WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam shaping assembly

  1. Engineering of automated assembly of beam-shaping optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Sinhoff, Volker; Müller, Tobias; Brecher, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Beam-shaping is essential for any kind of laser application. Assembly technologies for beam-shaping subassemblies are subject to intense research and development activities and their technical feasibility has been proven in recent years while economic viability requires more efficient engineering tools for process planning and production ramp up of complex assembly tasks for micro-optical systems. The work presented in this paper aims for significant reduction of process development and production ramp up times for the automated assembly of micro-optical subassemblies for beam-collimation and beam-tilting. The approach proposed bridges the gap between the product development phase and the realization of automation control through integration of established software tools such as optics simulation and CAD modeling as well as through introduction of novel software tools and methods to efficiently describe active alignment strategies. The focus of the paper is put on the methodological approach regarding the engineering of assembly processes for beam-shaping micro-optics and the formal representation of assembly objectives similar to representation in mechanical assemblies. Main topic of the paper is the engineering methodology for active alignment processes based on the classification of optical functions for beam-shaping optics and corresponding standardized measurement setups including adaptable alignment algorithms. The concepts are applied to industrial use-cases: (1) integrated collimation module for fast- and slow-axis and (2) beam-tilting subassembly consisting of a fast-axis collimator and micro-lens array. The paper concludes with an overview of current limitations as well as an outlook on the next development steps considering adhesive bonding processes.

  2. Flexible assembly module for beam-shaping product families based on support structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Rübenach, Olaf; Beleke, Andreas; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Wenzel, Christian; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Depending on the application, high-power diode lasers (HPDL) have individual requirements on their beam-shaping as well as their mechanical fixation. In order to reduce assembly efforts, laser system manufacturers request pre-assembled beam-shaping systems consisting of a support structure for adhesive bonding as well as one, two or more lenses. Therefore, manufacturers of micro-optics for HPDL need flexible solutions for assembling beam-shaping subassemblies. This paper discusses current solutions for mounting optical subassemblies for beam-shaping of high-power diode lasers and their drawbacks regarding quality and scalability. Subsequently, the paper presents a device which can be used for the sensor-guided assembly of beam-shaping systems based on bottomtab support structures. Results from test productions of several hundred modules are presented showing that repeatability in the range of 1 μm is feasible on an industrial level.

  3. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Vujic, J L; Greenspan, E; Guess, S; Karni, Y; Kastenber, W E; Kim, L; Leung, K N; Regev, D; Verbeke, J M; Waldron, W L; Zhu, Y

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  4. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly

  5. Optimal Neutron Source & Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Vujic; E. Greenspan; W.E. Kastenber; Y. Karni; D. Regev; J.M. Verbeke, K.N. Leung; D. Chivers; S. Guess; L. Kim; W. Waldron; Y. Zhu

    2003-04-30

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly.

  6. AB-BNCT beam shaping assembly based on 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Accelerator Based-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) has been performed. The reaction 7Li(p,n)7Be has been considered using a proton beam on a lithium fluoride target. Proton energy and the dimensions of a simple BSA geometry have been varied to obtain a set of different configurations. The optimal configuration of this set is shown.

  7. AB-BNCT beam shaping assembly based on {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsky, D.M., E-mail: minsky@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Av. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Valda, A.A. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CNEA, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (B1650KNA), San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, UNSAM, M. de Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    A numerical optimization of a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) for Accelerator Based-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT) has been performed. The reaction {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be has been considered using a proton beam on a lithium fluoride target. Proton energy and the dimensions of a simple BSA geometry have been varied to obtain a set of different configurations. The optimal configuration of this set is shown.

  8. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: ► Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. ► Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. ► Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. ► Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. ► Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  9. Experimental and Simulated Characterization of a Beam Shaping Assembly for Accelerator- Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (AB-BNCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the construction of a Tandem Electrostatic Quadrupole Accelerator facility devoted to the Accelerator-Based Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, a Beam Shaping Assembly has been characterized by means of Monte-Carlo simulations and measurements. The neutrons were generated via the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction by irradiating a thick LiF target with a 2.3 MeV proton beam delivered by the TANDAR accelerator at CNEA. The emerging neutron flux was measured by means of activation foils while the beam quality and directionality was evaluated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The parameters show compliance with those suggested by IAEA. Finally, an improvement adding a beam collimator has been evaluated.

  10. Design of a beam shaping assembly and preliminary modelling of a treatment room for accelerator-based BNCT at CNEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlon, A.A.; Girola, S. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Valda, A.A., E-mail: valda@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Minsky, D.M.; Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Martin (Argentina)] [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)] [CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sanchez, G. [Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Universidad Nacional de San Martin, San Martin (Argentina)

    2011-12-15

    This work reports on the characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly (BSA) prototype and on the preliminary modelling of a treatment room for BNCT within the framework of a research programme for the development and construction of an accelerator-based BNCT irradiation facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The BSA prototype constructed has been characterised by means of MCNP simulations as well as a set of experimental measurements performed at the Tandar accelerator at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterisation of a neutron beam shaping assembly for accelerator-based BNCT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements: total and epi-cadmium neutron fluxes and beam homogeneity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calculations: Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measured and calculated figure-of-merit parameters in agreement with those of IAEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial MCNP dose calculations for a treatment room to define future design actions.

  11. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values.

  12. Optimization of the beam shaping assembly in the D-D neutron generators-based BNCT using the response matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Y; Khalafi, H; Rahmani, F

    2013-12-01

    Optimization of the Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been performed using the MCNP4C Monte Carlo code to shape the 2.45 MeV neutrons that are produced in the D-D neutron generator. Optimal design of the BSA has been chosen by considering in-air figures of merit (FOM) which consists of 70 cm Fluental as a moderator, 30 cm Pb as a reflector, 2mm (6)Li as a thermal neutron filter and 2mm Pb as a gamma filter. The neutron beam can be evaluated by in-phantom parameters, from which therapeutic gain can be derived. Direct evaluation of both set of FOMs (in-air and in-phantom) is very time consuming. In this paper a Response Matrix (RM) method has been suggested to reduce the computing time. This method is based on considering the neutron spectrum at the beam exit and calculating contribution of various dose components in phantom to calculate the Response Matrix. Results show good agreement between direct calculation and the RM method.

  13. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  14. Shape Restoration by Active Self-Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Arbuckle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape restoration is defined as the problem of constructing a desired, or goal, solid shape Sg by growing an initial solid Si, which is a subset of the goal but is otherwise unknown. This definition attempts to capture abstractly a situation that often arises in the physical world when a solid object loses its desired shape due to wear and tear, corrosion or other phenomena. For example, if the top of the femur becomes distorted, the hip joint no longer functions properly and may have to be replaced surgically. Growing it in place back to its original shape would be an attractive alternative to replacement. This paper presents a solution to the shape restoration problem by using autonomous assembly agents (robots that self-assemble to fill the volume between Sg and Si. If the robots have very small dimension (micro or nano, the desired shape is approximated with high accuracy. The assembly agents initially execute a random walk. When two robots meet, they may exchange a small number of messages. The robot behavior is controlled by a finite state machine with a small number of states. Communication contact models chemical communication, which is likely to be the medium of choice for robots at the nanoscale, while small state and small messages are limitations that also are expected of nanorobots. Simulations presented here show that swarms of such robots organize themselves to achieve shape restoration by using distributed algorithms. This is one more example of an interesting geometric problem that can be solved by the Active Self-Assembly paradigm introduced in previous papers by the authors.

  15. Beam Loss and Beam Shape at the LHC Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    Burkart, Florian

    In this master thesis the beam loss and the beam shape at the LHC collimators was measured, analysed, presented and discussed. Beginning with a short introduction of the LHC, the experiments, the supercon- ducting magnet system, the basics on linear beam dynamics and a describtion of the LHC collimation system are given. This is followed by the presentation of the performance of the LHC collimation sys- tem during 2011. A method to convert the Beam Loss Monitor signal in Gy/s to a proton beam loss rate will be introduced. Also the beam lifetime during the proton physics runs in 2011 will be presented and discussed. Finally, the shape of the LHC beams is analysed by using data obtained by scraping the beam at the LHC primary collimators.

  16. Electron beam machining using rotating and shaped beam power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; O'Brien, Dennis W.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for electron beam (EB) machining (drilling, cutting and welding) that uses conventional EB guns, power supplies, and welding machine technology without the need for fast bias pulsing technology. The invention involves a magnetic lensing (EB optics) system and electronic controls to: 1) concurrently bend, focus, shape, scan, and rotate the beam to protect the EB gun and to create a desired effective power-density distribution, and 2) rotate or scan this shaped beam in a controlled way. The shaped beam power-density distribution can be measured using a tomographic imaging system. For example, the EB apparatus of this invention has the ability to drill holes in metal having a diameter up to 1000 .mu.m (1 mm or larger), compared to the 250 .mu.m diameter of laser drilling.

  17. Component assembly with shape memory polymer fastener for microrobots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhesives are generally used for the assembly of microrobots, whereas bolts, screws, or rivets are used for larger robots. Although adhesives are easy to apply, lightweight, and small, they cannot be used for repeated assembly and disassembly of parts. In this paper, we present a novel microfastener composed of a polyurethane-based shape memory polymer (SMP) that is lightweight and small but that is easily detached for disassembly. This was achieved by using the shape recovery and modulus change of the SMP. A sheet of macromolded SMP was laser machined into an I-beam-shaped rivet, and notches were added to the structure to prevent stress concentration. Pull-off tests showed that, as the notch radius increased, the disengagement strength of the rivet fastener decreased and the reusability increased. Through the elastoplastic model, a single SMP rivet was calculated to have maximum disengagement strength of 150 N cm−2 in the elastic range, depending on the notch radius. The fasteners were applied to a jumping microrobot. The legs and body were assembled with ten fasteners, which showed no permanent deformation after impact during jumping movements. The legs were easily replaced with ones of different stiffness by heating the engaged sites to make the fasteners compliant and detachable. The proposed detachable SMP microfasteners are particularly useful for testing the isolated performance of microrobot components to determine the optimal designs for these components. (paper)

  18. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  19. Annular beam shaping and optical trepanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danyong

    Percussion drilling and trepanning are two laser drilling methods. Percussion drilling is accomplished by focusing the laser beam to approximately the required diameter of the hole, exposing the material to one or a series of laser pulses at the same spot to melt and vaporize the material. Drilling by trepanning involves cutting a hole by rotating a laser beam with an optical element or an x-y galvo-scanner. Optical trepanning is a new laser drilling method using an annular beam. The annular beams allow numerous irradiance profiles to supply laser energy to the workpiece and thus provide more flexibility in affecting the hole quality than a traditional circular laser beam. Heating depth is important for drilling application. Since there are no good ways to measure the temperature inside substrate during the drilling process, an analytical model for optical trepanning has been developed by considering an axisymmetric, transient heat conduction equation, and the evolutions of the melting temperature isotherm, which is referred to as the melt boundary in this study, are calculated to investigate the influences of the laser pulse shapes and intensity profiles on the hole geometry. This mathematical model provides a means of understanding the thermal effect of laser irradiation with different annular beam shapes. To take account of conduction in the solid, vaporization and convection due to the melt flow caused by an assist gas, an analytical two-dimensional model is developed for optical trepanning. The influences of pulse duration, laser pulse length, pulse repetition rate, intensity profiles and beam radius are investigated to examine their effects on the recast layer thickness, hole depth and taper. The ray tracing technique of geometrical optics is employed to design the necessary optics to transform a Gaussian laser beam into an annular beam of different intensity profiles. Such profiles include half Gaussian with maximum intensities at the inner and outer

  20. Beam Shape and Halo Monitor Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, J B; Hori, M; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2006-01-01

    The Beam Shape and Halo Monitor, designed by Masaki Hori, is the main diagnostic tool for the 3 MeV test stand scheduled in 2008. This detector will be able to measure the transverse halo generated in the RFQ and the Chopper-line and to detect and measure the longitudinal halo composed of the incompletely chopped bunches. Its principle of functioning is the following: H- ions hit a carbon foil and generate secondary electrons with the same spatial distribution than the incoming beam and a current depending on an emission coefficient given by the carbon foil. These electrons are accelerated towards a phosphor screen by an electric field applied between accelerating grids. Once the electrons reach the phosphor screen, they generate light which is transmitted to a CCD camera via optic fibers [1]. It is expected to give a time resolution of 1-2ns and a spatial resolution of 1mm. The first test of the BSHM done with a Laser has shown a spatial resolution bigger than 1cm and the time resolution bigger than 2ns[2]. ...

  1. Remembering a Shape -- Assembling a Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeravcic, Zorana; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael; Leibler, Stanislas

    2014-03-01

    Recently we have been developing a new connection between self-assembly and neural networks, where a multi-component particle system with specified interaction rules between its components is mapped onto a multi-state Hopfield neural network model. Within this framework, a fixed interaction pattern of neurons representing a ``memory'' maps to particle interactions encoding a certain structure. Properties of neural networks motivate new types of questions: Can the interaction energies of particles code for multiple structures at the same time? Can stored structures be retrieved by throwing in a nucleation seed (i.e., a small assembly of particles) and have it complete into the desired stored structure? Can we define a capacity, i.e., a maximal number of structures that can be retrieved with limited error? We investigate these questions using numerical simulations of different types of building blocks with short-range interactions.

  2. Superlattices assembled through shape-induced directional binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Yager, Kevin G; Zhang, Yugang; Xin, Huolin; Gang, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    Organization of spherical particles into lattices is typically driven by packing considerations. Although the addition of directional binding can significantly broaden structural diversity, nanoscale implementation remains challenging. Here we investigate the assembly of clusters and lattices in which anisotropic polyhedral blocks coordinate isotropic spherical nanoparticles via shape-induced directional interactions facilitated by DNA recognition. We show that these polyhedral blocks--cubes and octahedrons--when mixed with spheres, promote the assembly of clusters with architecture determined by polyhedron symmetry. Moreover, three-dimensional binary superlattices are formed when DNA shells accommodate the shape disparity between nanoparticle interfaces. The crystallographic symmetry of assembled lattices is determined by the spatial symmetry of the block's facets, while structural order depends on DNA-tuned interactions and particle size ratio. The presented lattice assembly strategy, exploiting shape for defining the global structure and DNA-mediation locally, opens novel possibilities for by-design fabrication of binary lattices.

  3. Synthesis of multiple shaped beam antenna patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Coffey, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    Results are presented of research into the problem of finding an excitation of a given antenna such that the desired radiation pattern is approximated to within acceptable limits. This is to be done in such a fashion that boundary conditions involving hardware limitations may be inserted into the problem. The intended application is synthesis of multiple shaped beam antennas. Since this is perhaps the most difficult synthesis problem an antenna engineer is likely to encounter, the approach taken was to include as a by-product capability for synthesizing simpler patterns. The synthesis technique has been almost totally computerized. The class of antennas which may be synthesized with the computer program are those which may be represented as planar (continuous or discrete) current distributions. The technique is not limited in this sense and could indeed by extended to include, for example, the synthesis of conformal arrays or current distributions on the surface of reflectors. The antenna types which the program is set up to synthesize are: line source, rectangular aperture, circular aperture, linear array, rectangular array, and arbitrary planar array.

  4. Robust and adjustable C-shaped vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Mousley, M; Babiker, M; Yuan, J

    2016-01-01

    Wavefront engineering is an important quantum technology. Here, we demonstrate the design and production of a robust C-shaped and orbital angular momentum (OAM) carrying beam in which the doughnut shaped structure contains an adjustable gap. We find that the presence of the vortex line in the core of the beam is crucial for the robustness of the C-shape against beam propagation. The topological charge of the vortex core controls mainly the size of the C, while its opening angle is controlled by the presence of vortex-anti-vortex loops. We demonstrate the generation and characterisation of C-shaped electron vortex beams, although the result is equally applicable to other quantum waves. Applications of C-shaped vortex beams include lithography, dynamical atom sorting and atomtronics.

  5. Spatial beam shaping by quartz crystal piano-convex lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ailin Guo; Qingwei Yang; Fuling Zhang; Meizhi Sun; Xinglong Xie; Jun Kang; Qi Gao; Meirong Li; Jianqiang Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the optical activity of quartz crystal, we proposed a scheme for shaping the spatial intensity distribution of a linearly polarized laser beam by utilizing a quartz crystal piano-convex lens in combination with a polarizer. The intensity profile of the shaped laser beam can be easily switched from one profile to another by controlling the polarization direction of the incident laser beam.

  6. Experimental generation of ring-shaped beams with random sources

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R P

    2013-01-01

    We have experimentally reproduced ring shaped beams from the scattered Laguerre-Gaussian and Bessel- Gaussian beams. A rotating ground glass plate is used as a scattering medium and a plano convex lens collects the scattered light to generate ring shaped beams at the Fourier plane. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical results of Mei and Korotkova (Opt. Lett. 38, 91{93 (2013)).

  7. Particle shape consideration in numerical simulation of assemblies of irregularly shaped particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saba Abedi; Ali Asghar Mirghasemi

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of granular materials depends much on the shape of the constituent particles.Therefore appropriate modeling of particle,or grain,shape is quite important.This study employed the method of direct modeling of grain shape (Matsushima & Saomto,2002),in which,the real shape of a grain is modeled by combining arbitrary number of overlapping circular elements which are connected to each other in a rigid way.Then,accordingly,a discrete-element program is used to simulate the assembly of grains.In order to measure the effects of grain shape on mechanical properties of assembly of grains,three types of grains-high angular grains,medium angular grains and round grains are considered where several biaxial tests are conducted on assemblies with different grain types.The results show that the angularity of grains greatly affects the behavior of granular soil.

  8. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  9. Isotropic beam bouquets for shaped beam linear accelerator radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas H.; Meeks, Sanford L.; Bova, Frank J.; Friedman, William A.; Buatti, John M.; Bouchet, Lionel G.

    2001-10-01

    In stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy treatment planning, the steepest dose gradient is obtained by using beam arrangements with maximal beam separation. We propose a treatment plan optimization method that optimizes beam directions from the starting point of a set of isotropically convergent beams, as suggested by Webb. The optimization process then individually steers each beam to the best position, based on beam's-eye-view (BEV) critical structure overlaps with the target projection and the target's projected cross sectional area at each beam position. This final optimized beam arrangement maintains a large angular separation between adjacent beams while conformally avoiding critical structures. As shown by a radiosurgery plan, this optimization method improves the critical structure sparing properties of an unoptimized isotropic beam bouquet, while maintaining the same degree of dose conformity and dose gradient. This method provides a simple means of designing static beam radiosurgery plans with conformality indices that are within established guidelines for radiosurgery planning, and with dose gradients that approach those achieved in conventional radiosurgery planning.

  10. Shaping micron-sized cold neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Frédéric, E-mail: Frederic.Ott@cea.fr [CEA, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); CNRS, IRAMIS, Laboratoire Léon Brillouin, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France); Kozhevnikov, Sergey [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, ul. Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna, Moscow oblast 141980 (Russian Federation); Thiaville, André [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Univ. Paris—Sud, CNRS UMR 8502, 91405 Orsay (France); Torrejón, Jacob [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS/Thales, Campus de l’Ecole Polytechnique, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Vázquez, Manuel [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-07-11

    In the field of neutron scattering, the need for micro-sized (1–50 µm) thermal or cold neutron beams has recently appeared, typically in the field of neutron imaging to probe samples with a high spatial resolution. We discuss various possibilities of producing such micro-sized neutron beams. The advantages and drawbacks of the different techniques are discussed. We show that reflective optics offers the most flexible way of producing tiny neutron beams together with an enhanced signal to background ratio. The use of such micro beams is illustrated by the study of micrometric diameter magnetic wires.

  11. Natural shaping of the cylindrically polarized beams

    CERN Document Server

    Shvedov, Vladlen; Shostka, Nataliya; Alexeyev, Constantine; Volyar, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We have experimentally and theoretically shown that the circularly polarized beam bearing singly charged optical vortex propagating through a uniaxial crystal can be split after focusing into the radially and azimuthally polarized beams in vicinity of the focal area provided that the polarization handedness and the vortex topological charge have opposite signs. Quality of the polarization structure can reach unity.

  12. Asymmetrical prism for beam shaping of laser diode stacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaodong; Cao, Changqing; An, Yuying

    2005-09-10

    A beam-shaping scheme for a laser diode stack to obtain a flattop output intensity profile is proposed. The shaping element consists of an asymmetrical glass prism. The large divergence-angle compression in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane and the small divergence-angle expansion in the parallel direction are performed simultaneously by a single shaping element. The transformation characteristics are presented, and the optimization performance is investigated based on the ray-tracing method. Analysis shows that a flattop intensity profile can be obtained. This beam-shaping system can be fabricated easily and has a large alignment tolerance.

  13. Beam shaping characteristics of an unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longsheng; Qin, Yingxiong; Tang, Xiahui; Wan, Chenhao; Li, Gen; Zhong, Lijing

    2014-04-01

    The unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator emits a rectangular, simple astigmatic beam with a large number of high-spatial-frequency oscillations in the unstable direction. To equalize the beam quality, in this paper, a beam shaping system with a spatial filter for the hybrid resonator was investigated by numerical simulation and experimental method. The high-frequency components and fundamental mode of the output beam of the hybrid resonator in the unstable direction are separated by a focus lens. The high-frequency components of the beam are eliminated by the following spatial filter. A nearly Gaussian-shaped beam with approximately equal beam propagation factor M² in the two orthogonal directions was obtained. The effects of the width of the spatial filter on the beam quality, power loss, and intensity distribution of the shaped beam were investigated. The M² factor in the unstable direction is changed from 1.6 to 1.1 by optimum design. The power loss is only 9.5%. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Laser driven proton acceleration and beam shaping

    OpenAIRE

    Sinigardi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    In the race to obtain protons with higher energies, using more compact systems at the same time, laser-driven plasma accelerators are becoming an interesting possibility. But for now, only beams with extremely broad energy spectra and high divergence have been produced. The driving line of this PhD thesis was the study and design of a compact system to extract a high quality beam out of the initial bunch of protons produced by the interaction of a laser pulse with a thin solid target, usi...

  15. Simple Array Beam-Shaping Using Phase-Only Adjustments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Conventional beam-shaping for array antennas is accomplished via an amplitude-taper on the elemental radiators. It is well known that proper manipulation of the elemental phases can also shape the antenna far-field pattern. A fairly simple transformation from a desired amplitude-taper to a phase-taper can yield nearly equivalent results.

  16. Optical beam shaping and diffraction free waves: a variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Gemmer, John A; Durfee, Charles G; Moloney, Jerome V

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the problem of shaping radially symmetric annular beams into desired intensity patterns along the optical axis. Within the Fresnel approximation, we show that this problem can be expressed in a variational form equivalent to the one arising in phase retrieval. Using the uncertainty principle we prove rigorous lower bounds on the functional that capture how the various physical parameters in the problem determine the accuracy of the beam shaping. We also use the method of stationary phase to construct a natural ansatz for a minimizer in the short wavelength limit. We illustrate the implications of our results by applying the method of stationary phase coupled with the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to beam shaping problems arising in remote delivery of beams and pulses.

  17. Optical beam shaping and diffraction free waves: A variational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmer, John A.; Venkataramani, Shankar C.; Durfee, Charles G.; Moloney, Jerome V.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the problem of shaping radially symmetric annular beams into desired intensity patterns along the optical axis. Within the Fresnel approximation, we show that this problem can be expressed in a variational form equivalent to the one arising in phase retrieval. Using the uncertainty principle we prove various rigorous lower bounds on the functional; these lower bounds estimate the L2 error for the beam shaping problem in terms of the design parameters. We also use the method of stationary phase to construct a natural ansatz for a minimizer in the short wavelength limit. We illustrate the implications of our results by applying the method of stationary phase coupled with the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm to beam shaping problems arising in the remote delivery of beams and pulses.

  18. Estimation of Radio Interferometer Beam Shapes Using Riemannian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yatawatta, Sarod

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of receiver beam shapes is essential for accurate radio interferometric imaging. Traditionally, this information is obtained by holographic techniques or by numerical simulation. However, such methods are not feasible for an observation with time varying beams, such as the beams produced by a phased array radio interferometer. We propose the use of the observed data itself for the estimation of the beam shapes. We use the directional gains obtained along multiple sources across the sky for the construction of a time varying beam model. The construction of this model is an ill posed non linear optimization problem. Therefore, we propose to use Riemannian optimization, where we consider the constraints imposed as a manifold. We compare the performance of the proposed approach with traditional unconstrained optimization and give results to show the superiority of the proposed approach.

  19. Ultrasonic testing of the depth of penetration of electron beam welds on heat exchanger tubes to tube plate assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A focused beam ultrasonic testing method is described, which controls weld penetration and more precisely welded zone depth. This technique has been applied to the control of electron beam welds of tube to plate assemblies on heat exchangers; electron beam welding, interesting from economical and technical points of view, induces irregularities in weld penetration. Used as a quality control method, it allows to precisely record some welding parameters (penetration depth, compactness defects, root shape...)

  20. Block copolymer self-assembly and co-assembly : shape function and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, F.

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers can, in selective solvents such as water, assemble into various shapes and architectures. Among those, polymer vesicles, polymer micelles and polymer fibers are very popular structures in current nanotechnology. These objects each have their own particular properties and

  1. Diffractive beam shaping for enhanced laser polymer welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, J.; Vogler, D.; Raab, C.; Gubler, U.

    2015-03-01

    Laser welding of polymers increasingly finds application in a large number of industries such as medical technology, automotive, consumer electronics, textiles or packaging. More and more, it replaces other welding technologies for polymers, e. g. hot-plate, vibration or ultrasonic welding. At the same rate, demands on the quality of the weld, the flexibility of the production system and on processing speed have increased. Traditionally, diode lasers were employed for plastic welding with flat-top beam profiles. With the advent of fiber lasers with excellent beam quality, the possibility to modify and optimize the beam profile by beam-shaping elements has opened. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) can play a crucial role in optimizing the laser intensity profile towards the optimal M-shape beam for enhanced weld seam quality. We present results on significantly improved weld seam width constancy and enlarged process windows compared to Gaussian or flat-top beam profiles. Configurations in which the laser beam diameter and shape can be adapted and optimized without changing or aligning the laser, fiber-optic cable or optical head are shown.

  2. Laser beam shape converter using spatially variable waveplate made by nanogratings inscription in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertus, T.; Michailovas, A.; Michailovas, K.; PetrauskienÄ--, V.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we present a beam shaping technique based on a spatially variable phase retardation plate inscribed inside bulk of fused silica glass by femtosecond laser pulses. Formation of self-assembled periodic nanostructures was exploited to fabricate the converter. During the fabrication process we control induced nanogratings orientation and retardance. Combination of a spatially variable waveplate and a polarizer acts as a spatially variable transmission filter. With a converter fabricated to transform an initially Gaussian beam to a flat-top beam we preserve more than 50% of initial laser power. Theoretically, the efficiency of the proposed converter could be up to 70%. The proposed converter with no absorbing elements possesses resistance to optical damage similar to that of fused silica. Additionally, the already-fabricated converter allows for on-the-fly adjustment of the beam shape from flat-top to a shape with a dip in the middle. The shaped beam was tested in a high power picosecond pulse amplifier.

  3. Freeform beam shaping for high-power multimode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2014-03-01

    Widening of using high power multimode lasers in industrial laser material processing is accompanied by special requirements to irradiance profiles in such technologies like metal or plastics welding, cladding, hardening, brazing, annealing, laser pumping and amplification in MOPA lasers. Typical irradiance distribution of high power multimode lasers: free space solid state, fiber-coupled solid state and diodes lasers, fiber lasers, is similar to Gaussian. Laser technologies can be essentially improved when irradiance distribution on a workpiece is uniform (flattop) or inverse-Gauss; when building high-power pulsed lasers it is possible to enhance efficiency of pumping and amplification by applying super-Gauss irradiance distribution with controlled convexity. Therefore, "freeform" beam shaping of multimode laser beams is an important task. A proved solution is refractive field mapping beam shaper like Shaper capable to control resulting irradiance profile - with the same unit it is possible to get various beam profiles and choose optimum one for a particular application. Operational principle of these devices implies transformation of laser irradiance distribution by conserving beam consistency, high transmittance, providing collimated low divergent output beam. Using additional optics makes it possible to create resulting laser spots of necessary size and round, elliptical or linear shape. Operation out of focal plane and, hence, in field of lower wavefront curvature, allows extending depth of field. The refractive beam shapers are implemented as telescopes and collimating systems, which can be connected directly to fiber-coupled lasers or fiber lasers, thus combining functions of beam collimation and irradiance transformation.

  4. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  5. Laser Beam Steering/shaping for Free Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinghua; Wang, Bin; Bos, Philip J.; Anderson, James E.; Pouch, John; Miranda, Felix; McManamon, Paul F.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D Optical Phased Array (OPA) antenna based on a Liquid Crystal On Silicon (LCoS) device can be considered for use in free space optical communication as an active beam controlling device. Several examples of the functionality of the device include: beam steering in the horizontal and elevation direction; high resolution wavefront compensation in a large telescope; and beam shaping with the computer generated kinoform. Various issues related to the diffraction efficiency, steering range, steering accuracy as well as the magnitude of wavefront compensation are discussed.

  6. Construction of Chiral Metamaterial with U-Shaped Resonator Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Xiang; Bao, Yong-Jun; Peng, Ru-Wen; Wang, Mu; Sun, Cheng; Lu, Xiang; Shao, Jun; Li, Zhi-Feng; Ming, Nai-Ben

    2009-01-01

    Chiral structure can be applied to construct metamaterial with negative refractive index (NRI). In an assembly of double-layered metallic U-shaped resonators with two resonant frequencies wH and wL, the effective induced electric and magnetic dipoles, which are contributed by the specific surface current distributions, are collinear at the same frequency. Consequently, for left circularly polarized light, NRI occurs at wH, whereas for right circularly polarized light it occurs at wL. Our design provides a new example to apply chiral structures to tune electromagnetic properties, and could be enlightening in exploring chiral metamaterials.

  7. Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Lee, Chun-Hong; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ming, Yang; Zhang, Lijian; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Optical beam shaping plays a key role in optics and photonics. In this work, meta-q-plate featured by arbitrarily space-variant optical axes is proposed and demonstrated via liquid crystal photoalignment based on a polarization-sensitive alignment agent and a dynamic micro-lithography system. Meta-q-plates with multiple-, azimuthally/radially variant topological charges and initial azimuthal angles are fabricated. Accordingly, complex beams with elliptical, asymmetrical, multi-ringed and hurricane transverse profiles are generated, making the manipulation of optical vortex up to an unprecedented flexibility. The evolution, handedness and Michelson interferogram of the hurricane one are theoretically analysed and experimentally verified. The design facilitates the manipulation of polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light in a point-to-point manner. The realization of meta-q-plate drastically enhances the capability of beam shaping and may pave a bright way towards optical manipulations, OAM based informatics, quantum optics and other fields.

  8. A method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Chen; Xiao-Hui, Ling; Zhi-Hong, Chen; Qian-Guang, Li; Hao, Lv; Hua-Qing, Yu; Xu-Nong, Yi

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for generating double-ring-shaped vector beams. A step phase introduced by a spatial light modulator (SLM) first makes the incident laser beam have a nodal cycle. This phase is dynamic in nature because it depends on the optical length. Then a Pancharatnam–Berry phase (PBP) optical element is used to manipulate the local polarization of the optical field by modulating the geometric phase. The experimental results show that this scheme can effectively create double-ring-shaped vector beams. It provides much greater flexibility to manipulate the phase and polarization by simultaneously modulating the dynamic and the geometric phases. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11547017), the Hubei Engineering University Research Foundation, China (Grant No. z2014001), and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFB578).

  9. Meta-q-plate for complex beam shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Lee, Chun-Hong; Chen, Peng; Hu, Wei; Ming, Yang; Zhang, Lijian; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chigrinov, Vladimir; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Optical beam shaping plays a key role in optics and photonics. In this work, meta-q-plate featured by arbitrarily space-variant optical axes is proposed and demonstrated via liquid crystal photoalignment based on a polarization-sensitive alignment agent and a dynamic micro-lithography system. Meta-q-plates with multiple-, azimuthally/radially variant topological charges and initial azimuthal angles are fabricated. Accordingly, complex beams with elliptical, asymmetrical, multi-ringed and hurricane transverse profiles are generated, making the manipulation of optical vortex up to an unprecedented flexibility. The evolution, handedness and Michelson interferogram of the hurricane one are theoretically analysed and experimentally verified. The design facilitates the manipulation of polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of light in a point-to-point manner. The realization of meta-q-plate drastically enhances the capability of beam shaping and may pave a bright way towards optical manipulations, OAM based informatics, quantum optics and other fields. PMID:27149897

  10. The characterization of beam profile by modification of electrode shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion sources have been used for variety of industrial application over the past few decades and our research group has been studied about high current and large dimension ion source to meet the requirement from beam user. For a mass production in industry, a wide beam divergence and a beam profile of a broadly Gaussian shape is very needed. Generally, the production process like roll-to-roll or in-line system is need one-meter in diameter, ±5% in uniformity. Therefore it is difficult to apply with present system like 0.3-meter in diameter, ±20% in uniformity and needed new type ion source. In this study, it is approached with modification of electrode grid shape without fabrication of new type ion source. We modified from parallel type to hemispherical type electrode grid to secure large dimension ion beam and were discussed with respect to beam profile calculated with IGUN code simulation. Also, we identified beam profile before and after modification of electrode grid system(cathode, Acelldecel grid) with measurement of faraday cup

  11. Assembly of neutral beam injector with SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is capable of delivering a hydrogen beam of power 1.7 MW to the SST-1 tokomak for the purpose of heating its plasma. The Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is the core project aimed at producing high temperature plasma. The Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) is a system meant for heating the SST-1 plasma. NBI system is used for generating a beam of energetic hydrogen particles and then launches them into the SST-1. The NBI system is currently being operated for production of such a beam on a designated test stand in the NBI hall. As a next step, it is now required to transfer the entire NBI system from the test stand (in NBI hall) to the NBI-SST-1 area and then integrate with the SST-1 Tokamak. The NBI system comprises of a huge vacuum vessel with an ion source and gate valve mounted on it. The vacuum vessel contains the following major sub-systems such as neutralizer, electromagnet (magnet), magnet liner, calorimeter, Ion dump, Beam Transmission Duct, Shine-Through and cryo-condensation pumps (cryopumps). It also contains headers and distribution systems for liquid nitrogen, liquid helium and cooling water, external vacuum system, external cryogenic distribution, external cooling water distribution and snubber deck. NBI integration with SST-1 involves assembly sequence of activities, Heat Transfer Elements welding with neutraliser, ion dump, magnet liner and calorimeter, dis-mantling of existing cooling water lines, dis-assembly of snubber deck, shifting of Vacuum Vessel (VV), lifting of VV and placing VV on the Support Structure, and alignment of VV with SST-1 at pre-defined position. In this paper, we present the planning, sequence of assembly activities, VV lifting methodology. (author)

  12. Characterization of Laser Beam Shaping Optics Based on Their Ablation Geometry of Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Rung; Johannes Barth; Ralf Hellmann

    2014-01-01

    Thin film ablation with pulsed nanosecond lasers can benefit from the use of beam shaping optics to transform the Gaussian beam profile with a circular footprint into a Top-Hat beam profile with a rectangular footprint. In general, the quality of the transformed beam profile depends strongly on the beam alignment of the entire laser system. In particular, the adjustment of the beam shaping element is of upmost importance. For an appropriate alignment of the beam shaper, it is generally necess...

  13. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Eric Tai, M.; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-06-01

    High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several $\\lambda$ and reduces them to $\\lambda/50$, leading to light patterns with a precision on the $10^{-4}$ level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for $^{87}$Rb.

  14. Micro-Shaping of Nanopatterned Surfaces by Electron Beam Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Angulo Barrios

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We show that planar nanopatterned thin films on standard polycarbonate (PC compact discs (CD can be micro-shaped in a non-contact manner via direct e-beam exposure. The shape of the film can be controlled by proper selection of the e-beam parameters. As an example of application, we demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D array of micro-lenses/reservoirs conformally covered by an Al 2D nanohole array (NHA film on a PC CD substrate. It is also shown that such a curvilinear Al NHA layer can be easily transferred onto a flexible polymeric support. The presented technique provides a new tool for creating lab-on-CD architectures and developing multifunctional (flexible non-planar nanostructured films and surfaces.

  15. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control

    CERN Document Server

    Zupancic, Philip; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Tai, M Eric; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution addressing of single ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several $\\lambda$ and reduces them to $\\lambda/50$, leading to light patterns with a precision on the $10^{-4}$ level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for $^{87}$Rb.

  16. Ultra-precise holographic beam shaping for microscopic quantum control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Philip; Preiss, Philipp M; Ma, Ruichao; Lukin, Alexander; Eric Tai, M; Rispoli, Matthew; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-06-27

    High-resolution addressing of individual ultracold atoms, trapped ions or solid state emitters allows for exquisite control in quantum optics experiments. This becomes possible through large aperture magnifying optics that project microscopic light patterns with diffraction limited performance. We use programmable amplitude holograms generated on a digital micromirror device to create arbitrary microscopic beam shapes with full phase and amplitude control. The system self-corrects for aberrations of up to several λ and reduces them to λ/50, leading to light patterns with a precision on the 10-4 level. We demonstrate aberration-compensated beam shaping in an optical lattice experiment and perform single-site addressing in a quantum gas microscope for 87Rb. PMID:27410551

  17. Workshop on automated beam steering and shaping (ABS). Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on Automated Beam Steering and Shaping (ABS) was held at CERN in December 1998. This was the first workshop dedicated to this subject. The workshop had two major goals: to review the present status of ABS algorithms and systems around the world and to create a worldwide ABS community. These proceedings contain summary reports from all sessions, contributions from several presentations held at the workshop, and a complete set of abstracts for all presentations. (orig.)

  18. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  19. Adaptive electron beam shaping using a photoemission gun and spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxson, Jared; Lee, Hyeri; Bartnik, Adam C.; Kiefer, Jacob; Bazarov, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    The need for precisely defined beam shapes in photoelectron sources has been well established. In this paper, we use a spatial light modulator and simple shaping algorithm to create arbitrary, detailed transverse laser shapes with high fidelity. We transmit this shaped laser to the photocathode of a high voltage dc gun. Using beam currents where space charge is negligible, and using an imaging solenoid and fluorescent viewscreen, we show that the resultant beam shape preserves these detailed features with similar fidelity. Next, instead of transmitting a shaped laser profile, we use an active feedback on the unshaped electron beam image to create equally accurate and detailed shapes. We demonstrate that this electron beam feedback has the added advantage of correcting for electron optical aberrations, yielding shapes without skew. The method may serve to provide precisely defined electron beams for low current target experiments, space-charge dominated beam commissioning, as well as for online adaptive correction of photocathode quantum efficiency degradation.

  20. Spectrum shaping of accelerator-based neutron beams for BNCT

    CERN Document Server

    Montagnini, B; Esposito, J; Giusti, V; Mattioda, F; Varone, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe Monte Carlo simulations of three facilities for the production of epithermal neutrons for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and examine general aspects and problems of designing the spectrum-shaping assemblies to be used with these neutron sources. The first facility is based on an accelerator-driven low-power subcritical reactor, operating as a neutron amplifier. The other two facilities have no amplifier and rely entirely on their primary sources, a D-T fusion reaction device and a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a Li target, respectively.

  1. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Béchet, Clémentine; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques...

  2. Adaptive slit beam shaping for direct laser written waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Salter, P. S.; Jesacher, A.; Spring, J.B.; Metcalf, B. J.; Thomas-Peter, N.; Simmonds, R. D.; Langford, N. K.; Walmsley, I.A.; Booth, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an improved method for fabricating optical waveguides in bulk materials by means of femtosecond laser writing. We use an LC spatial light modulator (SLM) to shape the beam focus by generating adaptive slit illumination in the pupil of the objective lens. A diffraction grating is applied in a strip across the SLM to simulate a slit, with the first diffracted order mapped onto the pupil plane of the objective lens while the zeroth order is blocked. This technique enables real-tim...

  3. Studies of pear-shaped nuclei using accelerated radioactive beams

    CERN Document Server

    Gaffney, L P; Scheck, M; Hayes, A B; Wenander, F; Albers, M; Bastin, B; Bauer, C; Blazhev, A; Bonig, S; Bree, N; Cederkall, J; Chupp, T; Cline, D; Cocolios, T E; Davinson, T; DeWitte, H; Diriken, J; Grahn, T; Herzan, A; Huyse, M; Jenkins, D G; Joss, D T; Kesteloot, N; Konki, J; Kowalczyk, M; Kroll, Th; Kwan, E; Lutter, R; Moschner, K; Napiorkowski, P; Pakarinen, J; Pfeiffer, M; Radeck, D; Reiter, P; Reynders, K; Rigby, S V; Robledo, L M; Rudigier, M; Sambi, S; Seidlitz, M; Siebeck, B; Stora, T; Thoele, P; Van Duppen, P; Vermeulen, M J; von Schmid, M; Voulot, D; Warr, N; Wimmer, K; Wrzosek-Lipska, K; Wu, C Y; Zielinska, M

    2013-01-01

    There is strong circumstantial evidence that certain heavy, unstable atomic nuclei are ‘octupole deformed’, that is, distorted into a pear shape. This contrasts with the more prevalent rugby-ball shape of nuclei with reflection-symmetric, quadrupole deformations. The elusive octupole deformed nuclei are of importance for nuclear structure theory, and also in searches for physics beyond the standard model; any measurable electric-dipole moment (a signature of the latter) is expected to be amplified in such nuclei. Here we determine electric octupole transition strengths (a direct measure of octupole correlations) for short-lived isotopes of radon and radium. Coulomb excitation experiments were performed using accelerated beams of heavy, radioactive ions. Our data on and $^{224}$Ra show clear evidence for stronger octupole deformation in the latter. The results enable discrimination between differing theoretical approaches to octupole correlations, and help to constrain suitable candidates for experimental...

  4. Self-Assembly of Arbitrary Shapes with RNA and DNA tiles (extended abstract)

    CERN Document Server

    Demaine, Erik D; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M

    2010-01-01

    Staged self-assembly with RNA removal is a model of tile-based algorithmic self-assembly that was introduced by Abel, Benbernou, Damian, Demaine, Demaine, Flatland, Kominers and Schweller (Shape Replication through Self-Assembly and RNase Enzymes, SODA 2010) and is a model that allows for the periodic removal of all tiles in a given assembly that belong to a specially designated group of (RNA) tiles. In this paper, we study the self-assembly of arbitrary shapes in staged assembly systems with RNA removal. We analyze the performance of our assembly systems with respect to their tile complexity, stage complexity as well as the scale factor, connectivity and addressability of the uniquely produced final assembly.

  5. Debye series expansion of shaped beam scattering by GI-POF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renxian, Li; Xiang'e, Han; Fang, Ren Kuan

    2009-11-01

    We derive Debye series expansion (DSE) for infinitely long multilayered cylinders normally incident by shaped beam. Typically the interaction between multilayered cylinders and Gaussian beam is derived in detail, and localized approximation is introduced to calculate the beam shaped coefficients. Finally DSE is employed to the study of rainbow scattering by graded-index polymer optical fiber (GI-POF).

  6. Robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing using particle swarm optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukund Nilakantan, J.; Ponnambalam, S. G.

    2016-02-01

    Automation in an assembly line can be achieved using robots. In robotic U-shaped assembly line balancing (RUALB), robots are assigned to workstations to perform the assembly tasks on a U-shaped assembly line. The robots are expected to perform multiple tasks, because of their capabilities. U-shaped assembly line problems are derived from traditional assembly line problems and are relatively new. Tasks are assigned to the workstations when either all of their predecessors or all of their successors have already been assigned to workstations. The objective function considered in this article is to maximize the cycle time of the assembly line, which in turn helps to maximize the production rate of the assembly line. RUALB aims at the optimal assignment of tasks to the workstations and selection of the best fit robot to the workstations in a manner such that the cycle time is minimized. To solve this problem, a particle swarm optimization algorithm embedded with a heuristic allocation (consecutive) procedure is proposed. The consecutive heuristic is used to allocate the tasks to the workstation and to assign a best fit robot to that workstation. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using a wide variety of data sets. The results indicate that robotic U-shaped assembly lines perform better than robotic straight assembly lines in terms of cycle time.

  7. Shape-controlled orientation and assembly of colloids with sharp edges in nematic liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Daniel A; Gharbi, Mohamed A; Liu, Iris B

    2015-02-14

    The assembly of colloids in nematic liquid crystals via topological defects has been extensively studied for spherical particles, and investigations of other colloid shapes have revealed a wide array of new assembly behaviors. We show, using Landau-de Gennes numerical modeling, that nematic defect configurations and colloidal assembly can be strongly influenced by fine details of colloid shape, in particular the presence of sharp edges. For cylinder, microbullet, and cube colloid geometries, we obtain the particles' equilibrium alignment directions and effective pair interaction potentials as a function of simple shape parameters. We find that defects pin at sharp edges, and that the colloid consequently orients at an oblique angle relative to the far-field nematic director that depends on the colloid's shape. This shape-dependent alignment, which we confirm in experimental measurements, raises the possibility of selecting self-assembly outcomes for colloids in liquid crystals by tuning particle geometry. PMID:25523158

  8. Extension of Ko Straight-Beam Displacement Theory to Deformed Shape Predictions of Slender Curved Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

    2011-01-01

    The Ko displacement theory originally developed for shape predictions of straight beams is extended to shape predictions of curved beams. The surface strains needed for shape predictions were analytically generated from finite-element nodal stress outputs. With the aid of finite-element displacement outputs, mathematical functional forms for curvature-effect correction terms are established and incorporated into straight-beam deflection equations for shape predictions of both cantilever and two-point supported curved beams. The newly established deflection equations for cantilever curved beams could provide quite accurate shape predictions for different cantilever curved beams, including the quarter-circle cantilever beam. Furthermore, the newly formulated deflection equations for two-point supported curved beams could provide accurate shape predictions for a range of two-point supported curved beams, including the full-circular ring. Accuracy of the newly developed curved-beam deflection equations is validated through shape prediction analysis of curved beams embedded in the windward shallow spherical shell of a generic crew exploration vehicle. A single-point collocation method for optimization of shape predictions is discussed in detail

  9. Polymeric microtubules that breathe: CO2 -driven polymer controlled-self-assembly and shape transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Zhao, Yue

    2013-09-16

    Tubular breathing motion: Polymer tubules self-assembled from a gas-sensitive triblock copolymer can undergo shape evolution. A sequence from microtubes through submicroscopic vesicles to nanosized spherical micelles is modulated by CO2 stimulation levels.

  10. Beam-shaping technique for improving the beam quality of a high-power laser-diode stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takasaka, Masaomi; Shinoda, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    We report a beam-shaping technique that reconfigures the beams to improve the beam quality and enhance the power density for a ten-array high-power laser-diode stack by using two optical rectangular cubes and two stripe-mirror plates. The reshaped beam has threefold improvement in beam quality, and its power density is effectively enhanced. On the basis of this technique, we focus the beam of the high-power laser-diode stack to effectively end pump a high-power fiber laser.

  11. Simultaneous synthesis/assembly of anisotropic cake-shaped porphyrin particles toward colloidal microcrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Kuang, Minxuan; Jin, Feng; Cai, Jinhua; Shi, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei; Wang, Jingxia; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The one-step synthesis/assembly of a cake-shaped porphyrin colloidal microcrystal with tailored height-diameter was demonstrated based on interfacial assembly and the water-droplet template. The as-fabricated anisotropic colloidal crystals showed special optic properties and enhanced optic-limiting behavior.

  12. Simultaneous beam sampling and aperture shape optimization for SPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei, E-mail: Lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ye, Yinyu [Department of Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital linear accelerators, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle, can be optimized simultaneously. SPORT promises to deliver remarkable radiation dose distributions in an efficient manner, yet there exists no optimization algorithm for its implementation. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: The authors build a mathematical model with the fundamental station point parameters as the decision variables. To solve the resulting large-scale optimization problem, the authors devise an effective algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques: column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search. Column generation adds the most beneficial stations sequentially until the plan quality improvement saturates and provides a good starting point for the subsequent optimization. It also adds the new stations during the algorithm if beneficial. For each update resulted from column generation, the subgradient method improves the selected stations locally by reshaping the apertures and updating the beam angles toward a descent subgradient direction. The algorithm continues to improve the selected stations locally and globally by a pattern search algorithm to explore the part of search space not reachable by the subgradient method. By combining these three techniques together, all plausible combinations of station parameters are searched efficiently to yield the optimal solution. Results: A SPORT optimization framework with seamlessly integration of three complementary algorithms, column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search, was established. The proposed technique was applied to two previously treated clinical cases: a head and

  13. Simultaneous beam sampling and aperture shape optimization for SPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital linear accelerators, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle, can be optimized simultaneously. SPORT promises to deliver remarkable radiation dose distributions in an efficient manner, yet there exists no optimization algorithm for its implementation. The purpose of this work is to develop an algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: The authors build a mathematical model with the fundamental station point parameters as the decision variables. To solve the resulting large-scale optimization problem, the authors devise an effective algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques: column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search. Column generation adds the most beneficial stations sequentially until the plan quality improvement saturates and provides a good starting point for the subsequent optimization. It also adds the new stations during the algorithm if beneficial. For each update resulted from column generation, the subgradient method improves the selected stations locally by reshaping the apertures and updating the beam angles toward a descent subgradient direction. The algorithm continues to improve the selected stations locally and globally by a pattern search algorithm to explore the part of search space not reachable by the subgradient method. By combining these three techniques together, all plausible combinations of station parameters are searched efficiently to yield the optimal solution. Results: A SPORT optimization framework with seamlessly integration of three complementary algorithms, column generation, subgradient method, and pattern search, was established. The proposed technique was applied to two previously treated clinical cases: a head and

  14. Neutronic designs and analyses of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new core-moderator assembly and five new neutron beam ports are modeled and designed for the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is an open pool, light water cooled, and moderated 1-MW research reactor with seven neutron beam ports. The existing core-moderator assembly design does not allow simultaneous utilization of all the available beam ports; only two beam ports, namely no.4 and no.7, are currently in use for research and education in the facility. Moreover, the prompt gamma-rays produced at the back side of the heavy water moderator tank shine into neutron beam tube no.4. Subsequently that is hampering the quality of the experimental data at the existing beam port facilities. The proposed design eliminates all the limitations of the existing design and provides multiple high-intensity and clean neutron beams to a new and expanded beam hall utilizing various instruments and techniques. The new design features a crescent-shaped moderator tank, which couples the reactor core to four thermal ports and one cold neutron beam port with three curved guide tubes for various cold neutron beam techniques. The modeling of the new PSBR design was achieved with highly detailed neutronics simulations using several stochastic simulation tools developed for the PSBR. The simulation results revealed the optimal design parameters and neutronics performance of the new beam ports, such that the thermal neutron beam intensity was significantly increased and the total prompt gamma dose was drastically decreased in the new beam port facilities. (author)

  15. Higher-order assemblies of BAR domain proteins for shaping membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-06-01

    Most cellular organelles contain lipid bilayer membranes. The earliest characterization of cellular organelles was performed by electron microscopy observation of such membranes. However, the precise mechanisms for shaping the membrane in particular subcellular organelles is poorly understood. Classically, the overall cellular shape, i.e. the shape of the plasma membrane, was thought to be governed by the reorganization of cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. The plasma membrane contains various submicron structures such as clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia and lamellipodia. These subcellular structures are either invaginations or protrusions and are associated with the cytoskeleton. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that there are membrane-binding proteins that cooperates with cytoskeleton in shaping of plasma membrane organelles. Proteins with the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain connect a variety of membrane shapes to actin filaments. The BAR domains themselves bend the membranes by their rigidity and then mold the membranes into tubules through their assembly as spiral polymers, which are thought to be involved in the various submicron structures. Membrane tubulation by polymeric assembly of the BAR domains is supposed to be regulated by binding proteins, binding lipids and the mechanical properties of the membrane. This review gives an overview of BAR protein assembly, describes the significance of the assembly and discusses how to study the assembly in the context of membrane and cellular morphology. The technical problems encountered in microscopic observation of BAR domain assembly are also discussed. PMID:26884618

  16. Higher-order assemblies of BAR domain proteins for shaping membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Shiro

    2016-06-01

    Most cellular organelles contain lipid bilayer membranes. The earliest characterization of cellular organelles was performed by electron microscopy observation of such membranes. However, the precise mechanisms for shaping the membrane in particular subcellular organelles is poorly understood. Classically, the overall cellular shape, i.e. the shape of the plasma membrane, was thought to be governed by the reorganization of cytoskeletal components such as actin and microtubules. The plasma membrane contains various submicron structures such as clathrin-coated pits, caveolae, filopodia and lamellipodia. These subcellular structures are either invaginations or protrusions and are associated with the cytoskeleton. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that there are membrane-binding proteins that cooperates with cytoskeleton in shaping of plasma membrane organelles. Proteins with the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain connect a variety of membrane shapes to actin filaments. The BAR domains themselves bend the membranes by their rigidity and then mold the membranes into tubules through their assembly as spiral polymers, which are thought to be involved in the various submicron structures. Membrane tubulation by polymeric assembly of the BAR domains is supposed to be regulated by binding proteins, binding lipids and the mechanical properties of the membrane. This review gives an overview of BAR protein assembly, describes the significance of the assembly and discusses how to study the assembly in the context of membrane and cellular morphology. The technical problems encountered in microscopic observation of BAR domain assembly are also discussed.

  17. Annular beam shaping system for advanced 3D laser brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Kogel-Hollacher, Markus; Traub, Martin

    2012-10-01

    As laser brazing benefits from advantages such as smooth joints and small heat-affected zones, it has become established as a joining technology that is widely used in the automotive industry. With the processing of complex-shaped geometries, recent developed brazing heads suffer, however, from the need for continuous reorientation of the optical system and/or limited accessibility due to lateral wire feeding. This motivates the development of a laser brazing head with coaxial wire feeding and enhanced functionality. An optical system is designed that allows to generate an annular intensity distribution in the working zone. The utilization of complex optical components avoids obscuration of the optical path by the wire feeding. The new design overcomes the disadvantages of the state-of-the-art brazing heads with lateral wire feeding and benefits from the independence of direction while processing complex geometries. To increase the robustness of the brazing process, the beam path also includes a seam tracking system, leading to a more challenging design of the whole optical train. This paper mainly discusses the concept and the optical design of the coaxial brazing head, and also presents the results obtained with a prototype and selected application results.

  18. An adaptive laser beam shaping technique based on a genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Yuan Liu; Wei Yang; Minwu Ao; Shijie Hu; Bing Xu; Wenhan Jiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ A new adaptive beam intensity shaping technique based on the combination of a 19-element piezo-electricity deformable mirror (DM) and a global genetic algorithm is presented. This technique can adaptively adjust the voltages of the 19 actuators on the DM to reduce the difference between the target beam shape and the actual beam shape. Numerical simulations and experimental results show that within the stroke range of the DM, this technique can be well used to create the given beam intensity profiles on the focal plane.

  19. Design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams by simulated annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jian-Long; Lü Bai-Da

    2008-01-01

    Taking the Gaussian Schell-model beam as a typical example of partially coherent beams,this paper applies the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm to the design of phase plates for shaping partially coherent beams.A flow diagram is presented to illustrate the procedure of phase optimization by the SA algorithm.Numerical examples demonstrate the advantages of the SA algorithm in shaping partially coherent beams.An uniform flat-topped beam profile with maximum reconstruction error RE < 1.74% is achieved.A further extension of the approach is discussed.

  20. Beam shaping design for coupling high power diode laser stack to fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Seyed Hamed; Hantehzadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Sabbaghzadeh, Jamshid; Dorranian, Davoud; Lafooti, Majid; Vatani, Vahid; Rezaei-Nasirabad, Reza; Hemmati, Atefeh; Amidian, Ali Asghar; Alavian, Seyed Ali

    2011-06-20

    A beam shaping technique that rearranges the beam for improving the beam symmetry and power density of a ten-bar high power diode laser stack is simulated considering a stripe mirror plate and a V-Stack mirror in the beam shaping system. In this technique, the beam of a high power diode laser stack is effectively coupled into a standard 550 μm core diameter and a NA=0.22 fiber. By this technique, compactness, higher efficiency, and lower cost production of the diode are possible.

  1. Shaping polymersomes into predictable morphologies via out-of-equilibrium self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikken, R. S. M.; Engelkamp, H.; Nolte, R. J. M.; Maan, J. C.; van Hest, J. C. M.; Wilson, D. A.; Christianen, P. C. M.

    2016-08-01

    Polymersomes are bilayer vesicles, self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers. They are versatile nanocapsules with adjustable properties, such as flexibility, permeability, size and functionality. However, so far no methodological approach to control their shape exists. Here we demonstrate a mechanistically fully understood procedure to precisely control polymersome shape via an out-of-equilibrium process. Carefully selecting osmotic pressure and permeability initiates controlled deflation, resulting in transient capsule shapes, followed by reinflation of the polymersomes. The shape transformation towards stomatocytes, bowl-shaped vesicles, was probed with magnetic birefringence, permitting us to stop the process at any intermediate shape in the phase diagram. Quantitative electron microscopy analysis of the different morphologies reveals that this shape transformation proceeds via a long-predicted hysteretic deflation-inflation trajectory, which can be understood in terms of bending energy. Because of the high degree of controllability and predictability, this study provides the design rules for accessing polymersomes with all possible different shapes.

  2. Shaping polymersomes into predictable morphologies via out-of-equilibrium self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikken, R S M; Engelkamp, H; Nolte, R J M; Maan, J C; van Hest, J C M; Wilson, D A; Christianen, P C M

    2016-01-01

    Polymersomes are bilayer vesicles, self-assembled from amphiphilic block copolymers. They are versatile nanocapsules with adjustable properties, such as flexibility, permeability, size and functionality. However, so far no methodological approach to control their shape exists. Here we demonstrate a mechanistically fully understood procedure to precisely control polymersome shape via an out-of-equilibrium process. Carefully selecting osmotic pressure and permeability initiates controlled deflation, resulting in transient capsule shapes, followed by reinflation of the polymersomes. The shape transformation towards stomatocytes, bowl-shaped vesicles, was probed with magnetic birefringence, permitting us to stop the process at any intermediate shape in the phase diagram. Quantitative electron microscopy analysis of the different morphologies reveals that this shape transformation proceeds via a long-predicted hysteretic deflation-inflation trajectory, which can be understood in terms of bending energy. Because of the high degree of controllability and predictability, this study provides the design rules for accessing polymersomes with all possible different shapes. PMID:27558520

  3. Inflatable shape changing colonies assembling versatile smart space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Thomas; Hilbich, Daniel; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2014-11-01

    Various plants have the ability to follow the sun with their flowers or leaves during the course of a day via a mechanism known as heliotropism. This mechanism is characterised by the introduction of pressure gradients between neighbouring motor cells in the plant's stem, enabling the stem to bend. By adapting this bio-inspired mechanism to mechanical systems, a new class of smart structures can be created. The developed overall structure is made up of a number of cellular colonies, each consisting of a central pressure source surrounded by multiple cells. After launch, the cellular arrays are deployed in space and are either preassembled or alternatively are attached together during their release or afterwards. A central pressure source is provided by a high-pressure storage unit with an integrated valve, which provides ingress gas flow to the system; the gas is then routed through the system via a sequence of valve operations and cellular actuations, allowing for any desired shape to be achieved within the constraints of the deployed array geometry. This smart structure consists of a three dimensional adaptable cellular array with fluid controlling Micro Electromechanical Systems (MEMS) components enabling the structure to change its global shape. The proposed MEMS components include microvalves, pressure sensors, mechanical interconnect structures, and electrical routing. This paper will also give an overview of the system architecture and shows the feasibility and shape changing capabilities of the proposed design with multibody dynamic simulations. Example applications of this lightweight shape changing structure include concentrators, mirrors, and communications antennas that are able to dynamically change their focal point, as well as substructures for solar sails that are capable of steering through solar winds by altering the sails' subjected area.

  4. Correction of linear-array lidar intensity data using an optimal beam shaping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Wang, Yuanqing; Yang, Xingyu; Zhang, Bingqing; Li, Fenfang

    2016-08-01

    The linear-array lidar has been recently developed and applied for its superiority of vertically non-scanning, large field of view, high sensitivity and high precision. The beam shaper is the key component for the linear-array detection. However, the traditional beam shaping approaches can hardly satisfy our requirement for obtaining unbiased and complete backscattered intensity data. The required beam distribution should roughly be oblate U-shaped rather than Gaussian or uniform. Thus, an optimal beam shaping approach is proposed in this paper. By employing a pair of conical lenses and a cylindrical lens behind the beam expander, the expanded Gaussian laser was shaped to a line-shaped beam whose intensity distribution is more consistent with the required distribution. To provide a better fit to the requirement, off-axis method is adopted. The design of the optimal beam shaping module is mathematically explained and the experimental verification of the module performance is also presented in this paper. The experimental results indicate that the optimal beam shaping approach can effectively correct the intensity image and provide ~30% gain of detection area over traditional approach, thus improving the imaging quality of linear-array lidar.

  5. Self-assembly of DNA into nanoscale three-dimensional shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Shawn M; Dietz, Hendrik; Liedl, Tim; Högberg, Björn; Graf, Franziska; Shih, William M

    2009-05-21

    Molecular self-assembly offers a 'bottom-up' route to fabrication with subnanometre precision of complex structures from simple components. DNA has proved to be a versatile building block for programmable construction of such objects, including two-dimensional crystals, nanotubes, and three-dimensional wireframe nanopolyhedra. Templated self-assembly of DNA into custom two-dimensional shapes on the megadalton scale has been demonstrated previously with a multiple-kilobase 'scaffold strand' that is folded into a flat array of antiparallel helices by interactions with hundreds of oligonucleotide 'staple strands'. Here we extend this method to building custom three-dimensional shapes formed as pleated layers of helices constrained to a honeycomb lattice. We demonstrate the design and assembly of nanostructures approximating six shapes-monolith, square nut, railed bridge, genie bottle, stacked cross, slotted cross-with precisely controlled dimensions ranging from 10 to 100 nm. We also show hierarchical assembly of structures such as homomultimeric linear tracks and heterotrimeric wireframe icosahedra. Proper assembly requires week-long folding times and calibrated monovalent and divalent cation concentrations. We anticipate that our strategy for self-assembling custom three-dimensional shapes will provide a general route to the manufacture of sophisticated devices bearing features on the nanometre scale.

  6. 32 nm imprint masks using variable shape beam pattern generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinidis, Kosta; Thompson, Ecron; Schmid, Gerard; Stacey, Nick; Perez, Joseph; Maltabes, John; Resnick, Douglas J.; Yeo, Jeongho; Kim, Hoyeon; Eynon, Ben

    2008-05-01

    Imprint lithography has been included on the ITRS Lithography Roadmap at the 32, 22 and 16 nm nodes. Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL ®) is a unique method that has been designed from the beginning to enable precise overlay for creating multilevel devices. A photocurable low viscosity monomer is dispensed dropwise to meet the pattern density requirements of the device, thus enabling imprint patterning with a uniform residual layer across a field and across entire wafers. Further, S-FIL provides sub-100 nm feature resolution without the significant expense of multi-element, high quality projection optics or advanced illumination sources. However, since the technology is 1X, it is critical to address the infrastructure associated with the fabrication of templates. For sub-32 nm device manufacturing, one of the major technical challenges remains the fabrication of full-field 1x templates with commercially viable write times. Recent progress in the writing of sub-40 nm patterns using commercial variable shape e-beam tools and non-chemically amplified resists has demonstrated a very promising route to realizing these objectives, and in doing so, has considerably strengthened imprint lithography as a competitive manufacturing technology for the sub 32nm node. Here we report the first imprinting results from sub-40 nm full-field patterns, using Samsung's current flash memory production device design. The fabrication of the template is discussed and the resulting critical dimension control and uniformity are discussed, along with image placement results. The imprinting results are described in terms of CD uniformity, etch results, and overlay.

  7. Design of measurement equipment for high power laser beam shapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Olsen, F. O.; Kristiansen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    To analyse advanced high power beam patterns, a method, which is capable of analysing the intensity distribution in 3D is needed. Further a measuring of scattered light in the same system is preferred. This requires a high signal to noise ratio. Such a system can be realised by a CCD......-chip implemented in a camera system. Most available CCD-based systems do however suffer from a low maximum intensity threshold. Therefore attenuation is needed. This paper describes the construction of such a beam analysing system where beam patterns produced by single mode fiber laser on a diffractic optical...... element can be evaluated using a CCD based camera. The system is tested with various DOE’s for evaluation of efficiency and measurement of scattered light with success. Also tests with capturing beam caustics of focused laser beams from which beam parameters has been fitted and compared with measurements...

  8. Electron Beam Energy Compensation by Controlling RF Pulse Shape

    CERN Document Server

    Kii, T; Kusukame, K; Masuda, K; Nakai, Y; Ohgaki, H; Yamazaki, T; Yoshikawa, K; Zen, H

    2005-01-01

    We have studied on improvement of electron beam macropulse properties from a thermionic RF gun. Though a thermionic RF gun has many salient features, there is a serious problem that back-bombardment effect worsens quality of the beam. To reduce beam energy degradation by this effect, we tried to feed non-flat RF power into the gun. As a result, we successfully obtained about 1.5 times longer macropulse and two times larger total charge per macropulse. On the other hand, we calculated transient evolution of RF power considering non-constant beam loading. The beam loading is evaluated from time evolution of cathode temperature, by use of one dimensional heat conduction model and electron trajectories' calculations by a particle simulation code. Then we found good agreement between the experimental and calculation results. Furthermore, with the same way, we studied the electron beam output dependence on the cathode radius.

  9. Beam shaping for laser-based adaptive optics in astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Béchet, Clémentine; Guesalaga, Andrés; Neichel, Benoit; Fesquet, Vincent; González-Núñez, Héctor; Zúñiga, Sebastián; Escarate, Pedro; Guzman, Dani

    2014-01-01

    The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics syst...

  10. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.B.; Kristensen, M.V.;

    2011-01-01

    Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter...... deviating from using perfectly counter-propagating beams to use oblique beams can improve the axial stability of the traps and improve the axial trapping stiffness. These alternative geometries can be particularly useful for handling larger particles. These results hint at a rich potential for light shaping......-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show that...

  11. New beam shaping: Matched filtering combined with GPC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts frolll matched filtering 10 propose a method for generating rcconligurablc multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically rcconfigurablc optical beam 31rdYS wilh high light efficiency for optica...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications r1].......We adapt concepts frolll matched filtering 10 propose a method for generating rcconligurablc multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically rcconfigurablc optical beam 31rdYS wilh high light efficiency for optical...

  12. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Barbato, Marta

    2016-02-02

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities\\' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities\\' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments.

  13. Hydrocarbon pollutants shape bacterial community assembly of harbor sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbato, Marta; Mapelli, Francesca; Magagnini, Mirko; Chouaia, Bessem; Armeni, Monica; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2016-03-15

    Petroleum pollution results in co-contamination by different classes of molecules, entailing the occurrence of marine sediments difficult to remediate, as in the case of the Ancona harbor (Mediterranean Sea, Italy). Autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA), by exploiting the indigenous microbes of the environment to be treated, could represent a successful bioremediation strategy. In this perspective we aimed to i) identify the main drivers of the bacterial communities' richness in the sediments, ii) establish enrichment cultures with different hydrocarbon pollutants evaluating their effects on the bacterial communities' composition, and iii) obtain a collection of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria potentially exploitable in ABA. The correlation between the selection of different specialized bacterial populations and the type of pollutants was demonstrated by culture-independent analyses, and by establishing a collection of bacteria with different hydrocarbon degradation traits. Our observations indicate that pollution dictates the diversity of sediment bacterial communities and shapes the ABA potential in harbor sediments. PMID:26849913

  14. High-speed femtosecond laser beam shaping based on binary holography using a digital micromirror device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiyi; Gu, Chenglin; Zhang, Dapeng; Chen, Shih-Chi

    2015-11-01

    In this Letter, we present a digital micromirror device (DMD)-based ultrafast beam shaper, i.e., DUBS. To our knowledge, the DUBS is the first binary laser beam shaper that can generate high-resolution (1140×912 pixels) arbitrary beam modes for femtosecond lasers at a rate of 4.2 kHz; the resolution and pattern rate are limited by the DMD. In the DUBS, the spectrum of the input pulsed laser is first angularly dispersed by a transmission grating and subsequently imaged to a DMD with beam modulation patterns; the transmission grating and a high-reflectivity mirror together compensate the angular dispersion introduced by the DMD. The mode of the output beam is monitored by a CCD camera. In the experiments, the DUBS is programmed to generate four different beam modes, including an Airy beam, Bessel beam, Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, and a custom-designed "peace-dove" beam via the principle of binary holography. To verify the high shaping rate, the Airy beam and LG beam are generated alternately at 4.2 kHz, i.e., the maximum pattern rate of our DMD. The overall efficiency of the DUBS is measured to be 4.7%. With the high-speed and high-resolution beam-shaping capability, the DUBS may find important applications in nonlinear microscopy, optical manipulation, and microscale/nanoscale laser machining, etc. PMID:26512472

  15. Transverse beam shape measurements of intense proton beams using optical transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpine, Victor E.; /Fermilab

    2012-03-01

    A number of particle physics experiments are being proposed as part of the Department of Energy HEP Intensity Frontier. Many of these experiments will utilize megawatt level proton beams onto targets to form secondary beams of muons, kaons and neutrinos. These experiments require transverse size measurements of the incident proton beam onto target for each beam spill. Because of the high power levels, most beam intercepting profiling techniques will not work at full beam intensity. The possibility of utilizing optical transition radiation (OTR) for high intensity proton beam profiling is discussed. In addition, previous measurements of OTR beam profiles from the NuMI beamline are presented.

  16. Novel shaping optics of CO2 laser beam: LSV optics--principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Horiguchi, Yukihiro; Maruo, Hiroshi

    1990-10-01

    A novel beam shaping optics, Linear-polarized Shape Variable (LSV) optics for high power CO2 laser beam has been developed, which provides a beam spot with variable beam shape in terms of different aspect ratios, and negligible shaping loss of 5% with high beam absorptivity of 50% in non-coated steel, which is as high as carbon coated steel, The high efficiencies both in shaping and metal heating are attained by utilizing linear-polarized CO2 laser beam. In laser hardening, the case depth larger than 2mm (width=l5mm) was obtained without any absorption coating. By changing the beam width in the direction of beam motion, D, in accordance with the traveling speed, hardened depth from 0.3mm to 2.5mm (width=l5mm) was obtained at constant surface temperature of 1400 C at 3kW power level. LSV optics was also used for local heating up to 1100 C in brazing Si3N4 ceramics with insertion of Al foil, and joint strength as high as 400 MPa was obtained in an irradiation time of about 20 sec without any preheating.

  17. Identification of multiple damage in beams based on robust curvature mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maosen; Radzieński, Maciej; Xu, Wei; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2014-06-01

    Multiple damage identification in beams using curvature mode shape has become a research focus of increasing interest during the last few years. On this topic, most existing studies address the sensitivity of curvature mode shape to multiple damage. A noticeable deficiency of curvature mode shape, however, is its susceptibility to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to multiple damage. To overcome this drawback, the synergy between a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO) is explored, with the aim of ameliorating the curvature mode shape. The improved curvature mode shape, termed the TEO-WT curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to multiple damage. The efficacy of the TEO-WT curvature mode shape is analytically verified by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever beams, with particular emphasis on its ability to locate multiple damage in noisy conditions; the applicability of the proposed curvature mode shape is experimentally validated by detecting multiple fairly thin slots in steel beams with mode shapes acquired by a scanning laser vibrometer. The proposed curvature mode shape appears sensitive to multiple damage and robust against noise, and therefore is well suited to identification of multiple damage in beams in noisy environments.

  18. Improve beam quality of laser proton acceleration with funnel-shaped-hole target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Fan, Da Peng; Li, Yu Xiao

    2016-03-01

    Improve beam quality of laser proton acceleration using a funnel-shaped-hole target is demonstrated through particle simulations. When an intense short pulse laser illuminates a thin foil target with a hole at the rear surface, the proton beam divergence is suppressed compared with that obtained in a traditional flat target. In this paper, a funnel-shaped-hole target is proposed to improve the proton beam quality. Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, three different shapes of target (funnel-shaped-hole target, cylinder-shaped-hole target and flat target) are simulated and compared. The funnel-shaped hole in the rear surface of the target helps to focus the electron cloud significantly and improve the maximum proton energy and suppress the proton beam divergence. Different thicknesses of the new target are also simulated, and the effects of thickness on the divergence angle and proton spectra are investigated. The optimal size of the new target is obtained and the quality of the proton beam is improved significantly. The funnel-shaped-hole target serves as a new method to improve the proton beam quality in laser-plasma interactions.

  19. Optical simulation of laser beam phase-shaping focusing optimization in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Ricardo; Vieira, Pedro; Coelho, João. M. P.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we report the development of an optical simulator that can be used in the development of methodologies for compensate/decrease the light scattering effect of most biological tissues through phase-shaping methods. In fact, scattering has long been a major limitation for the medical applications of lasers where in-depth tissues concerns due to the turbid nature of most biological media in the human body. In developing the simulator, two different approaches were followed: one using multiple identical beams directed to the same target area and the other using a phase-shaped beam. In the multiple identical beams approach (used mainly to illustrate the limiting effect of scattering on the beam's propagation) there was no improvement in the beam focus at 1 mm compared to a single beam layout but, in phase-shaped beam approach, a 8x improvement on the radius of the beam at the same depth was achieved. The models were created using the optical design software Zemax and numerical algorithms created in Matlab programming language to shape the beam wavefront. A dedicated toolbox allowed communication between both programs. The use of the two software's proves to be a simple and powerful solution combining the best of the two and allowing a significant potential for adapting the simulations to new systems and thus allow to assess their response and define critical engineering parameters prior to laboratorial implementation.

  20. Temporal E-Beam Shaping in an S-Band Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Henrik; Dowell, David; Ferrario, Massimo; Gilevich, Sasha; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Murphy, James; Petrarca, Massimo; Serafini, Luca; Sheehy, Brian; Shen, Yuzhen; Tsang, Thomas; Vicario, Carlo; Wang, Xijie; Wu, Zilu

    2005-01-01

    New short-wavelength SASE light sources will require very bright electron beams, brighter in some cases than is now possible. One method for improving brightness involves the careful shaping of the electron bunch to control the degrading effects of its space charge forces. We study this experimentally in an S-band system, by using an acousto-optical programmable dispersive filter to shape the photocathode laser pulse that drives the RF photoinjector. We report on the efficacy of shaping from the IR through the UV, and the effects of shaping on the electron beam dynamics.

  1. Characterization of Laser Beam Shaping Optics Based on Their Ablation Geometry of Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film ablation with pulsed nanosecond lasers can benefit from the use of beam shaping optics to transform the Gaussian beam profile with a circular footprint into a Top-Hat beam profile with a rectangular footprint. In general, the quality of the transformed beam profile depends strongly on the beam alignment of the entire laser system. In particular, the adjustment of the beam shaping element is of upmost importance. For an appropriate alignment of the beam shaper, it is generally necessary to observe the intensity distribution near the focal position of the applied focusing optics. Systems with a low numerical aperture (NA can commonly be qualified by means of laser beam profilers, such as a charge-coupled device (CCD camera. However, laser systems for micromachining typically employ focus lenses with a high NA, which generate focal spot sizes of only several microns in diameter. This turns out to be a challenge for common beam profiling measurement systems and complicates the adjustment of the beam shaper strongly. In this contribution, we evaluate the quality of a Top-Hat beam profiling element and its alignment in the working area based on the ablated geometry of single pulse ablation of thin transparent conductive oxides. To determine the best achievable adjustment, we develop a quality index for rectangular laser ablation spots and investigate the influences of different alignment parameters, which can affect the intensity distribution of a Top-Hat laser beam profile.

  2. Surface profiling of X-ray mirrors for shaping focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John; Evans, Gwyndaf; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-01-26

    Grazing incidence mirrors are a standard optic for focusing X-rays. Active mirrors, whose surface profile can be finely adjusted, allow control of beam shape and size at the sample. However, progress towards their routine use for beam shaping has been hampered by the strong striations in reflected beams away from the focal plane. Re-entrant (partly concave and partly convex) surface modifications are proposed for shaping X-ray beams to a top-hat in the focal plane while reducing the striations caused by unavoidable polishing errors. A method for constructing such surfaces with continuous height and slope (but only piecewise continuous curvature) will be provided. Ray tracing and wave propagation calculations confirm its effectiveness. A mirror system is proposed allowing vertical beam sizes in the range 0.5 to 10μm. A prototype will be fabricated and is expected to have applications on many synchrotron X-ray beamlines.

  3. Unique self-assembly properties of a bridge-shaped protein dimer with quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianhao; Jiang, Pengju [Changzhou University, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science (China); Gao, Liqian; Yu, Yongsheng; Lu, Yao [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Chemistry (Hong Kong, China) (China); Qiu, Lin; Wang, Cheli [Changzhou University, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering and Life Science (China); Xia, Jiang, E-mail: jiangxia@cuhk.edu.hk [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Chemistry (Hong Kong, China) (China)

    2013-09-15

    How protein-protein interaction affects protein-nanoparticle self-assembly is the key to the understanding of biomolecular coating of nanoparticle in biological fluids. However, the relationship between protein shape and its interaction with nanoparticles is still under-exploited because of lack of a well-conceived binding system and a method to detect the subtle change in the protein-nanoparticle assemblies. Noticing this unresolved need, we cloned and expressed a His-tagged SpeA protein that adopts a bridge-shaped dimer structure, and utilized a high-resolution capillary electrophoresis method to monitor assembly formation between the protein and quantum dots (QDs, 5 nm in diameter). We observed that the bridge-shaped structure rendered a low SpeA:QD stoichiometry at saturation. Also, close monitoring of imidazole (Im) displacement of surface-bound protein revealed a unique two-step process. High-concentration Im could displace surface-bound SpeA protein and form a transient QD-protein intermediate, through a kinetically controlled displacement process. An affinity-driven equilibrium step then followed, resulting in re-assembling of the QD-protein complex in about 1 h. Through a temporarily formed intermediate, Im causes a rearrangement of His-tagged proteins on the surface. Thus, our work showcases that the synergistic interplay between QD-His-tag interaction and protein-protein interaction can result in unique properties of protein-nanoparticle assembly for the first time.

  4. Modification of the shape of the transverse phase-space volume of hollow beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the steadily increasing intensity of the charged-particle flux in accelerators, attention has been focused recently on hollow beams. The principal reasons for such interest are discussed, and calculations for changing the shape of the transverse phase-space volume of hollow beams are performed. It is shown that in hollow beams the projection of the transverse phase-space volume on the plane p = O generally vanishes. Suggestions for changing a divergent or convergent hollow beam to a parallel beam are given

  5. From amorphous speckle pattern to reconfigurable Bessel beam via wavefront shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Di Battista, Diego; Leonetti, Marco; Zacharakis, Giannis

    2015-01-01

    Bessel beams are non-diffracting light structures, which can be produced with simple tabletop optical elements such as axicon lenses or ring spatial filters and coherent laser beams. One of their main characteristic is that Bessel beams maintain their spatial characteristics after meters of propagation. In this paper we demonstrate a system and method for generating Bessel beams from amorphous speckle patterns, exploiting adaptive optimization by a spatial light modulator. These speckles are generated by light modes transmitted through a scattering curtain and selected by a ring shaped filter. With the proposed strategy it is possible to produce at user defined positions, reconfigurable, non-diffracting Bessel beams through a disordered medium.

  6. Modelling the spatial shape of nondiffracting beams: Experimental generation of Frozen Waves via computer generated holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Tárcio A; Gesualdi, Marcos R R

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we implement experimentally the spatial shape modelling of nondiffracting optical beams via computer generated holograms. The results reported here are the experimental confirmation of the so called Frozen Wave method, developed few years ago. Optical beams of this type can possess potential applications in optical tweezers, medicine, atom guiding, remote sensing, etc..

  7. Y-shaped jets driven by an ultrasonic beam reflecting on a wall

    OpenAIRE

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valéry; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Séverine; Ben Hadid, Hamda

    2016-01-01

    International audience This paper presents an original experimental and numerical investigation of acoustic streaming driven by an acoustic beam reflecting on a wall. The water experiment features a 2 MHz acoustic beam totally reflecting on one of the tank glass walls. The velocity field in the plane containing the incident and reflected beam axes is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). It exhibits an original y-shaped structure: the impinging jet driven by the incident bea...

  8. Photoinjector beam quality improvement by shaping the wavefront of a drive laser with oblique incidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhi-Gang; WANG Xiao-Hui; JIA Qi-Ka

    2012-01-01

    To increase the quantum efficiency (QE) of a copper photocathode and reduce the thermal emittance of an electron beam,a drive laser with oblique incidence was adopted in a BNL type photocathode rf gun.The disadvantageous effects on the beam quality caused by oblique incidence were analyzed qualitatively.A simple way to solve the problens through wavefront shaping was introduced and the beam quality was improved.

  9. Beam Shaping of High-power Laser Diode Arrays by Continuous Surface-relief Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Ehbets, Peter; Herzig, Hans-Peter; Dändliker, René; Regnault, P.; Kjelberg, I.

    2007-01-01

    A breadboard for beam shaping of high-power laser diode arrays (LDAs) has been realized. The coherent beams are added with the aid of a continuous surface-relief fan-in element. It results in a nearly symmetric single lobed beam of collimated light with maximum conversion efficiency. The theoretical efficiency is determined to be 96•7%. Experimentally, one third of the total power is now in the central peak.

  10. 19 CFR 10.25 - Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Textile components cut to shape in the United... RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles Assembled Abroad with United States Components § 10.25 Textile components cut to shape in the United States and assembled abroad. Where a textile component is cut to...

  11. Hybrid laser-beam-shaping system for rotatable dual beams with long depth of focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fu-Lung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Mao-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A laser processing system consisting of two diffractive elements and one refractive element is proposed enabling a Gaussian laser beam to be transformed into two beams with a depth of focus of up to 150 µm and focal spot smaller than 5 µm. For specific laser processing, the two beams are rotatable when the beam-splitting diffractive element is rotated. The overall system is versatile for laser cutting and drilling.

  12. Woven type smart soft composite beam with in-plane shape retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Renzhe; Han, Min-Woo; Lee, Gil-Yong; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire embedded composites (SMAECs) are widely used as morphing structures in small-size and high-output systems. However, conventional SMAECs cannot keep deformed shapes without additional energy. In this paper, a new kind of smart structure named the woven type smart soft composite (SSC) beam is introduced, which is not only capable of morphing, but also maintaining its deformed shape without additional energy. The woven type SSC beam consists of two parts: woven wires and matrix. The selected woven wires are nitinol (Ni-Ti) SMA wires and glass fibers, while the matrix part is polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In order to evaluate the performance of the woven type SSC beam in areas such as in-plane deformation, blocking force and repeatability, a beam-shape specimen is prepared of size 100 mm (length) × 8 mm (width) ×3 mm (thickness). The fabricated SSC beam achieved 21 mm deformation and 16 mm shape retention. Blocking force was measured using a dynamometer, and was about 60 mN. In the repeatability test, it recovered almost the same position when its cooling time was 90 s more. Consequently, the woven type SSC beam can be applied to bio-mimicking, soft morphing actuators, consuming less energy than traditional SMAECs.

  13. Adaptive optimisation of a generalised beam shaping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenny, F.; Choi, F. S.; Glückstad, Jesper;

    2015-01-01

    The generalised phase contrast (GPC) method provides versatile and efficient light shaping for a range of applications. We have implemented a generalised phase contrast system that used two passes on a single spatial light modulator (SLM). Both the pupil phase distribution and the phase contrast...... filter were generated by the SLM. This provided extra flexibility and control over the parameters of the system including the phase step magnitude, shape, radius and position of the filter. A feedback method for the on-line optimisation of these properties was also developed. Using feedback from images...

  14. Beam-Shape Effects in Nonlinear Compton and Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Heinzl, T; Kämpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    We discuss intensity effects in collisions between beams of optical photons from a high-power laser and relativistic electrons. Our main focus are the modifications of the emission spectra due to realistic finite-beam geometries. By carefully analyzing the classical limit we precisely quantify the distinction between strong-field QED Compton scattering and classical Thomson scattering. A purely classical, but fully covariant, calculation of the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron in a plane wave laser field yields radiation into harmonics, as expected. This result is generalized to pulses of finite duration and explains the appearance of line broadening and harmonic substructure as an interference phenomenon. The ensuing numerical treatment confirms that strong focussing of the laser leads to a broad continuum while higher harmonics become visible only at moderate focussing, hence lower intensity. We present a scaling law for the backscattered photon spectral density which facilitates averaging over electro...

  15. Beam-shape effects in nonlinear Compton and Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss intensity effects in collisions between beams of optical photons from a high-power laser and relativistic electrons. Our main focus is on the modifications of the emission spectra due to realistic finite-beam geometries. By carefully analyzing the classical limit we precisely quantify the distinction between strong-field QED Compton scattering and classical Thomson scattering. A purely classical, but fully covariant, calculation of the bremsstrahlung emitted by an electron in a plane-wave laser field yields radiation into harmonics, as expected. This result is generalized to pulses of finite duration and explains the appearance of line broadening and harmonic substructure as an interference phenomenon. The ensuing numerical treatment confirms that strong focusing of the laser leads to a broad continuum while higher harmonics become visible only at moderate focusing, and hence lower intensity. We present a scaling law for the backscattered photon spectral density which facilitates averaging over electron beam phase space. Finally, we propose a set of realistic parameters such that the observation of intensity-induced spectral red shift, higher harmonics, and their substructure becomes feasible.

  16. Generation of Homogeneous and Patterned Electron Beams using a Microlens Array Laser-Shaping Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, Aliaksei [NICADD, DeKalb; Edstrom, Dean [Fermilab; Gai, Wei [Argonne, HEP; Ha, Gwanghui [Argonne, HEP; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Power, John [Argonne, HEP; Qiang, Gao [Unlisted, CN; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab; Santucci, James [Fermilab; Wisniewski, Eric [Argonne, HEP

    2016-06-01

    In photocathodes the achievable electron-beam parameters are controlled by the laser used to trigger the photoemission process. Non-ideal laser distribution hampers the final beam quality. Laser inhomogeneities, for instance, can be "amplified" by space-charge force and result in fragmented electron beams. To overcome this limitation laser shaping methods are routinely employed. In the present paper we demonstrate the use of simple microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity. We also show that this arrangement can be used to produce transversely-patterned electron beams. Our experiments are carried out at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator facility.

  17. Adjustable mounting device for high-volume production of beam-shaping systems for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Sebastian; Bernhardt, Henning; Rübenach, Olaf; Haverkamp, Tobias; Müller, Tobias; Zontar, Daniel; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In many applications for high-power diode lasers, the production of beam-shaping and homogenizing optical systems experience rising volumes and dynamical market demands. The automation of assembly processes on flexible and reconfigurable machines can contribute to a more responsive and scalable production. The paper presents a flexible mounting device designed for the challenging assembly of side-tab based optical systems. It provides design elements for precisely referencing and fixating two optical elements in a well-defined geometric relation. Side tabs are presented to the machine allowing the application of glue and a rotating mechanism allows the attachment to the optical elements. The device can be adjusted to fit different form factors and it can be used in high-volume assembly machines. The paper shows the utilization of the device for a collimation module consisting of a fast-axis and a slow-axis collimation lens. Results regarding the repeatability and process capability of bonding side tab assemblies as well as estimates from 3D simulation for overall performance indicators achieved such as cycle time and throughput will be discussed.

  18. Numerical optimization approaches of single-pulse conduction laser welding by beam shape tailoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, J.; Kaplan, A. F. H.; Shachaf, L.; Brodsky, A.; Kong, C.; Blackburn, J.; Assuncao, E.; Quintino, L.

    2016-04-01

    While circular laser beams are usually applied in laser welding, for certain applications tailoring of the laser beam shape, e.g. by diffractive optical elements, can optimize the process. A case where overlap conduction mode welding should be used to produce a C-shaped joint was studied. For the dimensions studied in this paper, the weld joint deviated significantly from the C-shape of the single-pulse laser beam. Because of the complex heat flow interactions, the process requires optimization. Three approaches for extracting quantitative indicators for understanding the essential heat flow contributions process and for optimizing the C-shape of the weld and of the laser beam were studied and compared. While integral energy properties through a control volume and temperature gradients at key locations only partially describe the heat flow behaviour, the geometrical properties of the melt pool isotherm proved to be the most reliable method for optimization. While pronouncing the C-ends was not sufficient, an additional enlargement of the laser beam produced the desired C-shaped weld joint. The approach is analysed and the potential for generalization is discussed.

  19. Effect of shape of elastic beam hair on its adhesion with wavy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemthavy, Pasomphone; Yazaki, Takehiko; Wang, Boqing; Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio

    2014-08-01

    An analysis on a tapered elastic beam whose side surface partially adhered to a rigid surface was carried out to study the effect of the beam shape on the gripping force. Considering the total energy of the system, the relation between the gripping force and the displacement was obtained analytically in closed form. The analytical result is significant because it provides an intuitive picture of the gripping force. Although, an individually tapered beam can generate less gripping force for flat or slightly wavy surfaces, compared to a rectangular beam, the analysis result suggests that the tapered beam has more ability to absorb surface waviness. This result can be applied to a multi-beam structure.

  20. Cold field emission dominated photoconductivity in ordered three-dimensional assemblies of octapod-shaped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, especially their ordered assemblies, are promising materials for various applications. In this paper, we investigate the photoconductive behavior of sub-micron size, ordered three-dimensional (3D) assemblies of octapod-shaped CdSe/CdS nanocrystals that are contacted by overlay electron-beam lithography. The regular structure of the assemblies leads to photocurrent-voltage curves that can be described by the cold field electron emission model. Mapping of the photoconductivity versus excitation wavelength and bias voltage allows the extraction of the band gap and identification of the photoactive region in the voltage and spectral domain. These results have important implications for the understanding of photoconductive transport in similar systems. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Shaped beam scattering from a single lymphocyte cell by generalized Lorenz-Mie theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia Jie; Han, Lu; Han, Yi Ping; Gouesbet, Gerard; Wu, Xuecheng; Wu, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    With the aim of improving the measurement capabilities of laser-based diagnostic instruments for cells, an eccentric stratified dielectric sphere model illuminated by an arbitrary shaped beam is applied to the modeling of light scattering by a single nucleated cell within the framework of the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT). A particular attention is paid to the study of scattering properties of a lymphocyte cell from an arbitrary incident Gaussian beam. Numerical results concerning the influence of shaped beam parameters (beam waist radius, incident angle, location of beam center) as well as of cellular parameters (ratio of nucleus size to cell size, location of the nucleus within the cell) on the scattering properties are presented and discussed, with comparisons to the scattering behaviors from a concentric stratified sphere model. The results reveal that the forward scattering intensities are mainly determined by the cell size regardless of the nucleus/cell ratio, while sideward scattering signals are sensitive to the change of cell internal structure. As the beam waist radius varies, the scattering patterns in the present cases are similar to each other, although the absolute intensities are different. Additionally, location of the nucleus within the cell, incident angle of the beam as well as location of the beam waist center play significant effects on the light scattering intensity distributions.

  2. Load carrying capacity of RCC beams by replacing steel reinforcement bars with shape memory alloy bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoria, Kamal M.; Kaduskar, Shreya S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper the structural behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) beams with smart rebars under two point loading system has been numerically studied, using Finite Element Method. The material used in this study is Super-elastic Shape Memory Alloys (SE SMAs) which contains nickel and titanium. In this study, different quantities of steel and SMA rebars have been used for reinforcement and the behavior of these models under two point bending loading system is studied. A comparison of load carrying capacity for the model between steel reinforced concrete beam and the beam reinforced with S.M.A and steel are performed. The results show that RC beams reinforced with combination of shape memory alloy and steel show better performance.

  3. Actuator Location and Voltages Optimization for Shape Control of Smart Beams Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios E. Stavroulakis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical study on optimal voltages and optimal placement of piezoelectric actuators for shape control of beam structures. A finite element model, based on Timoshenko beam theory, is developed to characterize the behavior of the structure and the actuators. This model accounted for the electromechanical coupling in the entire beam structure, due to the fact that the piezoelectric layers are treated as constituent parts of the entire structural system. A hybrid scheme is presented based on great deluge and genetic algorithm. The hybrid algorithm is implemented to calculate the optimal locations and optimal values of voltages, applied to the piezoelectric actuators glued in the structure, which minimize the error between the achieved and the desired shape. Results from numerical simulations demonstrate the capabilities and efficiency of the developed optimization algorithm in both clamped−free and clamped−clamped beam problems are presented.

  4. Precision shape modification of nanodevices with a low-energy electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex; Yuzvinsky, Thomas David; Fennimore, Adam

    2010-03-09

    Methods of shape modifying a nanodevice by contacting it with a low-energy focused electron beam are disclosed here. In one embodiment, a nanodevice may be permanently reformed to a different geometry through an application of a deforming force and a low-energy focused electron beam. With the addition of an assist gas, material may be removed from the nanodevice through application of the low-energy focused electron beam. The independent methods of shape modification and material removal may be used either individually or simultaneously. Precision cuts with accuracies as high as 10 nm may be achieved through the use of precision low-energy Scanning Electron Microscope scan beams. These methods may be used in an automated system to produce nanodevices of very precise dimensions. These methods may be used to produce nanodevices of carbon-based, silicon-based, or other compositions by varying the assist gas.

  5. Bending nanofibers into nanospirals: coordination chemistry as a tool for shaping hydrophobic assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoy, Elizaveta; Weissman, Haim; Rybtchinski, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In the current work, we demonstrate how coordination chemistry can be employed to direct self-assembly based on strong hydrophobic interactions. To investigate the influence of coordination sphere geometry on aqueous self-assembly, we synthesized complexes of the amphiphilic perylene diimide terpyridine ligand with the first-row transition-metal centers (zinc, cobalt, and nickel). In aqueous medium, aggregation of these complexes is induced by hydrophobic interactions between the ligands. However, the final shapes of the resulting assemblies depend on the preferred geometry of the coordination spheres typical for the particular metal center. The self-assembly process was characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Coordination of zinc(II) and cobalt(II) leads to the formation of unique nanospiral assemblies, whereas complexation of nickel(II) leads to the formation of straight nanofibers. Notably, coordination bonds are utilized not as connectors between elementary building blocks, but as directing interactions, enabling control over supramolecular geometry.

  6. Shaping the electron beams with submicrosecond pulse duration in sources and electron accelerators with plasma emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Gushenets, V I

    2001-01-01

    One studies the techniques in use to shape submicrosecond electron beams and the physical processes associated with extraction of electrons from plasma in plasma emitters. Plasma emitter base sources and accelerators enable to generate pulse beams with currents varying from tens of amperes up to 10 sup 3 A, with current densities up to several amperes per a square centimeter, with pulse duration constituting hundreds of nanoseconds and with high frequencies of repetition

  7. Coupling Impedances of Azimuthally Symmetric Obstacles of Semi-Elliptical Shape in a Beam Pipe

    CERN Document Server

    Gluckstern, R L; Gluckstern, Robert L.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.

    1996-01-01

    The beam coupling impedances of small axisymmetric obstacles having a semi-elliptical cross section along the beam in the vacuum chamber of an accelerator are calculated at frequencies for which the wavelength is large compared to a typical size of the obstacle. Analytical results are obtained for both the irises and the cavities with such a shape which allow simple estimates of their broad-band impedances.

  8. Low Velocity Impact Response Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Composite Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yongdong; ZHONG Weifang; WU Guorong; ZOU Jing

    2005-01-01

    The low velocity impact responses of shape memory alloy ( SMA ) reinforced composite beams were analyzed by employing the finite element method. The finite element dynamic equation was solved by the Newmark direct integration method, the impact contact force was determined using the Hertzian contact law, and the influence of SMA fibers on stiffness matrix is studied. Numerical results show that the SMA fibers can effectively improve the low velocity impact response property of composite beam.

  9. Ring beam shaping optics fabricated with ultra-precision cutting for YAG laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwano, Ryoichi; Koga, Toshihiko; Tokunaga, Tsuyoshi; Wakayama, Toshitaka; Otani, Yukitoshi; Fujii, Nobuyuki

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a method for generating ring intensity distribution at a refraction-type lens with an aspheric element was proposed, and the beam shaping optical element was finished using only ultra-precision cutting. The shape of the optical element and its irradiance pattern were determined from numerical calculation based on its geometrical and physical optics. An ultra-precision lathe was employed to fabricate beam shaping optical elements, and acrylic resin was used as the material. The transmittance of an optical element (a rotationally symmetrical body) with an aspheric surface fabricated using a single-crystal diamond tool was over 98%, and its surface roughness was 9.6 nm Ra. The method enabled the formation of a circular melting zone on a piece of stainless steel with a thickness of 300 μm through pulse YAG laser ( λ 1:06 μm) processing such that the average radius was 610 μm and the width was 100-200 μm. Circular processing using a ring beam shaping optical element can be realized by single-pulse beam irradiation without beam scanning.

  10. Photonic crystal waveguides by direct writing of e-beam on self-assembled photonic crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Kedia; R Vijaya

    2011-04-01

    Direct electron beam lithography technique is used for writing a variety of waveguide structures on thin films of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and self-assembled three-dimensionally ordered photonic crystals made up of PMMA colloidal spheres. The waveguide structures fabricated on both these type of samples are characterized by scanning electron microscope and optical microscope images.

  11. DESIGN OF A SHAPED BEAM BASE STATION ANTENNA USING GENETIC ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ying; Bu Antao; Gong Shuxi; Shen Zongzhen; Xiao Liangyong

    2003-01-01

    Genetic algorithm is used to optimize a base station antenna in order to achieve a shaped beam in a frequency band. During the optimization process, different antenna models have been evaluated using the Method of Moment (MoM). As a result of this optimization, a shaped beam antenna with suppressed sidelobe smaller than -18dB, backlobe smaller than -30dB and filled null point larger than -15dB is achieved. The proposed method is closer to reality compared with previous methods and can be used to optimize complicated antennas. The result is very useful for engineering and theoretical analysis.

  12. Proton beam shaped by "particle lens" formed by laser-driven hot electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, S. H.; Shen, B. F.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, H.; He, S. K.; Lu, F.; Zhang, F. Q.; Deng, Z. G.; Dong, K. G.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhou, K. N.; Xie, N.; Wang, X. D.; Zhang, L. G.; Huang, S.; Liu, H. J.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhang, B. H.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2016-05-01

    Two-dimensional tailoring of a proton beam is realized by a "particle lens" in our experiment. A large quantity of electrons, generated by an intense femtosecond laser irradiating a polymer target, produces an electric field strong enough to change the trajectory and distribution of energetic protons flying through the electron area. The experiment shows that a strip pattern of the proton beam appears when hot electrons initially converge inside the plastic plate. Then the shape of the proton beam changes to a "fountain-like" pattern when these hot electrons diffuse after propagating a distance.

  13. Combining modular ligation and supramolecular self-assembly for the construction of star-shaped macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ozcan; Muller, Thierry; Lejeune, Elise; Plietzsch, Oliver; Bräse, Stefan; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2012-06-14

    A well-defined random copolymer of styrene (S) and chloromethylstyrene (CMS) featuring lateral chlorine moieties with an alkyne terminal group is prepared (P(S-co-CMS), M(n) = 5500 Da, PDI = 1.13). The chloromethyl groups are converted into Hamilton wedge (HW) entities (P(S-co-HWS), M(n) = 6200 Da, PDI = 1.13). The P(S-co-HWS) polymer is subsequently ligated with tetrakis(4-azidophenyl)methane to give HW-functional star-shaped macromolecules (P(S-co-HWS))(4), M(n) = 25,100 Da, PDI = 1.08). Supramolecular star-shaped copolymers are then prepared via self-assembly between the HW-functionalized four-arm star-shaped macromolecules (P(S-co-HW))(4) and cyanuric acid (CA) end-functionalized PS (PS-CA, M(n) = 3700 Da, PDI = 1.04), CA end-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA-CA, M(n) = 8500 Da, PDI = 1.13) and CA end-functionalized polyethylene glycol (PEG-CA, M(n) = 1700 Da, PDI = 1.05). The self-assembly is monitored by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and light scattering analyses.

  14. Shape-controlled synthesis of cubic-like selenium nanoparticles via the self-assembly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luesakul, Urarika; Komenek, Seamkwan; Puthong, Songchan; Muangsin, Nongnuj

    2016-11-20

    The ability to control the morphology of nanoparticles by molecular design and synthesis is gaining increasing attention for achieving improved unique properties. In this work, we designed the chemical structure of a stabilizer for controlling the shape of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) via a self-assembly process. When folic acid-gallic acid-N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (FA-GA-TMC) was used as a stabilizer, SeNPs were observed to self-organize into cubic-like structures with an average size of approximately 300nm. In contrast to the product obtained when unmodified chitosan was used as a stabilizer, this method resulted in spherical shape with an average size of approximately 200nm. The data suggested that the cubic-like SeNPs were controlled by a combination of electrostatic interaction, π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding between neighboring particles. Furthermore, the cubic-like SeNPs exhibited good anticancer efficacy and cellular uptake against breast cancer cells while exhibiting low toxicity against normal cells. These data demonstrates a simple approach for the shape-controlled synthesis of cubic-like SeNPs for biological applications via the self-assembly method. PMID:27561515

  15. 21 CFR 892.5710 - Radiation therapy beam-shaping block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy beam-shaping block. 892.5710 Section 892.5710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5710 Radiation therapy...

  16. Non-ideal assembly of the driving unit affecting shape of load-displacement curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of nanoindentation testing strongly rely on load-displacement curves, but an abnormal load-displacement curve with obvious inflection in the unloading portion was commonly observed in previously published papers and the reason is not clear. In this paper, possible reasons involved in a custom-made indentation instrument, such as sensors, control and assembly issues, are analyzed and discussed step by step. Experimental results indicate that non-ideal assembly of the precision driving unit strongly affects the shape of the load-displacement curve and its affecting mechanism is studied by theoretical analysis and finite element simulations. This paper reveals the reason leading to the abnormal load-displacement curve, which is helpful for debugging of indentation instruments and can enhance comparability of indentation results. (paper)

  17. Single-Beam Coherent Raman Spectroscopy and Microscopy via Spectral Notch Shaping

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Ori; Grinvald, Eran; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is one of the key techniques in the study of vibrational modes and molecular structures. In Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) spectroscopy, a molecular vibrational spectrum is resolved via the third-order nonlinear interaction of pump, Stokes and probe photons, typically using a complex experimental setup with multiple beams and laser sources. Although CARS has become a widespread technique for label-free chemical imaging and detection of contaminants, its multi-source, multi-beam experimental implementation is challenging. In this work we present a simple and easily implementable scheme for performing single-beam CARS spectroscopy and microscopy using a single femtosecond pulse, shaped by a tunable narrowband notch filter. As a substitute for multiple sources, the single broadband pulse simultaneously provides the pump, Stokes and probe photons, exciting a broad band of vibrational levels. High spectroscopic resolution is obtained by utilizing a tunable spectral notch, shaped wi...

  18. Constructal optimization of twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins by taking maximum thermal resistance minimization as objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,constructal optimization of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins with six freedom degrees (characteristic parameters of geometry) is performed by employing finite element method and taking dimensionless maximum thermal resistance as a performance index,and the heat transfer performance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins under various conditions with different freedom degrees are analyzed. The results show that the twice assemblies can improve the heat transfer performance of Y-shaped fin remarkably,and the minimum maximum thermal resistance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins decreases by 36.37% compared with that of once Y-shaped assembly of fins. It is also proved again that the larger the number of freedom degrees for evolving is,the more perfect the system performance is. The effects of different characteristic parameters of geometry on the performance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins are different,one should pay different attention to these parameters in practical engineering designs. The effects of two angles on the maximum thermal resistance are larger,but the optima of the two angles are robust. The effects of two height ratios on the maximum thermal resistance are more remarkable than those of two thickness ratios.

  19. Experience on Fabrication and Assembly of the First CLIC Two-Beam Module Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Gudkov, D; Riddone, G; Rossi, F; Lebet, S

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC two-beam module prototypes are intended to prove the design of all technical systems under the different operation modes. Two validation programs are currently under way and they foresee the construction of four prototype modules for mechanical tests without beam and three prototype modules for tests with RF and beam. The program without beam will show the capability of the technical solutions proposed to fulfil the stringent requirements on radio-frequency, supporting, pre-alignment, stabilization, vacuum and cooling systems. The engineering design was performed with the use of CAD/CAE software. Dedicated mock-ups of RF structures, with all mechanical interfaces and chosen technical solutions, are used for the tests and therefore reliable results are expected. The components were fabricated by applying different technologies and methods for manufacturing and joining. The first full-size prototype module was assembled in 2012. This paper is focused on the production process including the comparison o...

  20. Single and dual-Gregorian reflector antenna shaped beam far-field synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, M. J.

    The direct far-field G.O. synthesis of shaped beam reflector antennas has recently been treated by Mehler, Tun and Adatia (1986). These authors use a synthesis technique which exploits complex coordinates and which is based on a method originally considered by Norris and Westcott (1976). They describe the synthesis of single reflector antennas which radiate both elliptical beams and European coverage patterns. Here this technique is extended to consider a class of dual reflector antennas which possess shaped main reflectors and conic subreflectors. An example is given of a Gregorian duel reflector antenna which radiates a cross-polar field significantly smaller than that radiated by single shaped reflector antennas. In addition, the behavior of the radiation pattern as a function of the reflector diameter is investigated.

  1. Laser driven self-assembly of shape-controlled potassium nanoparticles in porous glass

    CERN Document Server

    Marmugi, L; Burchianti, A; Veronesi, S; Moi, L; Marinelli, C

    2014-01-01

    We observe growth of shape-controlled potassium nanoparticles inside a random network of glass nanopores, exposed to low-power laser radiation. Visible laser light plays a dual role: it increases the desorption probability of potassium atoms from the inner glass walls and induces the self-assembly of metastable metallic nanoparticles along the nanopores. By probing the sample transparency and the atomic light-induced desorption flux into the vapour phase, the dynamics of both cluster formation/evaporation and atomic photo-desorption processes are characterized. Results indicate that laser light not only increases the number of nanoparticles embedded in the glass matrix but also influences their structural properties. By properly choosing the laser frequency and the illumination time, we demonstrate that it is possible to tailor the nanoparticles'shape distribution. Furthermore, a deep connection between the macroscopic behaviour of atomic desorption and light-assisted cluster formation is observed. Our result...

  2. A simple counter-flow cooling system for a supersonic free-jet beam source assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, M.; Fahy, A.; Martens, J.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2016-05-01

    A simple design for an inexpensive, cooled, free-jet beam source is described. The source assembly features an integrated cooling system as supplied by a counter-flow of chilled nitrogen, and is composed primarily of off-the-shelf tube fittings. The design facilitates rapid implementation and eases subsequent alignment with respect to any downstream beamline aperture. The source assembly outlined cools the full length of the stagnation volume, offering temperature control down to 100 K and long-term temperature stability better than ±1 K.

  3. Beam splitter for guided polar molecules with a Y-shaped charged wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping

    2007-06-15

    We propose a beam splitter for cold polar molecules in weak-field-seeking states that uses a Y-shaped charged wire half embedded in a substrate and sandwiched by a charged metallic parallel-plate capacitor. We demonstrate our molecular-beam splitter and study its dynamic beam-splitting process for the guided cold molecules by using Monte Carlo simulation. Our study shows that cold polar molecules from a supersonic beam source with a mean velocity of a few hundred meters per second can be split with a fixed 0.5/0.5 splitting ratio, and an adjustable splitting ratio of about 0.03-0.97 can be realized by introducing a small alteration to the scheme.

  4. Tunable Shape Memory Performances via Multilayer Assembly of Thermoplastic Polyurethane and Polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Renqiong; Shen, Jiabin; Guo, Shaoyun

    2016-01-20

    Shape memory materials containing alternating layers of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were fabricated through layer-multiplying extrusion. As a type of special co-continuous morphology, the multilayer structure had stable and well-defined continuous layer spaces and could be controlled by changing the number of layers. Compared with conventional polymer blends, the multilayer-assembled system with the same compositions had higher shape-fixing and -recovery ratios that could be further improved by increasing the number of layers. By analyzing from a viscoelastic model, the deformation energy preserved in elastic TPU layers would be balanced by adjacent PCL layers through interfacial shearing effect so that each component in the multilayer structure was capable of endowing the maximum contribution to both of the shape-fixing and -recovery stages. Besides, the influence of the hardness of TPU layers and the morphology of PCL layers were respectively concerned as well. Results revealed that choosing low-hardness TPU or replacing neat PCL layers by TPU/PCL blend with co-continuous morphology were beneficial to achieving outstanding shape memory performances. PMID:26713358

  5. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-05-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials.

  6. Tunable Shape Memory Performances via Multilayer Assembly of Thermoplastic Polyurethane and Polycaprolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Dong, Renqiong; Shen, Jiabin; Guo, Shaoyun

    2016-01-20

    Shape memory materials containing alternating layers of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polycaprolactone (PCL) were fabricated through layer-multiplying extrusion. As a type of special co-continuous morphology, the multilayer structure had stable and well-defined continuous layer spaces and could be controlled by changing the number of layers. Compared with conventional polymer blends, the multilayer-assembled system with the same compositions had higher shape-fixing and -recovery ratios that could be further improved by increasing the number of layers. By analyzing from a viscoelastic model, the deformation energy preserved in elastic TPU layers would be balanced by adjacent PCL layers through interfacial shearing effect so that each component in the multilayer structure was capable of endowing the maximum contribution to both of the shape-fixing and -recovery stages. Besides, the influence of the hardness of TPU layers and the morphology of PCL layers were respectively concerned as well. Results revealed that choosing low-hardness TPU or replacing neat PCL layers by TPU/PCL blend with co-continuous morphology were beneficial to achieving outstanding shape memory performances.

  7. Animal Hairs as Water-stimulated Shape Memory Materials: Mechanism and Structural Networks in Molecular Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xueliang; Hu, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Animal hairs consisting of α-keratin biopolymers existing broadly in nature may be responsive to water for recovery to the innate shape from their fixed deformation, thus possess smart behavior, namely shape memory effect (SME). In this article, three typical animal hair fibers were first time investigated for their water-stimulated SME, and therefrom to identify the corresponding net-points and switches in their molecular and morphological structures. Experimentally, the SME manifested a good stability of high shape fixation ratio and reasonable recovery rate after many cycles of deformation programming under water stimulation. The effects of hydration on hair lateral size, recovery kinetics, dynamic mechanical behaviors and structural components (crystal, disulfide and hydrogen bonds) were then systematically studied. SME mechanisms were explored based on the variations of structural components in molecular assemblies of such smart fibers. A hybrid structural network model with single-switch and twin-net-points was thereafter proposed to interpret the water-stimulated shape memory mechanism of animal hairs. This original work is expected to provide inspiration for exploring other natural materials to reveal their smart functions and natural laws in animals including human as well as making more remarkable synthetic smart materials. PMID:27230823

  8. Shaping of intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam and production of accelerated molecules and radicals in it

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, G N

    2001-01-01

    The method is described for shaping the intensive secondary pulsed molecular beam, wherein the molecules kinetic energy may be controlled through the powerful IR laser radiation by means of the molecules oscillatory excitation in the source itself. The thickening jump (the shock wave), which is formed by interaction of the intensive pulsed supersonic molecular beam (or flux) with a solid surface, is used as the secondary beam source. The intensive (>= 10 sup 2 sup 0 molecules/stere. s) beams of the SF sub 6 and CF sub 3 I molecules with the kinetic energy correspondingly equal to approximately 1.5 eV and 1.2 eV without gas-carrier and molecular SF sub 6 beams with kinetic energy approx = 2.5 eV are obtained. The spectral and energy characteristics of the SF sub 6 molecules acceleration in the secondary beam are studied. The possibility of obtaining the accelerated radicals in the secondary molecular beam is indicated

  9. Transverse Laser Beam Shaping in High Brightness Electron Gun at ATF

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, S

    2005-01-01

    The brightness of electron beams from a photo injector is influenced by the transverse and longitudinal distribution of the laser beam illuminating the cathode. Previous studies at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility have shown that formation of an ideal e-beam with lowest transverse emittance requires uniform circular distribution of the emitted electrons. The use of the uniformly distributed power of the laser beam may not lead to that of the emitted electrons because of the non-uniform quantum efficiency. A proper shaping of the laser beam can compensate for this non-uniformity. In this paper we describe the use of digital light processing (DLP) technique based on digital mirror device (DMD) for spatial modulation of the laser beam, for measurements of the quantum efficiency map, and for creating the desirable e-beam density profiles. A DMD is aμelectronic mechanical system (MEMS) comprising of millions of highly reflectiveμmirrors controlled by underlying electronics. We present exper...

  10. Loss of stability and possible bending shape of WWER-1000 fuel assemblies guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper defines the critical value of compressive force and the corresponding possible bending shapes of WWER-1000 fuel assemblies guide tubes resulting from loss of stability during operation. The guide tubes are considered as the long rods that are bent due to the loss of stability under the longitudinal compressive force. The three design schemes of the guide tubes fixations with the fuel assembly top and bottom nozzles corresponding to the motionless and sliding cylindrical joints and rigid fixations are considered in this paper. The minimal values of the guide tubes critical compressive force correspondent to loss of stability are obtained as 1.87 MPa for the both edges cylindrical joints fixing, 3.83 MPa for the cylindrical joint fixing of the one edge and the rigid fixing of the another edge, 7.49 MPa for the both edges rigid fixing. The relatively small values of the critical compressive force show that the shape of guide tube bent due to loss of stability can include several bending points leading to increased time for drop of absorber element cluster to the core bottom and incompliance with reactor normal operation conditions.

  11. High-throughput SHAPE and hydroxyl radical analysis of RNA structure and ribonucleoprotein assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Jennifer L; Duncan, Caia D S; Weeks, Kevin M

    2009-01-01

    RNA folds to form complex structures vital to many cellular functions. Proteins facilitate RNA folding at both the secondary and tertiary structure levels. An absolute prerequisite for understanding RNA folding and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) assembly reactions is a complete understanding of the RNA structure at each stage of the folding or assembly process. Here we provide a guide for comprehensive and high-throughput analysis of RNA secondary and tertiary structure using SHAPE and hydroxyl radical footprinting. As an example of the strong and sometimes surprising conclusions that can emerge from high-throughput analysis of RNA folding and RNP assembly, we summarize the structure of the bI3 group I intron RNA in four distinct states. Dramatic structural rearrangements occur in both secondary and tertiary structure as the RNA folds from the free state to the active, six-component, RNP complex. As high-throughput and high-resolution approaches are applied broadly to large protein-RNA complexes, other proteins previously viewed as making simple contributions to RNA folding are also likely to be found to exert multifaceted, long-range, cooperative, and nonadditive effects on RNA folding. These protein-induced contributions add another level of control, and potential regulatory function, in RNP complexes.

  12. Heuristics comparison for u-shaped assembly line balancing in the apparel factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuchsara Kriengkorakot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent year, many industries have adopted a Just-in-time (JIT approach to manufacturing. One of the important changes resulting from JIT implementation is the replacement of the traditional straight lines with Ushaped assembly lines. The important characteristic of these new configurations is that multiskilled workers perform various tasks of different stations along the production line. This research is to improve the assembly line balancing in apparel factory in case study of T-shirt style 53287. The efficiency of production line was 55.48%, the factory balanced line with the traditional method in straight line. Then, the u-shaped assembly line balancing problem (UALBP is to be performed instead of straight line. By using the heuristics of Maximum Task Time, Minimum Task Time, Maximum Ranked Positional Weight (RPWmax and Greedy Randomized to determine the optimal solutions related to the number of stations and line efficiency. The results indicate that two heuristics have given the good solution which have produced by the use of Maximum Task Time and Greedy Randomized. The minimum number of stations have reduced from 17 stations to 11 stations in UALB and the line efficiency was increased from 55.48% to 85.75%. The U-line configuration frequently improves the line efficiency and has fewer work stations compared to the traditional lines.

  13. Laser forming of a bowl shaped surface with a stationary laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shitanshu Shekhar; More, Harshit; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Despite a lot of research done in the field of laser forming, generation of a symmetric bowl shaped surface by this process is still a challenge mainly because only a portion of the sheet is momentarily deformed in this process, unlike conventional sheet metal forming like deep drawing where the entire blank undergoes forming simultaneously reducing asymmetry to a minimum. The motion of laser beam also makes the process asymmetric. To counter these limitations this work proposes a new approach for laser forming of a bowl shaped surface by irradiating the centre of a flat circular blank with a stationary laser beam. With high power lasers, power density sufficient for laser forming, can be availed at reasonably large spot sizes. This advantage is exploited in this technique. Effects of duration of laser irradiation and beam spot diameter on the amount of bending and asymmetry in the formed surface were investigated. Laser power was kept constant while varying irradiation time. While varying laser spot diameter laser power was chosen so as to keep the surface temperature nearly constant at just below melting. Experimental conditions promoted almost uniform heating through sheet thickness. The amount of bending increased with irradiation time and spot diameter. It was interesting to observe that blanks bent towards the laser beam for smaller laser beam diameters and the reverse happened for larger spot diameters (~10 times of the sheet thickness). Effect of spot diameter variation has been explained with the help of coupled thermal-structural finite element simulations.

  14. Aqueous Self-Assembly of Non-Ionic Bottlebrush Block Copolymer Surfactants with Tunable Molecular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzayev, Javid

    2015-03-01

    Polymer amphiphiles provide a robust and versatile platform for the fabrication of nanostructured soft matter. In this research, we explore a new class of polymer surfactants based on comb-like bottlebrush architecture as highly tunable molecular building blocks for aqueous self-assembly. Excluded volume interactions between densely grafted polymer side chains in the bottlebrush architecture are alleviated by backbone stretching, which leads to the formation of shape-persistent cylindrical macromolecules whose molecular dimensions can be precisely tailored during chemical synthesis. Amphiphilic bottlebrush block copolymers containing hydrophobic polylactide (PLA) and hydrophilic poly(oligoethylene oxide methacrylate) (PEO) side chains of various lengths were synthesized by a combination of controlled radical and ring-opening polymerizations. In dilute aqueous solutions, bottlebrush surfactants rapidly assembled into spherical, cylindrical and bilayer aggregates, as visualized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Depending on the compositional side chain asymmetry, the formation of spherical micelles with different sizes and dispersities was observed. The molecular shape-dependent assembly was analyzed with help of a packing parameter (p) computed from the molecular composition data akin to small molecule surfactants, with most uniform spherical aggregates observed for bottlebrush amphiphiles with p close to 0.3. The formation of highly uniform micelles and the presence of a rich morphological diagram with relatively narrow compositional windows were attributed to the lack of conformational freedom in bottlebrush surfactants. Similarly, the unusual formation of cylindrical micelles with long aspect ratios for such high molecular weight amphiphiles was attributed to their inability to stabilize morphological defects, such as Y-junctions, with large deviations from mean curvature. Financial support for this work was provided by the National

  15. Synthesis and self-assembly of reactive H-shaped block copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZOU; Caiyuan PAN

    2008-01-01

    The H-shaped block copolymers (PTMSPMA)2-PEG(PMPSTMSPMA)2 with two compositions, (EG)91-b-(TMSPMA)92 and (EG)455-b-(TMSPMA)176 have been successfully synthesized by atom transfer radical polymer-ization (ATRP) of tri(methoxylsilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMSPMA) at room temperature in methanol. The ini-tiation system applied was composed of 2,2-bis(methylene α-bromoisobutyrate)propionyl terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (Br2PEGBr2) with Mn= 4000 or 20000, CuBr and 2,2'-bipyridine. The macroinitiator, Br2PEGBr2, was pre-pared by the reaction of two hydroxyl groups terminated PEG with 2,2-bis(methylene α-bromoisobutyrate)propionyl chloride. The NMR spectroscopy and GPC measurements were used to characterize the structure and molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the resultant copolymers. The H-shaped block copolymers Sam 1 and Sam 2 were self-assembled in DMF/water mixtures and then the trimethoxysilyl groups in PTMSPMA were cross-linked by condensation reaction in the presence of triethylamine. Stable large-compound vesicles with 10 nm diameter of cavities were formed for Sam 1 which contains a short PEG chain. However, the self-assembling of the Sam 2 in the selective solvents resulted in big vesicles aggre-gates. These two different morphologies of aggregates are attributed to their relative chain length of water soluble PEG. The vesicles formed from Saml with short PEG chains have big surface energy which will lead them to self-assemble further, forming large-compound vesicles.

  16. Application of nondiffracting Bessel beams for shaping of surface metal microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drampyan, Rafael; Leonov, Nikita; Vartanyan, Tigran

    2016-08-01

    A novel method of laser-controlled shaping of metal microstructures based on the processes of metal atoms adsorption on the surface of crystalline substrate and simultaneous control of photostimulated desorption of atoms by spatially modulated nondiffracting laser beam illumination is presented. The experiments were performed for sodium atoms deposition to the sapphire substrate, which was illuminated by Bessel beam at 532 nm wavelength and 2 W/cm2 intensity. Experiments showed that the optical pattern was well reproduced in the sodium deposits thus creating the annularly microstructured metal film with few tens nanometre thickness.

  17. Efficient pump beam shaping for high-power thin-disk laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui; Weichelt, Birgit; Liang, Dawei; Morais, Paulo J; Gouveia, Helena; Abdou-Ahmed, Marwan; Voss, Andreas; Graf, Thomas

    2010-09-20

    We report a beam-shaping technique whereby the output power from a high-power laser-diode stack is efficiently coupled, reconfigured, and transmitted to a thin-disk laser by means of a compact optical fiber bundle. By using this technique, the power density is increased by a factor of 2 when compared to direct coupling with a octagonal fused silica rod while the numerical aperture is kept constant. Transmission efficiency of 80% was measured for the beam shaper without antireflection coating. The top-hat distribution is numerically calculated at the thin-disk laser crystal.

  18. High brightness beam shaping and fiber coupling of laser-diode bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Tan, Hao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong; Zhang, Kai

    2015-04-10

    The strong beam quality mismatch in the fast and slow axes of laser-diode bars requires a significant beam shaping method to reach the parameters needed for fiber coupling. An effective solution to this problem is proposed that is based on a right-angle prism array and a distributed cylinder-lens stack. Coupling 12 mini-bars into a standard 100 μm core diameter and 0.15 numerical aperture fiber is achieved, and the output power can reach 400 W. Using this technique, production of compact and high brightness fiber-coupled laser-diode modules is possible.

  19. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  20. Beam shaping concepts for kW-class CW and QCW diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Andreas; Fassbender, Willhelm; Müntz, Holger; Köhler, Bernd; Biesenbach, Jens

    2016-03-01

    In modern diode lasers beam shaping of the highly asymmetric laser beam, which exits the front facet of the semiconductor laser material, is a crucial step towards cost efficient high brightness laser modules which in turn can be further combined towards kW-class diode lasers and can be efficiently fiber coupled. In order to scale up the power of a single laser module in an economic way, high fill factor laser bars are employed. The increased power density from such a laser bar requires improved cooling technologies. On the other hand the increased fill factor of the bar makes advanced beam shaping necessary to be able to achieve small focal spot sizes and couple the laser module efficiently into optical fibers. Finally, to be able to mass produce the laser modules, it is desirable to design the module in a way that allows automated packaging and optics alignment. In this talk, the beam shaping concepts developed at DILAS for high fill factor bars are presented. Starting from optical simulation and choice of optical elements the laser modules incorporating these bars are presented. The concepts developed enable very compact laser modules of up to 2kW of power at a single wavelength with beam qualities of less than 40mm x mrad. Optionally these modules can be wavelength stabilized via external feedback. The packaging technology developed enables the automated alignment of the optics and cooling is DI-water free. Based on the same concepts very compact free space and fiber coupled QCW packages are presented as well.

  1. Beam-shaping via femtosecond laser-modified optical fibre end faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, A.; Polis, M.; Lacraz, A.; Theodosiou, A.; Kalli, K.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of investigations regarding laser micro-structuring of single mode optical fibres by direct access of the fibre end face and compare this with inscription in planar samples. We combine a high numerical aperture objective and femtosecond laser radiation at visible wavelengths to examine the spatial limits of direct writing and structuring at the surface of the optical fibre. We realise a number of interesting devices from one- and two-dimensional grating structures, to Bessel, Airy and vortex beam generators. We show the versatility of this simple but effective inscription method, where we demonstrate classic multiple slit diffraction patterns and patterns for non-diffracting beams, confirming that the flexible direct write method using femtosecond lasers can be to produce binary masks that can lead to beam shaping using a method that is applicable to all types of planar samples and through fine control of laser parameters to multi-mode and singlemode optical fibres.

  2. A shaped annular beam tri-heterodyne confocal microscope with good anti-environmental interference capability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Wei-Qian; Feng Zheng-De; Qiu Li-Rong

    2007-01-01

    A shaped annular beam tri-heterodyne confocal microscope has been proposed to improve the anti-environmental interference capability and the resolution of a confocal microscope. It simultaneously detects far-, on-, and near-focus signals with given phase differences by dividing the measured light path of the confocal microscope into three sub-paths (signals). Pair-wise real-time heterodyne subtraction of the three signals is used to improve the anti-environmental interference capability, axial resolution, and linearity; and a shaped annular beam super-resolution technique is used to improve lateral resolution. Theoretical analyses and preliminary experiments indicate that an axial resolution of about 1 nm can be achieved with a shaped annular beam tri-heterodyne confocal microscope and its lateral resolution can be better than 0.2μm for λ= 632.8 nm, the numerical aperture of the lens of the microscope is NA = 0.85, and the normalized radius ε= 0.5.

  3. Laser beam welding of titanium nitride coated titanium using pulse-shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Sergio Fernandes de Lima

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A new welding method which allows the assembly of two titanium nitride coated titanium parts is proposed. The welding procedure utilizes the possibility for pulse-shaping in order to change the energy distribution profile during the laser pulse. The pulse-shaping is composed of three elements: a a short high power pulse for partial ablation at the surface; b a long pulse for thermal penetration; and c a quenching slope for enhanced weldability. The combination of these three elements produces crack-free welds. The weld microstructure is changed in comparison to normal welding, i.e. with a rectangular pulse, as the nitrogen and the microhardness are more homogenously distributed in the weld under pulse-shaping conditions. This laser pulse dissolves the TiN layer and allows nitrogen to diffuse into the melt pool, also contributing to an enhanced weldability by providing suitable thermal conditions.

  4. A mathematical model for smart functionally graded beam integrated with shape memory alloy actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepiani, H.; Ebrahimi, F. [University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimipour, H. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the thermally driven behavior of a shape memory alloy (SMA)/FGM actuator under arbitrary loading and boundary conditions by developing an integrated mathematical model. The model studied is established on the geometric parameters of the three-dimensional laminated composite box beam as an actuator that consists of a functionally graded core integrated with SMA actuator layers with a uniform rectangular cross section. The constitutive equation and linear phase transformation kinetics relations of SMA layers based on Tanaka and Nagaki model are coupled with the governing equation of the actuator to predict the stress history and to model the thermo-mechanical behavior of the smart shape memory alloy/FGM beam. Based on the classical laminated beam theory, the explicit solution to the structural response of the structure, including axial and lateral deflections of the structure, is investigated. As an example, a cantilever box beam subjected to a transverse concentrated load is solved numerically. It is found that the changes in the actuator's responses during the phase transformation due to the strain recovery are significant

  5. Stepwise assembly of a cross-linked free-standing nanoparticle sheet with controllable shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Mei; Zhou, Tian; Dong, Bin; Li, Christopher Y.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report a free-standing thin lamella consisting of nanoparticles with controllable shape. A self-assembly technique is utilized to obtain this sheet in a step by step fashion with nanoparticles and polymer single crystals as the basic building blocks. Inside the thin lamella, nanoparticles are not only immobilized on the surface of a polymer single crystal, which functions as a template, but also interconnected by a bifunctional crosslinker, i.e. 1,6-hexane dithiol. As a consequence, the nanoparticle lamella is crosslinked and cannot be destructed by solvent and heat treatment. This fabrication strategy is generally applicable and can be applied to a variety of different nanoparticles with various properties, including catalytically active platinum nanoparticles, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles or luminescent quantum dots, and different types of polymer single crystals, such as hexagonal polycaprolactone and square-shaped polyethylene glycol ones. Based on the abundant properties originating from both nanoparticles and polymer single crystals, we have demonstrated that the resulting ensemble can function as recyclable catalytically active materials or magnetically responsive luminescent materials.In this paper, we report a free-standing thin lamella consisting of nanoparticles with controllable shape. A self-assembly technique is utilized to obtain this sheet in a step by step fashion with nanoparticles and polymer single crystals as the basic building blocks. Inside the thin lamella, nanoparticles are not only immobilized on the surface of a polymer single crystal, which functions as a template, but also interconnected by a bifunctional crosslinker, i.e. 1,6-hexane dithiol. As a consequence, the nanoparticle lamella is crosslinked and cannot be destructed by solvent and heat treatment. This fabrication strategy is generally applicable and can be applied to a variety of different nanoparticles with various properties, including

  6. Self-assembled monolayers of shape-persistent macrocycles on graphite: interior design and conformational polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmeyer, Joscha; Eberhagen, Friederike; Höger, Sigurd; Jester, Stefan-S

    2014-01-01

    Three shape-persistent naphthylene-phenylene-acetylene macrocycles of identical backbone structures and extraannular substitution patterns but different (empty, apolar, polar) nanopore fillings are self-assembled at the solid/liquid interface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. Submolecularly resolved images of the resulting two-dimensional (2D) crystalline monolayer patterns are obtained by in situ scanning tunneling microscopy. A concentration-dependent conformational polymorphism is found, and open and more dense packing motifs are observed. For all three compounds alike lattice parameters are found, therefore the intermolecular macrocycle distances are mainly determined by their size and symmetry. This is an excellent example that the graphite acts as a template for the macrocycle organization independent from their specific interior.

  7. Morphologically and size uniform monodisperse particles and their shape-directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Joshua E.; Bell, Howard Y.; Ye, Xingchen; Murray, Christopher Bruce

    2015-11-17

    Monodisperse particles having: a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology are disclosed. Due to their uniform size and shape, the monodisperse particles self assemble into superlattices. The particles may be luminescent particles such as down-converting phosphor particles and up-converting phosphors. The monodisperse particles of the invention have a rare earth-containing lattice which in one embodiment may be an yttrium-containing lattice or in another may be a lanthanide-containing lattice. The monodisperse particles may have different optical properties based on their composition, their size, and/or their morphology (or shape). Also disclosed is a combination of at least two types of monodisperse particles, where each type is a plurality of monodisperse particles having a single pure crystalline phase of a rare earth-containing lattice, a uniform three-dimensional size, and a uniform polyhedral morphology; and where the types of monodisperse particles differ from one another by composition, by size, or by morphology. In a preferred embodiment, the types of monodisperse particles have the same composition but different morphologies. Methods of making and methods of using the monodisperse particles are disclosed.

  8. Cell differentiation on disk- and string-shaped hydrogels fabricated from Ca(2+) -responsive self-assembling peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kazuto; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2016-11-01

    We recently developed a self-assembling peptide, E1Y9, that self-assembles into nanofibers and forms a hydrogel in the presence of Ca(2+) . E1Y9 derivatives conjugated with functional peptide sequences derived from extracellular matrices (ECMs) reportedly self-assemble into peptide nanofibers that enhance cell adhesion and differentiation. In this study, E1Y9/E1Y9-IKVAV-mixed hydrogels were constructed to serve as artificial ECMs that promote cell differentiation. E1Y9 and E1Y9-IKVAV co-assembled into networked nanofibers, and hydrogels with disk and string shapes were formed in response to Ca(2+) treatment. The neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was facilitated on hydrogels of both shapes that contained the IKVAV motifs. Moreover, long neurites extended along the long axis of the string-shaped gel, suggesting that the structure of hydrogels of this shape can affect cellular orientation. Thus, E1Y9 hydrogels can potentially be used as artificial ECMs with desirable bioactivities and shapes that could be useful in tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 476-483, 2016. PMID:26501895

  9. Cell differentiation on disk- and string-shaped hydrogels fabricated from Ca(2+) -responsive self-assembling peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Kazuto; Tsutsumi, Hiroshi; Mihara, Hisakazu

    2016-11-01

    We recently developed a self-assembling peptide, E1Y9, that self-assembles into nanofibers and forms a hydrogel in the presence of Ca(2+) . E1Y9 derivatives conjugated with functional peptide sequences derived from extracellular matrices (ECMs) reportedly self-assemble into peptide nanofibers that enhance cell adhesion and differentiation. In this study, E1Y9/E1Y9-IKVAV-mixed hydrogels were constructed to serve as artificial ECMs that promote cell differentiation. E1Y9 and E1Y9-IKVAV co-assembled into networked nanofibers, and hydrogels with disk and string shapes were formed in response to Ca(2+) treatment. The neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells was facilitated on hydrogels of both shapes that contained the IKVAV motifs. Moreover, long neurites extended along the long axis of the string-shaped gel, suggesting that the structure of hydrogels of this shape can affect cellular orientation. Thus, E1Y9 hydrogels can potentially be used as artificial ECMs with desirable bioactivities and shapes that could be useful in tissue engineering applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 476-483, 2016.

  10. Production of Dynamic Frozen Waves: Controlling shape, location (and speed) of diffraction-resistant beams

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Tárcio A; Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, we experimentally realized a quite efficient modeling of the shape of diffraction-resistant optical beams; thus generating for the first time the so-called Frozen Waves (FW), whose longitudinal intensity pattern can be arbitrarily chosen, within a prefixed space interval of the propagation axis. Such waves possess a host of potential applications: in medicine, biomedical optics, optical tweezers, atom guiding, remote sensing, tractor beams, optical communications or metrology, and other topics in photonic areas. In this work, we extend our theory of FWs -- which led to beams endowed with a static envelope -- through a dynamic modeling of the FWs, whose shape is now allowed to evolve in time in a predetermined way. And we experimentally create such dynamic FWs in Optics, via a computational holographic technique and a spatial light modulator. Experimental results are here presented for two cases of dynamic FWs, one of the zeroth and the other of higher order, the last one being the most intere...

  11. Force-displacement characteristics of simply supported beam laminated with shape memory alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Qiang Wu; Zhen-Hua Zhang

    2011-01-01

    As a preliminary step in the nonlinear design of shape memory alloy (SMA) composite structures,the forcedisplacement characteristics of the SMA layer are studied.The bilinear hysteretic model is adopted to describe the constitutive relationship of SMA material.Under the assumption that there is no point of SMA layer finishing martensitic phase transformation during the loading and unloading process,the generalized restoring force generated by SMA layer is deduced for the case that the simply supported beam vibrates in its first mode.The generalized force is expressed as piecewise-nonlinear hysteretic function of the beam transverse displacement.Furthermore the energy dissipated by SMA layer during one period is obtained by integration,then its dependencies are discussed on the vibration amplitude and the SMA's strain (Ms-Strain) value at the beginning of martensitic phase transformation.It is shown that SMA's energy dissipating capacity is proportional to the stiffness difference of bilinear model and nonlinearly dependent on Ms-Strain.The increasing rate of the dissipating capacity gradually reduces with the amplitude increasing.The condition corresponding to the maximum dissipating capacity is deduced for given value of the vibration amplitude.The obtained results are helpful for designing beams laminated with shape memory alloys.

  12. Lateral control of self-assembled island nucleation by focused-ion-beam micropatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that the nucleation sites of nanoscale, self-assembled Ge islands on Si(001) can be controlled by patterning the Si surface in situ with a focused ion beam. At low doses of 6000 Ga+ ions per <100 nm spot, the selective growth is achieved without modifying the initial surface topography. At larger doses, topographic effects produced by sputtering and redeposition control the selective nucleation sites. Islands grown on irradiated spots are smaller with higher aspect ratio than islands grown on clean Si(001), suggesting a strong surfactant effect of Ga

  13. Effect of island shape on dielectrophoretic assembly of metal nanoparticle chains in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Conductive island shape influences the dynamic process occurring in DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. • The DEP-assembled nanoparticle wires form a straighter conduction path with the increase in the geometric angle of conductive island tip. • The different island shapes distort the DEP force distribution and increase the local electrothermally induced fluid flow to different extents, which is important for the morphology and electrical conductance quality of the DEP-assembled metal nanoparticle chains. - Abstract: The electrical conduction quality of an electric circuit connection formed by dielectrophoretic (DEP)-assembled metal nanoparticle wires between small conductive elements plays a significant role in electronic devices. One of the major challenges for improving the electrical conductance of nanowires is optimizing their geometric morphology. So far, the electrical conduction quality has been enhanced by optimizing the AC frequency and conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein, the effect of the conductive island shapes on the dynamic process occurring in a DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles was investigated in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. The nanoparticle wires between the microelectrodes were assembled in situ from colloidal suspensions. The wires were grown in a much straighter route by increasing the geometric angle of the conductive-island tip. To validate the experiments, the effects of mutual DEP interactions and electrothermally induced fluid flow on the dynamic behavior of particle motion for different island geometric configurations in the conductive-island-based microelectrode system were determined by numerical simulations. The simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. This indicates that different conductive island shapes change the distribution of DEP force and increase the electrothermally induced fluid flow to

  14. Towards top-hat spatial shaping of ultrafast laser beam based on Zernike polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauclair, Cyril; Faure, Nicolas; Houzet, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Femtosecond laser micro machining of surfaces knows a gain of interest as it demonstrates efficient and precise processing with reduced side effects around the irradiated zone, and also because of the remarkable costs reduction and reliability improvements of nowadays commercially available sources. Controlling the intensity distribution spatially can offer a supplementary degree of flexibility and precision in achieving user-defined ablation spatial profile, drilling, cutting of materials or in-volume laser-induced modifications. In this scope, the possibility to generate a top-hat intensity distribution by spatially shaping the beam wavefront is studied in this work. An optimization of Zernike polynomials coefficients is conducted to numerically determine an adequate phase mask that shapes the laser intensity distribution following a targeted top hat distribution in the processing plane, usually at the focal length of a converging lens. The efficiency of the method is numerically investigated in the optimization by evaluation of the root mean square error (RMS) between the top-hat target and the calculated laser distribution in the far field. We numerically verify that acceptable top-hat beam shaping of various size can be achieved with a sufficient number of Zernike polynomials, opening the way to phase mask calculations adapted to the wavefront modulator ability to reproduce Zernike polynomials.

  15. Ion beam sputter deposition of TiNi shape memory alloy thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sam T.; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    1999-08-01

    The development of functional or smart materials for integration into microsystem is of increasing interest. An example is the shape memory effect exhibited by certain metal alloys which, in principle, can be exploited in the fabrication of micro-scale manipulators or actuators, thereby providing on-chip micromechanical functionality. We have investigated an ion beam sputter deposition process for the growth of TiNi shape memory alloy thin films and demonstrated the required control to produce equiatomic composition, uniform coverage and atomic layer-by-layer growth rates on engineering surfaces. The process uses argon ions at intermediate energy produced by a Kaufman-type ion source to sputter non-alloyed targets of high purity titanium and nickel. Precise measurements of deposition rates allows compositional control during thin film growth. As the sputtering targets and substrates are remote from the discharge plasma, deposition occurs under good vacuum of approximately 10-6 mtorr thus promoting high quality films. Furthermore, the ion beam energetics allow deposition at relatively low substrate temperatures of heat capacity and thermal conductivity as the TiNi shape memory alloy undergoes martensitic to austenitic phase transformations.

  16. Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nordin, N. H. Diyana

    2015-03-01

    Harvesting energy from the surroundings has become a new trend in saving our environment. Among the established ones are solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric generators which have successfully grown in meeting the world's energy demand. However, for low powered electronic devices; especially when being placed in a remote area, micro scale energy harvesting is preferable. One of the popular methods is via vibration energy scavenging which converts mechanical energy (from vibration) to electrical energy by the effect of coupling between mechanical variables and electric or magnetic fields. As the voltage generated greatly depends on the geometry and size of the piezoelectric material, there is a need to define an optimum shape and configuration of the piezoelectric energy scavenger. In this research, mathematical derivations for unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester are presented. Simulation is done using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics software to study the effect of varying the length and shape of the beam to the generated voltage. Experimental results comparing triangular and rectangular shaped piezoelectric beam are also presented.

  17. Y-shaped jets driven by an ultrasonic beam reflecting on a wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valéry; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Séverine; Ben Hadid, Hamda

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an original experimental and numerical investigation of acoustic streaming driven by an acoustic beam reflecting on a wall. The water experiment features a 2 MHz acoustic beam totally reflecting on one of the tank glass walls. The velocity field in the plane containing the incident and reflected beam axes is investigated using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). It exhibits an original y-shaped structure: the impinging jet driven by the incident beam is continued by a wall jet, and a second jet is driven by the reflected beam, making an angle with the impinging jet. The flow is also numerically modeled as that of an incompressible fluid undergoing a volumetric acoustic force. This is a classical approach, but the complexity of the acoustic field in the reflection zone, however, makes it difficult to derive an exact force field in this area. Several approximations are thus tested; we show that the observed velocity field only weakly depends on the approximation used in this small region. The numerical model results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The spreading of the jets around their impingement points and the creeping of the wall jets along the walls are observed to allow the interaction of the flow with a large wall surface, which can even extend to the corners of the tank; this could be an interesting feature for applications requiring efficient heat and mass transfer at the wall. More fundamentally, the velocity field is shown to have both similarities and differences with the velocity field in a classical centered acoustic streaming jet. In particular its magnitude exhibits a fairly good agreement with a formerly derived scaling law based on the balance of the acoustic forcing with the inertia due to the flow acceleration along the beam axis. PMID:26907890

  18. Laser transformation hardening on rod-shaped carbon steel byGaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong-Do KIM; Myeong-Hoon LEE; Su-Jin LEE; Woon-Ju KANG

    2009-01-01

    Laser transformation hardening(LTH) is one of the laser surface modification processes. The surface hardening of rod-shaped carbon steel (SM45C) was performed by lathe-based laser composite processor with Gaussian-beam optical head. The LTH characteristics by dominant processes, longitudinal and depth directional hardness distributions and behaviors of phase transformation in hardened zones were examined. Especially, two concepts of circumferential speed and theoretical overlap rate were applied. When laser power increased or circumferential speed decreased, the surface hardening depth gradually increases due to the increased heat input. Moreover, the longitudinal hardness distribution particularly shows periodicity of repetitive increase and decrease, which results from tempering effect by overlap. Finally, the feasibility of laser transformation hardening is verified by using the beam with Gaussian intensity distribution.

  19. Beam shaping design for compact and high-brightness fiber-coupled laser-diode system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Tan, Hao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong; Zhang, Kai

    2015-06-20

    Fiber-coupled laser diodes have become essential sources for fiber laser pumping and direct energy applications. A compact and high-brightness fiber-coupled system has been designed based on a significant beam shaping method. The laser-diode stack consists of eight mini-bars and is effectively coupled into a standard 100 μm core diameter and NA=0.22 fiber. The simulative result indicates that the module will have an output power over 440 W. Using this technique, compactness and high-brightness production of a fiber-coupled laser-diode module is possible.

  20. Compact FBG diaphragm accelerometer based on L-shaped rigid cantilever beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinyan Weng; Xueguang Qiao; Zhongyao Feng; Manli Hu; Jinghua Zhang; YangYang

    2011-01-01

    A compact fiber Bragg grating (FBG) diaphragm accelerometer based on L-shaped rigid cantilever beam is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The sensing system is based on the integration of a flat diaphragm and an L-shaped rigid cantilever beam. The FBG is pre-tensioned and the two side points are fixed, efficiently avoiding the unwanted chirp effect of grating. Dynamic vibration measurement shows that the proposed FBG diaphragm accelerometer provides a wide frequency response range (0-110 Hz) and an extremely high sensitivity (106.5 pm/g), indemnifying it as a good candidate for embedding structural health monitoring and seismic wave measurement.%A compact fiber Bragg grating (FBG) diaphragm accelerometer based on L-shaped rigid cantilever beam is proposed and experimentally demonstrated.The sensing system is based on the integration of a flat diaphragm and an L-shaped rigid cantilever beam.The FBG is pre-tensioned and the two side points are fixed,efficiently avoiding the unwanted chirp effect of grating.Dynamic vibration measurement shows that the proposed FBG diaphragm accelerometer provides a wide frequency response range (0-110 Hz) and an extremely high sensitivity (106.5 pm/g),indentifying it as a good candidate for embedding structural health monitoring and seismic wave measurement.In the past few decades,accelerometers based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) have attracted a great deal of interest from researchers and engineers because they play a vital role in vibration measurements.In recent years,FBG accelerometers have been more and more applied in structural health monitoring[1-3) and seismic wave measurement[4-6].This study concerns about the development of geophones composed of FBG accelerometers in seismic exploration.The main frequency of geophones in seismic wave measurement of oil and gas exploration is usually below 100 Hz.An FBG-based accelerometer consisting of a mass resting on a layer of compliant material supported by a rigid base plate

  1. Design of computer-generated beam-shaping holograms by iterative finite-element mesh adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresel, T; Beyerlein, M; Schwider, J

    1996-12-10

    Computer-generated phase-only holograms can be used for laser beam shaping, i.e., for focusing a given aperture with intensity and phase distributions into a pregiven intensity pattern in their focal planes. A numerical approach based on iterative finite-element mesh adaption permits the design of appropriate phase functions for the task of focusing into two-dimensional reconstruction patterns. Both the hologram aperture and the reconstruction pattern are covered by mesh mappings. An iterative procedure delivers meshes with intensities equally distributed over the constituting elements. This design algorithm adds new elementary focuser functions to what we call object-oriented hologram design. Some design examples are discussed.

  2. Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Fabien; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-30

    The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at the ground and the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the upward propagation of the laser beam. Both shape and intensity of the LGS spot are found to depend strongly on these three effects with important consequences on the precision on the wavefront analysis.

  3. Investigation of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical model. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results, thereby quantitatively validating the numerical tool.

  4. Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc, Fabien; Guillet de Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, Jean-Paul

    2009-03-30

    The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at the ground and the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the upward propagation of the laser beam. Both shape and intensity of the LGS spot are found to depend strongly on these three effects with important consequences on the precision on the wavefront analysis. PMID:19333251

  5. Ion beam shaping of embedded metal nanoparticles by Si+ ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine Co and Pt nanoparticles are nucleated when a silica sample is implanted with 400 keV Co+ and 1370 keV Pt+ ions. At the implanted range, Co and Pt react to form small Cox Pt(1-x) nanoparticles during Si + ion irradiation at 300 C. Thermal annealing of the pre-implanted silica substrate at 1000 C results in the formation of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes. When irradiated with Si + ions at 300 C, particles in the size range of 5-17 nm undergo rod-like shape transformation with an elongation in the direction of the incident ion beam, while those particles in the size range of 17-26 nm turn into elliptical shape. Moreover, it is suspected that very big nanoparticles (size >26 nm) decrease in size, while small nanoparticles (size + ion irradiation, the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is preserved. The results are discussed in the light of the thermal spike model. (orig.)

  6. Positioning of self-assembled InAs quantum dots by focused ion beam implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) are envisioned as building blocks for realization of novel nanoelectronic devices, for which the site-selective growth is highly desirable. This thesis presents a successful route toward selective positioning of self-assembled InAs QDs on patterned GaAs surface by combination of in situ focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) technology. First, a buffer layer of GaAs was grown by MBE before a square array of holes with a pitch of 1-2 μm was fabricated by FIB implantation of Ga and In, ions respectively. Later, an in-situ annealing step followed by InAs deposition was performed. The InAs QDs were preferentially formed in the holes generated by FIB. The influence of ion dose, annealing parameters and InAs amount was investigated in this work. With optimized parameters, more than 50 % single dot occupancy per hole is achieved. Furthermore, the photoluminescence spectra from positioned QDs confirm their good optical quality. (orig.)

  7. Multi-shape memory polymers achieved by the spatio-assembly of 3D printable thermoplastic building blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongze; Gao, Xiang; Luo, Yingwu

    2016-04-01

    Multi-shape memory polymers were prepared by the macroscale spatio-assembly of building blocks in this work. The building blocks were methyl acrylate-co-styrene (MA-co-St) copolymers, which have the St-block-(St-random-MA)-block-St tri-block chain sequence. This design ensures that their transition temperatures can be adjusted over a wide range by varying the composition of the middle block. The two St blocks at the chain ends can generate a crosslink network in the final device to achieve strong bonding force between building blocks and the shape memory capacity. Due to their thermoplastic properties, 3D printing was employed for the spatio-assembly to build devices. This method is capable of introducing many transition phases into one device and preparing complicated shapes via 3D printing. The device can perform a complex action via a series of shape changes. Besides, this method can avoid the difficult programing of a series of temporary shapes. The control of intermediate temporary shapes was realized via programing the shapes and locations of building blocks in the final device.

  8. Shape-changing magnetic assemblies as high-sensitivity NMR-readable nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabow, G; Dodd, S J; Koretsky, A P

    2015-04-01

    Fluorescent and plasmonic labels and sensors have revolutionized molecular biology, helping visualize cellular and biomolecular processes. Increasingly, such probes are now being designed to respond to wavelengths in the near-infrared region, where reduced tissue autofluorescence and photon attenuation enable subsurface in vivo sensing. But even in the near-infrared region, optical resolution and sensitivity decrease rapidly with increasing depth. Here we present a sensor design that obviates the need for optical addressability by operating in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio-frequency spectrum, where signal attenuation and distortion by tissue and biological media are negligible, where background interferences vanish, and where sensors can be spatially located using standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The radio-frequency-addressable sensor assemblies presented here comprise pairs of magnetic disks spaced by swellable hydrogel material; they reversibly reconfigure in rapid response to chosen stimuli, to give geometry-dependent, dynamic NMR spectral signatures. The sensors can be made from biocompatible materials, are themselves detectable down to low concentrations, and offer potential responsive NMR spectral shifts that are close to a million times greater than those of traditional magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Inherent adaptability should allow such shape-changing systems to measure numerous different environmental and physiological indicators, thus providing broadly generalizable, MRI-compatible, radio-frequency analogues to optically based probes for use in basic chemical, biological, medical and engineering research. PMID:25778701

  9. Exploring the elastic features of spherically shaped biological assemblies and soft matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfaw, Mesfin, E-mail: mesfin.taye@csun.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University, Northridge, CA (United States)

    2011-03-16

    Using a numerical simulation, we study the elastic features of biological assemblies (e.g. viruses and bacteria) and soft matter systems (e.g. colloidosomes and nanoparticle covered droplets) that possess a spherical shape in which the proteins (particles) on the colloidosomes or virus shells are mechanically linked to form a stress-bearing spherical structure that may dramatically enhance the surface rigidity. The dependence of the rigidity enhancement upon the density of the cross-linked proteins situated on the surface of the virus is explored. We determine the percolation threshold P{sub ce} by considering bond percolation on the spherical elastic networks involving nearest neighbor forces. The percolation threshold of such networks is very different from that of a two-dimensional triangular lattice due to the topological effect. We find that the threshold probability for the spherical elastic network is considerably smaller than for an unwrapped network, which reveals that the spherical topology induces more rigidity to the network.

  10. ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL OF FINITE L-SHAPED BEAM WITH TRAVELLING WAVE APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunchuan Liu; Fengming Li; Wenhu Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,the disturbance propagation and active vibration control of a finite L-shaped beam are studied.The dynamic response of the structure is obtained by the travelling wave approach.The active vibration suppression of the finite L-shaped beam is performed based on the structural vibration power flow.In the numerical calculation,the influences of the near field effect of the error sensor and the small error of the control forces on the control results are all considered.The simulation results indicate that the structural vibration response in the medium and high frequency regions can be effectively computed by the travelling wave method.The effect of the active control by controlling the power flow is much better than that by controlling the acceleration in some cases.And the control results by the power flow method are slightly affected by the locations of the error sensor and the small error of the control forces.

  11. Measurement and Prediction of the Thermomechanical Response of Shape Memory Alloy Hybrid Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brian; Turner, Travis L.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Previous work at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) involved fabrication and testing of composite beams with embedded, pre-strained shape memory alloy (SMA) ribbons within the beam structures. That study also provided comparison of experimental results with numerical predictions from a research code making use of a new thermoelastic model for shape memory alloy hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures. The previous work showed qualitative validation of the numerical model. However, deficiencies in the experimental-numerical correlation were noted and hypotheses for the discrepancies were given for further investigation. The goal of this work is to refine the experimental measurement and numerical modeling approaches in order to better understand the discrepancies, improve the correlation between prediction and measurement, and provide rigorous quantitative validation of the numerical analysis/design tool. The experimental investigation is refined by a more thorough test procedure and incorporation of higher fidelity measurements such as infrared thermography and projection moire interferometry. The numerical results are produced by a recently commercialized version of the constitutive model as implemented in ABAQUS and are refined by incorporation of additional measured parameters such as geometric imperfection. Thermal buckling, post-buckling, and random responses to thermal and inertial (base acceleration) loads are studied. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of SMAHC structures in controlling static and dynamic responses by adaptive stiffening. Excellent agreement is achieved between the predicted and measured results of the static and dynamic thermomechanical response, thereby providing quantitative validation of the numerical tool.

  12. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2016-01-15

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  13. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  14. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of MLC-shaped TrueBeam electron fields benchmarked against measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Samantha AM; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT) and combined, modulated photon/electron radiotherapy (MPERT) have received increased research attention, having shown capacity for reduced low dose exposure to healthy tissue and comparable, if not improved, target coverage for a number of treatment sites. Accurate dose calculation tools are necessary for clinical treatment planning, and Monte Carlo (MC) is the gold standard for electron field simulation. With many clinics replacing older accelerators, MC source models of the new machines are needed for continued development, however, Varian has kept internal schematics of the TrueBeam confidential and electron phase-space sources have not been made available. TrueBeam electron fields are not substantially different from those generated by the Clinac 21EX, so we have modified the internal schematics of the Clinac 21EX to simulate TrueBeam electrons. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate 5x5 and 20x20 cm$^2$ electron fields with MLC-shaped apertures. Secondary collimati...

  16. Finite Element Analysis of the Pseudo-elastic Behavior of Shape Memory Alloy Truss and Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Bajoria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The pseudo-elastic behavior of Shape memory alloy (SMA truss and cantilever beam are investigated. Brinson’s one-dimensional material model, which uses the twinned and detwinned martensite fractions separately as internal variables, is applied in the algorithm to establish the SMA stress-strain characteristics. This material model also incorporates different young’s modulus for austenitic and martensite phase to represent the true SMA characteristics. In this model, a cosine function was used to express the evolution of the stress induced martensite fractions during the forward and reverse martensite phase transformation. A finite element formulation for the SMA truss member considering the geometric nonlinearity is proposed and the results are compared with the corresponding linear analysis. As a step forward, a finite element formulation for an SMA cantilever beam with an applied end moment is proposed. The load displacement characteristic for both the loading and unloading phases are considered to check the full pseudo-elastic hysteretic loop. In the numerical investigation, the stress-strain variation along the beam depth is also examined during the loading and unloading process to investigate the forward and reverse martensite phase transformation phenomena. Newton-Raphson’s iterative method is applied to get convergence to the equilibrium for each loading steps. During a complete loading-unloading process, the temperature is kept constant as the model is essentially an isothermal model. Numerical simulation is performed considering two different temperatures to demonstrate the effect of temperature on the hysteretic loop.

  17. Three-dimensional piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using spiral-shaped beam with triple operating frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nian; Yang, Jin; Yu, Qiangmo; Zhao, Jiangxin; Liu, Jun; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This work has demonstrated a novel piezoelectric energy harvester without a complex structure and appended component that is capable of scavenging vibration energy from arbitrary directions with multiple resonant frequencies. In this harvester, a spiral-shaped elastic thin beam instead of a traditional thin cantilever beam was adopted to absorb external vibration with arbitrary direction in three-dimensional (3D) spaces owing to its ability to bend flexibly and stretch along arbitrary direction. Furthermore, multiple modes in the elastic thin beam contribute to a possibility to widen the working bandwidth with multiple resonant frequencies. The experimental results show that the harvester was capable of scavenging the vibration energy in 3D arbitrary directions; they also exhibited triple power peaks at about 16 Hz, 21 Hz, and 28 Hz with the powers of 330 μW, 313 μW, and 6 μW, respectively. In addition, human walking and water wave energies were successfully converted into electricity, proving that our harvester was practical to scavenge the time-variant or multi-directional vibration energies in our daily life. PMID:26827346

  18. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (≤ 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters

  19. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Myskov, G A

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (<= 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters.

  20. Simultaneous nano- and micro-scale control of nanofibrous microspheres self-assembled from star-shaped polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhanpeng; Marson, Ryan L.; Ge, Zhishen; Glotzer, Sharon C.; Ma, Peter X.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism underlying the multi-scale self-assembly of star-shaped polymers into non-hollow, hollow, and spongy nanofibrous microspheres is reported. Star-shaped poly(L-lactic acid) polymers with varying arm-numbers and arm-lengths are synthesized, dissolved in tetrahydrofuran, emulsified in glycerol, and thermally-induced to phase separate, resulting in microspheres that are either smooth or fibrous on the nano-scale, and either non-hollow, hollow, or spongy on the micro-scale. Molecular architecture and the hydroxyl density are shown to control assembly and morphology at both nano- and micro-scales. Nanofibers form only when the arm length is sufficiently long, while an increase in hydroxyl density causes the microspheres to change from non-hollow to hollow to spongy. We demonstrate via both experiments of capping or doubling the hydroxyl end groups and dissipative particle dynamics simulations that the affinity of hydroxyl to glycerol is critical to stabilizing the micro-scale structure. A “phase diagram” was constructed for the six types of microspheres in relation to the molecular structures of the star-shaped polymers. The proposed mechanism explains how star-shaped polymers self-assemble into various microspheres, and guides us to simultaneously control both nano- and micro-features of the microspheres. PMID:26009995

  1. Inverted Gabor holography principle for tailoring arbitrary shaped three-dimensional beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Fink, Hans-Werner

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that by modifying the wavefront in a certain manner, the light intensity can be turned into a certain shape. However, all known light modulation techniques allow for limited light modifications only: focusing within a restricted region in space, shaping into a certain class of parametric curves along the optical axis or bending described by a quadratic-dependent deflection as in the case of Airy beams. We show a general case of classical light wavefront shaping that allows for intensity and phase redistribution into an arbitrary profile including pre-determined switching-off of the intensity. To create an arbitrary three-dimensional path of intensity, we represent the path as a sequence of closely packed individual point-like absorbers and simulate the in-line hologram of the created object set; when such a hologram is contrast inverted, thus giving rise to a diffractor, it creates the pre-determined three-dimensional path of intensity behind the diffractor under illumination. The crucial parameter for a smooth optical path is the sampling of the predetermined curves, which is given by the lateral and axial resolution of the optical system. We provide both, simulated and experimental results to demonstrate the power of this novel method.

  2. Test beam analysis of ultra-thin hybrid pixel detector assemblies with Timepix readout ASICs

    CERN Document Server

    Alipour Tehrani, Niloufar; Dannheim, Dominik; Firu, Elena; Kulis, Szymon; Redford, Sophie; Sicking, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The requirements for the vertex detector at the proposed Compact Linear Collider imply a very small material budget: less than 0.2% of a radiation length per detection layer including services and mechanical supports. We present here a study using Timepix readout ASICs hybridised to pixel sensors of 50 − 500 μm thickness, including assemblies with 100 μm thick sensors bonded to thinned 100μm thick ASICs. Sensors from three producers (Advacam, Micron Semiconductor Ltd, Canberra) with different edge termination technologies (active edge, slim edge) were bonded to Timepix ASICs. These devices were characterised with the EUDET telescope at the DESY II test beam using 5.6 GeV electrons. Their performance for the detection and tracking of minimum ionising particles was evaluated in terms of charge sharing, detection efficiency, single-point resolution and energy deposition.

  3. A method for robust segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque structures in cone-beam CT projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther; Keall, Paul J.; Weiss, Elisabeth; Lu Jun; Brackbill, Emily; Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nr Brogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Sydney Medical School-Central, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: Implanted markers are commonly used in radiotherapy for x-ray based target localization. The projected marker position in a series of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projections can be used to estimate the three dimensional (3D) target trajectory during the CBCT acquisition. This has important applications in tumor motion management such as motion inclusive, gating, and tumor tracking strategies. However, for irregularly shaped markers, reliable segmentation is challenged by large variations in the marker shape with projection angle. The purpose of this study was to develop a semiautomated method for robust and reliable segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections. Methods: The segmentation method involved the following three steps: (1) Threshold based segmentation of the marker in three to six selected projections with large angular separation, good marker contrast, and uniform background; (2) construction of a 3D marker model by coalignment and backprojection of the threshold-based segmentations; and (3) construction of marker templates at all imaging angles by projection of the 3D model and use of these templates for template-based segmentation. The versatility of the segmentation method was demonstrated by segmentation of the following structures in the projections from two clinical CBCT scans: (1) Three linear fiducial markers (Visicoil) implanted in or near a lung tumor and (2) an artificial cardiac valve in a lung cancer patient. Results: Automatic marker segmentation was obtained in more than 99.9% of the cases. The segmentation failed in a few cases where the marker was either close to a structure of similar appearance or hidden behind a dense structure (data cable). Conclusions: A robust template-based method for segmentation of arbitrarily shaped radiopaque markers in CBCT projections was developed.

  4. S-Shaped Conformation of the Quaterthiophene Molecular Backbone in Two-Dimensional Bisterpyridine-Derivative Self-Assembled Nanoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Yann; Shilova, Ekaterina; Latil, Sylvain; Jousselme, Bruno; Silly, Fabien

    2015-12-15

    The conformation and the two-dimensional self-assembly of 4'-(3',4″-dihexyloxy-5,2':5',2″:5″,2‴-quaterthien-2,5‴-diyl)-bis(2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) molecules are theoretically and experimentally investigated. This molecular building block forms a hydrogen-bonded chiral supramolecular nanoarchitecture on graphite at the solid/liquid interface. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) shows that the molecule adopts an S-shaped conformation in this structure. DFTB+ calculations reveal that this conformation is not the lowest-energy conformation. The molecular nanoarchitecture appears to be stabilized by hydrogen bonding as well as van der Waals interactions. I-, L-, and D-shaped molecular conformations are, however, locally observed at the domain boundary, but these conformations do not self-assemble into organized 2D structures. PMID:26624809

  5. A Hollow Foldecture with Truncated Trigonal Bipyramid Shape from the Self-Assembly of an 11-Helical Foldamer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jae-Hoon; Gong, Jintaek; Kwon, Sunbum; Jeon, Aram; Jeong, Rokam; Driver, Russell W; Lee, Hee-Seung

    2015-11-01

    The creation of self-assembling microscale architectures that possess new and useful physical properties remains a significant challenge. Herein we report that an 11-helical foldamer self-assembles in a controlled manner to form a series of 3D foldectures with unusual three-fold symmetrical shapes that are distinct from those generated from 12-helical foldamers. The foldamer packing motif was revealed by powder X-ray diffraction technique, and provides an important link between the molecular-level symmetry and the microscale morphologies. The utility of foldectures with hollow interiors as robust and well-defined supramolecular hosts was demonstrated for inorganic, organic, and even protein guests. This work will pave the way for the design of functional foldectures with greater 3D shape diversity and for the development of biocompatible delivery vehicles and containment vessels. PMID:26311632

  6. Design and construction of the clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to design, construction and evaluation of clean room for proton beam accelerator assembly. The design conditions o Class : 1,000(1,000 ea ft3), o Flow Rate : 200 m3/h m2, o Temperature : 22 deg C±2, o Humidity : 55%±5. The main design results are summarized as follows: o Air-handling unit : Cooling Capacity : 13,500 kcal/h, Heating Capacity : 10,300 kcal/h, Humidity Capacity : 4 kg/h, Flow Rate : 150 CMM o Air Shower : Flow Rate : 35 CMM, Size : 1500 x 1000 x 2200, Material : In-steel, Out-SUS304, Filter : PRE + HEPA, AIR Velocity : 25 m/s o Relief Damper : Size : Φ250, Casing : SS41, Blade : AL, Shaft : SUS304, Weight Ring : SS41, Grill : AL o HEPA Filter Box : Filter Box Size : 670 x 670 x 630, Filter Size : 610 x 610 x 150, Frame: Poly Wood, Media : Glass Fiber, Filter Efficiency : 0.3μm, 99.97%, Separator : AL, Flow Rate : 17 CMM, Damper Size : Φ300 Following this report will be used important data for the design, construction, operation and maintenance of the clean room, for high precision apparatus assembly laboratory

  7. $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with radioactive At beams

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and radioactive decay of the newly available pure beams of neutron-deficient and neutron-rich astatine (Z=85) isotopes. The fission probability and the fission fragment distribution of the even-even isotopes $^{194,196}$Po following the $\\beta$-decay of the isotopes $^{194,196}$At will be studied with the Windmill setup. In-source laser spectroscopy will be performed on the entire astatine isotopic chain, using a combination of the Windmill setup, ISOLTRAP MR-ToF and ISOLDE Faraday. Radioactive decay data will be acquired at the Windmill setup throughout those studies and contribute to the global understanding of the phenomenon of shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient lead region.

  8. Correction of resist heating effect on variable shaped beam mask writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayamada, Noriaki; Suganuma, Mizuna; Nomura, Haruyuki; Kato, Yasuo; Kamikubo, Takashi; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Zable, Harold; Masuda, Yukihiro; Fujimura, Aki

    2016-04-01

    The specifications for critical dimension (CD) accuracy and line edge roughness are getting tighter to promote every photomask manufacturer to choose electron beam resists of lower sensitivity. When the resist is exposed by too many electrons, it is excessively heated up to have higher sensitivity at a higher temperature, which results in degraded CD uniformity. This effect is called "resist heating effect" and is now the most critical error source in CD control on a variable shaped beam (VSB) mask writer. We have developed an on-tool, real-time correction system for the resist heating effect. The system is composed of correction software based on a simple thermal diffusion model and computational hardware equipped with more than 100 graphical processing unit chips. We have demonstrated that the designed correction accuracy was obtained and the runtime of correction was sufficiently shorter than the writing time. The system is ready to be deployed for our VSB mask writers to retain the writing time as short as possible for lower sensitivity resists by removing the need for increased pass count.

  9. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Vaveliuk, Pablo; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De

    2015-01-01

    Needle-like electromagnetic fields has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman Spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device(DMD). Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional(1D) and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We...

  10. Shaping symmetric Airy beam through binary amplitude modulation for ultralong needle focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei [Department of Optics and Optical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Ren, Yu-Xuan, E-mail: yxren@ustc.edu.cn [National Center for Protein Sciences Shanghai, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Shanghai 200031 (China); Vaveliuk, Pablo [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas (CONICET La Plata-CIC), Cno. Centenario y 506, P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet, La Plata, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De, E-mail: lrd@ustc.edu.cn [Physics Experiment Teaching Center, School of Physical Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-11-28

    Needle-like electromagnetic field has various advantages for the applications in high-resolution imaging, Raman spectroscopy, as well as long-distance optical transportation. The realization of such field often requires high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens and the transmission masks. We demonstrate an ultralong needle-like focus in the optical range produced with an ordinary lens. This is achieved by focusing a symmetric Airy beam (SAB) generated via binary spectral modulation with a digital micromirror device. Such amplitude modulation technique is able to shape traditional Airy beams, SABs, as well as the dynamic transition modes between the one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) symmetric Airy modes. The created 2D SAB was characterized through measurement of the propagating fields with one of the four main lobes blocked by an opaque mask. The 2D SAB was verified to exhibit self-healing property against propagation with the obstructed major lobe reconstructed after a certain distance. We further produced an elongated focal line by concentrating the SAB via lenses with different NAs and achieved an ultralong longitudinal needle focus. The produced long needle focus will be applied in optical, chemical, and biological sciences.

  11. New Proposal for Flexural Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using CFRP T-Shaped Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Kotynia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel strengthening system using T-shaped carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP profiles. The proposed system successfully combines the advantages of two established strengthening techniques, namely the near surface mounted (NSM and externally bonded (EB methods. The paper presents the experimental results of structural tests carried out on seven flexurally-strengthened and two non-strengthened full-scale reinforced concrete (RC members. Two T-shaped profiles having heights of 15 and 30 mm were applied. The main parameters of concrete strength and composite strengthening ratio were investigated to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed flexural strengthening system. All specimens were tested under a quasi-static six-point bending configuration. The test results showed a significant increase in the load bearing capacity and the stiffness of the RC beams with strengthening and also a notable reduction in maximum deflections. The high tensile strength utilization of the CFRP profiles places this strengthening technique as a promising alternative to other, less structurally-efficient systems.

  12. Shaping of Au nanoparticles embedded in various layered structures by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawi, E. A.; ArnoldBik, W. M.; Ackermann, R.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel method to extend the ion-beam induced shaping of metallic nanoparticles in various layered structures. Monodisperse Au nanoparticles having mean diameter of 30 nm and their ion-shaping process is investigated for a limited number of experimental conditions. Au nanoparticles were embedded within a single plane in various layered structures of silicon nitride films (Si3N4), combinations of oxide-nitride films (SiO2-Si3N4) and amorphous silicon films (a-Si) and have been sequentially irradiated at 300 K at normal incidence with 50 and 25 MeV Ag ions, respectively. Under irradiation with heavy Ag ions and with sequential increase of the irradiation fluence, the evolution of the Au peak derived from the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry show broadening in Au peak, which indicates that the Au becomes distributed over a larger depth region, indicative of the elongation of the nanoparticles. The latter is observed almost for every layer structure investigated except for Au nanoparticles embedded in pure a-Si matrix. The largest elongation rate at all fluences is found for the Au nanoparticles encapsulated in pure Si3N4 films. For all irradiation energy applied, we again demonstrate the existence of both threshold and saturation fluences for the elongation effects mentioned.

  13. Ion beam shaping of embedded metal nanoparticles by Si{sup +} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaji, S.; Panigrahi, B.K.; David, C.; Amirthapandian, S.; Kalavathi, S.; Nair, K.G.M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Material Science Group, Kalpakkam (India); Saravanan, K.; Huebner, Rene [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Ion Beam Center, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    Fine Co and Pt nanoparticles are nucleated when a silica sample is implanted with 400 keV Co{sup +} and 1370 keV Pt{sup +} ions. At the implanted range, Co and Pt react to form small Co{sub x} Pt{sub (1-x)} nanoparticles during Si {sup +} ion irradiation at 300 C. Thermal annealing of the pre-implanted silica substrate at 1000 C results in the formation of spherical nanoparticles of various sizes. When irradiated with Si {sup +} ions at 300 C, particles in the size range of 5-17 nm undergo rod-like shape transformation with an elongation in the direction of the incident ion beam, while those particles in the size range of 17-26 nm turn into elliptical shape. Moreover, it is suspected that very big nanoparticles (size >26 nm) decrease in size, while small nanoparticles (size <5 nm) do not undergo any transformation. During Si {sup +} ion irradiation, the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles is preserved. The results are discussed in the light of the thermal spike model. (orig.)

  14. THE MECHANICAL AND SHIELDING DESIGN OF A PORTABLE SPECTROMETER AND BEAM DUMP ASSEMBLY AT BNLS ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU,J.P.; CASEY,W.R.; HARDER,D.A.; PJEROV,S.; RAKOWSKY,G.; SKARITKA,J.R.

    2002-09-05

    A portable assembly containing a vertical-bend dipole magnet has been designed and installed immediately down-beam of the Compton electron-laser interaction chamber on beamline 1 of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The water-cooled magnet designed with field strength of up to 0.7 Tesla will be used as a spectrometer in the Thompson scattering and vacuum acceleration experiments, where field-dependent electron scattering, beam focusing and energy spread will be analyzed. This magnet will deflect the ATF's 60 MeV electron-beam 90{sup o} downward, as a vertical beam dump for the Compton scattering experiment. The dipole magnet assembly is portable, and can be relocated to other beamlines at the ATF or other accelerator facilities to be used as a spectrometer or a beam dump. The mechanical and shielding calculations are presented in this paper. The structural rigidity and stability of the assembly were studied. A square lead shield surrounding the assembly's Faraday Cup was designed to attenuate the radiation emerging from the 1 inch-copper beam stop. All photons produced were assumed to be sufficiently energetic to generate photoneutrons. A safety evaluation of groundwater tritium contamination due to the thermal neutron capturing by the deuterium in water was performed, using updated Monte Carlo neutron-photon coupled transport code (MCNP). High-energy neutron spallation, which is a potential source to directly generate radioactive tritium and sodium-22 in soil, was conservatively assessed in verifying personal and environmental safety.

  15. Design and analysis of high-numerical-aperture beam shaping systems; Design und Analyse von Strahlformungssystemen hoher numerischer Apertur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Hagen

    2009-11-24

    The generation of light tailored to measure stands today in the center of many innovative applications. A possibility of the flexible manipulation of light is the laser-beam shaping.Aim is thereby to transform the intensity profile of a laser beam to a wanted profile. The main topic of this thesis is the modeling and propagation of laser light in paraxial and non-paraxial beam-shaping systems as well as the optimization of these systems by means of a generalized projection algorithm. This algorithm is applied for the optimization by means of aspherical formula or polynomials point-by-point parametrized beam shaping surfaces. It is shown that during the optimization a regardment of diffraction, interference, and abberations is possible. The latter can not only be regarded, but directly used for the beam shaping. Finally it is shown that the aberrations of spherical catalogue lenses are already sufficient for some beam-shaping applications. The efficiency of the developed optimization algorithms is demonstrated both on paraxial and on non-paraxial beam-shaping examples with a numerical aperture of up to 0.62. Finally in the present thesis concepts for the achromatization and for the wave-length multiplexing are introduced, which are based on the application of diverse surfaces and materials with different dispersion. While the achromatization aims to make the optical function of a beam-shaping system wave-length independent, the wavelength multiplexing tries directly to realize different optical functions for diverse design wavelengths. [German] Die Erzeugung massgeschneiderten Lichts steht heute im Mittelpunkt vieler innovativer Anwendungen. Eine Moeglichkeit der flexiblen Manipulation von Licht ist die Laserstrahlformung. Ziel ist es dabei, das Intensitaetsprofil eines Laserstrahls in ein gewuenschtes Profil umzuformen. Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit ist die Modellierung und Ausbreitung von Laserlicht in paraxialen und nicht-paraxialen Strahlformungssystemen sowie die

  16. Geometry dependence of Auger carrier capture rates into cone-shaped self-assembled quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnúsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Bischoff, Svend; Uskov, A.V.;

    2003-01-01

    We calculate carrier capture rates into cone- and truncated-cone-shaped quantum dots mediated by Auger processes. It is demonstrated that the capture rates depend strongly on both dot size and shape. The importance of phonon-mediated versus the Auger-mediated capture processes is discussed....

  17. Analytical and finite-element study of optimal strain distribution in various beam shapes for energy harvesting applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B L Ooi; J M Gilbert; A Rashid A Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelec-tric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geome-try for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also pre-sented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.

  18. Analytical and finite-element study of optimal strain distribution in various beam shapes for energy harvesting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, B. L.; Gilbert, J. M.; Aziz, A. Rashid A.

    2016-08-01

    Owing to the increasing demand for harvesting energy from environmental vibration for use in self-powered electronic applications, cantilever-based vibration energy harvesting has attracted considerable interest from various parties and has become one of the most common approaches to converting redundant mechanical energy into electrical energy. As the output voltage produced from a piezoelectric material depends largely on the geometric shape and the size of the beam, there is a need to model and compare the performance of cantilever beams of differing geometries. This paper presents the study of strain distribution in various shapes of cantilever beams, including a convex and concave edge profile elliptical beam that have not yet been discussed in any prior literature. Both analytical and finite-element models are derived and the resultant strain distributions in the beam are computed based on a MATLAB solver and ANSYS finite-element analysis tools. An optimum geometry for a vibration-based energy harvesting system is verified. Finally, experimental results comparing the power density for triangular and rectangular piezoelectric beams are also presented to validate the findings of the study, and the claim, as suggested in the literature, is verified.

  19. Shaping quaternary assemblies of water-soluble non-peptide helical foldamers by sequence manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Gavin W.; Pulka-Ziach, Karolina; Lombardo, Caterina M.; Fremaux, Juliette; Rosu, Frédéric; Decossas, Marion; Mauran, Laura; Lambert, Olivier; Gabelica, Valérie; Mackereth, Cameron D.; Guichard, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    The design and construction of biomimetic self-assembling systems is a challenging yet potentially highly rewarding endeavour that contributes to the development of new biomaterials, catalysts, drug-delivery systems and tools for the manipulation of biological processes. Significant progress has been achieved by engineering self-assembling DNA-, protein- and peptide-based building units. However, the design of entirely new, completely non-natural folded architectures that resemble biopolymers (‘foldamers’) and have the ability to self-assemble into atomically precise nanostructures in aqueous conditions has proved exceptionally challenging. Here we report the modular design, formation and structural elucidation at the atomic level of a series of diverse quaternary arrangements formed by the self-assembly of short amphiphilic α-helicomimetic foldamers that bear proteinaceous side chains. We show that the final quaternary assembly can be controlled at the sequence level, which permits the programmed formation of either discrete helical bundles that contain isolated cavities or pH-responsive water-filled channels with controllable pore diameters.

  20. Subtle balance of tropoelastin molecular shape and flexibility regulates dynamics and hierarchical assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Giselle C; Tarakanova, Anna; Baldock, Clair; Wise, Steven G; Buehler, Markus J; Weiss, Anthony S

    2016-02-01

    The assembly of the tropoelastin monomer into elastin is vital for conferring elasticity on blood vessels, skin, and lungs. Tropoelastin has dual needs for flexibility and structure in self-assembly. We explore the structure-dynamics-function interplay, consider the duality of molecular order and disorder, and identify equally significant functional contributions by local and global structures. To study these organizational stratifications, we perturb a key hinge region by expressing an exon that is universally spliced out in human tropoelastins. We find a herniated nanostructure with a displaced C terminus and explain by molecular modeling that flexible helices are replaced with substantial β sheets. We see atypical higher-order cross-linking and inefficient assembly into discontinuous, thick elastic fibers. We explain this dysfunction by correlating local and global structural effects with changes in the molecule's assembly dynamics. This work has general implications for our understanding of elastomeric proteins, which balance disordered regions with defined structural modules at multiple scales for functional assembly. PMID:26998516

  1. Research of Effective Width of FRP U-shaped Hoop Reinforcement Properties of Concrete Beams by Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baokun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste fiber reinforced composite material (hereinafter referred to as FRP U-shaped hoop of reinforced concrete beams interfacial debonding is an important reinforcement technology research. For the effective width of the CFRP U-shaped hoop reinforcement, it is still a lack of in-depth research, only relying on the test research huge workload, this article (ANSYS and the numerical simulation in the whole process of the shear load release properties of finite element calculation software. According to the results of finite element analysis, the author studied the CFRP U-shaped hoop to increase the width of the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the impact.

  2. Effect of V Notch Shape on Fatigue Life in Steel Beam Made of AISI 1037

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Bader

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work encompasses effect of V notch shape with various geometries and dimensions on fatigue life behavior in steel beam made of Medium Carbon Steel AISI 1037 which has a wide application in industry. Fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for smooth specimens (reference and by use Numerical method (FEA.The fatigue experiments were carried out at room temperature, applying a fully reversed cyclic load with the frequency of (50Hz and mean stress equal to zero (R= -1, on a cantilever rotating-bending fatigue testing machine. The stress ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. Different instruments have been used in this investigation like Chemical composition analyzer type (Spectromax ,Tensile universal testing machine type (WDW-100E ,Hardness tester type (HSV- 1000 , Fatigue testing machine model Gunt WP 140, Optical Light Microscope (OLM and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM were employed to examine the fracture features . The results show that there is acceptable error between experimental and numerical works .

  3. Characterization of kink actuators as compared to traditional chevron shaped Bent-Beam electrothermal actuators

    KAUST Repository

    Rawashdeh, E.

    2012-07-06

    This paper compares the design and performance of kink actuators, a modified version of the bent-beam thermal actuator, to the standard chevron-shaped designs. A variety of kink and chevron actuator designs were fabricated from polysilicon. While the actuators were electrically probed, these designs were tested using a probe station connected to a National Instruments (NI) controller that uses LabVIEW to extract the displacement results via image processing. The displacement results were then used to validate the thermal-electric-structural simulations produced by COMSOL. These results, in turn, were used to extract the stiffness for both actuator types. The data extracted show that chevron actuators can have larger stiffness values with increasing offsets, but at the cost of lower amplification factors. In contrast, kink actuators showed a constant stiffness value equivalent to the chevron actuator with the highest amplification factor. The kink actuator also had larger amplification factors than chevrons at all designs tested. Therefore, kink actuators are capable of longer throws at lower power levels than the standard chevron designs.

  4. Strong species-environment feedback shapes plant community assembly along environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    An aim of community ecology is to understand the patterns of competing species assembly along environmental gradients. All species interact with their environments. However, theories of community assembly have seldom taken into account the effects of species that are able to engineer the environment. In this modeling study, we integrate the species' engineering trait together with processes of immigration and local dispersal into a theory of community assembly. We quantify the species' engineering trait as the degree to which it can move the local environment away from its baseline state towards the optimum state of the species (species-environment feedback). We find that, in the presence of immigration from a regional pool, strong feedback can increase local species richness; however, in the absence of continual immigration, species richness is a declining function of the strength of species-environment feedback. This shift from a negative effect of engineering strength on species richness to a positive effect, as immigration rate increases, is clearer when there is spatial heterogeneity in the form of a gradient in environmental conditions than when the environment is homogeneous or it is randomly heterogeneous. Increasing the scale over which local dispersal occurs can facilitate species richness when there is no species-environment feedback or when the feedback is weak. However, increases in the spatial scale of dispersal can reduce species richness when the species-environment feedback is strong. These results expand the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of the strength of species-environment feedback on community assembly.

  5. Magneto-optical response of InAs lens-shaped self-assembled quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimeck, G.; Oyafuso, F.; Lee, S.; Allmen, P. von

    2003-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a realistic modeling of the electronic structure for InAs self-assembled quantum dots and investigate the magneto-optical response, i.e., Zeeman splitting and transition rates between electron and hole levels.

  6. Geometrically frustrated filament assemblies: Unravelling the connection between bundle shape and inter-filament order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grason, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    From steel cables and textile fibers to filamentous protein bundles in cells and tissues, densely-packed assemblies of filaments are vital structural elements of the worlds around us and inside of us. Despite the ubiquity and utility of dense-filament assemblies in such diverse materials (across 7 orders of magnitude in size!) surprisingly little is known about the fundamental rules that govern their structure. This talk will discuss recent progress in our understanding of the non-linear relationship between the geometry of a rope-like assembly and the structure and energetics of inter-filament packing. In particular, we focus on mathematical models of the geometric frustration between twist - as in macroscopic cables or chiral biofilament bundles - and the preference for isometric, or ``constant spacing,'' packing of filaments in the cross section. Any measure of twist makes it geometrically impossible to evenly space filaments in bundles, begging the question what is the optimal packing of a twisted bundle? We show that geometry of interfilament contact can be mapped formally onto a problem of packing on a 2D non-Euclidean surfaces, whose intrinsically-curved geometry points to the necessity of a complex spectrum defects in the ground-state packing. We confirm the existence of defects and their sensitivity to bundle twist and radius through simulations of energy-minimizing assemblies of cohesive filaments.

  7. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  8. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarepisheh, M; Li, R; Xing, L [Stanford UniversitySchool of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Ye, Y [Stanford Univ, Management Science and Engineering, Stanford, Ca (United States); Boyd, S [Stanford University, Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  9. Evaluation of imaging reformation for root and pulp canal shapes of permanent teeth using a cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jong Hyun; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwang, Eui Hwan [Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    To estimate the shape of root and pulp canal using a dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate the accuracy of imaging reformation. CBCT images were obtained with incisors, premolars, and molars as the destination by using PSR 9000N {sup TM} Dental CT system (Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd, Kyoto, Japan) and i-CAT (Imaging Sciences International, Inc, USA) cone beam CT unit that have different kind of detector and field of view, and compared these with the shape and the size of actual root and root canal. When the measuring value of cone beam computed tomography concerning to each root's bucco-lingual diameter and mesio-distal diameter was compared with the value of the actual root, it reveals an error range -0.49 {approx} +0.63 mm at PSR900N and -0.97 {approx} +1.14 mm at i-CAT (P>0.05). It was possible to identify and measure PSR 9000N {sup T}M Dental CT system to the limit 0.48{+-}0.06 mm (P>0.05) and i-CAT CBCT to the limit 0.86{+-}0.09 mm (P<0.05) on estimating the size and the shape of root canal. Two kinds of CBCT images revealed the useful reproducibility to estimate the shape of root, but there was the difference to estimate the shape of root according to apparatus. The reproducibility of root shape in the image of three-dimensions at PSR 900N is low such as 0.65 mm in a case of minute root canal. CBCT images revealed higher accuracy of the imaging reformation for root and pulp and clinically CBCT is a useful diagnostic tool for the assessment of root and canal. However, these are different qualities of imaging reformation according to CBCT apparatus and limitation of reproducibility for minute root canals.

  10. Shaped Beam Pattern Synthesis of Antenna Arrays Using Composite Differential Evolution with Eigenvector-Based Crossover Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios K. Goudos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of designing shaped beam patterns with arbitrary arrays subject to constraints. The constraints could include the sidelobe level suppression in specified angular intervals, the mainlobe halfpower beamwidth, and the predefined number of elements. In this paper, we propose a new Differential Evolution algorithm, which combines Composite DE with an eigenvector-based crossover operator (CODE-EIG. This operator utilizes eigenvectors of covariance matrix of individual solutions, which makes the crossover rotationally invariant. We apply this novel design method to shaped beam pattern synthesis for linear and conformal arrays. We compare this algorithm with other popular algorithms and DE variants. The results show CODE-EIG outperforms the other DE algorithms in terms of statistical results and convergence speed.

  11. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm)

  12. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christof P.; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C.

    2014-12-01

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm).

  13. Multi-state lasing in self-assembled ring-shaped green fluorescent protein microcavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Christof P., E-mail: cpd3@st-andrews.ac.uk; Höfling, Sven; Gather, Malte C., E-mail: mcg6@st-andrews.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-08

    We demonstrate highly efficient lasing from multiple photonic states in microcavities filled with self-assembled rings of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) in its solid state form. The lasing regime is achieved at very low excitation energies of 13 nJ and occurs from cavity modes dispersed in both energy and momentum. We attribute the momentum distribution to very efficient scattering of incident light at the surface of the eGFP rings. The distribution of lasing states in energy is induced by the large spectral width of the gain spectrum of recombinant eGFP (FWHM ≅ 25 nm)

  14. Shape mismatch in self assembly leads to fiber-like aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Martin; Efrati, Efraim; Witten, Thomas A.

    Aggregating proteins tend to form fibers, often for the worse - think of Alzheimer's disease. Could this propensity to form fibers be a generic physical property of irregular aggregating objects, rather than something specific to protein chemistry? We investigate the aggregation of simple ill-fitting, deformable objects and find that geometrical frustration can lead to self-assembly into slender aggregates. ML acknowledges support from Université Paris-Sud and CNRS, the University of Chicago FACCTS program, Marie Curie Integration Grant PCIG12-GA-2012-334053 and ``Investissements d'Avenir'' LabEx PALM (ANR-10-LABX-0039-PALM).

  15. Incorporation of fiber optic beam shaping into a laparoscopic probe for laser stimulation of the cavernous nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozburun, Serhat; Lagoda, Gwen A.; Mayeh, Mona; Burnett, Arthur L.; Farahi, Faramarz; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2010-02-01

    The cavernous nerves (CN) course along the prostate surface and are responsible for erectile function. Improved identification and preservation of the CN's is critical to maintaining sexual potency after prostate cancer surgery. Noncontact optical nerve stimulation (ONS) of the CN's was recently demonstrated in a rat model, in vivo, as a potential alternative to electrical nerve stimulation (ENS) for identification of the CN's during prostate surgery. However, the therapeutic window for ONS is narrow, so optimal design of the fiber optic delivery system is critical for safe, reproducible stimulation. This study describes modeling, assembly, and testing of an ONS probe for delivering a small, collimated, flat-top laser beam for uniform CN stimulation. A direct comparison of the magnitude and response time of the intracavernosal pressure (ICP) for both Gaussian and flat-top spatial beam profiles was performed. Thulium fiber laser radiation (λ=1870 nm) was delivered through a 200-μm fiber, with distal fiber tip chemically etched to convert a Gaussian to flat-top beam profile. The laser beam was collimated to a 1-mm-diameter spot using an aspheric lens. Computer simulations of light propagation were used to optimize the probe design. The 10-Fr (3.4-mm-OD) laparoscopic probe provided a constant radiant exposure at the nerve surface. The probe was tested in four rats, in vivo. ONS of the CN's was performed with a 1-mm-diameter spot, 5- ms pulse duration, and pulse rate of 20 Hz for a duration of 15-30 s. The flat-top laser beam profile consistently produced a faster and higher ICP response at a lower radiant exposure than the Gaussian beam profile due, in part, to easier alignment of the more uniform beam with nerve. With further development, ONS may be used as a diagnostic tool for identification of the CN's during laparoscopic and robotic nerve-sparing prostate cancer surgery.

  16. Microfluidics-assisted diffusion self-assembly: toward the control of the shape and size of pectin hydrogel microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Mélanie; Davy, Joelle; Fang, Aiping; Renard, Denis

    2014-05-12

    We demonstrated the generation of pectin hydrogel microparticles having complex shapes either by combining the phenomenon of gelation and water diffusion-induced self-assembly in microfluidic channels (on-chip) or by the deformation of the pregelled droplets outside the channels (off-chip) at a fluid-fluid interface. We proved that by tuning the mode of pectin cross-linking (CaCl2 vs CaCO3) and the degree of shrinking (water content in the dimethyl carbonate (DMC) organic continuous phase) we can control the shape of the final particle. Sphere, doughnut, oblate ellipsoid, or mushroom-type morphologies were thus produced, demonstrating the ability to control the formation of anisotropic biopolymer-based hydrogel microparticles using microfluidics. Shape changes were explained by the redistribution of calcium ions in combination with the local Peclet number experienced by the microdroplets during the on-chip process. Moreover, during the off-chip process, the interplay between elastic and viscous forces for microdroplets entering the CaCl2-DMC interface caused deformation of the pregelled droplets to occur and therefore resulted in the formation of microparticles with a mushroom-like morphology.

  17. Microfluidics-assisted diffusion self-assembly: toward the control of the shape and size of pectin hydrogel microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Mélanie; Davy, Joelle; Fang, Aiping; Renard, Denis

    2014-05-12

    We demonstrated the generation of pectin hydrogel microparticles having complex shapes either by combining the phenomenon of gelation and water diffusion-induced self-assembly in microfluidic channels (on-chip) or by the deformation of the pregelled droplets outside the channels (off-chip) at a fluid-fluid interface. We proved that by tuning the mode of pectin cross-linking (CaCl2 vs CaCO3) and the degree of shrinking (water content in the dimethyl carbonate (DMC) organic continuous phase) we can control the shape of the final particle. Sphere, doughnut, oblate ellipsoid, or mushroom-type morphologies were thus produced, demonstrating the ability to control the formation of anisotropic biopolymer-based hydrogel microparticles using microfluidics. Shape changes were explained by the redistribution of calcium ions in combination with the local Peclet number experienced by the microdroplets during the on-chip process. Moreover, during the off-chip process, the interplay between elastic and viscous forces for microdroplets entering the CaCl2-DMC interface caused deformation of the pregelled droplets to occur and therefore resulted in the formation of microparticles with a mushroom-like morphology. PMID:24673589

  18. Study on the beam shaping of high-power laser diode bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Huang(黄伟); Xiaodong Zeng(曾晓东); Yuying An(安毓英)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Collins form, the intensity distribution of the resulting beam is derived when Gaussian beamsof a high-power laser diode bar pass through a paraxial optical system. Then flattop beam profiles areobtained by a concave cylindrical lens, and the propagation properties are discussed in detail, such as thepeak-intensity axis inclined at an angle γi. In addition, an expression to calculate beam angular width ispresented.

  19. Evaluation of imaging reformation with cone beam computed tomography for the assessment of bone density and shape in mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Woo; Kim, Gyu Tae; Choi, Yong Suk; Hwan, Eui Hwan [School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Diagnostic estimation of destruction and formation of bone has the typical limit according to capacity of x-ray generator and image detector. So the aim of this study was to find out how much it can reproduce the shape and the density of bone in the case of using recently developed dental type of cone beam computed tomography, and which image is applied by new detector and mathematic calculation. Cone beam computed tomography (PSR 9000N, Asahi Roentgen Ind. Co., Ltd., Japan) and soft x-ray radiography were executed on dry mandible that was already decalcified during 5 hours, 10 hours, 15 hours, 20 hours, and 25 hours. Estimating and comparing of those came to the following results. The change of inferior border of mandible and anterior border of ramous in the region of cortical bone was observed between first 5 and 10 hours of decalcification. The reproduction of shape and density in the region of cortical bone and cancellous bone can be hardly observed at cone beam computed tomography compared with soft x-ray radiography. The difference of decrease of bone density according to hours of decalcification increase was not reproduced at cone beam computed tomography compared with soft x-ray radiography. CBCT images revealed higher spatial resolution. However, contrast resolution in region of low contrast sensitivity is the inferiority of images' property.

  20. Analysis of Static and Dynamic Behavior of T-shape Beam Reinforced by External Prestressing Tendon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinghai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available External prestressing has become a primary method for strengthening existing concrete beam and has been increasingly used in the construction of newly erected ones, particularly railroad bridges in recent years. In order to evaluate the effect of this method, the static and dynamic behavior of a T-frame beam reinforced by external prestressed strengthened concrete beam was analyzed by 3D finite element method, and the field test study was also made. The study was carried out to further investigate the simply supported reinforced prestressed concrete beam strengthened by external prestressing through theory analysis and experiment.

  1. Arbitrary non-paraxial accelerating periodic beams and spherical shaping of light

    CERN Document Server

    Mathis, A; Giust, R; Furfaro, L; Jacquot, M; Froehly, L; Dudley, J M

    2013-01-01

    We report the observation of arbitrary accelerating beams designed using a non-paraxial description of optical caustics. We use a spatial light modulator-based setup and techniques of Fourier optics to generate circular and Weber beams subtending over 95 degrees of arc. Applying a complementary binary mask also allows the generation of periodic accelerating beams taking the forms of snake-like trajectories, and the application of a rotation to the caustic allows the first experimental synthesis of optical accelerating beams upon the surface of a sphere in three dimensions.

  2. Shaping the spatial periodic electron beams in the system of magnetron guns with secondary emission cathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzatskij, N I; Zakutin, V V; Reshetnyak, N G; Romasko, V P; Volkolupov, Yu Ya; Krasnogolovets, M A

    2001-01-01

    The study on the electron beam generation processes in the system of the magnetron guns with the secondary-emission cathodes and anodes in form of periodically positioned metallic pins is carried out. It is shown, that the beam summary current of approximately 22 A is obtained in the system, consisting of four cells, which corresponds to the quadruplicate beam current value of the one cell. The pulse capacity thereby constituted approximately 600 kW. Such beams may be applied in the multipulse microwave devices

  3. Combining generalized phase contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical ...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications.......We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...

  4. Combining Generalized Phase Contrast with matched filtering into a versatile beam shaping approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    2010-01-01

    We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical ...... manipulation, high-speed sorting and other parallel spatial light applications [1].......We adapt concepts from matched filtering to propose a method for generating reconfigurable multiple beams. Combined with the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) technique, the proposed method coined mGPC can yield dynamically reconfigurable optical beam arrays with high light efficiency for optical...

  5. Modeling and design of a new core-moderator assembly and neutron beam ports for the Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Dundar

    This study is for modeling and designing a new reactor core-moderator assembly and new neutron beam ports that aimed to expand utilization of a new beam hall of the Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The PSBR is a part of the Radiation Science and Engineering Facility (RSEC) and is a TRIGA MARK III type research reactor with a movable core placed in a large pool and is capable to produce 1MW output. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with pulsing capability up to 2000 MW for 10-20 msec. There are seven beam ports currently installed to the reactor. The PSBR's existing core design limits the experimental capability of the facility, as only two of the seven available neutron beam ports are usable. The finalized design features an optimized result in light of the data obtained from neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses as well as geometrical constraints. A new core-moderator assembly was introduced to overcome the limitations of the existing PSBR design, specifically maximizing number of available neutron beam ports and mitigating the hydrogen gamma contamination of the neutron beam channeled in the beam ports. A crescent-shaped moderator is favored in the new PSBR design since it enables simultaneous use of five new neutron beam ports in the facility. Furthermore, the crescent shape sanctions a coupling of the core and moderator, which reduces the hydrogen gamma contamination significantly in the new beam ports. A coupled MURE and MCNP5 code optimization analysis was performed to calculate the optimum design parameters for the new PSBR. Thermal-hydraulics analysis of the new design was achieved using ANSYS Fluent CFD code. In the current form, the PSBR is cooled by natural convection of the pool water. The driving force for the natural circulation of the fluid is the heat generation within the fuel rods. The convective heat data was generated at the reactor's different operating powers by using TRIGSIMS, the fuel management code of the PSBR core. In the CFD

  6. Chemoenzymatic synthesis amphiphilic H-shaped copolymer and its self-assembly behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    ABA triblock copolymers were synthesized by dihydroxyl-capped PEO initiated enzymatic ring-opening polymerization (eROP) of ε-CL in the presence of biocatalyst Novozyme 435. The chains ended with hydroxyl of block copolymers were modified by the esterification of 2,2-dichloro acetyl chloride (DCAC) to obtain the tetrafunctional macroinitiator,which was used in the ATRP of 4-vinylpyridine (4-VP). CuCl/HMTETA was used as the catalyst system in the ATRP of 4-VP to acquire the H-shaped block copolymers (PVP)2-b-PCL-b-PEG-b-PCL-b-(PVP)2. The H-shaped block copolymers were characterized by FTIR,NMR,and GPC. Copolymers with high molecular weights (Mn = 46121 g/mol) and low polydispersities (Mw/Mn = 1.30) were prepared. Moreover,the morphology of the copolymer was examined with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Spherical micelles with a diameter of 70 nm in aqueous solution were obtained.

  7. Lanthanum induced B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ashok K; Mishra, Aseem; Jena, Bhabani S; Mishra, Barada K; Subudhi, Umakanta

    2016-01-01

    Controlled conversion of right-handed B-DNA to left-handed Z-DNA is one of the greatest conformational transitions in biology. Recently, the B-Z transition has been explored from nanotechnological points of view and used as the driving machinery of many nanomechanical devices. Using a combination of CD spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and PAGE, we demonstrate that low concentration of lanthanum chloride can mediate B-to-Z transition in self-assembled Y-shaped branched DNA (bDNA) structure. The transition is sensitive to the sequence and structure of the bDNA. Thermal melting and competitive dye binding experiments suggest that La(3+) ions are loaded to the major and minor grooves of DNA and stabilize the Z-conformation. Our studies also show that EDTA and EtBr play an active role in reversing the transition from Z-to-B DNA. PMID:27241949

  8. Design optimization of a smooth headlamp reflector to SAE/DOT beam-shape requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatz, Narkis E.; Bortz, John C.; Dassanayake, Mahendra S.

    1999-10-01

    The optical design of Ford Motor Company's 1992 Mercury Grand Marquis headlamp utilized a Sylvania 9007 filament source, a paraboloidal reflector and an array of cylindrical lenses (flutes). It has been of interest to Ford to determine the practicality of closely reproducing the on- road beam pattern performance of this headlamp, with an alternate optical arrangement whereby the control of the beam would be achieved solely by means of the geometry of the surface of the reflector, subject to a requirement of smooth-surface continuity; replacing the outer lens with a clear plastic cover having no beam-forming function. To this end the far-field intensity distribution produced by the 9007 bulb was measured at the low-beam setting. These measurements were then used to develop a light-source model for use in ray tracing simulations of candidate reflector geometries. An objective function was developed to compare candidate beam patterns with the desired beam pattern. Functional forms for the 3D reflector geometry were developed with free parameters to be subsequently optimized. A solution was sought meeting the detailed US SAE/DOT constraints for minimum and maximum permissible levels of illumination in the different portions of the beam pattern. Simulated road scenes were generated by Ford Motor Company to compare the illumination properties of the new design with those of the original Grand Marquis headlamp.

  9. Self-assembly of Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles to Solid, Hollow Spherical and Wire-Shaped Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NAN Zhao-Dong; WEI Cheng-Zhen; WANG Xue-Ying; HAO Hai-Yan

    2008-01-01

    Copper sulfides, such as Cu7S4, Cu1.8S, Cu1.81S and Cu2S, in the wire-like, and solid and hollow ball-like shapes congregated from nano-spherical particles and nanoslices, have been prepared by a solvothermal method using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as solvent. CuSO4 and thiourea were used as the starting materials without as- sistance of any surfactant or template. The results show that the water content in the solvent affects the morphology of the samples, and the reaction time and temperature affect the crystal structure and morphology. On the basis of the obtained results, the formation processes of different morphologies of copper sulfides can be interpreted by the following mechanism: nanoparticles of copper sulfides initially formed, then the wire-like structures were gradually created, and finally translated to solid and hollow spherical structures under the different experimental conditions.

  10. High-current relativistic electron beam shaping in a coaxial diode with magnetic insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solution of the problem of relativistic electron beam (REB) for the system with a constant transverse cross-section and thin-wall tubular cathode in an arbitrary magnetic field is presented. The total equation system determining REB parameters as a function of external longitudinal magnetic field is obtained on the base on the laws of conservation of impulse flow and momentum of electron impulse and fields (electrical and magnetic) under the assumption of the electron beam. Calculation results carried out with provision for a diamagnetism and screening of the beam impulse magnetic field by metal are in a good agreement with experimental data

  11. Spatial beam shaping using a micro-structured optical fiber and all-fiber laser amplification system for large-scale laser facilities seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spatial beam shaping is an important topic for the lasers applications. For various industrial areas (marking, drilling, laser-matter interaction, high-power laser seeding...) the optical beam has to be flattened. Currently, the state of the art of the beam shaping: 'free-space' solutions or highly multimode fibers, are not fully suitable. The first ones are very sensitive to any perturbations and the maintenance is challenging, the second ones cannot deliver a coherent beam. For this reason, we present in this manuscript a micro-structured optical single-mode fiber delivering a spatially flattened beam. This 'Top-Hat' fiber can shape any beam in a spatially coherent beam what is a progress with respect to the highly multimode fibers used in the state of the art. The optical fibers are easy to use and very robust, what is a strong benefit with respect to the 'free-space' solutions. Thanks to this fiber, we could realize an all-fiber multi-stage laser chain to amplify a 10 ns pulse to 100 μJ. Moreover the temporal, spectral and spatial properties were preserved. We adapted this 'Top-Hat' fiber to this multi-stage laser chain, we proved the capability and the interest of this fiber for the spatial beam shaping of the laser beams in highly performing and robust laser systems. (author)

  12. Particle manipulation with acoustic vortex beam induced by a brass plate with spiral shape structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Weiping; Yang, Qian; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we give direct demonstration of acoustic radiation force and acoustic torque on particles exerted by an acoustic vortex beam, which is realized by an acoustic artificial structure plate instead of traditional transducer arrays. First, the first order acoustic vortex beam, which has the distinctive features of a linear and continuous phase variation from -π to π around its propagation axis and a magnitude null at its core, is obtained through one single acoustic source incident upon a structured brass plate with Archimedean spiral grating engraved on the back surface. Second, annular self-patterning of polystyrene particles with a radius of 90 μm is realized in the gradient field of this acoustic vortex beam. In addition, we further exhibit acoustic angular momentum transfer to an acoustic absorptive matter, which is verified by a millimeter-sized polylactic acid disk self-rotating in water in the acoustic field of the generated vortex beam.

  13. Self-healing supramolecular bioelastomers with shape memory property as a multifunctional platform for biomedical applications via modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Xin; Hou, Sen; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-10-01

    Mimicking native functional dynamics for traditional biomaterials such as thermoset elastomers is limited due to their lack of responsiveness to biological stimuli and difficulties to incorporate biofunctionalities. Furthermore, the mechanical fracture of traditional thermoset elastomers caused by irreversible covalent bond rupture would lead to their permanent loss of properties. To overcome these challenges, degradable self-healed supramolecular bioelastomers are designed by an elastic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) backbone and multiple hydrogen-bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) grafts. These supramolecular elastic polymers exhibit efficient self-healing, rapid shape-memory abilities and highly tunable mechanical properties due to the dynamic supramolecular interactions, and perform a good biocompatibility in vitro and a mild host response in vivo. By combining modular approaches, these supramolecular bioelastomers have been further assembled into a multifunctional platform to expand their applications in different biomedical fields. These include a complex 3D scaffold with shape-memory capacity and anisotropic mechanical properties, a controllable drug delivery model via a layer-by-layer technique, a surface antibacterial composite by physical modification, and a spatial oriented cell co-culture system via incorporating different cell-laden self-healing films, demonstrating their potential as building blocks in a wide range of biomedical applications where dynamic properties and biological functions are desired.

  14. Self-healing supramolecular bioelastomers with shape memory property as a multifunctional platform for biomedical applications via modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Xin; Hou, Sen; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-10-01

    Mimicking native functional dynamics for traditional biomaterials such as thermoset elastomers is limited due to their lack of responsiveness to biological stimuli and difficulties to incorporate biofunctionalities. Furthermore, the mechanical fracture of traditional thermoset elastomers caused by irreversible covalent bond rupture would lead to their permanent loss of properties. To overcome these challenges, degradable self-healed supramolecular bioelastomers are designed by an elastic poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) backbone and multiple hydrogen-bonding ureido-pyrimidinone (UPy) grafts. These supramolecular elastic polymers exhibit efficient self-healing, rapid shape-memory abilities and highly tunable mechanical properties due to the dynamic supramolecular interactions, and perform a good biocompatibility in vitro and a mild host response in vivo. By combining modular approaches, these supramolecular bioelastomers have been further assembled into a multifunctional platform to expand their applications in different biomedical fields. These include a complex 3D scaffold with shape-memory capacity and anisotropic mechanical properties, a controllable drug delivery model via a layer-by-layer technique, a surface antibacterial composite by physical modification, and a spatial oriented cell co-culture system via incorporating different cell-laden self-healing films, demonstrating their potential as building blocks in a wide range of biomedical applications where dynamic properties and biological functions are desired. PMID:27424213

  15. Evolution of self-assembled InAs/Gas(001) quantum dots grown by growth-interrupted molecular beam epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Balzarotti, A.

    2008-01-01

    Self-assembled InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on GaAs(001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy under continuous and growth-interruption modes exhibit two families of QDs, quasi-3D (Q3D) and 3D QDs, whose volume density evolution is quantitatively described by a rate-equation kinetic model. The volume density of small Q3D QDs decreases exponentially with time during the interruption, while the single-dot mean volume of the large QDs increases by Ostwald ripening. The kinetics of growth involves c...

  16. Concrete Pouring Process Of U-shaped Beam%U形梁混凝土浇筑工艺探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常琨

    2014-01-01

    Shanghai first line 16, a u-shaped girder and Qingdao blue inter-city rail transit line R1 in silicon val ey Post tensioning U beam,it has light structure, saving materials, short construction period, noise reduction, etc.But the construction especial y concrete process requirement is very high. After analyzing different types of u-shaped beam,the u-shaped girder concrete pouring process in detail in this paper.%上海16号线先张U形梁和青岛蓝色硅谷城际轨道交通R1线后张U形梁,其具有结构轻便、节约建材、施工周期短、降噪等优点。但对施工工艺尤其是混凝土工艺要求很高。文章在分析不同类型U形梁后,对U形梁混凝土浇筑工艺进行详细阐述。

  17. Nature of crystalline particle assembly in ring shaped colloidal stains from concentrated dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Fenfen; Huynh, Trang [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Somers, Anthony [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway, Burwood VIC 3125 Australia (Australia); Liu, Boyin; Fu, Jing [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Muradoglu, Murat [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia); Ng, Tuck Wah, E-mail: engngtw@gmail.com [Laboratory for Optics and Applied Mechanics, Monash University, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    The drying of colloidal droplet suspensions is important in many realms of practical application and has sustained the interest of researchers over two decades. The arrangements of polystyrene and silica beads, both of diameter 1 μm, 10% by volume of solid deposited on normal glass (hydrophilic), and silicone (hydrophobic) surfaces evaporated from a suspension volume of 3 μL, were investigated. Doughnut shape depositions were found, imputing the influence of strong central circulation flows that resulted in three general regions. In the central region which had strong particle build-up, the top most layers of particle arrangement was confirmed to be disordered using power spectrum and radial distribution function analysis. On closer examination, this appeared more like frustrated attempts to crystallize into larger grains rather than beads arranging in a disordered fashion throughout the piling process. With an adapted micro-bulldozing operation to progressively remove layers of particles from the heap, we found that the later efforts to crystallize through lateral capillary inter-particle forces were liable to be undone once the particles contacted the disorganized particles underneath, which were formed out of the jamming of fast particles arriving at the surface.

  18. Hexagonal-shaped chondroitin sulfate self-assemblies have exalted anti-HSV-2 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Aurélia; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Lembo, David; Cagno, Valeria; Djabourov, Madeleine; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Bouchemal, Kawthar

    2016-01-20

    The initial step in mucosal infection by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires its binding to certain glycosaminoglycans naturally present on host cell membranes. We took advantage of this interaction to design biomimetic supramolecular hexagonal-shaped nanoassemblies composed of chondroitin sulfate having exalted anti-HSV-2 activity in comparison with native chondroitin sulfate. Nanoassemblies were formed by mixing hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate with α-cyclodextrin in water. Optimization of alkyl chain length grafted on chondroitin sulfate and the ratio between hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate and α-cyclodextrin showed that more cohesive and well-structured nanoassemblies were obtained using higher α-cyclodextrin concentration and longer alkyl chain lengths. A structure-activity relationship was found between anti-HSV-2 activity and the amphiphilic nature of hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. Also, antiviral activity of hexagonal nanoassemblies against HSV-2 was further improved in comparison with hydrophobically-modified chondroitin sulfate. This work suggests a new biomimetic formulation approach that can be extended to other heparan-sulfate-dependent viruses. PMID:26572336

  19. Passive smart self-repairing concrete beams by using shape memory alloy wires and fibers containing adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUANG Ya-chuan; OU Jin-ping

    2008-01-01

    An innovative approach to increase structural survivability of concrete and maintain structural durability of concrete was developed in ease of earthquakes and typhoons. This approach takes advantage of the superelastic effect of shape memory alloy (SMA) and the cohering characteristic of repairing adhesive. These SMA wires and brittle fibers containing adhesives were embedded into concrete beams during concrete casting to form smart reinforced concrete beams. The self-repairing capacity of smart concrete beams was investigated by three-point bending tests. The experimental results show that SMA wires add self-restoration capacity, the concrete beams recover almost completely after incurring an extremely large deflection and the cracks are closed almost completely by the recovery forces of SMA wires. The number or areas of SMA wires has no influence on the tendency of deformation during loading and the tendency of reversion by the superelasticity. The adhesives released from the broken-open fibers fill voids and cracks. The repaired damage enables continued function and prevents further degradation.

  20. High shape recovery Ni–Ti SMA wire produced from electron beam melted ingot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, A.S. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul – IFMS, 79.331-040, Corumba, MS (Brazil); Tosetti, J.P.V. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Otubo, J., E-mail: jotubo@ita.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica – ITA, 12.228-900, S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► It was obtained a remarkable complete shape recovery up to 9% pre-strain. ► Shape recovery higher than 9% was obtained for a pre-strain up to 15%. ► These good results are attributed to a high purity NiTi SMA wire produced from EBM ingot. -- Abstract: Shape recovery of a 2 mm in diameter shape memory alloy (SMA) wire produced from EB melted NiTi ingot is presented. The results indicate complete shape recovery as high as 9% and a shape recovery higher than 9% for a pre-strain between 10 and 15%. These excellent results are attributed to the high purity of starting ingot with carbon content of 0.016 wt%. It was observed no change in reverse martensitic transformation temperature for pre-strain up to 9% and for higher pre-strain there was a 50 °C increase in reverse martensitic transformation peak temperatures indicating some work hardening of the material.

  1. Laser patterning with beam shaping on indium tin oxide thin films of glass/plastic substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research the laser beam shaper component has been used to obtain top-hat intensity distribution laser beam to perform line scribing and to perform electrode patterning on Indium thin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass and plastic substrate. ITO films were removed with third harmonic Nd:YAG laser processing system. The pulse duration, laser output power, pulse repetition rate and scanning speed parameters of straight line patterning and electrode patterning on different types of substrates were discussed, respectively. The experimental results are measured by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope to evaluate the processing parameters and surface properties of ITO thin films.

  2. The integrated optics beam combiner assembly of the GRAVITY/VLTI instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocou, L.; Perraut, K.; Nolot, A.; Moulin, T.; Magnard, Y.; Labeye, P.; Lapras, V.; Eisenhauer, F.; Perrin, G.; Amorim, A.; Brandner, W.; Straubmeier, C.

    2012-07-01

    Gravity aims at enhancing infrared imaging at VLTI to significantly improve our understanding of the physical processes related to gravitation and accretion within compact objects. With its fiber-fed integrated optics, infrared wavefront sensors, fringe tracker, beam stabilization and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will push the sensitivity and accuracy of astrometry and interferometric imaging far beyond what is offered today. Four telescopes will be combined in dual feed in the K band providing precision astrometry of order 10 micro-arcseconds, and imaging with 4- milliarcsecond resolution. The fringe tracker and the scientific instrument host an identical integrated optics beam combiner made by silica-on-silicon etching technology that is put inside a cryogenic vessel and cooled down to 200K to reduce thermal background and increase sensitivity. This paper gives the design of the integrated beam combiner and of its fibered array that allows feeding the combiner with stellar light. Lab measurement of spectral throughput and interferometric performance for beam combiners made by Flame Hydrolysis Deposition and by Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) are given. The procedure to glue together the beam combiner and its fibered array is described as well as the tests to validate the performance and the ageing effects at low temperature. Finally the thermal analysis and the eigen-frequency study of the whole device are presented.

  3. The effect of customized beam shaping on normal tissue complications in radiation therapy of parotid gland tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keus, R.; Boer, R. de; Lebesque, J. (Nederlands Kanker Inst. ' Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis' , Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Noach, P. (Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands). Department of Radiotherapy)

    1991-07-01

    The impact of customized beam shaping was studied for 5 patients with parotid tumors treated with a paired wedged field technique. For each patient 2 plans were generated. The standard plan had unblocked portals with field sizes defined by the largest target contour found in any CT slice. In the 2nd plan customized beam's view (BEV) designed blocks were added to both beams. The differences in those distributions between the 2 types of plans were evaluated using dose-volume histograms (DVH). As expected, the dose distribution within the target volume showed no difference. However, a considerable sparing of normal tissue was observed for the plans with customized blocks. The volume of un-necessary exposed normal tissue that received more than 90 percent of the prescribed dose, was reduced by a factor of about 4: from 165 to 44 percent on an average, if the volume is expressed as a percentage of the target volume in each patient. In particular, the homolateral mandible showed a mean decrease of 21 percent of integral dose when blocks were used. Normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP) were calculated. For a tumor dose of 70 Gy, the average bone necrosis probability was reduced from 8.4 percent (no blocks) to 4.1. percent (blocks). For other normal tissues such as nervous tissue, other soft tissues and bones a substantial reduction of integral dose was found for al patients when individual blocks were used. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs.

  4. Self-assembly, structural, and retrostructural analysis of dendritic dipeptide pores undergoing reversible circular to elliptical shape change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterca, Mihai; Percec, Virgil; Dulcey, Andrés E; Nummelin, Sami; Korey, Stephanie; Ilies, Monica; Heiney, Paul A

    2006-05-24

    The synthesis of dendritic dipeptides (4-3,4-3,5-4)12G2-CH(2)-Boc-L-Tyr-L-Ala-OMe and (4-3, 4-3,5-4)12G2-CH(2)-Boc-D-Tyr-D-Ala-OMe is described. These dendritic dipeptides self-assemble into porous elliptical and circular columns that in turn self-organize into centered rectangular columnar and hexagonal columnar periodic arrays. The transition from porous elliptical to porous circular columns is mediated in a reversible or irreversible way by the thermal history of the sample. A method to determine the dimensions of hollow elliptical and circular columns by the reconstruction of the small-angle powder X-ray diffractograms of the centered rectangular or hexagonal columnar lattices was elaborated. This technique together with wide-angle X-ray experiments performed on aligned fibers provided access to the structural and retrostructural analysis of elliptical supramolecular pores. This procedure is general and can be adapted for the determination of the dimensions of pores of any columnar shape. PMID:16704274

  5. Size- and shape-controlled synthesis of hexagonal bipyramidal crystals and hollow self-assembled Al-MOF spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Sarawade, Pradip

    2013-11-25

    We report an efficient protocol for the synthesis of monodisperse crystals of an aluminum (Al)-based metal organic framework (MOF) while obtaining excellent control over the size and shape solely by tuning of the reaction parameters without the use of a template or structure-directing agent. The size of the hexagonal crystals of the Al-MOF can be selectively varied from 100 nm to 2000 nm by simply changing the reaction time and temperature via its nucleation-growth mechanism. We also report a self-assembly phenomenon, observed for the first time in case of Al-MOF, whereby hollow spheres of Al-MOF were formed by the spontaneous organization of triangular sheet building blocks. These MOFs showed broad hysteresis loops during the CO2 capture, indicating that the adsorbed CO2 is not immediately desorbed upon decreasing the external pressure and is instead confined within the framework, which allows for the capture and subsequent selective trapping of CO2 from gaseous mixtures. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Low-speckle holographic beam shaping of high-coherence EUV sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christopher N.; Miyakawa, Ryan H.; Naulleau, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes a method to arbitrarily shape and homogenize high-coherence extreme ultraviolet sources using time-varying holographic optical elements and a scanning subsystem to mitigate speckle. In systems with integration times longer than 100 ms, a speckle contrast below 1% can be achieved.

  7. Comparing flat top and Gaussian focal beam shapes when micromachining steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest

    2011-10-01

    Laser micromachining, drilling and marking is extensively used within the aerospace, automotive and firearms industries. The unique properties of lasers make them ideal tools for micromachining a wide diversity of materials, including steel alloys [1]. We describe the results of micromachining of low carbon steel and stainless steel alloys, using a high powered diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser operating at a wavelength of 355nm. The laser was configured with beam conditioning optics to produce either a flat top beam or a Gaussian output which was then sent through a galvanometer scanner and telecentric lens beam delivery system. This paper outlines the interrelationship of process variables when micromachining fine features in steel and stainless steel alloys. Process variables measured included the optimum laser focus plane, energy density, galvanometer scan rate, and pulse overlap and focal spot diameter. Optimum process performance was evaluated based on a dimensional comparison of the micromachined features from each test coupon, including uniformity and surface roughness of the micromachined surface and the minimization of surface irregularities (stalagmite type slag / debris / corn row patterns) and taper angle of the micromachined feature side walls.

  8. Filamentation patterns in Kerr media vs. beam shape robustness, nonlinear saturation and polarization states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergé, L.; Gouédard, C.; Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens;

    2003-01-01

    -Gaussian (SG) shapes relaxes the self-focusing (SF) attractor and triggers the formation of independent filaments. Analytical criteria for the mutual coalescence of filaments in the context of collapsing and saturating nonlinearities are proposed. Second, the influence of the polarization state on the...... separation distance for coalescence becomes larger, which slows down the production of uncorrelated filaments. Implications of these results in atmospheric propagation are finally discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All fights reserved....

  9. Electron-beam patterned self-assembled monolayers as templates for Cu electrodeposition and lift-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe She

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs of 4'-methylbiphenyl-4-thiol (MBP0 adsorbed on polycrystalline gold substrates served as templates to control electrochemical deposition of Cu structures from acidic solution, and enabled the subsequent lift-off of the metal structures by attachment to epoxy glue. By exploiting the negative-resist behaviour of MBP0, the SAM was patterned by means of electron-beam lithography. For high deposition contrast a two-step procedure was employed involving a nucleation phase around −0.7 V versus Cu2+/Cu and a growth phase at around −0.35 V versus Cu2+/Cu. Structures with features down to 100 nm were deposited and transferred with high fidelity. By using substrates with different surface morphologies, AFM measurements revealed that the roughness of the substrate is a crucial factor but not the only one determining the roughness of the copper surface that is exposed after lift-off.

  10. Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films deposited by low energy cluster beam deposition: Structural and magnetic investigations of deposited layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt cluster-assembled thin films were deposited on amorphous-carbon-coated copper grids and on silicon substrates at room temperature by low energy cluster beam deposition. Characterizations using high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal randomly stacked agglomerates of 9-11 nm diameter, which are themselves composed of small 3.6 nm diameter fcc cobalt clusters. The films are ferromagnetic up to room temperature and above, which implies that the clusters are exchange coupled. The approach to saturation is analyzed within the random anisotropy model. The values of the exchange coefficient A and the anisotropy constant K then derived are discussed. The temperature dependence of the coercivity below 100 K is discussed in terms of thermal activation effects. All results indicate that the fundamental entity governing the magnetic behaviors is constituted by the 9-11 nm diameter agglomerates rather than by the clusters themselves

  11. Bow-tie wobble artifact: Effect of source assembly motion on cone-beam CT

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Dandan; John C. Ford; Lu, Jun; Lazos, Dimitrios; Hugo, Geoffrey D.; Pokhrel, Damodar; Zhang, Lisha; Williamson, Jeffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the cause of a bow-tie wobble artifact (BWA) discovered on Varian OBI CBCT images and to develop practical correction strategies.Method and Materials: The dependence of the BWA on phantom geometry, phantom position, specific system, and reconstruction algorithm was investigated. Simulations were conducted to study the dependence of the BWA on scatter and beam hardening corrections. Geometric calibration was performed to rule out other gantry-angle dependent mechanical ...

  12. Shape evolution of nanostructures by thermal and ion beam processing. Modeling and atomistic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline nanostructures often exhibit gradients of surface (and/or interface) curvature that emerge from fabrication and growth processes or from thermal fluctuations. Thus, the system-inherent capillary force can initiate morphological transformations during further processing steps or during operation at elevated temperature. Therefore and because of the ongoing miniaturization of functional structures which causes a general rise in surface-to-volume ratios, solid-state capillary phenomena will become increasingly important: On the one hand diffusion-mediated capillary processes can be of practical use in view of non-conventional nanostructure fabrication methods based on self-organization mechanisms, on the other hand they can destroy the integrity of nanostructures which can go along with the failure of functionality. Additionally, capillarity-induced shape transformations are effected and can thereby be controlled by applied fields and forces (guided or driven evolution). With these prospects and challenges at hand, formation and shape transformation of single-crystalline nanostructures due to the system-inherent capillary force in combination with external fields or forces are investigated in the frame of this dissertation by means of atomistic computer simulations. For the exploration (search, description, and prediction) of reaction pathways of nanostructure shape transformations, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are the method of choice. Since the employed KMC code is founded on a cellular automaton principle, the spatio-temporal development of lattice-based N-particle systems (N up to several million) can be followed for time spans of several orders of magnitude, while considering local phenomena due to atomic-scale effects like diffusion, nucleation, dissociation, or ballistic displacements. In this work, the main emphasis is put on nanostructures which have a cylindrical geometry, for example, nanowires (NWs), nanorods, nanotubes etc

  13. Shape evolution of nanostructures by thermal and ion beam processing. Modeling and atomistic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roentzsch, L.

    2007-07-01

    Single-crystalline nanostructures often exhibit gradients of surface (and/or interface) curvature that emerge from fabrication and growth processes or from thermal fluctuations. Thus, the system-inherent capillary force can initiate morphological transformations during further processing steps or during operation at elevated temperature. Therefore and because of the ongoing miniaturization of functional structures which causes a general rise in surface-to-volume ratios, solid-state capillary phenomena will become increasingly important: On the one hand diffusion-mediated capillary processes can be of practical use in view of non-conventional nanostructure fabrication methods based on self-organization mechanisms, on the other hand they can destroy the integrity of nanostructures which can go along with the failure of functionality. Additionally, capillarity-induced shape transformations are effected and can thereby be controlled by applied fields and forces (guided or driven evolution). With these prospects and challenges at hand, formation and shape transformation of single-crystalline nanostructures due to the system-inherent capillary force in combination with external fields or forces are investigated in the frame of this dissertation by means of atomistic computer simulations. For the exploration (search, description, and prediction) of reaction pathways of nanostructure shape transformations, kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations are the method of choice. Since the employed KMC code is founded on a cellular automaton principle, the spatio-temporal development of lattice-based N-particle systems (N up to several million) can be followed for time spans of several orders of magnitude, while considering local phenomena due to atomic-scale effects like diffusion, nucleation, dissociation, or ballistic displacements. In this work, the main emphasis is put on nanostructures which have a cylindrical geometry, for example, nanowires (NWs), nanorods, nanotubes etc

  14. Biocompatible polyester macroligands: new subunits for the assembly of star-shaped polymers with luminescent and cleavable metal cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, P S; Webb, M P; McAlvin, J E; Fraser, C L

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of star-shaped, biocompatible polyesters--polylactides (PLAs), polycaprolactones (PCLs), and various copolymer analogues--with either labile iron(II) tris-bipyridyl or luminescent ruthenium(II) tris-bipyridyl cores is described. These polymers were readily assembled by a convergent, metal-template-assisted approach that entailed the synthesis of bipyridine (bpy) ligands incorporating PLA- and PCL-containing arms and subsequent chelation of the "macroligands" to iron(II) or ruthenium(II). Specifically, the polyester macroligands bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) were prepared by a stannous octoate catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of DL- or L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone, using bis(hydroxymethyl)-2,2'-bipyridine as the initiator. Copolymers bpy(PCL-PLA)(2) and bpy(PLA-PCL)(2) were generated in an analogous manner using bpyPLA(2) and bpyPCL(2) as macroinitiators. Polymers with narrow molecular weight distributions and with molecular weights close to values expected based upon monomer/initiator loading were produced. The macroligands were subsequently chelated to iron(II) to afford six-armed, iron-core star polymers, which were characterized by UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Estimated chelation efficiencies for formation of the star polymers (M(n) calcd: 20-240 kDa) were high, as determined by UV-vis spectral analysis. Within the molecular weight range investigated, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the small amounts of metal in the polyester stars and differences in polymer architecture had little effect on the thermal properties of the PLA/PCL materials. However, thin films of the red-violet colored iron-core stars exhibited reversible, thermochromic bleaching. Solutions and films of the polymers also responded (with color loss) to a variety of chemical stimuli (e.g., acid, base, peroxides, ammonia), thus revealing potential for use in diverse sensing applications. Likewise, the polyester

  15. Effects of laser beam propagation and saturation on the spatial shape of sodium laser guide stars

    OpenAIRE

    Marc, Fabien; Guillet De Chatellus, Hugues; Pique, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The possibility to produce diffraction-limited images by large telescopes through Adaptive Optics is closely linked to the precision of measurement of the position of the guide star on the wavefront sensor. In the case of laser guide stars, many parameters can lead to a strong distortion on the shape of the LGS spot. Here we study the influence of both the saturation of the sodium layer excited by different types of lasers, the spatial quality of the laser mode at th...

  16. Investigating Polarisation and Shape of Beam Microwave Signals at the ANKA Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarzkopf, J; Chang, C; Hertle, E; Judin, V; Kehrer, B; Müller, A-S; Schönfeldt, P; Schuh, M; Schütze, P M; Schwarz, M; Steinmann, J L; Caspers, F

    2014-01-01

    At the ANKA synchrotron radiation facility measure- ments in the microwave range (10 to 12 GHz) employing a LNB (Low Noise Block), which is the receiving part of a Satellite-TV system, have been carried out. Experiments showedthattheobservedsignaldependsonthelengthofthe electron bunches. Furthermore the temporal shape of the microwave signal depends on the detector’s position along the accelerator. Due the LNB antenna’s sensitivity to po- larisation it was also possible to measure the polarisation along the several ns long signal, revealing polarised and non-polarised regions. This paper describes the experimen - tal setup and summarises the observations of the systematic studies performed with the LNB system.

  17. All-diamond optical assemblies for a beam-multiplexing X-ray monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Stoupin, S; Blank, V D; Shvyd'ko, Yu V; Goetze, K; Assoufid, L; Polyakov, S N; Kuznetsov, M S; Kornilov, N V; Katsoudas, J; Alonso-Mori, R; Chollet, M; Feng, Y; Glownia, J M; Lemke, H; Robert, A; Song, S; Sikorski, M; Zhu, D

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond (111) monochromator recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) enables splitting of the primary X-ray beam into a pink (transmitted) and a monochromatic (reflected) branch. The first monochromator crystal with a thickness of 100 um provides sufficient X-ray transmittance to enable simultaneous operation of two beamlines. Here we report on the design, fabrication, and X-ray characterization of the first and second (300-um-thick) crystals utilized in the monochromator and the optical assemblies holding these crystals. Each crystal plate has a region of about 5 X 2 mm2 with low defect concentration, sufficient for use in X-ray optics at the LCLS. The optical assemblies holding the crystals were designed to provide mounting on a rigid substrate and to minimize mounting-induced crystal strain. The induced strain was evaluated using double-crystal X-ray topography and was found to be small over the 5 X 2 mm2 working regions of the crystals.

  18. Modulating the self-assembly of amphiphilic X-shaped block copolymers with cyclodextrins: structure and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaitano, Gustavo; Müller, Céline; Radulescu, Aurel; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2015-04-14

    Inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and polymers-so-called pseudopolyrotaxanes (PPR)-are at the origin of fascinating supramolecular structures, which are finding increasing uses in biomedical and technological fields. Here we explore the impact of both native and a range of modified cyclodextrins (CD) on the self-assembly of X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers, so-called Tetronics or poloxamines, by focusing on Tetronic 904 (T904, Mw 6700). The effects are markedly dependent on the type and arrangement of the substituents on the macrocycle. While native CDs drive the formation of a solid PPR, most substituted CDs induce micellar breakup, with dimethylated β-CD (DIMEB) having the strongest impact and randomly substituted CDs a much weaker disruptive effect. Using native α-CD as a "molecular trap", we perform competitive binding experiments-where two types of CDs thread together onto the polymer chains-to establish that DIMEB indeed has the highest propensity to form an inclusion complex with the polymer, while hydroxypropylated CDs do not thread. 1D (1)H NMR and ROESY experiments confirm the formation of a soluble PPR with DIMEB in which the CD binds preferentially to the PO units, thus providing the drive for the observed demicellization. A combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to extract detailed structural parameters on the micelles. A binding model is proposed, which exploits the chemical shifts of selected protons from the CD in conjunction with the Hill equation, to prove that the formation of the PPR is a negatively cooperative process, in which threaded DIMEBs hamper the entrance of subsequent macrocycles. PMID:25785814

  19. Modulating the self-assembly of amphiphilic X-shaped block copolymers with cyclodextrins: structure and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaitano, Gustavo; Müller, Céline; Radulescu, Aurel; Dreiss, Cécile A

    2015-04-14

    Inclusion complexes between cyclodextrins and polymers-so-called pseudopolyrotaxanes (PPR)-are at the origin of fascinating supramolecular structures, which are finding increasing uses in biomedical and technological fields. Here we explore the impact of both native and a range of modified cyclodextrins (CD) on the self-assembly of X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers, so-called Tetronics or poloxamines, by focusing on Tetronic 904 (T904, Mw 6700). The effects are markedly dependent on the type and arrangement of the substituents on the macrocycle. While native CDs drive the formation of a solid PPR, most substituted CDs induce micellar breakup, with dimethylated β-CD (DIMEB) having the strongest impact and randomly substituted CDs a much weaker disruptive effect. Using native α-CD as a "molecular trap", we perform competitive binding experiments-where two types of CDs thread together onto the polymer chains-to establish that DIMEB indeed has the highest propensity to form an inclusion complex with the polymer, while hydroxypropylated CDs do not thread. 1D (1)H NMR and ROESY experiments confirm the formation of a soluble PPR with DIMEB in which the CD binds preferentially to the PO units, thus providing the drive for the observed demicellization. A combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to extract detailed structural parameters on the micelles. A binding model is proposed, which exploits the chemical shifts of selected protons from the CD in conjunction with the Hill equation, to prove that the formation of the PPR is a negatively cooperative process, in which threaded DIMEBs hamper the entrance of subsequent macrocycles.

  20. Impulse electron gun with plasma cathode for realization of large diameter tube-shaped beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are presented the results of investigations of a plasma electron source based on the gas discharge in a coaxial system of electrodes with longitudinal magnetic field. The examination is fulfilled from the viewpoint of applying the source as a plasma cathode for hybrid plasma-waveguide slow-wave structures on the basis of a disk-loaded coaxial. The source is optimized in order to get a powerful (up to 100 kW) nonrelativistic electron beam with the annular cross-section of a large diameter in the regime of relatively long current pulses (up to 0.2 ms) under the gas pressure ∼ 5 centre dot 10-4 mm Hg in the area of the discharge burning

  1. Controlling fast electron beam divergence via temporal shaping of the laser intensity envelope

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, R H H; Beaucourt, C; Markey, K; Lancaster, K L; Brenner, C M; Gray, R J; Musgrave, I O; Robinson, A P L; Li, K; Pasley, J; Notley, M M; Davies, J R; Baton, S D; Santos, J J; McKenna, P; Neely, D; Rose, S J; Norreys, P A

    2010-01-01

    A new experimental technique is described which uses two relativistically intense laser pulses to control and enhance the properties of the MeV electron beam generated during the interaction of an ultra-high-intensity laser pulse with a solid target. Both thermal and Cu K$_{\\alpha}$ x-ray imaging diagnostics show reduced emission size, increased peak emission, increased total emission, and reduced shot-to-shot variability with respect to a single high-contrast pulse. This evidences reduced fast electron divergence, increased fast electron current density and increased energy absorption into the target via fast electrons. The observed characteristics are attributed to magnetic field generation within the target and alterations to the plasma density scale length.

  2. Laser beam deflection monitoring of Nd: YAG laser ablation: pulse shape and repetition rate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaci, Janez; Možina, Janez

    1993-05-01

    The laser beam deflection probe has been employed to study blast waves generated during ablation of metallic surfaces by sequences of 1.06 μm Nd:YAG laser pulses separated by less than 1μs. A fluence threshold has been found, below which the effects of individual pulses can be resolved by the laser probe. Above that, the deflection signal has a similar form as if the surface were irradiated with a single pulse. Analysis of the signals in terms of the spherical blast wave theory shows that a pulse sequence generates a weaker blast wave than a single pulse of equal total energy. On the other hand, the sequence yields a higher etch depth than the single pulse.

  3. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  4. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions. PMID:26561090

  5. Welding feasibility study of U-shape lips at ITER Port-Plug with new laser beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, W., E-mail: w.behr@fz-juelich.de; Faidel, D.; Fischer, K.; Pap, M.; Offermanns, G.

    2013-10-15

    A “Cut and weld feasibility study of U shape lips” shown on June 2007 was initial of the following investigations. A new solution for Port Plug sealing at ITER was demanded and the experience in laser beam welding of the ZAT (Central Institute of Technology) in Jülich (Research Centre Jülich) offered an alternative solution. Up to now mechanically fixed sealing or sealing by TIG welding is used with typical benefits and problems, as heat input, shrinkage or limited room for tools. New disc-laser application for tight welding (leakage rate < 10{sup −9} mbar l/s) of the sealing lips is presented in the following. Both in the metallographic investigation and by means of leakage rate investigation the suitability of the selected procedure as seal alternative at the ITER Port Plug could be pointed out. The distance between two connections can be reduced to approx. 5 mm. The presented milling process for weld seam removal offers an option additionally to laser beam cutting. Final tests with a new disc-laser source offered additional benefits concerning seam quality, process stability and seam geometry. The distance between two connections will be reduced to less than 3 mm in next investigations. Construction unit near investigations and a demo part in original size underline finally the industrial suitability of the laser-welding-process for Port-Plug sealing at ITER.

  6. Electronic regulation of the SPS extraction quadrupole current pulse shape for improved stability of the extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Vossenberg, Eugène B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LEP Division

    1996-01-01

    In order to minimise the event pile-up and therefore optimise the detection efficiency, Chorus and Nomad experiments ask for a long and rectangular spill profile. At present the fast-slow extractio n is generated by driving the beam into a quadrupolar-octopolar resonance by exciting a quadrupole magnet with a semi-trapezoidal current [1]. The trapezoidal pulse shape is obtained by dischargin g a capacitor into the magnet coils. After a few milliseconds of undamped discharge a fixed resistor is switched into the circuit. The attenuation is then higher and the sine wave continues with a lower gradient. The two gradients can be adjusted by varying the initial capacitor voltage and the time at which the resistor is switched into the circuit. A further degree of freedom in determini ng the spill shape has been added by allowing the possibility of changing the second slope value independently of the initial conditions. This task is achieved by means of a variable current sour ce added in parallel to the fixed resis...

  7. A Mode-Shape-Based Fault Detection Methodology for Cantilever Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    An important goal of NASA's Internal Vehicle Health Management program (IVHM) is to develop and verify methods and technologies for fault detection in critical airframe structures. A particularly promising new technology under development at NASA Langley Research Center is distributed Bragg fiber optic strain sensors. These sensors can be embedded in, for instance, aircraft wings to continuously monitor surface strain during flight. Strain information can then be used in conjunction with well-known vibrational techniques to detect faults due to changes in the wing's physical parameters or to the presence of incipient cracks. To verify the benefits of this technology, the Formal Methods Group at NASA LaRC has proposed the use of formal verification tools such as PVS. The verification process, however, requires knowledge of the physics and mathematics of the vibrational techniques and a clear understanding of the particular fault detection methodology. This report presents a succinct review of the physical principles behind the modeling of vibrating structures such as cantilever beams (the natural model of a wing). It also reviews two different classes of fault detection techniques and proposes a particular detection method for cracks in wings, which is amenable to formal verification. A prototype implementation of these methods using Matlab scripts is also described and is related to the fundamental theoretical concepts.

  8. Pulse Shape Characterization of Silicon Diodes for HGCal with data from Beam Test at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    De Silva, Malinda

    2016-01-01

    The High Luminosity phase of the LHC (starting operation in 2025) will provide unprecedented instantaneous and integrated luminosity, with 25 ns bunch crossing intervals and up to 140 pileup events. A challenge is to provide excellent physics performance in such a harsh environment to fully exploit the HL-LHC potentialities and explore new physics frontiers. In this context, the High Granularity Calorimeter is the detector designed to provide electromagnetic and hadronic energy coverage and reconstruction in the forward direction of the upgraded CMS. In April 2016 and June 2016, a set of 36 diodes were tested in order to understand various characteristics of its performance, in order to use them in the upgraded HG Calorimeter. Here, the silicon diodes were mounted onto a test bench at CERN’s beam test area and exposed to electron showers. Data received from these diodes were acquired and analysed separately. The objective of this report is to show the variation of Time Rise, Time Over Threshold with various...

  9. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  10. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cm3/hr (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  11. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de, E-mail: a.j.schootvande@amc.uva.nl; Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoogeman, M. S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Erasmus Medical Center, Groene Hilledijk 301, 3075 EA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Chai, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Palo Alto, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  12. Polymer Physics Prize Lecture: Self-assemblies of Giant Molecular Shape Amphiphiles as a New Platform for Engineering Structures with Sub-Nanometer Feature Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2013-03-01

    Utilizing nano-building blocks rather than atoms to construct and engineer new structures is a fresh approach to design and develop functional materials for the purpose of transferring and amplifying microscopic functionality to macroscopic materials' property. As one of the important elements of these nano-building blocks, giant molecular shape amphiphiles (GMSAs) provide a latest platform for generating self-assembled ordered structures at nanometer scale, which are stabilized by collective physical bonds (such as collective hydrogen bonding). In this talk, two topics will be focused on. First, composed of functionalized hydrophilic molecular nanoparticles as the heads with rigid shape and fixed volume, and tethered polymer chains as the tails (such as giant molecular surfactants and lipids and other topologies), these GMSAs of various architectures can self-assemble into highly diversified, thermodynamically stable microstructures at sub-10 nm length scale in the bulk, thin film and solution states. Second, GMSAs could also be constructed solely from nanoparticles interconnected via different numbers of the rigid linkages in specific symmetry, simulating the overall shapes of small molecules but with sizes that are one-order of magnitude larger in length and three-order of magnitude larger in volume. Giant crystal structures can then be obtained from this class of ``giant molecules'' via supramolecular crystallization. These findings are not only scientifically intriguing in understanding the physical principles underlying their self-assembly, but also technologically relevant in industrial applications.

  13. Calculation Method for Horizontal Partition Coefficient of Simply Supported T -shaped beam%简支T梁横向分配系数计算方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙立刚

    2012-01-01

    On account of simply supported T - shaped beam bridge, the horizontal partition coefficient is cal- culated with G- M method, rigid cross beam method and rigid connected beam method and suitable methods are summarized, with certain reference value for design.%针对简支T型梁桥,采用G-M法、刚性横梁法、刚接梁法计算横向分配系数,总结了合适的计算方法,对设计工作具有一定的参考价值。

  14. X-ray beam-shaping via deformable mirrors: analytical computation of the required mirror profile

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, Daniele; Svetina, Cristian; Zangrando, Marco; 10.1016/j.nima.2012.10.117

    2013-01-01

    X-ray mirrors with high focusing performances are in use in both mirror mod- ules for X-ray telescopes and in synchrotron and FEL (Free Electron Laser) beamlines. A degradation of the focus sharpness arises in general from geo- metrical deformations and surface roughness, the former usually described by geometrical optics and the latter by physical optics. In general, technological developments are aimed at a very tight focusing, which requires the mirror profile to comply with the nominal shape as much as possible and to keep the roughness at a negligible level. However, a deliberate deformation of the mirror can be made to endow the focus with a desired size and distribution, via piezo actuators as done at the EIS-TIMEX beamline of FERMI@Elettra. The resulting profile can be characterized with a Long Trace Profilometer and correlated with the expected optical quality via a wavefront propagation code. However, if the roughness contribution can be neglected, the com- putation can be performed via a ray-tracin...

  15. Accurate axial localization by conical diffraction beam shaping generating a dark-helix PSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Clement; Lassalle, Astrid; Dubois-Delumeau, Maxime; Sirat, Gabriel Y.

    2016-02-01

    We present here a new PSF-shaping technique using biaxial crystals to generate a highly z-dependent distribution in single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). This distribution features two zeros of intensity that rotate together with defocus. This PSF features similarities to the double-helix introduced by Moerner and Piestun and thus has been dubbed dark-helix since we track zeros of intensity. Preliminary numerical studies based on Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) show that this PSF has the potential to obtain up to 20nm localization precision. This PSF can be easily generated by a very simple, monolithic add-on added in front of the detection camera. Additionally, the PSF remains of the approximate size of the Airy PSF, the x-y localization precision is not substantially affected and no trade-off is required. The xy compacity of the PSF also enables theoretically a higher density of emitters than the double-helix which spreads on a larger scale. Limiting factors for SMLM such as loss of photons, complexity and robustness will be discussed and considerations about the practical implementation of such techniques will be given.

  16. Analysis of shape and spatial interaction of synaptic vesicles using data from focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khanmohammadi, Mahdieh; Waagepetersen, Rasmus Plenge; Sporring, Jon

    2015-01-01

    deviations from spherical shape and systematic trends in their orientation. We studied three-dimensional representations of synapses obtained by manual annotation of focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) images of male mouse brain. The configurations of synaptic vesicles were regarded...

  17. 0.25-μm lithography using a 50-kV shaped electron-beam vector scan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesley, Mark A.; Mulera, Terry; Nurmi, C.; Radley, J.; Sagle, Allan L.; Standiford, Keith P.; Tan, Zoilo C. H.; Thomas, John R.; Veneklasen, Lee

    1995-05-01

    Performance data from a prototype 50 kV shaped electron-beam (e-beam) pattern generator is presented. This technology development is targeted towards 180-130 nm device design rules. It will be able to handle 1X NIST X-ray membranes, glass reduction reticles, and 4- to 8-inch wafers. The prototype system uses a planar stage adapted from the IBM EL-4 design. The electron optics is an 50 kV extension of the AEBLE%+TM) design. Lines and spaces of 0.12 micrometers with dynamic corrections processor (DCP). Along with its normal role of coordinate transformation and dynamic correction of deflection distortion, astigmatism, and defocus; the DCP improves accuracy by modifying deflection conditions and focus according to measured substrate height variations. It also enables yaw calibration and correction for Write-on-the FlyTM motion. The electronics incorporates JTAG components for built-in self- test (BIST), as well as syndrome checking to ensure data integrity. The design includes diagnostic capabilities from offsite as well as from the operator console. A combination of third-party software and an internal job preparation software system is used to fracture patterns. It handles tone reversal, overlap removal, sizing, and proximity correction. Processing of large files in a commercial mask shop environment is made more efficient by retaining hierarchy and using parallel processing and data compression techniques. Large GDSIITM and MEBES data files can be processed. Data includes timing benchmarks for a 1 Gbit DRAM on both proximity and reduction reticles. The paper presents 50 kV results on silicon and quartz substrates along with examples of overlay to an external grid, field butting, and critical dimension (CD) control data. Selective experiments testing system stability, calibration accuracy, and local correction software implementation on a VAX control computer are also given.

  18. Ablation depth control with 40 nm resolution on ITO thin films using a square, flat top beam shaped femtosecond NIR laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon-Young; Yoon, Ji-Wook; Choi, Won-Suk; Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Cho, Sung-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We reported on the ablation depth control with a resolution of 40 nm on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film using a square beam shaped femtosecond (190 fs) laser (λp=1030 nm). A slit is used to make the square, flat top beam shaped from the Gaussian spatial profile of the femtosecond laser. An ablation depth of 40 nm was obtained using the single pulse irradiation at a peak intensity of 2.8 TW/cm2. The morphologies of the ablated area were characterized using an optical microscope, atomic force microscope (AFM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Ablations with square and rectangular types with various sizes were demonstrated on ITO thin film using slits with varying x-y axes. The stereo structure of the ablation with the depth resolution of approximately 40 nm was also fabricated successfully using the irradiation of single pulses with different shaped sizes of femtosecond laser.

  19. CJK5225 CNC double column vertical lathe beams assembly%CJK5225数控双柱立车横梁的装配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冶陶

    2013-01-01

      This paper mainly discusses the beams CJK5225 CNC double column vertical lathe parts assembling pro-cess, specifically addressed the various components of scraping debugging accuracy and assembly together and process re-quirements.%  文章主要论述了CJK5225数控双柱立车横梁的各部件的装配工艺,具体阐述了各部件的刮研、调试精度以及组装把合等工艺要求。

  20. In-vivo dosimetry for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2 in shaped beam radiosurgery with microMOSFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sors, A; Cassol, E; Latorzeff, I; Duthil, P; Sabatier, J; Lotterie, J A; Redon, A; Berry, I; Franceries, X

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate microMOSFET as in-vivo dosimeter in 6 MV shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2. A homemade build-up cap was developed and its use with microMOSFET was evaluated down to 6 × 6 mm2. The study with the homemade build-up cap was performed considering its influence on field size over-cover occurring at surface, achievement of the overall process of electronic equilibrium, dose deposition along beam axis and dose attenuation. An optimized calibration method has been validated using MOSFET in shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes from 98 × 98 down to 18 × 18 mm2. The method was detailed in a previous study and validated in irregular field shapes series measurements performed on a head phantom. The optimized calibration method was applied to microMOSFET equipped with homemade build-up cap down to 6 × 6 mm2. Using the same irregular field shapes, dose measurements were performed on head phantom. MicroMOSFET results were compared to previous MOSFET ones. Additional irregular field shapes down to 8.8 × 8.8 mm2 were studied with microMOSFET. Isocenter dose attenuation due to the homemade build-up cap over the microMOSFET was near 2% irrespective of field size. Our results suggested that microMOSFET equipped with homemade build-up cap is suitable for in-vivo dosimetry in shaped-beam radiosurgery for field sizes down to 6 × 6 mm2 and therefore that the required build-up cap dimensions to perform entrance in-vivo dosimetry in small-fields have to ensure only partial charge particle equilibrium.

  1. Assessment of the Anatomical Position and Shape of Mental Foramen in the Cone Beam Computed Tomography Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eskandarlo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The mental foramen is a part of lower jaw which has neurovascular bundles and also is important in biology. 3D imaging of this area by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT before surgery can prevent some problems. This study aims to evaluate the anatomic position and geometrical shape of the mental foramen by CBCT imagesMaterials & Methods: In this research, the CBCT images (by NewTom and Planmeca promax 3D set of 85 patients referred to dentistry school clinic or other clinics in Hamadan city were studied. These patients did not have their first and second premolar teeth extracted in both right and left sides. The geometrical shape of mental foramen, the canal angle connecting to mental foramen compared to the buccal plate of lower jaw, distance from the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of lower jaw, position of mental foramen relating to the root of adjacent tooth and the incidence of accessory mental foramen were studied.Results: The means of canal angle connecting to mental foramen in the right side in men and women were 123.3 and 130.1 and in the left side were 123.8 and 133.7, respectively. The mean distance from the lower border of mental foramen to the lower border of lower jaw in the right side in men and women were: 12.4 and 13.3 mm and in the left side were: 12.7 and 13.6 mm, respectively. Also, there is a meaningful statistical relation between gender and the angle of canal of mental foramen, regarding to the buccal plate in both sides.Conclusion: Regarding to the variations in the position and shape of mental foramen and the angle connecting to the mental foramen related to the buccal plate and accessory mental foramen, investigation of CBCT images before placement of implants is necessary.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2012;19(2:39-43

  2. A shape-modification strategy of electron-beam direct writing considering circuit performance in LSI interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoh, Yoshihiro; Osaki, Atsushi; Nakamae, Koji

    2014-03-01

    As the feature size of LSI shrinks, the cost of mask manufacturing and turn-around-time continue to increase. Maskless lithography using electron beam direct writing (EBDW) technology attracts attention. On the other hands, with continuous scaling and the introduction of low-k dielectrics in Cu interconnect technology, reliability degradation caused by time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) and electromigration has become important issues. Therefore, EBDW in backend process is needed to ensure superior patterning quality and reliability using high-accuracy proximity effect correction (PEC). We have already proposed a dose-modification strategy of EBDW considering reliability for TDDB degradation. In this paper, furthermore, we propose a shape-modification strategy of EBDW considering circuit performance in LSI interconnects for improving EB drawing throughput. We use effectively patterns with rounded corner in order to reduce EB shots increased by PEC and avoid the local high current density at the corner of metal lines. We applied the proposed method to a microprocessor layout synthesized with the Nangate 45nm Open Cell Library. As a result, the drawn pattern by corner rounding and coarse dose adjustment achieved 2.5% higher throughput than that by no corner rounding and fine dose adjustment.

  3. Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like shape for oxygen evolution reaction with enhanced catalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly growth of alloyed NiPt nanocrystals with holothuria-like wire shape has been achieved via a facile and moderate hydrothermal process at 120 °C for 1 h from the reaction of nickel nitrate and chloroplatinic acid in alkaline solution in the presence of ethanediamine and hydrazine hydrate. The holothuria-like alloyed NiPt wires are Ni-rich in composition (Ni23.6Pt and uniform in diameter with many tiny tips outstretched from the wires surface. The holothuria-like wires are assembled from granular subunits with the assistance of capping molecular of ethanediamine and the wires display an improved oxygen evolution reaction catalytic activity.

  4. Application of Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model and back-propagation artificial neural network in laser diode fast axis collimator assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Rossi, Giammarco; Braglia, Andrea; Perrone, Guido

    2016-08-10

    The paper presents the development of a tool based on a back-propagation artificial neural network to assist in the accurate positioning of the lenses used to collimate the beam from semiconductor laser diodes along the so-called fast axis. After training using a Gaussian beam ray-equivalent model, the network is capable of indicating the tilt, decenter, and defocus of such lenses from the measured field distribution, so the operator can determine the errors with respect to the actual lens position and optimize the diode assembly procedure. An experimental validation using a typical configuration exploited in multi-emitter diode module assembly and fast axis collimating lenses with different focal lengths and numerical apertures is reported. PMID:27534506

  5. A size, shape and concentration controlled self-assembling structure with host-guest recognition at the liquid-solid interface studied by STM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Mengqi; Luo, Zhouyang; Zhang, Siqi; Wang, Shuai; Cao, Lili; Geng, Yanfang; Deng, Ke; Zhao, Dahui; Duan, Wubiao; Zeng, Qingdao

    2016-06-01

    In the present investigation, we reported the fabrication of host networks formed by two newly prepared phenanthrene-butadiynylene macrocycles (PBMs) at the liquid-solid interface. Size, shape and concentration controlled experiments have been performed to investigate the PBMs/coronene (COR) host-guest system with the structural polymorphism phenomenon. Initially, PBM1 could form a regular linear network structure and PBM2 form a well-ordered nanoporous network structure. When the COR molecules were introduced, the self-assembled structure of PBM1 remained unchanged, while COR could be entrapped into the cavities of the PBM2 nanoporous network, and the co-assembly of the PBM2/COR host-guest systems underwent a structural transformation with the increase of concentration of COR. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are utilized to reveal the formation mechanism of the molecular nanoarrays controlled by the solution concentration.In the present investigation, we reported the fabrication of host networks formed by two newly prepared phenanthrene-butadiynylene macrocycles (PBMs) at the liquid-solid interface. Size, shape and concentration controlled experiments have been performed to investigate the PBMs/coronene (COR) host-guest system with the structural polymorphism phenomenon. Initially, PBM1 could form a regular linear network structure and PBM2 form a well-ordered nanoporous network structure. When the COR molecules were introduced, the self-assembled structure of PBM1 remained unchanged, while COR could be entrapped into the cavities of the PBM2 nanoporous network, and the co-assembly of the PBM2/COR host-guest systems underwent a structural transformation with the increase of concentration of COR. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations are utilized to reveal the formation mechanism of the molecular nanoarrays controlled by the solution

  6. Experimental Profiling of a Non-truncated Focused Gaussian Beam and Fine-tuning of the Quadratic Phase in the Fresnel Gaussian Shape Invariant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S., Juan Manuel Franco [Center of Investigation (CIO) (Mexico); Cywiak, Moises [Center of Investigation (CIO) (Mexico); Cywiak, David [National Metrology Center (Mexico); Mourad, Idir [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-06-24

    A homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He–Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. Furthermore, we give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.

  7. Obtaining Empirical Validation of Shape-Coexistence in the Mass 70 Region: Coulomb Excitation of a Radioactive Beam of $^{70}$Se

    CERN Multimedia

    Andreoiu, C; Paul, E S; Czosnyka, T; Hammond, N

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the Coulomb excitation of a radioactive beam of $^{70}$Se at 2.2 MeV/u obtained from the REX-ISOLDE facility in order to determine the sign of the quadrupole moment and, hence, the sign of the quadrupole deformation. Calculations suggest a 33~\\% sensitivity in Coulomb excitation yield for a nickel target depending on whether the nuclear shape is oblate or prolate. Such a determination would provide compelling evidence for the presence of oblate shapes in the vicinity of N=Z=34.

  8. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; HONG, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik; Min, Kyung-San

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our...

  9. Fabrication of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates using colloidal self-assembly and wet chemical etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chong; Zheng, Lu; Fang, Huajing; Yan, Qingfeng; Wei, Tongbo; Hao, Zhibiao; Wang, Xiaoqing; Shen, Dezhong

    2013-08-23

    Patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) have been widely used to enhance the light output power in GaN-based light emitting diodes. The shape and feature size of the pattern in a PSS affect its enhancement efficiency to a great degree. In this work we demonstrate the nanoscale fabrication of volcano-shaped PSS using a wet chemical etching approach in combination with a colloidal monolayer templating strategy. Detailed analysis by scanning electron microscopy reveals that the unique pattern shape is a result of the different corrosion-resistant abilities of silica masks of different effective heights during wet chemical etching. The formation of silica etching masks of different effective heights has been ascribed to the silica precursor solution in the interstice of the colloidal monolayer template being distributed unevenly after infiltration. In the subsequent wet chemical etching process, the active reaction sites altered as etching duration was prolonged, resulting in the formation of volcano-shaped nano-patterned sapphire substrates. PMID:23881090

  10. Development of Adaptive Feedback Control System of Both Spatial and Temporal Beam Shaping for UV-Laser Light Source for RF Gun

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K

    2004-01-01

    The ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from a photo-cathode rf gun. We have been developing highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of the rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. The gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photo cathode. The electron beam was accelerated up to 4.1 MeV at the maximum electric field on the cathode surface of 175 MV/m. For emittance compensation, two solenoid coils were used. As the first test run, with a microlens array as a simple spatial shaper, we obtained a minimum emittance value of 2 π·mm·mrad with a beam energy of 3.1 MeV, holding its charge to 0.1 nC/bunch. In the next test run, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We applied the both adaptive optics to automatically shape the bot...

  11. The 50 MeV race-track accelerator: A new approach to beam shaping and modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 50 MeV race-track microtron in Umeaa is a prototype installation which is still being developed and optimized for patient treatments. This accelerator offers a wide range of both electron and photon energies. The special scanning technique which generates a well defined focus point makes it possible to scan also the photon beams. Thick flattening filters where the beam quality is degraded and which makes the adjustment of beam flatness very critical are thus avoided. The helium filled treatment head makes it possible to use very pure and unscattered electron beams. This, together with a totally controlled scanning system, will make it possible to actually achieve any beam quality that is physically attainable. There are very few unwanted beam destroying factors in the race-track microtron. Comparisons with Monte Carlo calculations indicate that in some cases one is close to that goal taken into account that there may very well be some errors also in the calculations. The collimating system is also built on a unique concept where a multi-leaf collimator is placed in helium atmosphere. This collimator can therefore be used for both electrons and photons giving very sharp beam collimation, except possibly for low energy electrons where scattering in the air between the treatment head and patient surface may be too large. In this case the beam edges may be sharpened by just using a smaller SSD or adding an external edge trimmer. Pulse dose measurements have shown that the maximum dose rate during a beam pulse may be more than 50 times higher for a narrow scanning beam on the race-track microtron compared with a conventional stationary beam accelerator. This indicates that care has to be taken in dosimetric measurements and starting of patient treatments as the biological response of tissue may be dependent on the dose rate in the beam pulses. (author). 25 refs, 11 figs

  12. The dependence of test-mass coating and substrate thermal noise on beam shape in the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (advanced LIGO)

    CERN Document Server

    Lovelace, G

    2006-01-01

    In second-generation, ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors such as advanced LIGO, the dominant noise at frequencies f ~ 40 Hz to 200 Hz is expected to be due to thermal fluctuations in the mirrors' substrates and coatings which induce random fluctuations in the shape of the mirror face. The laser-light beam averages over these fluctuations; the larger the beam and the flatter its light-power distribution, the better the averaging and the lower the resulting thermal noise. This has led O'Shaughnessy and Thorne to propose flattening and enlarging the beam shape to reduce the thermal noise. In this paper I derive and discuss simple scaling laws that describe the dependence of the thermal noise on the beam's (axisymmetric) light-power distribution. Each of these scaling laws has previously been deduced, from somewhat general arguments rather than detailed calculations, by O'Shaughnessy; independently, the same scaling laws have been found by Vyatchanin [for Brownian coating noise], by by O'Sh...

  13. Note: Compact high voltage pulse transformer made using a capacitor bank assembled in the shape of primary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rohit; Banerjee, Partha; Sharma, Surender K; Das, Rashmita; Deb, Pankaj; Prabaharan, T; Das, Basanta; Adhikary, Biswajit; Verma, Rishi; Shyam, Anurag

    2011-10-01

    The experimental results of an air-core pulse transformer are presented, which is very compact (transformer. A high voltage capacitor assembly (pulse-forming-line capacitor, PFL) of 5.1 nF is connected with the secondary of transformer. The transformer output voltage is 160 kV in its second peak appearing in less than 2 μS from the beginning of the capacitor discharge. The primary capacitor bank can be charged up to a maximum of 18 kV, with the voltage delivery of 360 kV in similar capacitive loads.

  14. Method for lower order aberration correction based on beam shaping%基于整形光路的低阶像差校正方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建增; 刘铁根; 王振华; 刘现魁; 韦承甫

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirements for far-field laser beam irradiation strength, and reduce the impact of thermal effect on the output beam performance, this paper introduces a lower order aberration correction method based on beam shaping. According to the beam wavefront distortion, the method dynamically adjusts the space between shaping mirrors to produce opposite aberrations to correct the aberrations of the first four orders, through the rapid action of the high-precision translation stage and the fast steering mirror, and then the output beam recovers and emits parallelly. The method significantly reduces the thermal drift and thermal distortion of the laser beam, and avoid the long-time continuous beam radiation while running. It features large correction range, control convenience and compact structure, and can greatly improve the quality of the laser output beam and the effect of the laser beam far-field.%为满足激光束对远处目标辐照强度的要求,减小热效应对输出光束性能的影响,提出了一种基于整形光路的高能激光低阶像差校正方法.该方法根据波前探测器测到的光束波前畸变,利用激光器整形光路同有的光学元件和调整机构,通过高精密电动平移台和快反镜的快速动作,动态调整各镜片的间距,实时校正激光束的低阶像差,使输出光束恢复至平行出射,从而显著减小激光束的热漂移和热畸变,有效避免了长时间出光时光束的持续发散,极大改善了输出光束性能.试验结果表明,该方法具有校正量大、控制方便、结构紧凑等优点,能够很好地改善激光器输出光束质量,显著提高激光束远场作用效果.

  15. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION AT THE LOCAL RUNOFF, ASSEMBLED IN BEAMS OF LOW-HEAD DAMS WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilyeva E. V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents data on the survey of beamed ponds and dams on the beams of Berestova, Shcherbakova and Gruzskoe on the territory of the Rostov region and establishes their poor condition. To use the ponds as a water source for irrigation of surrounding agricultural land, it is necessary to conduct repairing work on water ponds. In the article, to improve the efficiency of irrigation on local runoff, delayed in beams of low head dams we have proposed an improved design of fastenings (coatings of upland slopes of groundwater retaining structures, including the ranks of absorbing wave elements. We have recommended symmetric and asymmetric placement of the semi-oval and tapered parts. We have also proposed a simple solution of wave absorbing elements as parts of a triangular shape (isosceles and equilateral, mutual accommodation of which also forms a water conveyance channels for mutual collision of threads

  16. Theoretical explanation of the polarization-converting system achieved by beam shaping and combination technique and its performance under high power conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Shang, YaPing; Xu, XiaoJun

    2015-10-01

    The fiber laser has very obvious advantages and broad applications in remote welding, 3D cutting and national defense compared with the traditional solid laser. But influenced by heat effect of gain medium, nonlinear effect, stress birefringence effect and other negative factors, it's very difficult to get high power linearly polarized laser just using a single laser. For these limitations a polarization-converting system is designed using beam shaping and combination technique which is able to transform naturally polarized laser to linearly polarized laser at real time to resolve difficulties of generating high-power linearly polarized laser from fiber lasers in this paper. The principle of the Gaussian beam changing into the hollow beam passing through two axicons and the combination of the Gaussian beam and the hollow beam is discussed. In the experimental verification the energy conversion efficiency reached 93.1% with a remarkable enhancement of the extinction ratio from 3% to 98% benefited from the high conversion efficiency of axicons and the system worked fine under high power conditions. The system also kept excellent far field divergence. The experiment phenomenon also agreed with the simulation quite well. The experiment proves that this polarization-converting system will not affect laser structure which controls easily and needs no feedback and controlling system with stable and reliable properties at the same time. It can absolutely be applied to the polarization-conversion of high power laser.

  17. Facile synthesis of hexagonal-shaped polypyrrole self-assembled particles for the electrochemical detection of dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Yi; Hsu, Di-Yao; Prasannan, Adhimoorthy; Kalaivani, Raman; Hong, Po-Da

    2016-02-01

    Nanomaterials have been used as an electroactive medium to enhance the efficiency of bio/chemical sensors, primarily when synergy is reached upon mixing different materials. In this study, we report on the facile synthesis of hexagonal-shaped plate-like polypyrrole (PPY-IC) prepared through inclusion polymerization of the host-guest pyrrole monomeric inclusion complex of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) to be used in the detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA). The amount of the monomer complex plays a crucial role in the fabrication of well-defined hexagonal-shaped PPY-IC through intermolecular interactions such as π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding between the β-CD and PPY. The microstructure and morphology of the PPY-IC were examined by using various analytical techniques and a tentative mechanism for the growth process proposed which elucidates the formation of the hierarchical structure of the PPY-IC. Cyclo-voltammetry was performed with a PPY-IC modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for the electrochemical detection of DA. The concepts behind the novel architecture of the PPY-IC modified electrodes have potential for the production of materials to be used in electrochemical sensors and biosensors.

  18. Effects of axial power shapes on CHF locations in a single tube and in rod bundle assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Zha, Y.; Zhang, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    Currently, the prediction of rod bundle CHF is dependent on CHF correlations derived from CHF data. A simple correction factor, such as F-factor, is often used to account for the axial power shape differences based on a simple accumulated energy concept, which has totally no consideration on the impact of true local condition on CHF mechanism. Subsequently, as expected, large uncertainty is often associated with the CHF value and CHF location predictions. For the purpose of obtaining different power shapes effects on CHF, CFD calculated parameter values were used to predict the possible CHF occurrence location. The possible CHF location prediction method proposed in this paper is calculated void fraction, heat transfer coefficient (HTC), liquid temperature distribution and detailed local parameters. And the uniform and non-uniform CHF were analyzed. The prediction of possible CHF locations in a 5 x 5 rod bundle may provide useful information for the design of a full-length CHF test, enhance the accuracy of CHF and CHF location prediction, and reduce the costs of the experimentation.

  19. 多类约束下U型装配线平衡建模研究%Balancing U-shaped Assembly Line with Multiple Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    查靓; 徐学军; 余建军; 宋莉波

    2011-01-01

    Most researches about U-shaped assembly line balancing just consider cycle time constraints and precedence relationships between tasks without other constraints. In fact, because of the influence of production environment,product design,technology and ergonomics, there are various constraints should be satisfied when design a U-shaped assembly line. The paper abstracts four kinds of constraints, link, incompatible, setup time and workstation attribute. The integer programming is proposed and the size of the model is largely reduced to enlarge the application scope by calculating the upper and lower bound of workstation.%现有针对U型装配线平衡问题的研究假设除了节拍约束和任务间的优先顺序关系外,不存在其它约束,实际上受生产环境、产品设计、工艺要求以及人因等多种因素的制约,在对U型装配线进行优化设计时还需满足其它约束,将各种表象不同的约束抽象为相连、相斥、相关以及工作站属性约束四类,针对多类约束下U型装配线平衡问题建立了整数规划模型,通过上下界计算大大缩小了模型规模,扩大了最优化模型应用的范围.

  20. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  1. Multisite electrophysiological recordings by self-assembled loose-patch-like junctions between cultured hippocampal neurons and mushroom-shaped microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmoel, Nava; Rabieh, Noha; Ojovan, Silviya M.; Erez, Hadas; Maydan, Eilon; Spira, Micha E.

    2016-01-01

    Substrate integrated planar microelectrode arrays is the “gold standard” method for millisecond-resolution, long-term, large-scale, cell-noninvasive electrophysiological recordings from mammalian neuronal networks. Nevertheless, these devices suffer from drawbacks that are solved by spike-detecting, spike-sorting and signal-averaging techniques which rely on estimated parameters that require user supervision to correct errors, merge clusters and remove outliers. Here we show that primary rat hippocampal neurons grown on micrometer sized gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (gMμE) functionalized simply by poly-ethylene-imine/laminin undergo self-assembly processes to form loose patch-like hybrid structures. More than 90% of the hybrids formed in this way record monophasic positive action potentials (APs). Of these, 34.5% record APs with amplitudes above 300 μV and up to 5,085 μV. This self-assembled neuron-gMμE configuration improves the recording quality as compared to planar MEA. This study characterizes and analyzes the electrophysiological signaling repertoire generated by the neurons-gMμE configuration, and discusses prospects to further improve the technology. PMID:27256971

  2. Development and Beam-Shape Analysis of an Integrated Fiber-Optic Confocal Probe for High-Precision Central Thickness Measurement of Small-Radius Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonsong Sutapun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new design of a fiber-optic confocal probe suitable for measuring the central thicknesses of small-radius optical lenses or similar objects. The proposed confocal probe utilizes an integrated camera that functions as a shape-encoded position-sensing device. The confocal signal for thickness measurement and beam-shape data for off-axis measurement can be simultaneously acquired using the proposed probe. Placing the probe’s focal point off-center relative to a sample’s vertex produces a non-circular image at the camera’s image plane that closely resembles an ellipse for small displacements. We were able to precisely position the confocal probe’s focal point relative to the vertex point of a ball lens with a radius of 2.5 mm, with a lateral resolution of 1.2 µm. The reflected beam shape based on partial blocking by an aperture was analyzed and verified experimentally. The proposed confocal probe offers a low-cost, high-precision technique, an alternative to a high-cost three-dimensional surface profiler, for tight quality control of small optical lenses during the manufacturing process.

  3. Single-scan scatter correction in CBCT by using projection correlation based view interpolation (PC-VI) and a stationary ring-shaped beam stop array (BSA)

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Hao; Zhang, Yanbo; Zankl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    In the scatter correction for x-ray Cone Beam (CB) CT, the single-scan scheme with moving Beam Stop Array (BSA) offers reliable scatter measurement with low dose, and by using Projection Correlation based View Interpolation (PC-VI), the primary fluence shaded by the moving BSA (during scatter measurement) could be recovered with high accuracy. However, the moving BSA may increase the mechanical burden in real applications. For better practicability, in this paper we proposed a PC-VI based single-scan scheme with a ring-shaped stationary BSA, which serves as a virtual moving BSA during CB scan, so the shaded primary fluence by this stationary BSA can be also well recovered by PC-VI. The principle in designing the whole system is deduced and evaluated. The proposed scheme greatly enhances the practicability of the single-scan scatter correction scheme.

  4. Comparative study of multimode CYTOP graded index and single-mode silica fibre Bragg grating array for the mode shape capturing of a free-free metal beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodosiou, A.; Polis, M.; Lacraz, A.; Kalli, K.; Komodromos, M.; Stassis, A.

    2016-04-01

    The work described in this paper involved two different material fibre Bragg grating (FBG) arrays, investigating their performance as quasi-distributed sensors by capturing the vibrating response of a free-free metal beam close to its resonance frequencies. A six meter length of low-loss, gradient-index, multimode CYTOP fibre and of SMF-28 were used for the inscription of multiple FBG sensors using a femtosecond laser inscription method. The FBG arrays were multiplexed in the wavelength domain using a high-speed commercial demodulator, from which we recovered wavelengthand time-dependent displacement information. We compared the vibration response of the two arrays and using a novel computation algorithm we extract the first mode shape of the free-free metal beam that was exited at its first resonance frequency using a vibrating force.

  5. Design of shaped beam antenna based on inhomogeneous metamaterial%基于非均匀特异媒质的赋形天线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方福衣; 陈星

    2014-01-01

    The non-uniform metamaterial layers are built by engraving microstrip units with different size on the surface of PCBs. Through placing a proposed metamaterial layer in front an antenna and making use of the spatial varying reflection coeffi-cient of the non-uniform metamaterial layer for the electromagnetic wave,the radiation pattern of the antenna can be shaped. In this paper,a proposed layer consisted of square patches with different size is designed and then placed in front of a rectangular patch antenna working at a frequency of 5.8 GHz. Both simulation and measurement show that the non-uniform metamaterial lay-er is able to realize the conversion of the antenna’s radiation pattern from a pencil- shaped beam to a wide beam pattern or a saddle-shaped beam,through adjusting the distance between the patch antenna and the metamaterial layer,while the antenna’s working frequency and return loss curve almost remain unchanged. The research result provided a new method for the design of the shaped beam antenna.%在PCB板表面蚀刻不同尺寸的微带单元结构,构建非均匀特异媒质层,并将其放置在天线辐射单元前方,利用非均匀特异媒质层对电磁波不同的反射系数,实现对天线辐射波束的赋形。设计了由不同尺寸正方形贴片组成的非均匀特异媒质层,并放置于工作频率为5.8 GHz的矩形贴片天线前方。仿真和测试表明:该非均匀特异媒质层能够在基本保持贴片天线工作频点和回波损耗曲线不变条件下,通过调整与贴片天线距离,实现辐射波束由笔形波束向宽角波束和马鞍形波束的赋形转换。为赋形天线设计提供了一种有效的新方法。

  6. The combination of digital surface scanners and cone beam computed tomography technology for guided implant surgery using 3Shape implant studio software: a case history report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanis, Alejandro; Álvarez Del Canto, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of virtual engineering into dentistry and the digitization of information are providing new perspectives and innovative alternatives for dental treatment modalities. The use of digital surface scanners with surgical planning software allows for the combination of the radiographic, prosthetic, surgical, and laboratory fields under a common virtual scenario, permitting complete digital treatment planning. In this article, the authors present a clinical case in which a guided implant surgery was performed based on a complete digital surgical plan combining the information from a cone beam computed tomography scan and the virtual simulation obtained from the 3Shape TRIOS intraoral surface scanner. The information was imported to and combined in the 3Shape Implant Studio software for guided implant surgery planning. A surgical guide was obtained by a 3D printer, and the surgical procedure was done using the Biohorizons Guided Surgery Kit and its protocol.

  7. Study on Beam Shaping of High Power Diode Lasers%大功率半导体激光光源光束整形技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭航宇; 宁永强; 王立军; 顾媛媛; 单肖楠; 刘云; 郝明明; 朱洪波; 尹红贺; 田振华; 秦莉

    2011-01-01

    光束质量是半导体激光器应用的最大瓶颈,但是可以利用光束整形技术加以改善.随着半导体激光合束技术的发展,半导体激光光束质量的提高,由于其在效率方面的优势,大功率半导体激光技术得到迅速发展.采用连续输出60 W,转换效率达到57%的880 nm大功率半导体激光bar条,组成20层的半导体激光叠阵,输出功率达到1183 W,通过快慢轴准直及光束整形提高激光器的光束质量,最终实现1 kw功率输出,电一光转换效率超过45.8%,光束质量达到79.3 mm·mrad×81.2 mm·mrad.从而使半导体激光器可直接应用于熔覆、表面硬化等领域.%The major drawback of high power diode laser systems is their poor beam quality, which can be improved by beam shaping and beam combination. With the high wall-plug efficiency, high power laser diode developed rapidly. Base on bars rated to 60 W and 57% conversion efficiency, vertically stacked arrays (twenty bars) of such configuration are demonstrated with rated to 1183 W. The beam quality of high-power high brightness 880 nm laser diode source is improved with beam shaping. Beam parameter product of 79.3 mm · mrad × 81.2 mm · mrad, electro-optical conversion efficiency of more than 45.8% and continuous output power of 1 kW are demonstrated. This laser can be directly applied to cladding, surface hardening and other fields.

  8. Study on reinforced concrete beams strengthened using shape memory alloy wires in combination with carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Ou, Jin-ping

    2007-12-01

    It has been proven that carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets or plates are capable of improving the strength of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. However, residual deformation of RC structures in service reduces the effect of CFRP strengthening. SMA can be applied to potentially decrease residual deformation and even close concrete cracks because of its recovery forces imposed on the concrete when heated. Therefore, a method of a RC structure strengthened by CFRP plates in combination with SMA wires is proposed in this paper. The strengthening effect of this method is investigated through experiments and numerical study based on the nonlinear finite element software ABAQUS in simple RC beams. Parametric analysis and assessment of damage by defining a damage index are carried out. The results indicate that recovery forces of SMA wires can decrease deflections and even close cracks in the concrete. The recovery rate of deflection of the beam increases with increasing the ratio of SMA wires. The specimen strengthened with CFRP plates has a relatively large stiffness and smaller damage index value when the residual deformation of the beam is first reduced by activation of the SMA wires. The effectiveness of this strengthening method for RC beams is verified by experimental and numerical results.

  9. Robust, easily shaped, and epoxy-free carbon-fiber-aluminum cathodes for generating high-current electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lie; Li, Limin; Wen, Jianchun; Wan, Hong

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the construction of carbon-fiber-aluminum (CFA) cathode by squeezing casting and its applications for generating high-current electron beams to drive high-power microwave sources. The fabrication process avoided using epoxy, a volatile deteriorating the vacuum system. These cathodes had a higher hardness than conventional aluminum, facilitating machining. After surface treatment, carbon fibers became the dominator determining emission property. A multineedle CFA cathode was utilized in a triode virtual cathode oscillator (vircator), powered by a ˜450 kV, ˜400 ns pulse. It was found that 300-400 MW, ˜250 ns microwave was radiated at a dominant frequency of 2.6 GHz. Further, this cathode can endure high-current-density emission without detectable degradation in performance as the pulse shot proceeded, showing the robust nature of carbon fibers as explosive emitters. Overall, this new class of cold cathodes offers a potential prospect of developing high-current electron beam sources.

  10. Initial results from a Leica ZBA31H+ shaped E-beam mask writer located at the Photronics Advanced Mask Shop in Manchester, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen; Marshall, Paul; Osborne, Peter; Doering, Hans-Joachim; Ehrlich, Christian

    1999-04-01

    Since production started at the Photronics site in Manchester, England, mask writing capability had been centered on laser based technology. The Manchester site has now taken delivery of its first e-beam system: the ZBA 31H+, manufactured by Leica Microsystems Lithography GMBH. The ZBA 31H+) system was designed for the production of reticles utilizing 250 nanometer design technology and is expected to play a key role in Photronics' future reticle development. The addition of an e-beam system to the current laser based technology, in this instance, has been driven by increasing customer demand and the requirement for reticles containing high resolution OPC structures. The ZBA 31H+) is a variable shaped spot, vector scan electron beam lithography system operating at 20 keV. Enhancements from the previous generation system include improved deflection systems, stage metrology, pattern data handling, and an address grid down to 10 nanometers. This system's specified performance enablers it to produce reticles designed to support semiconductor fabrication utilizing 250 nanometer design rules, and beyond, with high accuracy and productivity.

  11. FORMULATION OF TOUGHENED PASTE ADHESIVES FOR REDUCED-POLLUTANT ELECTRON BEAM REPAIR AND ASSEMBLY OF COMPOSITE STRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, e-beam processed resins resulted in brittle matrix materials that were ineffective in meeting the performance demands of the military, largely because the resins lacked toughness. Toughness is a critical parameter of resins that determines the ability of the resin t...

  12. A full assembly and bakeout have just been successfully completed on the conical ALICE Absorber beam vacuum chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Pictures 01 & 02 : a good example of cooperation: Several of the 70 people involved in the project pose in front of the ALICE Absorber containing the beam pipe. Six CERN departments and six sub-contracting companies have participated in the design, production and testing of this vacuum chamber.

  13. Efficient generation of cylindrically polarized beams in an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser enabled by a ring-shaped pumping distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Tom; Rumpel, Martin; Graf, Thomas; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan

    2016-04-01

    The efficient generation of a cylindrically (radially or azimuthally) polarized LG01 mode was investigated using a ring-shaped pumping distribution in a high-power Yb:YAG thin-disk laser setup. This was realized by implementing a 300 mm long customized fused silica fiber capillary in the pump beam path of the pumping optics of a thin-disk laser. Furthermore, a grating waveguide mirror based on the leaky-mode coupling mechanism was used as one of the cavity end mirrors to allow sufficient reduction of the reflectivity of the polarization state to be suppressed in the resonator. In order to achieve efficient laser operation, an optimized mode overlap between the ring-shaped pump spot and the excited first order Laguerre-Gaussian doughnut mode is required. This was investigated theoretically by analyzing the intensity distribution generated by different fiber geometries using a commercially raytracing software (Zemax). The output power, polarization state and efficiency of the emitted laser beam were compared to that obtained with a standard flattop pumping distribution. In particular, the thermal behavior of the disk was investigated since the excessive fluorescence caused by the non-saturated excitation in the center of the homogeneously pumped disk leads to a strong heating of the crystal. This considerable heating source is avoided in the case of the ring-shaped pumping and a reduction of the temperature increase on the disk surface of about 21% (at 280 W of pump power) was observed. This should allow higher pump power densities without increasing the risk of damaging the disk or distorting the polarization purity. With a laser efficiency of 41.2% to be as high as in the case of the flattop pumping, a maximum output power of 107 W was measured.

  14. Gravitational effects on weld pool shape and microstructural evolution during gas tungsten arc and laser beam welding on 304 stainless steel, nickel, and aluminum-4 wt.% copper alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Namhyun

    The objective of the present work was to investigate effects of gravitational (acceleration) level and orientation on Ni 200 alloy (99.5% Ni purity), 304 stainless steel, and Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy during gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and laser beam welding (LBW). Main characterization was focused on the weld pool shape, microstructure, and solute distribution as a function of gravitational level and orientation. The welds were divided into two classes, i.e., 'stable' and 'unstable' welds, in view of the variation of weld pool shape as a function of gravitational level and orientation. In general, higher arc current and translational GTAW produced more significant effects of gravitational orientation on the weld pool shape than the case of lower arc current and spot welding. Cross-sectional area (CSA) was a secondary factor in determining the stability of weld pool shape. For the 'stable' weld of 304 stainless steel GTAW, the II-U weld showed less convexity in the pool bottom and more depression of the free surface, therefore producing deeper penetration (10--20%) than the case of II-D weld. The II-D weld of 304 stainless steel showed 31% deeper penetration, 28% narrower width, and more hemispherical shape of the weld pool than the case of II-U weld. For GTAW on 304 stainless steel, gravitational level variation from low gravity (LG ≈ 1.2 go) to high gravity (HG ≈ 1.8 go) caused 10% increase in width and 10% decrease in depth while maintaining the overall weld pool volume. Furthermore, LBW on 304 stainless steels showed mostly constant shape of weld pool as a function of gravitational orientation. GTAW on Ni showed similar trends of weld pool shape compared with GTAW on 304 stainless steel, i.e., the weld pool became unstable by showing more penetration in the II-D weld for slower arc translational velocity (V a) and larger weld pool size. However, the Ni weld pool shape had greater stability of the weld pool shape with respect to the gravitational orientation

  15. Stochastic Mixed-Model U-Shaped Assembly Line Balancing Problem%随机型混合U型装配线的平衡研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晨鸣; 段移庭

    2015-01-01

    For the U-shaped assembly line balancing problem of mixed products and stochastic work elements, established the mathematical model and an improved genetic algorithm is put forward. Under the given production tact time and completion rate,with the minimum number of workstations and uniform load between each product as the goal, design the improved genetic algorithm to solve allocation sequence question of the work elements. Finally combine instance to verify the effective.%针对混合产品和作业元素时间随机的U型装配线平衡问题,建立了数学模型并提出一种改进的遗传算法求解。在给定的节拍和完工率下,以最小工作站数和各产品负荷均匀为目标,设计改进的遗传算法求解作业元素分配序列。最终结合实例验证方法是有效的。

  16. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with slit-shaped femtosecond laser beams

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension compatible with direct coupling to single-mode optical fibers.

  17. Transverse writing of three-dimensional tubular optical waveguides in glass with a slit-shaped femtosecond laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yang; Qi, Jia; Wang, Peng; Chu, Wei; Wang, Zhaohui; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2016-01-01

    We report on fabrication of tubular optical waveguides buried in ZBLAN glass based on transverse femtosecond laser direct writing. Irradiation in ZBLAN with focused femtosecond laser pulses leads to decrease of refractive index in the modified region. Tubular optical waveguides of variable mode areas are fabricated by forming the four sides of the cladding with slit-shaped femtosecond laser pulses, ensuring single mode waveguiding with a mode field dimension as small as ~4 μm. PMID:27346285

  18. Laser beam welding of NiTi-shape memory alloys; Laserstrahl-Schweissen von NiTi-Formgedaechtnislegierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, T.

    1996-04-01

    Using a Nd:YAG laser, the weldability of binary nickel-titanium shape memory alloys containing 50.0 and 48.5 at.-% Ti respectively was investigated. By tensile tests within a temperature range of -80 C to +200 C the mechanical properties of the laser welded joints were examined. Changes in the transformation behaviour were detected by calorimetric measurements (DSC method). The stress-strain behaviour was attributed to the microstructure of the welds, revealed by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), the mechanisms of failure were examined. Joints of the martensitic Ti-rich alloy were brittle, showing an ultimate tensile strength of 600 MPa, corresponding to half of the value of the base material. The reduction in strength was explained by the formation of Ti{sub 2}Ni precipitations along grain boundaries in the weld. Since the welds still exhibited twin deformation, pseudoplastic strains of 7% were achieved. Ultimate strength data showed a very low scatter. Therefore it was possible to use the shape memory effect up to a strain of 6% without failure. After a total elongation to 6% strain, the laser welded joints showed a free recovery with an amnesia of 0.3%. The shape memory effect was shown to be retained in the laser welded joints. 154 refs.

  19. Laser welding of polymers: phenomenological model for a quick and reliable process quality estimation considering beam shape influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Nathalie F.; Stuch, Julia; Scholl, Marcus; Russek, Ulrich A.

    2016-03-01

    This contribution presents a phenomenological, analytical model for laser welding of polymers which is suited for a quick process quality estimation for the practitioner. Besides material properties of the polymer and processing parameters like welding pressure, feed rate and laser power the model is based on a simple few parameter description of the size and shape of the laser power density distribution (PDD) in the processing zone. The model allows an estimation of the weld seam tensile strength. It is based on energy balance considerations within a thin sheet with the thickness of the optical penetration depth on the surface of the absorbing welding partner. The joining process itself is modelled by a phenomenological approach. The model reproduces the experimentally known process windows for the main process parameters correctly. Using the parameters describing the shape of the laser PDD the critical dependence of the process windows on the PDD shape will be predicted and compared with experiments. The adaption of the model to other laser manufacturing processes where the PDD influence can be modelled comparably will be discussed.

  20. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs

  1. Assembling of a low energy ion beam analysis facility and use of Nuclear Microprobe techniques in geological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utui, R.

    1996-11-01

    In this work, both PIXE and ion beam induced luminescence, or just Ionoluminescence (IL) were used for geochemical studies. The possibility of rapid absolute quantification of elements in the ppm level by PIXE combined with the yet higher sensitivity of IL to transition metals and Rare Earth Elements (REE) activators, in the absence of quenching phenomena, allow for a synergic use of the two methods in geological applications with enhanced sensitivity. IL and PIXE were combined for studying REE distribution in apatite minerals and ion beam induced damage in inorganic material in general with emphasis to synthetically grown zircon crystals doped with REE. Due to the sensitivity of IL to changes in chemical bonding in the material, beam damage effects can be studied even at low integrated doses, through wavelength shift or fading of the induced light. Micro PIXE technique was used for studying profile concentrations of trace elements in pyrite grains and of elements used as geothermometers. Geothermometry allowed to assess the cooling rates in iron meteorites and the mineralization conditions in metamorphic rocks, attempting to describe the tectonic history of the terranes, with application in petrologic studies and geological prospecting. 148 refs.

  2. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN quantum dot lasers: solid source molecular beam epitaxy growth and high-temperature operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon SF

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractSelf-assembled GaInNAs quantum dots (QDs were grown on GaAs (001 substrate using solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy (SSMBE equipped with a radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source. The GaInNAs QD growth characteristics were extensively investigated using atomic-force microscopy (AFM, photoluminescence (PL, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM measurements. Self-assembled GaInNAs/GaAsN single layer QD lasers grown using SSMBE have been fabricated and characterized. The laser worked under continuous wave (CW operation at room temperature (RT with emission wavelength of 1175.86 nm. Temperature-dependent measurements have been carried out on the GaInNAs QD lasers. The lowest obtained threshold current density in this work is ∼1.05 kA/cm2from a GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,700 µm2 at 10 °C. High-temperature operation up to 65 °C was demonstrated from an unbonded GaInNAs QD laser (50 × 1,060 µm2, with high characteristic temperature of 79.4 K in the temperature range of 10–60 °C.

  3. Final Report for Grant # DE-FG02-02ER46000 Simulations of Self-Assembly of Tethered Nanoparticle Shape Amphiphiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glotzer, Sharon C. [The University of Michigan

    2014-08-25

    Self-assembly of nanoparticle building blocks including nanospheres, nanorods, nanocubes, nano plates, nanoprisms, etc., may provide a promising means for manipulating these building blocks into functional and useful materials. One increasingly popular method for self-assembly involves functionalizing nanoparticles and nanostructured molecules with “tethers” of organic polymers or biomolecules with specific or nonspecific interactions to facilitate their assembly. However, there is little theory and little understanding of the general principles underlying self-assembly in these complex materials. Using computer simulation to elucidate the principles of self-assembly and develop a predictive theoretical framework was the central goal of this project.

  4. Numerical computation of space-charge fields of electron bunches in a beam pipe of elliptical shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovik, A.

    2005-09-28

    This work deals in particularly with 3D numerical simulations of space-charge fields from electron bunches in a beam pipe with elliptical cross-section. To obtain the space-charge fields it is necessary to calculate the Poisson equation with given boundary condition and space charge distribution. The discretization of the Poisson equation by the method of finite differences on a Cartesian grid, as well as setting up the coefficient matrix A for the elliptical domain are explained in the section 2. In the section 3 the properties of the coefficient matrix and possible numerical algorithms suitable for solving non-symmetrical linear systems of equations are introduced. In the following section 4, the applied solver algorithms are investigated by numerical tests with right hand side function for which the analytical solution is known. (orig.)

  5. Beam Test of a Prototype Phoswich Detector Assembly forthe PoGOLite Astronomical Soft Gamma-ray Polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, Y.; Ueno, M.; Kataoka, J.; Arimoto, M.; Kawai, N.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Yamamoto, K.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y.; /Hiroshima U.; Kiss, M.; Ylinen, T.; Bettolo,; Carlson, P.; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; P.Chen d, B.Craig d, T.Kamae d, G.Madejski d, J.S.T.Ng; Rogers, R.; Tajima, H.; Thurston, T.S.; /SLAC; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Gunji, S.; /Yamagata U.; Bjornsson, C-I.; Larsson, S.; /Stockholm U. /Ecole Polytechnique /KEK, Tsukuba

    2007-01-17

    We report about the beam test on a prototype of the balloon-based astronomical soft gamma-ray polarimeter, PoGOLite (Polarized Gamma-ray Observer--Light Version) conducted at KEK Photon Factory, a synchrotron radiation facility in Japan. The synchrotron beam was set at 30, 50, and 70 keV and its polarization was monitored by a calibrated polarimeter. The goal of the experiment was to validate the flight design of the polarimeter. PoGOLite is designed to measure polarization by detecting a Compton scattering and the subsequent photo-absorption in an array of 217 well-type phoswich detector cells (PDCs). The test setup included a first flight model PDC and a front-end electronics to select and reconstruct valid Compton scattering events. The experiment has verified that the flight PDC can detect recoil electrons and select valid Compton scattering events down to 30 keV from background. The measure azimuthal modulations (34.4 %, 35.8 % and 37.2 % at 30, 50, and 70 keV, respectively) agreed within 10% (relative) with the predictions by Geant4 implemented with dependence on the initial and final photon polarizations.

  6. Central safety factor and βN control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-05-01

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of βN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling βN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  7. Influence of the shape and surface oxidation in the magnetization reversal of thin iron nanowires grown by focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Rodríguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (HC, which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that HC decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of HC as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.

  8. The formation of hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN-nanowire observed in plasma source molecular beam epitaxy

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Tien Khee

    2014-03-08

    We report on the properties and growth kinetics of defect-free, photoluminescence (PL) efficient mushroom-like nanowires (MNWs) in the form of ~30nm thick hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk on GaN nanowires, coexisting with the conventional rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) on (111)-silicon-substrate. When characterized using confocal microscopy (CFM) with 458nm laser excitation, while measuring spontaneous-emission at fixed detection wavelengths, the spatial intensity map evolved from having uniform pixelated emission, to having only an emission ring, and then a round emission spot. This corresponds to the PL emission with increasing indium composition; starting from emission mainly from the RNW, and then the 540 nm emission from one MNWs ensemble, followed by the 590 nm emission from a different MNW ensemble, respectively. These hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nano-disks ensembles were obtained during molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE) growth. On the other hand, the regular rod-like InGaN-on-GaN nanowires (RNWs) were emitting at a shorter peak wavelength of 490 nm. While the formation of InGaN rod-like nanowire is well-understood, the formation of the hexagonal-shaped InGaN-nanodisk-on-GaN-nanowire requires further investigation. It was postulated to arise from the highly sensitive growth kinetics during plasma-assisted MBE of InGaN at low temperature, i.e. when the substrate temperature was reduced from 800 °C (GaN growth) to <600 °C (InGaN growth), during which sparsely populated metal-droplet formation prevails and further accumulated more indium adatoms due to a higher cohesive bond between metallic molecules. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  9. Spatial Laser Beam Shaping Using Digital Micromirror Device%数字微镜器件用于光束空间整形

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄大杰; 范薇; 林尊琪

    2011-01-01

    The operating principle of digital micromirror device (DMD) is introduced. When the titled angle of a pixel mirror is set at +12° or -12°, it means that the optical transmissivity of this pixel is 0 or 1. With the help of the design method in binary panels, error diffusion method is used to spatially shape the 1053 nm laser pulse, which also realizes an initiative way of spatial modulation for laser pulse. Filling factor (FF) and field modulation (FM) are both factors which decide the quality of the near field laser beam and they directly affect energy availability factor of the high power laser system. In this experiment, FF increases from 33% to 65% and FM decreases from 52% to 28% after being shaped, and the size of the shaped beam is the same as we expected. At the end, the energy availability factor and mirror stability of this DMD are tested.%介绍了数字微镜器件(DMD)的工作原理,当DMD某像素微镜的角度固定在+12°或-12°,其在光学上等价于控制该像素的透射率为O或1.结合二元面板的设计思想,用误差扩散法对DMD各像素微镜的状态进行设计,用以对1053 nm脉冲光进行空间整形,实现了一种主动、实时的光脉冲空间整形方案.填充因子(FF)和光场调制度(FM)作为评价光束近场质量的参数,在高功率激光系统中直接影响系统的能量利用率.上述实验中,经过空间整形,光束的填充因子由33% 提高为65%,光场调制度由52% 降为28%.而且整形后的光斑大小与预期相符.最后对实验所用的DMD进行了能量利用率、波前畸变稳定性的测试.

  10. Measurements of neutronic characteristics of the KENS target-moderator-reflector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ino, T.; Kawai, M.; Furusaka, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ooi, M.; Yasui, S.; Kiyanagi, Y. [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Neutron beam characteristics were measured at KENS regarding the renewal of the target-moderator-reflector assembly. The recovery of the cold neutron flux was confirmed as well as improvements in the pulse shape of the thermal neutrons. The measurements were also compared with LCS (LAHET code system) neutronic calculations. (author)

  11. Retinoblastoma external beam photon irradiation with a special ‘D’-shaped collimator: a comparison between measurements, Monte Carlo simulation and a treatment planning system calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brualla, L.; Mayorga, P. A.; Flühs, A.; Lallena, A. M.; Sempau, J.; Sauerwein, W.

    2012-11-01

    Retinoblastoma is the most common eye tumour in childhood. According to the available long-term data, the best outcome regarding tumour control and visual function has been reached by external beam radiotherapy. The benefits of the treatment are, however, jeopardized by a high incidence of radiation-induced secondary malignancies and the fact that irradiated bones grow asymmetrically. In order to better exploit the advantages of external beam radiotherapy, it is necessary to improve current techniques by reducing the irradiated volume and minimizing the dose to the facial bones. To this end, dose measurements and simulated data in a water phantom are essential. A Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV is used in conjunction with a dedicated collimator for the retinoblastoma treatment. This collimator conforms a ‘D’-shaped off-axis field whose irradiated area can be either 5.2 or 3.1 cm2. Depth dose distributions and lateral profiles were experimentally measured. Experimental results were compared with Monte Carlo simulations’ run with the penelope code and with calculations performed with the analytical anisotropic algorithm implemented in the Eclipse treatment planning system using the gamma test. penelope simulations agree reasonably well with the experimental data with discrepancies in the dose profiles less than 3 mm of distance to agreement and 3% of dose. Discrepancies between the results found with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data reach 3 mm and 6%. Although the discrepancies between the results obtained with the analytical anisotropic algorithm and the experimental data are notable, it is possible to consider this algorithm for routine treatment planning of retinoblastoma patients, provided the limitations of the algorithm are known and taken into account by the medical physicist and the clinician. Monte Carlo simulation is essential for knowing these limitations. Monte Carlo simulation is required for optimizing the

  12. Monte Carlo study for designing a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator used in the external beam radiotherapy of retinoblastoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayorga, P. A. [FISRAD S.A.S., CR 64 A No. 22 - 41, Bogotá D C (Colombia); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Brualla, L.; Sauerwein, W. [NCTeam, Strahlenklinik, Universitätsklinikum Essen, Hufelandstraße 55, D-45122 Essen (Germany); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: lallena@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in the early childhood. Patients treated with external beam radiotherapy respond very well to the treatment. However, owing to the genotype of children suffering hereditary retinoblastoma, the risk of secondary radio-induced malignancies is high. The University Hospital of Essen has successfully treated these patients on a daily basis during nearly 30 years using a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator. The use of this collimator that delivers a highly conformed small radiation field, gives very good results in the control of the primary tumor as well as in preserving visual function, while it avoids the devastating side effects of deformation of midface bones. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a modified version of the “D”-shaped collimator that reduces even further the irradiation field with the scope to reduce as well the risk of radio-induced secondary malignancies. Concurrently, the new dedicated “D”-shaped collimator must be easier to build and at the same time produces dose distributions that only differ on the field size with respect to the dose distributions obtained by the current collimator in use. The scope of the former requirement is to facilitate the employment of the authors' irradiation technique both at the authors' and at other hospitals. The fulfillment of the latter allows the authors to continue using the clinical experience gained in more than 30 years. Methods: The Monte Carlo codePENELOPE was used to study the effect that the different structural elements of the dedicated “D”-shaped collimator have on the absorbed dose distribution. To perform this study, the radiation transport through a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV was simulated in order to tally phase-space files which were then used as radiation sources to simulate the considered collimators and the subsequent dose distributions. With the knowledge gained in that study, a new

  13. Analysis of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molars using surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography: A clinical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Chhabra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The study was aimed to acquire better understanding of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molar teeth through a clinical approach using sophisticated techniques such as surgical operating microscope and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 extracted mandibular second molar teeth with fused roots and longitudinal grooves were collected randomly from native Indian population. Pulp chamber floors of all specimens were examined under surgical operating microscope and classified into four types (Min′s method. Subsequently, samples were subjected to CBCT scan after insertion of K-files size #10 or 15 into each canal orifice and evaluated using the cross-sectional and 3-dimensional images in consultation with dental radiologist so as to obtain more accurate results. Minimum distance between the external root surface on the groove and initial file placed in the canal was also measured at different levels and statistically analyzed. Results: Out of 42 teeth, maximum number of samples (15 belonged to Type-II category. A total of 100 files were inserted in 86 orifices of various types of specimens. Evaluation of the CBCT scan images of the teeth revealed that a total of 21 canals were missing completely or partially at different levels. The mean values for the minimum thickness were highest at coronal followed by middle and apical third levels in all the categories. Lowest values were obtained for teeth with Type-III category at all three levels. Conclusions: The present study revealed anatomical variations of C-shaped canal system in mandibular second molars. The prognosis of such complex canal anatomies can be improved by simultaneous employment of modern techniques such as surgical operating microscope and CBCT.

  14. Study of secondary neutron interactions with 232 Th, 129 I, and 127 I nuclei with the uranium assembly " QUINTA " at 2, 4, and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the JINR Nuclotron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, J. [ASCR, Prague; Chilap, V. V. [IPTP, Dubna; Furman, M. G. [Dubna, JINR; Khushvaktov, J. [Dubna, JINR; Pronskikh, V. S. [Fermilab; Solnyshkin, A. A.. [Dubna, JINR; Stegailov, V. I. [Dubna, JINR; Suchopar, M. [ASCR, Prague; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. M. [Dubna, JINR; Tyutyunnikov, S. I. [Dubna, JINR; Vrzalova, J.. [Dubna, JINR; Wagner, V. [ASCR, Prague; Zavorka, L. [Dubna, JINR

    2016-06-01

    The natural uranium assembly, "QUINTA", was irradiated with 2, 4, and 8 GeV deuterons. The 232 Th, 127 I, and 129 I samples have been exposed to secondary neutrons produced in the assembly at a 20-cm radial distance from the deuteron beam axis. The spectra of gamma rays emitted by the activated 232 Th, 127 I, and 129 I samples have been analyzed and several tens of product nuclei have been identified. For each of those products, neutron-induced reaction rates have been determined. The transmutation power for the 129 I samples is estimated. Experimental results were compared to those calculated with well-known stochastic and deterministic codes.

  15. Transport and optical properties of c-axis oriented wedge shaped GaN nanowall network grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasker, H. P.; Thakur, Varun; Kesaria, Manoj; Shivaprasad, S. M.; Dhar, S.

    2014-02-01

    The transport and optical properties of wedge-shaped nanowall network of GaN grown spontaneously on cplane sapphire substrate by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (PAMBE) show interesting behavior. The electron mobility at room temperature in these samples is found to be orders of magnitude higher than that of a continuous film. Our study reveals a strong correlation between the mobility and the band gap in these nanowall network samples. However, it is seen that when the thickness of the tips of the walls increases to an extent such that more than 70% of the film area is covered, it behaves close to a flat sample. In the sample with lower surface coverage (≈40% and ≈60%), it was observed that the conductivity, mobility as well as the band gap increase with the decrease in the average tip width of the walls. Photoluminescence (PL) experiments show a strong and broad band edge emission with a large (as high as ≈ 90 meV) blue shift, compared to that of a continuous film, suggesting a confinement of carriers on the top edges of the nanowalls. The PL peak width remains wide at all temperatures suggesting the existence of a high density of tail states at the band edge, which is further supported by the photoconductivity result. The high conductivity and mobility observed in these samples is believed to be due to a "dissipation less" transport of carriers, which are localized at the top edges (edge states) of the nanowalls.

  16. Assembly of Aditya upgrade tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing Aditya tokamak, a medium sized tokamak with limiter configuration is being upgraded to a tokamak with divertor configuration. At present the existing ADITYA tokamak has been dismantled up to bottom plinth on which the whole assembly of toroidal field (TF) coils and vacuum vessel rested. The major components of ADITYA machine includes 20 TF coils and its structural components, 9 Ohmic coils and its clamps, 4 BV coils and its clamps as well as their busbar connections, vacuum vessel and its supports and buckling cylinder, which are all being dismantled. The re-assembly of the ADITYA Upgrade tokamak started with installation and positioning of new buckling cylinder and central solenoid (TR1) coil. After that the inner sections of TF coils are placed following which in-situ winding, installation, positioning and support mounting of two pairs of new inner divertor coils have been carried out. After securing the TF coils with top I-beams the new torus shaped vacuum vessel with circular cross-section in 2 halves have been installed. The assembly of TF structural components such as top and bottom guiding wedges, driving wedges, top and bottom compression ring, inner and outer fish plates and top inverted triangle has been carried out in an appropriate sequence. The assembly of outer sections of TF coils along with the proper placements of top auxiliary TR and vertical field coils with proper alignment and positioning with the optical metrology instrument mainly completes the reassembly. Detailed re-assembly steps and challenges faced during re-assembly will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  17. 提高唇形油封寿命的装配新工艺开发%New assembly technology development on increase of lip-shaped oil seal life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽英; 张宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Various shafts surface treatment were adopted,and the seal abrasive experiments were carried on fitting with the lip-shaped oil seal,so the shaft surface treatment technology was obtained with good seal,little abrasion and long service life.The assembly technology was analyzed and tested on the oil seal quality and the lifespan effect,and three-dimension Pro/e assembly technology was obtained,which could better ensure the oil seal assembly quality and remarkably increase the lip-shaped oil seal life and airtight performance.%采用多种轴表面处理方式,并与唇形油封进行配合密封磨损试验,得到一种密封良好、磨损小、使用寿命长的轴表面处理工艺;就装配工艺对油封质量及寿命的影响进行了分析及试验,得出采用三维Pro/e装配工艺可更好地保证油封的装配质量,显著提高唇形油封的寿命及密封性能。

  18. Beam Imaging and Luminosity Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Klute, Markus; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a method to reconstruct two-dimensional proton bunch densities using vertex distributions accumulated during LHC beam-beam scans. The $x$-$y$ correlations in the beam shapes are studied and an alternative luminosity calibration technique is introduced. We demonstrate the method on simulated beam-beam scans and estimate the uncertainty on the luminosity calibration associated to the beam-shape reconstruction to be below 1\\%.

  19. Modelling and modal properties of nuclear fuel assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeman V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the hexagonal type nuclear fuel assembly. This very complicated mechanical system is created from the many beam type components shaped into spacer grids. The cyclic and central symmetry of the fuel rod package and load-bearing skeleton is advantageous for the fuel assembly decomposition into six identical revolved fuel rod segments, centre tube and skeleton linked by several spacer grids in horizontal planes. The derived mathematical model is used for the modal analysis of the Russian TVSA-T fuel assembly and validated in terms of experimentally determined natural frequencies, modes and static deformations caused by lateral force and torsional couple of forces. The presented model is the first necessary step for modelling of the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by different sources of excitation during the nuclear reactor VVER type operation.

  20. General shape optimization capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chargin, Mladen K.; Raasch, Ingo; Bruns, Rudolf; Deuermeyer, Dawson

    1991-01-01

    A method is described for calculating shape sensitivities, within MSC/NASTRAN, in a simple manner without resort to external programs. The method uses natural design variables to define the shape changes in a given structure. Once the shape sensitivities are obtained, the shape optimization process is carried out in a manner similar to property optimization processes. The capability of this method is illustrated by two examples: the shape optimization of a cantilever beam with holes, loaded by a point load at the free end (with the shape of the holes and the thickness of the beam selected as the design variables), and the shape optimization of a connecting rod subjected to several different loading and boundary conditions.

  1. Synthesis of core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s by electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol

    KAUST Repository

    Fujiwara, Susumu

    2013-12-07

    A pair of four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(tetrahydrofuran)s, poly(THF)s, possessing a perylene diimide group at the core position (Ia and Ib, respectively) were synthesized by means of an electrostatic self-assembly and covalent fixation (ESA–CF) protocol. Mono- and bifunctional poly(THF)s having N-phenylpiperidinium salt end groups accompanying a perylene diimide tetracarboxylate as a counteranion were prepared by the ion-exchange reaction, and the subsequent covalent conversion by reflux in toluene afforded the corresponding core-fluorescent four-armed star and dicyclic 8-shaped poly(THF)s, (Ia and Ib, respectively) for the use of single-molecule fluorescence microscopy measurements.

  2. 负弯矩作用下钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁受力性能研究%Performance of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beams subjected to negative moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 薛伟辰

    2012-01-01

    The reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam which is composed of precast U-shaped beam,precast slabs and cast-in-place ( CIP) concrete, is investigated in this paper. The performance of the reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam and the cast-in-place concrete control specimen subjected to negative moment was evaluated in terms of failure pattern, flexural strength,ductility and slips based on the monotonic static loading tests. The results showed that both specimens behaved in ductile manner. The flexural strength of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam was about 1% lower than that of the control specimen. The displacement ductility of tbe precast specimen were about 17% higher than that of corresponding control specimen. The slip between precast beam and precast slab and the slip between precast slab and CIP concrete were less than 0. 5 mm under the peak load. The results in this paper are useful to expand the application of reinforced concrete U-shaped composite beam.%针对一种由预制U型梁、预制板和现浇板组成的新型钢筋混凝土叠合梁,开展了负弯矩作用下钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁与现浇对比梁的足尺模型试验,对其破坏形态、截面承载力、位移延性和滑移等进行了较为系统的研究.研究表明:负弯矩作用下叠合梁和现浇梁均发生了受弯破坏;达到峰值荷载时叠合梁中预制板与现浇层之间、预制梁与预制板之间和预制梁与现浇层之间的最大滑移值均不大于0.5mm;叠合梁的负弯矩截面抗弯承载力较现浇梁约低1%;叠合梁的位移延性系数为8.16,较现浇梁的位移延性系数高17%.本文研究成果可为这种新型钢筋混凝土U型叠合梁的工程应用提供技术依据和参考.

  3. Optical Trapping-Formed Colloidal Assembly with Horns Extended to the Outside of a Focus through Light Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tetsuhiro; Wang, Shun-Fa; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2016-05-11

    We report optical trapping and assembling of colloidal particles at a glass/solution interface with a tightly focused laser beam of high intensity. It is generally believed that the particles are gathered only in an irradiated area where optical force is exerted on the particles by laser beam. Here we demonstrate that, the propagation of trapping laser from the focus to the outside of the formed assembly leads to expansion of the assembly much larger than the irradiated area with sticking out rows of linearly aligned particles like horns. The shape of the assembly, its structure, and the number of horns can be controlled by laser polarization. Optical trapping study utilizing the light propagation will open a new avenue for assembling and crystallizing quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, molecular clusters, proteins, and DNA. PMID:27104966

  4. Optical Trapping-Formed Colloidal Assembly with Horns Extended to the Outside of a Focus through Light Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tetsuhiro; Wang, Shun-Fa; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2016-05-11

    We report optical trapping and assembling of colloidal particles at a glass/solution interface with a tightly focused laser beam of high intensity. It is generally believed that the particles are gathered only in an irradiated area where optical force is exerted on the particles by laser beam. Here we demonstrate that, the propagation of trapping laser from the focus to the outside of the formed assembly leads to expansion of the assembly much larger than the irradiated area with sticking out rows of linearly aligned particles like horns. The shape of the assembly, its structure, and the number of horns can be controlled by laser polarization. Optical trapping study utilizing the light propagation will open a new avenue for assembling and crystallizing quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, molecular clusters, proteins, and DNA.

  5. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams.

  6. Beam-Beam Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    One of the most severe limitations in high-intensity particle colliders is the beam-beam interaction, i.e. the perturbation of the beams as they cross the opposing beams. This introduction to beam-beam effects concentrates on a description of the phenomena that are present in modern colliding beam facilities.

  7. Star-shaped poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate) with porphyrin core: synthesis, self-assembly, singlet oxygen research and recognition properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Zhi-Ming; Pan, Jian-Ming; Yuan, Si-Song; Yan, Yong-sheng; Liu, Dong-Ming; Sun, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Star-shaped porphyrin-cored poly(L-lactide)-b-poly(lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate) block copolymers (SPPLA-b-PLAMA) were synthesized via RAFT of unprotected Lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solution at 70 °C. The structure of this as-synthesized SPPLA-b-PLAMA block copolymer was thoroughly studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and Fourier transforms infrared. Moreover, under the irradiation, such SPPLA-b-PGAMA copolymer exhibits efficient singlet oxygen generation (0.17) and indicates high fluorescence quantum yields (0.20). Notably, with UV-vis investigation, SPPLA-b-PLAMA showed a very specific recognition with RCA120 lectin. This will not only provide potentially prophyrin-cored star-shaped SPPLA-b-PLAMA block copolymers for targeted photodynamic therapy, but also improve the physical, biodegradation, biocompatibility properties of PLA-based biomaterials. PMID:25138060

  8. An Electromagnetic Beam Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to an electromagnetic beam converter and a method for conversion of an input beam of electromagnetic radiation having a bell shaped intensity profile a(x,y) into an output beam having a prescribed target intensity profile l(x',y') based on a further development...

  9. Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3-D refractive index maps

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun

    2016-01-01

    Optical trapping can be used to manipulate the three-dimensional (3-D) motion of spherical particles based on the simple prediction of optical forces and the responding motion of samples. However, controlling the 3-D behaviour of non-spherical particles with arbitrary orientations is extremely challenging, due to experimental difficulties and the extensive computations. Here, we achieved the real-time optical control of arbitrarily shaped particles by combining the wavefront shaping of a trapping beam and measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distribution of samples. Engineering the 3-D light field distribution of a trapping beam based on the measured 3-D RI map of samples generates a light mould, which can be used to manipulate colloidal and biological samples which have arbitrary orientations and/or shapes. The present method provides stable control of the orientation and assembly of arbitrarily shaped particles without knowing a priori information about the sample geometry. The proposed method can ...

  10. Miniature modified Faraday cup for micro electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teruya, Alan T.; Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Walton, Chris C.

    2008-05-27

    A micro beam Faraday cup assembly includes a refractory metal layer with an odd number of thin, radially positioned traces in this refractory metal layer. Some of the radially positioned traces are located at the edge of the micro modified Faraday cup body and some of the radially positioned traces are located in the central portion of the micro modified Faraday cup body. Each set of traces is connected to a separate data acquisition channel to form multiple independent diagnostic networks. The data obtained from the two diagnostic networks are combined and inputted into a computed tomography algorithm to reconstruct the beam shape, size, and power density distribution.

  11. Bottom-Up Self-Assembly of the Sphere-Shaped Icosametallic Oxo Clusters {Cu20} and {Cu12Zn8}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Zhou, Hulan; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-16

    A discrete nanospheric icosametallic cluster comprised of 20 Cu ions (1) was self-assembled from facile synthesis. Adjustment of the synthesis by the choice of ligands gave rise to another cluster (2) with an intact icosacupric core and improved stability. Referring to the synthesis of 1 and 2, a heterometallic cluster (3), which contains 12 Cu(II) and 8 Zn(II), was designed and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, combined with elemental analysis, energy-dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and element mapping. The magnetic measurements of 2 and 3 and the scanning electron microscopy images and UV-visible diffuse-reflectance measurements of metal oxides from 2 and 3 indicate that isolation of {Cu12M8} is a new synthetic route to materials with engineered properties. PMID:27116596

  12. Experimental Study on Flexural Properties of Prestressed Concrete Beams Strengthened with U-shape Steel Plates%U型粘钢加固预应力混凝土梁抗弯性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林于东; 夏樟华; 黄俤俤; 宗周红

    2012-01-01

    为了探讨不同损伤程度、粘贴钢板厚度和高度、有效预应力大小和加载方式等对粘钢加固部分预应力混凝土梁抗弯性能的影响,进行2片普通钢筋混凝土(RC)梁以及8片部分预应力混凝土(PPC)梁的U型粘钢加固抗弯试验和数值分析.结果表明:采用U型粘钢加固部分预应力混凝土梁能够有效抑制裂缝的扩展,显著提高加固部分预应力混凝土梁的正截面抗弯承载能力;部分预应力混凝土梁损伤后加固,其屈服荷载和刚度较未损伤加同梁均有不同程度的降低;初始有效预应力水平主要影响使用阶段的抗弯性能;非线性有限元模型能够预测U型粘钢加固梁的抗弯行为,计算结果与试验结果吻合较好;在实际工程中建议梁侧面粘贴钢板高度不超过梁高的1/3为宜.%Transverse tests of two ordinary reinforced concrete (RC) beams and eight partially prestressed concrete (PPC) beams strengthened with U-shaped steel plates were carried out under static loads to investigate the influence of the damage degree, thickness and height of steel plates, magnitude of effective prestress and loading mode on the flexural performance of the PPC beams strengthened with U-shaped steel plates. Numerical analysis was also made. Conclusions are drawn as follows- The cracking development can he effectively restrained using the proposed method of strengthening with U-shaped steel plates, and the flexural load-carrying capacity of the normal section of the strengthened PPC beams can be effectively improved? compared with the PPC beams without damages before strengthening, the yield load and stiffness of the PPC beams with damages before strengthening are reduced to varying degrees; the level of initial effective prestress mainly affects the flexural behavior of the beams in the service stage; the nonlinear finite element (FE) model can be used to predict the flexural performance of the strengthened PPC beams, and the results

  13. Formation and self-assembly growth of palladium nanospheres into flowerlike microstructures using hydrogen peroxide as a sole reducing and shape-controlling agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amornkitbamrung, Lunjakorn; Pienpinijtham, Prompong; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong, E-mail: sanong.e@chula.ac.th [Chulalongkorn University, Sensor Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science (Thailand)

    2015-11-15

    A novel and facile green synthetic method for creating flowerlike palladium microstructures (FPdµSTs) using hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as a sole reducing and shape-controlling agent was developed. FPdµSTs with particle size in the range of 1–5 μm were successfully synthesized. Morphology (size and shape) and complexity of the FPdµSTs could be tuned through the synthetic conditions (i.e., concentrations of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played an important role in creating palladium microstructures by reduction of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} under acidic condition. The time-dependent investigation on the particle growth suggested that the FPdµSTs evolved from spherical palladium nanoparticles with a particle size of 3 nm. The small particles, which were formed at the early stage of the reaction, aggregated and grew into complex flowerlike microstructures.

  14. IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF IRRIGATION AT THE LOCAL RUNOFF, ASSEMBLED IN BEAMS OF LOW-HEAD DAMS WITH IMPROVED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyeva E. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the survey of beamed ponds and dams on the beams of Berestova, Shcherbakova and Gruzskoe on the territory of the Rostov region and establishes their poor condition. To use the ponds as a water source for irrigation of surrounding agricultural land, it is necessary to conduct repairing work on water ponds. In the article, to improve the efficiency of irrigation on local runoff, delayed in beams of low head dams we have proposed an improved design of fastenings (coa...

  15. X-Shaped electro-optic chromophore with remarkably blue-shifted optical absorption. Synthesis, characterization, linear/nonlinear optical properties, self-assembly, and thin film microstructural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hu; Evmenenko, Guennadi; Dutta, Pulak; Clays, Koen; Song, Kai; Marks, Tobin J

    2006-05-10

    A novel type of "X-shaped" two-dimensional electro-optic (EO) chromophore with extended conjugation has been synthesized and characterized. This chromophore is found to exhibit a remarkably blue-shifted optical maximum (357 nm in CH(2)Cl(2)) while maintaining a very large first hyperpolarizability (beta). Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) measurements at 800 nm provide a beta(zzz) value of 1840 x 10(-30) esu. Self-assembled thin films of this chromophore were fabricated via a layer-by-layer chemisorptive siloxane-based approach. The chromophoric multilayers have been characterized by transmission optical spectroscopy, advancing contact angle measurements, synchrotron X-ray reflectivity, atomic force microscopy, and angle-dependent polarized second harmonic generation spectroscopy. The self-assembled chromophoric films exhibit a dramatically blue-shifted optical maximum (325 nm) while maintaining a large EO response (chi(2)(333) approximately 232 pm/V at 1064 nm; r(33) approximately 45 pm/V at 1310 nm). This work demonstrates an attractive approach to developing EO materials offering improved nonlinearity-transparency trade-offs. PMID:16669690

  16. Welding by laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser which does not require a vacuum and the beam from which can be projected over a distance without loss of power is sited outside a welding zone and the beam projected through a replaceable laser transparent window. The window is designed and shaped to facilitate access of the beam of workpiece items to be welded in containment. Either the workpiece or the laser beam may be moved during welding. (author)

  17. Free Vibrations of a Reddy-Bickford Multi-Span Beam Carrying Multiple Spring-Mass Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yesilce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The structural elements supporting motors or engines are frequently seen in technological applications. The operation of machine may introduce additional dynamic stresses on the beam. It is important, then, to know the natural frequencies of the coupled beam-mass system, in order to obtain a proper design of the structural elements. The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli-Euler and Timoshenko single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems are plenty, but the free vibration analysis of Reddy-Bickford multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems has not been investigated by any of the studies in open literature so far. This paper aims at determining the exact solutions for the natural frequencies and mode shapes of Reddy-Bickford beams. The model allows analyzing the influence of the shear effect and spring-mass systems on the dynamic behavior of the beams by using Reddy-Bickford Beam Theory (RBT. The effects of attached spring-mass systems on the free vibration characteristics of the 1–4 span beams are studied. The natural frequencies of Reddy-Bickford single-span and multi-span beams calculated by using the numerical assembly technique and the secant method are compared with the natural frequencies of single-span and multi-span beams calculated by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT; the mode shapes are presented in graphs.

  18. Three luminescent d10 metal coordination polymers assembled from a semirigid V-shaped ligand with high selective detecting of Cu2+ ion and nitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Ping; Liu, Ping; Liang, Yu-Tong; Cui, Lin; Xi, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Yao-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Three 2D luminescent coordination polymers with helical frameworks, [ZnL2]n (1) and {[ML2]·(H2O)}n (M=Zn (2), Cd (3)) (HL=4-((2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid), have been assembled under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 is in chiral space group and displays a rare 2D→2D 2-fold parallel interpenetrated layer network with two types of chiral double helixes. Interestingly, the single crystal structure analyses indicate the coexistence of enantiomers la and 1b in one pot, while the bulk crystallization of 1 are racemic mixtures based on the CD measurement. 2 and 3 are isostructural, in the structure, there are two kinds of 2D chiral helical-layers which stack in an -ABAB- sequence leading to the overall structure are mesomer and achiral. All compounds display intense luminescence in solid state at room temperature with high chemical and thermal stability. More importantly, 1 has been successfully applied in the detection of Cu2+ ions in aqueous media and nitrobenzene and the probable detecting mechanism was also discussed.

  19. Chirped microlens arrays for diode laser circularization and beam expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Peter; Dannberg, Peter; Hoefer, Bernd; Beckert, Erik

    2005-08-01

    Single-mode diode lasers are well-established light sources for a huge number of applications but suffer from astigmatism, beam ellipticity and large manufacturing tolerances of beam parameters. To compensate for these shortcomings, various approaches like anamorphic prism pairs and cylindrical telescopes for circularization as well as variable beam expanders based on zoomed telescopes for precise adjustment of output beam parameters have been employed in the past. The presented new approach for both beam circularization and expansion is based on the use of microlens arrays with chirped focal length: Selection of lenslets of crossed cylindrical microlens arrays as part of an anamorphic telescope enables circularization, astigmatism correction and divergence tolerance compensation of diode lasers simultaneously. Another promising application of chirped spherical lens array telescopes is stepwise variable beam expansion for circular laser beams of fiber or solid-state lasers. In this article we describe design and manufacturing of beam shaping systems with chirped microlens arrays fabricated by polymer-on-glass replication of reflow lenses. A miniaturized diode laser module with beam circularization and astigmatism correction assembled on a structured ceramics motherboard and a modulated RGB laser-source for photofinishing applications equipped with both cylindrical and spherical chirped lens arrays demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system design approach.

  20. Three luminescent d10 metal coordination polymers assembled from a semirigid V-shaped ligand with high selective detecting of Cu2+ ion and nitrobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three 2D luminescent coordination polymers with helical frameworks, [ZnL2]n (1) and ([ML2]·(H2O))n (M=Zn (2), Cd (3)) (HL=4-((2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid), have been assembled under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 is in chiral space group and displays a rare 2D→2D 2-fold parallel interpenetrated layer network with two types of chiral double helixes. Interestingly, the single crystal structure analyses indicate the coexistence of enantiomers la and 1b in one pot, while the bulk crystallization of 1 are racemic mixtures based on the CD measurement. 2 and 3 are isostructural, in the structure, there are two kinds of 2D chiral helical-layers which stack in an -ABAB- sequence leading to the overall structure are mesomer and achiral. All compounds display intense luminescence in solid state at room temperature with high chemical and thermal stability. More importantly, 1 has been successfully applied in the detection of Cu2+ ions in aqueous media and nitrobenzene and the probable detecting mechanism was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Three luminescent d10 metal coordination polymers with helical-layer based on 4-((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid have been obtained. Compound 1 shows high selective detecting for Cu2+ ion in aqueous and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • Three coordination polymers with chiral helical-layer have been obtained. • 1 Can luminescent detect Cu2+ ion in aqueous media and nitrobenzene. • Racemic mixture or mesomer compounds can be obtained by controlling the reaction conditions

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reconstruct a BWR type reactor into a high conversion reactor with no substantial changes for the reactor inner structure such as control rod structure. Constitution: The horizontal cross sectional shape of a channel box is reformed into a square configuration and the arrangement of fuel rods is formed as a trigonal lattice-like configuration. As a method of improving the conversion ratio, there is considered to use a dense lattice by narrowing the distance between fuel rods and trigonal lattice arrangement for fuel rod is advantageous therefor. A square shape cross sectional configuration having equal length both in the lateral and longitudinal directions is suitable for the channel box as a guide upon movement of the control rod. Fuel rods can be arranged with no loss by the trigonal lattice configuration, by which it is possible to improve the neutron moderation, increase the reactor core reactivity and conduct effective fuel combustion. In this way, it is possible to attain the object by inserting the follower portion of the control rod at the earier half and extracting the same at the latter half during the operation period in the reactor core comprising fuel assemblies suitable to a high conversion BWR type reactor having average conversion ratio of about 0.8. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. Molecular and supramolecular control of the work function of an inorganic electrode with self-assembled monolayer of umbrella-shaped fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacher, Sebastian; Matsuo, Yutaka; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2011-10-26

    The surface properties of inorganic substrates can be altered by coating with organic molecules, which may result in the improvement of the properties suitable for electronic or biological applications. This article reports a systematic experimental study on the influence of the molecular and supramolecular properties of umbrella-shaped penta(organo)[60]fullerene derivatives, and on the work function and the water contact angle of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and gold surfaces. We could relate these macroscopic characteristics to single-molecular level properties, such as ionization potential and molecular dipole. The results led us to conclude that the formation of a SAM of a polar compound generates an electronic field through intermolecular interaction of the molecular charges, and this field makes the overall dipole of the SAM much smaller than the one expected from the simple sum of the dipoles of all molecules in the SAM. This effect, which was called depolarization and previously discussed theoretically, is now quantitatively probed by experiments. The important physical properties in surface science such as work function, ionization potential, and water contact angles have been mutually correlated at the level of molecular structures and molecular orientations on the substrate surface. We also found that the SAMs on ITO and gold operate under the same principle except that the "push-back" effect operates specifically for gold. The study also illustrates the ability of the photoelectron yield spectroscopy technique to rapidly measure the work function of a SAM-covered substrate and the ionization potential value of a molecule on the surface. PMID:21923177

  3. C-shaped mandibular primary first molar diagnosed with cone beam computed tomography: A novel case report and literature review of primary molars' root canal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Kocoglu, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the different anatomical variations in root canal system of dedicious dentition will improve the practice of the pediatric dentists. The teeth with C-shaped root canal configurations are definitely a problem in endodontic treatment. Dentists who are specialists of endodontics must have adequate knowledge about various root canal morphologies of primary tooth that have a tendency for rapid progression of dental caries to achieve a technically satisfactory outcome. This report presents an extraordinary case of unusual tooth morphology involving the mandibular first primary molar with a C-shaped configuration which has not yet been reported. PMID:27681406

  4. 抛物面天线小形变赋形及波束重构方法%Approach of micro deformation Shaping and beam reconfiguration for parabolic antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李章义; 万国宾; 张静; 马鑫

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the beam reconfiguration methods are usually complex and antenna shaping is difficult on satellite,a novel beam reconfiguration method is proposed,which is based on the feed array longitu-dinally offset focus theory and joint optimization of multi-parameter.With moving feed array of parabolic anten-na some distance along the longitudinal direction,this method uses Zernike polynomial to fit the standard para-bolic reflector and extracts its coefficients,combining with amplitude and phase of the feed source,which are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm.The validation of the proposed method is simulated by com-puting the antenna shaping and beam reconfiguration.The results indicate that the proposed approach can not only achieve the less deform degree which will reduce the difficulty of satellite antenna shaping,but also realize beam reconfiguration of satellite antenna easily and flexibility.%针对星载抛物面天线波束大角度重构实现方法复杂及天线在轨赋形难度大的问题,提出了一种基于馈源纵向偏焦及多参数联合优化的波束重构方法。天线的馈源阵列作纵向偏焦,采用 Zernike 多项式拟合抛物面并提取多项式系数作为优化变量,运用粒子群算法对多项式系数、馈源阵的幅度和相位3类参数进行联合优化。以赋形反射面算例和波束重构算例验证方法的有效性。仿真结果表明,提出的方法简单易操作,可获得较小的反射面形变量,有效降低了抛物面在轨赋形难度,并可使波束重构得以灵活实现。

  5. Extended Finite Element Analysis on H-Shaped Damage Steel Beam Strengthened with CFRP%CFRP加固H型损伤钢梁的扩展有限元分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜震宇; 王春江; 李向民; 许清风; 张卫海

    2012-01-01

    A finite element model for H-shape steel beams strengthened with CFRP are given out on the basis of extended finite element method(XFEM) which was used in the glue interfacial crack analysis. Experiments of steel beams without crack were used for accuracy verification of the XFEM model and the parameters analysis of the crack model. On this basis of the verifications lots of analysis for the glue interfacial stress of H-shaped steel beam strengthened with CFRP have been done by using the proposed procedure just before. All the computing results were compared by changing the model parameters. The results demonstrate that XFEM model is sufficiently accurate for the analysis of CFRP strengthened H-Shape steel beams with initial crack.The simulation procedure can be carried out without remeshing,and can also describe the crack's debonding path accurately. At last the changing rules of the model's parameters, such as the effective bonding length of the CFRP and the adhesive interfacial stress etc. ,are presented in details.%应用扩展有限元法(Extended Finite Element Method,XFEM)建立了碳纤维增强复合材料(Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer,CFRP)加固H型钢梁的有限元模型.用CFRP布加固无损伤H型钢梁试验结果进行了比较分析和胶层损伤开裂模型的参数验证,然后,应用该方法系统分析了CFRP布加固有损伤H型钢梁胶层界面的应力分布和开裂损伤情况,并进行了参数的比较分析.分析结果表明,扩展有限元法在CFRP加固带损伤H型钢梁问题方面具有较好的精度,其避免了网格重剖分的问题,也可以模拟出裂纹扩展的路径.最后,在此模型基础上,研究了CFRP布有效粘结长度和胶层界面应力等参数的变化规律.

  6. Rational assembly of Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) coordination polymers based on flexible V-shaped dicarboxylate ligand: Syntheses, helical structures and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gao-Shan [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Liu, Chong-Bo, E-mail: cbliu@nchu.edu.cn [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Liu, Hong [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Robbins, Julianne; Zhang, Z. John [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Yin, Hong-Shan [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); Wen, Hui-Liang [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Wang, Yu-Hua [School of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Six new coordination polymers, namely, [Pb(L)(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Pb(L)(phen)] (2), [Pb{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(4,4′-bipy){sub 0.5}] (3), [Cd(L)(phen)] (4), [Cd(L)(4,4′-bipy)]·H{sub 2}O (5) and [Mn(L)(4,4′-bipy)]·H{sub 2}O (6) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reaction of 2,2′-[hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid (H{sub 2}L) with Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) in the presence of ancillary ligands 4,4′-bipyridine (4,4′-bipy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). Complexes 1 and 4–6 exhibit 2-D structures, and complexes 2–3 display 3-D frameworks, of which L{sup 2−} ligands join metal ions to single-stranded helical chains of 1, 3–6 and double-stranded helical chains of 2. Complexes 2 and 3 also contain double-stranded Metal–O helices. Topology analysis reveals that complexes 1 and 4 both represent 4-connected sql net, 2 represents 6-connected pcu net, 3 exhibits a novel (3,12)-connected net, while 5 and 6 display (3,5)-connected gek1 net. The six complexes exhibit two kinds of inorganic–organic connectivities: I{sup 0}O{sup 2} for 1, 4–6, and I{sup 1}O{sup 2} for 2–3. The photoluminescent properties of 4–5 and the magnetic properties of 6 have been investigated. - Graphical abstract: Six new Pb(II)/Cd(II)/Mn(II) coordination polymers with helical structures based on flexible V-shaped dicarboxylate ligand have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Photoluminescent and magnetic properties have been investigated. - Highlights: • Six novel M(II) coordination polymers with 2,2′-[hexafluoroisopropylidenebis(p-phenyleneoxy)]diacetic acid and N-donor ligands. • Complexes 1–6 show diverse intriguing helical characters. • The luminescent properties of complexes 1–5 were investigated. • Complex 6 shows antiferromagnetic coupling.

  7. 3D characterization of the forces in optical traps based on counter-propagation beams shaped by a spatial light modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M. V.; Lindballe, T.; Kylling, A.;

    2010-01-01

    An experimental characterization of the 3D forces, acting on a trapped polystyrene bead in a counter-propagating beam geometry, is reported. Using a single optical trap with a large working distance (in the BioPhotonics Workstation), we simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal...... trapping force constants. Two different methods were used: The Drag force method and the Equipartition method. We show that the counterpropagating beams traps are simple harmonic for small displacements. The force constants reveal a transverse asymmetry as - = 9.7 pN/µm and + = 11.3 pN/µm (at a total laser...... power of 2x35 mW) for displacements in opposite directions. The Equipartition method is limited by mechanical noise and is shown to be applicable only when the total laser power in a single 10 µm counter-propagating trap is below 2x20 mW....

  8. EFFECT OF SUBMERGED ENTRY NOZZLE (SEN) PARAMETERS AND SHAPE ON 3-D FLUID FLOW IN MOULD FOR BEAM BLANK CONTINUOUS CASTING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P.Du; J.W.Yang; R.Shi; X.C.Cui

    2004-01-01

    According to turbulent theory and characteristics of beam blank continuous casting, 3-Dmodel to represent the flow of beam blank mould is established. The predicted results indicate that the exit obliquity of up 15°(+15°) should be adopted, which will benefit the floatation of non-metallic inclusion and purification of the molten steel. When the nozzle angle is 120°, the flow pattern is reasonable. Proper nozzle depth can be 200mm. Turbulent kinetic of meniscus can be reduced by adopting the square nozzle and suitable area of side outlet when casting speed increases. The results are consistent with those of water model experiment, so the model is exact and reasonable. The model can provide important information for design of SEN and defining of immersion depth.

  9. On the H8 beam line of the SPS in the North Area, a complete slice of the ATLAS detector is taking shape

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The Inner Detector and Calorimetry setup. The Liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter in its cryostat, and the tile calorimeter (centre) are mounted such that they can be repositioned in the beam, which travels from left to right. Also visible is the magnet housing the Pixel and SCT detectors (far left), the Transition Radiation Tracker (left) and part of a MDT/RPC Muon chamber (far right).

  10. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science (Symposium X of IUMRS-ICA2008) Toshiji Kanaya, Kohji Tashiro, Kazuo Sakura Keiji Tanaka, Sono Sasaki, Naoya Torikai, Moonhor Ree, Kookheon Char, Charles C Han, Atsushi Takahara This volume contains peer-reviewed invited and contributed papers that were presented in Symposium X 'Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' at the IUMRS International Conference in Asia 2008 (IUMRS-ICA 2008), which was held on 9-13 December 2008, at Nagoya Congress Center, Nagoya, Japan. Structure analyses of soft materials based on synchrotron radiation (SR) and neutron beam have been developed steadily. Small-angle scattering and wide-angle diffraction techniques clarified the higher-order structure as well as time dependence of structure development such as crystallization and microphase-separation. On the other hand, reflectivity, grazing-incidence scattering and diffraction techniques revealed the surface and interface structural features of soft materials. From the viewpoint of strong interests on the development of SR and neutron beam techniques for soft materials, the objective of this symposium is to provide an interdisciplinary forum for the discussion of recent advances in research, development, and applications of SR and neutron beams to soft matter science. In this symposium, 21 oral papers containing 16 invited papers and 14 poster papers from China, India, Korea, Taiwan, and Japan were presented during the three-day symposium. As a result of the review of poster and oral presentations of young scientists by symposium chairs, Dr Kummetha Raghunatha Reddy (Toyota Technological Institute) received the IUMRS-ICA 2008 Young Researcher Award. We are grateful to all invited speakers and many participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee of Symposium (IUMRS-ICA 2008) Professor Toshiji Kanaya (Kyoto University) Professor Kohji

  11. Beam distribution reconstruction simulation for electron beam probe

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Yongchun; Li, Peng; Kang, Xincai; Yin, Yan; Liu, Tong; You, Yaoyao; Chen, Yucong; Zhao, Tiecheng; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Yanyu; Yuan, Youjin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam probe (EBP) is a new principle detector, which makes use of a low-intensity and low-energy electron beam to measure the transverse profile, bunch shape, beam neutralization and beam wake field of an intense beam with small dimensions. While can be applied to many aspects, we limit our analysis to beam distribution reconstruction. This kind of detector is almost non-interceptive for all of the beam and does not disturb the machine environment. In this paper, we present the theoretical aspects behind this technique for beam distribution measurement and some simulation results of the detector involved. First, a method to obtain parallel electron beam is introduced and a simulation code is developed. And then, EBP as a profile monitor for dense beam is simulated using fast scan method under various target beam profile, such as KV distribution, waterbag distribution, parabolic distribution, Gaussian distribution and halo distribution. Profile reconstruction from the deflected electron beam trajectory...

  12. Beam-beam effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholents, A.

    1994-12-01

    The term beam-beam effects is usually used to designate different phenomena associated with interactions of counter-rotating beams in storage rings. Typically, the authors speak about beam-beam effects when such interactions lead to an increase of the beam core size or to a reduction of the beam lifetime or to a growth of particle`s population in the beam halo and a correspondent increase of the background. Although observations of beam-beam effects are very similar in most storage rings, it is very likely that every particular case is largely unique and machine-dependent. This constitutes one of the problems in studying the beam-beam effects, because the experimental results are often obtained without characterizing a machine at the time of the experiment. Such machine parameters as a dynamic aperture, tune dependencies on amplitude of particle oscillations and energy, betatron phase advance between the interaction points and some others are not well known, thus making later analysis uncertain. The authors begin their discussion with demonstrations that beam-beam effects are closely related to non linear resonances. Then, they will show that a non linearity of the space charge field is responsible for the excitation of these resonances. After that, they will consider how beam-beam effects could be intensified by machine imperfections. Then, they will discuss a leading mechanism for the formation of the beam halo and will describe a new technique for beam tails and lifetime simulations. They will finish with a brief discussion of the coherent beam-beam effects.

  13. Atom beam triangulation of organic layers at 100 meV normal energy: self-assembled perylene on Ag(110) at room temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnyk, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    The controlled growth of organic layer on surface is still awaiting for an on-line reliable monitoring that would allow improvement of its quality. We show here that the self-assembly of the perylene monolayer deposited on Ag(110) at room temperature can be tracked with low energy atoms in a regime where the energy perpendicular to the layer is less than 0.1 eV preventing damage to the layer. The image processing required for this triangulation technique with atoms is described in details.

  14. An electron gun with replaceable cathode-heater assembly for an E-beam irradiator%可更换阴极热子的辐照加速器用电子枪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迅雷; 于晓娟; 蒋振柏

    2011-01-01

    A new type of electron guns has been developed for a 10 MeV 1.5 mA linac for radiation processing. The specifications required are: cathode voltage 60 kV, peak beam current 550-600 mA, spot size 4 mm, and working distance 60 mm. Particularly, this electron gun is advantageous in its replaceable cathode-heater assembly. This helps the customers to reduce their operation cost. The Egun and Mafia codes were used to simulate electromagnetic fields and electron trajectories. The guns were produced in the same technology of our klystron production. Design specifications of the gun were achieved in the beam current test and beam spot test. The first gun of this type has been working on an linac for about 3000 hours.%本文介绍了工作电压为60 kV、峰值电流为550-600 mA、射程要求为60 mm、注腰不大于Φ4 mm的电子枪的研制.该电子枪用于辐射加工电子直线加速器(10 MeV 1.5 mA).为降低加速器的运营成本,该电子枪特别设计为可更换阴极热子型.采用Egun、Mafia等软件进行模拟计算,基本按照速调管生产的工艺流程,制成该电子枪.热测及束斑测试表明,该电子枪各项参数均达用户要求,目前已在加速器上正常运行约3000 h.

  15. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography-Guided Management of C-Shaped Type III Dens Invaginatus With Peri-invagination Periodontitis in a Maxillary Canine: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Priya; Jadhav, Ganesh R; Syed, Shibli; Bhujbal, Nikita D

    2016-06-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly seen infrequently in maxillary canines. This article describes cone-beam computed tomography-guided nonsurgical management of type III (subtype B) DI in a permanent maxillary canine associated with a sinus tract and peri-invagination periodontitis in a 17-year-old female. After gaining access to the root canal, thorough chemo-mechanical preparation was performed and usage of intracanal medicament of calcium hydroxide was prescribed for 3 weeks, during which the sinus tract healed completely. Obturation was completed by a technique of down-packing master-cone gutta-percha, followed by backfilling with thermoplasticized gutta-percha. At 12-months follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with complete resolution of the sinus tract and radiographic evidence of healing of periapical pathology. PMID:27525733

  16. Holographic optical tweezers: microassembling of shape-complementary 2PP building blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Sarah Isabelle; Mattern, Manuel; Köhler, Jannis; Aumann, Andreas; Zyla, Gordon; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Based on an ongoing trend in miniaturization and due to the increased complexity in MEMS-technology new methods of assembly need to be developed. Recent developments show that particularly optical forces are suitable to meet the requirements. The unique advantages of optical tweezers (OT) are attractive due to their contactless and precise manipulation forces. Spherical as well as non-spherical shaped pre-forms can already be assembled arbitrarily by using appropriate beam profiles generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM), resulting in a so called holographic optical tweezer (HOT) setup. For the fabrication of shape-complementary pre-forms, a two-photon-polymerization (2PP) process is implemented. The purpose of the process combination of 2PP and HOT is the development of an optical microprocessing platform for assembling arbitrary building blocks. Here, the optimization of the 2PP and HOT processes is described in order to allow the fabrication and 3D assembling of interlocking components. Results include the analysis of the dependence of low and high qualities of 2PP microstructures and their manufacturing accuracy for further HOT assembling processes. Besides, the applied detachable interlocking connections of the 2PP building blocks are visualized by an application example. In the long-term a full optical assembly method without applying any mechanical forces can thus be realized.

  17. Single-Plane Magnetically Focused Elongated Small Field Proton Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Grant A; Slater, James M; Wroe, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    We previously performed Monte Carlo simulations of magnetically focused proton beams shaped by a single quadrapole magnet and thereby created narrow elongated beams with superior dose delivery characteristics (compared to collimated beams) suitable for targets of similar geometry. The present study seeks to experimentally validate these simulations using a focusing magnet consisting of 24 segments of samarium cobalt permanent magnetic material adhered into a hollow cylinder. Proton beams with properties relevant to clinical radiosurgery applications were delivered through the magnet to a water tank containing a diode detector or radiochromic film. Dose profiles were analyzed and compared with analogous Monte Carlo simulations. The focused beams produced elongated beam spots with high elliptical symmetry, indicative of magnet quality. Experimental data showed good agreement with simulations, affirming the utility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to model the inherent complexity of a magnetic focusing system. Compared to target-matched unfocused simulations, focused beams showed larger peak to entrance ratios (26% to 38%) and focused simulations showed a two-fold increase in beam delivery efficiency. These advantages can be attributed to the magnetic acceleration of protons in the transverse plane that tends to counteract the particle outscatter that leads to degradation of peak to entrance performance in small field proton beams. Our results have important clinical implications and suggest rare earth focusing magnet assemblies are feasible and could reduce skin dose and beam number while delivering enhanced dose to narrow elongated targets (eg, in and around the spinal cord) in less time compared to collimated beams. PMID:25414143

  18. Central safety factor and β N control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-04-24

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of ßN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling ßN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc.). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  19. 南京至高淳城际快轨U型梁架设方案%The Set up Program of U-shaped Beam in Inter-city Fast Rail from Nanjing to Gaochun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛文静

    2013-01-01

    The U-shaped concrete beams have many advanta-ges such as compressive strength, shock absorption, sound ins-ulation, saving building materials, easy to instal , novel struct-ure and beautiful appearance, but it has thin concrete wal stru-cture, especial y in the bot om plate, and the opening cross-se-ction, low tensional stif ness. In this article, the author explore-s the U-beam erection lifting technology bases on the actual c-ase of Nanjing to Gaochun Intercity Rapid Rail project.%  U型砼梁抗压力强、减震、隔音,具有节约建筑材料、安装方便、结构新颖、外形美观等特点。但因其结构砼壁薄,尤其在底板处,且为开口断面,因此抗扭刚度低。本文通过南京至高淳城际快轨项目的实际案例,对 U 型梁的架设吊装技术予以探讨。

  20. ELA-beam shaping systems for flat panel display prepared by LTPS%用于平板显示 LTPS制备的 ELA光束整形系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹广玥; 游利兵; 方晓东

    2016-01-01

    介绍了多晶硅薄膜较非晶硅薄膜在平板显示领域的优势以及准分子激光晶化制备多晶硅膜的结晶过程。介绍了透镜阵列实现匀光的原理。阐述了典型的准分子激光退火线型光束整形系统的扩束、匀光、投影等结构。并介绍了连续横向固化技术在准分子激光制备低温多晶硅领域的应用。讨论了准分子激光退火光学系统的发展现状,指出了其在平板显示行业的重要意义。%The advantages to poly silicon film instead of amorphous silicon film in the field of flat panel display were introduced .Crystallization process of poly silicon film by using excimer laser crystallization system was studied .The principle of how lens array achieve the uniformity of output laser energy density was described .The structure of typical excimer laser annealing(ELA) line beam shaping system, which included beam expanding unit , beam energy homogenizing unit , projection unit and so on was focused on .Finally the application of sequential lateral solidification technology in the area of low temperature poly silicon ( LTPS ) using excimer laser nnealing was introduced .The status of ELA optical system was discussed and its significance in flat panel display industry was pointed out .

  1. In phantom figures of merit for an epithermal beam produced by a D-D compact neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently the BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) Scientific Community renewed the interest in the development of compact neutron sources for in hospital BNCT in order to skip the problems related to the use of nuclear reactors and to increase the number of treated patients. This paper presents a feasibility study for the exploitation of a high power D-D compact neutron facility, designed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Ca, USA), for the treatment of tumours with diffuse metastases, such as liver cancer. The MCNP code is used to carry out an accurate study of the epithermal column and to assess both the free beam parameters and the in phantom figures of merit to evaluate the beam effectiveness. Various Beam Shaping Assemblies are tested using different materials and geometrical shapes in order to optimize the therapeutic ratio. Finally, the dose profiles are calculated along the beam axis in the anthropomorphic phantom 'ADAM'. (author)

  2. An accelerator-based epithermal neutron beam design for BNCT and dosimetric evaluation using a voxel head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deok-jae; Han, Chi Young; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Jong Kyung

    2004-01-01

    The beam shaping assembly design has been investigated in order to improve the epithermal neutron beam for accelerator-based boron neutron capture therapy in intensity and quality, and dosimetric evaluation for the beams has been performed using both mathematical and voxel head phantoms with MCNP runs. The neutron source was assumed to be produced from a conventional 2.5 MeV proton accelerator with a thick (7)Li target. The results indicate that it is possible to enhance epithermal neutron flux remarkably as well as to embody a good spectrum shaping to epithermal neutrons only with the proper combination of moderator and reflector. It is also found that a larger number of thermal neutrons can reach deeply into the brain and, therefore, can reduce considerably the treatment time for brain tumours. Consequently, the epithermal neutron beams designed in this study can treat more effectively deep-seated brain tumours.

  3. Self accelerating electron Airy beams

    CERN Document Server

    Voloch-Bloch, Noa; Lilach, Yigal; Gover, Avraham; Arie, Ady

    2013-01-01

    We report the first experimental generation and observation of Airy beams of free electrons. The electron Airy beams are generated by diffraction of electrons through a nanoscale hologram, that imprints a cubic phase modulation on the beams' transverse plane. We observed the spatial evolution dynamics of an arc-shaped, self accelerating and shape preserving electron Airy beams. We directly observed the ability of electrons to self-heal, restoring their original shape after passing an obstacle. This electromagnetic method opens up new avenues for steering electrons, like their photonic counterparts, since their wave packets can be imprinted with arbitrary shapes or trajectories. Furthermore, these beams can be easily manipulated using magnetic or electric potentials. It is also possible to efficiently self mix narrow beams having opposite signs of acceleration, hence obtaining a new type of electron interferometer.

  4. Self-assembled flower-like nanostructures of InN and GaN grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahesh Kumar; T N Bhat; M K Rajpalke; B Roul; P Misra; L M Kukreja; Neeraj Sinha; A T Kalghatgi; S B Krupanidhi

    2010-06-01

    Nanosized hexagonal InN flower-like structures were fabricated by droplet epitaxy on GaN/Si(111) and GaN flower-like nanostructure fabricated directly on Si(111) substrate using radio frequency plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to study the crystallinity and morphology of the nanostructures. Moreover, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and photoluminescence (PL) were used to investigate the chemical compositions and optical properties of nano-flowers, respectively. Activation energy of free exciton transitions in GaN nano-flowers was derived to be ∼ 28.5 meV from the temperature dependent PL studies. The formation process of nanoflowers is investigated and a qualitative mechanism is proposed.

  5. Formation of microcraters and hierarchically-organized surface structures in TiNi shape memory alloy irradiated with a low-energy, high-current electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisner, L. L., E-mail: llm@ispms.tsc.ru; Meisner, S. N., E-mail: myp@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Markov, A. B., E-mail: a.markov@hq.tsc.ru; Ozur, G. E., E-mail: vrotshtein@yahoo.com; Yakovlev, E. V., E-mail: msn@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Rotshtein, V. P., E-mail: yakovev@lve.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gudimova, E. Yu., E-mail: ozur@lve.hcei.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The regularities of surface cratering in TiNi alloy irradiated with a low-energy, high-current electron beam (LEHCEB) in dependence on energy density and number of pulses are studied. LEHCEB processing of TiNi samples was carried out using RITM-SP facility. Energy density E{sub s} was varied from 1 to 5 J/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration was 2.5–3.0 μs, the number of pulses n = 1–128. The dominant role of non-metallic inclusions [mainly, TiC(O)] in the nucleation of microcraters was found. It was revealed that at small number of pulses (n = 2), an increase in energy density leads both to increasing average diameter and density of microcraters. An increase in the number of pulses leads to a monotonic decrease in density of microcraters, and, therefore, that of the proportion of the area occupied by microcraters, as well as a decrease in the surface roughness. The multiple LEHCEB melting of TiNi alloy in crater-free modes enables to form quasi-periodical, hierarchically-organized microsized surface structures.

  6. Structural Damping with Friction Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gaul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last several years, there has been increasing interest in the use of friction joints for enhancing damping in structures. The joints themselves are responsible for the major part of the energy dissipation in assembled structures. The dissipated work in a joint depends on both the applied normal force and the excitation force. For the case of a constant amplitude excitation force, there is an optimal normal force which maximizes the damping. A ‘passive’ approach would be employed in this instance. In most cases however, the excitation force, as well as the interface parameters such as the friction coefficient, normal pressure distribution, etc., are not constant. In these cases, a ‘semi-active’ approach, which implements an active varying normal force, is necessary. For the ‘passive’ and ‘semi-active’ approaches, the normal force has to be measured. Interestingly, since the normal force in a friction joint influences the local stiffness, the natural frequencies of the assembled structure can be tuned by adjusting the normal force. Experiments and simulations are performed for a simple laboratory structure consisting of two superposed beams with friction in the interface. Numerical simulation of the friction interface requires non-linear models. The response of the double beam system is simulated using a numerical algorithm programmed in MATLAB which models point-to-point friction with the Masing friction model. Numerical predictions and measurements of the double beam free vibration response are compared. A practical application is then described, in which a friction beam is used to damp the vibrations of the work piece table on a milling machine. The increased damping of the table reduces vibration amplitudes, which in turn results in enhanced surface quality of the machined parts, reduction in machine tool wear, and potentially higher feed rates. Optimal positioning of the friction beams is based on knowledge of the mode

  7. Regulating Cell Apoptosis on Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayers of Photosensitizer-Coupled Polypeptides and Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Ma, Kai; Ma, Guanghui; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2016-01-01

    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly at the molecular level is of great interest because of the broad application of these materials in the biomedical field especially in regulating cell growth, adhesion, movement, differentiation and detachment. Here, we fabricated functional hybrid multilayer films by LbL assembly of biocompatible photosensitizer-coupled polypeptides and collagen-capped gold nanoparticles. The resulting multilayer film can well accommodate cells for adhesion, growth and proliferation. Most significantly, controlled cell apoptosis (detachment) and patterning of the multilayer film is achieved by a photochemical process yielding reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the site and shape of apoptotic cells can be controlled easily by adjusting the location and shape of the laser beam. The LbL assembled multilayer film with integration of functions provides an efficient platform for regulating cell growth and apoptosis (detachment). PMID:27211344

  8. Regulating Cell Apoptosis on Layer-by-Layer Assembled Multilayers of Photosensitizer-Coupled Polypeptides and Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ruirui; Jiao, Tifeng; Ma, Kai; Ma, Guanghui; Möhwald, Helmuth; Yan, Xuehai

    2016-05-01

    The design of advanced, nanostructured materials by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly at the molecular level is of great interest because of the broad application of these materials in the biomedical field especially in regulating cell growth, adhesion, movement, differentiation and detachment. Here, we fabricated functional hybrid multilayer films by LbL assembly of biocompatible photosensitizer-coupled polypeptides and collagen-capped gold nanoparticles. The resulting multilayer film can well accommodate cells for adhesion, growth and proliferation. Most significantly, controlled cell apoptosis (detachment) and patterning of the multilayer film is achieved by a photochemical process yielding reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, the site and shape of apoptotic cells can be controlled easily by adjusting the location and shape of the laser beam. The LbL assembled multilayer film with integration of functions provides an efficient platform for regulating cell growth and apoptosis (detachment).

  9. Commissioning a Rotating Target Wheel Assembly for Heavy Element Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, L. D.; Bennett, M. E.; Mayorov, D. A.; Folden, C. M.

    2013-10-01

    The heaviest elements are produced artificially by fusing nuclei of light elements within an accelerator to form heavier nuclei. The most direct method to increase the production rate of nuclei is to increase the beam intensity, necessitating the use of a rotating target to minimize damage to the target by deposited heat. Such a target wheel was constructed for heavy element research at Texas A&M University, Cyclotron Institute, consisting of a wheel with three banana-shaped target cutouts. The target is designed to rotate at 1700 rpm, and a fiber optic cable provides a signal to trigger beam pulsing in order to avoid irradiating the spokes between target segments. Following minor mechanical modifications and construction of a dedicated electrical panel, the rotating target assembly was commissioned for a beam experiment. A 15 MeV/u beam of 20Ne was delivered from the K500 cyclotron and detected by a ruggedized silicon detector. The beam pulsing response time was characterized as a function of the rational frequency of the target wheel. Preliminary analysis suggests that the K500 is capable of pulsing at rates of up to 250 Hz, which is sufficient for planned future experiments. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  10. Robotic Thumb Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Bridgwater, Lyndon (Inventor); Platt, Robert (Inventor); Wampler, II, Charles W. (Inventor); Goza, S. Michael (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An improved robotic thumb for a robotic hand assembly is provided. According to one aspect of the disclosure, improved tendon routing in the robotic thumb provides control of four degrees of freedom with only five tendons. According to another aspect of the disclosure, one of the five degrees of freedom of a human thumb is replaced in the robotic thumb with a permanent twist in the shape of a phalange. According to yet another aspect of the disclosure, a position sensor includes a magnet having two portions shaped as circle segments with different center points. The magnet provides a linearized output from a Hall effect sensor.

  11. Electron beam diagnostic for profiling high power beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Palmer, Todd A.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2008-03-25

    A system for characterizing high power electron beams at power levels of 10 kW and above is described. This system is comprised of a slit disk assembly having a multitude of radial slits, a conducting disk with the same number of radial slits located below the slit disk assembly, a Faraday cup assembly located below the conducting disk, and a start-stop target located proximate the slit disk assembly. In order to keep the system from over-heating during use, a heat sink is placed in close proximity to the components discussed above, and an active cooling system, using water, for example, can be integrated into the heat sink. During use, the high power beam is initially directed onto a start-stop target and after reaching its full power is translated around the slit disk assembly, wherein the beam enters the radial slits and the conducting disk radial slits and is detected at the Faraday cup assembly. A trigger probe assembly can also be integrated into the system in order to aid in the determination of the proper orientation of the beam during reconstruction. After passing over each of the slits, the beam is then rapidly translated back to the start-stop target to minimize the amount of time that the high power beam comes in contact with the slit disk assembly. The data obtained by the system is then transferred into a computer system, where a computer tomography algorithm is used to reconstruct the power density distribution of the beam.

  12. Size-Selective Nanoparticle Assembly on Substrates by DNA Density Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Benjamin D; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Wu, Huanxin; Luijten, Erik; Mirkin, Chad A; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2016-06-28

    The vision of nanoscale self-assembly research is the programmable synthesis of macroscale structures with controlled long and short-range order that exhibit a desired set of properties and functionality. However, strategies to reliably isolate and manipulate the nanoscale building blocks based on their size, shape, or chemistry are still in their infancy. Among the promising candidates, DNA-mediated self-assembly has enabled the programmable assembly of nanoparticles into complex architectures. In particular, two-dimensional assembly on substrates has potential for the development of integrated functional devices and analytical systems. Here, we combine the high-resolution patterning capabilities afforded by electron-beam lithography with the DNA-mediated assembly process to enable direct-write grayscale DNA density patterning. This method allows modulation of the functionally active DNA surface density to control the thermodynamics of interactions between nanoparticles and the substrate. We demonstrate that size-selective directed assembly of nanoparticle films from solutions containing a bimodal distribution of particles can be realized by exploiting the cooperativity of DNA binding in this system. To support this result, we study the temperature-dependence of nanoparticle assembly, analyze the DNA damage by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy, and employ molecular dynamics simulations to explore the size-selection behavior. PMID:27192324

  13. Design, construction and characterization of special ionization chambers for X radiation beams monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X radiation equipment may show fluctuations in the radiation beam intensity, as they are connected to the power net. These intensity variations can, in turn, modify the air kerma rate produced by this radiation beam. In a calibration laboratory, where radiation detectors (from clinics and hospital services) are calibrated, variations in the radiation beam intensity may cause an error in the absorbed dose determination. The monitor ionization chambers are used to verify the radiation beam intensity constancy, and to provide a correction for possible fluctuations. In this work, monitor ionization chambers for X radiation beams were designed, assembled and characterized. The developed ionization chambers have an innovative design, ring-shaped, with aluminium or graphite electrodes. These ring-shaped ionization chambers have the advantage of not interfering in the direct radiation beams. A double-volume ionization chamber with graphite electrodes was also developed. This ionization chamber is similar to the commercial monitor ionization chamber used in the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. All developed ionization chambers were tested in several standardized radiation beams and their performances were compared with those of commercial ionization chambers. The results show that two of the four ionization chambers developed showed performance comparable to that of the commercial ionization chambers tested. Besides presenting good results, the ionization chambers were designed and manufactured using low cost materials, which are easily found on the Brazilian market. (author)

  14. 结合梁桥面系异形钢箱拱肋系杆拱桥设计%Design of Special-shaped Steel Box Arch Rib Bowstring Arched Bridge of Bonding Beam Deck System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文勃

    2009-01-01

    The main bridge of Putian Chenggang Avenue Bridge crossing Molan River is the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge of 2-span simple-supported double-rib half-through steel box arch rib bonding beam deck system. The single span is 72 m long and the bridge is 47.5 m wide with city-Class A load and double-direction of 8 lanes. Taking the preliminary design and construction drawing design of this bridge as the basis, the article introduces the scheme study of bridge type, structural design of main bridge and analysis of structural calculation of the special-shaped bowstring arched bridge, and analyzes some technical characteristics of this bridge. The design method of the main bridge inclined crossed with the curve river, the design thinks of bonding beam in the arched bridge, the temporary constructed supporting point for improving the structural bearing, and the design method of special arch rib modeling can be referred for the design of the similar bridges.%莆田城港大道跨木兰溪大桥主桥是两跨简支的双肋下承式钢箱拱肋结合梁桥面系的异形系杆拱桥,单跨跨径72m,桥宽47.5m,城一A级荷载,双向8车道.该文以该桥的初步设计和施工图设计为基础,介绍了异形系杆拱桥的桥型方案研究、主桥结构设计、结构计算分析等内容,并分析了该桥的一些技术特点.该桥的弯曲河道斜交主桥设计方法、结合梁在拱桥中的设计思想、结合梁横梁设置临时支点改善结构受力、独特拱肋造型的设计方法等内容,可供类似桥梁设计时参考.

  15. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove;

    2007-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  16. On Characterizing Particle Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Bryan J.; Rickman, Douglas; Rollins, A. Brent; Ennis, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that particle shape affects flow characteristics of granular materials, as well as a variety of other solids processing issues such as compaction, rheology, filtration and other two-phase flow problems. The impact of shape crosses many diverse and commercially important applications, including pharmaceuticals, civil engineering, metallurgy, health, and food processing. Two applications studied here include the dry solids flow of lunar simulants (e.g. JSC-1, NU-LHT-2M, OB-1), and the flow properties of wet concrete, including final compressive strength. A multi-dimensional generalized, engineering method to quantitatively characterize particle shapes has been developed, applicable to both single particle orientation and multi-particle assemblies. The two-dimension, three dimension inversion problem is also treated, and the application of these methods to DEM model particles will be discussed. In the case of lunar simulants, flow properties of six lunar simulants have been measured, and the impact of particle shape on flowability - as characterized by the shape method developed here -- is discussed, especially in the context of three simulants of similar size range. In the context of concrete processing, concrete construction is a major contributor to greenhouse gas production, of which the major contributor is cement binding loading. Any optimization in concrete rheology and packing that can reduce cement loading and improve strength loading can also reduce currently required construction safety factors. The characterization approach here is also demonstrated for the impact of rock aggregate shape on concrete slump rheology and dry compressive strength.

  17. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  18. Virtual commissioning of automated micro-optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel; Roßmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a novel approach to enable virtual commissioning for process developers in micro-optical assembly. Our approach aims at supporting micro-optics experts to effectively develop assisted or fully automated assembly solutions without detailed prior experience in programming while at the same time enabling them to easily implement their own libraries of expert schemes and algorithms for handling optical components. Virtual commissioning is enabled by a 3D simulation and visualization system in which the functionalities and properties of automated systems are modeled, simulated and controlled based on multi-agent systems. For process development, our approach supports event-, state- and time-based visual programming techniques for the agents and allows for their kinematic motion simulation in combination with looped-in simulation results for the optical components. First results have been achieved for simply switching the agents to command the real hardware setup after successful process implementation and validation in the virtual environment. We evaluated and adapted our system to meet the requirements set by industrial partners-- laser manufacturers as well as hardware suppliers of assembly platforms. The concept is applied to the automated assembly of optical components for optically pumped semiconductor lasers and positioning of optical components for beam-shaping

  19. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria;

    2009-01-01

    and plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...

  20. Shape coexistence in krypton and selenium light isotopes studied through Coulomb excitation of radioactive ions beams; Etude de la coexistence de formes dans les isotopes legers du krypton et du selenium par excitation Coulombienne de faisceaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, E

    2006-06-15

    The light krypton isotopes show two minima in their potential energy corresponding to elongated (prolate) and compressed (oblate) quadrupole deformation. Both configuration are almost equally bound and occur within an energy range of less than 1 MeV. Such phenomenon is called shape coexistence. An inversion of the ground state deformation from prolate in Kr{sup 78} to oblate in Kr{sup 72} with strong mixing of the configurations in Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} was proposed based on the systematic of isotopic chain. Coulomb excitation experiments are sensitive to the quadrupole moment. Coulomb excitation experiments of radioactive Kr{sup 74} and Kr{sup 76} beam were performed at GANIL using the SPIRAL facility and the EXOGAM spectrometer. The analysis of these experiments resulted in a complete description of the transition strength and quadrupole moments of the low-lying states. They establish the prolate character of the ground state and an oblate excited state. A complementary lifetime measurement using a 'plunger' device was also performed. Transition strength in neighboring nuclei were measured using the technique of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation at GANIL. The results on the Se{sup 68} nucleus show a sharp change in structure with respects to heavier neighboring nuclei. (author)

  1. Spatially confined assembly of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong; Lu, Nan; Chi, Lifeng

    2014-10-21

    an increasingly important role in the controllable assembly of NPs. In this Account, we summarize our approaches and progress in fabricating spatially confined assemblies of NPs that allow for the positioning of NPs with high resolution and considerable throughput. The spatially selective assembly of NPs at the desired location can be achieved by various mechanisms, such as, a controlled dewetting process, electrostatically mediated assembly of particles, and confined deposition and growth of NPs. Three nanofabrication techniques used to produce prepatterns on a substrate are summarized: the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) patterning technique, e-beam lithography (EBL), and nanoimprint lithography (NPL). The particle density, particle size, or interparticle distance in NP assemblies strongly depends on the geometric parameters of the template structure due to spatial confinement. In addition, with smart design template structures, multiplexed NPs can be assembled into a defined structure, thus demonstrating the structural and functional complexity required for highly integrated and multifunction applications.

  2. Beam alignment system for laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes a beam alignment system for laser welding work pieces, such as fuel rod grids for nuclear fuel assemblies. The apparatus for performing various laser-machining comprises a beam alignment system including alignment target means, as well as means for emitting, directing and focusing the laser beam. (U.K.)

  3. Optimization Design of Strengthening Prefabricated T-Shaped Beam Bridge:Case Study of Maintenance and Strengthening of Municipal Flyover%装配式T形梁桥加固设计优化分析--以某市政跨线桥维修加固工程为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋

    2014-01-01

    Taking the engineering of strengthening a simply supported T-shaped beam bridge as an exam-ple, the paper analyzes the mechanical property of T-shaped beam bridge by the finite element software named Midas Civil, as well as the changing rules of the stress of diaphragms and main beams, the structur-al improvement factor and the transversal uneven amplifying coefficient of T-shaped beam bridge with the different location of additional diaphragms. Finally, the optimal location of diaphragm is confirmed.%以简支T形梁桥加固工程为背景,利用Midas Civil有限元软件对T梁桥进行力学性能分析,总结出纵向不同位置增设横隔梁时,T梁桥的横隔梁及主梁应力、结构改善系数和横向不均匀增大系数的变化规律,从而最终确定横隔梁最佳位置。

  4. Optics assembly for high power laser tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraze, Jason D.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-06-07

    There is provided a high power laser rotational optical assembly for use with, or in high power laser tools for performing high power laser operations. In particular, the optical assembly finds applications in performing high power laser operations on, and in, remote and difficult to access locations. The optical assembly has rotational seals and bearing configurations to avoid contamination of the laser beam path and optics.

  5. Shape recovery of viscoelastic beams after stowage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of viscoelastic structures that have been held stowed for a given time duration can be formulated as a viscoelastic boundary value problem in which the prescribed condition switches from constant displacement to constant traction. This paper presents closed-form expressions for the...

  6. Electron beams in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical electron beams in interaction with beam flattening and collimating devices are studied, in order to obtain the means for adequate electron therapy. A treatment planning method for arbitrary field shapes is developed that takes the properties of the collimated electron beams into account. An electron multiple-scattering model is extended to incorporate a model for the loss of electrons with depth, in order to improve electron beam dose planning. A study of ionisation measurements in two different phantom materials yields correction factors for electron beam dosimetry. (Auth.)

  7. CT Imaging System for Standing Wood Based on Fan-Shaped X-Ray Beam%基于扇形X射线束的立木CT成像系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚玉涵; 徐佳鹤; 张星梅; 葛浙东; 李早芳; 周玉成

    2016-01-01

    重建图像进行对比,验证了立木断层重建图像的正确性。【结论】立木断层重建图像可清晰反映出立木断层的形状、内裂、年轮以及髓心等结构特征,图像质量能够满足科研人员对木材内部构造检测的要求。%Objective]A computed tomography ( CT) imaging system based on fan-shaped X-ray beam was developed for high-resolution tomographic imaging of standing wood. Many subjects such as nuclear physics,computer science and signal processing etc. were integrated in the CT imaging system. The CT technology was applied in standing wood,the reconstruction image of standing wood could be used to facilitate researchers accurately understanding internal structure and defect characteristics of wood,which would provide technical support for the wood science research in China.[Method]CT imaging for standing wood based on the X-ray absorption extent might be different in various wood structures. So,by measuring the X-ray attenuation coefficients within wood,solving the two-dimensional distribution matrix of coefficients on standing wood ’s cross section, transforming the matrix into a gray-scale image, and the tomographic imaging for standing wood could be realized. The CT imaging system includes an X-ray source,an X-ray detector,an electric rotational stage and a computer,the computer controls the CT system as a central processing unit. During standing wood ’s scanning,the X-ray source and the X-ray detector were stationary,while the standing wood placed in the center of electric rotational stage. The fan-shaped beam was emitting from X-ray source to the standing wood and the X-ray detector captured the penetrated X-ray intensity when the standing wood was at different angles of rotation. The computer gave detector an order to collect data via USB,and converted the X-ray intensity into digital signal,then transferred to the computer and saved as database files. In order to meet the requirements of computer

  8. Beam characteristics of energy-matched flattening filter free beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paynter, D.; Weston, S. J.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James Institute of Oncology The Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Medical Physics, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Evans, J. A. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [LIGHT Institute University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT, Division of Medical Physics, Leeds, United Kingdom and Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Flattening filter free (FFF) linear accelerators can increase treatment efficiency and plan quality. There are multiple methods of defining a FFF beam. The Elekta control system supports tuning of the delivered FFF beam energy to enable matching of the percentage depth-dose (PDD) of the flattened beam at 10 cm depth. This is compared to FFF beams where the linac control parameters are identical to those for the flattened beam. All beams were delivered on an Elekta Synergy accelerator with an Agility multi-leaf collimator installed and compared to the standard, flattened beam. The aim of this study is to compare “matched” FFF beams to both “unmatched” FFF beams and flattened beams to determine the benefits of matching beams. Methods: For the three modes of operation 6 MV flattened, 6 MV matched FFF, 6 MV unmatched FFF, 10 MV flattened, 10 MV matched FFF, and 10 MV unmatched FFF beam profiles were obtained using a plotting tank and were measured in steps of 0.1 mm in the penumbral region. Beam penumbra was defined as the distance between the 80% and 20% of the normalized dose when the inflection points of the unflattened and flattened profiles were normalized with the central axis dose of the flattened field set as 100%. PDD data was obtained at field sizes ranging from 3 cm × 3 cm to 40 cm × 40 cm. Radiation protection measurements were additionally performed to determine the head leakage and environmental monitoring through the maze and primary barriers. Results: No significant change is made to the beam penumbra for FFF beams with and without PDD matching, the maximum change in penumbra for a 10 cm × 10 cm field was within the experimental error of the study. The changes in the profile shape with increasing field size are most significant for the matched FFF beam, and both FFF beams showed less profile shape variation with increasing depth when compared to flattened beams, due to consistency in beam energy spectra across the radiation field

  9. On the validity of localized approximations for Bessel beams: All N-Bessel beams are identically equal to zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouesbet, Gérard

    2016-06-01

    Localized approximation procedures are efficient ways to evaluate beam shape coefficients of a laser beam. They are particularly useful when other methods are ineffective or inefficient. Several papers in the literature have reported the use of such procedures to evaluate the beam shape coefficients of Bessel beams. Relying on the concept of N-beams, it is demonstrated that care must be taken when constructing a localized approximation for a Bessel beam, namely a localized Bessel beam is satisfactorily close enough to the intended beam only when the axicon angle is small enough.

  10. Polymorphic Ring-Shaped Molecular Clusters Made of Shape-Variable Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitel Cervantes-Salguero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembling molecular building blocks able to dynamically change their shapes, is a concept that would offer a route to reconfigurable systems. Although simulation studies predict novel properties useful for applications in diverse fields, such kinds of building blocks, have not been implemented thus far with molecules. Here, we report shape-variable building blocks fabricated by DNA self-assembly. Blocks are movable enough to undergo shape transitions along geometrical ranges. Blocks connect to each other and assemble into polymorphic ring-shaped clusters via the stacking of DNA blunt-ends. Reconfiguration of the polymorphic clusters is achieved by the surface diffusion on mica substrate in response to a monovalent salt concentration. This work could inspire novel reconfigurable self-assembling systems for applications in molecular robotics.

  11. Furnace assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  12. Bessel Beams

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Kirk T

    2000-01-01

    Scalar Bessel beams are derived both via the wave equation and via diffraction theory. While such beams have a group velocity that exceeds the speed of light, this is a manifestation of the "scissors paradox" of special relativty. The signal velocity of a modulated Bessel beam is less than the speed of light. Forms of Bessel beams that satisfy Maxwell's equations are also given.

  13. A beam source model for scanned proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimstrand, Peter; Traneus, Erik; Ahnesjö, Anders; Grusell, Erik; Glimelius, Bengt; Tilly, Nina

    2007-06-01

    A beam source model, i.e. a model for the initial phase space of the beam, for scanned proton beams has been developed. The beam source model is based on parameterized particle sources with characteristics found by fitting towards measured data per individual beam line. A specific aim for this beam source model is to make it applicable to the majority of the various proton beam systems currently available or under development, with the overall purpose to drive dose calculations in proton beam treatment planning. The proton beam phase space is characterized by an energy spectrum, radial and angular distributions and deflections for the non-modulated elementary pencil beam. The beam propagation through the scanning magnets is modelled by applying experimentally determined focal points for each scanning dimension. The radial and angular distribution parameters are deduced from measured two-dimensional fluence distributions of the elementary beam in air. The energy spectrum is extracted from a depth dose distribution for a fixed broad beam scan pattern measured in water. The impact of a multi-slab range shifter for energy modulation is calculated with an own Monte Carlo code taking multiple scattering, energy loss and straggling, non-elastic and elastic nuclear interactions in the slab assembly into account. Measurements for characterization and verification have been performed with the scanning proton beam system at The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala. Both in-air fluence patterns and dose points located in a water phantom were used. For verification, dose-in-water was calculated with the Monte Carlo code GEANT 3.21 instead of using a clinical dose engine with approximations of its own. For a set of four individual pencil beams, both with the full energy and range shifted, 96.5% (99.8%) of the tested dose points satisfied the 1%/1 mm (2%/2 mm) gamma criterion.

  14. 预应力钢带加固火灾后钢筋混凝土T 型梁抗剪性能研究%EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHEAR RESISTANCE OF AFTER-FIRE REINFORCED CONCRETE T-SHAPED BEAM RETROFITTED WITH PRESTRESSED STEEL STRIPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王汉迎; 杨勇; 王艾迪; 刘义

    2015-01-01

    To study the shear performance of prestressed steel strip strengthened after-fire concrete T-shaped beam, eleven after-fire reinforced concrete T-shaped beam specimens retrofitted with prestressed steel strips and one normal temperature control beam were tested , eleven beam specimens included in fire test were heated under ISO 834 curve. It was examined the effects of layer numbers of steel strip, the spacing of steel strip and fire exposure time on the shearing failure mode and shearing capacity.Through analysis of static load test,it was found that the shear capacity retrofitted beam with different strengthening degree could be increased by 20% ~50% as compared with normal temperature control beam,this skill could improve the shear capacity of the concrete beam efficiently.It could also improve cracking resistance and deformation properties of the specimens under shear failure, and the ductility of the strengthened beams could be significantly increased.%为研究预应力钢带加固受火后钢筋混凝土T型梁的抗剪性能,共完成了11根火灾后加固混凝土T型梁试件和1根未受火对比梁试件的试验研究,其中火灾试验在火灾试验炉中按ISO 834标准升温曲线进行。通过试验研究,着重考察预应力钢带间距、预应力钢带层数、火灾试验受火时间等关键参数对火灾后加固混凝土梁受剪破坏形态和受剪承载能力的影响规律。试验研究结果表明:不同加固度的火灾后加固试件抗剪承载能力比未受火未加固试件抗剪承载能力提高20%~50%,有效提高了火灾后混凝土梁抗剪承载能力,同时预应力钢带加固还能有效改善试件剪切破坏开裂性能和变形性能,有效提高加固试件的延性性能。

  15. 锥形束CT在下颌第二磨牙C形根管系统应用的研究%Study on application of cone-beam computed tomography in C-shaped root canal system in mandibular second molars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游婧; 孙超; 杨宁; 王曦晞; 刘卫红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anatomical structure of C-shaped canal systems in mandibular second molars by cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) and to provide more intuitive imaging foundations for canal treatment. Methods The mandibular second molars of 441 patients were observed by CBCT. The incidence of the C-shaped canals in mandibular second molars and the anatomical features of the C-shaped canal systems were analyzed. Results C-shaped canal system was present in 41.72% of the mandibular second molars. This prevalence did pot vary in gender or age. The patterns of C-shaped canals varied a lot. Conclusions The incidence of the C-shaped canals of the mandibular second molars is high. The C-shaped canals vary greatly in their anatomical configurations. Besides,CBCT is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of C-shaped canal systems.%目的 采用锥形束CT(简称CBCT)研究下颌第二磨牙C形根管的解剖形态,为根管治疗提供更加直观的影像学依据.方法 使用CBCT观察441例患者双侧下颌第二磨牙,统计C形根管的发生率以及根管形态.结果 C形根管的发生率为41.72%,C形根管类型变化多样,C形根管的发生率在性别、年龄间无统计学差异.结论 C形根管在下颌第二磨牙有很高的发生率,并且解剖形态有较大差异,CBCT在诊断C形根管方面具有重要作用.

  16. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  17. Laser-directed hierarchical assembly of liquid crystal defects and control of optical phase singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Paul J; Qi, Zhiyuan; Lin, Yiheng; Twombly, Christopher W; Laviada, Mauricio J; Lansac, Yves; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2012-01-01

    Topological defect lines are ubiquitous and important in a wide variety of fascinating phenomena and theories in many fields ranging from materials science to early-universe cosmology, and to engineering of laser beams. However, they are typically hard to control in a reliable manner. Here we describe facile erasable "optical drawing" of self-assembled defect clusters in liquid crystals. These quadrupolar defect clusters, stabilized by the medium's chirality and the tendency to form twisted configurations, are shaped into arbitrary two-dimensional patterns, including reconfigurable phase gratings capable of generating and controlling optical phase singularities in laser beams. Our findings bridge the studies of defects in condensed matter physics and optics and may enable applications in data storage, singular optics, displays, electro-optic devices, diffraction gratings, as well as in both optically- and electrically-addressed pixel-free spatial light modulators. PMID:22679553

  18. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states.

  19. Ultra-high aspect ratio replaceable AFM tips using deformation-suppressed focused ion beam milling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savenko, Alexey; Yildiz, Izzet; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth;

    2013-01-01

    in terms of defining the shape and size of the tip. Due to beam-induced deformation, it has so far not been possible to define HAR structures using lateral FIB milling. In this work we obtain aspect ratios of up to 45, with tip diameters down to 9 nm, by a deformation-suppressing writing strategy. Several...... FIB milling strategies for obtaining sharper tips are discussed. Finally, assembly of the HAR tips on a custom-designed probe as well as the first AFM scanning is shown....

  20. Optimization of beam parameters of electron gun for 2.5 MeV/100 kW high power industrial accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 2.5 MeV/100 kW transformer type industrial accelerator is being developed at RRCAT. A Pierce type electron gun consisting of 10 mm diameter LaB6 disc (indirectly heated) is used as a source of electron beam. The cathode assembly is put on the top of the accelerating structure, which consists of many electrostatic lenses of which the first lens acts as anode of the gun. The quality of the beam injected into the accelerating structure depends on the anode voltage, shape and size of anode and its distance from the cathode. The anode is subjected to variable voltage during the operation of accelerator from energy 1 MeV to 2.5 MeV, which results in variable emittance at the exit of the electron gun. The electron beam from the gun should provide parallel or slightly convergent beam with long focal length and the emittance of the beam at the exit of electron gun should match the beam acceptance limit of the accelerating structure. The EGUN code is used to optimize the shape and size of the anode, its distance from the cathode to achieve above objectives. Our study suggests that the desired beam parameters at the exit of the anode can be obtained by reducing the aperture size of the anode and by applying suitable voltage gradient to the anode. (author)

  1. Beam-optics study of the gantry beam delivery system for light-ion cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovic, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1997-11-11

    Beams of light ions (Z=1-8) have favourable physical and biological properties for their use in radiotherapy. Their advantages are best pronounced if the beam is delivered in a tumour-shape conformed way. The highest degree of conformity could be achieved by combination of a rotating gantry with an active pencil-beam scanning. Ion-optics considerations on such a gantry beam delivery system for light-ion cancer therapy are presented. A low-angle magnetic beam scanning in two perpendicular directions is included in the beam transport system of the gantry. The optical properties of the beam transport system are discussed. (orig.). 29 refs.

  2. Feasibility study of using laser-generated neutron beam for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using a laser-accelerated proton beam to produce a neutron source, via (p,n) reaction, for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) applications has been studied by MCNPX Monte Carlo code. After optimization of the target material and its thickness, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) has been designed and optimized to provide appropriate neutron beam according to the recommended criteria by International Atomic Energy Agency. It was found that the considered laser-accelerated proton beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ∼2×106 n/cm2 shot. To achieve an appropriate epithermal neutron flux for BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz, which is rather ambitious at this moment. But it can be used in some BNCT researches field such as biological research. - Highlights: • Feasibility of using laser-accelerated proton beam for BNCT has been investigated. • The considered beam can provide epithermal neutron flux of ~2×106 (n/cm2.shot). • For BNCT treatment, the laser must operate at repetition rates of 1 kHz

  3. Electron Beam Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriott, Lloyd R.

    1997-04-01

    Electron beams have played a significant role in semiconductor technology for more than twenty years. Early electron beam machines used a raster scanned beam spot to write patterns in electron-sensitive polymer resist materials. The main application of electron beam lithography has been in mask making. Despite the inherently high spatial resolution and wide process margins of electron beam lithography, the writing rate for semiconductor wafers has been too slow to be economically viable on a large scale. In the late 1970's, variable shape electron beam writing was developed, projecting a rectangular beam whose size can be varied for each "shot" exposure of a particular pattern, allowing some integrated circuits to be made economically where a variety of "customized" patterns are desired. In the cell or block projection electron beam exposure technique, a unit cell of a repetitive pattern is projected repeatedly to increase the level of parallelism. This can work well for highly repetitive patterns such as memory chips but is not well suited to complex varying patterns such as microprocessors. The rapid progress in the performance of integrated circuits has been largely driven by progress in optical lithography, through improvements in lens design and fabrication as well as the use of shorter wavelengths for the exposure radiation. Due to limitations from the opacity of lens and mask materials, it is unlikely that conventional optical printing methods can be used at wavelengths below 193 nm or feature sizes much below 180 nm. One candidate technology for a post-optical era is the Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron-beam Lithography (SCALPEL) approach, which combines the high resolution and wide process latitude inherent in electron beam lithography with the throughput of a parallel projection system. A mask consisting of a low atomic number membrane and a high atomic number pattern layer is uniformly illuminated with high energy (100 ke

  4. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies...... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....

  5. Heater assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical resistance heater, installed in the H1 borehole, is used to thermally perturb the rock mass through a controlled heating and cooling cycle. Heater power levels are controlled by a Variac power transformer and are measured by wattmeters. Temperatures are measured by thermocouples on the borehole wall and on the heater assembly. Power and temperature values are recorded by the DAS described in Chapter 12. The heater assembly consists of a 3.55-m (11.6-ft) long by 20.3-cm (8-in.) O.D., Type 304 stainless steel pipe, containing a tubular hairpin heating element. The element has a heated length of 3 m (9.84 ft). The power rating of the element is 10 kW; however, we plan to operate the unit at a maximum power of only 3 kW. The heater is positioned with its midpoint directly below the axis of the P2 borehole, as shown in the borehole configuration diagram. This heater midpoint position corresponds to a distance of approximately 8.5 m (27.9 ft) from the H1 borehole collar. A schematic of the heater assembly in the borehole is shown. The distance from the borehole collar to the closest point on the assembly (the front end) is 6.5 m (21.3 ft). A high-temperature inflatable packer, used to seal the borehole for moisture collection, is positioned 50 cm (19.7 in.) ahead of the heater front end. The heater is supported and centralized within the borehole by two skids, fabricated from 25-mm (1-in.) O.D. stainless steel pipe. Thermocouples are installed at a number of locations in the H1 borehole. Four thermocouples that are attached to the heater skin monitor temperatures on the outer surface of the can, while three thermocouples that are held in place by rock sections monitor borehole wall temperatures beneath the heater. Temperatures are also monitored at the heater terminal and on the packer hardware

  6. ANSYS-based bearing performance & stability analysis of U-shaped steel antiarch beam%基于ANSYS的U型钢反拱梁承载性能及稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑西贵; 刘娜; 冯晓巍; 张农; 付世雄; 花锦波

    2015-01-01

    针对U型钢截面反拱梁失稳破坏问题,应用CAD与ANSYS两软件联合建立U型钢反拱梁有限元模型,采用ANSYS内置的非线性屈曲分析模块,模拟分析U25,U29和U36这3种不同截面反拱梁在承受径向均布载荷条件下临界屈曲载荷和极限承载力与反拱圆心角之间的关系,并在求解过程中监测跨中节点竖向载荷-位移曲线。ANSYS 数值模拟分析结果表明:3种截面反拱圆心角在70°时临界屈曲载荷达到最大值,随后圆心角加大则屈曲载荷平均以4.0%的速度缓慢下降,表明反拱梁在圆心角70°时稳定性最好;当反拱梁圆心角小于70°时,反拱极限承载力以34.3%的增幅递增,呈快速增长趋势;当圆心角大于70°时,反拱承载力则以14.5%的增幅缓慢增长,增幅速度较为平缓。研究结果为工程应用提供了可行方法和理论依据。%In order to solve the instability problem of antiarch beam with U-shaped steel section, finite element model of which has been built with the co-assistance of CAD and ANSYS, the built-in non-linear buckling analytical module has simulated three kinds of sections including U25, U29, and U36 respectively, and all of them is under the impact of radical uniformly distributed load, thus rela-tionship between buckling load, ultimate bearing force and central angle of antiarch is able to come into being, where the curve between vertical load and displacement of the uttermost point in the antiarch is monitored. The results have shown that, critical buckling load reaches its peak value as central angle is 70° as to all those three sections, then the load will glide down at the rate of 4.0%with the continuous increase of the angle, it thus manifests that 70° for central angle is optimum for overall stability. If the angle is less than 70°, the load will mount at the rate of 34.3%, however, if the angle is more than 70°, the mounting rate of the load will mitigate at the

  7. LSST optical beam simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, J A; Gilmore, K; Bradshaw, A; Claver, C; Klint, M; Muller, G; Poczulp, G; Resseguie, E

    2014-01-01

    We describe a camera beam simulator for the LSST which is capable of illuminating a 60mm field at f/1.2 with realistic astronomical scenes, enabling studies of CCD astrometric and photometric performance. The goal is to fully simulate LSST observing, in order to characterize charge transport and other features in the thick fully depleted CCDs and to probe low level systematics under realistic conditions. The automated system simulates the centrally obscured LSST beam and sky scenes, including the spectral shape of the night sky. The doubly telecentric design uses a nearly unit magnification design consisting of a spherical mirror, three BK7 lenses, and one beam-splitter window. To achieve the relatively large field the beam-splitter window is used twice. The motivation for this LSST beam test facility was driven by the need to fully characterize a new generation of thick fully-depleted CCDs, and assess their suitability for the broad range of science which is planned for LSST. Due to the fast beam illuminatio...

  8. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  9. The influence of magnetic interactions and shape anisotropy on the alignment and assembly of BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisjak, Darja, E-mail: darja.lisjak@ijs.si

    2014-11-14

    Magnetically anisotropic material with useful properties can be obtained when the barium ferrite (BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19}) plates are aligned in a single plane. We studied the influence of the magnetic forces and the shape anisotropy on the alignment of barium ferrite nanoparticles. Nanoplates with diameters of 10–350 nm and diameter-to-thickness ratios of 3–30 were synthesized hydrothermally and stabilized in 1-butanol with dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid. The nanoplates were then deposited from the suspension on gold-coated substrates and dried with or without an applied magnetic field. In both cases the nanoplates aligned preferentially in the plane of the substrate, as evidenced by the scanning electron microscopy observations. To compare the influence of the magnetic field and the magnetic dipole–dipole interactions with that of the nanoparticle shape anisotropy, the alignment of paramagnetic erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoplates was also studied. A lower degree of alignment was obtained with the erbium oxide than with the barium ferrite nanoplates. Barium ferrite films with a minimum orientation of 90% were prepared from the deposits after sintering at 1150 °C for 5 h. A comparable alignment of the erbium oxide films was induced hydrodynamically during the electrophoretic deposition. - Highlights: • Aligned deposits from BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} and Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared. • The magnetic interactions prevail over the shape anisotropy effect. • The alignment of the BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} nanoplates was obtained by drying a suspension. • The alignment of Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoplates was obtained only by electrophoretic deposition.

  10. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  11. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  12. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  13. ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Zvi I.; Kuczewski A.; Altinbas, Z.; Beavis, D.; Belomestnykh,; Dai, J. et al

    2012-07-01

    The Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory is building a high-brightness 500 mA capable Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) as one of its main R&D thrusts towards eRHIC, the polarized electron - hadron collider as an upgrade of the operating RHIC facility. The ERL is in final assembly stages, with injection commisioning starting in October 2012. The objective of this ERL is to serve as a platform for R&D into high current ERL, in particular issues of halo generation and control, Higher-Order Mode (HOM) issues, coherent emissions for the beam and high-brightness, high-power beam generation and preservation. The R&D ERL features a superconducting laser-photocathode RF gun with a high quantum efficiency photoccathode served with a load-lock cathode delivery system, a highly damped 5-cell accelerating cavity, a highly flexible single-pass loop and a comprehensive system of beam instrumentation. In this ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter article we will describe the ERL in a degree of detail that is not usually found in regular publications. We will discuss the various systems of the ERL, following the electrons from the photocathode to the beam dump, cover the control system, machine protection etc and summarize with the status of the ERL systems.

  14. Investigation on the reflector/moderator geometry and its effect on the neutron beam design in BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Y; Rahmani, F; Khalafi, H

    2015-12-01

    In order to provide an appropriate neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), a special Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) must be designed based on the neutron source specifications. A typical BSA includes moderator, reflector, collimator, thermal neutron filter, and gamma filter. In common BSA, the reflector is considered as a layer which covers the sides of the moderator materials. In this paper, new reflector/moderator geometries including multi-layer and hexagonal lattice have been suggested and the effect of them has been investigated by MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. It was found that the proposed configurations have a significant effect to improve the thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio which is an important neutron beam parameter.

  15. The electrostatic fields of a tilted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations are presented of the electrostatic fields resulting from the tilted charge distribution in beams inclined to the vacuum chamber axis in storage rings or dispersive beam lines. Expressions are also given for a beam displaced from the axis. Comparisons made with untilted field amplitudes indicate that the longitudinal space-charge fields of an untilted beam can be compensated by an RF system or ramped induction system of some sort while the longitudinal fields of a tilted beam, since they tend to produce longitudinal shear in the centre of the beam, would be much harder to compensate. Longitudinal bunch-shape distortions may thus be expected to develop in a tilted beam. In addition, the transverse fields, since they tend to shift the centre of the transverse motion, may lead to transverse bunch-shape distortions. (U.K.)

  16. Assembling the last module of the vertex locator for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The 42nd and final vertex locator module is assembled in the LHCb clean room. This will be used to measure the point at which two protons in the beam collide from the tracks of particles produced in the collision.

  17. Beam - cavity interaction beam loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a beam with a cavity and a generator in cyclic accelerators or storage rings is investigated. Application of Maxwell's equations together with the nonuniform boundary condition allows one to get an equivalent circuit for a beam-loaded cavity. The general equation for beam loading is obtained on the basis of the equivalent circuit, and the beam admittance is calculated. Formulas for power consumption by a beam-loaded cavity are derived, and the optimal tuning and coupling factor are analyzed. (author)

  18. ENERGY-VARIATIONAL METHOD OF STATIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-WALLED T-SHAPED BEAMS%T形梁静力学特性分析的能量变分法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴发红; 崔传宗

    2012-01-01

    In consideration of shear lag and shear deformation effects, It was proposed an approach of analyzing the static characteristics of T-beams generally used in projects. A new warping displacement mode of T-beams was chosen to meet the axial self-equilibrium condition for corresponding stress, three generalized displacement functions were employed in analyzing static characteristics of the thin-walled T-beams with wide flanges by calculus of variations, the differential equations and the corresponding natural boundary conditions of the T-beams are induced based on the minimum potential principle. According to the fundamental differential equations and the corresponding natural boundary conditions, the static characteristics of thin-walled T-beams are discussed. The finite element solutions were compared with the analytical solutions and verified the validity of the proposed approach.%考虑了剪力滞后、剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件和剪切变形等因素的影响,提出了一种对薄壁T形梁静力学特性的分析方法。以最小势能原理为基础,建立了T形梁静力学特性的控制微分方程和自然边界条件,据此对T形梁力学特性进行了研究。分析了剪滞翘曲应力自平衡条件、不同荷载形式和宽跨比等因素对T形梁静力学特性的影响,最后,通过解析解与有限元数值解进行了比较,说明了该分析方法的有效性。

  19. Liquid Flow in Shaped Fiber Bundle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan; WANG Hua-ping; CHEN Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    By computation and comparison of the critical spreading coefficient parameter, it was found that shaped fiber bundle is better for wetting. Liquid-air interface tension of liquid arising the shaped fiber bundle body is considered as one critical factor besides liquid viscosity, inertia force and liquid-fiber interface tension. Experimental result simulation demonstrated that the liquid-air interface tension is correlated with the geometric size of the liquid arising in body, φ0 (x) and which is affected by the cross sectional shape of fiber and the radius of single fiber. The shaped fiber bundle model is introduced to investigate liquid flow in fiber assembly. The model is generated based on a random function for stochastic forming of fibers in bundle and it is necessary to combine this fundamental model with physical explanation for investigation of liquid flow in fiber assembly.

  20. High-throughput shadow mask printing of passive electrical components on paper by supersonic cluster beam deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellacicca, Andrea; Milani, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We report the rapid prototyping of passive electrical components (resistors and capacitors) on plain paper by an additive and parallel technology consisting of supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) coupled with shadow mask printing. Cluster-assembled films have a growth mechanism substantially different from that of atom-assembled ones providing the possibility of a fine tuning of their electrical conduction properties around the percolative conduction threshold. Exploiting the precise control on cluster beam intensity and shape typical of SCBD, we produced, in a one-step process, batches of resistors with resistance values spanning a range of two orders of magnitude. Parallel plate capacitors with paper as the dielectric medium were also produced with capacitance in the range of tens of picofarads. Compared to standard deposition technologies, SCBD allows for a very efficient use of raw materials and the rapid production of components with different shape and dimensions while controlling independently the electrical characteristics. Discrete electrical components produced by SCBD are very robust against deformation and bending, and they can be easily assembled to build circuits with desired characteristics. The availability of large batches of these components enables the rapid and cheap prototyping and integration of electrical components on paper as building blocks of more complex systems.

  1. Three luminescent d{sup 10} metal coordination polymers assembled from a semirigid V-shaped ligand with high selective detecting of Cu{sup 2+} ion and nitrobenzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei-Ping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Institute of Functional Materials, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science & Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Liu, Ping; Liang, Yu-Tong; Cui, Lin; Xi, Zheng-Ping [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Wang, Yao-Yu, E-mail: wyaoyu@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of the Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorg. Chem., College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2015-08-15

    Three 2D luminescent coordination polymers with helical frameworks, [ZnL{sub 2}]{sub n} (1) and ([ML{sub 2}]·(H{sub 2}O)){sub n} (M=Zn (2), Cd (3)) (HL=4-((2-methyl-1 H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid), have been assembled under hydro(solvo)thermal conditions. Complex 1 is in chiral space group and displays a rare 2D→2D 2-fold parallel interpenetrated layer network with two types of chiral double helixes. Interestingly, the single crystal structure analyses indicate the coexistence of enantiomers la and 1b in one pot, while the bulk crystallization of 1 are racemic mixtures based on the CD measurement. 2 and 3 are isostructural, in the structure, there are two kinds of 2D chiral helical-layers which stack in an -ABAB- sequence leading to the overall structure are mesomer and achiral. All compounds display intense luminescence in solid state at room temperature with high chemical and thermal stability. More importantly, 1 has been successfully applied in the detection of Cu{sup 2+} ions in aqueous media and nitrobenzene and the probable detecting mechanism was also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Three luminescent d{sup 10} metal coordination polymers with helical-layer based on 4-((2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl)benzoic acid have been obtained. Compound 1 shows high selective detecting for Cu{sup 2+} ion in aqueous and nitrobenzene. - Highlights: • Three coordination polymers with chiral helical-layer have been obtained. • 1 Can luminescent detect Cu{sup 2+} ion in aqueous media and nitrobenzene. • Racemic mixture or mesomer compounds can be obtained by controlling the reaction conditions.

  2. Beam loading

    CERN Document Server

    Gamp, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving a description of the radio-frequency generator-cavity-beam coupled system in terms of basic quantities. Taking beam loading and cavity detuning into account, expressions for the cavity impedance as seen by the generator and as seen by the beam are derived. Subsequently methods of beam-loading compensation by cavity detuning, radio-frequency feedback and feedforward are described. Examples of digital radio-frequency phase and amplitude control for the special case of superconducting cavities are also given. Finally, a dedicated phase loop for damping synchrotron oscillations is discussed.

  3. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  4. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the neutron flux distribution and the power distribution of a fuel assembly in which short fuel rods vary greatly in the vicinity of a boundary where the distribution of uranium amount is different, the reading value of local power range monitors, having the detectors positioned in the vicinity of the boundary is varied. Then in the present invention, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rod is so made as not approaching with the detection position of the local power range monitor in a reactor core. Further, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rods in a 4 x 4 fuel rod lattice positioned at the corner on the side of the local power range monitor is so made as not approaching the detection position of the local power range monitor. As a result, the change of the neutron flux distribution and power distribution in the vicinity of the position where the detector of the local power range monitor is situated can be extremely reduced. Accordingly, there is no scattering and fluctuation for the reading value by the local power range monitor, to improve the monitoring performance for thermal characteristics in the reactor core. (N.H.)

  5. FXR fast beam imaging diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferriera, T; Gilliam, R; Ong, M; Wargo, P; Zentler, J

    1999-06-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Flash X-ray (FXR) machine is being upgraded to produce two pulses. A very fast imaging system has been developed to characterize the electron beam diameter and shape. The system consists of a kapton target insertion mechanism and a framing camera. It has a fast gated imaging tube (500 ps) and CCD subsystem to capture and send the image to the control room. The beam diameter data provides insight on mechanisms that effect the x-ray spot size. These colorful beam measurements will be compared with our other diagnostics to form a more complete picture of beam behavior. A demonstration will be described where the image data was used to design a collimator to improve x-ray beam performance.

  6. OAM beams from incomplete computer generated holograms

    CERN Document Server

    Zambale, Niña Angelica F; Hermosa, Nathaniel

    2016-01-01

    In this letter we show that optical beams with orbital angular momentum (OAM) can be generated even with incomplete computer generated holograms (CGH). These holograms are made such that random portions of it do not contain any information. We observe that although the beams produced with these holograms are less intense, these beams maintain their shape and that their topological charges are not affected. Furthermore, we show that superposition of two or more beams can be created using separate incomplete CGHs interspersed together. Our result is significant especially since most method to generate beams with OAM for various applications rely on pixelated devices or optical elements with imperfections.

  7. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-09-11

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles. At Fermilab, we are planning to install an electron lens in the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA, a 40-m ring for 150-MeV electrons) as one of the proof-of-principle implementations of nonlinear integrable optics to achieve large tune spreads and more stable beams without loss of dynamic aperture.

  8. Beam Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, G

    2014-01-01

    When a beam propagates in an accelerator, it interacts with both the external fields and the self-generated electromagnetic fields. If the latter are strong enough, the interplay between them and a perturbation in the beam distribution function can lead to an enhancement of the initial perturbation, resulting in what we call a beam instability. This unstable motion can be controlled with a feedback system, if available, or it grows, causing beam degradation and loss. Beam instabilities in particle accelerators have been studied and analysed in detail since the late 1950s. The subject owes its relevance to the fact that the onset of instabilities usually determines the performance of an accelerator. Understanding and suppressing the underlying sources and mechanisms is therefore the key to overcoming intensity limitations, thereby pushing forward the performance reach of a machine.

  9. Systems and assemblies for transferring high power laser energy through a rotating junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Ryan J.; McKay, Ryan P.; Fraze, Jason D.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2016-01-26

    There are provided high power laser devices and systems for transmitting a high power laser beam across a rotating assembly, including optical slip rings and optical rotational coupling assemblies. These devices can transmit the laser beam through the rotation zone in free space or within a fiber.

  10. Accelerating airy beams generated by ultrafast laser induced space-variant nanostructures in glass

    OpenAIRE

    Gecevičius, M.; M. Beresna; Kazansky, P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate new technique to generate accelerating Airy beam with femtosecond laser imprinted space variant birefringence produced by self-assembled nanostructures in fused silica. The technique enables dual Airy beam generation.

  11. Optical microscope using an interferometric source of two-color, two-beam entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-07-13

    Systems and methods are described for an optical microscope using an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. A method includes: downconverting a beam of coherent energy to provide a beam of multi-color entangled photons; converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; transforming at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam by interaction with a sample to generate an entangled photon specimen beam; and combining the entangled photon specimen beam with an entangled photon reference beam within a single beamsplitter. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a beam probe director and specimen assembly optically coupled to the condenser device; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the beam probe director and specimen assembly, the beam splitter combining an entangled photon specimen beam from the beam probe director and specimen assembly with an entangled photon reference beam.

  12. A new luminescence beam profile monitor for intense proton and heavy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang,T.; Bellavia, S.; Connolly, R.; Gassner, D.; Makdisi, Y.; Russo, T.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Zelenski, A.

    2008-10-01

    A new luminescence beam profile monitor is realized in the polarized hydrogen gas jet target at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) facility. In addition to the spin polarization of the proton beam being routinely measured by the hydrogen gas jet, the luminescence produced by beam-hydrogen excitation leads to a strong Balmer series lines emission. A selected hydrogen Balmer line is spectrally filtered and imaged to produce the transverse RHIC proton beam shape with unprecedented details on the RHIC beam profile. Alternatively, when the passage of the high energy RHIC gold ion beam excited only the residual gas molecules in the beam path, sufficient ion beam induced luminescence is produced and the transverse gold ion beam profile is obtained. The measured transverse beam sizes and the calculated emittances provide an independent confirmation of the RHIC beam characteristics and to verify the emittance conservation along the RHIC accelerator. This optical beam diagnostic technique by making use of the beam induced fluorescence from injected or residual gas offers a truly noninvasive particle beam characterization, and provides a visual observation of proton and heavy ion beams. Combined with a longitudinal bunch measurement system, a 3-dimensional spatial particle beam profile can be reconstructed tomographically.

  13. Electrode shapes for spherical Pierce flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of obtaining the electrode shapes to produce a conically converging proton beam that has constant current density over each spherical surface of convergence is treated in spherical coordinates. A cone is taken from the Langmuir and Blodgett solution for the region within, and at the edge of, the conically converging beam. A solution for the LaPlace equation, required for the region outside the beam, is in terms of a power series in r and the Legendre polynomials of cos phi

  14. Computer-aided lens assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Richard; Alcock, Rob; Petzing, Jon; Coupland, Jeremy

    2004-01-20

    We propose a computer-aided method of lens manufacture that allows assembly, adjustment, and test phases to be run concurrently until an acceptable level of optical performance is reached. Misalignment of elements within a compound lens is determined by a comparison of the results of physical ray tracing by use of an array of Gaussian laser beams with numerically obtained geometric ray traces. An estimate of misalignment errors is made, and individual elements are adjusted in an iterative manner until performance criteria are achieved. The method is illustrated for the alignment of an air-spaced doublet. PMID:14765916

  15. Thermal Stability and Growth Behavior of Erbium Silicide Nanowires Self-Assembled on a Vicinal Si(001) Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Tao; SONG Jun-Qiang; LI Juan; CAI Qun

    2011-01-01

    Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(Ool) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 63(fC In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged. Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AIB2 phase to tetragonal ThSi'2 phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires. Additionally, a multiple deposition-annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.%@@ Erbium silicide nanowires are self-assembled on vicinal Si(001) substrates after electron beam evaporation and post annealing at 630℃ In-situ scanning tunneling microscopy investigations manifest that the nanowires will successively shrink and transform into a nanoisland with annealing prolonged.Meanwhile, a structural transition from hexagonal AlB phase to tetragonal ThSi phase is revealed with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.It is also found that the nanowires gradually expand to embed into the substrates during the growth process, which has much influence on the shape instability of nanowires.Additionally, a multiple deposition- annealing treatment is given as a novel growth method to strengthen the controlled fabrication of nanowires.

  16. Probabilistic reasoning for assembly-based 3D modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Chaudhuri, Siddhartha

    2011-01-01

    Assembly-based modeling is a promising approach to broadening the accessibility of 3D modeling. In assembly-based modeling, new models are assembled from shape components extracted from a database. A key challenge in assembly-based modeling is the identification of relevant components to be presented to the user. In this paper, we introduce a probabilistic reasoning approach to this problem. Given a repository of shapes, our approach learns a probabilistic graphical model that encodes semantic and geometric relationships among shape components. The probabilistic model is used to present components that are semantically and stylistically compatible with the 3D model that is being assembled. Our experiments indicate that the probabilistic model increases the relevance of presented components. © 2011 ACM.

  17. Applications of electron lenses: scraping of high-power beams, beam-beam compensation, and nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Hollow electron beam collimation and halo control were studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN; a conceptual design was recently completed. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compens...

  18. Self-assembly of self-assembled molecular triangles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mili C Naranthatta; V Ramkumar; Dillip Kumar Chand

    2014-09-01

    A rare variety of self-assembledmolecular triangle [Pd3(bpy)3(imidazolate)3](NO3)3, 1 is prepared by the combination of Pd(bpy)(NO3)2 with imidazole, at 1:1 ratio, in acetonitrile-water. Deprotonation of imidazole happened during the course of the complexation reaction where upon the metallomacrocycle is formed. The bowl-shaped trinuclear architecture of 1 is crafted with three peripheral bpy units capable of - stacking interactions. While the solution state structure of 1 can be best described as a trinuclear complex, in the solidstate well-fashioned intermolecular - and CH- interactions are observed. Thus, in the solid-state further self-assembly of already self-assembled molecular triangle is witnessed. The triangular panels are arranged in a linear manner utilizing intermolecular - interactions where upon two out of three bpy units of each molecule participated in the chain formation.

  19. Unveiling orbital angular momentum and acceleration of light beams and electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, Ady

    Special beams, such as the vortex beams that carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) and the Airy beam that preserves its shape while propagating along parabolic trajectory, have drawn significant attention recently both in light optics and in electron optics experiments. In order to utilize these beams, simple methods are needed that enable to easily quantify their defining properties, namely the OAM for the vortex beams and the nodal trajectory acceleration coefficient for the Airy beam. Here we demonstrate a straightforward method to determine these quantities by astigmatic Fourier transform of the beam. For electron beams in a transmission electron microscope, this transformation is easily realized using the condenser and objective stigmators, whereas for light beam this can be achieved using a cylindrical lens. In the case of Laguerre-Gauss vortex beams, it is already well known that applying the astigmatic Fourier transformation converts them to Hermite-Gauss beams. The topological charge (and hence the OAM) can be determined by simply counting the number of dark stripes of the Hermite-Gauss beam. We generated a series of electron vortex beams and managed to determine the topological charge up to a value of 10. The same concept of astigmatic transformation was then used to unveil the acceleration of an electron Airy beam. The shape of astigmatic-transformed depends only on the astigmatic measure and on the acceleration coefficient. This method was experimentally verified by generating electron Airy beams with different known acceleration parameters, enabling direct comparison to the deduced values from the astigmatic transformation measurements. The method can be extended to other types of waves. Specifically, we have recently used it to determine the acceleration of an optical Airy beams and the topological charge of so-called Airy-vortex light beam, i.e. an Airy light beam with an embedded vortex. This work was supported by DIP and the Israel Science

  20. 钢筋混凝土框架变梁异型节点的有限元分析%Finite element analysis of reinforced concrete frame beam shaped node

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田叶军

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,using the finite element analysis software ANSYS,the abnormal frame joint exerted positive and negative symmetrical load at the end of the beam,crack development and failure form of node area concrete analysis,the node area crack development have first crack, crack,limit and destruction in four stages,and with the beam height continuous increase,abnormal frame joint shear failure mode in the small core area.%运用通用有限元分析软件 ANSYS,对变梁异型节点在梁端施加正反对称荷载作用时,节点区内混凝土的裂缝发展和破坏形态进行分析,由分析结果可以看出,节点区内裂缝发展都经历初裂、通裂、极限和破坏四个阶段,且随着梁高差的不断加大,变梁异型节点以小核芯区剪切破坏为主。

  1. COMPUTER-AIDED BLOCK ASSEMBLY PROCESS PLANNING IN SHIPBUILD-ING BASED ON RULE-REASONING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiying; LI Zhen; JIANG Zhibin

    2008-01-01

    Computer-aided block assembly process planning based on rule-reasoning are developed in order to improve the assembly efficiency and implement the automated block assembly process planning generation in shipbuilding. First, weighted directed liaison graph (WDLG) is proposed to represent the model of block assembly process according to the characteristics of assembly relation, and edge list (EL) is used to describe assembly sequences. Shapes and assembly attributes of block parts are analyzed to determine the assembly position and matched parts of parts used frequently. Then, a series of assembly rules are generalized, and assembly sequences for block are obtained by means of rule reasoning. Final, a prototype system of computer-aided block assembly process planning is built. The system has been tested on actual block, and the results were found to be quite efficiency. Meanwhile, the fundament for the automation of block assembly process generation and integration with other systems is established.

  2. Probe tip heating assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitz, Roger William; Oh, Yunje

    2016-10-25

    A heating assembly configured for use in mechanical testing at a scale of microns or less. The heating assembly includes a probe tip assembly configured for coupling with a transducer of the mechanical testing system. The probe tip assembly includes a probe tip heater system having a heating element, a probe tip coupled with the probe tip heater system, and a heater socket assembly. The heater socket assembly, in one example, includes a yoke and a heater interface that form a socket within the heater socket assembly. The probe tip heater system, coupled with the probe tip, is slidably received and clamped within the socket.

  3. RT Self-assembly of Silica Nanoparticles on Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canning, John; Lindoy, Lachlan; Huyang, George;

    2013-01-01

    The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here.......The room temperature deposition of self-assembling silica nanoparticles onto D-shaped optical fibres x201c;D-fibrex201d;), drawn from milled preforms fabricated by modified chemical vapor deposition, is studied and preliminary results reported here....

  4. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  5. Beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    A four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with SPS secondary beams, the collimator operates under vacuum conditions. See Annual Report 1976 p. 121 and photo 7701014.

  6. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  7. Development of beam diagnostic devices for characterizing electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron guns for the DC accelerators and RF Linacs are designed and developed at EBC/APPD/BARC, Kharghar. These electron guns need to be characterized for its design and performance. Two test benches were developed for characterizing the electron guns. Various beam diagnostic devices for measuring beam currents and beam sizes were developed. Conical faraday cup, segmented faraday cup, slit scanning bellows movement arrangement, multi-plate beam size measurement setup, multi- wire beam size measurement setup, Aluminum foil puncture assembly etc. were developed and used. The paper presents the in-house development of various beam diagnostics for characterizing electron guns and their use. (author)

  8. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  9. Inlet nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  10. Ordering of self-assembled 5-nm-diameter poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanodots with sub-10 nm pitch using ultra-narrow electron-beam-drawn guide lines and three-dimensional control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Hosaka, Sumio; Yin, You

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of forming long-range ordered self-assembled arrays of 5-nm-diameter nanodots with pitch of 10 × 7.5 nm2 using guide line templates and low molecular weight (MW) (4700-1200 g/mol) poly(styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) for application in ultrahigh density patterned magnetic recording media. We propose a three-dimensional control which involves control of the height of the guide lines, the thickness of the PS-PDMS films, and the gap between the guide lines in order to produce 5-nm-diameter, sub-10 nm pitched nanodots with long-range order along the guide lines. Adopting a 13-nm-thick PS-PDMS film and 14-nm-high resist guide lines, the 5-nm-diameter and 10 × 7.5 nm2-pitched self-assembled nanodots were ordered in 4-7 dot arrays with long-range order. The experimental results demonstrate that the method is suitable for the production of patterned media with magnetic recording densities of 8.6 Tbit/in.2 using low MW PS-PDMS and slim guide lines.

  11. Ordering of self-assembled 5-nm-diameter poly(dimethylsiloxane) nanodots with sub-10 nm pitch using ultra-narrow electron-beam-drawn guide lines and three-dimensional control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hui, E-mail: t10802275@gunma-u.ac.jp [Human Resources Cultivation Center, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Hosaka, Sumio; Yin, You [Division of Electronics and Informatics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We demonstrate the possibility of forming long-range ordered self-assembled arrays of 5-nm-diameter nanodots with pitch of 10 × 7.5 nm{sup 2} using guide line templates and low molecular weight (MW) (4700–1200 g/mol) poly(styrene)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-PDMS) for application in ultrahigh density patterned magnetic recording media. We propose a three-dimensional control which involves control of the height of the guide lines, the thickness of the PS-PDMS films, and the gap between the guide lines in order to produce 5-nm-diameter, sub-10 nm pitched nanodots with long-range order along the guide lines. Adopting a 13-nm-thick PS-PDMS film and 14-nm-high resist guide lines, the 5-nm-diameter and 10 × 7.5 nm{sup 2}-pitched self-assembled nanodots were ordered in 4–7 dot arrays with long-range order. The experimental results demonstrate that the method is suitable for the production of patterned media with magnetic recording densities of 8.6 Tbit/in.{sup 2} using low MW PS-PDMS and slim guide lines.

  12. Test beam results of lead tungstate matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different lead tungstate matrices with avalanche photodiode readout have been tested in electron and pion beam at CERN. In the H4 beam, a 7 x 7 crystal matrix response has been studied with electrons of 15 to 150 GeV. Crystals (about 23 cm long and pointing shape) came from different producers. An energy resolution of about 0.6% at 100 GeV has been obtained. On the other hand, a 3 x 3 crystals matrix equipped with the first prototype of a complete electronic readout chain (fast shaping, full dynamic range) has been tested in the X3 beam. (orig.)

  13. CO2-stimulated diversiform deformations of polymer assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Zhao, Yue

    2013-11-01

    Use of a given physiological stimulus to delicately deform polymer assemblies is a challenging topic. Here we develop synthetic block copolymers to construct a series of CO2-sensitive self-assembled nanostructures that can simulate controllable deformations of the organelles in different ways. By controlling the CO2 stimulation levels, one can modulate the size, shape, and morphology of the polymer aggregates, which is conducive to understanding the stimuli-triggered dynamic reshaping process of polymer assemblies in aqueous solution.

  14. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  15. ATLAS TRT Barrel in Test Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Luehring, F

    In July, the TRT group made a highly successful test of 6 Barrel TRT modules in the ATLAS H8 testbeam. Over 3000 TRT straw tubes (4 mm diameter gas drift tubes) were instrumented and found to operate well. The prototype represents 1/16 of the ATLAS TRT barrel and was assembled from TRT modules produced as spares. This was the largest scale test of the TRT to this date and the measured detector performance was as good as or better than what was expected in all cases. The 2004 TRT testbeam setup before final cabling was attached. The readout chain and central DAQ system used in the TRT testbeam is a final prototype for the ATLAS experiment. The TRT electronics used to read out the data were: The Amplifier/Shaper/Discriminator with Baseline Restoration (ASDBLR) chip is the front-end analog chip that shapes and discriminates the electronic pulses generated by the TRT straws. The Digital Time Measurement Read Out Chip (DTMROC) measures the time of the pulse relative to the beam crossing time. The TRT-ROD ...

  16. 赋形波束共形天线口径综合与方向图分析%Analysis on Shaped-beam Aperture Synthesis and Radiation Patternof Conformal Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继浩; 王化宇; 李丽娴; 黄一; 章泉源

    2016-01-01

    In order to meet the special requirement of conformal antenna array,a novel shaped⁃beam aperture synthetic method of conformal antenna is proposed,the corresponding calculation and optimization results are provided.The Woodward and Chebyshev linear array synthetic methods are employed to obtain the planar array distribution,which is projected to the cylinder conformal array to achieve the required aperture distribution.The phase and amplitude errors are induced in the antenna elements,and the fabrication and experi⁃ment techniques are considered for error correction,which is valuable for antenna engineering design.The simulated radiation pattern indicates that the proposed method can be applied in shaped⁃beam and low sidelobe conformal aperture array.%针对工程领域对共形阵列天线波束的要求日渐特殊,给出了一种赋形波束共形天线口径的综合方法,以及相应的数值计算和优化结果。在直线阵的基础上结合Woodward综合理论和切比雪夫综合理论,并把综合结果通过投影口径综合法运用到柱面共形阵。将幅度与相位的误差引入各个天线单元通道中,同时考虑到现有加工试验手段对误差的修正,突出了本方法对天线工程设计的指导意义。仿真结果表明,用该方法可以综合常用波束形状和较低副瓣的共形天线口径。

  17. Generation of the Stigmatic Beam with Orbital Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春清; 魏光辉; Horst WEBER

    2001-01-01

    The stigmatic beam with orbital angular momentum is generated by transforming the Hermite-Gaussian beamof a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser through a rotated cylindrical optical system. Behind the transformation optics,the output beam has an intensity distribution of ring shape and a twist phase. The beam transformation istheoretically calculated and the result has been confirmed in the experiments.

  18. The Gluon Beam Function at Two Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Gaunt, Jonathan; Tackmann, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The virtuality-dependent beam function is a universal ingredient in the resummation for observables probing the virtuality of incoming partons, including N-jettiness and beam thrust. We compute the gluon beam function at two-loop order. Together with our previous results for the two-loop quark beam function, this completes the full set of virtuality-dependent beam functions at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). Our results are required to account for all collinear ISR effects to the N-jettiness event shape through N^3LL order. We present numerical results for both the quark and gluon beam functions up to NNLO and N^3LL order. Numerically, the NNLO matching corrections are important. They reduce the residual matching scale dependence in the resummed beam function by about a factor of two.

  19. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  20. Self-assembly programming of DNA polyominoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Hui San; Syafiq-Rahim, Mohd; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Ramlan, Effirul Ikhwan

    2016-10-20

    Fabrication of functional DNA nanostructures operating at a cellular level has been accomplished through molecular programming techniques such as DNA origami and single-stranded tiles (SST). During implementation, restrictive and constraint dependent designs are enforced to ensure conformity is attainable. We propose a concept of DNA polyominoes that promotes flexibility in molecular programming. The fabrication of complex structures is achieved through self-assembly of distinct heterogeneous shapes (i.e., self-organised optimisation among competing DNA basic shapes) with total flexibility during the design and assembly phases. In this study, the plausibility of the approach is validated using the formation of multiple 3×4 DNA network fabricated from five basic DNA shapes with distinct configurations (monomino, tromino and tetrominoes). Computational tools to aid the design of compatible DNA shapes and the structure assembly assessment are presented. The formations of the desired structures were validated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) imagery. Five 3×4 DNA networks were successfully constructed using combinatorics of these five distinct DNA heterogeneous shapes. Our findings revealed that the construction of DNA supra-structures could be achieved using a more natural-like orchestration as compared to the rigid and restrictive conventional approaches adopted previously. PMID:27569553