples will be shown of how PIMMS has been configured to suit each of these three paradigms. In each case PIMMS allows users to provide additional metadata beyond that which is asked for in an initial deployment. The primary target for PIMMS is the UK climate modelling community where it is common practice to reuse model configurations from other researchers. This culture of collaboration exists in part because climate models are very complex with many variables that can be modified. Therefore it has become common practice to begin a series of experiments by using another climate model configuration as a starting

  3. Tools to Predict Beam Breakup in Recirculating Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Beard; Nikolitsa Merminga; Byung Yunn

    2003-05-01

    An important limitation on the maximum beam current in a recirculating linac is due to beam breakup caused by higher order modes (HOM) excited in the RF cavities. A HOM delivers a transverse kick to a beam bunch, the bunch on the next pass can then drive the HOM and cause it to grow until the beam is lost. Two codes, MATBBU1 and TDBBU2, have been written to estimate the threshold current for a set of HOMs and accelerator optics. The relative merits and limitations of each is discussed in detail.

  4. Geant4 simulations of proton beam transport through a carbon or beryllium degrader and following a beam line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goethem, M. J.; van der Meer, R.; Reist, H. W.; Schippers, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 simulation toolkit were performed for the carbon wedge degrader used in the beam line at the Center of Proton Therapy of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The simulations are part of the beam line studies for the development and understanding of the GANTR

  5. An Interactive Simulation Tool for Production Planning in Bacon Factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Frederik Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory......The paper describes an interactive simulation tool for production planning in bacon factories. The main aim of the tool is to make it possible to combine the production plans of all parts of the factory...

  6. Validation experiments for LBM simulations of electron beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, Regina; Rüde, Ulrich; Markl, Matthias; Jüchter, Vera; Körner, Carolin

    2014-05-01

    This paper validates three-dimensional (3D) simulation results of electron beam melting (EBM) processes by comparing experimental and numerical data. The physical setup is presented which is discretized by a 3D thermal lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). An experimental process window is used for the validation depending on the line energy injected into the metal powder bed and the scan velocity of the electron beam. In the process window, the EBM products are classified into the categories, porous, good and swelling, depending on the quality of the surface. The same parameter sets are used to generate a numerical process window. A comparison of numerical and experimental process windows shows a good agreement. This validates the EBM model and justifies simulations for future improvements of the EBM processes. In particular, numerical simulations can be used to explain future process window scenarios and find the best parameter set for a good surface quality and dense products.

  7. Nanodosimetry in a clinical neutron therapy beam using the variance-covariance method and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillhök, J E; Grindborg, J-E; Lindborg, L; Gudowska, I; Carlsson, G Alm; Söderberg, J; Kopeć, M; Medin, J

    2007-08-21

    Nanodosimetric single-event distributions or their mean values may contribute to a better understanding of how radiation induced biological damages are produced. They may also provide means for radiation quality characterization in therapy beams. Experimental nanodosimetry is however technically challenging and Monte Carlo simulations are valuable as a complementary tool for such investigations. The dose-mean lineal energy was determined in a therapeutic p(65)+Be neutron beam and in a (60)Co gamma beam using low-pressure gas detectors and the variance-covariance method. The neutron beam was simulated using the condensed history Monte Carlo codes MCNPX and SHIELD-HIT. The dose-mean lineal energy was calculated using the simulated dose and fluence spectra together with published data from track-structure simulations. A comparison between simulated and measured results revealed some systematic differences and different dependencies on the simulated object size. The results show that both experimental and theoretical approaches are needed for an accurate dosimetry in the nanometer region. In line with previously reported results, the dose-mean lineal energy determined at 10 nm was shown to be related to clinical RBE values in the neutron beam and in a simulated 175 MeV proton beam as well.

  8. Fermilab Booster Transition Crossing Simulations and Beam Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at 15 Hz. In the PIP (Proton Improvement Plan) era, it is required that Booster deliver 4.2 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse to extraction. One of the obstacles for providing quality beam to the users is the longitudinal quadrupole oscillation that the beam suffers from right after transition. Although this oscillation is well taken care of with quadrupole dampers, it is important to understand the source of these oscillations in light of the PIP II requirements that require 6.5 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse at extraction. This paper explores the results from machine studies, computer simulations and solutions to prevent the quadrupole oscillations after transition.

  9. Fermilab Booster Transition Crossing Simulations and Beam Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    The Fermilab Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV at 15 Hz. In the PIP (Proton Improvement Plan) era, it is required that Booster deliver 4.2 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse to extraction. One of the obstacles for providing quality beam to the users is the longitudinal quadrupole oscillation that the beam suffers from right after transition. Although this oscillation is well taken care of with quadrupole dampers, it is important to understand the source of these oscillations in light of the PIP II requirements that require 6.5 x $10^{12}$ protons per pulse at extraction. This paper explores the results from machine studies, computer simulations and solutions to prevent the quadrupole oscillations after transition.

  10. A Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning tool for ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Haberer, T; Parodi, K; Patera, V; Mairan, A

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam therapy, as an emerging radiation therapy modality, requires continuous efforts to develop and improve tools for patient treatment planning (TP) and research applications. Dose and fluence computation algorithms using the Monte Carlo (MC) technique have served for decades as reference tools for accurate dose computations for radiotherapy. In this work, a novel MC-based treatment-planning (MCTP) tool for ion beam therapy using the pencil beam scanning technique is presented. It allows single-field and simultaneous multiple-fields optimization for realistic patient treatment conditions and for dosimetric quality assurance for irradiation conditions at state-of-the-art ion beam therapy facilities. It employs iterative procedures that allow for the optimization of absorbed dose and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted dose using radiobiological input tables generated by external RBE models. Using a re-implementation of the local effect model (LEM), theMCTP tool is able to perform TP studies u...

  11. Simulation of laser beam reflection at the sea surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, Frédéric; Repasi, Endre

    2011-05-01

    A 3D simulation of the reflection of a Gaussian shaped laser beam on the dynamic sea surface is presented. The simulation is suitable for both the calculation of images of SWIR (short wave infrared) imaging sensor and for determination of total detected power of reflected laser light for a bistatic configuration of laser source and receiver at different atmospheric conditions. Our computer simulation comprises the 3D simulation of a maritime scene (open sea/clear sky) and the simulation of laser light reflected at the sea surface. The basic sea surface geometry is modeled by a composition of smooth wind driven gravity waves. The propagation model for water waves is applied for sea surface animation. To predict the view of a camera in the spectral band SWIR the sea surface radiance must be calculated. This is done by considering the emitted sea surface radiance and the reflected sky radiance, calculated by MODTRAN. Additionally, the radiances of laser light specularly reflected at the wind-roughened sea surface are modeled in the SWIR band considering an analytical statistical sea surface BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). This BRDF model considers the statistical slope statistics of waves and accounts for slope-shadowing of waves that especially occurs at flat incident angles of the laser beam and near horizontal detection angles of reflected irradiance at rough seas. Simulation results are presented showing the variation of the detected laser power dependent on the geometric configuration of laser, sensor and wind characteristics.

  12. Simulations on pair creation from beam-beam interaction in linear colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Yokoya, K. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1991-05-01

    It has been recognized that e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} pair creation during the collision of intense beams in linear colliders will cause potential background problems for high energy experiments. Detailed knowledge of the angular-momentum spectrum of these low energy pairs is essential to the design of the interaction region. In this paper, we modify the computer code ABEL (Analysis of Beam-beam Effects in Linear colliders) to include the pair creation processes, using the equivalent photon approximation. Special care has been taken on the non-local nature of the virtual photon exchanges. The simulation results are then compared with known analytic formulas, and applied to the next generation colliders such as JLC. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Draught risk index tool for building energy simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nielsen, Peter V.

    2014-01-01

    Flow elements combined with a building energy simulation tool can be used to indicate areas and periods when there is a risk of draught in a room. The study tests this concept by making a tool for post-processing of data from building energy simulations. The objective is to show indications...

  14. 10 CFR 434.507 - Calculation procedure and simulation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 507.1The Prototype or Reference Buildings shall be modeled using... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation procedure and simulation tool. 434.507 Section 434.507 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...

  15. Numerical simulation of broadband vortex terahertz beams propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, V. A.; Kulya, M. S.; Bespalov, V. G.

    2016-08-01

    Orbital angular momentum (OAM) represents new informational degree of freedom for data encoding and multiplexing in fiber and free-space communications. OAM-carrying beams (also called vortex beams) were successfully used to increase the capacity of optical, millimetre-wave and radio frequency communication systems. However, the investigation of the OAM potential for the new generation high-speed terahertz communications is also of interest due to the unlimited demand of higher capacity in telecommunications. Here we present a simulation-based study of the propagating in non-dispersive medium broadband terahertz vortex beams generated by a spiral phase plate (SPP). The algorithm based on scalar diffraction theory was used to obtain the spatial amplitude and phase distributions of the vortex beam in the frequency range from 0.1 to 3 THz at the distances 20-80 mm from the SPP. The simulation results show that the amplitude and phase distributions without unwanted modulation are presented in the wavelengths ranges with centres on the wavelengths which are multiple to the SPP optical thickness. This fact may allow to create the high-capacity near-field communication link which combines OAM and wavelength-division multiplexing.

  16. Beam dynamics simulation of the Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, H.; Billen, J.H.; Bhatia, T.S.

    1998-12-31

    The accelerating structure for Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) consists of a radio-frequency-quadrupole-linac (RFQ), a drift-tube-linac (DTL), a coupled-cavity-drift-tube-linac (CCDTL), and a coupled-cavity-linac (CCL). The linac is operated at room temperature. The authors discuss the detailed design of linac which accelerates an H{sup {minus}} pulsed beam coming out from RFQ at 2.5 MeV to 1000 MeV. They show a detailed transition from 402.5 MHz DTL with a 4 {beta}{lambda} structure to a CCDTL operated at 805 MHz with a 12 {beta}{lambda} structure. After a discussion of overall feature of the linac, they present an end-to-end particle simulation using the new version of the PARMILA code for a beam starting from the RFQ entrance through the rest of the linac. At 1000 MeV, the beam is transported to a storage ring. The storage ring requires a large ({+-}500-keV) energy spread. This is accomplished by operating the rf-phase in the last section of the linac so the particles are at the unstable fixed point of the separatrix. They present zero-current phase advance, beam size, and beam emittance along the entire linac.

  17. Monte Carlo simulation of electron beam air plasma characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Yong-Feng; Han Xian-Wei; Tan Chang

    2009-01-01

    A high-energy electron beam generator is used to generate a plasma in atmosphere. Based on a Monte Carlo toolkit named GEANT4,a model including complete physics processes is established to simulate the passage of the electron beam in air. Based on the model,the characteristics of the electron beam air plasma are calculated. The energy distribution of beam electrons (BEs) indicates that high-energy electrons almost reside in the centre region of the beam,but low-energy electrons always live in the fringe area. The energy deposition is calculated in two cases,i.e.,with and without secondary electrons (SEs). Analysis indicates that the energy deposition of Ses accounts for a large part of the total energy deposition. The results of the energy spectrum show that the electrons in the inlet layer of the low-pressure chamber (LPC) are monoenergetic,but the energy spectrum of the electrons in the outlet layer is not pure. The SEs are largely generated at the outlet of the LPC. Moreover,both the energy distribution of Bes and the magnitude of the density of SEs are closely related to the pressure of LPC. Thus,a conclusion is drawn that a low magnitude of LPC pressure is helpful for reducing the energy loss in the LPC and also useful for greatly increasing the secondary electron density in dense air.

  18. Simulation study on the emittance compensation of off-axis emitted beam in RF photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Mitchell, Chad; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    To make full use of the photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate the laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector [1]. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference [1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to compensate for the emittance growth in a beam emitted off axis. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11375199), and Chinese Scholarship Council

  19. A prototype of a beam steering assistant tool for accelerator operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Bickley; P. Chevtsov

    2006-10-24

    The CEBAF accelerator provides nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab with high quality electron beams. Three experimental end stations can simultaneously receive the beams with different energies and intensities. For each operational mode, the accelerator setup procedures are complicated and require very careful checking of beam spot sizes and positions on multiple beam viewers. To simplify these procedures and make them reproducible, a beam steering assistant GUI tool has been created. The tool is implemented as a multi-window control screen. The screen has an interactive graphical object window, which is an overlay on top of a digitized live video image from a beam viewer. It allows a user to easily create and edit any graphical objects consisting of text, ellipses, and lines, right above the live beam viewer image and then save them in a file that is called a beam steering template. The template can show, for example, the area within which the beam must always be on the viewer. Later, this template can be loaded in the interactive graphical object window to help accelerator operators steer the beam to the specified area on the viewer.

  20. Predictive Simulations of ITER Including Neutral Beam Driven Toroidal Rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpern, Federico D.; Kritz, Arnold H.; Bateman, Glenn; Pankin, Alexei Y.; Budny, Robert V.; McCune, Douglas C.

    2008-06-16

    Predictive simulations of ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 2002] discharges are carried out for the 15 MA high confinement mode (H-mode) scenario using PTRANSP, the predictive version of the TRANSP code. The thermal and toroidal momentum transport equations are evolved using turbulent and neoclassical transport models. A predictive model is used to compute the temperature and width of the H-mode pedestal. The ITER simulations are carried out for neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas, for ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas, and for plasmas heated with a mix of NBI and ICRF. It is shown that neutral beam injection drives toroidal rotation that improves the confinement and fusion power production in ITER. The scaling of fusion power with respect to the input power and to the pedestal temperature is studied. It is observed that, in simulations carried out using the momentum transport diffusivity computed using the GLF23 model [R.Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482 (1997)], the fusion power increases with increasing injected beam power and central rotation frequency. It is found that the ITER target fusion power of 500 MW is produced with 20 MW of NBI power when the pedesta temperature is 3.5 keV. 2008 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.2931037

  1. Automated analysis for detecting beams in laser wakefield simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Rubel, Oliver; Prabhat, Mr.; Weber, Gunther H.; Bethel, E. Wes; Aragon, Cecilia R.; Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Hamann, Bernd; Messmer, Peter; Hagen, Hans

    2008-07-03

    Laser wakefield particle accelerators have shown the potential to generate electric fields thousands of times higher than those of conventional accelerators. The resulting extremely short particle acceleration distance could yield a potential new compact source of energetic electrons and radiation, with wide applications from medicine to physics. Physicists investigate laser-plasma internal dynamics by running particle-in-cell simulations; however, this generates a large dataset that requires time-consuming, manual inspection by experts in order to detect key features such as beam formation. This paper describes a framework to automate the data analysis and classification of simulation data. First, we propose a new method to identify locations with high density of particles in the space-time domain, based on maximum extremum point detection on the particle distribution. We analyze high density electron regions using a lifetime diagram by organizing and pruning the maximum extrema as nodes in a minimum spanning tree. Second, we partition the multivariate data using fuzzy clustering to detect time steps in a experiment that may contain a high quality electron beam. Finally, we combine results from fuzzy clustering and bunch lifetime analysis to estimate spatially confined beams. We demonstrate our algorithms successfully on four different simulation datasets.

  2. Computer simulation of ion beam analysis of laterally inhomogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, M.

    2016-03-15

    The program STRUCTNRA for the simulation of ion beam analysis charged particle spectra from arbitrary two-dimensional distributions of materials is described. The code is validated by comparison to experimental backscattering data from a silicon grating on tantalum at different orientations and incident angles. Simulated spectra for several types of rough thin layers and a chessboard-like arrangement of materials as example for a multi-phase agglomerate material are presented. Ambiguities between back-scattering spectra from two-dimensional and one-dimensional sample structures are discussed.

  3. Simulation Tools Prevent Signal Interference on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NASA engineers use simulation software to detect and prevent interference between different radio frequency (RF) systems on a rocket and satellite before launch. To speed up the process, Kennedy Space Center awarded SBIR funding to Champaign, Illinois-based Delcross Technologies LLC, which added a drag-and-drop feature to its commercial simulation software, resulting in less time spent preparing for the analysis.

  4. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika

    2008-01-01

    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air and ...

  5. An Accurate and Efficient Design Tool for Large Contoured Beam Reflectarrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Min; Sørensen, Stig B.; Jørgensen, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    illuminations. Two offset contoured beam reflectarrays that radiate a highgain beam on an European coverage have been designed, manufactured, and measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility. An excellent agreement is obtained for the simulated and measured patterns. To show the design...

  6. Fabrication of micro DOE using micro tools shaped with focused ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z W; Fang, F Z; Zhang, S J; Zhang, X D; Hu, X T; Fu, Y Q; Li, L

    2010-04-12

    A novel method is proposed to fabricate micro Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) using micro cutting tools shaped with focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Micro tools with nanometric cutting edges and complicated shapes are fabricated by controlling the tool facet's orientation relative to the FIB. The tool edge radius of less than 30 nm is achieved for the nano removal of the work materials. Semi-circular micro tools and DOE-shaped micro tools are developed to fabricate micro-DOE and sinusoidal modulation templates. Experiments show that the proposed method can be a high efficient way in fabricating micro-DOE with nanoscale surface finishes.

  7. Laser Brazing with Beam Scanning: Experimental and Simulative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmanek, M.; Dobler, M.; Graudenz, M.; Perret, W.; Göbel, G.; Schmidt, M.; Beyer, E.

    Laser beam brazing with copper based filler wire is a widely established technology for joining zinc-coated steel plates in the body-shop. Successful applications are the divided tailgate or the zero-gap joint, which represents the joint between the side panel and the roof-top of the body-in-white. These joints are in direct view to the customer, and therefore have to fulfil highest optical quality requirements. For this reason a stable and efficient laser brazing process is essential. In this paper the current results on quality improvement due to one dimensional laser beam deflections in feed direction are presented. Additionally to the experimental results a transient three-dimensional simulation model for the laser beam brazing process is taken into account. With this model the influence of scanning parameters on filler wire temperature and melt pool characteristics is analyzed. The theoretical predictions are in good accordance with the experimental results. They show that the beam scanning approach is a very promising method to increase process stability and seam quality.

  8. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John

    2016-01-01

    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  9. Effect of finite beam width on current separation in beam plasma system: Particle-in-Cell simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam propagation in a plasma medium is susceptible to several instabilities. In the relativistic regime typically the weibel instability leading to the current separation dominates. The linear instability analysis is carried out for a system wherein the transverse extent of the beam is infinite. Even in simulations, infinite transverse extent of the beam has been chosen. In real situations, however, beam width will always be finite. keeping this in view the role of finite beam width on the evolution of the beam plasma system has been studied here using Particle - in - Cell simulations. It is observed that the current separation between the forward and return shielding current for a beam with finite beam occurs at the scale length of the beam width itself. Consequently the magnetic field structures that form have maximum power at the scale length of the beam width. This behaviour is distinct from what happens with a beam with having an infinite extent represented by simulations in a periodic box, ...

  10. Beam dynamics simulation of the S-DALINAC injector section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Sylvain; Ackermann, Wolfgang; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In order to extend the experimental possibilities at the superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC a new polarized gun has recently been installed in addition to the well-established thermionic electron source. Beside the two electron sources the injector section consists of several short quadrupole triplets, an alpha magnet, a Wien filter and a chopper/prebuncher system. The setup of these components differs depending on whether bunched polarized electrons with kinetic energy in the 100 keV range are supplied by the polarized source or whether a continuous unpolarized 250 keV electron beam is extracted from the thermionic gun. The electrons pass through the injector at a relatively low energy and therefore are very sensitive to the beam forming elements in this section. Thus, a proper knowledge of the particle distribution at the exit of the injector section is essential for the quality of any simulation of the subsequent accelerator parts. In this contribution first numerical beam dynamics simulation results of the S-DALINAC injector setup are discussed.

  11. Optimization Efficiency of Monte Carlo Simulation Tool for Evanescent Wave Spectroscopy Fiber-Optic Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Khankin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous work, we described the simulation tool (FOPS 3D (Khankin et al., 2001 which can simulate the full three-dimensional geometrical structure of a fiber and the propagation of a light beam sent through it. In this paper we are focusing on three major points: the first concerns the improvements made with respect to the simulation tool and the second, optimizations implemented with respect to the calculations' efficiency. Finally, the major research improvement from our previous works is the simulation results of the optimal absorbance value, as a function of bending angle for a given uncladded part diameter, that are presented; it is suggested that fiber-bending may improve the efficiency of recording the relevant measurements. This is the third iteration of the FOPS development process (Mann et al., 2009 which was significantly optimized by decreasing memory usage and increasing CPU utilization.

  12. Distributed processing (DP) based e-beam lithography simulation with long range correction algorithm in e-beam machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Won-Tai; Choi, Ji-Hyeon; Kim, Byung-Gook; Woo, Sang-Gyun; Cho, Han-Ku

    2008-05-01

    As the design rule with wafer process is getting smaller down below 50nm node, the specification of CDs on a mask is getting more tightened. Therefore, more tight and accurate E-Beam Lithography simulation is highly required in these days. However, in reality most of E-Beam simulation cases, there is a trade-off relationship between the accuracy and the simulation speed. Moreover, the necessity of full chip based simulation has been increasing in order to estimate more accurate mask CDs based on real process condition. Therefore, without consideration of long range correction algorithm such as fogging effect and loading effect correction in E-beam machine, it would be impossible and meaningless to pursue the full chip based simulation. In this paper, we introduce a breakthrough method to overcome the obstacles of E-Beam simulation. In-house E-beam simulator, ELIS (E-beam LIthography Simulator), has been upgraded to solve these problems. First, DP (Distributed Processing) strategy was applied to improve calculation speed. Secondly, the long range correction algorithm of E-beam machine was also applied to compute intensity of exposure on a full chip based (Mask). Finally, ELIS-DP has been evaluated possibility of expecting or analyzing CDs on full chip base.

  13. Development of a Beam-Beam Simulation Code for e+e- Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    BEPC will be upgraded into BEPCII, and the luminosity will be about 100 times higher. We developed a three dimensional strong-strong PIC code to study the beam-beam effects in BEPCII. The transportation through the arc is the same as that in Hirata's weak-strong code. The beam-beam force is computed directly by solving the Poisson equation using the FACR method, and the boundary potential is computed by circular convolution. The finite bunch length effect is included by longitudinal slices. An interpolation scheme is used to reduce the required slice number in simulations. The standard message passing interface (MPI) is used to parallelize the code. The computing time increases linearly with (n+1), where n is the slice number. The calculated luminosity of BEPCII at the design operating point is less than the design value. The best area in the tune space is near (0.505,0.57) according to the survey, where the degradation of luminosity can be improved.

  14. Many-beam dynamical simulation of electron backscatter diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, Aimo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Germany)], E-mail: winkelm@mpi-halle.mpg.de; Trager-Cowan, Carol; Sweeney, Francis [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 ONG, Scotland (United Kingdom); Day, Austin P. [Aunt Daisy Scientific Ltd., Dixton Rd., Monmouth, Gwent, NP25 3PP (United Kingdom); Parbrook, Peter [EPSRC National Centre for III-V Technologies, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    We present an approach for the simulation of complete electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns where the relative intensity distributions in the patterns are accurately reproduced. The Bloch wave theory is applied to describe the electron diffraction process. For the simulation of experimental patterns with a large field of view, a large number of reflecting planes has to be taken into account. This is made possible by the Bethe perturbation of weak reflections. Very good agreement is obtained for simulated and experimental patterns of gallium nitride GaN{l_brace}0001{r_brace} at 20 kV electron energy. Experimental features like zone-axis fine structure and higher-order Laue zone rings are accurately reproduced. We discuss the influence of the diffraction of the incident beam in our experiment.

  15. Simulation tools for robotics research and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, MaryAnne; Brewer, Ralph; Edge, Harris L.; Pusey, Jason L.; Weller, Ed; Patel, Dilip G.; DiBerardino, Charles A.

    2016-05-01

    The Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (RCTA) program focuses on four overlapping technology areas: Perception, Intelligence, Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), and Dexterous Manipulation and Unique Mobility (DMUM). In addition, the RCTA program has a requirement to assess progress of this research in standalone as well as integrated form. Since the research is evolving and the robotic platforms with unique mobility and dexterous manipulation are in the early development stage and very expensive, an alternate approach is needed for efficient assessment. Simulation of robotic systems, platforms, sensors, and algorithms, is an attractive alternative to expensive field-based testing. Simulation can provide insight during development and debugging unavailable by many other means. This paper explores the maturity of robotic simulation systems for applications to real-world problems in robotic systems research. Open source (such as Gazebo and Moby), commercial (Simulink, Actin, LMS), government (ANVEL/VANE), and the RCTA-developed RIVET simulation environments are examined with respect to their application in the robotic research domains of Perception, Intelligence, HRI, and DMUM. Tradeoffs for applications to representative problems from each domain are presented, along with known deficiencies and disadvantages. In particular, no single robotic simulation environment adequately covers the needs of the robotic researcher in all of the domains. Simulation for DMUM poses unique constraints on the development of physics-based computational models of the robot, the environment and objects within the environment, and the interactions between them. Most current robot simulations focus on quasi-static systems, but dynamic robotic motion places an increased emphasis on the accuracy of the computational models. In order to understand the interaction of dynamic multi-body systems, such as limbed robots, with the environment, it may be necessary to build component

  16. Cryogenic Semiconductor Detectors: Simulation of Signal Formation & Irradiation Beam Test

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2091318; Stamoulis, G; Vavougios, D

    The Beam Loss Monitoring system of the Large Hadron Collider is responsible for the pro- tection of the machine from damage and for the prevention of a magnet quench. Near the interaction points of the LHC, in the triplet magnets area, the BLMs are sensitive to the collision debris, limiting their ability to distinguish beam loss signal from signal caused due to the collision products. Placing silicon & diamond detectors inside the cold mass of the mag- nets, in liquid helium temperatures, would provide significant improvement to the precision of the measurement of the energy deposition in the superconducting coil of the magnet. To further study the signal formation and the shape of the transient current pulses of the aforementioned detectors in cryogenic temperatures, a simulation application has been developed. The application provides a fast way of determining the electric field components inside the detectors bulk and then introduces an initial charge distribution based on the properties of the radiat...

  17. Data Analysis and Simulation for the RICH Upgrade Test Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Lalanne, Louis-Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is one of the four particles physics experiments collecting data at the Large Hadron Collider. One of its key detector components is the Ring-Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) system. This provides charged particle identification over a wide momentum range, from 2–100 GeV/c. In order to increase the readout frequency from 1MHz to 40MHz RICH detectors will be upgrade in 2020. Prototypes are designed and tested by the RICH upgrade group of CERN. A full GEANT4 simulation have been programmed to reproduce the experimental test beam set-up and to produce MonteCarlo data. Those data have been compared to data from the test beam in order to study and compared the photon yield and the Cherenkov angle resolution of the most recent version of RICH.

  18. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    on the International Space Station, are focusing on GNSS ocean reflection measurements. Thus, simulation studies highlighting the assumptions for the data retrievals and the precision and the accuracy of such measurements are of interest for assessing the observational method.The theory of propagation of microwaves...

  19. A Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization in ultra-high energy electron(positron) storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Zhe; Barber, Desmond P; Qin, Qing

    2015-01-01

    With the recently emerging global interest in building a next generation of circular electron-positron colliders to study the properties of the Higgs boson, and other important topics in particle physics at ultra-high beam energies, it is also important to pursue the possibility of implementing polarized beams at this energy scale. It is therefore necessary to set up simulation tools to evaluate the beam polarization at these ultra-high beam energies. In this paper, a Monte-Carlo simulation of the equilibrium beam polarization based on the Polymorphic Tracking Code(PTC) is described. The simulations are for a model storage ring with parameters similar to those of proposed circular colliders in this energy range, and they are compared with the suggestion that there are different regimes for the spin dynamics underlying the polarization of a beam in the presence of synchrotron radiation at ultra-high beam energies. In particular, it has been suggested that the so-called "correlated" crossing of spin resonances ...

  20. Transverse beam compression on the Paul trap simulator experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik P. Gilson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paul trap simulator experiment is a compact laboratory Paul trap that simulates a long, thin charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG transport system by putting the physicist in the beam’s frame of reference. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by similar equations, including all nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent quadrupolar electric fields created by the confinement electrodes of a linear Paul trap correspond to the axially dependent magnetic fields applied in the AG system. Results are presented for experiments in which the lattice period and strength are changed over the course of the experiment to transversely compress a beam with an initial depressed tune of 0.9. Instantaneous and smooth changes are considered. Emphasis is placed on determining the conditions that minimize the emittance growth and the number of halo particles produced by the beam compression process. Both the results of particle-in-cell simulations performed with the warp code and envelope equation solutions agree well with the experimental data.

  1. Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes a R&D effort to develop a Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator (UNFDAS) Tool that will combine...

  2. High Fidelity Regolith Simulation Tool for ISRU Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has serious unmet needs for simulation tools capable of predicting the behavior of lunar regolith in proposed excavation, transport and handling systems....

  3. Simulation Study on the Emittance Compensation of Off-axis Emitted Beam in RF Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Rui-Xuan; Jia, Qi-Ka; Papadopoulos, Christos; Sannibale, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    To make full use of photocathode material and improve its quantum efficiency lifetime, it can be necessary to operate laser away from the cathode center in photoinjectors. In RF guns, the off-axis emitted beam will see a time-dependent RF effect, which would generate a significant growth in transverse emittance. It has been demonstrated that such an emittance growth can be almost completely compensated by orienting the beam on a proper orbit in the downstream RF cavities along the injector. In this paper we analyze in detail the simulation techniques used in reference[1] and the issues associated with them. The optimization of photoinjector systems involving off-axis beams is a challenging problem. To solve this problem, one needs advanced simulation tools including both genetic algorithms and an efficient algorithm for 3D space charge. In this paper, we report on simulation studies where the two codes ASTRA and IMPACT-T are used jointly to overcome these challenges, in order to optimize a system designed to ...

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

  5. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.; Jauch, Clemens; Soerensen, P.

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. The report...... provides a description of the wind turbine modelling, both at a component level and at a system level....

  6. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surface heights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may derive parameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading. The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS on the International Space Station, are focusing on GNSS ocean reflection measurements. Thus, simulation studies highlighting the assumptions for the data retrievals and the precision and the accuracy of such measurements are of interest for assessing the observational method. The theory of propagation of microwaves in the atmosphere is well established, and methods for propagation modeling range from ray tracing to numerical solutions to the wave equation. Besides ray tracing there are propagation methods that use mode theory and a finite difference solution to the parabolic equation. The presented propagator is based on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solved using the split-step sine transformation. The Earth's surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth. This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes it possible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philips spectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction. Simulated GPS ocean surface reflections will be presented and discussed based on different ocean characteristics. The spectra of the simulated surface reflections will be analyzed

  7. ICOOL: A TOOL FOR MUON COLLIDER SIMULATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNOW,R.C.

    2001-09-28

    Current ideas for designing neutrino factories [ 1,2] and muon colliders [3] require unique configurations of fields and materials to prepare the muon beam for acceleration. This so-called front end system must accomplish the goals of phase rotation, bunching and cooling. We have continued the development of a 3-D tracking code, ICOOL [4], for examining possible muon collider front end configurations. A system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary codes can be used for pre-processing, post-processing and optimization.

  8. A Simulation Tool for Hurricane Evacuation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Fonseca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Atlantic hurricanes and severe tropical storms are a serious threat for the communities in the Gulf of Mexico region. Such storms are violent and destructive. In response to these dangers, coastal evacuation may be ordered. This paper describes the development of a simulation model to analyze the movement of vehicles through I-65, a major US Interstate highway that runs north off the coastal City of Mobile, Alabama, towards the State of Tennessee, during a massive evacuation originated by a disastrous event such a hurricane. The constructed simulation platform consists of a primary and two secondary models. The primary model is based on the entry of vehicles from the 20 on-ramps to I-65. The two secondary models assist the primary model with related traffic events such as car breakdowns and accidents, traffic control measures, interarrival signaling, and unforeseen emergency incidents, among others. Statistical testing was performed on the data generated by the simulation model to indentify variation in relevant traffic variables affecting the timely flow of vehicles travelling north. The performed statistical analysis focused on the closing of alternative on-ramps throughout the Interstate.

  9. Reactor2D: A tool for simulation of shock deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Eugeny I.; Shabalin, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The basic steps for creating a numerical tool to simulate the deformation and failure processes of complex technical objects (CTO) are presented. Calculations of shock loading of CTO both at low and high speeds, showing the efficiency of the numerical tools created are carried out.

  10. Simulation Tools for Power Electronics Courses Based on Java Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesin, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Flavio A. S.; Sampaio, Leonardo P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents interactive power electronics educational tools. These interactive tools make use of the benefits of Java language to provide a dynamic and interactive approach to simulating steady-state ideal rectifiers (uncontrolled and controlled; single-phase and three-phase). Additionally, this paper discusses the development and use of…

  11. CPN Tools for Editing, Simulating, and Analysing Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Anne Vinter; Wells, Lisa Marie; Lassen, Henry Michael

    2003-01-01

    CPN Tools is a tool for editing, simulating and analysing Coloured Petri Nets. The GUI is based on advanced interaction techniques, such as toolglasses, marking menus, and bi-manual interaction. Feedback facilities provide contextual error messages and indicate dependency relationships between net...

  12. Simulation Tools for Power Electronics Courses Based on Java Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesin, Carlos A.; Goncalves, Flavio A. S.; Sampaio, Leonardo P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents interactive power electronics educational tools. These interactive tools make use of the benefits of Java language to provide a dynamic and interactive approach to simulating steady-state ideal rectifiers (uncontrolled and controlled; single-phase and three-phase). Additionally, this paper discusses the development and use of…

  13. Simulation of Transverse Multi-Bunch Instabilities of Proton Beams in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koschik, Alexander; Zotter, Bruno

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed for highest luminosity and therefore requires operation with a large number of bunches and high intensities. Its performance could be limited by the electromagnetic interaction between the charged particle beam and its surroundings which cause collective instabilities. This thesis describes methods of simulating and analyzing multi-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators and storage rings. The simulation models as well as analyzing tools presented here, also facilitate the interpretation of measurements in multi-bunch machines. The 3-dimensional, multi-bunch tracking program MultiTRISIM was developed, based on its single-bunch predecessor TRISIM3D. It allows the exploration of longrange effects in round or flat vacuum chambers for equidistant or uneven filling schemes. Previous computer simulations of collective effects concentrated mainly on instabilities of single or few bunches in electron storage rings. There, the strong radiation damping reduces the r...

  14. Surgical tool alignment guidance by drawing two cross-sectional laser-beam planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Yoshikazu; Dohi, Takeyoshi; Sasama, Toshihiko; Momoi, Yasuyuki; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Tamura, Yuichi; Lim, Sung-hwan; Sakuma, Ichiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Koyama, Tsuyoshi; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Ohashi, Satoru; Bessho, Masahiko; Ohnishi, Isao

    2013-06-01

    Conventional surgical navigation requires for surgeons to move their sight and conscious off the surgical field when checking surgical tool's positions shown on the display panel. Since that takes high risks of surgical exposure possibilities to the patient's body, we propose a novel method for guiding surgical tool position and orientation directly in the surgical field by a laser beam. In our navigation procedure, two cross-sectional planar laser beams are emitted from the two laser devices attached onto both sides of an optical localizer, and show surgical tool's entry position on the patient's body surface and its orientation on the side face of the surgical tool. In the experiments, our method gave the surgeons precise and accurate surgical tool adjusting and showed the feasibility to apply to both of open and percutaneous surgeries.

  15. Risk Reduction and Training using Simulation Based Tools - 12180

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Irin P. [Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia 23607 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition

  16. Effect of flexural crack on plain concrete beam failure mechanism A numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namdar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexural failure of plain concrete beam occurs along with development of flexural crack on beam. In this paper by using ABAQUS, mechanism failure of plain concrete beam under three steps have been simulated. The cracking moment has been analytically calculated and applied on the both sides of the fixed beam, and flexural crack has been simulated on beam. Displacement, von Mises, load reaction, displacementcrack length, von Mises-crack length and von Mises-displacement of beams have been graphical depicted. Results indicated that, the flexural crack governs beam mechanism failure and its effects on beam resistance failure. It has been found that the flexural crack in initial stage it developed slowly and changes to be fast at the final stage of collapsing beam due to reduction of the flexural resistance of beam. Increasing mechanical properties of concrete, collapse displacement is reduced.

  17. 10 CFR 434.521 - The simulation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.521 The simulation tool. 521.1Annual energy consumption shall be simulated with a multi-zone, 8760 hours per year building energy model. The... buildings. In addition, models shall be capable of translating the Design Energy Consumption into......

  18. Lightweight object oriented structure analysis: tools for building tools to analyze molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Tod D; Leioatts, Nicholas; Grossfield, Alan

    2014-12-15

    LOOS (Lightweight Object Oriented Structure-analysis) is a C++ library designed to facilitate making novel tools for analyzing molecular dynamics simulations by abstracting out the repetitive tasks, allowing developers to focus on the scientifically relevant part of the problem. LOOS supports input using the native file formats of most common biomolecular simulation packages, including CHARMM, NAMD, Amber, Tinker, and Gromacs. A dynamic atom selection language based on the C expression syntax is included and is easily accessible to the tool-writer. In addition, LOOS is bundled with over 140 prebuilt tools, including suites of tools for analyzing simulation convergence, three-dimensional histograms, and elastic network models. Through modern C++ design, LOOS is both simple to develop with (requiring knowledge of only four core classes and a few utility functions) and is easily extensible. A python interface to the core classes is also provided, further facilitating tool development.

  19. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessonnier, T; Böhlen, T T; Ceruti, F; Ferrari, A; Sala, P; Brons, S; Haberer, T; Debus, J; Parodi, K; Mairani, A

    2017-07-31

    The introduction of 'new' ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  20. Dosimetric verification in water of a Monte Carlo treatment planning tool for proton, helium, carbon and oxygen ion beams at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessonnier, T.; Böhlen, T. T.; Ceruti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Sala, P.; Brons, S.; Haberer, T.; Debus, J.; Parodi, K.; Mairani, A.

    2017-08-01

    The introduction of ‘new’ ion species in particle therapy needs to be supported by a thorough assessment of their dosimetric properties and by treatment planning comparisons with clinically used proton and carbon ion beams. In addition to the latter two ions, helium and oxygen ion beams are foreseen at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) as potential assets for improving clinical outcomes in the near future. We present in this study a dosimetric validation of a FLUKA-based Monte Carlo treatment planning tool (MCTP) for protons, helium, carbon and oxygen ions for spread-out Bragg peaks in water. The comparisons between the ions show the dosimetric advantages of helium and heavier ion beams in terms of their distal and lateral fall-offs with respect to protons, reducing the lateral size of the region receiving 50% of the planned dose up to 12 mm. However, carbon and oxygen ions showed significant doses beyond the target due to the higher fragmentation tail compared to lighter ions (p and He), up to 25%. The Monte Carlo predictions were found to be in excellent geometrical agreement with the measurements, with deviations below 1 mm for all parameters investigated such as target and lateral size as well as distal fall-offs. Measured and simulated absolute dose values agreed within about 2.5% on the overall dose distributions. The MCTP tool, which supports the usage of multiple state-of-the-art relative biological effectiveness models, will provide a solid engine for treatment planning comparisons at HIT.

  1. Advanced SAR simulator with multi-beam interferometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppucci, Antonio; Márquez, José; Cazcarra, Victor; Ruffini, Giulio

    2014-10-01

    State of the art simulations are of great interest when designing a new instrument, studying the imaging mechanisms due to a given scenario or for inversion algorithm design as they allow to analyze and understand the effects of different instrument configurations and targets compositions. In the framework of the studies about a new instruments devoted to the estimation of the ocean surface movements using Synthetic Aperture Radar along-track interferometry (SAR-ATI) an End-to-End simulator has been developed. The simulator, built in a high modular way to allow easy integration of different processing-features, deals with all the basic operations involved in an end to end scenario. This includes the computation of the position and velocity of the platform (airborne/spaceborne) and the geometric parameters defining the SAR scene, the surface definition, the backscattering computation, the atmospheric attenuation, the instrument configuration, and the simulation of the transmission/reception chains and the raw data. In addition, the simulator provides a inSAR processing suit and a sea surface movement retrieval module. Up to four beams (each one composed by a monostatic and a bistatic channel) can be activated. Each channel provides raw data and SLC images with the possibility of choosing between Strip-map and Scansar modes. Moreover, the software offers the possibility of radiometric sensitivity analysis and error analysis due atmospheric disturbances, instrument-noise, interferogram phase-noise, platform velocity and attitude variations. In this paper, the architecture and the capabilities of this simulator will be presented. Meaningful simulation examples will be shown.

  2. Numerical tools for Molten salt reactor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doligez, X.; Heuer, D.; Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Ghetta, V. [LPSC-IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Joseph Fourier/Grenoble-INP, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2009-06-15

    Molten salt reactors (MSR) are basically different from other reactors mainly because the fuel is liquid. It flows through the core, pipes, pumps and heat exchangers. Previous studies showed that a particular configuration of a molten salt reactor perfectly fulfils criteria chosen by the Generation 4 International Forum (GIF). This configuration, called non-moderated Thorium Molten Salt Reactor is a 1000 GW electrical thorium cycle based molten salt reactor with no moderator inside the core. Consequently, the neutron spectrum is fast. The reactor is coupled with a salt control unit, which complicates the studies. Reactors simulation is based on resolving Bateman's equations, which give the population of each nucleus inside the core at each moment. Because of MSR's fundamental characteristics, those equations have to be modified adding two terms: a fertile/fissile alimentation for the reactivity and the salt composition control, and the reprocessing associated term. Equations become: {delta}N{sub i}/{delta}t = {sigma}{sub j{ne}}{sub i} {lambda}{sub j{yields}}{sub i} N{sub j} + X{sub j} <{sigma}{sub j}{phi}> N{sub j} - {lambda}{sub i}N{sub i} - <{sigma}{sub i}{phi}> N{sub i} {lambda}{sub chem} N{sub i} + A where {lambda}{sub chem} represents the reprocessing capacities and A represents the fertile/fissile alimentation. All our studies are made with a homemade code, REM, which is a precision driven code for material evolution. Neutron flux and neutron reactions rate are calculated thanks MCNP and the temporal integration is made thanks a Runge-Kutta fourth order method. This code REM, whose calculation scheme will be described in the paper, does not allow a coupling flexible enough between the reprocessing and the core physics. Indeed, reprocessing terms in the previous equation ({lambda}{sub chem}) are set for the whole evolution that can last several hundreds of years. A new way is to drive chemical needs to keep the core critical. Therefore, we are

  3. CPN/Tools: A Tool for Editing and Simulating Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Christensen, Søren; Ravn, Katrine

    2001-01-01

    CPN/Tools is a major redesign of the popular Design/CPN tool for editing, simulation and state space analysis of Coloured Petri Nets. The new interface is based on advanced interaction techniques, including bi-manual interaction, toolglasses and marking menus and a new metaphor for managing...

  4. Myocardial physiology measurements using contrast enhanced dynamic computed tomography: simulation of beam hardening effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Minsong; Stantz, Keith M.; Liang, Yun

    2006-03-01

    Initial animal study for quantifying myocardial physiology through contrast-enhanced dynamic x-ray CT suggested that beam hardening is one of the limiting factors for accurate regional physiology measurement. In this study, a series of simulations were performed to investigate its deterioration effects and two correction algorithms were adapted to evaluate for their efficiency in improving the measurements. The simulation tool consists of a module simulating data acquisition of a real polyenergetic scanner system and a heart phantom consisting of simple geometric objects representing ventricles and myocardium. Each phantom component was modeled with time-varying attenuation coefficients determined by ideal iodine contrast dynamic curves obtained from experimental data or simulation. A compartment model was used to generate the ideal myocardium contrast curve using physiological parameters consistent with measured values. Projection data of the phantom were simulated and reconstructed to produce a sequence of simulated CT images. Simulated contrast dynamic curves were fitted to the compartmental model and the resultant physiological parameters were compared with ideal values to estimate the errors induced by beam hardening artifacts. The simulations yielded similar deterioration patterns of contrast dynamic curves as observed in the initial study. Significant underestimation of left ventricle curves and corruption of regional myocardium curves result in systematic errors of regional perfusion up to approximately 24% and overestimates of fractional blood volume (f iv) up to 13%. The correction algorithms lead to significant improvement with errors of perfusion reduced to 7% and errors of f iv within 2% which shows promise for more robust myocardial physiology measurement.

  5. Possibility of high efficient beam extraction from the CERN SPS with a bent crystal. Simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandale, W.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Taratin, A. M.

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of the SPS beam of 270 GeV/c protons assisted by a bent crystal was studied by simulation. Two methods for delivering the SPS beam onto a crystal were considered: transverse diffusion and orbit bump of the beam. It was shown that the main condition for high efficient beam extraction with a bent crystal, which is a small divergence of the incident beam, can be fulfilled. Extraction efficiency up to 99% can be reached for both methods of the beam delivering. The irradiation of the electrostatic septum wires during the beam extraction can be considerably reduced.

  6. A simulation-based study on the influence of beam hardening in X-ray computed tomography for dimensional metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifton, Joseph J; Malcolm, Andrew A; McBride, John W

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a radiographic scanning technique for visualising cross-sectional images of an object non-destructively. From these cross-sectional images it is possible to evaluate internal dimensional features of a workpiece which may otherwise be inaccessible to tactile and optical instruments. Beam hardening is a physical process that degrades the quality of CT images and has previously been suggested to influence dimensional measurements. Using a validated simulation tool, the influence of spectrum pre-filtration and beam hardening correction are evaluated for internal and external dimensional measurements. Beam hardening is shown to influence internal and external dimensions in opposition, and to have a greater influence on outer dimensions compared to inner dimensions. The results suggest the combination of spectrum pre-filtration and a local gradient-based surface determination method are able to greatly reduce the influence of beam hardening in X-ray CT for dimensional metrology.

  7. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as

  8. Measurement and Simulation of Beam Centering on CYCIAE-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The beam centering is very important for the compact cyclotron, especially for the cyclotrons with the axial injection. It is critical that the cyclotron has a good beam centering to increase the beam current and reduce the beam loss. In the accelerating process,

  9. GEANT4 simulation of slow positron beam implantation profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryzek, Jerzy; Horodek, Paweł

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the positron implantation profiles, which are important for proper interpretation of data produced in slow-positron depth defect spectroscopy (VEPAS). In the paper, we compared the profiles reported in other publications and those obtained using the GEANT4 codes, which are used for the simulation of interaction of energetic particles with matter. The comparison shows that the GEANT4 codes produce profiles which match fairly well with those generated by other codes, which take into account more accurately processes at low energies when positrons interact with core electrons, valence electrons, plasmons etc. The profiles in different materials simulated for different implant energies were parameterized using two analytical formulas: the Makhovian profile and the profile proposed by Ghosh et al. [V.J. Ghosh, D.O. Welch, K.G. Lynn, in: E. Ottewite, A.H. WeissSlow (Eds.), Positron Beam Techniques for Solids and Surfaces, Jackson Hole, Wyoming, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 303, New York, 1994, p. 37]. The adjustable parameters obtained are presented in Tables 1 and 2. The total backscattering probability obtained from the GEANT4 simulations is in agreement with experimental data reported.

  10. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  11. Hygrothermal Numerical Simulation Tools Applied to Building Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, João M P Q; Ramos, Nuno M M; Freitas, Vasco Peixoto

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a critical review on the development and application of hygrothermal analysis methods to simulate the coupled transport processes of Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) transfer for one or multidimensional cases. During the past few decades there has been relevant development in this field of study and an increase in the professional use of tools that simulate some of the physical phenomena that are involved in Heat, Air and Moisture conditions in building components or elements. Although there is a significant amount of hygrothermal models referred in the literature, the vast majority of them are not easily available to the public outside the institutions where they were developed, which restricts the analysis of this book to only 14 hygrothermal modelling tools. The special features of this book are (a) a state-of-the-art of numerical simulation tools applied to building physics, (b) the boundary conditions importance, (c) the material properties, namely, experimental methods for the measuremen...

  12. FEM simulation of infeed rotary swaging with structured tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrmann Marius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary swaging is an incremental cold forming process for rods and tubes. Infeed rotary swaging with structure in the reduction zone of the tools is investigated using a two dimensional finite element simulation. A few geometrical parameters are varied, for cosine and skew stairway shapes. The effective tool angle is kept constant. The influence is evaluated by the radial and axial process forces. Furthermore, the material flow is visualized by the neutral plane. The simulation results are quantitatively compared to each other to analyse the reaction force FA, which acts against the feeding force. Also, the results serve to find suitable geometries to be transferred to rotary swaging tools for practical application. It is shown that the shapes have a significant effect on the forces and the location of the neutral plane. Finally a first swaging tool is modified with an exemplary geometry for experimental investigations.

  13. Status of Simulation Tools for the ILD ScECAL

    OpenAIRE

    Kotera, Katsushige; anduze, marc; Boudry, Vincent; Brient, Jean-Claude; Jeans, Daniel; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Miyamoto, Akiya; de Freitas, Paulo Mora; Musat, Gabriel; Ono, Hiroaki; Takeshita, Tohru; Uozumi, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The scintillator-strip electromagnetic calorimeter (ScECAL) is one of the calorimeter technic for the ILC. To achieve the fine granularity from the strip-segmented layers the strips in odd layers are orthogonal with respect to those in the even layers. In order to extract the best performance from such detector concept, a special reconstruction method and simulation tools are being developed in ILD collaboration. This manuscript repots the status of developing of those tools.

  14. Distribution view: a tool to write and simulate distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, José; Branco, Fernando; Oliveira, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    In our work we present a tool to write and simulate distributions. This tool allows to write mathematical expressions which can contain not only functions and variables, but also statistical distributions, including mixtures. Each time the expression is evaluated, for all inner distributions, is generated a value according to the distribution and is used for expression value determination. The inversion method can be used in this language, allowing to generate all distributions...

  15. A Coupling Tool for Parallel Molecular Dynamics-Continuum Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    We present a tool for coupling Molecular Dynamics and continuum solvers. It is written in C++ and is meant to support the developers of hybrid molecular - continuum simulations in terms of both realisation of the respective coupling algorithm as well as parallel execution of the hybrid simulation. We describe the implementational concept of the tool and its parallel extensions. We particularly focus on the parallel execution of particle insertions into dense molecular systems and propose a respective parallel algorithm. Our implementations are validated for serial and parallel setups in two and three dimensions. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T; Welton, R F; Tarvainen, O; Han, B X; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H(-) ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H(-) currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  17. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Alexandre Perez; Perrella, Andreia; Arita, Emiko Saito; Pereira, Marlene Fenyo Soeiro de Matos; Cavalcanti, Marcelo de Gusmao Paraiso, E-mail: alexperez34@gmail.co [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia

    2010-10-15

    There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The Computed Tomography (CT) scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) using two protocols: axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR); and sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill no.1). From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis. (author)

  18. Assessment of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions by cone beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Perez Marques

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many limitations to image acquisition, using conventional radiography, of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ region. The Computed Tomography (CT scan is a better option, due to its higher accuracy, for purposes of diagnosis, surgical planning and treatment of bone injuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze two protocols of cone beam computed tomography for the evaluation of simulated mandibular condyle bone lesions. Spherical lesions were simulated in 30 dry mandibular condyles, using dentist drills and drill bits sizes 1, 3 and 6. Each of the mandibular condyles was submitted to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT using two protocols: 1 axial, coronal and sagittal multiplanar reconstruction (MPR; and 2 sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis of the mandibular condyles. For these protocols, 2 observers analyzed the CBCT images independently, regarding the presence or not of injuries. Only one of the observers, however, performed on 2 different occasions. The results were compared to the gold standard, evaluating the percentage of agreement, degree of accuracy of CBCT protocols and observers' examination. The z test was used for the statistical analysis. The results showed there were no statistically significant differences between the 2 protocols. There was greater difficulty in the assessment of small-size simulated lesions (drill # 1. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that CBCT is an accurate tool for analyzing mandibular condyle bone lesions, with the MPR protocol showing slightly better results than the sagittal plus coronal slices throughout the longitudinal axis.

  19. Development of 2D particle-in-cell code to simulate high current, low energy beam in a beam transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C L Srivastava; S V L S Rao; P Singh

    2007-10-01

    A code for 2D space-charge dominated beam dynamics study in beam transport lines is developed. The code is used for particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of -uniform beam in a channel containing solenoids and drift space. It can also simulate a transport line where quadrupoles are used for focusing the beam. Numerical techniques as well as the results of beam dynamics studies are presented in the paper.

  20. Impact of focused gamma ray beam angle on the response of density logging tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, He; Zhang, Feng; Guo, Hongbo; Xin, Yi; Han, Zhongyue

    2017-05-01

    The response of the gamma-gamma density logging tool with different focused gamma ray beam angle is investigated by using the MCNP code. This work focuses on the four aspects of spatial distribution and energy spectrum of scattered gamma rays, measurement uncertainty, the depth of investigation, and vertical resolution of the logging tool. The results show that the density measurement accuracy can be improved when a relative larger collimator angle is employed, and the vertical resolution of the tool would not get worse.

  1. Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator Tool for Smart Grid Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Morais; Zita Vale; João Soares; Cristina Lobo; Bruno Canizes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simulator for electric vehicles in the context of smart grids and distribution networks. It aims to support network operators’ planning and operations but can be used by other entities for related studies. The paper describes the parameters supported by the current version of the Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) tool and its current algorithm. EVeSSi enables the definition of electric vehicles scenarios on distribution networks using a built-in movement engin...

  2. Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator Tool for Smart Grid Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Morais; Zita Vale; João Soares; Cristina Lobo; Bruno Canizes

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a simulator for electric vehicles in the context of smart grids and distribution networks. It aims to support network operators’ planning and operations but can be used by other entities for related studies. The paper describes the parameters supported by the current version of the Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) tool and its current algorithm. EVeSSi enables the definition of electric vehicles scenarios on distribution networks using a built-in movement engin...

  3. Solid-state-drives (SSDs) modeling simulation tools & strategies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces simulation tools and strategies for complex systems of solid-state-drives (SSDs) which consist of a flash multi-core microcontroller plus NAND flash memories. It provides a broad overview of the most popular simulation tools, with special focus on open source solutions. VSSIM, NANDFlashSim and DiskSim are benchmarked against performances of real SSDs under different traffic workloads. PROs and CONs of each simulator are analyzed, and it is clearly indicated which kind of answers each of them can give and at a what price. It is explained, that speed and precision do not go hand in hand, and it is important to understand when to simulate what, and with which tool. Being able to simulate SSD’s performances is mandatory to meet time-to-market, together with product cost and quality. Over the last few years the authors developed an advanced simulator named “SSDExplorer” which has been used to evaluate multiple phenomena with great accuracy, from QoS (Quality Of Service) to Read Retry, fr...

  4. Comparison of discrete event simulation tools in an academic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jadrić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new research model for simulation software evaluation is proposed consisting of three main categories of criteria: modeling and simulation capabilities of the explored tools, and tools’ input/output analysis possibilities, all with respective sub-criteria. Using the presented model, two discrete event simulation tools are evaluated in detail using the task-centred scenario. Both tools (Arena and ExtendSim were used for teaching discrete event simulation in preceding academic years. With the aim to inspect their effectiveness and to help us determine which tool is more suitable for students i.e. academic purposes, we used a simple simulation model of entities competing for limited resources. The main goal was to measure subjective (primarily attitude and objective indicators while using the tools when the same simulation scenario is given. The subjects were first year students of Master studies in Information Management at the Faculty of Economics in Split taking a course in Business Process Simulations (BPS. In a controlled environment – in a computer lab, two groups of students were given detailed, step-by-step instructions for building models using both tools - first using ExtendSim then Arena or vice versa. Subjective indicators (students’ attitudes were collected using an online survey completed immediately upon building each model. Subjective indicators primarily include students’ personal estimations of Arena and ExtendSim capabilities/features for model building, model simulation and result analysis. Objective indicators were measured using specialised software that logs information on user's behavior while performing a particular task on their computer such as distance crossed by mouse during model building, the number of mouse clicks, usage of the mouse wheel and speed achieved. The results indicate that ExtendSim is well preferred comparing to Arena with regards to subjective indicators while the objective indicators are

  5. Simulations of ion beams for NDCX-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, D.P., E-mail: dpgrote@lbl.gov [LBNL MS47-112, 1 Cyclotron Rd, Bekerley, CA 94720 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Friedman, A., E-mail: afriedman@lbl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Sharp, W.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    NDCX-II, the second neutralized drift compression experiment, is a moderate energy, high current accelerator designed to drive targets for warm dense matter and IFE-relevant energy coupling studies, and to serve as a testbed for high current accelerator physics. As part of the design process, studies were carried out to assess the sensitivities of the accelerator to errors, and to further optimize the design in concert with the evolving pulsed power engineering. The Warp code was used to carry out detailed simulations in both axisymmetric and full 3-D geometry. Ensembles of simulations were carried out to characterize the effects of errors, such as timing jitter and noise on the accelerator waveforms, noise on the source waveform, and solenoid and source offsets. In some cases, the ensemble studies resulted in better designs, revealing operating points with improved performance and showing possible means for further improvement. These studies also revealed a new non-paraxial effect of the final focus solenoid on the beam, which must be taken into account in designing an optimal final focusing system.

  6. Simulation of ion beam losses in LHC magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2068843; Jowett, John M; Riklund, R

    2005-01-01

    At the particle physics laboratory CERN, the largest accelerator ever, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is under construction. In the LHC ultra relativistic particles, mainly protons but also lead ions, will be brought into collision. One problem that arises in the operation is that colliding ion beams in the machine have a very large cross section for electromagnetic interactions, in particular Bound Free Pair Production (BFPP). An electron-positron pair is created by the electromagnetic field between two colliding particles and the electron is created in a bound state of one of the ions. Because of this reaction the ion changes its charge and therefore leaves the wanted trajectory and crashes in a superconducting magnet, depositing heat. The impact of the wrongly charged ions on the inside of the vacuum pipe was simulated with the simulation program FLUKA. It was concluded that it is not likely that enough heat is deposited in the coils of the superconducting magnet to induce a quench, although some uncerta...

  7. CLAIRE, an event-driven simulation tool for testing software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raguideau, J.; Schoen, D.; Henry, J.Y.; Boulc`h, J.

    1994-06-15

    CLAIRE is a software tool created to perform validations on executable codes or on specifications of distributed real-time applications for nuclear safety. CLAIRE can be used both to verify the safety properties by modelling the specifications, and also to validate the final code by simulating the behaviour of its equipment and software interfaces. It can be used to observe and provide dynamic control of the simulation process, and also to record changes to the simulated data for off-line analysis. (R.P.).

  8. CPN Tools for Editing, Simulating, and Analysing Coloured Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratzer, Anne Vinter; Wells, Lisa Marie; Lassen, Henry Michael

    2003-01-01

    elements. The tool features incremental syntax checking and code generation which take place while a net is being constructed. A fast simulator efficiently handles both untimed and timed nets. Full and partial state spaces can be generated and analysed, and a standard state space report contains...

  9. TNO-ADVANCE: a modular powertrain simulation and design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venne, J.W.C. van de; Smokers, R.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    To support its activities in the field of conventional and hybrid vehicles, TNO has developed ADVANCE, a modular simulation tool for the design and evaluation of advanced powertrains. In this paper the various features and the potential of ADVANCE are described and illustrated by means of three case

  10. Simulation modeling: a powerful tool for process improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxerman, S B

    1996-01-01

    Simulation modeling provides an efficient means of examining the operation of a system under a variety of alternative conditions. This tool can potentially enhance a benchmarking project by providing a means for evaluating proposed modifications to the system or process under study.

  11. Simulation as a tool for managing Ebola infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease is the present deadly infection. The outbreak in Africa becomes the great concern globally. Several attempts have been launched to manage the problem since its first appearance in Africa. The use of simulations as a tool to manage the problem is very interesting. In this short article, the author briefly summarizes and discusses on this topic.

  12. Simulation training tools for nonlethal weapons using gaming environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donne, Alexsana; Eagan, Justin; Tse, Gabriel; Vanderslice, Tom; Woods, Jerry

    2006-05-01

    Modern simulation techniques have a growing role for evaluating new technologies and for developing cost-effective training programs. A mission simulator facilitates the productive exchange of ideas by demonstration of concepts through compellingly realistic computer simulation. Revolutionary advances in 3D simulation technology have made it possible for desktop computers to process strikingly realistic and complex interactions with results depicted in real-time. Computer games now allow for multiple real human players and "artificially intelligent" (AI) simulated robots to play together. Advances in computer processing power have compensated for the inherent intensive calculations required for complex simulation scenarios. The main components of the leading game-engines have been released for user modifications, enabling game enthusiasts and amateur programmers to advance the state-of-the-art in AI and computer simulation technologies. It is now possible to simulate sophisticated and realistic conflict situations in order to evaluate the impact of non-lethal devices as well as conflict resolution procedures using such devices. Simulations can reduce training costs as end users: learn what a device does and doesn't do prior to use, understand responses to the device prior to deployment, determine if the device is appropriate for their situational responses, and train with new devices and techniques before purchasing hardware. This paper will present the status of SARA's mission simulation development activities, based on the Half-Life gameengine, for the purpose of evaluating the latest non-lethal weapon devices, and for developing training tools for such devices.

  13. Particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of the low energy beam transport for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; YAO Qing-Gao; WANG Zhi-Jun; CHANG Wei; LIU Yong; XIA Jia-Wen

    2011-01-01

    A new SSC-linac system (injector into separated sector cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of SSC-Linac, the LEBT (low energy beam transport) consists of seven solenoids, four quadrupoles, a bending magnet and an extra multi-harmonic buncher. The total length of this segment is about 7 meters. The beam dynamics in this LEBT has been studied using three-dimensional PIC (particle-in-cell) code BEAMPATH. The simulation results show that the continuous beam from the ion source is first well analyzed by a charge-to-mass selection system, and the beam of the selected charge-to-mass ratio is then efficiently pre-bunched by a multi-harmonic buncher and optimally matched into the RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole) for further acceleration. The principles and effects of the solenoid collimation channel are discussed, and it could limit the beam emittance by changing the aperture size.

  14. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Traditional approaches for active flow separation control using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are limited to relatively low speed flows and atmospheric conditions. This results in low feasibility of the DBDs for aerospace applications. For active flow control at turbine blades, fixed wings, and rotary wings and on hypersonic vehicles, DBD plasma actuators must perform at a wide range of conditions, including rarified flows and combustion mixtures. An efficient, comprehensive, physically based DBD simulation tool can optimize DBD plasma actuators for different operation conditions. Researchers are developing a DBD plasma actuator simulation tool for a wide range of ambient gas pressures. The tool will treat DBD using either kinetic, fluid, or hybrid models, depending on the DBD operational condition.

  15. Halo and tail simulations with applications to the CLIC drive beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fitterer, M; Adli, E; Burkhardt, H; Dalena, B; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Latina, A; Ahmed, I

    2010-01-01

    We report about generic halo and tail simulations and estimates. Previous studies weremainly focused on very high energies as relevant for the beam delivery systems of linear colliders. We have now studied, applied and extended these simulations to lower energies as relevant for the CLIC drive beam.

  16. A Simulation Tool for Downlink Long Term Evolution-advanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Adibah Mohd Ramli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A is an emerging mobile cellular system envisaged to provide better quality of multimedia applications. Packet scheduling becomes paramount as the LTE-A delivers multimedia applications using packet switching technology. Given that LTE-A is a new technology, its ability to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS requirements of multimedia applications demands further performance study. At present, a number of LTE-A simulators are available. However, these simulators in general are too specific in nature or their source codes are not publicly accessible for the research communities. As such, this study presents a novel simulation tool to assist the research communities to study the downlink LTE-A and further optimize packet scheduling performance. This simulation tool accurately models the downlink LTE-A taking user mobility, carrier aggregation, packet scheduling and other aspects that are relevant to the research communities into consideration. The efficacy of the simulation tool is validated through performance study of a number of well-known packet scheduling algorithms.

  17. Serious Games and Simulation as Tools for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Mori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing adoption of computer-based “serious games” as digital tools for education requires to address the question about the role of simulation in teaching and learning process. Whereas many recent studies have stressed the benefits of digital games in a variety of learning contexts, this paper approaches the problem of misuse and limitations of computer-based simulations, and argues that we still need to understand when a digital serious game is actually better than other non-computer-based simulation experiences. Considering that the distinction between the two types of simulation does not mean that they are incompatible, the final question that I address regards the best ways to correlate computer-based and non-computer-based simulation techniques.

  18. Monte Carlo simulation for calculation of fragments produced by 400 MeV/u carbon ion beam in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Bin; Zhao, Shu-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was an important approach to obtain accurate characteristics of radiotherapy. In this work, a 400 MeV/u carbon ion beam incident on water phantom was simulated with Gate/Geant4 tools. The authors obtained the dose distributions of H, He, Li, Be, B, C and their isotopes in water phantom, and drew a conclusion that the dose of 11C was the main reason of causing the embossment of total dose curve around 252 mm depth. The authors also studied detailedly the dose contribution distributions, yield distributions and average energy distributions of all kinds of fragments. The information of four distributions was very meaningful for understanding the effect of fragments in carbon ion beam radiotherapy. The method of this simulation was easy to extend. For example, for obtaining a special result, we may change the particle energy, particle type, target material, target geometry, physics process, detector, etc.

  19. Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator Tool for Smart Grid Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Morais

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulator for electric vehicles in the context of smart grids and distribution networks. It aims to support network operators’ planning and operations but can be used by other entities for related studies. The paper describes the parameters supported by the current version of the Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi tool and its current algorithm. EVeSSi enables the definition of electric vehicles scenarios on distribution networks using a built-in movement engine. The scenarios created with EVeSSi can be used by external tools (e.g., power flow for specific analysis, for instance grid impacts. Two scenarios are briefly presented for illustration of the simulator capabilities.

  20. Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Azcurra, M

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition

  1. Weak-strong Beam-beam Simulations for HL-LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, Danilo [Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne; Barranco, Javier [Ecole Polytechnique, Lausanne; Pieloni, Tatiana [CERN; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present dynamic aperture studies for possible High Luminosity LHC optics in the presence of beam-beam interactions, crab crossing schemes and magnets multipolar errors. Possible operational scenarios of luminosity leveling by transverse offset and betatron function are also studied and the impact on the beams stability is discussed.

  2. Simulation of transition radiation based beam imaging from tilted targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhikh, L. G.; Kube, G.; Potylitsyn, A. P.

    2017-03-01

    Transverse beam profile diagnostics in linear electron accelerators is usually based on direct imaging of a beam spot via visible transition radiation. In this case the fundamental resolution limit is determined by radiation diffraction in the optical system. A method to measure beam sizes beyond the diffraction limit is to perform imaging dominated by a single-particle function (SPF), i.e. when the recorded image is dominated not by the transverse beam profile but by the image function of a point source (single electron). Knowledge of the SPF for an experimental setup allows one to extract the transverse beam size from an SPF dominated image. This paper presents an approach that allows one to calculate two-dimensional SPF dominated beam images, taking into account the target inclination angle and the depth-of-field effect. In conclusion, a simple fit function for beam size determination in the case under consideration is proposed and its applicability is tested under various conditions.

  3. Refractive lenses as a beam diagnostics tool for high-energy synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Weitkamp, T; Drakopoulos, M; Souvorov, A; Snigireva, I; Snigirev, A; Guenzler, F; Schrör, C; Lengeler, B

    2001-01-01

    Parabolic compound refractive lenses (CRLs) for hard X rays have been used to image the electron beam at undulator and bending-magnet beamlines at the ESRF. The measurements yield the shape and size of the synchrotron radiation source, and show that CRLs with paraboloid surface shape can be used as a beam diagnostics tool at high-energy electron storage rings. The optical resolution of the imaging setup can be as small as 4 mu m. This is smaller than typical values of the electron beam size in third-generation synchrotron sources. We report measurements at two ESRF beamlines and resolution calculations taking into account the properties of synchrotron radiation and the transmission characteristics of the CRLs used.

  4. Automated detection and analysis of particle beams in laser-plasma accelerator simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Geddes, C.G.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Bethel, E. Wes; Jacobsen, J.; Prabhat, ,; R.ubel, O.; Weber, G,; Hamann, B.

    2010-05-21

    scientific data mining is increasingly considered. In plasma simulations, Bagherjeiran et al. presented a comprehensive report on applying graph-based techniques for orbit classification. They used the KAM classifier to label points and components in single and multiple orbits. Love et al. conducted an image space analysis of coherent structures in plasma simulations. They used a number of segmentation and region-growing techniques to isolate regions of interest in orbit plots. Both approaches analyzed particle accelerator data, targeting the system dynamics in terms of particle orbits. However, they did not address particle dynamics as a function of time or inspected the behavior of bunches of particles. Ruebel et al. addressed the visual analysis of massive laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) simulation data using interactive procedures to query the data. Sophisticated visualization tools were provided to inspect the data manually. Ruebel et al. have integrated these tools to the visualization and analysis system VisIt, in addition to utilizing efficient data management based on HDF5, H5Part, and the index/query tool FastBit. In Ruebel et al. proposed automatic beam path analysis using a suite of methods to classify particles in simulation data and to analyze their temporal evolution. To enable researchers to accurately define particle beams, the method computes a set of measures based on the path of particles relative to the distance of the particles to a beam. To achieve good performance, this framework uses an analysis pipeline designed to quickly reduce the amount of data that needs to be considered in the actual path distance computation. As part of this process, region-growing methods are utilized to detect particle bunches at single time steps. Efficient data reduction is essential to enable automated analysis of large data sets as described in the next section, where data reduction methods are steered to the particular requirements of our clustering analysis

  5. SU-F-BRB-16: A Spreadsheet Based Automatic Trajectory GEnerator (SAGE): An Open Source Tool for Automatic Creation of TrueBeam Developer Mode Robotic Trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etmektzoglou, A; Mishra, P; Svatos, M [Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To automate creation and delivery of robotic linac trajectories with TrueBeam Developer Mode, an open source spreadsheet-based trajectory generation tool has been developed, tested and made freely available. The computing power inherent in a spreadsheet environment plus additional functions programmed into the tool insulate users from the underlying schema tedium and allow easy calculation, parameterization, graphical visualization, validation and finally automatic generation of Developer Mode XML scripts which are directly loadable on a TrueBeam linac. Methods: The robotic control system platform that allows total coordination of potentially all linac moving axes with beam (continuous, step-and-shoot, or combination thereof) becomes available in TrueBeam Developer Mode. Many complex trajectories are either geometric or can be described in analytical form, making the computational power, graphing and programmability available in a spreadsheet environment an easy and ideal vehicle for automatic trajectory generation. The spreadsheet environment allows also for parameterization of trajectories thus enabling the creation of entire families of trajectories using only a few variables. Standard spreadsheet functionality has been extended for powerful movie-like dynamic graphic visualization of the gantry, table, MLC, room, lasers, 3D observer placement and beam centerline all as a function of MU or time, for analysis of the motions before requiring actual linac time. Results: We used the tool to generate and deliver extended SAD “virtual isocenter” trajectories of various shapes such as parameterized circles and ellipses. We also demonstrated use of the tool in generating linac couch motions that simulate respiratory motion using analytical parameterized functions. Conclusion: The SAGE tool is a valuable resource to experiment with families of complex geometric trajectories for a TrueBeam Linac. It makes Developer Mode more accessible as a vehicle to quickly

  6. Numerical Simulation of the Self-Heating Effect Induced by Electron Beam Plasma in Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永锋; 谭畅; 韩先伟; 谭永华

    2012-01-01

    For exploiting advantages of electron beam air plasma in some unusual applications, a Monte Carlo (MC) model coupled with heat transfer model is established to simulate the characteristics of electron beam air plasma by considering the self-heating effect. Based on the model, the electron beam induced temperature field and the related plasma properties are investigated. The results indicate that a nonuniform temperature field is formed in the electron beam plasma region and the average temperature is of the order of 600 K. Moreover, much larger volume pear-shaped electron beam plasma is produced in hot state rather than in cold state. The beam ranges can, with beam energies of 75 keV and 80 keV, exceed 1.0 m and 1.2 m in air at pressure of 100 torr, respectively. Finally, a well verified formula is obtained for calculating the range of high energy electron beam in atmosphere.

  7. The GEANT4 toolkit capability in the hadron therapy field: simulation of a transport beam line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Di Rosa, F.; Raffaele, L.; Russo, G.; Guatelli, S.; Pia, M. G.

    2006-01-01

    At Laboratori Nazionali del Sud of the Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare of Catania (Sicily, Italy), the first Italian hadron therapy facility named CATANA (Centro di AdroTerapia ed Applicazioni Nucleari Avanzate) has been realized. Inside CATANA 62 MeV proton beams, accelerated by a superconducting cyclotron, are used for the radiotherapeutic treatments of some types of ocular tumours. Therapy with hadron beams still represents a pioneer technique, and only a few centers worldwide can provide this advanced specialized cancer treatment. On the basis of the experience so far gained, and considering the future hadron-therapy facilities to be developed (Rinecker, Munich Germany, Heidelberg/GSI, Darmstadt, Germany, PSI Villigen, Switzerland, CNAO, Pavia, Italy, Centro di Adroterapia, Catania, Italy) we decided to develop a Monte Carlo application based on the GEANT4 toolkit, for the design, the realization and the optimization of a proton-therapy beam line. Another feature of our project is to provide a general tool able to study the interactions of hadrons with the human tissue and to test the analytical-based treatment planning systems actually used in the routine practice. All the typical elements of a hadron-therapy line, such as diffusers, range shifters, collimators and detectors were modelled. In particular, we simulated the Markus type ionization chamber and a Gaf Chromic film as dosimeters to reconstruct the depth (Bragg peak and Spread Out Bragg Peak) and lateral dose distributions, respectively. We validated our simulated detectors comparing the results with the experimental data available in our facility.

  8. Simulation Process Analysis of Rubber Shock Absorber for Machine Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chai Rong Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation on rubber shock absorber of machine tool was studied. The simple material model of rubber was obtained by through the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The compression speed and the hardness of rubber material were considered to obtain the deformation law of rubber shock absorber. The location of fatigue were confirmed from the simulation results. The results shown that the fatigue position is distributed in the corner of shock absorber. The degree of deformation is increased with increasing of compress speed, and the hardness of rubber material is proportional to deformation.

  9. Simulation tool of a Supernova search with VST

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi, R.; Cappellaro, E; Botticella, M. T.; Riello, M.

    2007-01-01

    To improve the estimate of SN rates for all types as a function of redshift has been proposed and accepted a three years SN search with the VST telescope. To help planning an optimal strategy for the search, we have developed a simulation tool used to predict the numbers of Supernovae of different types which are expected to be discovered in a magnitude-limited survey. In our simulation a most important ingredient has been the determination of the K-correction as function of redshift for ever...

  10. Comparison of beam simulations with measurements for a 1.25-MeV, CW RFQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Bolme, G.O.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Young, L.M.; Zaugg, T.J.

    1998-12-31

    The Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) injector is tested using the Chalk River Injector Test Stand (CRITS) radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) as a diagnostic instrument. Fifty-keV, dc proton beams are injected into the 1.25-MeV, CW RFQ and transported to a beamstop. Computer-simulation-code predictions of the expected beam performance are compared with the measured beam currents and beam profiles. Good agreement is obtained between the measurements and the simulations at the 75-mA design RFQ output current.

  11. Simulation of the microtron electron beam profile formation using flattening filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Danilova, I. B.; Naumenko, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    The development of new modern methods of electron beam profile forming becomes an important problem with the expansion of the application spectrum of electrons, both in industry and in medicine. This paper presents the results of a numerical simulation of the electron beam profile formed by flattening filters of different materials (aluminum and ABS-plastic). The model corresponding to the actual beam was developed based on the experimental estimation of shape and profile of the extracted microtron electron beam. Next, the geometry of flattening filters made of aluminum and ABS-plastic was calculated, and the electron beam profile was theoretically analyzed.

  12. Design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams by simulated annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-Long; Lü Bai-Da

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Gaussian Schell-model beam as a typical example of partially coherent beams,this paper applies the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to the design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams.A flow diagram is presented to illustrate the procedure of phase optimization by the SA algorithm.Numerical examples demonstrate the advantages of the SA algorithm in shaping partially coherent beams.An uniform flat-topped beam profile with maximum reconstruction error RE < 1.74% is achieved.A further extension of the approach is discussed.

  13. Ion beam analysis of rubies and their simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juncomma, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Bootkul, D. [Department of General Science (Gems and Jewelry), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Tippawan, U., E-mail: beary1001@gmail.com [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50202 (Thailand); Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Commission on Higher Education, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2014-07-15

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) is a set of well known powerful analytical techniques which use energetic particle beam as a probe. Among them, two techniques are suitable for gemological analysis, i.e., Particle Induced X-rays Emission (PIXE) and Ionoluminescence (IL). We combine these two techniques for the investigations of rubies and their simulants. The main objective is to find a reference fingerprint of these gemstones. The data are collected from several natural rubies, synthetic rubies, red spinels, almandine garnets and rubellite which very much resemble and are difficult to distinguish with the gemologist loupe. From our measurements, due to their different crystal structures and compositions, can be clearly distinguished by the IL and PIXE techniques. The results show that the PIXE spectra consist of a few dominant lines of the host matrix elements of each gemstone and some weaker lines due to trace elements of transition metals. PIXE can easily differentiate rubies from other stones by evaluating their chemical compositions. It is noticed that synthetic rubies generally contain fewer impurities, lower iron and higher chromium than the natural ones. Moreover, the IL spectrum of ruby is unique and different from those of others stones. The typical spectrum of ruby is centered at 694 nm, with small sidebands that can be ascribed to a Cr{sup 3+} emission spectrum which is dominated by an R-line at the extreme red end of the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although the spectrum of synthetic ruby is centered at the same wavelength, the peak is stronger due to higher concentration of Cr and lower concentration of Fe than for natural rubies. For spinel, the IL spectrum shows strong deformation where the R-line is split due to the presence of MgO. For rubellite, the peak center is shifted to 692 nm which might be caused by the replacement of Mn{sup 3+} at the Al{sup 3+} site of the host structure. It is noticed that almandine garnet is not luminescent due

  14. DNA – A General Energy System Simulation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Houbak, Niels

    2005-01-01

    operation. The program decides at runtime to apply the DAE solver if the system contains differential equations. This makes it easy to extend an existing steady state model to simulate dynamic operation of the plant. The use of the program is illustrated by examples of gas turbine models. The paper also......The paper reviews the development of the energy system simulation tool DNA (Dynamic Network Analysis). DNA has been developed since 1989 to be able to handle models of any kind of energy system based on the control volume approach, usually systems of lumped parameter components. DNA has proven...... to be a useful tool in the analysis and optimization of several types of thermal systems: Steam turbines, gas turbines, fuels cells, gasification, refrigeration and heat pumps for both conventional fossil fuels and different types of biomass. DNA is applicable for models of both steady state and dynamic...

  15. Ergonomics and simulation tools for service & industrial process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A.; García, M.

    2012-04-01

    Human interaction within designed processes is a really important factor in how efficiently any process will operate. How a human will function in relation to a process is not easy to predict. All the ergonomic considerations traditionally have been evaluated outside of the 3D product design. Nowadays technologies of 3D process design and simulation tools give us this opportunity from the earliest stages of the design process. Also they can be used to improve current process in order to increase human comfort, productivity and safety. This work shows a methodology using 3D design and simulation tools to improve industrial and service process. This methodology has as an objective the detection, evaluation, control of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs).

  16. Simulation of laser beam propagation over land and sea using phase screens: a comparison with experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöqvist, Lars; Henriksson, Markus; Steinvall, Ove

    2005-11-01

    Understanding and predicting laser beam propagation effects in the atmosphere is of importance for laser countermeasures and related applications. Turbulence effects cause beam wander, beam broadening and intensity scintillations reducing e.g. the power in bucket and the tracking accuracy. Modelling laser beam propagation in turbulence using successive phase screens provides an efficient tool for performance predictions. In this work phase screens are used to model laser beam propagation over land and sea. Different phase screens generators utilising the Kolmogorov or von Karman spectra were considered. Critical parameters using phase screens include the number of screen applied along the propagation path, inner- and outer scale size, variations in the structure parameter and spatial frequencies. Effects such as beam wander, angle-of-arrival fluctuations and intensity scintillations are discussed. The simulated results are compared with experimental data recorded at different ranges, various turbulence strengths and for single- and double paths. A generic example describing laser countermeasure against an infrared homing missile in a naval scenario is presented.

  17. A Monte Carlo pencil beam scanning model for proton treatment plan simulation using GATE/GEANT4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevillot, L; Freud, N; Sarrut, D [Universite de Lyon, CREATIS, CNRS UMR5220, Inserm U1044, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Centre Leon Berard, Lyon (France); Bertrand, D; Dessy, F, E-mail: loic.grevillot@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [IBA, B-1348, Louvain-la Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-08-21

    This work proposes a generic method for modeling scanned ion beam delivery systems, without simulation of the treatment nozzle and based exclusively on beam data library (BDL) measurements required for treatment planning systems (TPS). To this aim, new tools dedicated to treatment plan simulation were implemented in the Gate Monte Carlo platform. The method was applied to a dedicated nozzle from IBA for proton pencil beam scanning delivery. Optical and energy parameters of the system were modeled using a set of proton depth-dose profiles and spot sizes measured at 27 therapeutic energies. For further validation of the beam model, specific 2D and 3D plans were produced and then measured with appropriate dosimetric tools. Dose contributions from secondary particles produced by nuclear interactions were also investigated using field size factor experiments. Pristine Bragg peaks were reproduced with 0.7 mm range and 0.2 mm spot size accuracy. A 32 cm range spread-out Bragg peak with 10 cm modulation was reproduced with 0.8 mm range accuracy and a maximum point-to-point dose difference of less than 2%. A 2D test pattern consisting of a combination of homogeneous and high-gradient dose regions passed a 2%/2 mm gamma index comparison for 97% of the points. In conclusion, the generic modeling method proposed for scanned ion beam delivery systems was applicable to an IBA proton therapy system. The key advantage of the method is that it only requires BDL measurements of the system. The validation tests performed so far demonstrated that the beam model achieves clinical performance, paving the way for further studies toward TPS benchmarking. The method involves new sources that are available in the new Gate release V6.1 and could be further applied to other particle therapy systems delivering protons or other types of ions like carbon.

  18. Expected damage to accelerator equipment due to the impact of the full LHC beam: beam instrumentation, experiments and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the biggest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world, designed to collide two proton beams with particle momentum of 7 TeV/c each. The stored energy of 362MJ in each beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper or to evaporate about 300 liter of water. An accidental release of even a small fraction of the beam energy can cause severe damage to accelerator equipment. Reliable machine protection systems are necessary to safely operate the accelerator complex. To design a machine protection system, it is essential to know the damage potential of the stored beam and the consequences in case of a failure. One (catastrophic) failure would be, if the entire beam is lost in the aperture due to a problem with the beam dumping system. This thesis presents the simulation studies, results of a benchmarking experiment, and detailed target investigation, for this failure case. In the experiment, solid copper cylinders were irradiated with the 440GeV proton beam delivered by the ...

  19. Coating-substrate-simulations applied to HFQ® forming tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a comparative analysis of coating-substrate simulations applied to HFQTM forming tools is presented. When using the solution heat treatment cold die forming and quenching process, known as HFQTM, for forming of hardened aluminium alloy of automotive panel parts, coating-substrate-systems have to satisfy unique requirements. Numerical experiments, based on the Advanced Adaptive FE method, will finally present.

  20. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  1. Development of Interpretive Simulation Tool for the Proton Radiography Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Levy, M C; Wilks, S C; Ross, J S; Huntington, C M; Fiuza, F; Baring, M G; Park, H- S

    2014-01-01

    Proton radiography is a useful diagnostic of high energy density (HED) plasmas under active theoretical and experimental development. In this paper we describe a new simulation tool that interacts realistic laser-driven point-like proton sources with three dimensional electromagnetic fields of arbitrary strength and structure and synthesizes the associated high resolution proton radiograph. The present tool's numerical approach captures all relevant physics effects, including effects related to the formation of caustics. Electromagnetic fields can be imported from PIC or hydrodynamic codes in a streamlined fashion, and a library of electromagnetic field `primitives' is also provided. This latter capability allows users to add a primitive, modify the field strength, rotate a primitive, and so on, while quickly generating a high resolution radiograph at each step. In this way, our tool enables the user to deconstruct features in a radiograph and interpret them in connection to specific underlying electromagneti...

  2. Aeroelastic simulation of multi-MW wind turbines using a free vortex model coupled to a geometrically exact beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverin, Joseph; Peukert, Juliane; Marten, David; Pechlivanoglou, George; Paschereit, Christian Oliver; Greenblatt, David

    2016-09-01

    The current paper investigates the aeroelastic modelling of large, flexible multi- MW wind turbine blades. Most current performance prediction tools make use of the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) model, based upon a number of simplifying assumptions that hold only under steady conditions. This is why a lifting line free vortex wake (LLFVW) algorithm is used here to accurately resolve unsteady wind turbine aerodynamics. A coupling to the structural analysis tool BeamDyn, based on geometrically exact beam theory, allows for time-resolved aeroelastic simulations with highly deflected blades including bend-twist, coupling. Predictions of blade loading and deformation for rigid and flexible blades are analysed with reference to different aerodynamic and structural approaches. The emergency shutdown procedure is chosen as an examplary design load case causing large deflections to place emphasis on the influence of structural coupling and demonstrate the necessity of high fidelity structural models.

  3. A Data Management System for International Space Station Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; DelMundo, Rommel; Elcott, Sharif; McIntosh, Dawn; Niehaus, Brian; Papasin, Richard; Mah, Robert W.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Groups associated with the design, operational, and training aspects of the International Space Station make extensive use of modeling and simulation tools. Users of these tools often need to access and manipulate large quantities of data associated with the station, ranging from design documents to wiring diagrams. Retrieving and manipulating this data directly within the simulation and modeling environment can provide substantial benefit to users. An approach for providing these kinds of data management services, including a database schema and class structure, is presented. Implementation details are also provided as a data management system is integrated into the Intelligent Virtual Station, a modeling and simulation tool developed by the NASA Ames Smart Systems Research Laboratory. One use of the Intelligent Virtual Station is generating station-related training procedures in a virtual environment, The data management component allows users to quickly and easily retrieve information related to objects on the station, enhancing their ability to generate accurate procedures. Users can associate new information with objects and have that information stored in a database.

  4. Computational tool for simulation of power and refrigeration cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Tuta, E.; Reyes Orozco, M.

    2016-07-01

    Small improvement in thermal efficiency of power cycles brings huge cost savings in the production of electricity, for that reason have a tool for simulation of power cycles allows modeling the optimal changes for a best performance. There is also a big boom in research Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC), which aims to get electricity at low power through cogeneration, in which the working fluid is usually a refrigerant. A tool to design the elements of an ORC cycle and the selection of the working fluid would be helpful, because sources of heat from cogeneration are very different and in each case would be a custom design. In this work the development of a multiplatform software for the simulation of power cycles and refrigeration, which was implemented in the C ++ language and includes a graphical interface which was developed using multiplatform environment Qt and runs on operating systems Windows and Linux. The tool allows the design of custom power cycles, selection the type of fluid (thermodynamic properties are calculated through CoolProp library), calculate the plant efficiency, identify the fractions of flow in each branch and finally generates a report very educational in pdf format via the LaTeX tool.

  5. FLUKA simulations for the optimization of the Beam Loss Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Brugger, M; Ferrari, A; Magistris, M; Santana-Leitner, M; Vlachoudis, V; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    The collimation system in the beam cleaning insertion IR7 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is expected to clean the primary halo and the secondary radiation of a beam with unprecedented energy and intensity. Accidental beam losses can therefore entail severe consequences to the hardware of the machine. Thus, protection mechanisms, e.g. beam abort, must be instantaneously triggered by a set of Beam Loss Monitors (BLM's). The readings in the BLM's couple the losses from various collimators, thus rendering the identification of any faulty unit rather complex. In the present study the detailed geometry of IR7 is upgraded with the insertion of the BLM's, and the Monte Carlo FLUKA transport code is used to estimate the individual contribution of every collimator to the showers detected in each BLM.

  6. Virtual charge state separator as an advanced tool coupling measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaramyshev, S.; Vormann, H.; Adonin, A.; Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Gerhard, P.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Maier, M.; Mickat, S.; Orzhekhovskaya, A.

    2015-05-01

    A new low energy beam transport for a multicharge uranium beam will be built at the GSI High Current Injector (HSI). All uranium charge states coming from the new ion source will be injected into GSI heavy ion high current HSI Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), but only the design ions U4 + will be accelerated to the final RFQ energy. A detailed knowledge about injected beam current and emittance for pure design U4 + ions is necessary for a proper beam line design commissioning and operation, while measurements are possible only for a full beam including all charge states. Detailed measurements of the beam current and emittance are performed behind the first quadrupole triplet of the beam line. A dedicated algorithm, based on a combination of measurements and the results of advanced beam dynamics simulations, provides for an extraction of beam current and emittance values for only the U4 + component of the beam. The proposed methods and obtained results are presented.

  7. Behavioural modelling and system-level simulation of micromechanical beam resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Lynn; Palaniapan, Moorthi

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a behavioural modelling technique for micromechanical beam resonators that enables the simulation of MEMS resonator model in Analog Hardware Description Language (AHDL) format within a system-level circuit simulation. A 1.13 MHz clamped-clamped beam and a 10.4 MHz free-free beam resonators have been modelled into Verilog-A code and successfully simulated with Spectre in Cadence. Analysis has shown that both models behave well and their electrical characteristics are in agreement with the theory.

  8. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  9. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva Yana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer’s interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  10. A tool for simulating parallel branch-and-bound methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Yana; Orlov, Yury; Posypkin, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    The Branch-and-Bound method is known as one of the most powerful but very resource consuming global optimization methods. Parallel and distributed computing can efficiently cope with this issue. The major difficulty in parallel B&B method is the need for dynamic load redistribution. Therefore design and study of load balancing algorithms is a separate and very important research topic. This paper presents a tool for simulating parallel Branchand-Bound method. The simulator allows one to run load balancing algorithms with various numbers of processors, sizes of the search tree, the characteristics of the supercomputer's interconnect thereby fostering deep study of load distribution strategies. The process of resolution of the optimization problem by B&B method is replaced by a stochastic branching process. Data exchanges are modeled using the concept of logical time. The user friendly graphical interface to the simulator provides efficient visualization and convenient performance analysis.

  11. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-10-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation Tool Installation and Operation Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Orrell, John L.; Troy, Meredith D.; Wiseman, Clinton G.

    2013-09-02

    This document provides information on software and procedures for Monte Carlo simulations based on the Geant4 toolkit, the ROOT data analysis software and the CRY cosmic ray library. These tools have been chosen for its application to shield design and activation studies as part of the simulation task for the Majorana Collaboration. This document includes instructions for installation, operation and modification of the simulation code in a high cyber-security computing environment, such as the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory network. It is intended as a living document, and will be periodically updated. It is a starting point for information collection by an experimenter, and is not the definitive source. Users should consult with one of the authors for guidance on how to find the most current information for their needs.

  13. Tools for evaluating team performance in simulation-based training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael A; Weaver, Sallie J; Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Salas, Eduardo; Wu, Teresa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Schiebel, Nicola; Almeida, Sandra; King, Heidi B

    2010-01-01

    Teamwork training constitutes one of the core approaches for moving healthcare systems toward increased levels of quality and safety, and simulation provides a powerful method of delivering this training, especially for face-paced and dynamic specialty areas such as Emergency Medicine. Team performance measurement and evaluation plays an integral role in ensuring that simulation-based training for teams (SBTT) is systematic and effective. However, this component of SBTT systems is overlooked frequently. This article addresses this gap by providing a review and practical introduction to the process of developing and implementing evaluation systems in SBTT. First, an overview of team performance evaluation is provided. Second, best practices for measuring team performance in simulation are reviewed. Third, some of the prominent measurement tools in the literature are summarized and discussed relative to the best practices. Subsequently, implications of the review are discussed for the practice of training teamwork in Emergency Medicine. PMID:21063558

  14. A simulation tool for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Adrien Pannetier

    Full Text Available The quantification of bolus-tracking MRI techniques remains challenging. The acquisition usually relies on one contrast and the analysis on a simplified model of the various phenomena that arise within a voxel, leading to inaccurate perfusion estimates. To evaluate how simplifications in the interstitial model impact perfusion estimates, we propose a numerical tool to simulate the MR signal provided by a dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE MRI experiment. Our model encompasses the intrinsic R1 and R2 relaxations, the magnetic field perturbations induced by susceptibility interfaces (vessels and cells, the diffusion of the water protons, the blood flow, the permeability of the vessel wall to the the contrast agent (CA and the constrained diffusion of the CA within the voxel. The blood compartment is modeled as a uniform compartment. The different blocks of the simulation are validated and compared to classical models. The impact of the CA diffusivity on the permeability and blood volume estimates is evaluated. Simulations demonstrate that the CA diffusivity slightly impacts the permeability estimates (< 5% for classical blood flow and CA diffusion. The effect of long echo times is investigated. Simulations show that DCE-MRI performed with an echo time TE = 5 ms may already lead to significant underestimation of the blood volume (up to 30% lower for brain tumor permeability values. The potential and the versatility of the proposed implementation are evaluated by running the simulation with realistic vascular geometry obtained from two photons microscopy and with impermeable cells in the extravascular environment. In conclusion, the proposed simulation tool describes DCE-MRI experiments and may be used to evaluate and optimize acquisition and processing strategies.

  15. Three-dimensional multispecies nonlinear perturbative particle simulations of collective processes in intense particle beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qin

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective processes in intense charged particle beams described self-consistently by the Vlasov-Maxwell equations are studied using a 3D multispecies nonlinear perturbative particle simulation method. The newly developed beam equilibrium, stability, and transport (BEST code is used to simulate the nonlinear stability properties of intense beam propagation, surface eigenmodes in a high-intensity beam, and the electron-proton (e-p two-stream instability observed in the Proton Storage Ring (PSR experiment. Detailed simulations in a parameter regime characteristic of the PSR experiment show that the dipole-mode two-stream instability is stabilized by a modest spread (about 0.1% in axial momentum of the beam particles.

  16. Full simulation of the beam-related backgrounds at the ILC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuetz, Anne [DESY (Germany); KIT (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The ILC has been proposed as the next machine at the energy frontier and a Technical Design Report was presented in 2012. As part of the site-specific studies to prepare the hosting of the ILC in Japan, the final focus region of the ILC had to be adapted. In this contribution, updated results for the beam-related background as well as new results for the backgrounds originating from the beam dump are presented. The beam-related backgrounds are simulated using GuineaPig and are then propagated through the full simulation of the SiD detector. The impact of various modifications in the final-focus region on the detector occupancies are then evaluated. For the neutron background from the beam dump, the FLUKA simulation suite is used, which is well established for dosimetry and shielding studies. With this program, the effect of the neutrons from the ILC beam dumps on the ILC detectors are studied.

  17. Design, simulation and construction of quadrupole magnets for focusing electron beam in powerful industrial electron accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KH Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the design and simulation of quadrupole magnets and electron beam optical of that by CST Studio code has been studied. Based on simulation result the magnetic quadrupole has been done for using in beam line of first Iranian powerful electron accelerator. For making the suitable magnetic field the effects of material and core geometry and coils current variation on quadrupole magnetic field have been studied. For test of quadrupole magnet the 10 MeV beam energy and 0.5 pi mm mrad emittance of input beam has been considered. We see the electron beam through the quadrupole magnet focus in one side and defocus in other side. The optimum of distance between two quadrupole magnets for low emittance have been achieved. The simulation results have good agreement with experimental results

  18. 3-D Simulations of Plasma Wakefield Acceleration with Non-Idealized Plasmas and Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Lee, S.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.; Mori, W.B.; Hemker, R.; Ren, C.; Huang, C.; Dodd, E.; Blue, B.E.; Clayton, C.E.; Joshi, C.; Wang,; /UCLA; Decker, F.J.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.H.; O' Connell, C.; Raimondi, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    3-D Particle-in-cell OSIRIS simulations of the current E-162 Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Experiment are presented in which a number of non-ideal conditions are modeled simultaneously. These include tilts on the beam in both planes, asymmetric beam emittance, beam energy spread and plasma inhomogeneities both longitudinally and transverse to the beam axis. The relative importance of the non-ideal conditions is discussed and a worst case estimate of the effect of these on energy gain is obtained. The simulation output is then propagated through the downstream optics, drift spaces and apertures leading to the experimental diagnostics to provide insight into the differences between actual beam conditions and what is measured. The work represents a milestone in the level of detail of simulation comparisons to plasma experiments.

  19. Simulation of transition radiation based beam imaging from tilted targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. G. Sukhikh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transverse beam profile diagnostics in linear electron accelerators is usually based on direct imaging of a beam spot via visible transition radiation. In this case the fundamental resolution limit is determined by radiation diffraction in the optical system. A method to measure beam sizes beyond the diffraction limit is to perform imaging dominated by a single-particle function (SPF, i.e. when the recorded image is dominated not by the transverse beam profile but by the image function of a point source (single electron. Knowledge of the SPF for an experimental setup allows one to extract the transverse beam size from an SPF dominated image. This paper presents an approach that allows one to calculate two-dimensional SPF dominated beam images, taking into account the target inclination angle and the depth-of-field effect. In conclusion, a simple fit function for beam size determination in the case under consideration is proposed and its applicability is tested under various conditions.

  20. Simulation study of LEBT for transversely coupled beam from an ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y., E-mail: yangyao@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Dou, W. P.; Sun, L. T.; Yao, Q. G.; Zhang, Z. M.; Yuan, Y. J.; He, Y.; Zh, X. Z.; Zhao, H. W. [Institute of Modern Physics, CAS, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-02-15

    A Low-Energy intense-highly charged ion Accelerator Facility (LEAF) program has been launched at Institute of Modern Physics. This accelerator facility consists of a superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system, and a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). It is especially of interest for the extracted ion beam from the ECR ion source, which is transversely coupled, and this property will significantly affect the beam transmission in the LEBT line and the matching with the downstream RFQ. In the beam transport design of LEAF, beam decoupling in the LEBT is considered to lower down the projection emittances and the feasibility of the design has been verified by beam simulation with a transversely coupled beam from the ECR ion source.

  1. Mathematical Models of Beam and Rails for the Simulation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Trudonoshin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a mathematical model of the beam adapted for use in general-purpose software systems to analyze dynamic characteristics. The elastic properties of the beam tension, bending and torsion are taken into account. Such a model significantly expands the functional capabilities of the complexes. The mathematical model of the beam designed for the finite element method is taken as a basis. Then its adaptation is carried out taking into account the beam joint to the arbitrary points of a rigid solid, thereby having a model suitable to analyze objects with lumped parameters. Beam parameters are the material parameters, the geometric characteristics, and the coordinates of joint points to the solids.The paper describes in detail the algorithm of computations performed at each step of numerical integration of the systems of ordinary differential equations, and presents an equivalent diagram of the mathematical model of the beam. Mathematical models of elastic rail guides, cylindrical and prismatic, derived from the mathematical model of the beam are more functional compared to the models based on the kinematic equations.The prismatic rail guide (V-guide, unlike the beam, does not counteract the translational motion of solids along it, i.e. only works in torsion and bending, and a deforming part of the rail guide length is variable. The cylindrical rail guide works in bending only. These differences can be easily implemented by modifying the equations of the mathematical model of the beam. Using these models allows us to connect solids by two or more rail guides, and it does not lead to the degeneration of the Jacobi matrix (unlike models based on kinematic equations. The models are implemented in PA8 and PA9 software and methodological support complexes for analysis of dynamic objects developed at the Department of CAD in Bauman MSTU.

  2. Visualization in simulation tools: requirements and a tool specification to support the teaching of dynamic biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Katarina M; Haddow, Pauline C

    2011-08-01

    Simulation tools are playing an increasingly important role behind advances in the field of systems biology. However, the current generation of biological science students has either little or no experience with such tools. As such, this educational glitch is limiting both the potential use of such tools as well as the potential for tighter cooperation between the designers and users. Although some simulation tool producers encourage their use in teaching, little attempt has hitherto been made to analyze and discuss their suitability as an educational tool for noncomputing science students. In general, today's simulation tools assume that the user has a stronger mathematical and computing background than that which is found in most biological science curricula, thus making the introduction of such tools a considerable pedagogical challenge. This paper provides an evaluation of the pedagogical attributes of existing simulation tools for cell signal transduction based on Cognitive Load theory. Further, design recommendations for an improved educational simulation tool are provided. The study is based on simulation tools for cell signal transduction. However, the discussions are relevant to a broader biological simulation tool set.

  3. Simulations of the LEDA LEBT H{sup +} beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.V. Jr.; Sherman, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Young, L.M.

    1997-08-01

    The computer codes TRACE and SCHAR model the Low-Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) Low-Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) for 75-keV, 110-mA, dc H{sup +} beams. Solenoid-lens location studies verify that the proposed LEBT design gives a near-optimum match to the LEDA RFQ. The desired RFQ transmission ({ge} 90%) and output emittance ({le} 0.22 {pi} mm mrad, transverse) are obtained when PARMTEQM transports the file for the SCHAR-generated optimum beam through the RFQ.

  4. Use of Monte Carlo simulation software for calculating effective dose in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes B, W. O., E-mail: wilsonottobatista@gmail.com [Instituto Federal da Bahia, Rua Emidio dos Santos s/n, Barbalho 40301-015, Salvador de Bahia (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    This study aimed to develop a geometry of irradiation applicable to the software PCXMC and the consequent calculation of effective dose in applications of the Computed Tomography Cone Beam (CBCT). We evaluated two different CBCT equipment s for dental applications: Care stream Cs 9000 3-dimensional tomograph; i-CAT and GENDEX GXCB-500. Initially characterize each protocol measuring the surface kerma input and the product kerma air-area, P{sub KA}, with solid state detectors RADCAL and PTW transmission chamber. Then we introduce the technical parameters of each preset protocols and geometric conditions in the PCXMC software to obtain the values of effective dose. The calculated effective dose is within the range of 9.0 to 15.7 μSv for 3-dimensional computer 9000 Cs; within the range 44.5 to 89 μSv for GXCB-500 equipment and in the range of 62-111 μSv for equipment Classical i-CAT. These values were compared with results obtained dosimetry using TLD implanted in anthropomorphic phantom and are considered consistent. Os effective dose results are very sensitive to the geometry of radiation (beam position in mathematical phantom). This factor translates to a factor of fragility software usage. But it is very useful to get quick answers to regarding process optimization tool conclusions protocols. We conclude that use software PCXMC Monte Carlo simulation is useful assessment protocols for CBCT tests in dental applications. (Author)

  5. Traveling-wave-tube simulation: The IBC (Interactive Beam-Circuit) code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, I.J.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-09-26

    Interactive Beam-Circuit (IBC) is a one-dimensional many particle simulation code which has been developed to run interactively on a PC or Workstation, and displaying most of the important physics of a traveling-wave-tube. The code is a substantial departure from previous efforts, since it follows all of the particles in the tube, rather than just those in one wavelength, as commonly done. This step allows for nonperiodic inputs in time, a nonuniform line and a large set of spatial diagnostics. The primary aim is to complement a microwave tube lecture course, although past experience has shown that such codes readily become research tools. Simple finite difference methods are used to model the fields of the coupled slow-wave transmission line. The coupling between the beam and the transmission line is based upon the finite difference equations of Brillouin. The space-charge effects are included, in a manner similar to that used by Hess; the original part is use of particle-in-cell techniques to model the space-charge fields. 11 refs., 11 figs.

  6. Nonlinear simulations of beam-driven compressional Alfvén eigenmodes in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belova, E. V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Crocker, N. A.; Lestz, J. B.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Tang, S.; Tritz, K.

    2017-04-01

    Results of 3D nonlinear simulations of neutral-beam-driven compressional Alfvén eigenmodes (CAEs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented. Hybrid MHD-particle simulations for the H-mode NSTX discharge (shot 141398) using the HYM code show unstable CAE modes for a range of toroidal mode numbers, n =4 -9 , and frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. It is found that the essential feature of CAEs is their coupling to kinetic Alfvén wave (KAW) that occurs on the high-field side at the Alfvén resonance location. High-frequency Alfvén eigenmodes are frequently observed in beam-heated NSTX plasmas, and have been linked to flattening of the electron temperature profiles at high beam power. Coupling between CAE and KAW suggests an energy channeling mechanism to explain these observations, in which beam-driven CAEs dissipate their energy at the resonance location, therefore significantly modifying the energy deposition profile. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that CAEs can channel the energy of the beam ions from the injection region near the magnetic axis to the location of the resonant mode conversion at the edge of the beam density profile. A set of nonlinear simulations show that the CAE instability saturates due to nonlinear particle trapping, and a large fraction of beam energy can be transferred to several unstable CAEs of relatively large amplitudes and absorbed at the resonant location. Absorption rate shows a strong scaling with the beam power.

  7. Note on quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, K V; Mesyats, E A; Snytnikov, A V; Vshivkov, V A

    2014-01-01

    A large number of model particles is shown necessary for quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability with the clouds-in-cells method. The required number of particles scales inversely with the expected growth rate, as in the kinetic regime only a narrow interval of beam velocities is resonant with the wave.

  8. Note on quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotov, K. V.; Timofeev, I. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mesyats, E. A.; Snytnikov, A. V.; Vshivkov, V. A. [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    A large number of model particles are shown necessary for quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability with the clouds-in-cells method. The required number of particles scales inversely with the expected growth rate, as only a narrow interval of beam velocities is resonant with the wave in the kinetic regime.

  9. SOFI Simulation Tool: A Software Package for Simulating and Testing Super-Resolution Optical Fluctuation Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girsault, Arik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Geissbuehler, Stefan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Lasser, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI) allows one to perform sub-diffraction fluorescence microscopy of living cells. By analyzing the acquired image sequence with an advanced correlation method, i.e. a high-order cross-cumulant analysis, super-resolution in all three spatial dimensions can be achieved. Here we introduce a software tool for a simple qualitative comparison of SOFI images under simulated conditions considering parameters of the microscope setup and essential properties of the biological sample. This tool incorporates SOFI and STORM algorithms, displays and describes the SOFI image processing steps in a tutorial-like fashion. Fast testing of various parameters simplifies the parameter optimization prior to experimental work. The performance of the simulation tool is demonstrated by comparing simulated results with experimentally acquired data.

  10. Modeling and computer simulation of ion beam synthesis of nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, M.

    1999-11-01

    The following topics were dealt with: ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters, kinetic three dimensional lattice Monte Carlo method, Ostwald ripening, redistribution of implanted impurities, buried layer formation, comparisation to experimental results.

  11. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Chen; XU Meng-Xin; HE Shou-Bo; XIA Jia-Wen; HE Yuan; YUAN You-Jin; LU Yuan-Rong; LIU Yong; WANG Zhi-Jun; DU Xiao-Nan; YAO Qing-Gao; LIU Ge

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system,called the SSC-Linac injector,is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou).As part of the SSC-Linac,the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles,a re-buncher and a diagnose box.The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m.The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particlein-cell code,and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces,and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotronfor further acceleration.The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail,and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  12. A particle-in-cell mode beam dynamics simulation of medium energy beam transport for the SSC-Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chen; He, Yuan; Yuan, You-Jin; Lu, Yuan-Rong; Liu, Yong; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Du, Xiao-Nan; Yao, Qing-Gao; Liu, Ge; Xu, Meng-Xin; He, Shou-Bo; Xia, Jia-Wen

    2012-01-01

    A new linear accelerator system, called the SSC-Linac injector, is being designed at HIRFL (the heavy ion research facility of Lanzhou). As part of the SSC-Linac, the medium energy beam transport (MEBT) consists of seven magnetic quadrupoles, a re-buncher and a diagnose box. The total length of this segment is about 1.75 m. The beam dynamics simulation in MEBT has been studied using the TRACK 3D particle-in-cell code, and the simulation result shows that the beam accelerated from the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) matches well with the acceptance of the following drift tube linac (DTL) in both the transverse and longitudinal phase spaces, and that most of the particles can be captured by the final sector focusing cyclotron for further acceleration. The longitudinal emittance of the RFQ and the longitudinal acceptance of the DTL was calculated in detail, and a multi-particle beam dynamics simulation from the ion source to the end of the DTL was done to verify the original design.

  13. A distributed computing tool for generating neural simulation databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J; Katz, Paul S

    2006-12-01

    After developing a model neuron or network, it is important to systematically explore its behavior across a wide range of parameter values or experimental conditions, or both. However, compiling a very large set of simulation runs is challenging because it typically requires both access to and expertise with high-performance computing facilities. To lower the barrier for large-scale model analysis, we have developed NeuronPM, a client/server application that creates a "screen-saver" cluster for running simulations in NEURON (Hines & Carnevale, 1997). NeuronPM provides a user-friendly way to use existing computing resources to catalog the performance of a neural simulation across a wide range of parameter values and experimental conditions. The NeuronPM client is a Windows-based screen saver, and the NeuronPM server can be hosted on any Apache/PHP/MySQL server. During idle time, the client retrieves model files and work assignments from the server, invokes NEURON to run the simulation, and returns results to the server. Administrative panels make it simple to upload model files, define the parameters and conditions to vary, and then monitor client status and work progress. NeuronPM is open-source freeware and is available for download at http://neuronpm.homeip.net . It is a useful entry-level tool for systematically analyzing complex neuron and network simulations.

  14. Intense DC beam nonlinear transport-analysis & simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Jian-Qin; ZHAO Xiao-Song

    2009-01-01

    The intense dc beam nonlinear transport was analyzed with the Lie algebraic method,and the particle trajectories of the second order approximation were obtained.Based on the theoretical analysis a computer code was designed.To get self-consistent solutions,iteration procedures were used in the code.As an example,we calculated a beam line(drift-electrostatic quadrupole doublet-drift).The results agree to the results calculated by using the PIC method.

  15. A Multi-Bunch, Three-Dimensional, Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Simulation Code for Parallel Computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Y.; Kabel, A.C.; /SLAC

    2005-05-11

    For simulating the strong-strong beam-beam effect, using Particle-In-Cell codes has become one of the methods of choice. While the two-dimensional problem is readily treatable using PC-class machines, the three-dimensional problem, i.e., a problem encompassing hourglass and phase-averaging effects, requires the use of parallel processors. In this paper, we introduce a strong-strong code NIMZOVICH, which was specifically designed for parallel processors and which is optimally used for many bunches and parasitic crossings. We describe the parallelization scheme and give some benchmarking results.

  16. Design and Simulation of Symmetric Nanostructures Using Two-beam Modulated Interference Lithography Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Raj, A Alfred Kiruba; Devaprakasam, D

    2013-01-01

    Interferometry lithography is a maturing technology for patterning sub-micron structures in arrays covering large areas. This paper presents a method for the measurement of nanoscale surface patterns produced by two-beam laser interference lithography (LIL). The objective in this study is to simulate and design periodic and quasi-periodic 1D, 2D and 3D nanostructures using two-beam interference technique. We designed and simulated periodic and quasi-periodic structures by two-beam interference patterning using a MATLAB program by varying angle of incidence, wavelength and geometry. The simulated patterns show that the symmetries of the interference maxima depend mostly on the angles of incidence and perturbations of incidents beams. Using this technique, we can achieve potentially high-volume of uniformity, throughput, process control, and repeatability. By varying different input parameters, we have optimized simulated patterns with controlled periodicity, density and aspect ratio also it can be programmed t...

  17. Biopharmaceutical Process Optimization with Simulation and Scheduling Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetri Petrides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Design and assessment activities associated with a biopharmaceutical process are performed at different levels of detail, based on the stage of development that the product is in. Preliminary “back-of-the envelope” assessments are performed early in the development lifecycle, whereas detailed design and evaluation are performed prior to the construction of a new facility. Both the preliminary and detailed design of integrated biopharmaceutical processes can be greatly assisted by the use of process simulators, discrete event simulators or finite capacity scheduling tools. This report describes the use of such tools for bioprocess development, design, and manufacturing. The report is divided into three sections. Section One provides introductory information and explains the purpose of bioprocess simulation. Section Two focuses on the detailed modeling of a single batch bioprocess that represents the manufacturing of a therapeutic monoclonal antibody (MAb. This type of analysis is typically performed by engineers engaged in the development and optimization of such processes. Section Three focuses on production planning and scheduling models for multiproduct plants.

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation as a Research Management Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, L. J.

    1986-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation provides a research manager with a performance monitoring tool to supplement the standard schedule- and resource-based tools such as the Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) and Critical Path Method (CPM). The value of the Monte Carlo simulation in a research environment is that it 1) provides a method for ranking competing processes, 2) couples technical improvements to the process economics, and 3) provides a mechanism to determine the value of research dollars. In this paper the Monte Carlo simulation approach is developed and applied to the evaluation of three competing processes for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. The technique is shown to be useful for ranking the processes and illustrating the importance of the timeframe of the analysis on the decision process. The results show that acid hydrolysis processes have higher potential for near-term application (2-5 years), while the enzymatic hydrolysis approach has an equal chance to be competitive in the long term (beyond 10 years).

  19. SU-E-T-327: The Update of a XML Composing Tool for TrueBeam Developer Mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y; Mao, W; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To introduce a major upgrade of a novel XML beam composing tool to scientists and engineers who strive to translate certain capabilities of TrueBeam Developer Mode to future clinical benefits of radiation therapy. Methods: TrueBeam Developer Mode provides the users with a test bed for unconventional plans utilizing certain unique features not accessible at the clinical mode. To access the full set of capabilities, a XML beam definition file accommodating all parameters including kV/MV imaging triggers in the plan can be locally loaded at this mode, however it is difficult and laborious to compose one in a text editor. In this study, a stand-along interactive XML beam composing application, TrueBeam TeachMod, was developed on Windows platforms to assist users in making their unique plans in a WYSWYG manner. A conventional plan can be imported in a DICOM RT object as the start of the beam editing process in which trajectories of all axes of a TrueBeam machine can be modified to the intended values at any control point. TeachMod also includes libraries of predefined imaging and treatment procedures to further expedite the process. Results: The TeachMod application is a major of the TeachMod module within DICOManTX. It fully supports TrueBeam 2.0. Trajectories of all axes including all MLC leaves can be graphically rendered and edited as needed. The time for XML beam composing has been reduced to a negligible amount regardless the complexity of the plan. A good understanding of XML language and TrueBeam schema is not required though preferred. Conclusion: Creating XML beams manually in a text editor will be a lengthy error-prone process for sophisticated plans. A XML beam composing tool is highly desirable for R and D activities. It will bridge the gap between scopes of TrueBeam capabilities and their clinical application potentials.

  20. Numerical Simulations of Tungsten Targets Hit by LHC Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Peroni, L; Bertarelli, A; Dallocchio, A

    2011-01-01

    The unprecedented energy intensities of modern hadron accelerators yield special problems with the materials that are placed close to or into the high intensity beams. The energy stored in a single beam of LHC particle accelerator is equivalent to about 80 kg of TNT explosive, stored in a transverse beam area with a typical value of 0.2 mm×0.2 mm. The materials placed close to the beam are used at, or even beyond, their damage limits. However, it is very difficult to predict structural efficiency and robustness accurately: beam-induced damage for high energy and high intensity occurs in a regime where practical experience does not exist. The interaction between high energy particle beams and metals induces a sudden non uniform temperature increase. This provokes a dynamic response of the structure entailing thermal stress waves and thermally induced vibrations or even the failure of the component. This study is performed in order to estimate the damage on a tungsten component due to the impact with a proton ...

  1. Modeling and Simulation Tools: From Systems Biology to Systems Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Brett G; Swat, Maciej J; Moné, Martijn J

    2016-01-01

    Modeling is an integral component of modern biology. In this chapter we look into the role of the model, as it pertains to Systems Medicine, and the software that is required to instantiate and run it. We do this by comparing the development, implementation, and characteristics of tools that have been developed to work with two divergent methodologies: Systems Biology and Pharmacometrics. From the Systems Biology perspective we consider the concept of "Software as a Medical Device" and what this may imply for the migration of research-oriented, simulation software into the domain of human health.In our second perspective, we see how in practice hundreds of computational tools already accompany drug discovery and development at every stage of the process. Standardized exchange formats are required to streamline the model exchange between tools, which would minimize translation errors and reduce the required time. With the emergence, almost 15 years ago, of the SBML standard, a large part of the domain of interest is already covered and models can be shared and passed from software to software without recoding them. Until recently the last stage of the process, the pharmacometric analysis used in clinical studies carried out on subject populations, lacked such an exchange medium. We describe a new emerging exchange format in Pharmacometrics which covers the non-linear mixed effects models, the standard statistical model type used in this area. By interfacing these two formats the entire domain can be covered by complementary standards and subsequently the according tools.

  2. Total skin electron therapy treatment verification: Monte Carlo simulation and beam characteristics of large non-standard electron fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavon, Ester Carrasco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Sanchez-Doblado, Francisco [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Leal, Antonio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Capote, Roberto [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Lagares, Juan Ignacio [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Perucha, Maria [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain); Arrans, Rafael [Dpto Fisiologia Medica y Biofisica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda Sanchez Pizjuan, 4, E-41009, Sevilla (Spain)

    2003-09-07

    Total skin electron therapy (TSET) is a complex technique which requires non-standard measurements and dosimetric procedures. This paper investigates an essential first step towards TSET Monte Carlo (MC) verification. The non-standard 6 MeV 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} electron beam at a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm as well as its horizontal projection behind a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) screen to SSD = 380 cm were evaluated. The EGS4 OMEGA-BEAM code package running on a Linux home made 47 PCs cluster was used for the MC simulations. Percentage depth-dose curves and profiles were calculated and measured experimentally for the 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} field at both SSD = 100 cm and patient surface SSD = 380 cm. The output factor (OF) between the reference 40 x 40 cm{sup 2} open field and its horizontal projection as TSET beam at SSD = 380 cm was also measured for comparison with MC results. The accuracy of the simulated beam was validated by the good agreement to within 2% between measured relative dose distributions, including the beam characteristic parameters (R{sub 50}, R{sub 80}, R{sub 100}, R{sub p}, E{sub 0}) and the MC calculated results. The energy spectrum, fluence and angular distribution at different stages of the beam (at SSD = 100 cm, at SSD = 364.2 cm, behind the PMMA beam spoiler screen and at treatment surface SSD = 380 cm) were derived from MC simulations. Results showed a final decrease in mean energy of almost 56% from the exit window to the treatment surface. A broader angular distribution (FWHM of the angular distribution increased from 13deg at SSD 100 cm to more than 30deg at the treatment surface) was fully attributable to the PMMA beam spoiler screen. OF calculations and measurements agreed to less than 1%. The effect of changing the electron energy cut-off from 0.7 MeV to 0.521 MeV and air density fluctuations in the bunker which could affect the MC results were shown to have a negligible impact on the beam fluence distributions. Results

  3. Dosimetric measurements and Monte Carlo simulation for achieving uniform surface dose in pulsed electron beam irradiation facility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V C Petwal; J N Rao; Jishnu Dwivedi; V K Senecha; K V Subbaiah

    2010-03-01

    A prototype pulsed electron beam irradiation facility for radiation processing of food and medical products is being commissioned at our centre in Indore, India. Analysis of surface dose and uniformity for a pulsed beam facility is of crucial importance because it is influenced by various operating parameters such as beam current, pulse repetition rate (PRR), scanning current profile and frequency, scanning width and product conveying speed. A large number of experiments are required to determine the harmonized setting of these operating parameters for achieving uniform dose. Since there is no readily available tool to set these parameters, use of Monte Carlo methods and computational tools can prove to be the most viable and time saving technique to support the assessment of the dose distribution. In the present study, Monte Carlo code, MCNP, is used to simulate the transport of 10 MeV electron beam through various mediums coming into the beam path and generate an equivalent dose profile in a polystyrene phantom for stationary state. These results have been verified with experimentally measured dose profile, showing that results are in good agreement within 4%. The Monte Carlo simulation further has been used to optimize the overlapping between the successive pulses of a scan to achieve ± 5% dose uniformity along the scanning direction. A mathematical model, which uses the stationary state data, is developed to include the effect of conveyor speed. The algorithm of the model is discussed and the results are compared with the experimentally measured values, which show that the agreement is better than 15%. Finally, harmonized setting for operating parameters of the accelerator are derived to deliver uniform surface dose in the range of 1–13 kGy/pass.

  4. Metamodelling Approach and Software Tools for Physical Modelling and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Mezhuyev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In computer science, metamodelling approach becomes more and more popular for the purpose of software systems development. In this paper, we discuss applicability of the metamodelling approach for development of software tools for physical modelling and simulation.To define a metamodel for physical modelling the analysis of physical models will be done. The result of such the analyses will show the invariant physical structures, we propose to use as the basic abstractions of the physical metamodel. It is a system of geometrical objects, allowing to build a spatial structure of physical models and to set a distribution of physical properties. For such geometry of distributed physical properties, the different mathematical methods can be applied. To prove the proposed metamodelling approach, we consider the developed prototypes of software tools.

  5. The surgical ensemble: choreography as a simulation and training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satava, Richard M; Hunter, Anne Marie

    2011-09-01

    Team training and interprofessional training have recently emerged as critical new simulations that enhance performance by coordinating communication, leadership, professional, and, to a certain extent, technical skills. In describing these new training tools, the term choreography has been loosely used, but no critical appraisal of the role of the science of choreography has been applied to a surgical procedure. By analogy, the surgical team, including anesthetists, surgeons, nurses, and technicians, constitutes a complete ensemble, whose physical actions and interactions constitute the "performance of surgery." There are very specific "elements" (tools) that are basic to choreography, such as space, timing, rhythm, energy, cues, transitions, and especially rehearsal. This review explores whether such a metaphor is appropriate and the possibility of applying the science of choreography to the surgical team in the operating theater.

  6. MultiSIMNRA: A computational tool for self-consistent ion beam analysis using SIMNRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.F., E-mail: tfsilva@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, trav. R 187, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil); Rodrigues, C.L. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, trav. R 187, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil); Mayer, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Moro, M.V.; Trindade, G.F.; Aguirre, F.R.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Tabacniks, M.H. [Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, Rua do Matão, trav. R 187, 05508-090 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • MultiSIMNRA enables the self-consistent analysis of multiple ion beam techniques. • Self-consistent analysis enables unequivocal and reliable modeling of the sample. • Four different computational algorithms available for model optimizations. • Definition of constraints enables to include prior knowledge into the analysis. - Abstract: SIMNRA is widely adopted by the scientific community of ion beam analysis for the simulation and interpretation of nuclear scattering techniques for material characterization. Taking advantage of its recognized reliability and quality of the simulations, we developed a computer program that uses multiple parallel sessions of SIMNRA to perform self-consistent analysis of data obtained by different ion beam techniques or in different experimental conditions of a given sample. In this paper, we present a result using MultiSIMNRA for a self-consistent multi-elemental analysis of a thin film produced by magnetron sputtering. The results demonstrate the potentialities of the self-consistent analysis and its feasibility using MultiSIMNRA.

  7. Hypersonic Control Modeling and Simulation Tool for Lifting Towed Ballutes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Aerospace Corporation proposes to develop a hypersonic control modeling and simulation tool for hypersonic aeroassist vehicles. Our control and simulation...

  8. Patient simulation: a literary synthesis of assessment tools in anesthesiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Alice A; Fanning, Ruth G; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca; Almazan, Dondee; Struyk, Brain; Seiden, Samuel C

    2009-12-20

    High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has been hypothesized as a modality for assessing competency of knowledge and skill in patient simulation, but uniform methods for HFPS performance assessment (PA) have not yet been completely achieved. Anesthesiology as a field founded the HFPS discipline and also leads in its PA. This project reviews the types, quality, and designated purpose of HFPS PA tools in anesthesiology. We used the systematic review method and systematically reviewed anesthesiology literature referenced in PubMed to assess the quality and reliability of available PA tools in HFPS. Of 412 articles identified, 50 met our inclusion criteria. Seventy seven percent of studies have been published since 2000; more recent studies demonstrated higher quality. Investigators reported a variety of test construction and validation methods. The most commonly reported test construction methods included "modified Delphi Techniques" for item selection, reliability measurement using inter-rater agreement, and intra-class correlations between test items or subtests. Modern test theory, in particular generalizability theory, was used in nine (18%) of studies. Test score validity has been addressed in multiple investigations and shown a significant improvement in reporting accuracy. However the assessment of predicative has been low across the majority of studies. Usability and practicality of testing occasions and tools was only anecdotally reported. To more completely comply with the gold standards for PA design, both shared experience of experts and recognition of test construction standards, including reliability and validity measurements, instrument piloting, rater training, and explicit identification of the purpose and proposed use of the assessment tool, are required.

  9. Computer simulation of three-dimensional heavy ion beam trajectory imaging techniques used for magnetic field estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, C; Connor, K A; Demers, D R; Radke, R J; Schoch, P M

    2007-11-01

    A magnetic field mapping technique via heavy ion beam trajectory imaging is being developed on the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch. This paper describes the computational tools created to model camera images of the light emitted from a simulated ion beam, reconstruct a three-dimensional trajectory, and estimate the accuracy of the reconstruction. First, a computer model is used to create images of the torus interior from any candidate camera location. It is used to explore the visual field of the camera and thus to guide camera parameters and placement. Second, it is shown that a three-dimensional ion beam trajectory can be recovered from a pair of perspectively projected trajectory images. The reconstruction considers effects due to finite beam size, nonuniform beam current density, and image background noise. Third, it is demonstrated that the trajectory reconstructed from camera images can help compute magnetic field profiles, and might be used as an additional constraint to an equilibrium reconstruction code, such as MSTFit.

  10. Electron beam simulation from gun to collector: Towards a complete solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertzig, R., E-mail: robert.mertzig@cern.ch; Shornikov, A., E-mail: robert.mertzig@cern.ch; Wenander, F. [CERN, Geneva 23, CH-1211 (Switzerland); Beebe, E.; Pikin, A. [Brookhaven National Lab, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-01-09

    An electron-beam simulation technique for high-resolution complete EBIS/T modelling is presented. The technique was benchmarked on the high compression HEC{sup 2} test-stand with an electron beam current, current density and energy of 10 A, 10 kA/cm{sup 2} and 49.2 keV, and on the immersed electron beam at REXEBIS for electron beam characteristics of 0.4 A, 200 A/cm{sup 2} and 4.5 keV. In both Brillouin-like and immersed beams the electron-beam radius varies from several millimeters at the gun, through some hundreds of micrometers in the ionization region to a few centimeters at the collector over a total length of several meters. We report on our approach for finding optimal meshing parameters, based on the local beam properties such as magnetic field-strength, electron energy and beam radius. This approach combined with dividing the problem domain into sub-domains, and subsequent splicing of the local solutions allowed us to simulate the beam propagation in EBISes from the gun to the collector using a conventional PC in about 24–36 h. Brillouin-like electron beams propagated through the complete EBIS were used to analyze the beam behavior within the collector region. We checked whether elastically reflected paraxial electrons from a Brillouin-like beam will escape from the collector region and add to the loss current. We have also studied the power deposition profiles as function of applied potentials using two electrode geometries for a Brillouin-like beam including the effects of backscattered electrons.

  11. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Iov, Florin; Sørensen, Poul

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... strategies have different goals e.g. fast response over disturbances, optimum power efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds, voltage ride-through capability including grid support. A dynamic model of a DC connection for active stall wind farms to the grid including the control is also implemented...

  12. Eddy current NDE performance demonstrations using simulation tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice, L. [EDF - CEIDRE, 2 rue Ampere, 93206 Saint-Denis Cedex 1 (France); Costan, V.; Guillot, E.; Thomas, P. [EDF - R and D, THEMIS, 1, avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2013-01-25

    To carry out performance demonstrations of the Eddy-Current NDE processes applied on French nuclear power plants, EDF studies the possibility of using simulation tools as an alternative to measurements on steam generator tube mocks-up. This paper focuses on the strategy led by EDF to assess and use code{sub C}armel3D and Civa, on the case of Eddy-Current NDE on wears problem which may appear in the U-shape region of steam generator tubes due to the rubbing of anti-vibration bars.

  13. Simulation of the layer-by-layer synthesis of articles with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudskoi, A. I.; Kondrat'ev, S. Yu.; Sokolov, Yu. A.; Kopaev, V. N.

    2015-11-01

    The production of powder articles by layer-by-layer electron-beam synthesis is simulated. The following types of spatial distribution of the specific beam power over the surface of a powder layer are analyzed: truncated Gaussian distribution and β distribution. The mathematical description of the layer-by-layer electron- beam synthesis of articles includes a model for the interaction of a scanning electron beam with an article and a model for the heat-and-mass transfer processes that occur during the formation of an article.

  14. Simulation study of accelerator based quasi-mono-energetic epithermal neutron beams for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, M; Habib, N; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Mansy, M S

    2016-01-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-mono-energetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-7.5 keV at the accelerator port using the generated neutron spectrum from a Li (p, n) Be reaction. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The feature of the filtered beams is detailed in terms of optimal thickness of the primary and additive components. A computer code named "QMNB-AS" was developed to carry out the required calculations. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity with low contamination from the accompanying thermal, fast neutrons and γ-rays.

  15. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  16. Cross-beam energy transfer to a single f-20 beam: simulations of previous and upcoming experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Thomas; Turnbull, David; Kirkwood, Robert; Michel, Pierre; Wilks, Scott; Berger, Richard; Hinkel, Denise; Moody, John; Langer, Steve; Langdon, Bruce; Strozzi, David

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by materials research applications, cross-beam energy transfer can be used to transfer energy from one or more quads of beamlets at the NIF, which have an effective f-number of 8, to a single f-20 beam. Using plasma comprised of a preheated C5H12 gasbag, a preliminary experiment at the NIF demonstrated amplification of a 750 J f-20 beam by a factor of 2 in both power and energy. A witness plate providing gated x-ray images was used to obtain total energies and transmitted spot intensities for the pump quad, seed beamlet, and a calibration quad. These experimental diagnostics offer the opportunity to perform quantitative comparisons with simulations. We use the laser-plasma interaction code pF3D to simulate the energy transfer process, using plasma conditions obtained from the plasma hydrodynamics code HYDRA. Our simulations of the completed single-pump quad experiment recover the measured seed amplification and transmitted spot power distributions. We also show simulation results for the upcoming two-pump quad experiment.

  17. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aditsania, Annisa; Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi; Sukarno, Pudjo; Soewono, Edy

    2015-09-01

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  18. Modeling and simulation performance of sucker rod beam pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aditsania, Annisa, E-mail: annisaaditsania@gmail.com [Department of Computational Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Rahmawati, Silvy Dewi, E-mail: silvyarahmawati@gmail.com; Sukarno, Pudjo, E-mail: psukarno@gmail.com [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Soewono, Edy, E-mail: esoewono@math.itb.ac.id [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Artificial lift is a mechanism to lift hydrocarbon, generally petroleum, from a well to surface. This is used in the case that the natural pressure from the reservoir has significantly decreased. Sucker rod beam pumping is a method of artificial lift. Sucker rod beam pump is modeled in this research as a function of geometry of the surface part, the size of sucker rod string, and fluid properties. Besides its length, sucker rod string also classified into tapered and un-tapered. At the beginning of this research, for easy modeling, the sucker rod string was assumed as un-tapered. The assumption proved non-realistic to use. Therefore, the tapered sucker rod string modeling needs building. The numerical solution of this sucker rod beam pump model is computed using finite difference method. The numerical result shows that the peak of polished rod load for sucker rod beam pump unit C-456-D-256-120, for non-tapered sucker rod string is 38504.2 lb, while for tapered rod string is 25723.3 lb. For that reason, to avoid the sucker rod string breaks due to the overload, the use of tapered sucker rod beam string is suggested in this research.

  19. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of a continuous needle-like argon electron-beam plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong

    2017-05-01

    The fluid-Poisson equations coupled with the Monte Carlo method were used to simulate the spatio-temporal behavior of a needle-like argon electron-beam plasma. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation, three coupled parameters characterizing the electron beam propagation for initial energies above several keV were expressed using a universal dimensionless shape function given in terms of the beam range multiplied by a normalized coefficient. Therefore, a single run of the Monte Carlo code was sufficient for the simulations over a wide range of conditions. The spatial potential as a function of space and time was studied from the fluid-Poisson equations. The results indicate that the time evolution of the spatial potential was influenced by the presence of the slowed-down electrons and the flying beam electrons, whereas the potential in quasi-equilibrium was mainly determined from the spatial distribution of the secondary electron. The potential in quasi-equilibrium was positive near the beam entrance and most negative along the tip of the beam range, which was a result of ambipolar diffusion. When the enclosing boundary surfaces were moved within the beam range, the potential was nearly positive everywhere. The calculation on the diffusion-drift flux indicated that the net current of the secondary electrons flowing back to the incident plane in quasi-equilibrium balanced the incident beam current, which was the so-called return current in the three-dimensional space.

  20. A new simulation tool for testing smart home recognition algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchard, K.; Ajroud, A.; Bouchard, B.; Bouzouane, A. [Chicoutimi Univ. du Quebec, Saguenay, PQ (Canada)

    2010-08-13

    Smart home technologies are being actively researched. However, many scientists studying this topic of research do not own smart home infrastructure, and therefore, are unable to conduct proper experiments in a concrete environment with real data. In order to address this problem and to help researchers working in the field of activity recognition, this paper presented a novel and flexible three-dimensional smart home infrastructure simulator called SIMACT developed in Java. The paper discussed the proposed simulator including the software architecture, implementation, and scripting. It also discussed the actual initiative to gather real data that would be incorporated in the simulator as real case pre-recorded scenarios. An overview of related work and future developments were also presented. It was concluded that SIMACT is a user-friendly three-dimensional animated simulator that offers a simple interface that could be easily adapted to individual needs and could become a very useful tool for the community with its XML scripting language, many options, customizable three-dimensional frame and its set of pre-defined real case scenarios. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Electron Beams Focused by Periodic Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1999-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional (3D) model of an electron beam focused by a periodic permanent magnet (PPM) stack has been developed. First, the simulation code MAFIA was used to model a PPM stack using the magnetostatic solver. The exact geometry of the magnetic focusing structure was modeled; thus, no approximations were made regarding the off-axis fields. The fields from the static solver were loaded into the 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) solver of MAFIA where fully 3D behavior of the beam was simulated in the magnetic focusing field. The PIC solver computes the time-integration of electromagnetic fields simultaneously with the time integration of the equations of motion of charged particles that move under the influence of those fields. Fields caused by those moving charges are also taken into account; thus, effects like space charge and magnetic forces between particles are fully simulated. The electron beam is simulated by a number of macro-particles. These macro-particles represent a given charge Q amounting to that of several million electrons in order to conserve computational time and memory. Particle motion is unrestricted, so particle trajectories can cross paths and move in three dimensions under the influence of 3D electric and magnetic fields. Correspondingly, there is no limit on the initial current density distribution of the electron beam, nor its density distribution at any time during the simulation. Simulation results including beam current density, percent ripple and percent transmission will be presented, and the effects current, magnetic focusing strength and thermal velocities have on beam behavior will be demonstrated using 3D movies showing the evolution of beam characteristics in time and space. Unlike typical beam optics models, this 3D model allows simulation of asymmetric designs such as non- circularly symmetric electrostatic or magnetic focusing as well as the inclusion of input/output couplers.

  2. Simulation of W diaphragm efficiency for mitigation of RE beam in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestchanyi, S., E-mail: serguei.pestchanyi@kit.edu; Bazylev, B.; Landman, I.

    2015-08-15

    Simulation of the mitigation efficiency of the RE beam impact on the ITER first wall by special sacrificial W diaphragm has been performed using ENDEP, MEMOS and TOKES codes. According to the technique proposed, the RE beam should deposit its energy onto the special sacrificial diaphragm consisting of separate tungsten ‘nails’. The ‘nails’ is partly evaporated and then the beam power deposited into the vaporized and ionized W plasma shield. The wall heat load mitigation is due to the RE beam energy deposition into the W plasma and its re-radiation onto larger wall area. Calculated tolerable beam energy should not exceed 90 MJ to ensure absence of melting for 10 ms RE beam deposition.

  3. Feedback phase correction of Bessel beams in confocal line light-sheet microscopy: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, S Hoda; Gohn-Kreuz, Cristian; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2013-08-10

    Confocal line detection has been shown to improve contrast in light-sheet-based microscopy especially when illuminating the sample by Bessel beams. Besides their self-reconstructing capability, the stability in propagation direction of Bessel beams allows to block the unwanted emission light from the Bessel beam's ring system. However, due to phase aberrations induced especially at the border of the specimen, Bessel beams may not propagate along lines parallel to the slit detector. Here we present a concept of how to correct the phase of each incident Bessel beam such that the efficiency of confocal line detection is improved by up to 200%-300%. The applicability of the method is verified by the results obtained from numerical simulations based on the beam propagation method.

  4. Developing the Next Generation of Tools for Simulating Galaxy Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Outflows are observed in starbursting galaxies of all masses and at all cosmological epochs. They play a key role throughout the history of the Universe: shaping the galaxy mass-metallicity relation, drastically affecting the content and number density of dwarf galaxies, and transforming the chemical composition of the intergalactic medium. Yet, a complete model of galaxy out ows has proven to be elusive, as it requires both a better understanding of the evolution of the turbulent, multiphase gas in and around starbursting galaxies, and better tools to reproduce this evolution in galaxy-scale simulations. Here we propose to conduct a detailed series of numerical simulations designed to help develop such next-generation tools for the simulation of galaxy outflows. The program will consist of three types of direct numerical simulations, each of which will be targeted to allow galaxy-scale simulations to more accurately model key microphysical processes and their observational consequences. Our first set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the starbursting interstellar medium (ISM) from which galaxy outflows are driven. The surface densities in starbursting galaxies are much larger than those in the Milky Way, resulting in larger gravitational accelerations and random velocities exceeding 30 or even 100 km/s. Under these conditions, the thermal stability of the ISM is changed dramatically, due to the sharp peak in gas cooling efficiency at H 200,000 K. Our simulations will carefully quantify the key ways in which this medium differs from the local ISM, and the consequences of these differences for when, where, and how outflows are driven. A second set of simulations will be targeted at better modeling the observed properties of rapidly cooling, highly turbulent gas. Because gas cooling in and around starbursts is extremely efficient, turbulent motions are often supersonic, which leads to a distribution of ionization states that is vastly different than

  5. SNOW: a digital computer program for the simulation of ion beam devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boers, J.E.

    1980-08-01

    A digital computer program, SNOW, has been developed for the simulation of dense ion beams. The program simulates the plasma expansion cup (but not the plasma source itself), the acceleration region, and a drift space with neutralization if desired. The ion beam is simulated by computing representative trajectories through the device. The potentials are simulated on a large rectangular matrix array which is solved by iterative techniques. Poisson's equation is solved at each point within the configuration using space-charge densities computed from the ion trajectories combined with background electron and/or ion distributions. The simulation methods are described in some detail along with examples of both axially-symmetric and rectangular beams. A detailed description of the input data is presented.

  6. Simulations of Neutral Beam Ion Ripple Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李吉波; 丁斯晔; 吴斌; 胡纯栋

    2012-01-01

    Predictions on the ripple loss of neutral beam fast ions on EAST are investigated with a guiding center code, including both ripple and collisional effects. A 6% to 16% loss of neutral beam ions is predicted for typical EAST experiments, and a synergistic enhancement of fast ion loss is found for toroidal field (TF) ripples with collisions. The lost ions are strongly localized and will cause a maximum heat load of - 0.05 MW/m^2 on the first wall.

  7. Study of Offset Collisions and Beam Adjustment in the LHC Using a Strong-Strong Simulation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Muratori, B

    2002-01-01

    The bunches of the two opposing beams in the LHC do not always collide head-on. The beam-beam effects cause a small, unavoidable separation under nominal operational conditions. During the beam adjustment and when the beams are brought into collision the beams are separated by a significant fraction of the beam size. A result of small beam separation can be the excitation of coherent dipole oscillations or an emittance increase. These two effects are studied using a strong-strong multi particle simulation model. The aim is to identify possible limitations and to find procedures which minimise possible detrimental effects.

  8. Contact dynamics of elasto-plastic thin beams simulated via absolute nodal coordinate formulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Tao Wang; Qiang Tian; Hai-Yan Hu

    2016-01-01

    Under the frame of multibody dynamics, the contact dynamics of elasto-plastic spatial thin beams is numerically studied by using the spatial thin beam elements of absolute nodal coordinate formulation (ANCF). The inter-nal force of the elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element is derived under the assumption that the plastic strain of the beam element depends only on its longitudinal deformation. A new body-fixed local coordinate system is introduced into the spatial thin beam element of ANCF for efficient con-tact detection in the contact dynamics simulation. The linear isotropic hardening constitutive law is used to describe the elasto-plastic deformation of beam material, and the classical return mapping algorithm is adopted to evaluate the plastic strains. A multi-zone contact approach of thin beams previ-ously proposed by the authors is also introduced to detect the multiple contact zones of beams accurately, and the penalty method is used to compute the normal contact force of thin beams in contact. Four numerical examples are given to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the pro-posed elasto-plastic spatial thin beam element of ANCF for flexible multibody system dynamics.

  9. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite of tools. This suite of tools pairs NREL's high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic, long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  10. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Daniel O.; Bastian, Welsch; Wolfram, Rühaak; Kristian, Bär; Ingo, Sass

    2017-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. The high temperature level of these heat sources prohibits the use of the shallow subsurface for environmental reasons. Therefore, deeper reservoirs have to be accessed instead. The increased depth of the systems results in high investment costs and has hindered the implementation of this technology until now. Therefore, research of medium deep BTES systems relies on numerical simulation models. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe key features like partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We give an update on the development of BASIMO: a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport in a dual-continuum approach. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. Thereby, partly insulated boreholes can be considered in the model. Furthermore, BASIMO can be used to improve the design of BTES systems: the tool allows for automated parameter variations and is readily coupled to other code like mathematical optimization algorithms. Optimization can be used to determine the required minimum system size or to increase the system performance.

  11. Atmospheric extinction in simulation tools for solar tower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrieder, Natalie; Wilbert, Stefan; Schroedter-Homscheidt, Marion; Schnell, Franziska; Guevara, Diana Mancera; Buck, Reiner; Giuliano, Stefano; Pitz-Paal, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric extinction causes significant radiation losses between the heliostat field and the receiver in a solar tower plants. These losses vary with site and time. State of the art is that in ray-tracing and plant optimization tools, atmospheric extinction is included by choosing between few constant standard atmospheric conditions. Even though some tools allow the consideration of site and time dependent extinction data, such data sets are nearly never available. This paper summarizes and compares the most common model equations implemented in several ray-tracing tools. There are already several methods developed and published to measure extinction on-site. An overview of the existing methods is also given here. Ray-tracing simulations of one exemplary tower plant at the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA) are presented to estimate the plant yield deviations between simulations using standard model equations instead of extinction time series. For PSA, the effect of atmospheric extinction accounts for losses between 1.6 and 7 %. This range is caused by considering overload dumping or not. Applying standard clear or hazy model equations instead of extinction time series lead to an underestimation of the annual plant yield at PSA. The discussion of the effect of extinction in tower plants has to include overload dumping. Situations in which overload dumping occurs are mostly connected to high radiation levels and low atmospheric extinction. Therefore it can be recommended that project developers should consider site and time dependent extinction data especially on hazy sites. A reduced uncertainty of the plant yield prediction can significantly reduce costs due to smaller risk margins for financing and EPCs. The generation of extinction data for several locations in form of representative yearly time series or geographical maps should be further elaborated.

  12. Beam dynamics simulations for linacs driving short-wavelength FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori nazionali di Frascati; Serafini, L. [Milan Univ., Milan (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Milan (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    The fast code HOMDYN has been recently developed, in the framework of the TTF (Tesla test facility) collaboration, in order to study the beam dynamics of linacs delivering high brightness beams as those needed for short wavelength Fel experiments. These linacs are typically driven by radio-frequency photo-injectors, where correlated time dependent space charge effects are of great relevance: these effects cannot be studied by standard beam optics codes (TRACE3D, etc.) and they have been modeled so far by means of multi-particle (Pic or quasistatic) codes requiring heavy cpu time and memory allocations. HOMDYN is able to describe the beam generation at the photo-cathode and the emittance compensation process in the injector even running on a laptop with very modest running rimes (less than a minute). In this paper it is showed how this capability of the code is exploited so to model a whole linac up to the point where the space charge dominated regime is of relevance (200 MeV).

  13. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. A. Soliman; M. M. Abdelrahman; A. G. Helal; F. W. Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7. This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics (accel-decel system) to generate an

  14. Simulations of Axisymmetric Erosion in IFR-Transported Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-21

    energy beam propagation studies. 17 References 1. G. J. Caporaso, F. Rainer, W. E. Martin, D. S. Prono and A. G. Cole, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1591 (1986). 2...Mark, L-477 Dr. William Fawley JA C)R Dr. William Barletta 39(50 Libery Street, Suite 320 Dr. William Sharp Freenont, CA ’.533 Dr. Daniel S. Prono At

  15. Simulation of Laser-Compton Cooling of Electron Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgaki, T.

    2000-01-01

    We study a method of laser-Compton cooling of electron beams. Using a Monte Carlo code, we evaluate the effects of the laser-electron interaction for transverse cooling. The optics with and without chromatic correction for the cooling are examined. The laser-Compton cooling for JLC/NLC at E_0=2 GeV is considered.

  16. User guide to SUNDT. A simulation tool for ultrasonic NDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirdelius, H. [SAQ Kontroll AB, Moelndal (Sweden)

    2000-08-01

    Mathematical modelling of the ultrasonic NDT situation has become an emerging discipline with a broadening industrial interest in the recent decade. New and stronger demands on reliability of used procedures and methods applied in e.g. nuclear and pressure vessel industries have enforced this fact. To qualify the procedures, extensive experimental work on test blocks is normally required. A thoroughly validated model has the ability to be an alternative and a complement to the experimental work in order to reduce the extensive cost that is associated with the previous procedure. The present report describes the SUNDT software (Simulation tool for Ultrasonic NDT). Except being a user guide to the software it also pinpoints its modelling capabilities and restrictions. The SUNDT software is a windows based pre- and post processor using the UTDefect model as mathematical kernel. The software simulates the whole testing procedure with the contact probes (of arbitrary type, angle and size) acting in pulse-echo or tandem inspection situations and includes a large number of defect models. The simulated test piece is at the present state restricted to be of a homogeneous and isotropic material and does not include any model of attenuation due to absorption (viscous effects) or grain boundary scattering. The report also incorporates a short declaration of previous validations and verifications against experimental investigations and comparisons with other existing simulation software. The major part of the report deals with a presentation and visualisation of the various options within the pre- and post processor. In order to exemplify its capability a specific simulation is followed from setting the parameters, running the kernel and towards visualisation of the result.

  17. Recent Progress in a Beam-Beam Simulation Code for Circular Hadron Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabel, Andreas; /SLAC; Fischer, Wolfram; /Brookhaven; Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2007-09-10

    While conventional tracking codes can readily provide higher-order optical quantities and give an estimate of dynamic apertures, they are unable to provide directly measurable quantities such as lifetimes and loss rates. The particle tracking framework Plibb aims at modeling a storage ring with sufficient accuracy and a sufficiently high number of turns and in the presence of beam-beam interactions to allow for an estimate of these quantities. We provide a description of new features of the codes; we also describe a novel method of treating chromaticity in ring sections in a symplectic fashion.

  18. Wave optics simulation of spatially partially coherent beams: Applications to free space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xifeng

    One of the main drawbacks that prevent the extensive application of free space laser communications is the atmospheric turbulence through which the beam must propagate. For the past four decades, much attention has been devoted to finding different methods to overcome this difficulty. A partially coherent beam (PCB) has been recognized as an effective approach to improve the performance of an atmospheric link. It has been examined carefully with most analyses considering the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. However, practical PCBs may not follow GSM theory and are better examined through some numerical simulation approach such as a wave optics simulation. Consequently, an approach for modeling the spatially PCB in wave optics simulation is presented here. The approach involves the application of a sequence of random phase screens to an initial beam field and the summation of the intensity results after propagation. The relationship between the screen parameters and the spatial coherence function for the beam is developed and the approach is verified by comparing results with analytic formulations for a Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam. A variety of simulation studies were performed for this dissertation. The propagation through turbulence of a coherent beam and a particular version of a PCB, a pseudo-partially coherent beam (PPCB), is analyzed. The beam is created with a sequence of several Gaussian random phase screens for each atmospheric realization. The average intensity profiles, the scintillation index and aperture averaging factor for a horizontal propagation scenario are examined. Comparisons between these results and their corresponding analytic results for the well-known GSM beam are also made. Cumulative probability density functions for the received irradiance are initially investigated. Following the general simulation investigations, a performance metric is proposed as a general measure for optimizing the transverse coherence length of a partial

  19. Numerical simulation program of multicomponent ion beam transport from ECR ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Lei; SONG Ming-Tao; CAO Yun; ZHAO Hong-Wei; ZHANG Zi-Min; LI Xue-Qian; LI Jia-Cai

    2004-01-01

    In order to research multi-component ion beam transport process and improve transport efficiency, a special simulating program for ECR beam is becoming more and more necessary. We have developed a program written by Visual Basic to be dedicated to numerical simulation of the highly charged ion beam and to optimization of beam dynamics in transport line. In the program the exchange of electrons between highly charged ions and low chargedions or neutral atoms (residual gas in transport line) is taken into account, adopting classical molecular over-barrier model and Monte Carlo method, so the code can easily give the change of charge state distribution along the transmission line. The main advantage of the code is the ability to simultaneously simulate a large quantity of ions with different masses and charge states, and particularly, to simulate the loss of highly charged ions and the increase of low charged ions due to electron exchange in the whole transport process. Some simulations have been done to study the transmission line of LECR3[1] which is an ECR ion source for highly charged ion beam at IMP. Compared with experimental results, the simulations are considered to be successful.

  20. WINS. Market Simulation Tool for Facilitating Wind Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-10-30

    Integrating 20% or more wind energy into the system and transmitting large sums of wind energy over long distances will require a decision making capability that can handle very large scale power systems with tens of thousands of buses and lines. There is a need to explore innovative analytical and implementation solutions for continuing reliable operations with the most economical integration of additional wind energy in power systems. A number of wind integration solution paths involve the adoption of new operating policies, dynamic scheduling of wind power across interties, pooling integration services, and adopting new transmission scheduling practices. Such practices can be examined by the decision tool developed by this project. This project developed a very efficient decision tool called Wind INtegration Simulator (WINS) and applied WINS to facilitate wind energy integration studies. WINS focused on augmenting the existing power utility capabilities to support collaborative planning, analysis, and wind integration project implementations. WINS also had the capability of simulating energy storage facilities so that feasibility studies of integrated wind energy system applications can be performed for systems with high wind energy penetrations. The development of WINS represents a major expansion of a very efficient decision tool called POwer Market Simulator (POMS), which was developed by IIT and has been used extensively for power system studies for decades. Specifically, WINS provides the following superiorities; (1) An integrated framework is included in WINS for the comprehensive modeling of DC transmission configurations, including mono-pole, bi-pole, tri-pole, back-to-back, and multi-terminal connection, as well as AC/DC converter models including current source converters (CSC) and voltage source converters (VSC); (2) An existing shortcoming of traditional decision tools for wind integration is the limited availability of user interface, i.e., decision

  1. Beam emittance measurements and simulations of injector line for radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Pande, Rajni; Singh, P.

    2015-07-01

    A 400 keV deuteron (D+) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, built, and commissioned at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India. A beam line has been developed for injecting deuterons into the 400 keV RFQ. This comprises of a RF plasma ion source and a low energy beam transport (LEBT) system, consisting of two solenoid magnets and two steerer magnets. The ion source is characterized in terms of transverse beam emittance. A slit-wire scanner based emittance measurement setup has been developed for the transverse emittance measurements of H+ and D+ beams. The measured emittance values are found to be well within the acceptance value for the RFQ. These measured emittance parameters are used to optimize the solenoid fields in LEBT to match the beam from the ion source to RFQ. TRACEWIN simulation code is used for the beam transport simulations. The simulations show 99% transmission of D+ beam through the RFQ, while 95% transmission has been measured experimentally.

  2. Particle-in-Cell Simulations of the VENUS Ion Beam Transport System

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Damon; Leitner, Daniela; Lyneis, Claude; Qiang, Ji

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation superconducting ECR ion source VENUS serves as the prototype injector ion source for the linac driver of the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). The high-intensity heavy ion beams required by the RIA driver linac present significant challenges for the design and simulation of an ECR extraction and low energy ion beam transport system. Extraction and beam formation take place in a strong (up to 3T) axial magnetic field, which leads to significantly different focusing properties for the different ion masses and charge states of the extracted beam. Typically, beam simulations must take into account the contributions of up to 30 different charge states and ion masses. Two three-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes developed for other purposes, IMPACT and WARP, have been adapted in order to model intense, multi-species DC beams. A discussion of the differences of these codes and the advantages of each in the simulation of the low energy beam transport system of an ECR ion source is given. D...

  3. Energy loss of a high charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Simulations, scaling, and accelerating wakefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss and gain of a beam in the nonlinear, “blowout” regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion, has been asserted, through previous observations in simulations, to scale linearly with beam charge. Additionally, from a recent analysis by Barov et al., it has been concluded that for an infinitesimally short beam, the energy loss is indeed predicted to scale linearly with beam charge for arbitrarily large beam charge. This scaling is predicted to hold despite the onset of a relativistic, nonlinear response by the plasma, when the number of beam particles occupying a cubic plasma skin depth exceeds that of plasma electrons within the same volume. This paper is intended to explore the deviations from linear energy loss using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that arise in the case of experimentally relevant finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind the finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude into the nonlinear regime. At large enough normalized charge, the linear scaling of both decelerating and accelerating fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. Using the results of parametric particle-in-cell studies, the implications of these results for observing severe deviations from linear scaling in present and planned experiments are discussed.

  4. Simulation of the magnetic mirror effect on a beam of positrons

    CERN Document Server

    Boursette, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    I simulated a beam of positrons at the entrance of a 5 Tesla magnet for the Aegis experiment. The goal was to show how many positrons are lost because of the magnetic mirror effect. To do my simulation, I used Comsol to create the magnetic field map and Geant4 to draw the trajectories of the positrons in this field map.

  5. MARS Tracking Simulations for the Mu2e Slow Extracted Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaslaev, Vladimir [Fermilab; Rakhno, Igor [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    Particle tracking taking into account interactions with fields and materials is necessary for proper evaluation of the resonant extraction losses and geometry optimization for the extraction beam line. This paper describes the tracking simulations for the Mu2e Resonant Extraction and discusses the geometry choices made based on these simulations.

  6. Simulation of Heavy-Ion Beam Losses with the SixTrack-FLUKA Active Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Hermes, Pascal; Cerutti, Francesco; Ferrari, Alfredo; Jowett, John; Lechner, Anton; Mereghetti, Alessio; Mirarchi, Daniele; Ortega, Pablo; Redaelli, Stefano; Salvachua, Belen; Skordis, Eleftherios; Valentino, Gianluca; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    The LHC heavy-ion program aims to further increase the stored ion beam energy, putting high demands on the LHC collimation system. Accurate simulations of the ion collimation efficiency are crucial to validate the feasibility of new proposed configurations and beam parameters. In this paper we present a generalized framework of the SixTrack-FLUKA coupling to simulate the fragmentation of heavy-ions in the collimators and their motion in the LHC lattice. We compare heavy-ion loss maps simulated on the basis of this framework with the loss distributions measured during heavy-ion operation in 2011 and 2015.

  7. Gaussian beam propagation in anisotropic turbulence along horizontal links: theory, simulation, and laboratory implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xifeng; Voelz, David G; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

    2016-05-20

    Experimental and theoretical work has shown that atmospheric turbulence can exhibit "non-Kolmogorov" behavior including anisotropy and modifications of the classically accepted spatial power spectral slope, -11/3. In typical horizontal scenarios, atmospheric anisotropy implies that the variations in the refractive index are more spatially correlated in both horizontal directions than in the vertical. In this work, we extend Gaussian beam theory for propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence to the case of anisotropic turbulence along the horizontal direction. We also study the effects of different spatial power spectral slopes on the beam propagation. A description is developed for the average beam intensity profile, and the results for a range of scenarios are demonstrated for the first time with a wave optics simulation and a spatial light modulator-based laboratory benchtop counterpart. The theoretical, simulation, and benchtop intensity profiles show good agreement and illustrate that an elliptically shaped beam profile can develop upon propagation. For stronger turbulent fluctuation regimes and larger anisotropies, the theory predicts a slightly more elliptical form of the beam than is generated by the simulation or benchtop setup. The theory also predicts that without an outer scale limit, the beam width becomes unbounded as the power spectral slope index α approaches a maximum value of 4. This behavior is not seen in the simulation or benchtop results because the numerical phase screens used for these studies do not model the unbounded wavefront tilt component implied in the analytic theory.

  8. A geometrical model for the Monte Carlo simulation of the TrueBeam linac

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Fogliata, Antonella; Cozzi, Luca; Sauerwein, Wolfgang; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of linacs depends on the accurate geometrical description of the head. The geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac is not available to researchers. Instead, the company distributes phase-space files (PSFs) of the flattening-filter-free (FFF) beams tallied upstream the jaws. Yet, MC simulations based on third party tallied PSFs are subject to limitations. We present an experimentally-based geometry developed for the simulation of the FFF beams of the TrueBeam linac. The upper part of the TrueBeam linac was modeled modifying the Clinac 2100 geometry. The most important modification is the replacement of the standard flattening filters by {\\it ad hoc} thin filters which were modeled by comparing dose measurements and simulations. The experimental dose profiles for the 6~MV and 10~MV FFF beams were obtained from the Varian Golden Data Set and from in-house measurements for radiation fields ranging from $3\\times3$ to $40\\times40$ cm$^2$. The same comparisons were done for dose profiles ob...

  9. Scintillation analysis of truncated Bessel beams via numerical turbulence propagation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil T; Voelz, David; Xiao, Xifeng

    2013-11-20

    Scintillation aspects of truncated Bessel beams propagated through atmospheric turbulence are investigated using a numerical wave optics random phase screen simulation method. On-axis, aperture averaged scintillation and scintillation relative to a classical Gaussian beam of equal source power and scintillation per unit received power are evaluated. It is found that in almost all circumstances studied, the zeroth-order Bessel beam will deliver the lowest scintillation. Low aperture averaged scintillation levels are also observed for the fourth-order Bessel beam truncated by a narrower source window. When assessed relative to the scintillation of a Gaussian beam of equal source power, Bessel beams generally have less scintillation, particularly at small receiver aperture sizes and small beam orders. Upon including in this relative performance measure the criteria of per unit received power, this advantageous position of Bessel beams mostly disappears, but zeroth- and first-order Bessel beams continue to offer some advantage for relatively smaller aperture sizes, larger source powers, larger source plane dimensions, and intermediate propagation lengths.

  10. ICOOL: A SIMULATION CODE FOR IONIZATION COOLING OF MUON BEAMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNOW,R.C.

    1999-03-25

    Current ideas [1,2] for designing a high luminosity muon collider require significant cooling of the phase space of the muon beams. The only known method that can cool the beams in a time comparable to the muon lifetime is ionization cooling [3,4]. This method requires directing the particles in the beam at a large angle through a low Z absorber material in a strong focusing magnetic channel and then restoring the longitudinal momentum with an rf cavity. We have developed a new 3-D tracking code ICOOL for examining possible configurations for muon cooling. A cooling system is described in terms of a series of longitudinal regions with associated material and field properties. The tracking takes place in a coordinate system that follows a reference orbit through the system. The code takes into account decays and interactions of {approx}50-500 MeV/c muons in matter. Material geometry regions include cylinders and wedges. A number of analytic models are provided for describing the field configurations. Simple diagnostics are built into the code, including calculation of emittances and correlations, longitudinal traces, histograms and scatter plots. A number of auxiliary files can be generated for post-processing analysis by the user.

  11. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R [NIST, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  12. Software tool for horizontal-axis wind turbine simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitale, A.J. [Instituto Argentino de Oceanografia, Camino La Carrindanga Km. 7, 5 CC 804, B8000FWB Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Rossi, A.P. [Universidad Tecnologica Nacional Facultad Regional Bahia Blanca, GESE, 11 de Abril 461, B8000LMI Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Dpto. de Ing. Electrica y de Computadoras, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Av. Alem 1253, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    The main problem of a wind turbine generator design project is the design of the right blades capable of satisfying the specific energy requirement of an electric system with optimum performance. Once the blade has been designed for optimum operation at a particular rotor angular speed, it is necessary to determine the overall performance of the rotor under the range of wind speed that it will encounter. A software tool that simulates low-power, horizontal-axis wind turbines was developed for this purpose. With this program, the user can calculate the rotor power output for any combination of wind and rotor speeds, with definite blade shape and airfoil characteristics. The software also provides information about distribution of forces along the blade span, for different operational conditions. (author)

  13. APRON: A Cellular Processor Array Simulation and Hardware Design Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. W. Barr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a software environment for the efficient simulation of cellular processor arrays (CPAs. This software (APRON is used to explore algorithms that are designed for massively parallel fine-grained processor arrays, topographic multilayer neural networks, vision chips with SIMD processor arrays, and related architectures. The software uses a highly optimised core combined with a flexible compiler to provide the user with tools for the design of new processor array hardware architectures and the emulation of existing devices. We present performance benchmarks for the software processor array implemented on standard commodity microprocessors. APRON can be configured to use additional processing hardware if necessary and can be used as a complete graphical user interface and development environment for new or existing CPA systems, allowing more users to develop algorithms for CPA systems.

  14. External beam milli-PIXE as analytical tool for Neolithic obsidian provenance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, B.; Cristea-Stan, D. [National Institute for Nuclear Physics and Engineering Horia Hulubei, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kovács, I.; Szõkefalvi-Nagy, Z. [Wigner Research Centre for Phyics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Obsidian is the most important archaeological material used for tools and weapons before metals appearance. Its geological sources are limited and concentrated in few geographical zones: Armenia, Eastern Anatolia, Italian Lipari and Sardinia islands, Greek Melos and Yali islands, Hungarian and Slovak Tokaj Mountains. Due to this fact, in Mesolithic and Neolithic periods obsidian was the first archaeological material intensively traded even at long distances. To determine the geological provenance of obsidian and to identify the prehistoric long-range trade routes and possible population migrations elemental concentration ratios can help a 101, since each geological source has its 'fingerprints'. In this work external milli-PIXE technique was applied for elemental concentration ratio determinations in some Neolithic tools found in Transylvania and in the lron Gales region near Danube, and on few relevant geological samples (Slovak Tokaj Mountains, Lipari,Armenia). In Transylvania (the North-Western part of Romania, a region surrounded by Carpathian Mountains), Neolithic obsidian tools were discovered mainly in three regions: North-West - Oradea (near the border with Hungary, Slovakia and Ukraine), Centre -Cluj and Southwest- Banat (near the border with Serbia). A special case is lron Gales - Mesolithic and Early Neolithic sites, directly related to the appearance of agriculture replacing the Mesolithic economy based on hunting and fishing. Three long-distance trade routes could be considered: from Caucasus Mountains via North of the Black Sea, from Greek islands or Asia Minor via ex-Yugoslavia area or via Greece-Bulgaria or from Central Europe- Tokaj Mountains in the case of obsidian. As provenance 'fingerprints', we focused on Ti to Mn, and Rb-Sr-Y-Zr ratios. The measurements were performed at the external milli-PIXE beam-line of the 5MV VdG accelerator of the Wigner RCP. Proton energy of 3MeV and beam currents in the range of 1 ±1 D

  15. Designing a new tool for modeling and simulation of discrete-event based systems

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper talks about design, development, and application of a new Petri net simulator for modeling and simulation of discrete event system (e.g. information systems). The new tool is called GPenSIM (General purpose Petri Net Simulator). Firstly, this paper presents the reason for developing a new tool, through a brief literature study. Secondly, the design and architectural issues of the tool is given. Finally, an application example is given on the application of the tool.

  16. Source-to-target simulation of simultaneous longitudinal and transverse focusing of heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Welch

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal bunching factors in excess of 70 of a 300-keV, 27-mA K^{+} ion beam have been demonstrated in the neutralized drift compression experiment [P. K. Roy et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 234801 (2005PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.234801] in rough agreement with particle-in-cell source-to-target simulations. A key aspect of these experiments is that a preformed plasma provides charge neutralization of the ion beam in the last one meter drift region where the beam perveance becomes large. The simulations utilize the measured ion source temperature, diode voltage, and induction-bunching-module voltage waveforms in order to determine the initial beam longitudinal phase space which is critical to accurate modeling of the longitudinal compression. To enable simultaneous longitudinal and transverse compression, numerical simulations were used in the design of the solenoidal focusing system that compensated for the impact of the applied velocity tilt on the transverse phase space of the beam. Complete source-to-target simulations, that include detailed modeling of the diode, magnetic transport, induction bunching module, and plasma neutralized transport, were critical to understanding the interplay between the various accelerator components in the experiment. Here, we compare simulation results with the experiment and discuss the contributions to longitudinal and transverse emittance that limit the final compression.

  17. A comparison of neon versus helium ion beam induced deposition via Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Rajendra; Smith, Daryl A; Rack, Philip D

    2013-03-22

    The ion beam induced nanoscale synthesis of PtCx (where x ∼ 5) using the trimethyl (methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPt(IV)Me3) precursor is investigated by performing Monte Carlo simulations of helium and neon ions. The helium beam leads to more lateral growth relative to the neon beam because of its larger interaction volume. The lateral growth of the nanopillars is dominated by molecules deposited via secondary electrons in both the simulations. Notably, the helium pillars are dominated by SE-I electrons whereas the neon pillars are dominated by SE-II electrons. Using a low precursor residence time of 70 μs, resulting in an equilibrium coverage of ∼4%, the neon simulation has a lower deposition efficiency (3.5%) compared to that of the helium simulation (6.5%). At larger residence time (10 ms) and consequently larger equilibrium coverage (85%) the deposition efficiencies of helium and neon increased to 49% and 21%, respectively; which is dominated by increased lateral growth rates leading to broader pillars. The nanoscale growth is further studied by varying the ion beam diameter at 10 ms precursor residence time. The study shows that total SE yield decreases with increasing beam diameters for both the ion types. However, helium has the larger SE yield as compared to that of neon in both the low and high precursor residence time, and thus pillars are wider in all the simulations studied.

  18. Simulation and modeling of the Gamble II self-pinched ion beam transport experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Hinshelwood, D.D. [and others

    1999-07-01

    Progress in numerical simulations and modeling of the self-pinched ion beam transport experiment at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is reviewed. In the experiment, a 1.2-MeV, 100-kA proton beam enters a 1-m long, transport region filled with a low pressure gas (30--250 mTorr helium, or 1 Torr air). The time-dependent velocity distribution function of the injected ion beam is determined from an orbit code that uses a pinch-reflex ion diode model and the measured voltage and current from this diode on the Gamble II generator at NRL. This distribution function is used as the beam input condition for numerical simulations carried out using the hybrid particle-in-cell code IPROP. Results of the simulations will be described, and detailed comparisons will be made with various measurements, including line-integrated electron-density, proton-fluence, and beam radial-profile measurements. As observed in the experiment, the simulations show evidence of self-pinching for helium pressures between 35 and 80 mTorr. Simulations and measurements in 1 Torr air show ballistic transport. The relevance of these results to ion-driven inertial confinement fusion will be discussed.

  19. Commissioning of a medical accelerator photon beam Monte Carlo simulation using wide-field profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J.; Franco, L.; Gómez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pazos, A.; Pardo, J.; Pombar, M.; Rodríguez, A.; Sendón, J.

    2004-11-01

    A method for commissioning an EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation of medical linac photon beams through wide-field lateral profiles at moderate depth in a water phantom is presented. Although depth-dose profiles are commonly used for nominal energy determination, our study shows that they are quite insensitive to energy changes below 0.3 MeV (0.6 MeV) for a 6 MV (15 MV) photon beam. Also, the depth-dose profile dependence on beam radius adds an additional uncertainty in their use for tuning nominal energy. Simulated 40 cm × 40 cm lateral profiles at 5 cm depth in a water phantom show greater sensitivity to both nominal energy and radius. Beam parameters could be determined by comparing only these curves with measured data.

  20. Commissioning of a medical accelerator photon beam Monte Carlo simulation using wide-field profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Franco, L [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gomez, F [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Iglesias, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lobato, R [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Mosquera, J [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pardo, J [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pombar, M [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); RodrIguez, A [Departamento de Fisica de PartIculas, Facultade de Fisica, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Sendon, J [Hospital ClInico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2004-11-07

    A method for commissioning an EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulation of medical linac photon beams through wide-field lateral profiles at moderate depth in a water phantom is presented. Although depth-dose profiles are commonly used for nominal energy determination, our study shows that they are quite insensitive to energy changes below 0.3 MeV (0.6 MeV) for a 6 MV (15 MV) photon beam. Also, the depth-dose profile dependence on beam radius adds an additional uncertainty in their use for tuning nominal energy. Simulated 40 cm x 40 cm lateral profiles at 5 cm depth in a water phantom show greater sensitivity to both nominal energy and radius. Beam parameters could be determined by comparing only these curves with measured data.

  1. Energy loss of intergalactic pair beams: Particle-in-Cell simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kempf, Andreas; Spanier, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The change of the distribution function of electron-positron pair beams determines whether GeV photons can be produced as secondary radiation from TeV photons. We will discuss the instabilities driven by pair beams. The system of a thermal proton-electron plasma and the electron-positron beam is collision free. We have, therefore, used the Particle-in-Cell simulation approach. It was necessary to alter the physical parameters, but the ordering of growth rates has been retained. We were able to show that plasma instabilities can be recovered in particle-in-cell simulations, but their effect on the pair distribution function is negligible for beam-background energy density ratios typically found in blazars.

  2. Simulations of Field-Emission Electron Beams from CNT Cathodes in RF Photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalcea, Daniel [NIU, DeKalb; Faillace, Luigi [RadiaBeam Tech.; Panuganti, Harsha [NIU, DeKalb; Thangaraj, Jayakar C.T. [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NIU, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    Average field emission currents of up to 700 mA were produced by Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) cathodes in a 1.3 GHz RF gun at Fermilab High Brightness Electron Source Lab. (HBESL). The CNT cathodes were manufactured at Xintek and tested under DC conditions at RadiaBeam. The electron beam intensity as well as the other beam properties are directly related to the time-dependent electric field at the cathode and the geometry of the RF gun. This report focuses on simulations of the electron beam generated through field-emission and the results are compared with experimental measurements. These simulations were performed with the time-dependent Particle In Cell (PIC) code WARP.

  3. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the New Muon G-2 Experiment at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korostelev, Maxim [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Bailey, Ian [Lancaster U.; Herrod, Alexander [Liverpool U.; Morgan, James [Fermilab; Morse, William [RIKEN BNL; Stratakis, Diktys [RIKEN BNL; Tishchenko, Vladimir [RIKEN BNL; Wolski, Andrzej [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the new muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is to measure the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon with an unprecedented uncertainty of 140 ppb. A beam of positive muons required for the experiment is created by pion decay. Detailed studies of the beam dynamics and spin polarization of the muons are important to predict systematic uncertainties in the experiment. In this paper, we present the results of beam simulations and spin tracking from the pion production target to the muon storage ring. The end-to-end beam simulations are developed in Bmad and include the processes of particle decay, collimation (with accurate representation of all apertures) and spin tracking.

  4. Numerical simulation to study the transient self focusing of laser beam in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R. P.; Hussain, Saba, E-mail: sabahussain44@yahoo.com; Gaur, Nidhi [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-02-15

    In this paper, we present the numerical simulation for the coupled system of equations governing the dynamics of laser and Ion Acoustic Wave (IAW) in a collisionless plasma, when the coupling between the waves is through ponderomotive non-linearity. The nonlinear evolution of the laser beam is studied when the pump laser is perturbed by a periodic perturbation. By changing the perturbation wave number, we have studied its effect on the nonlinear evolution pattern of laser beam. In order to have a physical insight into the nonlinear dynamics of laser beam evolution in time and space, we have studied the laser and IAW spectra containing spatial harmonics. The magnitude of these harmonics changes with time and leads to time dependent localization of laser beam in spatial domain. The nonlinear dynamics of this localization is investigated in detail by using simulation and a semi-analytical model.

  5. A Particle In Cell code development for high current ion beam transport and plasma simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, N

    2016-01-01

    A simulation package employing a Particle in Cell (PIC) method is developed to study the high current beam transport and the dynamics of plasmas. This package includes subroutines those are suited for various planned projects at University of Frankfurt. In the framework of the storage ring project (F8SR) the code was written to describe the beam optics in toroidal magnetic fields. It is used to design an injection system for a ring with closed magnetic field lines. The generalized numerical model, in Cartesian coordinates is used to describe the intense ion beam transport through the chopper system in the low energy beam section of the FRANZ project. Especially for the chopper system, the Poisson equation is implemented with irregular geometries. The Particle In Cell model is further upgraded with a Monte Carlo Collision subroutine for simulation of plasma in the volume type ion source.

  6. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  7. Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The deployment and use of lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries in automotive and stationary energy storage applications must be optimized to justify their high up-front costs. Given that batteries degrade with use and storage, such optimizations must evaluate many years of operation. As the degradation mechanisms are sensitive to temperature, state-of-charge (SOC) histories, current levels, and cycle depth and frequency, it is important to model both the battery and the application to a high level of detail to ensure battery response is accurately predicted. To address these issues, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed the Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool (BLAST) suite. This suite of tools pairs NREL’s high-fidelity battery degradation model with a battery electrical and thermal performance model, application-specific electrical and thermal performance models of the larger system (e.g., an electric vehicle), application-specific system use data (e.g., vehicle travel patterns and driving data), and historic climate data from cities across the United States. This provides highly realistic long-term predictions of battery response and thereby enables quantitative comparisons of varied battery use strategies.

  8. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M.; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields. PMID:26370627

  9. Simulated Interactive Research Experiments as Educational Tools for Advanced Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomandl, Mathias; Mieling, Thomas; Losert-Valiente Kroon, Christiane M; Hopf, Martin; Arndt, Markus

    2015-09-15

    Experimental research has become complex and thus a challenge to science education. Only very few students can typically be trained on advanced scientific equipment. It is therefore important to find new tools that allow all students to acquire laboratory skills individually and independent of where they are located. In a design-based research process we have investigated the feasibility of using a virtual laboratory as a photo-realistic and scientifically valid representation of advanced scientific infrastructure to teach modern experimental science, here, molecular quantum optics. We found a concept based on three educational principles that allows undergraduate students to become acquainted with procedures and concepts of a modern research field. We find a significant increase in student understanding using our Simulated Interactive Research Experiment (SiReX), by evaluating the learning outcomes with semi-structured interviews in a pre/post design. This suggests that this concept of an educational tool can be generalized to disseminate findings in other fields.

  10. Analytic modeling, simulation and interpretation of broadband beam coupling impedance bench measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermayer, U., E-mail: niedermayer@temf.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Eidam, L. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    First, a generalized theoretical approach towards beam coupling impedances and stretched-wire measurements is introduced. Applied to a circular symmetric setup, this approach allows to compare beam and wire impedances. The conversion formulas for TEM scattering parameters from measurements to impedances are thoroughly analyzed and compared to the analytical beam impedance solution. A proof of validity for the distributed impedance formula is given. The interaction of the beam or the TEM wave with dispersive material such as ferrite is discussed. The dependence of the obtained beam impedance on the relativistic velocity β is investigated and found as material property dependent. Second, numerical simulations of wakefields and scattering parameters are compared. The applicability of scattering parameter conversion formulas for finite device length is investigated. Laboratory measurement results for a circularly symmetric test setup, i.e. a ferrite ring, are shown and compared to analytic and numeric models. The optimization of the measurement process and error reduction strategies are discussed.

  11. Hybrid simulation of whistler excitation by electron beams in two-dimensional non-periodic domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodroffe, J.R., E-mail: woodrofj@erau.edu; Streltsov, A.V., E-mail: streltsa@erau.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-dimensional hybrid fluid-PIC scheme for the simulation of whistler wave excitation by relativistic electron beams. This scheme includes a number of features which are novel to simulations of this type, including non-periodic boundary conditions and fresh particle injection. Results from our model suggest that non-periodicity of the simulation domain results in the development of fundamentally different wave characteristics than are observed in periodic domains.

  12. Particle-in-cell simulations of electron beam control using an inductive current divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Angus, J. R.; Cooperstein, G.; Ottinger, P. F.; Richardson, A. S.; Schumer, J. W.; Weber, B. V. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, District of Columbia 20375 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Kinetic, time-dependent, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of the inductive current divider are presented. The inductive current divider is a passive method for controlling the trajectory of an intense, hollow electron beam using a vacuum structure that inductively splits the beam's return current. The current divider concept was proposed and studied theoretically in a previous publication [Swanekamp et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 023107 (2015)]. A central post carries a portion of the return current (I{sub 1}), while the outer conductor carries the remainder (I{sub 2}) with the injected beam current given by I{sub b} = I{sub 1} + I{sub 2}. The simulations are in agreement with the theory which predicts that the total force on the beam trajectory is proportional to (I{sub 2}−I{sub 1}) and the force on the beam envelope is proportional to I{sub b}. Independent control over both the current density and the beam angle at the target is possible by choosing the appropriate current-divider geometry. The root-mean-square (RMS) beam emittance (ε{sub RMS}) varies as the beam propagates through the current divider to the target. For applications where control of the beam trajectory is desired and the current density at the target is similar to the current density at the entrance foil, there is a modest 20% increase in ε{sub RMS} at the target. For other applications where the beam is pinched to a current density ∼5 times larger at the target, ε{sub RMS} is 2–3 times larger at the target.

  13. Monte Carlo simulations to optimize experimental dosimetry of narrow beams used in Gamma Knife radio-surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lymperopoulou, G. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: glymper@phys.uoa.gr; Petrokokkinos, L.; Papagiannis, P. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece); Steiner, M.; Spevacek, V.; Semnicka, J.; Dvorak, P. [Czech Technical University, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Brehova 7 115 19, Prague 1 (Czech Republic); Seimenis, I. [Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)

    2007-09-21

    The Leksell Gamma Knife is a stereotactic radio-surgery unit for the treatment of small volumes (on the order of 25 mm{sup 3}) that employs a hemispherical configuration of 201 {sup 60}Co sources and appropriate configurations of collimation to form beams of 4, 8, 14 and 18 mm nominal diameter at the Unit Center Point (UCP). Although Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is well suited for narrow-beam dosimetry, experimental dosimetry is required at least for acceptance testing and quality assurance purposes. Besides other drawbacks of conventional point dosimeters, the main problems associated with narrow-beam dosimetry in stereotactic applications are accurate positioning and volume averaging. In this work, MCNPX and EGSnrc MC simulation dosimetry results for a Gamma Knife unit are benchmarked through their comparison to treatment planning software calculations based on radio-chromic film measurements. Then, MC dosimetry results are utilized to optimize the only three-dimensional experimental dosimetry method available; the polymer gel-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method. MC results are used to select the spatial resolution in the imaging session of the irradiated gels and validate a mathematical tool for the localization of the UCP in the three-dimensional experimental dosimetry data acquired. Experimental results are compared with corresponding MC calculations and shown capable to provide accurate dosimetry, free of volume averaging and positioning uncertainties.

  14. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gallio

    Full Text Available Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  15. A GPU Simulation Tool for Training and Optimisation in 2D Digital X-Ray Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallio, Elena; Rampado, Osvaldo; Gianaria, Elena; Bianchi, Silvio Diego; Ropolo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Conventional radiology is performed by means of digital detectors, with various types of technology and different performance in terms of efficiency and image quality. Following the arrival of a new digital detector in a radiology department, all the staff involved should adapt the procedure parameters to the properties of the detector, in order to achieve an optimal result in terms of correct diagnostic information and minimum radiation risks for the patient. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a software capable of simulating a digital X-ray imaging system, using graphics processing unit computing. All radiological image components were implemented in this application: an X-ray tube with primary beam, a virtual patient, noise, scatter radiation, a grid and a digital detector. Three different digital detectors (two digital radiography and a computed radiography systems) were implemented. In order to validate the software, we carried out a quantitative comparison of geometrical and anthropomorphic phantom simulated images with those acquired. In terms of average pixel values, the maximum differences were below 15%, while the noise values were in agreement with a maximum difference of 20%. The relative trends of contrast to noise ratio versus beam energy and intensity were well simulated. Total calculation times were below 3 seconds for clinical images with pixel size of actual dimensions less than 0.2 mm. The application proved to be efficient and realistic. Short calculation times and the accuracy of the results obtained make this software a useful tool for training operators and dose optimisation studies.

  16. Simulations of S-band RF gun with RF beam control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Levichev, A. E.; Maltseva, M. V.; Nikiforov, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The RF gun with RF control is discussed. It is based on the RF triode and two kinds of the cavities. The first cavity is a coaxial cavity with cathode-grid assembly where beam bunches are formed, the second one is an accelerating cavity. The features of such a gun are the following: bunched and relativistic beams in the output of the injector, absence of the back bombarding electrons, low energy spread and short length of the bunches. The scheme of the injector is shown. The electromagnetic field simulation and longitudinal beam dynamics are presented. The possible using of the injector is discussed.

  17. Simulation of the BNCT of Brain Tumors Using MCNP Code: Beam Designing and Dose Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Rasouli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction BNCT is an effective method to destroy brain tumoral cells while sparing the healthy tissues. The recommended flux for epithermal neutrons is 109 n/cm2s, which has the most effectiveness on deep-seated tumors. In this paper, it is indicated that using D-T neutron source and optimizing of Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA leads to treating brain tumors in a reasonable time where all IAEA recommended criteria are met. Materials and Methods The proposed BSA based on a D-T neutron generator consists of a neutron multiplier system, moderators, reflector, and collimator. The simulated Snyder head phantom is used to evaluate dose profiles in tissues due to the irradiation of designed beam. Monte Carlo Code, MCNP-4C, was used in order to perform these calculations.   Results The neutron beam associated with the designed and optimized BSA has an adequate epithermal flux at the beam port and neutron and gamma contaminations are removed as much as possible. Moreover, it was showed that increasing J/Φ, as a measure of beam directionality, leads to improvement of beam performance and survival of healthy tissues surrounding the tumor. Conclusion According to the simulation results, the proposed system based on D-T neutron source, which is suitable for in-hospital installations, satisfies all in-air parameters. Moreover, depth-dose curves investigate proper performance of designed beam in tissues. The results are comparable with the performances of other facilities.

  18. Modulator simulations for coherent electron cooling using a variable density electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, George I; Schwartz, Brian T; Bruhwiler, David L; Litvinenko, Vladimir; Wang, Gang; Hao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the luminosity of relativistic hadron beams is critical for the advancement of nuclear physics. Coherent electron cooling (CEC) promises to cool such beams significantly faster than alternative methods. We present simulations of 40 GeV/nucleon Au+79 ions through the first (modulator) section of a coherent electron cooler. In the modulator, the electron beam copropagates with the ion beam, which perturbs the electron beam density and velocity via anisotropic Debye shielding. In contrast to previous simulations, where the electron density was constant in time and space, here the electron beam has a finite transverse extent, and undergoes focusing by quadrupoles as it passes through the modulator. The peak density in the modulator increases by a factor of 3, as specified by the beam Twiss parameters. The inherently 3D particle and field dynamics is modeled with the parallel VSim framework using a $\\delta$f PIC algorithm. Physical parameters are taken from the CEC proof-of-principle experiment under de...

  19. Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Ng, C.-K.; Smith, S. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T.

    1996-08-01

    We use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, we find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given. (author)

  20. High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appleby, R; Bailey, D; Higham, J; Salt, M [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Robert.Appleby@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: David.Bailey-2@manchester.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed.

  1. High performance stream computing for particle beam transport simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, R.; Bailey, D.; Higham, J.; Salt, M.

    2008-07-01

    Understanding modern particle accelerators requires simulating charged particle transport through the machine elements. These simulations can be very time consuming due to the large number of particles and the need to consider many turns of a circular machine. Stream computing offers an attractive way to dramatically improve the performance of such simulations by calculating the simultaneous transport of many particles using dedicated hardware. Modern Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) are powerful and affordable stream computing devices. The results of simulations of particle transport through the booster-to-storage-ring transfer line of the DIAMOND synchrotron light source using an NVidia GeForce 7900 GPU are compared to the standard transport code MAD. It is found that particle transport calculations are suitable for stream processing and large performance increases are possible. The accuracy and potential speed gains are compared and the prospects for future work in the area are discussed.

  2. A Simulator for Producing of High Flux Atomic Oxygen Beam by Using ECR Plasma Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuwang DUO; Meishuan LI; Yaming ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the atomic oxygen corrosion of spacecraft materials in low earth orbit environment, an atomic oxygen simulator was established. In the simulator, a 2.45 GHz microwave source with maximum power of 600 W was launched into the circular cavity to generate ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) plasma. The oxygen ion beam moved onto a negatively biased Mo plate under the condition of symmetry magnetic mirror field confine, then was neutralized and reflected to form oxygen atom beam. The properties of plasma density, electron temperature, plasma space potential and ion incident energy were characterized. The atomic oxygen beam flux was calibrated by measuring the mass loss rate of Kapton during the atomic 5~30 eV and a cross section of φ80 mm could be obtained under the operating pressure of 10-1~10-3 Pa. Such a high flux source can provide accelerated simulation tests of materials and coatings for space applications.

  3. Beam Loss Simulation and Collimator System Configurations for the Advanced Photon Source Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, A.; Borland, M.

    2017-06-25

    The proposed multi-bend achromat lattice for the Advanced Photon Source upgrade (APS-U) has a design emittance of less than 70 pm. The Touschek loss rate is high: compared with the current APS ring, which has an average beam lifetime ~ 10 h, the simulated beam lifetime for APS-U is only ~2 h when operated in the high flux mode (I=200 mA in 48 bunches). An additional consequence of the short lifetime is that injection must be more frequent, which provides another potential source of particle loss. In order to provide information for the radiation shielding system evaluation and to avoid particle loss in sensitive locations around the ring (for example, insertion device straight sections), simulations of the detailed beam loss distribution have been performed. Several possible collimation configurations have been simulated and compared.

  4. Evaporating droplet hologram simulation for digital in-line holography setup with divergent beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méès, Loïc; Grosjean, Nathalie; Chareyron, Delphine; Marié, Jean-Louis; Seifi, Mozhdeh; Fournier, Corinne

    2013-10-01

    Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) for a multilayered sphere is used to simulate holograms produced by evaporating spherical droplets with refractive index gradient in the surrounding air/vapor mixture. Simulated holograms provide a physical interpretation of experimental holograms produced by evaporating Diethyl Ether droplets with diameter in the order of 50 μm and recorded in a digital in-line holography configuration with a divergent beam. Refractive index gradients in the surrounding medium lead to a modification of the center part of the droplet holograms, where the first fringe is unusually bright. GLMT simulations reproduce this modification well, assuming an exponential decay of the refractive index from the droplet surface to infinity. The diverging beam effect is also considered. In both evaporating and nonevaporating cases, an equivalence is found between Gaussian beam and plane wave illuminations, simply based on a magnification ratio to be applied to the droplets' parameters.

  5. Beam simulations with initial bunch noise in superconducting RF proton linacs

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Circular machines are plagued by coupled bunch instabilities (CBI), driven by impedance peaks, where then all cavity higher order modes (HOMs) are possible drivers. Limiting the CBI growth rate is the fundamental reason that all superconducting rf cavities in circular machines are equipped with HOM dampers. The question arises if for similar reasons HOM damping would not be imperative also in high current superconducting rf proton linacs. Therefore we have simulated the longitudinal bunched beam dynamics in such machines, also including charge and position noise on the injected bunches. Simulations were executed for a generic linac with properties close to the planned SPL at CERN, SNS, or Project X at FNAL. It was found that with strong bunch noise and monopole HOMs with high Qext large beam scatter, possibly exceeding the admittance of a receiving machine, cannot be excluded. A transverse simulation shows similar requirements. Therefore including initial bunch noise in any beam dynamic study on superconducti...

  6. Numerical simulation of a triode source of intense radial converging electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altsybeyev, V.; Engelko, V.; Ovsyannikov, A.; Ovsyannikov, D.; Ponomarev, V.; Fetzer, R.; Mueller, G.

    2016-10-01

    The results of numerical simulations of a triode source of an intense radial converging electron beam are presented. The role of the initial transverse velocity of electrons, defocusing effect of the controlling grid, the beam self-magnetic field, backscattering of electrons, and ion flow from the target is analyzed. It was found that the ion flow from the target essentially increases the value of the electron current. The influence of the beam self-magnetic field on electron trajectories leads to the fact that there is a critical value of the cathode-grid voltage dividing the mode of the source operation into stable and unstable. The influence of initial transverse electron energies on the beam focusing is essentially higher than the influence of the controlling grid. Backscattering of the beam electrons from the target surface increases the target ion current so that the source operation may become unstable and the distribution of the beam power density on the target becomes nonuniform with a maximum in the center. Electrons passing by the target drift along the source axis. This leads to diminishing the power density at the center of the target and to the exit of peripheral electrons from the source. Conditions for achieving required electron beam parameters (the electron kinetic energy—120 keV, the beam energy density on the target ˜40 J/cm2 on a maximum possible length of the target surface) were determined.

  7. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  8. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  9. Systematic comparison of position and time dependent macroparticle simulations in beam dynamics studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Qiang

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Macroparticle simulation plays an important role in modern accelerator design and operation. Most linear rf accelerators have been designed based on macroparticle simulations using longitudinal position as the independent variable. In this paper, we have done a systematic comparison between using longitudinal position as the independent variable and using time as the independent variable in macroparticle simulations. We have found that, for an rms-matched beam, the maximum relative moment difference for second, fourth moments and beam maximum amplitudes between these two types of simulations is 0.25% in a 10 m reference transport system with physical parameters similar to the Spallation Neutron Source linac design. The maximum z-to- t transform error in the space-charge force calculation of the position dependent simulation is about 0.1% in such a system. This might cause a several percent error in a complete simulation of a linac with a length of hundreds of meters. Furthermore, the error may be several times larger in simulations of mismatched beams. However, if such errors are acceptable to the linac designer, then one is justified in using position dependent macroparticle simulations in this type of linac design application.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation of spectrum changes in a photon beam due to a brass compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custidiano, E.R., E-mail: ernesto7661@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Valenzuela, M.R., E-mail: meraqval@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina); Dumont, J.L., E-mail: Joseluis.Dumont@elekta.com [Elekta CMS Software, St.Louis, MO (United States); McDonnell, J., E-mail: josemc@express.com.ar [Cumbres Institute, Riobamba 1745, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rene, L, E-mail: luismrene@gmail.com [Radiotherapy Center, Crespo 953, C.P.2000, Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); Rodriguez Aguirre, J.M., E-mail: juakcho@gmail.com [Department of Physics, FaCENA, UNNE, Av., Libertad 5470, C.P.3400, Corrientes (Argentina)

    2011-06-15

    Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the changes in the incident spectrum when a poly-energetic photon beam passes through a static brass compensator. The simulated photon beam spectrum was evaluated by comparing it against the incident spectra. We also discriminated the changes in the transmitted spectrum produced by each of the microscopic processes. (i.e. Rayleigh scattering, photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production). The results show that the relevant process in the energy range considered is the Compton Effect, as expected for composite materials of intermediate atomic number and energy range considered.

  11. Time series analysis of Coulomb collisions in a beam dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivoli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy)]. E-mail: vivoli@bo.infn.it; Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy); Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a time series analysis of collisional effects in a numerical simulation of a coasting beam transverse dynamics is presented. The simulation performs a numerical integration of the Hamilton's equations of a two-dimensional system of particles, describing the transverse dynamics of the beam. Then, an analysis of the time series generated has been applied in order to describe the dynamics of the system by means of the mean field equations, with the addition of a stochastic process in order to model Coulomb collisions.

  12. Dynamic simulation and efficiency analysis of beam pumping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢明明; 董世民; 童志雄; 田然凤; 陈慧玲

    2015-01-01

    An improved whole model of beam pumping system was built. In the detail, for surface transmission system (STS), a new mathematical model was established considering the influence of some factors on the STS’s torsional vibration, such as the time variation characteristic of equivalent stiffness of belt and equivalent rotational inertia of crank. For the sucker rod string (SRS), an improved mathematical model was built considering the influence of some parameters on the SRS’s longitudinal vibration, such as the nonlinear friction of plunger, hydraulic loss of pump and clearance leakage. The dynamic response and system efficiency of whole system were analyzed. The results show that there is a jumping phenomenon in the amplitude frequency curve, and the system.

  13. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  14. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  15. A simulator tool set for evaluating HEVC/SHVC streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser

    2015-02-01

    Video streaming and other multimedia applications account for an ever increasing proportion of all network traffic. The recent adoption of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) as the H.265 standard provides many opportunities for new and improved services multimedia services and applications in the consumer domain. Since the delivery of version one of H.265, the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding have been working towards standardisation of a scalable extension (SHVC) to the H.265 standard and a series of range extensions and new profiles. As these enhancements are added to the standard the range of potential applications and research opportunities will expend. For example the use of video is also growing rapidly in other sectors such as safety, security, defence and health with real-time high quality video transmission playing an important role in areas like critical infrastructure monitoring and disaster management. Each of which may benefit from the application of enhanced HEVC/H.265 and SHVC capabilities. The majority of existing research into HEVC/H.265 transmission has focussed on the consumer domain addressing issues such as broadcast transmission and delivery to mobile devices with the lack of freely available tools widely cited as an obstacle to conducting this type of research. In this paper we present a toolset which facilitates the transmission and evaluation of HEVC/H.265 and SHVC encoded video on the popular open source NCTUns simulator. Our toolset provides researchers with a modular, easy to use platform for evaluating video transmission and adaptation proposals on large scale wired, wireless and hybrid architectures. The toolset consists of pre-processing, transmission, SHVC adaptation and post-processing tools to gather and analyse statistics. It has been implemented using HM15 and SHM5, the latest versions of the HEVC and SHVC reference software implementations to ensure that currently adopted proposals for scalable and range extensions to

  16. SU-E-J-127: Implementation of An Online Replanning Tool for VMAT Using Flattening Filter-Free Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ates, O; Ahunbay, E; Li, X [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: This is to report the implementation of an online replanning tool based on segment aperture morphing (SAM) for VMAT with flattening filter free (FFF) beams. Methods: Previously reported SAM algorithm modified to accommodate VMAT with FFF beams was implemented in a tool that was interfaced with a treatment planning system (Monaco, Elekta). The tool allows (1) to output the beam parameters of the original VMAT plan from Monaco, and (2) to input the apertures generated from the SAM algorithm into Monaco for the dose calculation on daily CT/CBCT/MRI in the following steps:(1) Quickly generating target contour based on the image of the day, using an auto-segmentation tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) with manual editing if necessary; (2) Morphing apertures based on the SAM in the original VMAT plan to account for the interfractional change of the target from the planning to the daily images; (3) Calculating dose distribution for new apertures with the same numbers of MU as in the original plan; (4) Transferring the new plan into a record & verify system (MOSAIQ, Elekta); (5) Performing a pre-delivery QA based on software; (6) Delivering the adaptive plan for the fraction.This workflow was implemented on a 16-CPU (2.6 GHz dual-core) hardware with GPU and was tested for sample cases of prostate, pancreas and lung tumors. Results: The online replanning process can be completed within 10 minutes. The adaptive plans generally have improved the plan quality when compared to the IGRT repositioning plans. The adaptive plans with FFF beams have better normal tissue sparing as compared with those of FF beams. Conclusion: The online replanning tool based on SAM can quickly generate adaptive VMAT plans using FFF beams with improved plan quality than those from the IGRT repositioning plans based on daily CT/CBCT/MRI and can be used clinically. This research was supported by Elekta Inc. (Crawley, UK)

  17. Reanimation of the RICH Test Beam Simulation in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Arzymatov, Kenenbek

    2017-01-01

    This test was originally developed by Sajan Easo (LHCb) ten years ago mostly for the purpose of testing the behavior of photomultipliers, but it wasn’t used in regression testing in Gauss/Geant4 famework. The goal of project is to revive simulation of cherenkov radiaton test by completing.

  18. Supply chain simulation tools and techniques: a survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is twofold: it surveys different types of simulation for supply chain management; it discusses several methodological issues. These different types of simulation are spreadsheet simulation, system dynamics, discrete-event simulation and business games. Which simul

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of electron beams from an accelerator head using PENELOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sempau, J.; Sánchez-Reyes, A.; Salvat, F.; Oulad ben Tahar, H.; Jiang, S. B.; Fernández-Varea, J. M.

    2001-04-01

    The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE has been used to simulate electron beams from a Siemens Mevatron KDS linac with nominal energies of 6, 12 and 18 MeV. Owing to its accuracy, which stems from that of the underlying physical interaction models, PENELOPE is suitable for simulating problems of interest to the medical physics community. It includes a geometry package that allows the definition of complex quadric geometries, such as those of irradiation instruments, in a straightforward manner. Dose distributions in water simulated with PENELOPE agree well with experimental measurements using a silicon detector and a monitoring ionization chamber. Insertion of a lead slab in the incident beam at the surface of the water phantom produces sharp variations in the dose distributions, which are correctly reproduced by the simulation code. Results from PENELOPE are also compared with those of equivalent simulations with the EGS4-based user codes BEAM and DOSXYZ. Angular and energy distributions of electrons and photons in the phase-space plane (at the downstream end of the applicator) obtained from both simulation codes are similar, although significant differences do appear in some cases. These differences, however, are shown to have a negligible effect on the calculated dose distributions. Various practical aspects of the simulations, such as the calculation of statistical uncertainties and the effect of the `latent' variance in the phase-space file, are discussed in detail.

  20. Finite Element Modeling, Simulation, Tools, and Capabilities at Superform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Hari; Barnes, A. J.

    2010-06-01

    Over the past thirty years Superform has been a pioneer in the SPF arena, having developed a keen understanding of the process and a range of unique forming techniques to meet varying market needs. Superform’s high-profile list of customers includes Boeing, Airbus, Aston Martin, Ford, and Rolls Royce. One of the more recent additions to Superform’s technical know-how is finite element modeling and simulation. Finite element modeling is a powerful numerical technique which when applied to SPF provides a host of benefits including accurate prediction of strain levels in a part, presence of wrinkles and predicting pressure cycles optimized for time and part thickness. This paper outlines a brief history of finite element modeling applied to SPF and then reviews some of the modeling tools and techniques that Superform have applied and continue to do so to successfully superplastically form complex-shaped parts. The advantages of employing modeling at the design stage are discussed and illustrated with real-world examples.

  1. Optimization of GATE and PHITS Monte Carlo code parameters for uniform scanning proton beam based on simulation with FLUKA general-purpose code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosu, Keita [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Moskvin, Vadim P., E-mail: vadim.p.moskvin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Although three general-purpose Monte Carlo (MC) simulation tools: Geant4, FLUKA and PHITS have been used extensively, differences in calculation results have been reported. The major causes are the implementation of the physical model, preset value of the ionization potential or definition of the maximum step size. In order to achieve artifact free MC simulation, an optimized parameters list for each simulation system is required. Several authors have already proposed the optimized lists, but those studies were performed with a simple system such as only a water phantom. Since particle beams have a transport, interaction and electromagnetic processes during beam delivery, establishment of an optimized parameters-list for whole beam delivery system is therefore of major importance. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimized parameters list for GATE and PHITS using proton treatment nozzle computational model. The simulation was performed with the broad scanning proton beam. The influences of the customizing parameters on the percentage depth dose (PDD) profile and the proton range were investigated by comparison with the result of FLUKA, and then the optimal parameters were determined. The PDD profile and the proton range obtained from our optimized parameters list showed different characteristics from the results obtained with simple system. This led to the conclusion that the physical model, particle transport mechanics and different geometry-based descriptions need accurate customization in planning computational experiments for artifact-free MC simulation.

  2. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  3. SU-E-T-278: Study of MAGIC-F Gel and PENELOPE Code Simulation Response for Clinical Electron Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianoschi, T; Alva-Sánchez, M; Santanna, M; César, D; Nicolucci, P

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the response of MAGIC-f gel through dose response curves, percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profile for clinical electron beams. Glass tubes (Vacutainer ®), with 6 cm length and 0.5 cm radius, with MAGIC-f were positioned inside a water phantom to study the gel response with doses from 0.5 Gy to 20 Gy in electron beams of 6, 9 e 12 MeV. Glass tubes of 20 cm length and 1 cm radius and PMMA phantoms of 10 × 5 × 5 cm(3) were used to PDD and beam profiles determinations, respectively, with a maximum dose of 2 Gy to the gel. The samples were analyzed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3 T tomography using a head coil, multiple spin echo sequence with 16 echos, TE 15ms and TR 4000ms. The MAGIC-f response was simulated with PENELOPE Monte Carlo code in the same geometry used in the irradiations. The results obtained with MAGIC-f and PENELOPE were compared with clinical data. Calibration curves for MAGIC-f showed a linear behavior, with correlation coefficient of 0.99, for all energies. The PDD and beam profile curves obtained with MAGIC-f presented differences lower than 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively, when compared to clinical data. Results obtained by PENELOPE and clinical data showed differences up to 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively, for PDD and profile curves. The dosimetric parameters for electron beams obtained experimentally with MAGIC-f and with PENELOPE code showed similar results to the clinical data. From the results it can be inferred that MAGIC-f can be used as a complementary dosimetric tool for electron beams due to its characteristics of high spatial resolution and the ability to construct tridimensional dose distributions. Also PENELOPE can be used to study MAGIC-f gel response in electron beams. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  4. Experimental Investigation on Durability of Reinforced Concrete Beams in A Simulated Marine Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Shi-qin; GONG Jin-xin; ZHAO Guo-fan

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents some results from a comprehensive experimental program designed to determine the interaction between mechanical loading and corrosion of reinforcing steel, as well as their combined effect on serviceability and residual load- bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams. Beam specimens with the size of 120mm×200mm×1700mm were subjected to four-point bending at various sustained loading levels (0%, 25%, 45%, and 65% of the ultimate load) during the corrosion test process. The marine tidal zone was simulated by alternating spraying and draining of 3.5% NaCl solution. An external direct current technique was used to accelerate the corrosion of the reinforcement. Residual flexural load-bearing capacity of the beams was evaluated at the end of the experiment. The results indicate that the loading has a significant effect on corrosion. Under simultaneous loading and accelerated corrosion conditions, the time-dependent deflection of the beams increases with the progressive corrosion of the reinforcement. The beams under high-level loading deteriorate more rapidly than those under low-level loading and without loading. As a result, the residual flexural capacity of the beams subjected to higher level loading was much lower than that of the beams subjected to lower level loading and in the absence of loading. The results suggest that, for a rational service-life prediction of reinforced concrete structures, the influence of the service load on the structural performance should be considered in combination with environmental conditions

  5. Simulation of Quasi-Adiabatic Beam Capture into Acceleration at the Nuclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, V I; Issinsky, I B; Kovalenko, A D

    2003-01-01

    The routine RF system being used at the Nuclotron allows one to inject the beam at ramping magnetic field with following acceleration at constant amplitude of accelerating voltage. At these conditions at least a half of the particles circulating in the vacuum chamber after injection is not captured in longitudinal acceptance. At the same time vacuum chamber sizes permit to extend the momentum spread of the beam enough to make gymnastic with it inside the stable zone of longitudinal phase space on the flat magnetic field at injection. A quasi-adiabatic capture was considered for increasing the Nuclotron beam intensity. Simulation of such a kind of process with subsequent acceleration was performed. It was shown that in this case it is possible to capture and accelerate up to 100 % of the injected beam.

  6. Simulation and observation of driven beam oscillations with space charge in the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    McAteer, M; Benedetto, E; Carli, C; Findlay, A; Mikulec, B; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injector Upgrade project, the CERN PS Booster will be required to operate at nearly doubled intensity with little allowable increase in emittance growth or beam loss. A campaign of nonlinear optics measurements from turn-by-turn trajectory measurements, with the goal of characterizing and then compensating for higher-order resonances, is planned for after Long Shutdown 1. The trajectory measurement system is expected initially to require high intensity beam in order to have good position measurement resolution, so understanding space charge effects will be important for optics analysis. We present the results of simulations of driven beam oscillations with space charge effects, and comparison with trial beam trajectory measurements.

  7. Computer simulations for intense continuous beam transport in electrostatic lens systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-Song; L(U) Jian-Qin

    2008-01-01

    A code LEADS based on the Lie algebraic analysis for the continuous beam dynamics with space charge effect in beam transport has been developed.The program is used for the simulations of axial-symmetric and unsymmetricalintense continuous beam in the channels including drift spaces.electrostatic lenses and DC electrostatic accelerating tubes.In order to get the accuracy required,all elements are divided into many small segments,and the electric field in the segments is regarded as uniform field,and the dividing points are treated as thin lenses.Iteration procedures are adopted in the program to obtain self-consistent solutions.The code can be used in the designs of low energy beam transport systems,electrostatic accelerators and ion implantation machines.

  8. Simulation and optimization of beam losses during continuous transfer extraction at the CERN Proton Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, J B

    2011-01-01

    The proton beams used for the fixed target physics at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) are extracted from the Proton Synchrotron ( PS) by a multiturn technique called continuous transfer (CT). During the CT extraction, large losses are observed in locations where the machine aperture should be large enough to accommodate the circulating beam. This limits the maximum intensity deliverable due to the induced stray radiation outside the PS tunnel. Scattered particles from the interaction with the electrostatic septum are identified as the possible source of these losses. This article presents a detailed study aiming to understand the origin of losses and propose possible cures. The simulations could reproduce accurately the beam loss pattern measured in real machine operation and determine the beam shaving, intrinsic to the extraction process, as the cause for the unexpected losses. Since these losses are unavoidable, the proposed solution implies a new optics scheme displacing the losses to a region with bett...

  9. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Annenkov, V V; Volchok, E P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in the realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through the plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in the infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  10. Simulations of electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin plasma by a continuously injected electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annenkov, V. V.; Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, electromagnetic emissions produced in a thin beam-plasma system are studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. For the first time, the problem of emission generation in such a system is considered in a realistic formulation allowing for the continuous injection of a relativistic electron beam through a plasma boundary. Specific attention is given to the thin plasma case in which the transverse plasma size is comparable to the typical wavelength of beam-driven oscillations. Such a case is often implemented in laboratory beam-plasma experiments and has a number of peculiarities. Emission from a thin plasma does not require intermediate generation of the electromagnetic plasma eigenmodes, as in an infinite case, and is more similar to the regular antenna radiation. In this work, we determine how efficiently the fundamental and the second harmonic emissions can be generated in previously modulated and initially homogeneous plasmas.

  11. Simulations of the high energy beam transport section (HEBT) at FRANZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ole; Claessens, Christine; Heilmann, Manuel; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Reifarth, Rene; Schmidt, Stefan; Schwarz, Malte; Sonnabend, Kerstin [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) currently under construction will deliver a proton beam of up to 20 mA constant current with energies between 1.8 MeV and 2.2 MeV. This facility aims at exploring proton- and neutron-induced reactions of astrophysical interest. The high proton flux is well suited for studying nuclear reactions related to the nucleosynthesis of the p-nuclei, which might yield hints on the physics of type Ia supernovae. Furthermore, FRANZ will offer the opportunity to measure radiative neutron capture reactions for unstable branch point nuclei of the s-process. We will present the current status of the beam line up to the BaF{sub 2} calorimeter. This contribution focuses on simulations to optimise beam transport and phase space distribution with respect to an optimised beam spot size.

  12. A Fixed-Wing Aircraft Simulation Tool for Improving the efficiency of DoD Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-05

    05/2015 Oct 2008-Sep 2015 A Fixed- Wing Aircraft Simulation Tool for Improving the Efficiency of DoD Acquisition Scott A. Morton and David R...multi-disciplinary fixed- wing virtual aircraft simulation tool incorporating aerodynamics, structural dynamics, kinematics, and kinetics. Kestrel allows...testing. UU UU UU UU 9 Kevin Newmeyer 703-812-4417 1 A Fixed- Wing Aircraft Simulation Tool for Improving the Efficiency of DoD Acquisition

  13. TileCal Beam Test Simulation Application in the FADS/Goofy Framework (GEANT4)

    CERN Document Server

    Solodkov, A A

    2003-01-01

    A new application for the Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) beam test simulation has been developed in GEANT4 within the FADS/Goofy framework. The geometry and readout systems for all the different TileCal modules have been implemented in a quite detailed way. This application allows to simulate all the TileCal beam test setup configurations existing so far. Details of the development as well as instructions to install and run the program are presented. The first tests have been performed for a beam test setup consisting of five prototype modules using negative pions with different energies and results of comparison to the experimental data from TileCal TDR are presented as well.

  14. Experimental and simulation study on the microstructure of TA15 titanium alloy laser beam welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Peng, Qingyu; Wei, Yanhong; Ou, Wenmin

    2017-09-01

    Laser beam welding technique offers obvious advantages over other fusion welding processes in terms of joining titanium alloy. The microstructure of welded seam and heat affected zone resulted from diverse welding speeds and laser powers were investigated after simulating welding heat treatment. The analysis of the thermal transport properties successfully explained the morphology. Optimal process parameters were obtained. The simulation results were consistent with the corresponding experimental observations.

  15. Muon DTBX Chamber Trigger Simulation on H2 Test Beam Data

    CERN Document Server

    Grandi, Claudio

    1998-01-01

    Muon data collected at the H2 test beam during summer 1997 with the MB96 prototype of a DTBX chamber are analyzed using the level 1 trigger simulation code. The trigger chain includes BTI, TRACO and Trigger Server, which generate the muon trigger primitives in the CMS barrel system. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated and it is found in good agreement with published numbers based on simulated tracks.

  16. Event-based simulation of single-photon beam splitters and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H; De Raedt, K; Michielsen, K

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate that networks of locally connected processing units with a primitive learning capability exhibit a behavior that is usually only attributed to quantum systems. We describe networks that simulate single-photon beam splitter and Mach-Zehnder interferometer experiments on a causal, event

  17. Vectorial beam propagation simulation of a novel polarization conversion waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoping; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.; van der Tol, Jos J.; Pedersen, Jorgen W.

    1995-02-01

    The vectorial beam propagation method has successfully been applied to a passive polarization converting waveguide structure. A complete polarization conversion has been simulated. The propagating fields are calculated and the power attenuation is evaluated. The influence of structural changes of the device on the polarization conversion is investigated.

  18. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lühr, Armin; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine;

    2014-01-01

    In ion beam cancer therapy, range verification in patients using positron emission tomography (PET) requires the comparison of measured with simulated positron emitter yields. We found that (1) changes in modeling nuclear interactions strongly affected the positron emitter yields and that (2) Monte...

  19. Leakage Current Simulation of Insulating Thin Film Irradiated by a Nonpenetrating Electron Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hai-Bo; LI Wei-Qin; CAO Meng

    2012-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam. For the formation of leakage current, electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation. In the equilibrium state, the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy. It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density, and with the decreasing electron mobility, in which the film thickness has a greater influence. Validated by some existing experiments, the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.%We perform numerical simulations of the leakage current characteristics of an insulating thin film of SiO2 negatively charged by a low-energy nonpenetrating focused electron beam.For the formation of leakage current,electrons are demonstrated to turn from diffusion to drift after clearing the minimum potential barrier due to electron-hole separation.In the equilibrium state,the leakage current increases approximately linearly with the increasing primary beam current and energy.It also increases with the increasing film thickness and trap density,and with the decreasing electron mobility,in which the film thickness has a greater influence.Validated by some existing experiments,the simulation results provide a new perspective for the negative charging effects of insulating samples due to the low-energy focused electron beam.

  20. Development Concept of Guaranteed Verification Electric Power System Simulation Tools and Its Realization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusev Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing problem reliability and verification of widespread electric power systems (EPS simulation tools is presented in this article. Everything simulation tools are based on the using of numerical methods for ordinary differential equations. Described the concept of guaranteed verification EPS simulation tools and the structure of its realization are based using the Simulator having properties of continuous , without decomposition three-phase EPS simulation in real time and on an unlimited range with guaranteed accuracy. The information from the Simulator can be verified by using data only quasi-steady-state regime received from the SCADA and such Simulator can be applied as the standard model for verification any EPS simulation tools.

  1. Simulation of Fatigue Stiffness Degradation in Prestressed Concrete Beams under Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junqing Lei; Shanshan Cao; Guoshan Xu; Yun Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate and research the fatigue cracking of prestressed concrete fatigue properties and loading and stiffness degeneration process, cyclic loading tests were carried out on six prestressed concrete beams and the stiffness degradation under fatigue was investigated. A simulation model of stiffness degradation is proposed based on the stiffness analysis of the fatigue⁃damaged section. The elastic modulus of damaged concrete and the effective residual area of steel were introduced as well as an adjusted three⁃stage concrete fatigue damage evolution model. The strip method was used to analyze concrete damage due to changing stress along the depth of the beam section. The simulation and test results were compared and a method of predicting fatigue deflection was presented based on the simulation model. The predicted results were compared with that of the neural network method. It is in good agreement for the simulation results with the test results. It is only less than 5% error for the simulation model which can reveal the two⁃stage degradation of prestressed concrete beams under cyclic loading. It is more precise for the simulation prediction method under proper conditions.

  2. Proton microbeam radiotherapy with scanned pencil-beams--Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłodowska, M; Olko, P; Waligórski, M P R

    2015-09-01

    Irradiation, delivered by a synchrotron facility, using a set of highly collimated, narrow and parallel photon beams spaced by 1 mm or less, has been termed Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT). The tolerance of healthy tissue after MRT was found to be better than after standard broad X-ray beams, together with a more pronounced response of malignant tissue. The microbeam spacing and transverse peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR) are considered to be relevant biological MRT parameters. We investigated the MRT concept for proton microbeams, where we expected different depth-dose profiles and PVDR dependences, resulting in skin sparing and homogeneous dose distributions at larger beam depths, due to differences between interactions of proton and photon beams in tissue. Using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code we simulated PVDR distributions for differently spaced 0.1 mm (sigma) pencil-beams of entrance energies 60, 80, 100 and 120 MeV irradiating a cylindrical water phantom with and without a bone layer, representing human head. We calculated PVDR distributions and evaluated uniformity of target irradiation at distal beam ranges of 60-120 MeV microbeams. We also calculated PVDR distributions for a 60 MeV spread-out Bragg peak microbeam configuration. Application of optimised proton MRT in terms of spot size, pencil-beam distribution, entrance beam energy, multiport irradiation, combined with relevant radiobiological investigations, could pave the way for hypofractionation scenarios where tissue sparing at the entrance, better malignant tissue response and better dose conformity of target volume irradiation could be achieved, compared with present proton beam radiotherapy configurations.

  3. A simulation study of interactions of space-shuttle generated electron beams with ambient plasma and neutral gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The study of the active injection of electron beams from spacecraft is important, as it provides valuable insight into the plasma beam interactions and the development of current systems in the ionosphere. However, the beam injection itself is not simple, being constrained by the ability of the spacecraft to draw current from the ambient plasma. The generation of these return currents is dependent on several factors, including the density of the ambient plasma relative to the beam density, the presence of neutrals around the spacecraft, the configuration of the spacecraft, and the motion of the spacecraft through the plasma. Two dimensional (three velocity) particle simulations with collisional processes included are used to show how these different and often coupled processes can be used to enhance beam propagation from the spacecraft. To understand the radial expansion mechanism of an electron beam injected from a highly charged spacecraft, two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were conducted for a high density electron beam injected parallel to magnetic fields from an isolated equipotential conductor into a cold background plasma. The simulations indicate that charge build-up at the beam stagnation point causes the beam to expand radially to the beam electron gyroradius.

  4. A Thermal Simulation Tool for Building and Its Interoperability through the Building Information Modeling (BIM Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Nicolle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes potential challenges and opportunities for using thermal simulation tools to optimize building performance. After reviewing current trends in thermal simulation, it outlines major criteria for the evaluation of building thermal simulation tools based on specifications and capabilities in interoperability. Details are discussed including workflow of data exchange of multiple thermal analyses such as the BIM-based application. The present analysis focuses on selected thermal simulation tools that provide functionalities to exchange data with other tools in order to obtain a picture of its basic work principles and to identify selection criteria for generic thermal tools in BIM. Significances and barriers to integration design with BIM and building thermal simulation tools are also discussed.

  5. Future application of e-beam repair tool beyond 3X generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamitsu, Shingo; Hirano, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    Currently, repair technology is one of the key factors in mask making process regarding TAT reduction and yield level enhancement. Since its commercial release EB repair tool has been commonly used for production line and contributed to high quality repair. But it is not guaranteed whether those conventional machines can keep up with future pattern reduction trend or not. In 2Xnm generation node some advanced exposure techniques seem to be adopted and that will inevitably require higher specification of repair machine. A simple lithography simulation predicts 5nm of indispensable repair accuracy for 2Xnm generation pattern. This number implies the necessity of upper class machine. Generally, the error budget of EB repair tool is composed of three to four components, stated another way mechanical stability, electrical (charging) uniformity, process stability, and graphical quality including software ability. If errors from those components are reduced, overall repair accuracy could be better. A suggestion which can improve those errors was issued last year from tool vender including new machine concept. We have conducted several kind of experiment in order to confirm the performance of new machine. In this paper, we will report the result of experiment and consider which part can effectively contribute to repair accuracy. And we have also evaluated its practical utility value for 2Xnm node by verifying actual application of some 3Xnm production masks.

  6. Professors' and students' perceptions and experiences of computational simulations as learning tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana de Leon, Alejandra De Jesus

    Computational simulations are becoming a critical component of scientific and engineering research, and now are becoming an important component for learning. This dissertation provides findings from a multifaceted research study exploring the ways computational simulations have been perceived and experienced as learning tools by instructors and students. Three studies were designed with an increasing focus on the aspects of learning and instructing with computational simulation tools. Study One used a student survey with undergraduate and graduate students whose instructors enhanced their teaching using online computational tools. Results of this survey were used to identify students' perceptions and experiences with these simulations as learning tools. The results provided both an evaluation of the instructional design and an indicator of which instructors were selected in Study Two. Study Two used a phenomenographic research design resulting in a two dimensional outcome space with six qualitatively different ways instructors perceived their learning outcomes associated with using simulation tools as part of students' learning experiences. Results from this work provide a framework for identifying major learning objectives to promote learning with computational simulation tools. Study Three used a grounded theory methodology to expand on instructors' learning objectives to include their perceptions of formative assessment and pedagogy. These perceptions were compared and contrasted with students' perceptions associated with learning with computational tools. The study is organized around three phases and analyzed as a collection of case studies focused on the instructors and their students' perceptions and experiences of computational simulations as learning tools. This third study resulted in a model for using computational simulations as learning tools. This model indicates the potential of integrating the computational simulation tools into formal learning

  7. Airborne laser scan data: a valuable tool with which to infer weather radar partial beam blockage in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonini, Roberto; Moisseev, Dmitri; Chandrasekar, Venkatachalam

    2016-10-01

    High-spatial-resolution weather radar observations are of primary relevance for hydrological applications in urban areas. However, when weather radars are located within metropolitan areas, partial beam blockages and clutter by buildings can seriously affect the observations. Standard simulations with simple beam propagation models and digital elevation models (DEMs) are usually not able to evaluate buildings' contribution to partial beam blockages. In recent years airborne laser scanners (ALSs) have evolved to the state-of-the-art technique for topographic data acquisition. Providing small footprint diameters (10-30 cm), ALS data allow accurate reconstruction of buildings and forest canopy heights. Analyzing the three weather C-band radars located in the metropolitan area of Helsinki, Finland, the present study investigates the benefits of using ALS data for quantitative estimations of partial beam blockages. The results obtained applying beam standard propagation models are compared with stratiform 24 h rainfall accumulation to evaluate the effects of partial beam blockages due to constructions and trees. To provide a physical interpretation of the results, the detailed analysis of beam occultations is achieved by open spatial data sets and open-source geographic information systems.

  8. Comparison of Parmela and MAFIA Simulations of Beam Dynamics in High Current Photoinjector

    CERN Document Server

    Kurennoy, Sergey S

    2004-01-01

    A high-current RF photoinjector producing low-emittance electron beam is an important technology for high-power CW FEL. LANL-AES team designed a 2.5-cell, pi-mode, 700-MHz normal-conducting RF photoinjector with magnetic emittance compensation. With the electric field gradients of 7, 7, and 5 MV/m in the three subsequent cells, the photoinjector will produce a 2.5-MeV electron beam with 3-nC charge per bunch and the transverse rms emittance 7 mm-mrad. Beam dynamics in the photoinjector has been modeled in details. In addition to the usual approach, with fields calculated by Superfish-Poisson and beam simulations performed by Parmela, we also used MAFIA group of codes, both to calculate cavity fields and to model beam dynamics with its particle-in-cell module TS. The second way naturally includes wake-field effects into consideration. The simulation results and comparison between two approaches will be presented.

  9. Monte Carlo Simulation of a Linear Accelerator and Electron Beam Parameters Used in Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent decades, several Monte Carlo codes have been introduced for research and medical applications. These methods provide both accurate and detailed calculation of particle transport from linear accelerators. The main drawback of Monte Carlo techniques is the extremely long computing time that is required in order to obtain a dose distribution with good statistical accuracy. Material and Methods: In this study, the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code was used to simulate the electron beams generated by a Neptun 10 PC linear accelerator. The depth dose curves and related parameters to depth dose and beam profiles were calculated for 6, 8 and 10 MeV electron beams with different field sizes and these data were compared with the corresponding measured values. The actual dosimetry was performed by employing a Welhofer-Scanditronix dose scanning system, semiconductor detectors and ionization chambers. Results: The result showed good agreement (better than 2% between calculated and measured depth doses and lateral dose profiles for all energies in different field sizes. Also good agreements were achieved between calculated and measured related electron beam parameters such as E0, Rq, Rp and R50. Conclusion: The simulated model of the linac developed in this study is capable of computing electron beam data in a water phantom for different field sizes and the resulting data can be used to predict the dose distributions in other complex geometries.

  10. End-to-End Beam Dynamics Simulations for the ANL-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility consists of a superconducting (SC) 1.4 GV driver linac capable of producing 400 kW beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. The driver is configured as an array of ~350 SC cavities, each with independently controllable rf phase. For the end-to-end beam dynamics design and simulation we use a dedicated code, TRACK. The code integrates ion motion through the three-dimensional fields of all elements of the driver linac beginning from the exit of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production targets. TRACK has been parallelized and is able to track large number of particles in randomly seeded accelerators with misalignments and a comprehensive set of errors. The simulation starts with multi-component dc ion beams extracted from the ECR. Beam losses are obtained by tracking up to million particles in hundreds of randomly seeded accelerators. To control beam losses a set of collimators is applied in designated areas. The end-to-end simulat...

  11. Validation of Monte-Carlo simulations with measurements at the ICON beam-line at SINQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giller, L. [LRS, Physics Department, Ecole Polytechnique Federal de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Filges, U. [LDM, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)], E-mail: uwe.filges@psi.ch; Kuehne, G. [ASQ, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Wohlmuther, M. [ABE, GFA Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Zanini, L. [ASQ, NUM Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2008-02-11

    ICON is the new cold neutron imaging facility at the neutron spallation source SINQ. The ICON facility is placed at beam-line S52 with direct view to the cold liquid D{sub 2} moderator. The beam-line includes a 4.4 m long collimation section followed by a 11 m long flight path to the imaging system. The essential part of the collimation section is composed of six revolving drums and a variable aperture wheel. Depending on the investigated object, different apertures are used. Measurements have shown that each setup has a different spatial neutron flux distribution and specific beam profiles. Measured beam profiles have been used to validate results of simulations coupling the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX with the neutron ray-tracing program McStas. In a first step, MCNPX was used to calculate neutron spectra closed to the SINQ target, at the entrance of the collimation section. These results served as an input for McStas where the beam-line itself was simulated. In the present paper, experimental and theoretical results will be compared and discussed.

  12. Validation of Monte-Carlo simulations with measurements at the ICON beam-line at SINQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, L.; Filges, U.; Kühne, G.; Wohlmuther, M.; Zanini, L.

    2008-02-01

    ICON is the new cold neutron imaging facility at the neutron spallation source SINQ. The ICON facility is placed at beam-line S52 with direct view to the cold liquid D 2 moderator. The beam-line includes a 4.4 m long collimation section followed by a 11 m long flight path to the imaging system. The essential part of the collimation section is composed of six revolving drums and a variable aperture wheel. Depending on the investigated object, different apertures are used. Measurements have shown that each setup has a different spatial neutron flux distribution and specific beam profiles. Measured beam profiles have been used to validate results of simulations coupling the Monte-Carlo program MCNPX with the neutron ray-tracing program McStas. In a first step, MCNPX was used to calculate neutron spectra closed to the SINQ target, at the entrance of the collimation section. These results served as an input for McStas where the beam-line itself was simulated. In the present paper, experimental and theoretical results will be compared and discussed.

  13. Design and beam transport simulations of a multistage collector for the Israeli EA-FEM

    CERN Document Server

    Tecimer, M; Efimov, S; Gover, A; Sokolowski, J

    2001-01-01

    A four stage asymmetric type depressed collector has been designed for the Israeli mm-wave FEM that is driven by a 1.4 MeV, 1.5 A electron beam. After leaving the interaction section the spent beam has an energy spread of 120 keV and 75 pi mm mrad normalized beam emittance. Simulations of the beam transport system from the undulator exit through the decelerator tube into the collector have been carried out using EGUN and GPT codes. The latter has also been employed to study trajectories of the primary and scattered particles within the collector, optimizing the asymmetrical collector geometry and the electrode potentials at the presence of a deflecting magnetic field. The estimated overall system and collector efficiencies reach 50% and 70%, respectively, with a beam recovery of 99.6%. The design is aimed to attain millisecond long pulse operation and subsequently 1 kW average power. Simulation results are implemented in a mechanical design that leads to a simple, cost efficient assembly eliminating ceramic i...

  14. Simulation of H{sup -} ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at University of Jyvaeskylae, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H{sup -} ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H{sup -} currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  15. Enhancing simulation of efficiency with analytical tools. [combining computer simulation and analytical techniques for cost reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some means of combining both computer simulation and anlytical techniques are indicated in order to mutually enhance their efficiency as design tools and to motivate those involved in engineering design to consider using such combinations. While the idea is not new, heavy reliance on computers often seems to overshadow the potential utility of analytical tools. Although the example used is drawn from the area of dynamics and control, the principles espoused are applicable to other fields. In the example the parameter plane stability analysis technique is described briefly and extended beyond that reported in the literature to increase its utility (through a simple set of recursive formulas) and its applicability (through the portrayal of the effect of varying the sampling period of the computer). The numerical values that were rapidly selected by analysis were found to be correct for the hybrid computer simulation for which they were needed. This obviated the need for cut-and-try methods to choose the numerical values, thereby saving both time and computer utilization.

  16. Simulation of crystalline beams in storage rings using molecular dynamics technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Katayama, T.; Sidorin, A.; Smirnov, A.; Syresin, E.; Trubnikov, G.; Tsutsui, H.

    2006-03-01

    Achieving very low temperatures in the beam rest frame can present new possibilities in accelerator physics. Increasing luminosity in the collider and in experiments with targets is a very important asset for investigating rare radioactive isotopes. The ordered state of circulating ion beams was observed at several storage rings: NAP-M [Budker, et al., in: Proceedings of the 4th All-Union Conference on Charged-Particle Accelerators [in Russian], vol. 2, Nauka, Moscow, 1975, p. 309; Budker et al., Part. Accel. 7 (1976) 197; Budker et al., At. Energ. 40 (1976) 49. E. Dementev, N. Dykansky, A. Medvedko et al., Prep. CERN/PS/AA 79-41, Geneva, 1979] (Novosibirsk), ESR [M. Steck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3803] and SIS [Hasse and Steck, Ordered ion beams, in: Proceeding of EPAC '2000] (Darmstadt), CRYRING [Danared et al., Observation of ordered ion beams in CRYRING, in: Proceeding of PAC '2001] (Stockholm) and PALLAS [Schramm et al., in: J.L. Duggan (Eds.), Proceedings of the Conference on Appl. of Acc. in Research and Industry AIP Conference Proceedings, p. 576 (to be published)] (Munich). In this report, the simulation of 1D crystalline beams with BETACOOL code is presented. The sudden reduction of momentum spread in the ESR experiment is described with this code. Simulation shows good agreement with experimental results and also with the intrabeam scattering (IBS) theory [Martini, Intrabeam scattering in the ACOOL-AA machines, CERN PS/84-9 AA, Geneva, 1984]. The code was used to calculate characteristics of the ordered state of ion beams for the TARN-II [Katayama, TARN II project, in: Proceedings of the IUCF workshop on nuclear physics with stored cooled beams, Spencer, IN, USA, 1984].

  17. SU-E-J-72: Geant4 Simulations of Spot-Scanned Proton Beam Treatment Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanehira, T; Sutherland, K; Matsuura, T; Umegaki, K; Shirato, H [Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate density inhomogeneities which can effect dose distributions for real-time image gated spot-scanning proton therapy (RGPT), a dose calculation system, using treatment planning system VQA (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo) spot position data, was developed based on Geant4. Methods: A Geant4 application was developed to simulate spot-scanned proton beams at Hokkaido University Hospital. A CT scan (0.98 × 0.98 × 1.25 mm) was performed for prostate cancer treatment with three or four inserted gold markers (diameter 1.5 mm, volume 1.77 mm3) in or near the target tumor. The CT data was read into VQA. A spot scanning plan was generated and exported to text files, specifying the beam energy and position of each spot. The text files were converted and read into our Geant4-based software. The spot position was converted into steering magnet field strength (in Tesla) for our beam nozzle. Individual protons were tracked from the vacuum chamber, through the helium chamber, steering magnets, dose monitors, etc., in a straight, horizontal line. The patient CT data was converted into materials with variable density and placed in a parametrized volume at the isocenter. Gold fiducial markers were represented in the CT data by two adjacent voxels (volume 2.38 mm3). 600,000 proton histories were tracked for each target spot. As one beam contained about 1,000 spots, approximately 600 million histories were recorded for each beam on a blade server. Two plans were considered: two beam horizontal opposed (90 and 270 degree) and three beam (0, 90 and 270 degree). Results: We are able to convert spot scanning plans from VQA and simulate them with our Geant4-based code. Our system can be used to evaluate the effect of dose reduction caused by gold markers used for RGPT. Conclusion: Our Geant4 application is able to calculate dose distributions for spot scanned proton therapy.

  18. Simulation of a 36 h solar particle event at LLUMC using a proton beam scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutrakon, G.B. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)]. E-mail: gcoutrakon@dominion.llumc.edu; Benton, E.R. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Physics, 1110 S. Innovation Way, Stillwater, OK 74074 (United States); Gridley, D.S. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Hickey, T. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Hubbard, J. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Koss, P. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Moyers, M.F. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Nelson, G.A. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Pecaut, M.J. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Sanders, E. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States); Shahnazi, K. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Department of Radiation Medicine, 11234 Anderson Street, Loma Linda, CA 92354 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    A radiation biology experiment was performed in the research room of the proton therapy facility at Loma Linda University Medical Center to simulate the proton exposure produced by a solar particle event. The experiment used two scanning magnets for X and Y deflection of the proton beam and covered a usable target area of nearly 1 m{sup 2}. The magnet scanning control system consisted of Lab View 6.0 software running on a PC. The goal of this experiment was to study the immune system response of 48 mice simultaneously exposed to 2 Gy of protons that simulated the dose rate and energy spectrum of the September 1989 solar particle event. The 2 Gy dose was delivered to the entrance of the mice cages over 36 h. Both ion chamber and TLD measurements indicated that the dose delivered was within 9% of the intended value. A spot scanning technique using one spot per accelerator cycle (2.2 s) was used to deliver doses as low as 1 {mu}Gy per beam spot. Rapid beam termination (less than 5 ms) on each spot was obtained by energizing a quadrupole in the proton synchrotron once the dose limit was reached for each spot. A parallel plate ion chamber placed adjacent to the mice cages provided fluence (or dose) measurements for each beam energy during each hour of the experiment. An intensity modulated spot scanning technique can be used in a variety of ways for radiation biology and a second experiment is being designed with this proton beam scanning system to simultaneously irradiate four groups of mice with different dose rates within the 1 m{sup 2} area. Also, large electronic devices being tested for radiation damage have been exposed in this beam without the use of patch fields. The same scanning system has potential application for intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) as well. This paper discusses the beam delivery system and dosimetry of the irradiation.

  19. CLIC Drive Beam Phase Stabilisation

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbershagen, Alexander; Schulte, Daniel

    The thesis presents phase stability studies for the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and focuses in particular on CLIC Drive Beam longitudinal phase stabilisation. This topic constitutes one of the main feasibility challenges for CLIC construction and is an essential component of the current CLIC stabilisation campaign. The studies are divided into two large interrelated sections: the simulation studies for the CLIC Drive Beam stability, and measurements, data analysis and simulations of the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) Drive Beam phase errors. A dedicated software tool has been developed for a step-by-step analysis of the error propagation through the CLIC Drive Beam. It uses realistic RF potential and beam loading amplitude functions for the Drive and Main Beam accelerating structures, complete models of the recombination scheme and compressor chicane as well as of further CLIC Drive Beam modules. The tool has been tested extensively and its functionality has been verified. The phase error propagation at CLIC h...

  20. Simulation of the Beam Dump for a High Intensity Electron Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Doebert, S; Lefevre, T; Pepitone, K

    2014-01-01

    The CLIC Drive Beam is a high-intensity pulsed electron beam. A test facility for the Drive Beam electron gun will soon be commissioned at CERN. In this contribution we outline the design of a beam dump / Faraday cup capable of resisting the beam’s thermal load. The test facility will operate initially up to 140 keV. At such low energies, the electrons are absorbed very close to the surface of the dump, leading to a large energy deposition density in this thin layer. In order not to damage the dump, the beam must be spread over a large surface. For this reason, a small-angled cone has been chosen. Simulations using Geant4 have been performed to estimate the distribution of energy deposition in the dump. The heat transport both within the electron pulse and between pulses has been modelled using finite element methods to check the resistance of the dump at high repetition rates. In addition, the possibility of using a moveable dump to measure the beam profile and emittance is discussed.

  1. Three-dimensional quasistatic model for high brightness beam dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiang, Ji; Lidia, Steve; Ryne, Robert D.; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we present a three-dimensional quasistatic model for high brightness beam dynamics simulation in rf/dc photoinjectors, rf linacs, and similar devices on parallel computers. In this model, electrostatic space-charge forces within a charged particle beam are calculated self-consistently at each time step by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation in the beam frame and then transforming back to the laboratory frame. When the beam has a large energy spread, it is divided into a number of energy bins or slices so that the space-charge forces are calculated from the contribution of each bin and summed together. Image-charge effects from conducting photocathode are also included efficiently using a shifted-Green function method. For a beam with large aspect ratio, e.g., during emission, an integrated Green function method is used to solve the three-dimensional Poisson equation. Using this model, we studied beam transport in one Linac Coherent Light Sources photoinjector design through the first traveling wave linac with initial misalignment with respect to the accelerating axis.

  2. Start-to-end simulation with rare isotope beam for post accelerator of the RAON accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Hyunchang

    2016-01-01

    The RAON accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) has been developed to create and accelerate various kinds of stable heavy ion beams and rare isotope beams for a wide range of the science applications. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams generated by the Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system will be transported through the post accelerator, namely, from the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) system and the post Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) to the superconducting linac (SCL3). The accelerated beams will be put to use in the low energy experimental hall or accelerated again by the superconducting linac (SCL2) in order to be used in the high energy experimental hall. In this paper, we will describe the results of the start-to-end simulations with the rare isotope beams generated by the ISOL system in the post accelerator of the RAON accelerator. In addition, the error analysis and correction at the superconducting linac SCL3 will be presented.

  3. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cauchi, M; Cerutti, F; Deboy, D; Ferrari, A; Lari, L; Marsili, A; Mereghetti, A; Mirarchi, D; Quaranta, E; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Rossi, A; Salvachua, B; Skordis, E; Tambasco, C; Valentino, G; Weiler, T; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010--2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5--4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An un-controlled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multi-stage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the co...

  4. Simulation and Field Measurement of Quadrupole Magnets for KOMAC 20MeV Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B. H.; Kim, H. S.; Song, Y. G.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, quadrupole magnets the same as installed at the beam line simulated and analyzed for magnetic fields. Also quadrupole magnets will be measured field stability and evaluated reliability on long time operation. Control system consisted of Labview program and communication method consisted of Ethernet and Rs-232 with optical fiber for devices safety from high voltage and/or high current. As a results the DC power supply is controlled, magnetic fields data is acquired and coil temperature is measured. Magnetic field with hall sensor and temperature with K-type thermo-couple are measured with conversion factor using by voltmeter. Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) was developed at Gyeongju in Korea in 2012. KOMAC including a 50-keV ion source, a 3-MeV RFQ, and a 100-MeV DTL. And beam line consists of 20-MeV and 100-MeV for user. Proton beam transferred from the linac to the beam line using by dipole magnets and transferred proton beam focused and decreased beam loss and by quadrupole magnets.

  5. Sub-impacts of simply supported beam struck by steel sphere—part II: Numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Qi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This part of the article describes numerical simulations of the problem investigated experimentally. A three-dimensional finite element model of elastic–plastic for sphere falling on beam has been implemented using the nonlinear dynamic finite element software LS-DYNA. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the LS-DYNA is suitable to study complex sub-impact phenomenon, and good agreement is in general obtained between the simulation and experimental results. The numerical simulations show that the initial impact velocity, equivalent elasticity modulus, contact curvature radius of the sphere, and equivalent mass have great influence on the contact–impact time of the sub-impact, and an applicable range of the theoretical expression of contact–impact time of the sub-impact was determined. In addition, the numerical simulations demonstrate the ratios of maximum amplitudes of the first-, second-, and third-order vibrations to the maximum amplitudes of the beam vibrations, and the phase angle of the first-order vibration will change suddenly when the sub-impacts occur. Furthermore, the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts were clarified numerically. It was found that the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts can be represented by a mass ratio threshold, and the thickness or length of the beam has also a great influence on the occurrence of the sub-impacts. Once the sub-impacts occur, which would result in an uncertain behavior of the apparent coefficient of restitution.

  6. SimDoseCT: dose reporting software based on Monte Carlo simulation for a 320 detector-row cone-beam CT scanner and ICRP computational adult phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, Maria; Joemai, Raoul M. S.; Geleijns, Jacob; Molina, Diego; Salvadó, Marçal

    2017-08-01

    This study aims to develop and test software for assessing and reporting doses for standard patients undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations in a 320 detector-row cone-beam scanner. The software, called SimDoseCT, is based on the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation code, which was developed to calculate organ doses and effective doses in ICRP anthropomorphic adult reference computational phantoms for acquisitions with the Aquilion ONE CT scanner (Toshiba). MC simulation was validated by comparing CTDI measurements within standard CT dose phantoms with results from simulation under the same conditions. SimDoseCT consists of a graphical user interface connected to a MySQL database, which contains the look-up-tables that were generated with MC simulations for volumetric acquisitions at different scan positions along the phantom using any tube voltage, bow tie filter, focal spot and nine different beam widths. Two different methods were developed to estimate organ doses and effective doses from acquisitions using other available beam widths in the scanner. A correction factor was used to estimate doses in helical acquisitions. Hence, the user can select any available protocol in the Aquilion ONE scanner for a standard adult male or female and obtain the dose results through the software interface. Agreement within 9% between CTDI measurements and simulations allowed the validation of the MC program. Additionally, the algorithm for dose reporting in SimDoseCT was validated by comparing dose results from this tool with those obtained from MC simulations for three volumetric acquisitions (head, thorax and abdomen). The comparison was repeated using eight different collimations and also for another collimation in a helical abdomen examination. The results showed differences of 0.1 mSv or less for absolute dose in most organs and also in the effective dose calculation. The software provides a suitable tool for dose assessment in standard adult patients undergoing CT

  7. Particle-in-cell simulations of the relaxation of electron beams in inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Jonathan O.; Tsiklauri, David

    2016-12-01

    Previous theoretical considerations of electron beam relaxation in inhomogeneous plasmas have indicated that the effects of the irregular solar wind may account for the poor agreement of homogeneous modelling with the observations. Quasi-linear theory and Hamiltonian models based on Zakharov's equations have indicated that when the level of density fluctuations is above a given threshold, density irregularities act to de-resonate the beam-plasma interaction, restricting Langmuir wave growth on the expense of beam energy. This work presents the first fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam relaxation under the influence of density irregularities. We aim to independently determine the influence of background inhomogeneity on the beam-plasma system, and to test theoretical predictions and alternative models using a fully kinetic treatment. We carry out one-dimensional (1-D) PIC simulations of a bump-on-tail unstable electron beam in the presence of increasing levels of background inhomogeneity using the fully electromagnetic, relativistic EPOCH PIC code. We find that in the case of homogeneous background plasma density, Langmuir wave packets are generated at the resonant condition and then quasi-linear relaxation leads to a dynamic increase of wavenumbers generated. No electron acceleration is seen - unlike in the inhomogeneous experiments, all of which produce high-energy electrons. For the inhomogeneous experiments we also observe the generation of backwards-propagating Langmuir waves, which is shown directly to be due to the refraction of the packets off the density gradients. In the case of higher-amplitude density fluctuations, similar features to the weaker cases are found, but also packets can also deviate from the expected dispersion curve in -space due to nonlinearity. Our fully kinetic PIC simulations broadly confirm the findings of quasi-linear theory and the Hamiltonian model based on Zakharov's equations. Strong density fluctuations

  8. Beam model and three dimensional numerical simulations on suspended microchannel resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Rong Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At the microscale level, the vibrational characteristics of microstructures have been widely applied on biochemical microchips, especially for bio-molecules detection. The vibrational mechanics and mechanism of microcantilever beams immersed in the fluids for detecting target bio-molecules carried in the fluids have been widely studied and realized in recent years. However, it is not the case for microcantilever beams containing fluids inside (called suspended microchannel resonators, SMR. In this paper, an 1-D beam model for SMR is proposed and the formula for prediction of resonant frequency and resonant frequency shift are derived. For verification of validity of the 1-D beam model, three dimensional finite element simulations using ANSYS are performed. The effects of relevant parameters, such as density and viscosity of the fluids, on the frequency response are investigated. A link between numerical simulations and mathematical modeling is established through an equivalence relation. Subsequently, a useful formula of the resonant frequency shift as a function of the mass variation and the viscosity of the contained fluid is derived. Good agreement between the numerical simulations and the experimental data is obtained and the physical mechanism is elucidated.

  9. Investigation of beam deflection reduction and multi-beamlet focus at a large-area negative ion source for a neutral beam injector with 3-D beam trajectory simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, M; Asano, E; Oka, Y; Osakabe, M; Tsumori, K; Kaneko, O; Yamashita, Y

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the reduction of ion beam deflection caused by electron deflection magnets, and focus of multi-beamlets at a large-area negative ion source of a neutral beam injector (NBI) in order to reduce beam loss during long-distance beam transport (>10 m) and beam injection into a nuclear fusion device. The electrostatic lens effect by displacement of the beam extraction aperture of a grounded grid (GG) was utilized for the beam deflection reduction and the multi-beamlet focus. We proposed an analysis process to adjust the aperture displacement which avoids beam collision with the GG by too much displacement. The analysis process includes a 3-D beam trajectory simulation used for analyzing the beam deflection angle and beam radius as well as theoretical calculations, which are used to calculate the aperture displacement based on the 3-D simulation results. Applicability of the analysis process was examined for a large-area high-current H sup - ion source of an NBI (0.25 mx1.25 m, 40 A, 180 keV). The ana...

  10. Time domain simulation and modeling of power electronic circuits. Development of a simulation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, O.

    1993-08-01

    This thesis presents the results of a study on the topic: Time domain modeling and simulation of power electronic circuits. The objectives of the presented work have been to improve and expand the simulation program KREAN. This also included search for, development and implementation of models suited for analysis of power electronic circuits. The main contribution of the work is the improved KREAN program itself and the models created for the program. Further, the work has led to this thesis which is a documentation of the applied methods. The thesis shows how to create a power electronic simulation tool and how to meet the special problems encountered in power electronic circuits. Among the major improvements of KREAN are: Better methods for solution of nonlinear algebraic equations. Major modifications have been implemented in the modified Newton iteration method. The old method suffered from insufficient control of the iteration error. Improved efficiency, accuracy and robustness of the breakpoint detection methods (breakpoints are time instants of discontinuous behavior in models). A new linear circuit now replaces the nonlinear modules at each stage in the iteration. The old one could give serious errors in the results and was not applicable after introduction of voltage response terminals. Several new models have been implemented as KREAN modules. Together with the old basic ones, they form a powerful set for simulation of power electronics. The thesis describes the applied methods, the implemented models and also presents results from study of the accuracy and efficiency of the program. The applied methods in the program are stated to be good enough for most simulation purposes. 100 refs., 93 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Beam-loading Compensation Experiment in the CLIC Test Facility. Modelling and Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kononenko, Oleksiy; Grudiev, Alexej; Tecker, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Transient beam-loading in the main linac is an important performance issue for a Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study. In order to keep the luminosity losses less than 1%, the rms bunch-to-bunch relative energy spread must be below 0.03%. Beam-loading model and a compensation scheme, which meet this requirement, have been recently developed for CLIC. In this paper we propose ways to confirm the feasibility of the compensation scheme experimentally in the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3). As a part of this study a CTF3-specific model to simulate an RF power production is developed and the corresponding numerical results are discussed

  12. Monte Carlo simulation of MOSFET detectors for high-energy photon beams using the PENELOPE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panettieri, Vanessa [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Duch, Maria Amor [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jornet, Nuria [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Ginjaume, Merce [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Carrasco, Pablo [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Badal, Andreu [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ortega, Xavier [Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ribas, Montserrat [Servei de RadiofIsica i Radioproteccio, Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau Sant Antoni Maria Claret 167, 08025 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-01-07

    The aim of this work was the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation of the response of commercially available dosimeters based on metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) for radiotherapeutic photon beams using the PENELOPE code. The studied Thomson and Nielsen TN-502-RD MOSFETs have a very small sensitive area of 0.04 mm{sup 2} and a thickness of 0.5 {mu}m which is placed on a flat kapton base and covered by a rounded layer of black epoxy resin. The influence of different metallic and Plastic water(TM) build-up caps, together with the orientation of the detector have been investigated for the specific application of MOSFET detectors for entrance in vivo dosimetry. Additionally, the energy dependence of MOSFET detectors for different high-energy photon beams (with energy >1.25 MeV) has been calculated. Calculations were carried out for simulated 6 MV and 18 MV x-ray beams generated by a Varian Clinac 1800 linear accelerator, a Co-60 photon beam from a Theratron 780 unit, and monoenergetic photon beams ranging from 2 MeV to 10 MeV. The results of the validation of the simulated photon beams show that the average difference between MC results and reference data is negligible, within 0.3%. MC simulated results of the effect of the build-up caps on the MOSFET response are in good agreement with experimental measurements, within the uncertainties. In particular, for the 18 MV photon beam the response of the detectors under a tungsten cap is 48% higher than for a 2 cm Plastic water(TM) cap and approximately 26% higher when a brass cap is used. This effect is demonstrated to be caused by positron production in the build-up caps of higher atomic number. This work also shows that the MOSFET detectors produce a higher signal when their rounded side is facing the beam (up to 6%) and that there is a significant variation (up to 50%) in the response of the MOSFET for photon energies in the studied energy range. All the results have shown that the PENELOPE code system

  13. Impedance simulations and measurements on the LHC collimators with embedded beam position monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Biancacci, N; Kuczerowski, J; Métral,; Mounet, N; Salvant, B; Mostacci, A; Frasciello, O; Zobov, M

    2017-01-01

    The LHC collimation system is a critical element for the safe operation of the LHC machine. The necessity of fast accurate positioning of the collimator’s jaws, recently introduced the need to have button beam position monitors directly embedded in the jaws extremities of the LHC tertiary collimators and some secondary collimators. This addition led to a new design of these collimators including ferrites to damp higher order modes instead of rf fingers. In this work we will present the impedance bench measurements and simulations on a TCT (Transverse Tertiary Collimator) prototype including estimations for beam stability for the LHC.

  14. Impedance simulations and measurements on the LHC collimators with embedded beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Biancacci

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHC collimation system is a critical element for the safe operation of the LHC machine. The necessity of fast accurate positioning of the collimator’s jaws, recently introduced the need to have button beam position monitors directly embedded in the jaws extremities of the LHC tertiary collimators and some secondary collimators. This addition led to a new design of these collimators including ferrites to damp higher order modes instead of rf fingers. In this work we will present the impedance bench measurements and simulations on a TCT (Transverse Tertiary Collimator prototype including estimations for beam stability for the LHC.

  15. Simulation of Intense Beams and Targets for Heavy-Ion-Fusion Science (HEDLP / Inertial Fusion Energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cohen, Ron H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dorf, Mikhail [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eder, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, Dave P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lund, Steve M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sharp, William M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Henestroza, Enrique [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ed P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Vay, Jean -Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davidson, Ron C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Startsev, Ed [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fagnan, Kirsten [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Koniges, Alice [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bertozzi, Andrea [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-08-26

    Our principal goals, and activities in support of those goals, over the next five years are as follows: (1) Optimize the properties of the NDCX-II beam for each class of target experiments; achieve quantitative agreement with measurements; develop improved machine configurations and operating points. To accomplish these goals, we plan to use Warp to simulate NDCX-II from source to target, in full kinetic detail, including first-principles modeling of beam neutralization by plasma. The output from an ensemble of Warp runs (representing shot-to-shot variations) will be used as input to target simulations using ALE-AMR on NERSC, and other codes. (2) Develop enhanced versions of NDCX-II (the machine is designed to be extensible and reconfigurable), and carry out studies to define a next-step ion beam facility. To accomplish these goals, much of the work will involve iterative optimization employing Warp runs that assume ideal beam neutralization downstream of the accelerator. (3) Carry out detailed target simulations in the Warm Dense Matter regime using the ALE-AMR code, including surface tension effects, liquid-vapor coexistence, and accurate models of both the driving beam and the target geometry. For this we will need to make multiple runs (to capture shot-to-shot variations), and to both develop and employ synthetic diagnostics (to enable comparison with experiments). The new science that will be revealed is the physics of the transition from the liquid to vapor state of a volumetrically superheated material, wherein droplets are formed, and wherein phase transitions, surface tension and hydrodynamics all play significant roles in the dynamics. These simulations will enable calculations of equation of state and other material properties, and will also be of interest for their illumination of the science of droplet formation.

  16. D-VASim: A Software Tool to Simulate and Analyze Genetic Logic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    -stage researchers with limited experience in the field of biology. The Solution: Using LabVIEW to develop a user-friendly simulation tool named Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator (D-VASim), which is the first software tool in the domain of synthetic biology that provides a virtual laboratory environment...

  17. D-VASim: A Software Tool to Simulate and Analyze Genetic Logic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    -stage researchers with limited experience in the field of biology. The Solution: Using LabVIEW to develop a user-friendly simulation tool named Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator (D-VASim), which is the first software tool in the domain of synthetic biology that provides a virtual laboratory environment...

  18. Application of Maintenance Simulate System of NC Machine Tools in Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The project design is the foundation of training, which can insure the usefulness of human resource development system. The Training Project Maintenance Simulate System of NC Machine Tools is presented based on analyzed contradiction between supply and demand. This paper introduces several scheme of Maintenance Simulate System of NC Machine Tools.

  19. Simulation of the CERN GTS-LHC ECR ion source extraction system with lead and argon ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A; Scrivens, R; Stafford-Haworth, J

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive study of beam formation and beam transport has been initiated in order to improve the performance of the CERN heavy ion injector, Linac3. As part of this study, the ion beam extraction system of the CERN GTS-LHC 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has been modelled with the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulations predict self-consistently the triangular and hollow beam structures which are often observed experimentally with ECRIS ion beams. The model is used to investigate the performance of the current extraction system and provides a basis for possible future improvements. In addition, the extraction simulation provides a more realistic representation of the initial beam properties for the beam transport simulations, which aim to identify the performance bottle necks along the Linac3 low energy beam transport. The results of beam extraction simulations with Pb and Ar ion beams from the GTS-LHC will be presented and compared with experimental observations.

  20. SIMULATION AS A TOOL FOR PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF LOGISTIC SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radko Popovič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the simulation of the production processes, especially module of Siemens Tecnomatix software. Tecnomatix Process Simulate is designed for building new or modifying existing production processes. The simulation created in this software has a posibility for fast testing of planned changes or improvements of the production processes. On the base of simulation you can imagine the future picture of the real production system. 3D Simulation can reflects the actual status and conditions on the running system and of course, after some improvements, it can show the possible figure of the production system.

  1. Monte Carlo calculation of beam quality correction factors in proton beams using detailed simulation of ionization chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomà, Carles; Andreo, Pedro; Sempau, Josep

    2016-03-01

    This work calculates beam quality correction factors (k Q ) in monoenergetic proton beams using detailed Monte Carlo simulation of ionization chambers. It uses the Monte Carlo code penh and the electronic stopping powers resulting from the adoption of two different sets of mean excitation energy values for water and graphite: (i) the currently ICRU 37 and ICRU 49 recommended {{I}\\text{w}}=75~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=78~\\text{eV} and (ii) the recently proposed {{I}\\text{w}}=78~\\text{eV} and {{I}\\text{g}}=81.1~\\text{eV} . Twelve different ionization chambers were studied. The k Q factors calculated using the two different sets of I-values were found to agree with each other within 1.6% or better. k Q factors calculated using current ICRU I-values were found to agree within 2.3% or better with the k Q factors tabulated in IAEA TRS-398, and within 1% or better with experimental values published in the literature. k Q factors calculated using the new I-values were also found to agree within 1.1% or better with the experimental values. This work concludes that perturbation correction factors in proton beams—currently assumed to be equal to unity—are in fact significantly different from unity for some of the ionization chambers studied.

  2. RTSTEP regional transportation simulation tool for emergency planning - final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley, H.; Sokolov, V.; Hope, M.; Auld, J.; Zhang, K.; Park, Y.; Kang, X. (Energy Systems)

    2012-01-20

    such materials over a large area, with responders trying to mitigate the immediate danger to the population in a variety of ways that may change over time (e.g., in-place evacuation, staged evacuations, and declarations of growing evacuation zones over time). In addition, available resources will be marshaled in unusual ways, such as the repurposing of transit vehicles to support mass evacuations. Thus, any simulation strategy will need to be able to address highly dynamic effects and will need to be able to handle any mode of ground transportation. Depending on the urgency and timeline of the event, emergency responders may also direct evacuees to leave largely on foot, keeping roadways as clear as possible for emergency responders, logistics, mass transport, and law enforcement. This RTSTEP project developed a regional emergency evacuation modeling tool for the Chicago Metropolitan Area that emergency responders can use to pre-plan evacuation strategies and compare different response strategies on the basis of a rather realistic model of the underlying complex transportation system. This approach is a significant improvement over existing response strategies that are largely based on experience gained from small-scale events, anecdotal evidence, and extrapolation to the scale of the assumed emergency. The new tool will thus add to the toolbox available to emergency response planners to help them design appropriate generalized procedures and strategies that lead to an improved outcome when used during an actual event.

  3. An integrative review of skin assessment tools used to evaluate skin injury related to external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Carol R; McGuiness, William; O'Rourke, Geraldine A

    2017-04-01

    To review literature associated with external beam radiotherapy and skin damage. A focus of the literature search is to highlight and discuss the myriad of skin assessment tools that are available to the clinician when assessing skin injury in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy. It is apparent that despite considerable work being progressed in the development of individualised skin assessment tools, uptake and use is poor. These tools are designed to assist the clinician in the evaluation of damaged skin and predict the radiation wound development pathway. An integrated review can be used to address a mature or new and emerging topic through a systematic methodology, which is either theoretical or empirical, gained from research, practice or policy initiatives (Whittemore & Knafl, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 2005, 546). This review is particularly concerned with the employment of skin assessment tools by clinicians in patients with radiation damaged skin. Using the search terms synonyms for radiation, skin and epidermal damage, PubMed/MEDLINE, Medical Complete and Web of Science databases were searched. Consulting professional peers was employed as part of the inclusion and exclusion process. There is a high level of unpredictability about which patient will have an uncomplicated course of external beam radiotherapy. Variables may include, but are not limited to, an acute reaction, a delayed reaction resulting in actual skin damage or no visible skin disturbance. The skin assessment tools that are readily available are not regularly referenced in clinical practice when attempting to manage the many side effects of radiation therapy. Skin assessment tools require ongoing clinical validation, so they can be used to guide practitioners to undertake further assessment of skin integrity. The current body of knowledge suggests clinicians caring for patients receiving therapeutic radiotherapy should consider integrating a recognised patient assessment

  4. The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    AARL-SR-90-512 AD-A235 930l[liill ~i 11111111111 iIII J The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool Louise A...R 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS The Use of the Articulated Total Body Model as a Robot Dynamics Simulation Tool PE 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...Lagrange method. In this paper the use of the ATH model as a robot dynamics simulation tool is discussed and various simulations are demonstrated. For this

  5. Geant4 simulation of the nTOF-EAR2 neutron beam: Characteristics and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Cortes-Giraldo, M.A.; Quesada, J.M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); Lo Meo, S. [Research Centre ' ' Ezio Clementel' ' , ENEA, Bologna (Italy); INFN, Section of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Massimi, C.; Vannini, G. [INFN, Section of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); University of Bologna, Physics and Astronomy Dept. ' ' Alma Mater Studiorum' ' , Bologna (Italy); Barbagallo, M.; Colonna, N. [INFN, Section of Bari, Bari (Italy); Mancusi, D.; Vlachoudis, V. [CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Mingrone, F. [INFN, Section of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Sabate-Gilarte, M. [Universidad de Sevilla, Dpto. de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Sevilla (Spain); CEA-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Collaboration: nTOF Collaboration

    2016-04-15

    The characteristics of the neutron beam at the new nTOF-EAR2 facility have been simulated with the Geant4 code with the aim of providing useful data for both the analysis and planning of the upcoming measurements. The spatial and energy distributions of the neutrons, the resolution function and the in-beam γ-ray background have been studied in detail and their implications in the forthcoming experiments have been discussed. The results confirm that, with this new short (18.5 m flight path) beam line, reaching an instantaneous neutron flux beyond 10{sup 5} n/μs/pulse in the keV region, nTOF is one of the few facilities where challenging measurements can be performed, involving in particular short-lived radioisotopes. (orig.)

  6. The Use of Sprint Interface Element Delamination Simulation of Sandwich Composite Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Geng; Yan, Renjun

    2016-12-01

    Sandwich composite beams have been more and more used in various industries because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the mismatched performance between face sheet and foam core always lead to such as cracks and damages in the core or face/core interface during the processes of manufacturing or service. Delamination damage at the adhesive interface is the most dangerous and could be one main source that the mechanical capability of the structure is serous degenerated. In this paper, a simple and natural model to evaluate the stiffness of the spring interface elements, which is based on the physics and the geometry of the adhesive layers, is proposed. In order to validate the model, cantilever beam bending test were conducted for marine sandwich composite I-beam. A good comparison has been found between predictions and experimental results, and results indicate that the spring interface element can provide an efficient model for the delamination simulation of sandwich composite structures.

  7. LEADS-DC: A computer code for intense dc beam nonlinear transport simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An intense dc beam nonlinear transport code has been developed. The code is written in Visual FORTRAN 6.6 and has ~13000 lines. The particle distribution in the transverse cross section is uniform or Gaussian. The space charge forces are calculated by the PIC (particle in cell) scheme, and the effects of the applied fields on the particle motion are calculated with the Lie algebraic method through the third order approximation. Obviously,the solutions to the equations of particle motion are self-consistent. The results obtained from the theoretical analysis have been put in the computer code. Many optical beam elements are contained in the code. So, the code can simulate the intense dc particle motions in the beam transport lines, high voltage dc accelerators and ion implanters.

  8. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  9. 3D Nonlinear Numerical Simulation of Intact and Debonded Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Quan(陈权); Marcus L.

    2004-01-01

    To study the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) structures with sections of concrete removed and the reinforcement exposed, 3D nonlinear numerical analysis was performed upon both intact and debonded RC beams by using finite element techniques. The deformational characteristics and the ultimate loads were obtained through numerical models, as well as crack and stress distributions. The failure modes can also be deduced from computational results. Compared with intact beams, the normal assumptions of plane section behaviour is not hold true and the patterns of stress and strain are different in debonded RC beams. The numerical results show good consistency with experimental data. This kind of numerical simulation is a supplement to existing codes.

  10. Particle simulation of collision dynamics for ion beam injection into a rarefied gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuliano, Paul N.; Boyd, Iain D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    This study details a comparison of ion beam simulations with experimental data from a simplified plasma test cell in order to study and validate numerical models and environments representative of electric propulsion devices and their plumes. The simulations employ a combination of the direct simulation Monte Carlo and particle-in-cell methods representing xenon ions and atoms as macroparticles. An anisotropic collision model is implemented for momentum exchange and charge exchange interactions between atoms and ions in order to validate the post-collision scattering behaviors of dominant collision mechanisms. Cases are simulated in which the environment is either collisionless or non-electrostatic in order to prove that the collision models are the dominant source of low- and high-angle particle scattering and current collection within this environment. Additionally, isotropic cases are run in order to show the importance of anisotropy in these collision models. An analysis of beam divergence leads to better characterization of the ion beam, a parameter that requires careful analysis. Finally, suggestions based on numerical results are made to help guide the experimental design in order to better characterize the ion environment.

  11. Optimization of GEANT4 settings for Proton Pencil Beam Scanning simulations using GATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevillot, Loic, E-mail: loic.grevillot@gmail.co [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Creatis, CNRS UMR 5220, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon Berard, F-69373 Lyon (France); IBA, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Frisson, Thibault [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Creatis, CNRS UMR 5220, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon Berard, F-69373 Lyon (France); Zahra, Nabil [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); IPNL, CNRS UMR 5822, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon Berard, F-69373 Lyon (France); Bertrand, Damien; Stichelbaut, Frederic [IBA, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Freud, Nicolas [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); CNDRI, INSA-Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Sarrut, David [Universite de Lyon, F-69622 Lyon (France); Creatis, CNRS UMR 5220, F-69622 Villeurbanne (France); Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon Berard, F-69373 Lyon (France)

    2010-10-15

    This study reports the investigation of different GEANT4 settings for proton therapy applications in the context of Treatment Planning System comparisons. The GEANT4.9.2 release was used through the GATE platform. We focused on the Pencil Beam Scanning delivery technique, which allows for intensity modulated proton therapy applications. The most relevant options and parameters (range cut, step size, database binning) for the simulation that influence the dose deposition were investigated, in order to determine a robust, accurate and efficient simulation environment. In this perspective, simulations of depth-dose profiles and transverse profiles at different depths and energies between 100 and 230 MeV have been assessed against reference measurements in water and PMMA. These measurements were performed in Essen, Germany, with the IBA dedicated Pencil Beam Scanning system, using Bragg-peak chambers and radiochromic films. GEANT4 simulations were also compared to the PHITS.2.14 and MCNPX.2.5.0 Monte Carlo codes. Depth-dose simulations reached 0.3 mm range accuracy compared to NIST CSDA ranges, with a dose agreement of about 1% over a set of five different energies. The transverse profiles simulated using the different Monte Carlo codes showed discrepancies, with up to 15% difference in beam widening between GEANT4 and MCNPX in water. A 8% difference between the GEANT4 multiple scattering and single scattering algorithms was observed. The simulations showed the inability of reproducing the measured transverse dose spreading with depth in PMMA, corroborating the fact that GEANT4 underestimates the lateral dose spreading. GATE was found to be a very convenient simulation environment to perform this study. A reference physics-list and an optimized parameters-list have been proposed. Satisfactory agreement against depth-dose profiles measurements was obtained. The simulation of transverse profiles using different Monte Carlo codes showed significant deviations. This point

  12. Modane: A Design Support Tool for Numerical Simulation Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelandais Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continual increasing power of supercomputers allows numerical simulation codes to take into account more complex physical phenomena. Therefore, physicists and mathematicians have to implement complex algorithms using cutting edge technologies and integrate them in large simulators. The CEA-DAM has been studying for several years the contribution of UML/MDE technologies in its simulators development cycle. The Modane application is one of the results of this work.

  13. SIMULATION SYSTEM FOR FIVE-AXIS NC MACHINING USING GENERAL CUTTING TOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation system for five-axis NC machining using general cutting tools is presented. This system differs from other simulation system in that it not only focuses on the geometric simulation but also focuses on the collision detection which is usually not included in NC machining simulation. Besides all of these, estimating cutting forces is also discussed. In order to obtain high efficiency, all algorithms use swept volume modeling technique, so the simulation system is compact and can be performed efficiently.

  14. Simulations of beam emittance growth from the collectiverelaxation of space-charge nonuniformities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Steven M.; Grote, David P.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2004-05-01

    Beams injected into a linear focusing channel typically have some degree of space-charge nonuniformity. For unbunched beams with high space-charge intensity propagating in linear focusing channels, Debye screening of self-field interactions tends to make the transverse density profile flat. An injected particle distribution with a large systematic charge nonuniformity will generally be far from an equilibrium of the focusing channel and the initial condition will launch a broad spectrum of collective modes. These modes can phase-mix and experience nonlinear interactions which result in an effective relaxation to a more thermal-equilibrium-like distribution characterized by a uniform density profile. This relaxation transfers self-field energy from the initial space-charge nonuniformity to the local particle temperature, thereby increasing beam phase space area (emittance growth). Here they employ two-dimensional electrostatic particle in cell (PIC) simulations to investigate the effects of initial transverse space-charge nonuniformities on the equality of beams with high space-charge intensity propagating in a continuous focusing channel. Results are compared to theoretical bounds of emittance growth developed in previous studies. Consistent with earlier theory, it is found that a high degree of initial distribution nonuniformity can be tolerated with only modest emittance growth and that beam control can be maintained. The simulations also provide information on the rate of relaxation and characteristic levels of fluctuations in the relaxed states. This research suggests that a surprising degree of initial space-charge nonuniformity can be tolerated in practical intense beam experiments.

  15. Simulation Modeling and Statistical Network Tools for Improving Collaboration in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2009-0110 Simulation Modeling and Statistical Network Tools for Improving Collaboration in Military Logistics...SUBTITLE Simulation Modeling and Statistical Network Tools for Improving Collaboration in Military Logistics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-07-1-6848...8 1 1.0 SUMMARY This final technical report describes the research findings of the project Simulation Modeling and Statistical Network

  16. Aeroelastic Simulation Tool for Inflatable Ballute Aerocapture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a much-needed multidisciplinary analysis tool for predicting the impact of aeroelastic effects on the functionality of inflatable...

  17. Aeroelastic Simulation Tool for Inflatable Ballute Aerocapture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a much-needed multidisciplinary analysis tool for predicting the impact of aeroelastic effects on the functionality of inflatable...

  18. Coupled Aeroheating and Ablative Thermal Response Simulation Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A predictive tool with tight coupling of the fluid and thermal physics will give insights into the conservatism of the uncoupled design process and could lead to...

  19. Impact of beam-beam effects on precision luminosity measurements at the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Rimbault, C; Mönig, K; Schulte, D

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of beam-beam effects on the precision luminosity measurement at the International Linear Collider is investigated quantitatively for the first time. GUINEA-PIG, a beam-beam interaction simulation tool, is adapted to treat the space charge effects affecting the Bhabha events used in this measurement. The biases due to the resulting changes in kinematics are evaluated for different center-of-mass energies and beam parameters.

  20. Simulation of beam-induced plasma in gas-filled rf cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kwangmin; Samulyak, Roman; Yonehara, Katsuya; Freemire, Ben

    2017-03-01

    Processes occurring in a radio-frequency (rf) cavity, filled with high pressure gas and interacting with proton beams, have been studied via advanced numerical simulations. Simulations support the experimental program on the hydrogen gas-filled rf cavity in the Mucool Test Area (MTA) at Fermilab, and broader research on the design of muon cooling devices. space, a 3D electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) code with atomic physics support, was used in simulation studies. Plasma dynamics in the rf cavity, including the process of neutral gas ionization by proton beams, plasma loading of the rf cavity, and atomic processes in plasma such as electron-ion and ion-ion recombination and electron attachment to dopant molecules, have been studied. Through comparison with experiments in the MTA, simulations quantified several uncertain values of plasma properties such as effective recombination rates and the attachment time of electrons to dopant molecules. Simulations have achieved very good agreement with experiments on plasma loading and related processes. The experimentally validated code space is capable of predictive simulations of muon cooling devices.

  1. Focused beam reflectance measurement as a tool for in situ monitoring of the lactose crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandalaneni, K; Amamcharla, J K

    2016-07-01

    Lactose accounts for about 75 and 85% of the solids in whey and deproteinized whey, respectively. Production of lactose is usually carried out by a process called crystallization. Several factors including rate of cooling, presence of impurities, and mixing speed influence the crystal size characteristics. To optimize the lactose crystallization process parameters to maximize the lactose yield, it is important to monitor the crystallization process. However, efficient in situ tools to implement at concentrations relevant to the dairy industry are lacking. The objective of the present work was to use a focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system for in situ monitoring of lactose crystallization at supersaturated concentrations (wt/wt) 50, 55, and 60% at 20 and 30°C. The FBRM data were compared with Brix readings collected using a refractometer during isothermal crystallization. Chord length distributions obtained from FBRM in the ranges of crystals) and 50 to 300 µm (coarse crystals) were recorded and evaluated in relation to the extent of crystallization and rate constants deduced from the refractometer measurements. Extent of crystallization and rate constants increased with increasing supersaturation concentration and temperature. The measured fine crystal counts from FBRM increased at higher supersaturated concentration and temperature during isothermal crystallization. On the other hand, coarse counts were observed to increase with decreasing supersaturated concentration and temperature. Square weighted chord length distribution obtained from FBRM showed that as concentration increased, a decrease in chord lengths occurred at 20°C and similar observations were made from microscopic images. The robustness of FBRM in understanding isothermal lactose crystallization at various concentrations and temperatures was successfully assessed in the study. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulations of Beam Quality in a 13 MeV PET Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pramudita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of the trajectories of negative hydrogen ion (H− beam in a 13 MeV PET cyclotron (DECY-13 were carried out by using the Runge-Kutta (RK4 approximation method and Scilab 5.4.1. The magnetic and electric fields were calculated using Opera-3d/TOSCA softwares at 1 mm resolution. The cyclotron is of a fourth-harmonics type, meaning that the acceleration occurs four times per cycle, with a radiofrequency (RF field of 77.66 MHz frequency and 40 kV amplitude. The calculations and simulations show that the maximum distance between the ion source and the puller is about 6 mm, while the maximum width of the beam at 13 MeV is about 10 mm, and the initial phase between the RF field and the beam ranges from -10° to 10°, with a yield of about 10% of the beam from the ion source getting accelerated to 13 MeV.

  3. FLUKA simulations and measurements for a dump for a 250 GeV/c hadron beam

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Para, A; Silari, Marco; Ulrici, L

    2001-01-01

    FLUKA is a Monte Carlo code, transporting hadron and lepton cascades from several TeV down to a few keV (thermal energies for neutrons). The code is widely employed in various applications, such as particle detector design, shielding, radiation therapy, high energy physics experiments. The FLUKA results were compared with experimental data of dose equivalent and spectral fluence of neutrons produced by a 250 GeV/c proton/pion beam impinging on a beam dump installed in one of the secondary beam lines of the CERN super proton synchrotron (SPS). The dump is a shielding structure made of iron/concrete, designed to absorb completely the high-energy beam. The actual geometry of the clump was modeled in the simulations and the scoring of neutron track length was performed at various locations around it. Importance sampling and Russian Roulette mere used as variance reduction techniques. The simulations results were compared with experimental measurements performed with a Bonner sphere system for neutron spectrometry...

  4. Laser Ion Acceleration Toward Future Ion Beam Cancer Therapy - Numerical Simulation Sudy-

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo; Nagashima, Toshihiro; Takano, Masahiro; Barada, Daisuke; Kong, Qing; Gu, Yan Jun; Wang, Ping Xiao; Ma, Yan Yun; Wang, Wei Ming

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam has been used in cancer treatment, and has a unique preferable feature to deposit its main energy inside a human body so that cancer cell could be killed by the ion beam. However, conventional ion accelerator tends to be huge in its size and its cost. In this paper a future intense-laser ion accelerator is proposed to make the ion accelerator compact. An intense femtosecond pulsed laser was employed to accelerate ions. The issues in the laser ion accelerator include the energy efficiency from the laser to the ions, the ion beam collimation, the ion energy spectrum control, the ion beam bunching and the ion particle energy control. In the study particle computer simulations were performed to solve the issues, and each component was designed to control the ion beam quality. When an intense laser illuminates a target, electrons in the target are accelerated and leave from the target; temporarily a strong electric field is formed between the high-energy electrons and the target ions, and the target ions ...

  5. Realistic RF system and Beam Simulation in Real Time for a Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Due to heavy beam loading with gaps in the LHC beams, RF and beam are intimately linked to a complex system with fast transients where the RF loops and their limitations play a decisive role. Such a system is difficult to assess with analytical methods. To learn about overall system stability and for the definition of RF components to be built it is essential to understand the complete system long before the machine really exists. Therefore the author has written a general purpose real time simulation program and applied it to model the LHC machine with its beam pattern and complete double RF system. The latter is equipped with fast RF vector feedback loops having loop delay, transmitter power limitation and limited amplifier bandwidth as well as including one-turn-delay feedback and longitudinal batch injection damping. The development of all RF and beam quantities can be displayed graphically turn by turn. These frames can be assembled to a realistic multi-trace scope movie.

  6. End-to-End Beam Simulations for the MSU RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, X; Gorelov, D; Grimm, T L; Marti, F; York, R C; Zhao, Q

    2004-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac proposed by Michigan State University (MSU) will use a 10th sub-harmonic based, superconducting, cw linac to accelerate light and heavy ions to final energies of ≤400 MeV/u with beam powers of 100 to 400 kW. The driver linac uses superconducting quarter-wave, half-wave, and six-cell elliptical cavities with frequencies ranging from 80.5 MHz to 805 MHz for acceleration, and superconducting solenoids and room temperature quadrupoles for transverse focusing. For the heavier ions, two stages of charge-stripping and multiple-charge-state acceleration will be used to meet the beam power requirements and to minimize the requisite accelerating voltage. End-to-end, three-dimensional (3D), beam dynamics simulations from the ECR to the radioactive beam production targets have been performed. These studies include a 3D analysis of multi-charge-state beam acceleration, evaluation of transverse misalignment and rf errors on the machine performance, modeling of the c...

  7. Modeling and simulation of beam induced backgrounds measured by ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yicong

    The ATLAS Forward Proton (AFP) detector is a forward detector of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. Its main goal is to trigger diffractive protons in collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). To achieve this, the detector has to be placed very close to the beam. Inevitable consequence is that its measurements can be easily affected by the beam induced background. This thesis presents a study of the beam induced background in the AFP detector and discuss methods for its removal. The Geant4 simulations and data, including non-colliding bunches are used to identify characteristic features of beam induced backgrounds. A method using combination of signals detected by the AFP detector and the Minimum Bias Trigger Scintillators (MBTS) is used to selected single diffractive event namely on low pile-up data taken during the first AFP physics run in 2016. Finally, an estimate of the beam induced backgrounds level in data together with a study of the radiation environment at the AFP stations was made, comparing result...

  8. Business Simulation Games: Effective Teaching Tools or Window Dressing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, John R.; Stewart, Geoffrey; Totaro, Michael W.; Hargrave, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Business simulations serve as learning platforms that stimulate the "gaming" interest of students, that provide a structured learning environment, and that should help manage the time resources of faculty. Simulations appear to provide a context where students feel learning can take place. However, faculty perception of simulation…

  9. The validity of arthroscopic simulators and performance tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stunt, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    As there is a growing demand for more time-efficient and effective methods for medical training without putting patients at risk, the role of simulation keeps expanding. Validation of simulators should precede implementation in medical curricula. However, only a small minority of available medical s

  10. Numerical simulation of the stress – strain state of technological tools for fine drawing

    OpenAIRE

    Порубов, А. В.; Мельникова, Т. Е.

    2014-01-01

    An urgent task is to ensure the long life of the technological tool, namely the expensive diamond dies, which can significantly improve the efficiency of the production of wire. Strength Evaluation of technological tools, numerical simulation of the stress – strain state of the diamond drawing tool in the finite – element package ANSYS. Calculation of strain and stress state of the diamond drawing tool for drawing copper and nickel – plated wire with the operating pressure and the pressing fo...

  11. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulatora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Welton, R. F.; Tarvainen, O.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H- ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H- currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  12. Range degradation and distal edge behavior of proton radiotherapy beams using 11C activation and Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmekawy, Ahmed Farouk

    The distal edge of therapeutic proton radiation beams was investigated by different methods. Proton beams produced at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute (HUPTI) were used to irradiate a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom for three different ranges (13.5, 17.0 and 21.0 cm) to investigate the distal slope dependence of the Bragg peak. The activation of 11 C was studied by scanning the phantom less than 10 minutes post-irradiation with a Philips Big Bore Gemini(c) PET/CT. The DICOM images were imported into the Varian Eclipse(c) Treatment Planning System (TPS) for analysis and then analyzed by ImageJ(c) . The distal slope ranged from ?0.1671 +/- 0.0036 to -0.1986 +/- 0.0052 (pixel intensity/slice number) for ranges 13.5 to 21.0 cm respectively. A realistic description of the setup was modeled using the GATE 7.0 Monte Carlo simulation tool and compared to the experiment data. The results show the distal slope ranged from -0.1158+/-0.0133 to -0.0787+/-0.002 (Gy/mm). Additionally, low activity, 11C were simulated to study the 11C reconstructed half-life dependence versus the initial activity for six ranges chosen around the previous activation study. The results of the expected/nominal half-life vs. activity ranged from -5 x 10-4 +/- 2.8104 x 10-4 to 1.6 x 10-3 +/- 9.44 x 10-4 (%diff./Bq). The comparison between two experiments with proton beams on a PMMA phantom and multi-layer ion chamber, and two GATE simulations of a proton beam incident on a water phantom and 11C PET study show that: (i) the distal fall-off variation of the steepness of the slopes are found to be similar thus validating the sensitivity of the PET technique to the range degradation and (ii) the average of the super-ratios difference between all studies observed is primarily due to the difference in the dose deposited in the media.

  13. Alexander Meets Michotte: A Simulation Tool Based on Pattern Programming and Phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basawapatna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Simulation and modeling activities, a key point of computational thinking, are currently not being integrated into the science classroom. This paper describes a new visual programming tool entitled the Simulation Creation Toolkit. The Simulation Creation Toolkit is a high level pattern-based phenomenological approach to bringing rapid simulation…

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography in detection of simulated mandibular condyle erosions

    OpenAIRE

    Shahriar Shahab; Nafiseh Nikkerdar; Maryam Goodarzi; Amin Golshah; Sanaz Sharifi Shooshtari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the detection of simulated mandibular condyle erosions. Materials and Methods: Seventeen dry human mandibles were used in this in vitro study. NewTom VG CBCT scanner (New Tom VG, Verona, Veneto region, Italy) was used for the condyles imaging (pre-erosion and post-erosion image). Thirty three lesions were created on the superior (11 cases), anterior (11 cases), and posterior surfaces (11 cases) o...

  15. Two spatial light modulator system for laboratory simulation of random beam propagation in random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

    2016-02-10

    An optical system consisting of a laser source and two independent consecutive phase-only spatial light modulators (SLMs) is shown to accurately simulate a generated random beam (first SLM) after interaction with a stationary random medium (second SLM). To illustrate the range of possibilities, a recently introduced class of random optical frames is examined on propagation in free space and several weak turbulent channels with Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov statistics.

  16. Single-beam photothermal microscopy - a new diagnostic tool for optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feit, M D; Kozlowski, M; Natoli, J Y; Rubenchik, A M; Sheehan L; Wu, Z L; Yan, M

    1998-12-22

    A novel photothermal microscopy (PTM) is developed which uses only one laser beam, working as both the pump and the probe. The principle of this single-beam PTM is based on the detection of the second harmonic component of the laser modulated scattering (LMS) signal. This component has a linear dependence on the optical absorptance of the tested area and a quadratic dependence on the pump laser power. Using a pump laser at the wavelengths of 514.5- and 532-nm high-resolution photothermal scans are performed for polished fused silica surfaces and a HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer coatings. The results are compared with those from the traditional two-beam PTM mapping. It is demonstrated that the single-beam PTM is more user-friendly (i.e. no alignment is needed) than conventional two-beam PTM and, offers a higher spatial resolution for defect detection.

  17. An Integrated Simulation Tool for Modeling the Human Circulatory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Ken'ichi; Kitamura, Tadashi

    This paper presents an integrated simulation of the circulatory system in physiological movement. The large circulatory system model includes principal organs and functional units in modules in which comprehensive physiological changes such as nerve reflexes, temperature regulation, acid/base balance, O2/CO2 balance, and exercise are simulated. A beat-by-beat heart model, in which the corresponding electrical circuit problems are solved by a numerical analytic method, enables calculation of pulsatile blood flow to the major organs. The integration of different perspectives on physiological changes makes this simulation model applicable for the microscopic evaluation of blood flow under various conditions in the human body.

  18. Simulators as tools to study effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hau, B.

    1984-01-01

    Three examples of possible effects on agro-ecosystems are simulated and the advantages of simulation models to investigate the behavior of ecosystems are discussed. The first example is an investigation of the effects of fungicides on epidemics of barley powdery mildew in dependence on different efficacies, and persistences of the chemicals. With the same fungus the effect of environmental pollution by SO/sub 2/ is simulated which reduces the infection efficiency of Erysiphe graminis. In the third case the negative prognosis for late blight of potato is examined under the influence of increased temperature and relative humidity as caused by cooling towers of power stations.

  19. Increasing efficiency of BEAMnrc-simulated Co-60 beams using directional source biasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, B. R. B., E-mail: blakerwalters@gmail.com [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: This study describes the implementation of a directional source biasing (DSB) scheme for efficiently simulating Cobalt-60 treatment heads using the BEAMnrc Monte Carlo code. Previous simulation of Co-60 beams with BEAMnrc was impractical because of the time required to track photons not directed into the treatment field and to simulate secondary charged particles. Methods: In DSB, efficiency is increased by splitting each photon emitted by the Co-60 source a user-defined number of times. Only those split primary photons directed into a user-defined splitting field (encompassing the treatment field) are sampled, yielding many low-weight photons directed into the field. Efficiency can be further increased by taking advantage of radial symmetry at the top of the treatment head to reduce the number of split primary photons tracked in this portion. There is also an option to generate contaminant electrons in DSB. Results: The DSB scheme in BEAMnrc increases the photon fluence calculation efficiency in a 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} Co-60 beam by a factor of 1800 with a concurrent increase in contaminant electron fluence calculation efficiency by a factor of 1200. Implementation of DSB in beampp, a C++ code for accelerator simulations based on EGSnrc and the C++ class library, egspp, increases photon fluence efficiency by a factor of 2800 and contaminant electron fluence efficiency by a factor of 1600. Optimum splitting numbers are in the range of 20 000–40 000. For dose calculations in a water phantom (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 cm{sup 3} voxels) this translates into a factor of ∼400 increase in dose calculation efficiency (all doses > 0.5 × D{sub max}). An example calculation of the ratio of dose to water to dose to chamber (the basis of the beam quality correction factor) to within 0.2% in a realistic chamber using a full simulation of a Co-60 treatment head as a source indicates the practicality of Co-60 simulations with DSB. Conclusions: The efficiency improvement

  20. Beam dynamics simulation of HEBT for the SSC-linac injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Ni; YUAN You-Jin; XIAO Chen; HE Yuan; WANG Zhi-Jun; SHENG Li-Na

    2012-01-01

    The SSC-linac (a new injector for the Separated Sector Cyclotron) is being designed in the HIRFL (Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou) system to accelerate 238U34+ from 3.72 keV/u to 1.008 MeV/u.As a part of the SSC-linac injector,the HEBT (high energy beam transport) has been designed by using the TRACE-3D code and simulated by the 3D PIC (particle-in-cell) Track code.The total length of the HEBT is about 12 meters and a beam line of about 6 meters are shared with the exiting beam line of the HIRFL system.The simulation results show that the particles can be delivered efficiently in the HEBT and the particles at the exit of the HEBT well match the acceptance of the SSC for further acceleration.The dispersion is eliminated absolutely in the HEBT.The space-charge effect calculated by the Track code is inconspicuous.According to the simulation,more than 60 percent of the particles from the ion source can be transported into the acceptance of the SSC.

  1. 3-D Parallel Simulation Model of Continuous Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ghalam, Ali F; Decyk, Viktor K; Huang Cheng Kun; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Mori, Warren; Rumolo, Giovanni; Zimmermann, Frank

    2005-01-01

    A 3D Particle-In-Cell model for continuous modeling of beam and electron cloud interaction in a circular accelerator is presented. A simple model for lattice structure, mainly the Quadruple and dipole magnets and chromaticity have been added to a plasma PIC code, QuickPIC, used extensively to model plasma wakefield acceleration concept. The code utilizes parallel processing techniques with domain decomposition in both longitudinal and transverse domains to overcome the massive computational costs of continuously modeling the beam-cloud interaction. Through parallel modeling, we have been able to simulate long-term beam propagation in the presence of electron cloud in many existing and future circular machines around the world. The exact dipole lattice structure has been added to the code and the simulation results for CERN-SPS and LHC with the new lattice structure have been studied. Also the simulation results are compared to the results from the two macro-particle modeling for strong head-tail instability. ...

  2. Dependence of simulated positron emitter yields in ion beam cancer therapy on modeling nuclear fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lühr, Armin; Priegnitz, Marlen; Fiedler, Fine; Sobolevsky, Nikolai; Bassler, Niels

    2014-01-01

    In ion beam cancer therapy, range verification in patients using positron emission tomography (PET) requires the comparison of measured with simulated positron emitter yields. We found that (1) changes in modeling nuclear interactions strongly affected the positron emitter yields and that (2) Monte Carlo simulations with SHIELD-HIT10Areasonably matched the most abundant PET isotopes (11)C and (15)O. We observed an ion-energy (i.e., depth) dependence of the agreement between SHIELD-HIT10Aand measurement. Improved modeling requires more accurate measurements of cross-section values.

  3. Describing a Laser Diode Emulation Tool Using Single Emitter Simulation Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.K. Amuzuvi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes and explores the use of a laser diode simulation tool at the single emitter level of operation and how they can be degraded. A test of the simulation tool is implemented to complement the by-emitter degradation analysis of high power laser diodes. The simulation tool is called Speclase, designed for the simulation of single emitters. Tests were performed using a 975 nm narrow-angle (<1º tapered laser structure from Alcatel Thales III-V Lab with front and rear facet reflectivities of 3 and 90%, respectively. The tool worked for both the constant current and power modes of operation. Simulation results were obtained for both constant QW trap density, based on the maximum QW temperature and variable QW trap density generation due to local heating. Single emitter degradation results are obtained using the Arrhenius equation to compare the rate of degradation between the constant and variable QW trap densities.

  4. ARC Code TI: Mission Simulation ToolKit (MST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MST is a simulation framework, supporting the development of autonomy technology for planetary exploration vehicles. The MST provides a software test bed which...

  5. Therapeutic dose simulation of a 6 MV Varian Linac photon beam using GEANT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, E.; Ali, A. S.; Khaled, N. E.; Radi, A.

    2015-10-01

    A developed program in C++ language using GEANT4 libraries was used to simulate the gantry of a 6 MV high energy photon linear accelerator (Linac). The head of a clinical linear accelerator based on the manufacturer's detailed information is simulated. More than 2× 109 primary electrons are used to create the phase space file. Evaluation of the percentage depth dose (PDD) and flatness symmetry (lateral dose profiles) in water phantom were performed. Comparisons between experimental and simulated data were carried out for three field sizes; 5 × 5, 10 × 10 and 15 × 15 cm2. A relatively good agreement appeared between computed and measured PDD. Electron contamination and spatial distribution for both photons and electrons in the simulated beam are evaluated. Moreover, the obtained lateral dose profiles at 15, 50, and 100 mm depth are compatible with the measured values. The obtained results concluded that, GEANT4 code is a promising applicable Monte Carlo program in radiotherapy applications.

  6. EM Simulations in Beam Coupling Impedance Studies: Some Examples of Application

    CERN Document Server

    Zannini, C

    2012-01-01

    In the frame of the SPS upgrade an accurate impedance model is needed in order to predict the instability threshold and if necessary to start a campaign of impedance reduction. Analytical models, 3-D simulations and bench measurements are used to estimate the impedance contribution of the different devices along the machine. Special attention is devoted to the estimation of the impedance contribution of the kicker magnets that are suspected to be the most important impedance source in SPS. In particular a numerical study is carried out to analyze the effect of the serigraphy in the SPS extraction kicker. An important part of the devices simulations are the ferrite model. For this reason a numerical based method to measure the electromagnetic properties of the material has been developed to measure the ferrite properties. A simulation technique, in order to account for external cable is developed. The simulation results were benchmarked with analytical models and observations with beam. A numerical study was a...

  7. Simulation Evaluation of Controller-Managed Spacing Tools under Realistic Operational Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Hunt, Sarah M.; Prevot, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Controller-Managed Spacing (CMS) tools have been developed to aid air traffic controllers in managing high volumes of arriving aircraft according to a schedule while enabling them to fly efficient descent profiles. The CMS tools are undergoing refinement in preparation for field demonstration as part of NASA's Air Traffic Management (ATM) Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). System-level ATD-1 simulations have been conducted to quantify expected efficiency and capacity gains under realistic operational conditions. This paper presents simulation results with a focus on CMS-tool human factors. The results suggest experienced controllers new to the tools find them acceptable and can use them effectively in ATD-1 operations.

  8. THEORETICAL PREDICTION OF TOOL-CHIP CONTACT LENGTH IN ORTHOGONAL METAL MACHINING BY COMPUTER SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A method for determination of tool-chip contact length is theoretically presented in orthogonal metal machining. By using computer simulation and based on the analyses of the elastro-plastic deformation with lagrangian finite element method in the deformation zone,the accumulated representative length of the low layer, the tool-chip contact length of the chip contacting the tool rake are calculated, experimental studies are also carried out with 0.2% carbon steel. It is shown that the tool-chip contact lengths obtained from computer simulation have a good agreement with those of measured values.

  9. Simulations of a beam-driven plasma antenna in the regime of plasma transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Berendeev, E. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the theoretically predicted possibility to increase the efficiency of electromagnetic radiation generated by a thin beam-plasma system in the regime of oblique emission, when a plasma column becomes transparent to radiation near the plasma frequency, is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. If a finite-size plasma column has a longitudinal density modulation, such a system is able to radiate electromagnetic waves as a dipole antenna. This radiation mechanism is based on the conversion of an electron beam-driven potential plasma wave on the periodic perturbation of plasma density. In this case, the frequency of radiated waves appears to be slightly lower than the plasma frequency. That is why their fields enable the penetration into the plasma only to the skin-depth. This case is realized when the period of density modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, and the produced radiation escapes from the plasma in the purely transverse direction. In the recent theoretical paper [I. V. Timofeev et al. Phys. Plasmas 23, 083119 (2016)], however, it has been found that the magnetized plasma can be transparent to this radiation at certain emission angles. It means that the beam-to-radiation power conversion can be highly efficient even in a relatively thick plasma since not only boundary layers but also the whole plasma volume can be involved in the generation of electromagnetic waves. Simulations of steady-state beam injection into a pre-modulated plasma channel confirm the existence of this effect and show limits of validity for the simplified theoretical model.

  10. Applying computer simulation models as learning tools in fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    Computer models can be powerful tools for addressing many problems in fishery management, but uncertainty about how to apply models and how they should perform can lead to a cautious approach to modeling. Within this approach, we expect models to make quantitative predictions but only after all model inputs have been estimated from empirical data and after the model has been tested for agreement with an independent data set. I review the limitations to this approach and show how models can be more useful as tools for organizing data and concepts, learning about the system to be managed, and exploring management options. Fishery management requires deciding what actions to pursue to meet management objectives. Models do not make decisions for us but can provide valuable input to the decision-making process. When empirical data are lacking, preliminary modeling with parameters derived from other sources can help determine priorities for data collection. When evaluating models for management applications, we should attempt to define the conditions under which the model is a useful, analytical tool (its domain of applicability) and should focus on the decisions made using modeling results, rather than on quantitative model predictions. I describe an example of modeling used as a learning tool for the yellow perch Perca flavescens fishery in Green Bay, Lake Michigan.

  11. Fault attacks, injection techniques and tools for simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Bhasin, S.; Regazzoni, F.

    2015-01-01

    Faults attacks are a serious threat to secure devices, because they are powerful and they can be performed with extremely cheap equipment. Resistance against fault attacks is often evaluated directly on the manufactured devices, as commercial tools supporting fault evaluation do not usually provide

  12. An Energy Systems Modelling Tool for the Social Simulation Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollinger, L. Andrew; van Blijswijk, Martti J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Nikolic, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The growing importance of links between the social and technical dimensions of the electricity infrastructure mean that many research problems cannot be effectively addressed without joint consideration of social and technical dynamics. This paper motivates the need for and introduces a tool to faci

  13. Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS): An Award Winning Propulsion System Simulation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Laurel J.; Naiman, Cynthia G.

    2002-01-01

    The Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is a full propulsion system simulation tool used by aerospace engineers to predict and analyze the aerothermodynamic behavior of commercial jet aircraft, military applications, and space transportation. The NPSS framework was developed to support aerospace, but other applications are already leveraging the initial capabilities, such as aviation safety, ground-based power, and alternative energy conversion devices such as fuel cells. By using the framework and developing the necessary components, future applications that NPSS could support include nuclear power, water treatment, biomedicine, chemical processing, and marine propulsion. NPSS will dramatically reduce the time, effort, and expense necessary to design and test jet engines. It accomplishes that by generating sophisticated computer simulations of an aerospace object or system, thus enabling engineers to "test" various design options without having to conduct costly, time-consuming real-life tests. The ultimate goal of NPSS is to create a numerical "test cell" that enables engineers to create complete engine simulations overnight on cost-effective computing platforms. Using NPSS, engine designers will be able to analyze different parts of the engine simultaneously, perform different types of analysis simultaneously (e.g., aerodynamic and structural), and perform analysis in a more efficient and less costly manner. NPSS will cut the development time of a new engine in half, from 10 years to 5 years. And NPSS will have a similar effect on the cost of development: new jet engines will cost about a billion dollars to develop rather than two billion. NPSS is also being applied to the development of space transportation technologies, and it is expected that similar efficiencies and cost savings will result. Advancements of NPSS in fiscal year 2001 included enhancing the NPSS Developer's Kit to easily integrate external components of varying fidelities, providing

  14. Simultaneous computation within a sequential process simulation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Endrestøl

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an equation solver superstructure developed for a sequential modular dynamic process simulation system as part of a Eureka project with Norwegian and British participation. The purpose of the development was combining some of the advantages of equation based and purely sequential systems, enabling implicit treatment of key variables independent of module boundaries, and use of numerical integration techniques suitable for each individual type of variable. For training simulator applications the main advantages are gains in speed due to increased stability limits on time steps and improved consistency of simulation results. The system is split into an off-line analysis phase and an on-line equation solver. The off-line processing consists of automatic determination of the topological structure of the system connectivity from standard process description files and derivation of an optimized sparse matrix solution procedure for the resulting set of equations. The on-line routine collects equation coefficients from involved modules, solves the combined sets of structured equations, and stores the results appropriately. This method minimizes the processing cost during the actual simulation. The solver has been applied in the Veslefrikk training simulator project.

  15. Target and orbit feedback simulations of a muSR beam line at BNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKay, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pile, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-07-28

    Well-polarized positive surface muons are a tool to measure the magnetic properties of materials since the precession rate of the spin can be determined from the observation of the positron directions when the muons decay. For a dc beam an ideal µSR flux for surface µ+ should be about 40 kHz/mm2. In this report we show how this flux could be achieved in a beam line using the AGS complex at BNL for a source of protons. We also determined that an orbit feedback system with a pair of thin silicon position monitors and kickers would miss the desired flux by at least an order of magnitude, even with perfect time resolution and no multiple scattering.

  16. The FLUKA Code: An Accurate Simulation Tool for Particle Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistoni, Giuseppe; Bauer, Julia; Boehlen, Till T; Cerutti, Francesco; Chin, Mary P W; Dos Santos Augusto, Ricardo; Ferrari, Alfredo; Ortega, Pablo G; Kozłowska, Wioletta; Magro, Giuseppe; Mairani, Andrea; Parodi, Katia; Sala, Paola R; Schoofs, Philippe; Tessonnier, Thomas; Vlachoudis, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly spreading in the hadrontherapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code for application to hadrontherapy demands accurate and reliable physical models capable of handling all components of the expected radiation field. This becomes extremely important for correctly performing not only physical but also biologically based dose calculations, especially in cases where ions heavier than protons are involved. In addition, accurate prediction of emerging secondary radiation is of utmost importance in innovative areas of research aiming at in vivo treatment verification. This contribution will address the recent developments of the FLUKA MC code and its practical applications in this field. Refinements of the FLUKA nuclear models in the therapeutic energy interval lead to an improved description of the mixed radiation field as shown in the presented benchmarks against experimental data with both (4)He and (12)C ion beams. Accurate description of ionization energy losses and of particle scattering and interactions lead to the excellent agreement of calculated depth-dose profiles with those measured at leading European hadron therapy centers, both with proton and ion beams. In order to support the application of FLUKA in hospital-based environments, Flair, the FLUKA graphical interface, has been enhanced with the capability of translating CT DICOM images into voxel-based computational phantoms in a fast and well-structured way. The interface is capable of importing also radiotherapy treatment data described in DICOM RT standard. In addition, the interface is equipped with an intuitive PET scanner geometry generator and automatic recording of coincidence events. Clinically, similar cases will be presented both in terms of absorbed dose and biological dose calculations describing the various available features.

  17. Battery Simulation Tool for Worst Case Analysis and Mission Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lefeuvre Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this paper presents the PSpice models including their respective variable parameters at SBS and cell level. Then the second part of the paper introduces to the reader the model parameters that were chosen and identified to perform Monte Carlo Analysis simulations. The third part reflects some MCA results for a VES16 battery module. Finally the reader will see some other simulations that were performed by re-using the battery model for an another Saft battery cell type (MP XTD for a specific space application, at high temperature.

  18. Refurbishment of damaged tools using the combination of GTAW and laser beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tušek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of two welding processes for the refurbishment of damaged industrial tools. In the first part the problem is presented followed by the comparison of GTAW and laser welding in terms of repair welding of damaged tools. The macrosections of the welds show the difference between both welding processes in repairing of damaged tools. At the conclusion the main findings are presented. In many cases it is useful to use both welding processes in order to achieve better weld quality and to make welding more economical. The order of the technology used depends on the tool material, the use of the tool and the tool damage.

  19. The design and implementation of decision support tools of proton beam therapy treatment planning of brain cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh; Documet, Jorge; Joseph, Anika; Schulte, Reinhard; Liu, Brent

    2008-03-01

    Last year, we presented methodology to perform knowledge-based medical imaging informatics research on specific clinical scenarios where brain tumor patients are treated with Proton Beam Therapy (PT). In this presentation, we demonstrate the design and implementation of quantification and visualization tools to develop the knowledge base for therapy treatment planning based on DICOM-RT-ION objects. Proton Beam Therapy (PT) is a particular treatment that utilizes energized charged particles, protons, to deliver dose to the target region. Similar to traditional Radiation Therapy (RT), complex clinical imaging and informatics data are generated during the treatment process that guide the planning and the success of the treatment. Therefore, an Electronic Patient Record (ePR) System has been developed to standardize and centralize clinical imaging and informatics data and properly distribute data throughout the treatment duration. To further improve treatment planning process, we developed a set of decision support tools to improve the QA process in treatment planning process. One such example is a tool to assist in the planning of stereotactic PT cases where CT and MR images need to be analyzed simultaneously during treatment plan assessment. These tools are add-on features for DICOM standard ePR system of brain cancer patients and improve the clinical efficiency of PT treatment planning. Additional outcome data collected for PT cases are included in the overall DICOM-RT-ION database design as knowledge to enhance outcomes analysis for future PT adopters.

  20. Commissioning of a Varian Clinac iX 6 MV photon beam using Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirgayussa, I. Gde Eka; Yani, Sitti; Rhani, M. Fahdillah; Haryanto, Freddy

    2015-09-01

    Monte Carlo modelling of a linear accelerator is the first and most important step in Monte Carlo dose calculations in radiotherapy. Monte Carlo is considered today to be the most accurate and detailed calculation method in different fields of medical physics. In this research, we developed a photon beam model for Varian Clinac iX 6 MV equipped with MilleniumMLC120 for dose calculation purposes using BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system based on the underlying EGSnrc particle transport code. Monte Carlo simulation for this commissioning head LINAC divided in two stages are design head Linac model using BEAMnrc, characterize this model using BEAMDP and analyze the difference between simulation and measurement data using DOSXYZnrc. In the first step, to reduce simulation time, a virtual treatment head LINAC was built in two parts (patient-dependent component and patient-independent component). The incident electron energy varied 6.1 MeV, 6.2 MeV and 6.3 MeV, 6.4 MeV, and 6.6 MeV and the FWHM (full width at half maximum) of source is 1 mm. Phase-space file from the virtual model characterized using BEAMDP. The results of MC calculations using DOSXYZnrc in water phantom are percent depth doses (PDDs) and beam profiles at depths 10 cm were compared with measurements. This process has been completed if the dose difference of measured and calculated relative depth-dose data along the central-axis and dose profile at depths 10 cm is ≤ 5%. The effect of beam width on percentage depth doses and beam profiles was studied. Results of the virtual model were in close agreement with measurements in incident energy electron 6.4 MeV. Our results showed that photon beam width could be tuned using large field beam profile at the depth of maximum dose. The Monte Carlo model developed in this study accurately represents the Varian Clinac iX with millennium MLC 120 leaf and can be used for reliable patient dose calculations. In this commissioning process, the good criteria of dose