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Sample records for beam radiation-induced xerostomia

  1. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknelly, Andrew [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital (United Kingdom); Day, Jane [Faculty of Health, Wellbeing and Science, University Campus Suffolk, Waterfront Building, Neptune Quay, Ipswich (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.day@ucs.ac.uk

    2009-11-15

    Xerostomia is the most common side effect of external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et-al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504.]. A survey was carried out in British oncology departments to determine what treatment regimes, to minimise xerostomia, are used for patients with head-and-neck cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was designed that asked departments which of the identified methods they used, why a method might not be currently employed, and whether its use had ever been considered. The study found that there are wide disparities between the techniques employed by oncology departments to avoid and reduce xerostomia in patients with cancers of the head and neck. The National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, [National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Improving outcomes in head and neck cancers: the manual. London: Office of Public Sector Information; 2004.] for example, recommends that patients are given dental care and dietary advice but some departments did not appear to be doing this. Less than half of departments stated that they offer complementary therapies and less than 40% prescribed pilocarpine, a saliva-stimulant. Only two respondents stated that they use amifostine, a radioprotector, during radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. The results also suggested a move toward using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for treating head-and-neck cancers which offers better normal tissue sparing than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia

  2. A survey of techniques to reduce and manage external beam radiation-induced xerostomia in British oncology and radiotherapy departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknelly, Andrew; Day, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Xerostomia is the most common side effect of external beam radiotherapy to the head and neck [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et-al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia? - A feasibility study for locally advanced head and neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Clinical Oncology 2006;18(6):497-504.]. A survey was carried out in British oncology departments to determine what treatment regimes, to minimise xerostomia, are used for patients with head-and-neck cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy. A semi-structured questionnaire consisting of both quantitative and qualitative questions was designed that asked departments which of the identified methods they used, why a method might not be currently employed, and whether its use had ever been considered. The study found that there are wide disparities between the techniques employed by oncology departments to avoid and reduce xerostomia in patients with cancers of the head and neck. The National Institute of Clinical Health and Excellence, [National Institute for Clinical Health and Excellence (NICE). Improving outcomes in head and neck cancers: the manual. London: Office of Public Sector Information; 2004.] for example, recommends that patients are given dental care and dietary advice but some departments did not appear to be doing this. Less than half of departments stated that they offer complementary therapies and less than 40% prescribed pilocarpine, a saliva-stimulant. Only two respondents stated that they use amifostine, a radioprotector, during radiotherapy treatment to the head and neck. The results also suggested a move toward using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) for treating head-and-neck cancers which offers better normal tissue sparing than three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. [Anand A, Jain J, Negi P, Chaudhoory A, Sinha S, Choudhury P, et al. Can dose reduction to one parotid gland prevent xerostomia

  3. Radiation-induced xerostomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: This study reports a case of radiation-induced xerstomia in a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, to emphasize the need for prompt oral care to prevent untoward effects of xerostomia and to improve patients' quality of life. CASE REPORT: A 60 year old man diagnosed of radiation-induced xerostomia, after 6 ...

  4. Submandibular salivary gland transfer prevents radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; McGaw, Timothy; Coulter, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Background: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation therapy in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to submental space, outside the proposed radiation field, prior to starting radiation treatment, would prevent xerostomia. Methods: We are conducting a prospective clinical trial where the submandibular gland is transferred as part of the surgical intervention. The patients are followed clinically, with salivary flow studies and University of Washington quality of life questionnaire. Results: We report early results of 16 patients who have undergone this procedure. Seven patients have finished and 2 patients are currently undergoing radiation treatment. In 2 patients, no postoperative radiation treatment was indicated. Two patients are waiting to start radiation treatment and 2 patients refused treatment after surgery. The surgical transfer was abandoned in 1 patient. All of the transferred salivary glands were positioned outside the proposed radiation fields and were functional. The patients did not complain of any xerostomia and developed only minimal oral mucositis. There were no surgical complications. Conclusions: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (outside the radiation field) preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation-induced xerostomia

  5. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B.; Fernberg, J.-O.

    1996-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author)

  6. Acupuncture treatment of patients with radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.; Dawidson, I.; Johnson, G.; Angmar-Maansson, B. [Karolinska Inst., Huddinge (Sweden). Dept. of Cardiology; Fernberg, J.-O. [Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of General Oncology

    1996-05-01

    Xerostomia is a common and usually irreversible side effect in patients receiving radiation therapy (>50 Gy) for head and neck cancer. Of 38 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia, 20 in the experimental group were treated with classical acupuncture and 18 patients in the control group received superficial acupuncture as placebo. Within both groups the patients showed significantly increased salivary flow rates after the acupuncture treatment. In the experimental group 68% and in the control group 50% of the patients had increased salivary flow rates at the end of the observation period. Among those patients who had had all their salivary glands irradiated, 50% in both groups showed increased salivary flow rates (>20%) by the end of the observation period of 1 year. The study indicates that among the patients who had increased salivary flow rates already after the first 12 acupuncture sessions, the majority had high probability of continual improvement after the completion of acupuncture treatment. (Author).

  7. Pilocarpine and carbacholine in treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensuu, H.; Bostroem, P.; Makkonen, T.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with radiation-related xerostomia were treated with oral pilocarpine solution 6 mg t.i.d., and after a 4-week drug-free period 16 of these patients were treated with carbacholine 2 mg tablets t.i.d. Basal and stimulated whole saliva flow rates were measured before commencing the drug treatment, and after 1 and 12 weeks on treatment. On a subjective linear scale both pilocarpine (p=0.01) and carbacholine (p=0.02) improved mouth moistness. Only 2 of the 8 patients with no basal or stimulated saliva flow reported some subjective benefit from the drug treatment, whereas all 8 patients with less severe xerostomia improved (p=0.007). However, the salivary flow rates measured 12 h after the last drug dose did not improve with either drug. Both drugs were generally well tolerated. It is concluded that both drugs may be useful in the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with residual salivary function. (author). 6 refs., tabs

  8. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nyssa F; Xiao, Christopher; Sood, Amit J; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand; Day, Terry A

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common morbidities of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. However, in spite of its high rate of occurrence, there are few effective therapies available for its management. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen on the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life. PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched for retrospective or prospective trials assessing subjective xerostomia, objective xerostomia, or xerostomia-related quality of life. To be included, patients had to have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, but not hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The systematic review initially identified 293 potential articles. Seven studies, comprising 246 patients, qualified for inclusion. Of the included studies, 6 of 7 were prospective in nature, and 1 was a retrospective study; and 2 of the 7 were controlled studies. HBOT may have utility for treating radiation-induced xerostomia refractory to other therapies. Additionally, HBOT may induce long-term improvement in subjective assessments of xerostomia, whereas other therapies currently available only provide short-term relief. The strength of these conclusions is limited by the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G; Ouyang, Dai-qiao; Ringash, Jolie; Su, Yu-xiong

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Salivary gland transfer to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Amit J; Fox, Nyssa F; O'Connell, Brendan P; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand K; Hornig, Joshua D; Day, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Salivary gland transfer (SGT) has the potential to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia. We attempt to analyze the efficacy of SGT in prevention of xerostomia and maintenance of salivary flow rates after radiation treatment (XRT). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Primary endpoint was efficacy of SGT in prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates after XRT. Seven articles, accruing data from 12 institutions, met inclusion criteria. In a total of 177 patients at mean follow-up of 22.7months, SGT prevented radiation-induced xerostomia in 82.7% (95% CI, 76.6-87.7%) of patients. Twelve months after XRT, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates rose to 88% and 76% of baseline values, respectively. In comparison to control subjects twelve months after XRT, SGT subjects' unstimulated (75% vs. 11%) and stimulated (86% vs. 8%) salivary flow rates were drastically higher in SGT patients. Salivary gland transfer appears to be highly effective in preventing the incidence of xerostomia in patients receiving definitive head and neck radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention and management of radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvansky, Lauren J; Pace, Makala B; Siddiqui, Asif

    2013-06-15

    Current strategies for preventing and managing radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia are reviewed, with an emphasis on pharmacologic interventions. Nearly two thirds of all patients with cancer receive radiation therapy during the course of treatment, frequently resulting in acute skin and mucosal toxicities. The severity of radiotherapy-associated toxicities varies according to multiple treatment- and patient-related factors (e.g., total radiation dose and dose fractionation schedule, volume of organ or tissue irradiated, use of concurrent versus sequential chemotherapy, comorbid conditions, functional performance status). Three major radiation toxicities encountered in clinical practice are (1) radiation dermatitis, typically managed with a variety of topical agents such as water-based moisturizing creams or lotions, topical steroids, antiinflammatory emulsions, and wound dressings, (2) radiation-induced oral mucositis, which can be managed through proper basic oral care practices, appropriate pain management, and the use of medicated mouthwashes and oral rinses and gels, and (3) radiation-induced xerostomia, which can be alleviated with saliva substitutes, moistening agents, and sialagogues. Pharmacists involved in the care of patients receiving radiotherapy can play an important role in optimizing symptom control, educating patients on self-care strategies, and adverse effect monitoring and reporting. Radiation-induced dermatitis, mucositis, and xerostomia can cause significant morbidity and diminished quality of life. Pharmacologic interventions for the prevention and treatment of these toxicities include topical agents for dermatitis; oral products, analgesics, and palifermin for mucositis; and amifostine, saliva substitutes, and pilocarpine for xerostomia.

  12. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G.; Ouyang, Dai-qiao; Ringash, Jolie; Su, Yu-xiong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Results: Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. Conclusions: The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate.

  13. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Hakim, Samer G. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck (Germany); Ouyang, Dai-qiao [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Ringash, Jolie [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Su, Yu-xiong, E-mail: richsu@hku.hk [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Results: Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. Conclusions: The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate.

  14. Pathophysiology and management of radiation-induced xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lawrence B; Shivnani, Anand T; Small, William

    2005-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic treatment of head and neck cancer patients often causes long-term dysfunction involving their salivary function, swallowing capabilities, and taste. Salivary gland dysfunction from radiation therapy is often the most unpleasant side effect of treatment. This article will review current knowledge concerning the anatomy and function of glands involved with salivation, measurement of salivary gland function, surgical and pharmacologic prevention and treatment of xerostomia, and methods to administer radiation while causing the least amount of damage to salivary glands.

  15. The standardization of acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling-Xin; Tian, Guang; He, Jing

    2016-07-01

    To assess the relative standardization of acupuncture protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. A literature search was carried out up to November 10, 2012 in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastruction with the terms: radiation-induced xerostomia, acupuncture, acupuncture treatment, and acupuncture therapy. Five ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works were also reviewed with the keywords "dry mouth, thirst, dry tongue, dry eyes and dry lips" to search the effective acupuncture points for dry mouth-associated symptoms in ancient China. Twenty-two full-text articles relevant to acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia were included and a total of 48 acupuncture points were searched in the 5 ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works, in which the most commonly used points were Chengjiang (CV24), Shuigou (GV 26), Duiduan (GV 27), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), and Yuye (EX-HN 13) on head and neck, Sanjian (LI 3), Shangyang (LI 1), Shaoshang (LU 11), Shaoze (SI 1), Xialian (LI 8) on hand, Fuliu (KI 7), Dazhong (KI 4), Zuqiaoyin (GB 44), Taichong (LR 3), Zhaohai (KI 6) on foot, Burong (ST 19), Zhangmen (LR 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Qimen (LR 14) on abdomen, Feishu (BL 13), Danshu (BL 19), Xiaochaogshu (BL 27), Ganshu (BL 18) on back, Shenmen (TF 4), Shen (CO10, Kidney), Yidan (CO11, Pancreas) and Pi (CO13, Spleen) on ear. There were considerable heterogeneities in the current acupuncture treatment protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. Based on the results of the review and the personal perspectives, the authors provide a recommendation for manual acupuncture protocols in treating radiationinduced xerostomia patients with head and neck cancer.

  16. A comparison of artificial saliva and pilocarpine in radiation-induced xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, A.N.; Singer, J. (Saint Thomas' Hospital, London (United Kingdom). South East London Radiotherapy Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    Twenty patients with radiation-induced xerostomia were entered into a prospective randomized crossover study comparing a mucin-based artificial saliva (Saliva Orthana) and a mouthwash containing pilocarpine (5 mg three times a day). Overall the patients found that the pilocarpine mouthwash was more effective than the artificial saliva in relieving their symptoms (p = 0.04), and 47 per cent of the patients wanted to continue with this treatment after the study had finished. (author).

  17. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia and improved quality of life: Submandibular salivary gland transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heck, K

    2003-07-01

    Over 60,000 new cases of head and neck cancers, and approximately 15,000 deaths occur every year in the United States (1). Head and neck cancers affect more men then women by a factor of 2:1, although the incidence of women is increasing as a result of increased tobacco use (2). Over 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; most of the remaining cancers are adenocarcinomas. A combination of radiation therapy and surgery is used as the standard, primary treatment modality. Xerostomia occurs when the salivary glands are affected by irradiation. Patients experiencing xerostomia are at an increased risk for a wide variety of oral problems; all adversely affecting one's quality of life. Currently patients make lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and use artificial salivas, sprays, gels, and lozenges to help mask their xerostomia. However, none of these products stimulate natural salivary production and act as a replacement therapy rather then a cure for xerostomia. A new protocol, RTOG 1083 has been approved by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, which involves a surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (where it can be easily shielded) as a method of prevention of radiation induced xerostomia. (author)

  18. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia by surgical transfer of submandibular salivary gland into the submental space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; Harris, Jeff; Williams, David; Liu, Richard; McGaw, Timothy; Hofmann, Henry; Robinson, Don; Hanson, John; Barnaby, Pam

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Xerostomia is a significant morbidity of radiation treatment in the management of head and neck cancers. We hypothesized that the surgical transfer of one submandibular salivary gland to the submental space, where it can be shielded from radiation treatment (XRT), would prevent xerostomia. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective Phase II clinical trial and the patients were followed clinically with salivary flow studies and the University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire. Results: We report the results on 76 evaluable patients. The salivary gland transfer was done in 60 patients. Nine patients (of 60) did not have postoperative XRT and in eight patients (of 60) the transferred gland was not shielded from XRT due to proximity of disease. The median follow up is 14 months. Of the 43 patients with the salivary gland transfer and post-operative XRT with protection of the transferred gland, 81% have none or minimal xerostomia, and 19% developed moderate to severe xerostomia. Three patients (6.9%) developed local recurrence, five patients (11.6%) developed distant metastases and five patients (11.6%) have died. There were no complications attributed to the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space preserves its function and prevents the development of radiation induced xerostomia

  19. Prevention of radiation induced xerostomia and improved quality of life: Submandibular salivary gland transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, K.

    2003-01-01

    Over 60,000 new cases of head and neck cancers, and approximately 15,000 deaths occur every year in the United States (1). Head and neck cancers affect more men then women by a factor of 2:1, although the incidence of women is increasing as a result of increased tobacco use (2). Over 90% of all head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas; most of the remaining cancers are adenocarcinomas. A combination of radiation therapy and surgery is used as the standard, primary treatment modality. Xerostomia occurs when the salivary glands are affected by irradiation. Patients experiencing xerostomia are at an increased risk for a wide variety of oral problems; all adversely affecting one's quality of life. Currently patients make lifestyle changes, dietary modifications, and use artificial salivas, sprays, gels, and lozenges to help mask their xerostomia. However, none of these products stimulate natural salivary production and act as a replacement therapy rather then a cure for xerostomia. A new protocol, RTOG 1083 has been approved by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, which involves a surgical transfer of a submandibular salivary gland to the submental space (where it can be easily shielded) as a method of prevention of radiation induced xerostomia. (author)

  20. Acupuncture for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio do Prado Florence Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in minimizing the severity of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 24 consecutive patients receiving > 5000 cGy radiotherapy (RT involving the major salivary glands bilaterally were assigned to either the preventive acupuncture group (PA, n = 12, treated with acupuncture before and during RT, or the control group (CT, n = 12, treated with RT and not receiving acupuncture. After RT completion, clinical response was assessed in all patients by syalometry, measuring the resting (RSFR and stimulated (SSFR salivary flow rates, and by the visual analogue scale (VAS regarding dry mouth-related symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures using a mixed-effect modeling procedure and analysis of variance. An alpha level of 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance. Although all patients exhibited some degree of impairment in salivary gland functioning after RT, significant differences were found between the groups. Patients in the PA group showed improved salivary flow rates (RSFR, SSFR; p < 0.001 and decreased xerostomia-related symptoms (VAS, p < 0.05 compared with patients in the CT group. Although PA treatment did not prevent the oral sequelae of RT completely, it significantly minimized the severity of radiation-induced xerostomia. The results suggest that acupuncture focused in a preventive approach can be a useful therapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing RT.

  1. Impact of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia on Quality of Life After Primary Radiotherapy Among Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jellema, Anke Petra; Slotman, Ben J.; Doornaert, Patricia; Leemans, C. Rene M.D.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of xerostomia on overall quality of life (QoL) outcome and related dimensions among head and neck cancer patients treated with primary radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 288 patients with Stage I-IV disease without distant metastases were included. Late xerostomia according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-xerostomia) and QoL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLC-C30) were assessed at baseline and every 6th month from 6 months to 24 months after radiotherapy. Results: A significant association was found between RTOG-xerostomia and overall QoL outcome (effect size [ES] 0.07, p 65 years). An analysis of the impact of RTOG-xerostomia on overall QoL outcome over time showed an increase from 0.09 at 6 months to 0.22 at 24 months. With elapsing time, a worsening was found for these individual scales with increasing RTOG-xerostomia. Conclusions: The results of this prospective study are the first to show a significant impact of radiation-induced xerostomia on QoL. Although the incidence of Grade ≥2 RTOG-xerostomia decreases with time, its impact on QoL increases. This finding emphasizes the importance of prevention of xerostomia

  2. Acupuncture for the prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Fabio do Prado Florence; Lemos Junior, Celso Augusto; Alves, Fabio Abreu; Migliari, Dante Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture in minimizing the severity of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. A total of 24 consecutive patients receiving > 5000 cGy radiotherapy (RT) involving the major salivary glands bilaterally were assigned to either the preventive acupuncture group (PA, n = 12), treated with acupuncture before and during RT, or the control group (CT, n = 12), treated with RT and not receiving acupuncture. After RT completion, clinical response was assessed in all patients by syalometry, measuring the resting (RSFR) and stimulated (SSFR) salivary flow rates, and by the visual analogue scale (VAS) regarding dry mouth-related symptoms. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures using a mixed-effect modeling procedure and analysis of variance. An alpha level of 0.05 was accepted for statistical significance. Although all patients exhibited some degree of impairment in salivary gland functioning after RT, significant differences were found between the groups. Patients in the PA group showed improved salivary flow rates (RSFR, SSFR; p xerostomia-related symptoms (VAS, p xerostomia. The results suggest that acupuncture focused in a preventive approach can be a useful therapy in the management of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing RT.

  3. The role of stem cells in the prevention and treatment of radiation?induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Xerostomia is an important complication following radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Current treatment approaches are insufficient and can only temporarily relieve symptoms. New insights into the physiopathology of radiation?induced xerostomia might help us in this regard. This review discusses the current knowledge of salivary gland stem cells in radiation?induced xerostomia and their value in the prevention and treatment of this complication. Salivary gland stem cell trans...

  4. Radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: pathogenesis, impact on quality of life, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Garden, Adam S; Kies, Merrill S; Martin, Jack W

    2004-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common, debilitating complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. This article reviews the pathogenesis of radiation-induced xerostomia, its impact on quality of life (QOL), and treatment options. Virtually all patients undergoing RT for head and neck cancers have xerostomia, which causes oral discomfort and pain, increased dental caries and oral infection, and difficulty speaking and swallowing. This significantly impairs QOL and can compromise nutritional intake and continuity of cancer therapy. The literature describing pathogenesis, impact on QOL of radiation-induced xerostomia, and preventive and interventional therapies was reviewed. Current management strategies include stringent dental and oral hygiene; parotid-sparing radiation techniques to prevent or minimize xerostomia; and pharmacotherapies, such as salivary substitutes and sialogogues. Future strategies may include advanced three-dimensional intensity-modulated RT techniques, salivary gland transfer, newer sialogogues, and gene therapy. New treatment approaches to xerostomia from RT for head and neck cancer may result in significant improvement in patient QOL. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V

    2017-01-01

    Background Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy...... has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods This is a single-center, phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial...... following investigational intervention. Discussion The trial is the first attempt to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. The results may provide evidence for the effectiveness of ASC in patients with salivary gland hypofunction...

  6. 3D MR Sialography as a Tool to Investigate Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Witkamp, Theo D.; Lagendijk, Jan J.W.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether magnetic-resonance (MR) sialography can be used to investigate radiation-induced xerostomia. Preradiotherapy (pre-RT) and postradiotherapy (post-RT) MR sialographic images of the major salivary ducts (parotid and submandibular) were compared. Methods and Materials: Magnetic-resonance sialography was performed pre-RT, and 6 weeks and 6 months post-RT on 9 patients with T1-4N0-2M0 naso- or oropharyngeal tumors, on a 1.5-T MR scanner. Patients were positioned in the scanner, using a radiotherapy immobilization mask. Image registration of the MR sialograms pre- and post-RT with each other and with the CT and consequently the dose distribution was performed. A categorical scoring system was used to compare the visibility of ducts pre-RT and post-RT. Results: Good-quality MR sialographic images were obtained, and image registration was successful in all cases. The visibility score of the parotid ducts and submandibular ducts was reduced at 6 weeks post-RT, which means that the full trajectory of the salivary ducts, from the intraglandular space to the mouth cavity, was only partially visualized. For some of the parotid ducts, the visibility score improved at 6 months post-RT, but not for the submandibular ducts. The mean dose for the parotid glands was 35 Gy (1 standard deviation [SD] 3 Gy), and for the submandibular glands it was 62 Gy (SD, 8 Gy). Conclusion: Three-dimensional MR sialography is a promising approach for investigating xerostomia, because radiation-induced changes to the saliva content of the ducts can be visualized

  7. XRCC3 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity modulation radiated therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yan; Song, Tao; Yu, Wei; Zhao, Ruping; Wang, Yong; Xie, Ruifei; Chen, Tian; Wu, Bo; Wu, Shixiu

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced late xerostomia varies greatly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and fibroblast proliferation may be correlated with such variability. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the association between the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia and four genetic polymorphisms: TGFβ1 C-509T, TGFβ1 T869C, XRCC3 722C>T and ATM 5557G>A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. The severity of late xerostomia was assessed using a patient self-reported validated xerostomia questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction methods were performed to determine individual genetic polymorphism. The development of radiation-induced xerostomia associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for equivalent uniform dose. A total of 43 (41.7%) patients experienced radiation-induced late xerostomia. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed a higher risk of late xerostomia for patients with XRCC3 722 TT/CT alleles. In multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical and dosimetric factors, XRCC3 722C>T polymorphisms remained a significant factor for higher risk of late xerostomia. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms in XRCC3 are significantly associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia.

  8. Effectiveness of Positioning Stents in Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Patients with Tongue Carcinoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Priyanka; Chand, Pooran; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Rao, Jitendra; Siddarth, Ramashanker; Srivastava, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an objective and subjective evaluation of the efficacy of positioning stents in radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with tongue carcinoma. A total of 30 patients with tongue carcinoma and undergoing conventional radiotherapy were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and study (n = 15) groups, without and with a positioning stent, respectively. Assessment of salivary output reduction was done before and after radiotherapy, at 3- and 6-month intervals, by measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (objective evaluation). Xerostomia (subjective evaluation) was noted using six items from the Quality of Life Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H&N35) as proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The significance level was set at .05. Mean unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates at 3- and 6-month intervals revealed significantly (P xerostomia and its symptoms.

  9. Autotransplantation of cryopreserved minor salivary glands: a new approach for management of radiation-induced xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolahi, Jafar; Mansourian, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    To date, it still is impossible to successfully prevent radiation-induced xerostomia. Therefore, further research, particularly regarding treatment, is urgently warranted. Lower labial mucosa with its submucosal minor salivary glands (MSGs) of approximately 2.5 x 3 cm can be prepared by means of a surgical knife or Ellman Surgitron high-frequency/low-temperature radiosurgical device. Also we can consider area of the palatine fovea to find and remove MSGs. We can find locations containing more MSGs via scintigraphy techniques and positron emission tomography. Removing of MSGs can be done 1-2 weeks before start of radiotherapy. Subsequently the MSGs containing complex graft should be cryopreserved via liquid nitrogen for long-term storage. Autotransplantation surgery will be carried out 2-3 months after radiotherapy. The frozen tissue could be thawed rapidly in a 37 degrees C water bath for 2-3 min. Host site should be as far as possible to the radiation zone and has a good blood supply. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (30 treatment sessions before and 10 sessions after re-implantation) is strongly recommended. An aggressive short or medium-term antibiotic treatment will necessary to avoid infection. Immunosuppressive treatment will not require. The main criticism with this hypothesis is viability and usefulness of MSGs containing graft, after being frozen and subsequently thawed.

  10. The role of stem cells in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is an important complication following radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Current treatment approaches are insufficient and can only temporarily relieve symptoms. New insights into the physiopathology of radiation-induced xerostomia might help us in this regard. This review discusses the current knowledge of salivary gland stem cells in radiation-induced xerostomia and their value in the prevention and treatment of this complication. Salivary gland stem cell transplantation, bone marrow-derived cell mobilization, molecular regulation of parotid stem cells, stem cell sparing RT, and adaptive RT are promising techniques that are discussed in this study. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Recovery time from radiation-induced xerostomia and impairment of salivary secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutomi, Yukimi; Kawakami, Toshiaki; Murase, Kenya; Fujii, Takashi; Ikezoe, Junpei

    2000-01-01

    Between June 1995 and August 1997, we treated 23 patients with head and neck malignancies using an x-ray beam and then interviewed the patients to determine the degree of subjective salivary secretion and xerostomia after long-term radiation therapy. Interviews were continued for a maximum 179 weeks (mean, 76.3 weeks) after irradiation. We scored the results as the degree of subjective salivary secretion, then noted the recovery time for salivary secretion and xerostomia. When salivary glands had been irradiated to a total dose of 30 to 60 Gy, salivary secretion and oral dryness recovered within three years in 72% (13/18) and 67% (13/18) of the patients, respectively. However, these symptoms never recovered to their original levels when the total dose was more than 60 Gy. The acute and late effects of radiation therapy may induce a risk of dental caries, oral dryness, and osteoradionecrosis as well as taste impairment. Therefore, education as to dental and oral care is mandatory for patients who will be or who have been treated with radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Effect of cepharanthin to prevent radiation induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hajime; Nomoto, Satoshi; Ohguri, Takayuki; Yahara, Katsuya; Kato, Fumio; Morioka, Tomoaki; Korogi Yukunori

    2004-01-01

    We retrospectively examined the effect of Cepharanthin to prevent radiation xerostomia in 37 cases of head and neck cancer. In the Cepharanthin group, the degree of xerostomia was milder than in the non-Cepharanthin group in spite of higher normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and mean dose (MD) of parotid glands. In the non-Cepharanthin group, the degree of xerostomia was significantly correlated with NTCP and MD of parotid glands. MD of parotid glands and use of Cepharanthin were significantly related to more severe xerostomia by multivariate analysis with logistic regression. Cepharanthin may prevent radiation xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. (author)

  13. Phase III randomized study: oral pilocarpine versus submandibular salivary gland transfer protocol for the management of radiation-induced xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Naresh; Seikaly, Hadi; Harris, Jeffrey; Williams, David; Sultanem, Khalil; Hier, Michael; Ghosh, Sunita; Black, Martin; Butler, James; Sutherland, Donna; Kerr, Paul; Barnaby, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Xerostomia is a serious morbidity of radiation treatment in head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective phase III multicenter randomized study comparing submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) procedure with pilocarpine during and for 3 months after XRT. Salivary flow (baseline, stimulated) and University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (U of W QOL) scores were measured. RESULTS.: An interim intent to treat analysis (120 patients) at 6 months shows superior results in SGT arm: median baseline salivary flow for SGT (0.04 mL/minute) versus pilocarpine (0.01 mL/minute), p = .001; median stimulated salivary flow (0.18 mL/minute) for SGT versus (0.05 mL/minute) for pilocarpine, p = .003. Scores (U of W QOL) for amount (p = .017) and consistency of saliva (p = .005) in favor of SGT leading to premature closure of study. Submandibular SGT procedure is superior to pilocarpine in management of radiation-induced xerostomia.

  14. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V; Jensen, Siri Beier; Bardow, Allan; Oliveri, Roberto S; Specht, Lena; Thomsen, Carsten; Darkner, Sune; Kiss, Katalin; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-03-07

    Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia. This is a single-center, phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months following investigational intervention. The trial is the first attempt to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. The results may provide evidence for the effectiveness of ASC in patients with salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia and deliver valuable information for the design of subsequent trials. EudraCT, Identifier: 2014-004349-29. Registered on 1 April 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02513238 . First received on 2 July 2015. The trial is prospectively registered.

  15. Hermeneutic phenomenological interpretations of patients with head and neck neoplasm experiences living with radiation-induced xerostomia: the price to pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Patients with head and neck neoplasms often experience a number of persistent treatment related symptoms including xerostomia. The impact of xerostomia can be profound and wearing on the patients, hence negatively influencing their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the in-depth experiences of the patients living with radiation-induced xerostomia. This was a hermeneutic phenomenological study inspired by the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Research data were retrieved with individual narratives from 15 patients diagnosed with head and neck neoplasm that underwent radiotherapy. Interpretation proceeded through three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding. Five themes consisting of ten sub-themes emerged from the narratives reflecting on the patients' lived experiences. The themes were "suffering of the body", "suffering of the person's world", "being helpless against xerostomia", "suffering of the mind" and "being alone". The comprehensive understanding disclosed new possibilities for being-in-the world in relation to living with xerostomia. The precedent consideration of xerostomia mainly as a physical side-effect of radiotherapy was outweighed by the social and psychological effects revealed by this study. These xerostomia's effects are inflicted on the patients with an obvious reflection on their perceived quality of life. The findings call upon a shift towards acknowledging the severity of xerostomia and the need to care for these patients holistically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of radiation-induced xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma using CT simulation with laser patient marking and three-field irradiation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishioka, Takeshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takuro; Kaneko, Masanori; Kitahara, Toshihiro; Oomori, Keiichi; Yasuda, Motoyuki; Fukuda, Satoshi; Inuyama, Yukio; Miyasaka, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor control and reduction of postirradiation xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) using the three-field irradiation technique based on the CT-based simulation with laser patient marking was investigated. Methods and Materials: Seventy-eight patients with NPC were consecutively treated between 1983 and 1993. In 33 patients treated before 1987, target volume was determined using a conventional x-ray simulator with a reference of CT images, and the primary site was treated by the conventional parallel-opposed two-field technique (Group I). In 45 patients treated from 1987, target volume was determined using a CT simulator slice by slice, the treatment field was projected onto the patient's skin by a laser beam projector mounted on a C-arm, and the primary site was irradiated by a three-fields (anterior and bilateral) technique (Group II). In Group II, the shape of each field was determined using a beam's eye view to reduce the dose to the bilateral parotid glands. The three-field technique reduced the dose to the superficial lobe of parotid gland to about two-thirds of the dose given by the two-field technique. Radiation-induced xerostomia was evaluated by clinical symptoms and radio-isotope sialography. Results: The 5-year survival rate and disease-free survival rate were 46.6 and 31.2% in Group I, and 46.8 and 46.5% in Group II. A large variation in the volume of parotid glands were demonstrated, ranging from 9 cm 3 to 61 cm 3 among patients treated with CT simulation. Forty percent of the patients in Group II showed no or mild xerostomia, whereas all of the patients in Group I showed moderate to severe xerostomia (p < 0.01). The radioisotope sialography study showed that the mean secretion ratio by acid stimulation was improved from 3.8% in the Group I to 15.2% in the Group II (p < 0.01). Conclusions: CT simulation was useful to determine the size and shape of each field to reduce the dose to the parotid gland, of which size varies

  17. Evaluation of effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare; Babu, G Subhas; Rao, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common sequel in patients undergoing irradiation of malignant tumors of the head and neck. Palliative treatments of xerostomia like topical agents such as ice-chips, saliva substitutes, systemic sialogogues like pilocarpine and cevimeline work well for some patients. Electrostimulation was studied in the past and showed moderate promise but never became part of the mainstream therapy for better management of xerostomia patients. The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit in stimulating the whole salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients. A total of 40 subjects were included in the study. The study group consisted of 30 individuals and was divided into Group S1 (n = 20), which was further subdivided into Group S1A (n = 10) subjects complaining of dry mouth who were undergoing head and neck radiotherapy with TENS stimulation during the commencement of radiotherapy, on the 3 rd , 6 th week and after a month of completion of radiotherapy and Group S1B (n = 10) with TENS stimulation daily during the full course of radiotherapy and Group S2 (n = 10) subjects complaining of dry mouth who had undergone head and neck radiotherapy that ended 1 month prior to their entry into the study. The control group (n = 10) consisted of healthy individuals not complaining of dry mouth and who have not undergone head and neck radiotherapy. Whole saliva was collected without stimulation for 10 min and after electrostimulation with TENS unit for additional 10 min in a graduated test tube. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis's test. The data analysis revealed that control and S1B group showed increased salivary flow rate after stimulation by TENS therapy compared with the unstimulated salivary flow, whereas in S1A and S2 group it was found to be statistically non-significant. The present study gave us an insight about the

  18. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia on the human oral microflora. Report no. 12 (final), 1 Jul 1971-30 Jun 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S.; Brown, L.R.

    1976-06-30

    The caries-conducive impact of xerostomia was studied in 42 irradiated cancer patients. The radiation-induced xerostomia was paralleled by changes in the physical, microbial, biochemical, immunologic and dietary parameters of cariogenicity that collectively comprised an overwhelming caries challenge. Microbiologically, significant xerostomia-related increases in Strep. mutans, lactobacilli, staphylococci, yeasts and catalase-positive diphtheroids were accompanied by decreases in Strep. sanguis, bacteroides and fusobacteria in each of the 5 microenvironments tested. The scanty xerostomic saliva contained greater amounts of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(++), Mg(++), Prot(-), lysozyme, IgA and IgG and considerably less HCO3(-). The increased concentrations of caries protective electrolytes and immunoproteins were negated by huge reductions in total daily saliva output. The xerostomia created caries challenge was almost completely neutralized by a preventive program of daily topical NaF applications and strict oral hygiene. (GRA)

  19. Quantitative assessment of salivary gland function by radioisotopic scanning in a randomized trial of pilocarpine for prevention of radiation Induced Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fard-Esfahani, A.; Modarress-Mosalla, M.; Haddad, P.; Eftekhari, M.; Saghari, M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotope scanning is the best method for objective assessment of salivary gland function. Thus, it was used in a randomized trial of concomitant pilocarpine for assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia, in addition to subjective evaluation by an approved questionnaire and objective standard xerostomia grading. Patients randomized in a placebo-controlled trial of pilocarpine concurrent with irradiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia were evaluated by salivary gland scintigraphy immediately before and 6 months after the end of head and neck radiotherapy. Salivary gland function was measured by ejection fraction (E F) of Technetium-99 m pertechnetate. The mean values for pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were calculated and compared. Also post-radiotherapy scan findings in the two groups of pilocarpine and placebo were compared using the Student's t-test. In addition, comparison was made between the scan results and the subjective findings and objective grading s.Twenty patients underwent the pre-radiotherapy salivary scintigraphy, and also 20 post-radiotherapy scans were performed . Mean parotid E F was 60.85% in the pre-radiotherapy and 9.08% in the post-radiotherapy scans (p<0.01). The means for submandibular glands in the pre-and post-radiotherapy scans were 41% and 11.2%, respectively (p<0.01). Also the mean E F was 14.5% in the pilocarpine group and 3.65 in the placebo group for parotid glands (p=0.07) and 18.3% and 4.1% respectively for submandibular glands (p<0.05). The salivary scans confirmed the subjective and objective xerostomia findings. Salivary gland scintigraphy is a valuable method for evaluation of xerostomia after head and neck radiotherapy, quantitatively demonstrating the protective effect of pilocarpine compared to placebo on salivary glands

  20. Recombinant AAV9-TLK1B Administration Ameliorates Fractionated Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Prakash Srinivasan Timiri; Dayton, Robert D.; Palaniyandi, Senthilnathan; Abreo, Fleurette; Caldito, Gloria; Klein, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    assists in preserving submandibular gland function. AAV2/9-TLK1B treatment could prove beneficial in attenuating xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:23614651

  1. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 × 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 × 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 × 103, 10 × 106, and 35 × 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 ± 5 nm, 320 ± 5 nm and 340 ± 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  2. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raimond K.W., E-mail: wongrai@hhsc.ca [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Deshmukh, Snehal [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Wyatt, Gwen [Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Sagar, Stephen [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Singh, Anurag K. [Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York (United States); Sultanem, Khalil [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F. [Centre Hospitalier de l' Université de Montréal-Hôpital Notre-Dame, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Yom, Sue S. [University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Cardinale, Joseph [Yale-New Haven Hospital Saint Raphael Campus, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Yao, Min [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hodson, Ian [McMaster University, Juravinski Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Matthiesen, Chance L. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma (United States); Suh, John [Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Thakrar, Harish [John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County MB-CCOP, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Pugh, Stephanie L. [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berk, Lawrence [University of South Florida H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  3. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Raimond K.W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less

  4. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K W; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were -0.53 and -0.27 (P=.45) and -0.6 and -0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint-the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR-was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia: validation of the Italian version of the xerostomia questionnaire in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Federica; Groff, Elena; Bastiani, Luca; Fattori, Bruno; Sotti, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Xerostomia is the most common acute and late side effect of radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Affecting taste perception, chewing, swallowing and speech, xerostomia is also the major cause of decreased quality of life. The aims of this study were to validate the Italian translation of the self-reported eight-item xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) and determine its psychometric properties in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the Radiotherapy Unit of the Veneto Institute of Oncology - IOV in Padua. The XQ was translated according to international guidelines and filled out by 102 patients. Construct validity was assessed using principal component analysis, internal consistency using Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability at 1-month interval using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Criterion-related validity was evaluated to compare the Italian version of XQ with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its Head and Neck Cancer Module (QLQ-H&N35). Cronbach's α for the Italian version of XQ was strong at α = 0.93, test-retest reliability was also strong (0.79) and factor analysis confirmed that the questionnaire was one-dimensional. Criterion-related validity was excellent with high association with the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 xerostomia and sticky saliva scales. The Italian version of XQ has excellent psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate the impact of emerging radiation delivery techniques aiming at preventing xerostomia.

  6. SU-F-J-218: Predicting Radiation-Induced Xerostomia by Dosimetrically Accounting for Daily Setup Uncertainty During Head and Neck IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S; Quon, H; McNutt, T; Lee, J; Plishker, W; Shekhar, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if the accumulated parotid dosimetry using planning CT to daily CBCT deformation and dose re-calculation can predict for radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods: To track and dosimetrically account for the effects of anatomical changes on the parotid glands, we propagated physicians’ contours from planning CT to daily CBCT using a deformable registration with iterative CBCT intensity correction. A surface mesh for each OAR was created with the deformation applied to the mesh to obtain the deformed parotid volumes. Daily dose was computed on the deformed CT and accumulated to the last fraction. For both the accumulated and the planned parotid dosimetry, we tested the prediction power of different dosimetric parameters including D90, D50, D10, mean, standard deviation, min/max dose to the combined parotids and patient age to severe xerostomia (NCI-CTCAE grade≥2 at 6 mo follow-up). We also tested the dosimetry to parotid sub-volumes. Three classification algorithms, random tree, support vector machine, and logistic regression were tested to predict severe xerostomia using a leave-one-out validation approach. Results: We tested our prediction model on 35 HN IMRT cases. Parameters from the accumulated dosimetry model demonstrated an 89% accuracy for predicting severe xerostomia. Compared to the planning dosimetry, the accumulated dose consistently demonstrated higher prediction power with all three classification algorithms, including 11%, 5% and 30% higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Geometric division of the combined parotid glands into superior-inferior regions demonstrated ∼5% increased accuracy than the whole volume. The most influential ranked features include age, mean accumulated dose of the submandibular glands and the accumulated D90 of the superior parotid glands. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the accumulated parotid dosimetry using CT-CBCT registration and dose re-calculation more accurately predicts for

  7. SU-F-J-218: Predicting Radiation-Induced Xerostomia by Dosimetrically Accounting for Daily Setup Uncertainty During Head and Neck IMRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S; Quon, H; McNutt, T; Lee, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimor, MD (United States); Plishker, W [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States); Shekhar, R [IGI Technologies, Inc., College Park, MD (United States); Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if the accumulated parotid dosimetry using planning CT to daily CBCT deformation and dose re-calculation can predict for radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods: To track and dosimetrically account for the effects of anatomical changes on the parotid glands, we propagated physicians’ contours from planning CT to daily CBCT using a deformable registration with iterative CBCT intensity correction. A surface mesh for each OAR was created with the deformation applied to the mesh to obtain the deformed parotid volumes. Daily dose was computed on the deformed CT and accumulated to the last fraction. For both the accumulated and the planned parotid dosimetry, we tested the prediction power of different dosimetric parameters including D90, D50, D10, mean, standard deviation, min/max dose to the combined parotids and patient age to severe xerostomia (NCI-CTCAE grade≥2 at 6 mo follow-up). We also tested the dosimetry to parotid sub-volumes. Three classification algorithms, random tree, support vector machine, and logistic regression were tested to predict severe xerostomia using a leave-one-out validation approach. Results: We tested our prediction model on 35 HN IMRT cases. Parameters from the accumulated dosimetry model demonstrated an 89% accuracy for predicting severe xerostomia. Compared to the planning dosimetry, the accumulated dose consistently demonstrated higher prediction power with all three classification algorithms, including 11%, 5% and 30% higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Geometric division of the combined parotid glands into superior-inferior regions demonstrated ∼5% increased accuracy than the whole volume. The most influential ranked features include age, mean accumulated dose of the submandibular glands and the accumulated D90 of the superior parotid glands. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the accumulated parotid dosimetry using CT-CBCT registration and dose re-calculation more accurately predicts for

  8. Sham-controlled, randomized, feasibility trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Wu, Caijun; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients. Quality of life (QOL) is impaired, and available treatments are of little benefit. This trial determined the feasibility of conducting a sham-controlled trial of acupuncture and whether acupuncture could prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A sham controlled, feasibility trial was conducted at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing radiotherapy. To determine feasibility of a sham procedure, 23 patients were randomized to real acupuncture (N = 11) or to sham acupuncture (N = 12). Patients were treated 3 times/week during their course of radiotherapy. Subjective measures were the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR) and stimulated salivary flow rates (SSFR). Patients were followed for 1 month after radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were significantly lower than sham controls starting in week 3 and lasted through the 1-month follow-up (all P’s xerostomia symptoms and improved QOL when compared with sham acupuncture. Large-scale, multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are now needed. PMID:22285177

  9. Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients and available treatments are of little benefit. The objective of this trial was to determine if acupuncture can prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A randomized, controlled trial among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was conducted comparing acupuncture to standard care. Participants were treated at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China. Forty patients were randomized to acupuncture treatment and 46 to standard care. Patients were treated 3 times/week on the same days they received radiotherapy. Subjective measures included the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head/Neck (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR; SSFR). Patients were followed for 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were statistically significantly lower than controls starting in week 3 through the 6-months(P=0.003 at week3, all other P’s xerostomia and improved QOL. PMID:22072272

  10. Impact of radiation-induced xerostomia on quality of life after primary radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, Anke Petra; Slotman, Ben J.; Doornaert, Patricia; Leemans, C. Rene; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of xerostomia on overall quality of life (QoL) outcome and related dimensions among bead and neck cancer patients treated with primary radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 288 patients with Stage I-IV disease without distant metastases were included.

  11. Evaluation of effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study gave us an insight about the effectiveness of TENS therapy in stimulating salivary flow in healthy subjects and it is very effective when used in conjunction with radiation therapy by reducing the side-effects of radiation therapy. Hence, TENS therapy can be used as an adjunctive method for the treatment of xerostomia along with other treatment modalities.

  12. Efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cai-Qi; Xu, Hao; Liu, Ling; Wang, Rui-Nan; Liu, Yu-Ting; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xi-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Pilocarpine has been used widely in the treatment of dry mouth and glaucoma. In this review, the authors assessed the efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for patients with head and neck cancer who have radiation-induced xerostomia. The authors conducted a systematic search including meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index Expanded. The primary outcome was the severity of xerostomia (measured using visual analog scale [VAS] scores). Adverse events were other outcomes of interest. The authors performed meta-analyses where appropriate. The authors used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias to assess the quality of the study. The authors identified 6 studies (including 752 patients in total). The results of a meta-analysis of 3 articles showed that pilocarpine was associated with a 12-point increase in VAS score (mean difference, 12.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.93-22.08; P = .02) and higher rates of adverse events compared with placebo in terms of sweating (odds ratio [OR], 3.71; 95% CI, 2.34-5.86; P xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the authors of this systematic review found the best available evidence in the meta-analysis in 3 studies, 1 of which showed no effect. The authors of this systematic review suggest that these patients take 5 milligrams of pilocarpine 3 times daily, and that there is need for further study. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. CT image biomarkers to improve patient-specific prediction of radiation-induced xerostomia and sticky saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Beukinga, Roelof J; Langendijk, Johannes A; Sijtsema, Nanna M; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M

    2017-02-01

    Current models for the prediction of late patient-rated moderate-to-severe xerostomia (XER 12m ) and sticky saliva (STIC 12m ) after radiotherapy are based on dose-volume parameters and baseline xerostomia (XER base ) or sticky saliva (STIC base ) scores. The purpose is to improve prediction of XER 12m and STIC 12m with patient-specific characteristics, based on CT image biomarkers (IBMs). Planning CT-scans and patient-rated outcome measures were prospectively collected for 249 head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment. The potential IBMs represent geometric, CT intensity and textural characteristics of the parotid and submandibular glands. Lasso regularisation was used to create multivariable logistic regression models, which were internally validated by bootstrapping. The prediction of XER 12m could be improved significantly by adding the IBM "Short Run Emphasis" (SRE), which quantifies heterogeneity of parotid tissue, to a model with mean contra-lateral parotid gland dose and XER base . For STIC 12m , the IBM maximum CT intensity of the submandibular gland was selected in addition to STIC base and mean dose to submandibular glands. Prediction of XER 12m and STIC 12m was improved by including IBMs representing heterogeneity and density of the salivary glands, respectively. These IBMs could guide additional research to the patient-specific response of healthy tissue to radiation dose. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia: integrated efficacy and safety results from two prospective randomized clinical trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, John W.; Hafermann, Mark D.; Johnson, Jonas T.; LeVeque, Francis G.; Iwamoto, Ryan; Steiger, Barry W.; Muscoplat, Charles; Gallagher, Susan C.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Pilocarpine hydrochloride administered in either a fixed-dose or in a dose-titration protocol three times a day for 12 weeks was evaluated for its ability to relieve symptoms of postradiation xerostomia and to improve saliva production. The studies were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trials. A total of 369 patients who had received at least 40 Gy of radiation to the head and neck with clinically significant xerostomia were enrolled in the two studies. In the dose-titration study, 162 patients were enrolled and they received a thrice daily regimen of 2.5 mg tablets for first 4 weeks, 5.0 mg tablets for the second 4 weeks, and 10.0 mg tablets for last 4 weeks of a 12-week study. Patients in the titration study were allowed to down titrate following at least one dose escalation to alleviate bothersome side effects, if any. In the fixed dose study, 207 patients received either placebo, 5.0 mg, or 10.0 mg tablets t.i.d. for 12 weeks. Methods and Materials: Patients were evaluated for symptomatic relief by responding to questionnaires using visual analog scales and categorical questions; and, for saliva production by sialometry. Questionnaires measured relief of intraoral dryness, improvement in overall condition (global response), oral discomfort, difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing, denture wearing, and usage of artificial saliva. Evaluations were conducted at baseline, and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results: There were statistically significant improvements in salivary flow in pilocarpine treatment groups vs. placebo. There was a significant improvement in the overall 'global' condition of xerostomia associated with the use of pilocarpine in both studies. In the fixed-dose study, there were significant improvements in oral dryness, mouth comfort, ability to speak, and reduction in the use of oral comfort agents. The dose-titration study showed improvements in dryness that approached significance (p = 0.057) and a

  15. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  16. Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K.; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F.; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L.; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L.; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multi-center randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) to pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia (RIX). Methods and Materials Eligible patients were randomized to twice weekly 20 minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions over 12 weeks or PC (5mg, 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (mfr). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥ 20% reduction in overall RIX symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on CTCAE v.3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results 148 patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 mfr (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 mfr. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS/PC groups at 9 and 15 mfr were −0.53/−0.27 (P=0.45) and −0.6/−0.47 (P=0.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81%/72% (P=0.34) and 83%/63% (P=0.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of Grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized and statistical power was limited, since only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint -- the change in RIX symptom burden at 9 mfr, was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS. PMID:25841622

  17. Radioprotective efficacy of bisarylidene cyclopentanone on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darshan Raj, C.G.; Sarojini, B.K.; Musthafa Khaleel, V.; Ramesh, S.R.; Ramakrishna, M.K.; Narayana, B.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2010-01-01

    Present study was carried out for evaluating the radioprotective effect of bischalcone (2E, 5E) - 2,5-bis (3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylidene) cyclopentanone (curcumin analog (CA)), on electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster adults. The oxidative stress markers and antioxidants included superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The oxidative stress was induced at 1.5 Gy. (author)

  18. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  19. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Head and Neck Cancer (Rtog 0244)s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, AJB.; Thomas Robbins, K.; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We report the results of a phase II study to determine reproducibility of surgical technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) for prevention of radiation (XRT) induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT followed by XRT during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. IMRT, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by two and radiation by one reviewer. If 13 or more (out of 43) were “not per protocol”, then technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, Grade 2 or higher and a rate of ≤ 51% was acceptable. Results 44 of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was “per protocol” or with acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. 9 patients (20.9%) developed grade II acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0 -1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. These 11 patients (25.6%) were considered failures for the xerostomia endpoint. 13 patients have died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients is 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates are 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions the technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer procedure is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients had prevention of XRT induced acute xerostomia. PMID:22541957

  20. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, A.J.B.; Robbins, K. Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were “not per protocol,” then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of ≤51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was “per protocol” or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  1. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Naresh, E-mail: naresh.jha@albertahealthservices.ca [University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Seikaly, Hadi [University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Jacobs, John R. [Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan (United States); McEwan, A.J.B. [University of Alberta, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Robbins, K. Thomas [St. John' s Hospital Cancer Institute, Springfield, Illinois (United States); Grecula, John [Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Sharma, Anand K. [Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina (United States); Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were 'not per protocol,' then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of {<=}51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was 'per protocol' or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.

  2. A phase II study of submandibular gland transfer prior to radiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer (RTOG 0244).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R; McEwan, A J B; Robbins, K Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K; Ang, K Kian

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were "not per protocol," then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of ≤ 51% was acceptable. Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was "per protocol" or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized Trial of Vitamin C/E Complex for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Man Ki; Kim, Do Hun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Son, Young-Ik

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the preventive efficacy of vitamin C/E complex supplementation for radiotherapy (RT)-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A single tertiary referral institution. The trial group (n = 25) received antioxidant supplements (100 IU of vitamin E + 500 mg of vitamin C) twice per day during RT, while the control group (n = 20) received an identical placebo. Pre-RT and 1 and 6 months post-RT, patient-reported xerostomia questionnaires, observer-rated xerostomia score, and salivary scintigraphy were serially obtained to compare xerostomia severity between the 2 groups. The trial group showed greater improvements in xerostomia questionnaire and score at 6 months post-RT when compared with those at 1 month post-RT (P = .007 and .008, respectively). In contrast, the control group showed no changes between 1 and 6 months post-RT. By salivary scintigraphy, there was no difference in maximal accumulation or ejection fraction between the 2 groups. However, the trial group maintained significantly better oral indices at the prestimulatory (P = .01) and poststimulatory (P = .009) stages at 1 month post-RT, compared with the control group. At the final follow-up, there was no difference in overall survival and disease-free survival between the 2 groups. Our data suggest that short-term supplementation with an antioxidant vitamin E/C complex exerts a protective effect against RT-induced xerostomia. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  4. Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization: Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam Technology for Materials Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, Jordan F.; Cabalar, Patrick Jay; Lopez, Girlie Eunice; Abad, Lucille V.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of functional hybrid materials by attaching polymer chains with advantageous tailored properties to the surface of a base polymer with desirable bulk character is an attractive application of graft copolymerization. Radiation-induced graft polymerization (RIGP) has been a popular approach for surface modification of polymers because of its merits over conventional chemical processes. RIGP, which proceeds primarily via free radical polymerization process, has the advantages such as simplicity, low cost, control over process and adjustment of the materials composition and structure. RIGP can be performed using either electron beam or gamma radiation and it can be applied to both synthetic and natural polymers. These merits make RIGP a popular research topic worldwide. Moreover, the materials synthesized and produced via RIGP has found applications, and were proposed to produce continuous impact, in the fields of medicine, agriculture, pollution remediation, rare earth and valuable metals recovery, fuel cell membrane synthesis and catalysis to name a few. From 2012 our group has performed electron beam and gamma radiation-induced graft polymerization of various monomers onto polymers of natural and synthetic origins (e.g. monomers - glycidyl methacrylate, styrene, acrylonitrile, N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate; base polymers – polyethylene/polypropylene nonwoven fabric, polypropylene nonwoven fabric pineapple fibers, cellulose nonwoven fabric microcrystalline cellulose). We tested these grafted materials for heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cu) and organic molecule removal from aqueous solutions and E. coli activity (using reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer RAFT mediated grafting). The results clearly showed the success of materials modified via FIGP in these applications. Currently, we are studying the applications of grafted materials on treatment of waste waters from tanning industry, value addition to abaca nonwoven fabrics cell sheet

  5. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  6. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  7. Polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells by radiation induced grafting with electron beam irradiation: state-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasef, M.M.; Nasef, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer electrolyte membranes have generated considerable interest in various fields of industrial interest due to their wide spread applications in fuel cells, batteries, electrolyzers sensors and actuators. Such diversity in applications implies a strong demand to architect the membranes towards particular properties for specific applications. Radiation induced grafting of vinyl and acrylic monomers into polymeric films, is an appealing method for producing various polymer electrolyte membranes. This method has the advantages of simplicity, controllability over the composition leading to tailored membrane properties and absence of shaping problem as preparation starts with substrate in a film form. It also has the flexibility of using various types of radiation sources such as gamma-rays and electron beam. Of all, electron beam (EB) accelerator is an advantageous source of high energy radiation that can initiate grafting reactions required for preparation of the membranes particularly when pilot scale production and commercial applications are sought. The grafting penetration can be varied from surface to bulk of membranes depending on the acceleration energy. This lecture reviews the-state of- the-art in the use of EB irradiation in preparation of composite and grafted polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications by radiation induced grafting with simultaneous irradiation and preirradiation methods. The use of simultaneous EB irradiation method was found to simplify the process and reduce the reaction time as well as the monomer consumption whereas the use of preirradiation method in a single-step route provides a shorter route to prepare polymer electrolyte membranes with improved properties and reduced cost in addition of setting basis for designing a continuous line to produce these membranes with dedicated EB facilities

  8. Complex-forming polymer prepared by electron beam radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Jiro; Sugo, Takanobu; Katakai, Akio; Omichi, Hideki

    In order to prepare a complex-forming polymer useful as a selective adsorbent, radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto a fibrous tetrafluoroethylene ethylene copolymer has been studied by using preirradiation method. The resulting grafted fibers were treated with 3% hydroxylamine alcohol-water solution, followed by controlling in alkali solution. The adsorbents containing amidoxime are able to take up transition metal ions from neutral and weakly acidic solutions while not sorbing the ions of alkaline and alkaline earth metals to any significant extent. It was shown that by introducing a small amount of hydrophilic groups to the fiber, it was possible to increase the exchange rate between the external water and the internal water interacted with functional groups in polymer matrix and to induce the diffusion of hydrated metal ions. The efficiency for adsorption of transition metal ions was successfully improved either by adding small amount of hydrophilic part composed of poly(acrylic acid) or by restricting the distribution of amidoxime groups at the fiber surface. A high stability of this adsorbents to various treatments ( alkali treatment at 80° C, contact with seawater for 24 h at 30° C, etc.) was confirmed. It's applicability to the recovery of uranium from seawater is demonstrated by laboratory scale experiments.

  9. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  10. Gamma and electron beam radiation induced physico-chemical modifications of poly(propylene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagoubi, N.; Peron, R.; Legendre, B.; Grossiord, J. L.; Ferrier, D.

    1999-05-01

    The homopolymer PP, a plastic material used as packaging and for medical products, must be subjected to a form of sterilization. Nowadays, one kind of this technology uses ionising radiation, which can be γ-rays or electron beams. In order to study the structural modifications of polymer syringes which could occur following these treatments at different doses (25-150 kGy), several analytical techniques have been used. DSC provided information on changes in the cristallinity of the polymer. The thermal evaluation was supplemented by testing the rheological properties of polypropylene. In addition, Reversed Phase Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with a quaternary elution gradient was carried out for the evaluation of the degradation of the additives. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared (TGA/FTIR) was used to measure the desorption of food simulating liquid (CH 2Cl 2). First, the results obtained proved that the γ-rays as well as the electron beam induced degradation of the polymer and its additives. Next, we compared the effects of gamma and electron beam irradiation to determine which of these two processes better maintained the integrity of the irradiated product.

  11. Radiation induced synthesis of gold/iron-oxide composite nanoparticles using high-energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Takuya; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kojima, Takao; Taniguci, Ryoichi; Okuda, Shuichi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2008-01-01

    Composite nanoparticles consisting of gold and iron oxide were synthesized in aqueous solution systems by using a high-energy electron beam. The electron irradiation induces radiation-chemical reaction to form metallic gold nanoparticles. These gold nanoparticles were firmly immobilized on the surface of the support iron oxide nanoparticles. Surface of the support iron oxide nanoparticles are almost fully coated with fine gold nanoparticles. The size of these gold nanoparticles depended on the concentrations of gold ions, polymers and iron oxide nanoparticles in the solutions before the irradiation.

  12. The efficacy of Xialine in patients with xerostomia resulting from radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: a pilot-study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellema, A. P.; Langendijk, H.; Bergenhenegouwen, L.; van der Reijden, W.; Leemans, R.; Smeele, L.; Slotman, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in subjective sensations due to xerostomia before and after administration of Xialine, a xanthan gum-based saliva substitute, were evaluated in 30 patients with radiation-induced xerostomia using the QLQ-H&N35. Xerostomia in general decreased with both Xialine and placebo to almost the same

  13. A longitudinal study on the radiation-induced thyroid gland changes after external beam radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; Wu, Vincent Wing-Cheung; Lin, Jing; Feng, Huiting; Chen, Longhua

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced thyroid disorders have been reported in radiotherapy of head and neck cancers. This study evaluated the radiation-induced damages to thyroid gland in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-five patients with NPC treated by radiotherapy underwent baseline thyroid hormones (free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine [fT4], and thyrotropin [TSH]) examination and CT scan before radiotherapy. The volume of the thyroid gland was calculated by delineating the structure in the corresponding CT slices using the radiotherapy treatment planning system. The thyroid doses were estimated using the treatment planning system. Subsequent CT scans were conducted at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy, whereas the hormone levels were assessed at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy. Trend lines of the volume and hormone level changes against time were plotted. The relationship between the dose and the change of thyroid volume and hormone levels were evaluated using the Pearson correlation test. An average of 20% thyroid volume reduction in the first 6 months and a further 8% shrinkage at 12 months after radiotherapy were observed. The volume reduction was dependent on the mean thyroid doses at 6, 12, and 18 months after radiotherapy (r = -0.399, -0.472, and -0.417, respectively). Serum free triiodothyronine and fT4 levels showed mild changes of thyroid doses between patients with hypothyroidism and normal thyroid function. Radiotherapy for patients with NPC caused radiation-induced changes of the thyroid gland. The shrinkage of the gland was greatest in the first 6 months after radiotherapy, whereas the serum fT4 and TSH levels changed at 12 months. Radiation-induced changes were dependent on the mean dose to the gland. Therefore, measures to reduce the thyroid dose in radiotherapy should be considered.

  14. Synchrotron radiation induced x-ray micro analysis: A realistic alternative for electron- and ion beam microscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, K.; Adams, F.

    1992-01-01

    Synchrotron Radiation induced X-ray micro Fluorescence analysis (μ-SRXRF) is compared with more conventional microanalytical techniques such as Secondary Ion Microscopy (SIMS) and Electron Probe X-ray Microanalysis (EPXMA) for two typical microanalytical applications. SRXRF and EPXMA are employed for the analysis of individual particles, showing the complementary character of both techniques. By means of element mapping of trace constituents in a heterogeneous feldspar, the strong and weak points of SRXRF in comparison to EPXMA and SIMS are illustrated. The most striking difference between SRXRF and the other two microanalytical methods is the ability of SRXRF to probe deep into the investigated Material, whereas SIMS and EPXMA only investigate the upper surface of the material. The possibilities of SRXRF at third generation synchrotron rings is also briefly discussed

  15. Radioprotective Efficacy of Lutein in Ameliorating Electron Beam Radiation-induced Oxidative Injury in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Vasudeva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lutein, a carotenoid compound, has previously been studied for its antioxidant and medicinal properties as well as the moderate protection it confers against gamma radiation. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of lutein against radiation-induced hematological and biochemical changes in mice. Methods: The optimized dose of the compound was orally administered for 15 days, and the mice were irradiated (6 Gy on day 15 after the administration of the compound. The groups were divided (6 mice in each group into normal control, radiation control, gallic acid control, 10% DMSO control, lutein control, and irradiated groups pretreated with gallic acid, 10% DMSO, and lutein. Gallic acid was used to maintain a standard since it is a proven radioprotector. Within 24 hours post irradiation, the animals were anesthetized and sacrificed. The hematological, biochemical, and antioxidant changes were determined using suitable methods. Data were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier curve (log-rank test and ANOVA (the Tukey test. The independent t test was used to compare the independent groups. SPSS (ver. 16 was employed. Results: Maximum survival was observed with a dose of 250 mg/kg b.wt lutein. The total leukocyte count and the percentage lymphocyte count exhibited a significant decline in the irradiated groups pretreated with gallic acid and lutein in comparison to their controls, whereas the percentage granulocyte count showed a significant rise. Antioxidant activity had markedly declined in the irradiated groups, indicating oxidative stress. Lutein pretreatment reduced the damage and maintained the antioxidant system. Conclusion: The present study suggests a protective role for lutein in palliating radiation-induced oxidative changes and maintaining the antioxidant system in vivo.

  16. TH-E-BRF-09: Gaussian Mixture Model Analysis of Radiation-Induced Parotid-Gland Injury: An Ultrasound Study of Acute and Late Xerostomia in Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yu, D; Beitler, J; Curran, W; Yang, X [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tridandapani, S [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Bruner, D [School of Nursing and Winship Cancer Institute, Emory Univesity, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to parotid-gland injury, is a distressing side-effect in head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). This study's purpose is to develop a novel ultrasound technique to quantitatively evaluate post-RT parotid-gland injury. Methods: Recent ultrasound studies have shown that healthy parotid glands exhibit homogeneous echotexture, whereas post-RT parotid glands are often heterogeneous, with multiple hypoechoic (inflammation) or hyperechoic (fibrosis) regions. We propose to use a Gaussian mixture model to analyze the ultrasonic echo-histogram of the parotid glands. An IRB-approved clinical study was conducted: (1) control-group: 13 healthy-volunteers, served as the control; (2) acutetoxicity group − 20 patients (mean age: 62.5 ± 8.9 years, follow-up: 2.0±0.8 months); and (3) late-toxicity group − 18 patients (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.3 years, follow-up: 20.1±10.4 months). All patients experienced RTOG grade 1 or 2 salivary-gland toxicity. Each participant underwent an ultrasound scan (10 MHz) of the bilateral parotid glands. An echo-intensity histogram was derived for each parotid and a Gaussian mixture model was used to fit the histogram using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The quality of the fitting was evaluated with the R-squared value. Results: (1) Controlgroup: all parotid glands fitted well with one Gaussian component, with a mean intensity of 79.8±4.9 (R-squared>0.96). (2) Acute-toxicity group: 37 of the 40 post-RT parotid glands fitted well with two Gaussian components, with a mean intensity of 42.9±7.4, 73.3±12.2 (R-squared>0.95). (3) Latetoxicity group: 32 of the 36 post-RT parotid fitted well with 3 Gaussian components, with mean intensities of 49.7±7.6, 77.2±8.7, and 118.6±11.8 (R-squared>0.98). Conclusion: RT-associated parotid-gland injury is common in head-and-neck RT, but challenging to assess. This work has demonstrated that the Gaussian mixture model of the echo-histogram could quantify acute and

  17. Acute radiation-induced toxicity of heavy ion radiotherapy delivered with intensity modulated pencil beam scanning in patients with base of skull tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Haberer, Thomas; Scholz, Michael; Thilmann, Christoph; Wenz, Frederik; Jäkel, Oliver; Kraft, Gerhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Jürgen

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate acute radiation-induced toxicity of carbon ion therapy. From December 1997 to November 2000, 37 patients with chordomas and low-grade chondrosarcomas of the skull base have been treated with carbon ions at the heavy ion synchrotron (SIS) at GSI, Darmstadt. Tumor-conformal application of carbon beams was realized by intensity-controlled raster scanning in combination with pulse-to-pulse energy variation. The treatment planning procedure included a biological plan optimization. We applied a cobalt-Gray equivalent dose of 60GyE. Acute toxicity was assessed according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC). Acute toxicity included skin reactions ( degrees I+ degrees II) in four patients, mucositis ( degrees I- degrees III) in eight patients, otitis and middle ear effusion in four, sinusitis in four, nausea/weight loss in one and edema of the temporal lobes in one patient. In two patients, preexisting neurological symptoms worsened. We did not observe acute morbidity > degrees III of normal tissues. Scanning beam delivery of heavy charged particles is safe and reliable. No unexpected acute dose limiting toxicity was observed. With regard to toxicity, a substantial improvement compared to passive beam shaping technology is achieved.

  18. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects > Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Request Permissions Dry Mouth or Xerostomia Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... with a dry mouth. Signs and symptoms of dry mouth The signs and symptoms of dry mouth include ...

  19. Assessing the radiation-induced second cancer risk in proton therapy for pediatric brain tumors: the impact of employing a patient-specific aperture in pencil beam scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Changran; Moteabbed, Maryam; Xie, Yunhe; Schuemann, Jan; Yock, Torunn; Paganetti, Harald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation-induced second cancer risks for in-field and out-of-field organs and tissues for pencil beam scanning (PBS) and passive scattering proton therapy (PPT) and assess the impact of adding patient-specific apertures to sharpen the penumbra in pencil beam scanning for pediatric brain tumor patients. Five proton therapy plans were created for each of three pediatric patients using PPT as well as PBS with two spot sizes (average sigma of ~17 mm and ~8 mm at isocenter) and choice of patient-specific apertures. The lifetime attributable second malignancy risks for both in-field and out-of-field tissues and organs were compared among five delivery techniques. The risk for in-field tissues was calculated using the organ equivalent dose, which is determined by the dose volume histogram. For out-of-field organs, the organ-specific dose equivalent from secondary neutrons was calculated using Monte Carlo and anthropomorphic pediatric phantoms. We find that either for small spot size PBS or for large spot size PBS, a patient-specific aperture reduces the in-field cancer risk to values lower than that for PPT. The reduction for large spot sizes (on average 43%) is larger than for small spot sizes (on average 21%). For out-of-field organs, the risk varies only marginally by employing a patient-specific aperture (on average from  -2% to 16% with increasing distance from the tumor), but is still one to two orders of magnitude lower than that for PPT. In conclusion, when pencil beam spot sizes are large, the addition of apertures to sharpen the penumbra decreases the in-field radiation-induced secondary cancer risk. There is a slight increase in out-of-field cancer risk as a result of neutron scatter from the aperture, but this risk is by far outweighed by the in-field risk benefit from using an aperture with a large PBS spot size. In general, the risk for developing a second malignancy in out-of-field organs for PBS remains

  20. Xerostomia: causes and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jeanette Y

    2007-12-01

    When reduced salivary flow causes perpetual dry and sticky mucosa or sticky, stringy saliva, it becomes xerostomia-not a disease, but a symptom. Up to 30% of various populations self-report dry mouth (xerostomia) or have proven low salivary flow rates. Saliva is necessary for digestion and dental health, and it may have yet-unidentified immunological roles in humans. Xerostomia can lead to digestive problems, weight loss, and accelerated dental decay. Medications-several hundred of them-can cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Cancer, autoimmune diseases, and bone marrow transplants are associated with xerostomia. Including a dentist on the treatment team is essential for residents with dry mouth. As xerostomia progresses, they should shift focus primarily to prevention, maintenance, oral comfort, and emergency treatment. In all stages, they should keep treatment noninvasive if possible.

  1. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  2. Evaluation, prevention and management of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Gilberto; Federico, Miriam Hatsue Honda

    2006-05-01

    As part of the multidisciplinary approach to head and neck cancer patients, radiation therapy plays an essential role, improving locoregional control. Radiation therapy-induced xerostomia is a late side-effect that increases the risk for developing dental caries and compromises oral mucosal integrity, resulting in oral pain, loss of taste, difficulties with swallowing and chewing, sleep disorders and worse quality of life. This review focuses on evaluation, prevention and management of radiation therapy-induced xerostomia. In terms of xerostomia prevention, some clinical trials evaluating amifostine and intensity-modulated radiation therapy have shown positive results. Pilocarpine is a useful agent as a treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients. Despite some advances in radiation therapy-induced xerostomia prevention, its treatment is an area in which advances are urgently needed.

  3. Stem cells and the repair of radiation-induced salivary gland damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppes, R. P.; Stokman, M. A.

    Hyposalivation underlying xerostomia after radiotherapy is still a major problem in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in

  4. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killerup Kaae, Julie; Stenfeldt, Lone; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiation-induced xerostomia is a frequent late side effect after treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. This may induce swallowing difficulties, compromised oral well-being, reduced nutrition intake, or speech deficiencies. Consequently, quality of life is often impaired...... prior to participation and suffered from xerostomia. Samples of unstimulated and chewing gum-stimulated saliva were obtained at the entry into the study (Visit 1). For 2 weeks, patients used chewing gum on a regular basis whereupon saliva measurements were repeated to verify the changes (Visit 2...... at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. No improvement in baseline saliva was seen. Relevant changes in subjective measures of xerostomia were seen after 2 weeks of chewing the gum....

  5. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  6. Xerostomia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Vivek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva plays a key role in the maintenance of oral health. Xerostomia or reduced salivary flow is a common clinical complaint that predisposes individuals to oral diseases and considerable discomfort that may manifest as increased incidence of caries, susceptibility to oral Candidiasis, altered taste sensation, glossodynia and numerous other problems. Xerostomia may occur with the use of medication; as a complication of connective tissue and autoimmune diseases; with radiation to the head and neck region; or with a number of other systemic or local conditions. Investigations for xerostomia include a thorough clinical and oral examination; salivary flow rate estimation; radiologic and histopathologic examination of the salivary glands. Clinical laboratory tests are also indicated to help in the diagnosis. Patient education plays a vital role in the management of Xerostomia. The general approach to treatment consists of palliative treatment for the relief of symptoms and prevention of oral complications. Relief of symptoms may be achieved by paying rigorous attention to personal oral hygiene; diet counseling; drug substitution/dose modification. Salivary flow may be enhanced by using medication or by gustatory stimulation. Artificial saliva substitutes may be used for relieving symptoms. Alternative therapy like acupuncture may be sought if conventional treatment has failed to offer relief. Complications like increased incidence of dental caries, candidiasis, difficulty in using dentures, usually associated with Xerostomia can be managed by giving rigorous attention to personal and professional oral hygiene measures; strict adherence to non cariogenic diet; placement of sealants and topical fluorides; and anti-fungal therapy.

  7. Xerostomia: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitender Reddy Kubbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth with objective evidence of decreased salivary flow. It is a multifactorial condition which increases the risk of oral diseases and has a significant effect on the person′s quality of life. So, these patients need special care for maintenance of oral and general health. We, being oral health care professionals, it is our responsibility to diagnose and treat the condition accordingly using a multidisciplinary approach. This paper enlightens the etiology and management of xerostomia.

  8. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-11-15

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: successes and barriers*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head and neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This paper addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to: (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. PMID:20970030

  10. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients: successes and barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissink, A.; Mitchell, J.B.; Baum, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury......, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged...

  11. Clinical Management of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Successes and Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.; Limesand, Kirsten H.; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C.; Elting, Linda S.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Coppes, Robert P.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy.

  12. The effectiveness of thyme honey for the management of treatment-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: A feasibility randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Andreas; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Katodritis, Nicos; Vomvas, Dimitrios; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Georgiou, Morpho; Paikousis, Lefkios; Charalambous, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common side effects that head and neck cancer patients experience during and after treatment. Despite the various methods for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia, it remains highly prevalent among patients treated for head and neck cancers negatively influencing their lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of thyme honey as a means for managing radiation-induced xerostomia. This was a parallel randomised controlled trial with two equal arms, the experimental arm (thyme honey) and the control arm (saline). 72 head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy or/and surgery were recruited in a specialised cancer centre. Patients in both arms followed the same administration protocol with thyme honey and saline respectively. Identical assessments at baseline, 1 month and 6 months following completion of the intervention were performed in both arms including the National Cancer Institute (NCI) xerostomia scale and the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) additionally to weekly oral clinical assessments. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier for this study is NCT01465308. Linear Mixed Models revealed the statistically significant effect of the intervention on xerostomia (F = 8.474 p xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  14. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants

  15. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  16. Xerostomia: prevalence, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, Mahvash; Kumar, Satish K S

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the common causes, clinical presentation, and complications of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction in the geriatric population and discusses the various management options.

  17. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Alimi, David

    2015-01-01

    David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have resi...

  18. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kassel, Florian; Dabrowski, Anne; de Boer, Wim

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field,...

  19. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  20. Radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Yukihide; Abiko, Seisho; Kurokawa, Yasushi; Okamura, Tomomi; Watanabe, Kohsaku; Inoue, Shinichi; Fujii, Yasuhiro.

    1993-01-01

    We reported a patient who suffered from cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation therapy for astrocytoma located at the left temporal lobe. An eleven year-old boy who presented with headache and vomiting received partial removal of a tumor. Histological diagnosis of the tumor was astrocytoma (grade II). His preoperative cerebral angiograms showed mass sign solely, without stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral vessel. Postoperatively, he was treated with irradiation therapy involving the whole brain with a total of 30 Gy, and gamma knife therapy. Six months after irradiation, he started suffering from frequent cerebral ischemic attacks, but there was no regrowth of the tumor visible on CT scans. Cerebral angiograms were made again, and revealed multifocal stenoses in the bilateral internal carotid arteries, middle cerebral arteries, and the anterior cerebral artery. His symptoms did not improve after conservative treatment with steroids, calcium antagonist, or low molecular weight dextran. Although he received a superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomoses bilaterally, multiple cerebral infarctions appeared. Although irradiation therapy is acceptable in patients with brain tumor, cerebrovasculopathy after irradiation should be considered as one of the most important complications, and the risk incurred by irradiation therapy should lead to more careful consideration and caution when treating intracranial brain tumors, especially in children. From our experience, the usefulness of bypass surgery for radiation-induced cerebrovasculopathy is still controversial. (author)

  1. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de [Institute for Experimental Nuclear Physics (IEKP), KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne [CERN, Meyrin (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb{sup -1} corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the

  2. Severe signal loss in diamond beam loss monitors in high particle rate environments by charge trapping in radiation-induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassel, Florian; Boer, Wim de; Guthoff, Moritz; Dabrowski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The beam condition monitoring leakage (BCML) system is a beam monitoring device in the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC). As detectors 32 poly-crystalline (pCVD) diamond sensors are positioned in rings around the beam pipe. Here, high particle rates occur from the colliding beams scattering particles outside the beam pipe. These particles cause defects, which act as traps for the ionization, thus reducing the charge collection efficiency (CCE). However, the loss in CCE was much more severe than expected from low rate laboratory measurements and simulations, especially in single-crystalline (sCVD) diamonds, which have a low initial concentration of defects. After an integrated luminosity of a few fb -1 corresponding to a few weeks of LHC operation, the CCE of the sCVD diamonds dropped by a factor of five or more and quickly approached the poor CCE of pCVD diamonds. The reason why in real experiments the CCE is much worse than in laboratory experiments is related to the ionization rate. At high particle rates the trapping rate of the ionization is so high compared with the detrapping rate, that space charge builds up. This space charge reduces locally the internal electric field, which in turn increases the trapping rate and recombination and hence reduces the CCE in a strongly non-linear way. A diamond irradiation campaign was started to investigate the rate-dependent electrical field deformation with respect to the radiation damage. Besides the electrical field measurements via the transient current technique (TCT), the CCE was measured. The experimental results were used to create an effective deep trap model that takes the radiation damage into account. Using this trap model, the rate-dependent electrical field deformation and the CCE were simulated with the software SILVACO TCAD. The simulation, tuned to rate-dependent measurements from a strong radioactive source, was able to predict the non-linear decrease of the CCE in

  3. Radiation induced nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Kalanov, M.U.; Khakimov, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Nanometer-size silicon clusters have been attracting much attention due to their technological importance, in particular, as promising building blocks for nano electronic and nano photonic systems. Particularly, silicon wires are of great of interest since they have potential for use in one-dimensional quantum wire high-speed field effect transistors and light-emitting devices with extremely low power consumption. Carbon and metal nano structures are studied very intensely due to wide possible applications. Radiation material sciences have been dealing with sub-micron objects for a long time. Under interaction of high energy particles and ionizing radiation with solids by elastic and inelastic mechanisms, at first point defects are created, then they form clusters, column defects, disordered regions (amorphous colloids) and finally precipitates of another crystal phase in the matrix. Such irradiation induced evolution of structure defects and phase transformations was observed by X-diffraction techniques in dielectric crystals of quartz and corundum, which exist in and crystal modifications. If there is no polymorphism, like in alkali halide crystals, then due to radiolysis halogen atoms are evaporated from the surface that results in non-stoichiometry or accumulated in the pores formed by metal vacancies in the sub-surface layer. Nano-pores are created by intensive high energy particles irradiation at first chaotically and then they are ordered and in part filled by inert gas. It is well-known mechanism of radiation induced swelling and embrittlement of metals and alloys, which is undesirable for construction materials for nuclear reactors. Possible solution of this problem may come from nano-structured materials, where there is neither swelling nor embrittlement at gas absorption due to very low density of the structure, while strength keeps high. This review considers experimental observations of radiation induced nano-inclusions in insulating

  4. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  5. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia: a systematic review of preclinical studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Oliveri, Roberto Stefan; Trojahn-Kølle, Stig-Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The most severe forms of xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction, as well as a severely reduced quality of life, are seen in Sjögren syndrome (SS) and after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. For both conditions, no effective regenerative therapies yet exist. Thus, the aim of this article...... was to assess, through systematic review, the potential benefit of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy in radiation-induced and SS-related salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia. We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the World Health Organization...... gland dysfunction and xerostomia. Nonetheless, the preliminary studies identified in the present review were encouraging for further research....

  6. The QUANTEC criteria for parotid gland dose and their efficacy to prevent moderate to severe patient-rated xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Ivo; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Chouvalova, Olga; Leemans, Charles R; Doornaert, Patricia; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Christianen, Miranda E M C; Vissink, Arjan; Bijl, Henk P; van Luijk, Peter; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effect in the Clinic (QUANTEC) Group defined dose-volume constraints for the parotid glands to avoid severe xerostomia. The aim of this study was to determine if application of these QUANTEC criteria also protected against moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia. The study population consisted of 307 head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiotherapy, either with 3D-CRT (56%) or with IMRT (44%). All patients participated in a standard follow-up program in which radiation-induced toxicity and quality of life were prospectively assessed. Patients who met the QUANTEC criteria were classified as low risk and otherwise as high risk. In total, 41% of the patients (treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT) were classified as low risk patients. In the group treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, it was possible to meet the QUANTEC criteria in 47% and 32% of the patients, respectively. Sparing the parotid glands with IMRT was considerably more difficult in patients with lymph node metastases and in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tumours. Low risk patients reported significantly less moderate-to-severe xerostomia than high risk patients. However, the predicted risk of elderly patients and patients with pre-existing minor patient-rated xerostomia at baseline was > 20%, even when the QUANTEC criteria were met. Significantly lower rates of radiation-induced patient-rated xerostomia were found among low risk patients treated according to the QUANTEC criteria, but these criteria do not completely protect against xerostomia. Particularly in elderly patients and patients already suffering from minor xerostomia at baseline, the QUANTEC criteria do not sufficiently protect against persistent, moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia.

  7. Radiation-induced diffusion at ionic etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protsenko, A.N.; Chajkovskij, Eh.F.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of radiation-induced diffusion (RID) on profiles of cesium implanted into tantalum, tungsten and molybdenum with 100 keV energy was studied. Layer-by-layer analysis was performed by means of 4 keV argon ions and 100 μA/cm 2 beam density. For the case under investigation an integral equation, which solution permitted to determine impurity true distribution, has been derived. It is shown that RID taking place on ionic etching results in broadening and shifting cesium profiles peaks into the deep of a specimen and so perverts results of the layer-by-layer analysis

  8. An evaluation of the effect of acupuncture on salivary pH and the Xerostomia Inventory score innasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with chemoradiation-induced xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihardja, H.; Susworo, R.; Srilestari, A.; Umri, H.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is a distressing side-effect of radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, commonly occurring in almost 100% of patients who undergo this procedure. It has been proposed that acupuncture can be used to treat radiation-induced xerostomia. To the best of our knowledge, the current study constitutes the first acupuncture research that has been conducted in Indonesia on xerostomia following chemo-irradiation in NPC patients. Twenty-five patients with xerostomia due tochemo-irradiation for NPC were divided randomly into three groups of auriculopuncture (group A), body acupuncture (group B), and combination acupuncture (group C). The subjects were evaluated according to Xerostomia Inventory scores before and after six and 12 acupuncture treatments. Salivary pH was determined before and after the 12th acupuncture treatment using a saliva check buffer kit. The success rate of acupuncture therapy in group A was 71-100%, 68-89% ingroup B, and 89-100% in group C (p > 0.050). The mean salivary pH increased after therapy from 6.18±0.60 to 6.83±4.48 in group A, from 6.16±0.54 to 6.67±2.26 in group B, and from 6.00±0.40 to 6.60±2.23 in group C (p > 0.050). After the 12th acupuncture therapy session, the mean Xerostomia Inventory score decreased from 35.70±5.14 prior to acupuncture therapy to 22.89±16.15 after it in group A, with corresponding decreases of 34.70±7.77 to 20.89±10.06 in group B, and of 36.70±5.25 to 21.44±8.97 in group C (p > 0.050). Auriculopuncture, body acupuncture, and combination acupuncture had the same effect of increasing salivary pH and decreasing the Xerostomia Inventory score in patients with xerostomia following chemo irradiation for NPC.

  9. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  10. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  11. Xerostomia: recognition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Philip C

    2008-01-01

    Awareness and recognition of xerostomia are essential in order to help patients minimize dryness symptoms, to institute preventive measures and to limit oral complications. The dental professional has the opportunity to ask every patient if they are experiencing dry mouth. In particular, complaints of dryness while eating, or difficulty swallowing dry foods, or the necessity of using liquids to ease swallowing are important clues that salivary function may be impaired. As part of a routine oral examination, one should examine the oral cavity carefully for signs of salivary gland dysfunction. Findings such as an increase in caries activity, mucosal alterations, infection or salivary gland enlargement may indicate salivary dysfunction. Evaluation should be conducted proactively at each patient visit. Early recognition will minimize damage and dysfunction and allow appropriate management to begin. Although the salivary dysfunction may be irreversible, preventive measures and conservative treatments can avoid or limit mucosal breakdown, infections and permanent damage to teeth. Adequate symptomatic relief is possible with local palliative and systemic measures in many patients. Appropriate management of symptoms and increasing saliva output may help patients feel more comfortable and improve their quality of life.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napeñas, Joel J; Brennan, Michael T; Fox, Philip C

    2009-07-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth) is a common complaint with widespread implications such as impaired quality of life, oral pain, and numerous oral complications. There are a variety of salivary and nonsalivary causes of xerostomia, the most frequent being medication side effects and systemic disorders. A systematic approach should be employed to determine the etiology of this condition, with distinctions made between patients with subjective complaints of xerostomia alone and those with measurable salivary gland dysfunction. Management is multidisciplinary and multimodal. This review summarizes the current literature on the etiology, diagnosis, and complications of xerostomia, and on the management of patients with xerostomia.

  13. Radiation induced crosslinking of polytetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Tabata, Yoneho; Ikeda, Shigetoshi; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Kudoh, Hisaaki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1995-01-01

    The Irradiation temperature effect on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) from room temperature to 380degC was investigated by tensile test and thermal analysis. The behavior of tensile properties and changes of crystallinity on irradiation indicated the formation of a network structure in PTFE by radiation induced crosslinking in inert gas in the molten state just above the melting temperature of PTFE (327degC). The crosslinked PTFE showed a much improved radiation resistance in an atmospheric radiation field. (author)

  14. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1999-03-01

    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  15. Radiation-induced heart injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo

    1975-01-01

    In order to identify radiation-induced heart injury and to differentiate it from heart disease, an attempt was made to clarify post-irradiation heart injury by investigating the histological changes which occur during the internal between the irradiation and the time of demonstrable histological changes. A study was made of 83 autopsies in which most of the primary neoplasms were breast cancers, lung cancers and mediastinal tumors. In 43 of these autopsies the heart had been irradiated. Sixty eight dd-strain mice were also used for microautoradiographic study. Histological changes in the heart were observed in 27 of the 43 cases receiving irradiation. The limit of the tolerance dose to the heart for indicating histological changes was 1220 ret in humans. The latent period without histological changes was 2.7 months after initiation of radiation therapy. Greater heart injury was observed after re-irradiation or after the combined therapy of radiation and chemotherapy especially mitomycin (MMC). The histological findings after treatment with MMC were similar to those of radiation-induced heart injury. Results of the study indicate that the damage is secondary to radiation-induced changes of the vascula connective tissue. (Evans, G.)

  16. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy: an overview of the physiopathology, clinical evidence, and management of the oral damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinna R

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Pinna,1 Guglielmo Campus,2 Enzo Cumbo,3 Ida Mura,1 Egle Milia2 1Department of Biomedical Science, 2Department of Surgery, Microsurgery and Medicine, University of Sassari, Sassari, 3Department of Dental Science, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy Background: The irradiation of head and neck cancer (HNC often causes damage to the salivary glands. The resulting salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia seriously reduce the patient’s quality of life. Purpose: To analyze the literature of actual management strategies for radiation-induced hypofunction and xerostomia in HNC patients. Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were electronically evaluated for articles published from January 1, 1970, to June 30, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened and included papers according to the predefined selection criteria. Results: Sixty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. The systematic review of the literature suggests that the most suitable methods for managing the clinical and pathophysiological consequences of HNC radiotherapy might be the pharmacological approach, for example, through the use of cholinergic agonists when residual secretory capacity is still present, and the use of salivary substitutes. In addition, a modified diet and the patient’s motivation to enhance oral hygiene can lead to a significant improvement. Conclusion: Radiation-induced xerostomia could be considered a multifactorial disease. It could depend on the type of cancer treatment and the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. A preventive approach and the correct treatment of the particular radiotherapeutic patient can help to improve the condition of xerostomia. Keywords: radiation-induced xerostomia, salivary gland hypofunction, management strategies

  17. Xerostomia and the oral microflora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, A.J.M.; Almståhl, A.; Carpenter, G.

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia is the feeling of a dry mouth usually caused by hyposalivation. It may occur after radiation therapy of the head and neck, in systemic diseases such as Sjögren’s syndrome, or as a side effect of medication. Hyposalivation changes the oral microbiome with the most dramatic changes after

  18. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy: an overview of the physiopathology, clinical evidence, and management of the oral damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Roberto; Campus, Guglielmo; Cumbo, Enzo; Mura, Ida; Milia, Egle

    2015-01-01

    The irradiation of head and neck cancer (HNC) often causes damage to the salivary glands. The resulting salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia seriously reduce the patient's quality of life. To analyze the literature of actual management strategies for radiation-induced hypofunction and xerostomia in HNC patients. MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were electronically evaluated for articles published from January 1, 1970, to June 30, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened and included papers according to the predefined selection criteria. Sixty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. The systematic review of the literature suggests that the most suitable methods for managing the clinical and pathophysiological consequences of HNC radiotherapy might be the pharmacological approach, for example, through the use of cholinergic agonists when residual secretory capacity is still present, and the use of salivary substitutes. In addition, a modified diet and the patient's motivation to enhance oral hygiene can lead to a significant improvement. Radiation-induced xerostomia could be considered a multifactorial disease. It could depend on the type of cancer treatment and the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. A preventive approach and the correct treatment of the particular radiotherapeutic patient can help to improve the condition of xerostomia.

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonic histogram features to evaluate radiation toxicity of the parotid glands: a clinical study of xerostomia following head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Tridandapani, Srini; Beitler, Jonathan J; Yu, David S; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; Bruner, Deborah W; Curran, Walter J; Liu, Tian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound histogram features in the quantitative assessment of radiation-induced parotid gland injury and to identify potential imaging biomarkers for radiation-induced xerostomia (dry mouth)-the most common and debilitating side effect after head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). Thirty-four patients, who have developed xerostomia after RT for head-and-neck cancer, were enrolled. Radiation-induced xerostomia was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity scale. Ultrasound scans were performed on each patient's parotids bilaterally. The 34 patients were stratified into the acute-toxicity groups (16 patients, ≤ 3 months after treatment) and the late-toxicity group (18 patients, > 3 months after treatment). A separate control group of 13 healthy volunteers underwent similar ultrasound scans of their parotid glands. Six sonographic features were derived from the echo-intensity histograms to assess acute and late toxicity of the parotid glands. The quantitative assessments were compared to a radiologist's clinical evaluations. The diagnostic accuracy of these ultrasonic histogram features was evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. With an area under the ROC curve greater than 0.90, several histogram features demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy for evaluation of acute and late toxicity of parotid glands. Significant differences (P xerostomia monitoring and assessment. Copyright © 2014 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pathogenesis of salivary gland disease and xerostomia. The conception of Mikulicz's disease based on new knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himi, Tetsuo; Kanaizumi, Etsuko; Ogasawara, Noriko; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on two topics of salivary gland diseases regarding xerostomia. First, the pathogenesis and treatment of xerostomia after radiotherapy against head and neck cancer is discussed. It is well known that the extent of radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and mucositis depends on the radiation dose and field. Moreover, the balance in the defense system of oropharyngeal cavity alters after radiotherapy. This altered balance may impair the ability to maintain the stable immunological control mechanism. Second, the newly established concept about Mikulicz's disease is discussed. Recently, elevated IgG4 concentration in serum and prominent infiltrating by plasmacytes expressing IgG4 in the salivary glands in Mikulicz's disease were revealed. Mikulicz's disease is different from Sjoegren's syndrome, and may be a systemic IgG4-related plasmacytic disease. (author)

  1. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  2. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Alessandro; Connell, Christopher L; Abati, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. PMID:25653532

  3. Xerostomia: Few dry facts about dry mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Prasanna Kumar J Rao; Laxmikanth Chatra; Prashanth Shenai; K M Veena; Rachana V Prabhu; Tashika Kushraj; Prathima Shetty; Shaul Hameed

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of oral dryness, which is often associated with hypofunction of the salivary gland. Xerostomia can also have a major impact on a patient′s oral health and quality of life. Patients with xerostomia complaints of problems with mastication, phonetics, deglutition and wearing dentures. Treatment of this condition always depends on the cause. Oral physicians should be able to diagnose this condition and able to give proper treatment to provide comfort to their ...

  4. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Alessandro; Connell, Christopher L; Abati, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation.

  5. Xerostomia: Few dry facts about dry mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Kumar J Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of oral dryness, which is often associated with hypofunction of the salivary gland. Xerostomia can also have a major impact on a patient′s oral health and quality of life. Patients with xerostomia complaints of problems with mastication, phonetics, deglutition and wearing dentures. Treatment of this condition always depends on the cause. Oral physicians should be able to diagnose this condition and able to give proper treatment to provide comfort to their patients. This article reviews the causes of xerostomia and its management.

  6. Etiology, evaluation, and management of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Wang, Elizabeth A; Fazel, Nasim

    Xerostomia is defined as the complaint of oral dryness. It is a condition that primarily affects older adults and can have a significant negative effect on one's quality of life. Patients with xerostomia often do not have objective signs of hyposalivation. The underlying etiology of xerostomia includes a variety of systemic diseases and local factors. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive review of the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of xerostomia. Prompt diagnosis and management can alleviate the clinical manifestations of this debilitating condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation-induced heterophase polymerizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carenza, M.; Palma, G.

    1985-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the morphology of particles produced in the early stages of radiation-induced heterophase polymerization of acrylonitrile in quiescent conditions over a wide temperature range both in bulk and with addition of a solvent or a comonomer. The data were compared with the corresponding data obtained in the polymerization of vinyl chloride, producing an amorphous polymer, taking into account also the kinetic behaviours of the two polymerization systems. The particle morphologies in the two systems were quite similar at low polymerization temperatures but there were considerable differences when higher temperatures were involved. This change was interpreted on the basis of differences in compatability between the liquid phase and the polymer particle phase for the two systems. In order to account for the two different kinetic behaviours, a two-phase polymerization model was formulated and also a polymerization model in which the surface of the polymer particles was the locus of polymerization. (author)

  8. Experimental radiation-induced leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    Of the various neoplasms induced by ionizing radiation in human and animal populations, leukemias and lymphomas were among the first to receive systematic study and have remained under intensive investigation up to the present time. The reticular tissue neoplasm that has been the most thoroughly studied is a lymphoma of the thymus which characteristically predominates in whole- bodyirradiated mice. Thanks to intensive research on this tumor, much is now known about its pathogenesis. The purpose of this report is to review the knowledge of pathogenesis of other types of radiation-induced leukemias and lymphomas, in an effort to assess the extent to which the comparative data for all such diseases can be integrated into a single unifying framework

  9. Delineation guidelines for organs at risk involved in radiation-induced salivary dysfunction and xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Water, Tara A.; Bijl, Henk P.; Westerlaan, Henriette E.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose It is believed that minimizing inconsistencies in OAR-volume definition will help to improve adequate reporting and interpreting of radial ion treatment results The aim of this paper is to introduce computed tomography (CT)-based delineation guidelines for organs at risk

  10. Radiation-induced parotid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.J.; Chaudhuri, P.K.; Wood, D.C.; Das Gupta, T.K.

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 72 cases of primary malignant tumors of the parotid gland treated at the University of Illinois Hospital, Chicago, from 1950 through 1978 revealed that six of these had developed from two to 24 years after irradiation of the head or neck for various benign and malignant neoplastic conditions. At the time of irradiation, ages ranged from 7 to 73 years; the sex distribution was equal. From our findings and those in 26 cases reported by various other authors, the following criteria are proposed for the designation of a parotid tumor as being radiation induced: (1) well-documented radiation exposure; (2) part of irradiation must incorporate the gland in which the cancer subseqently arises; (3) exposure to a minimum of 300 rads; and (4) minimum latent period of two years. In view of the widespread use in the past of heat and neck irradiation of benign neoplastic disease, the surgeon should be aware of this possible link with parotid gland tumor

  11. Stem cells and the repair of radiation-induced salivary gland damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppes, R P; Stokman, M A

    2011-03-01

    Hyposalivation underlying xerostomia after radiotherapy is still a major problem in the treatment of head and neck cancer. Stem cell therapy may provide a means to reduce radiation-induced hyposalivation and improve the quality of life of patients. This review discusses the current status in salivary gland stem cell research with respect to their potential to attenuate salivary gland dysfunction. Knowledge on the embryonic development, homeostasis and regeneration after atrophy of the salivary glands has provided important knowledge on the location of the salivary gland as well as on the factors that influence proliferation and differentiation. This knowledge has helped to locate, isolate and characterize cell populations that contain the salivary gland stem cell, although the exact tissue stem cell is still unidentified. The role that stem/progenitor cells play in the response to radiation and the factors that can influence stem/progenitor induced proliferation and differentiation are discussed. Finally, the mobilization and transplantation of stem cells and supportive cells and their potential to attenuate radiation-induced salivary gland damage are discussed. Based on the major advances made in the field of stem cell research, stem cell-based therapy has great potential to allow prevention or treatment of radiation-induced hyposalivation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Management of radiotherapy-induced salivary hypofunction and consequent xerostomia in patients with oral or head and neck cancer: meta-analysis and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Tiffany L; Fox, Nyssa F; Sood, Amit J; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the efficacy of various treatment options for radiation-induced hyposalivation in patients with head and neck cancer. A literature review and meta-analysis was performed on all appropriate literature identified via MEDLINE/PubMed. Fourteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for review, and 8 articles qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The available literature addressed both objective and subjective responses of hyposalivation, xerostomia, or both to cholinergic agonists (such as pilocarpine and cevimeline), salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. This analysis indicated that cholinergic agonists were more effective in treating radiation-induced hyposalivation compared with salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. However, other treatment modalities, such as salivary substitutes and hyperbaric oxygen, were also found to subjectively improve patients' perception of xerostomia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiation-induced instability of human genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabchenko, N.N.; Demina, Eh.A.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is dedicated to the phenomenon of radiation-induced genomic instability where the increased level of genomic changes in the offspring of irradiated cells is characteristic. Particular attention is paid to the problems of genomic instability induced by the low-dose radiation, role of the bystander effect in formation of radiation-induced instability, and its relationship with individual radiosensitivity. We believe that in accordance with the paradigm of modern radiobiology the increased human individual radiosensitivity can be formed due to the genome instability onset and is a significant risk factor for radiation-induced cancer

  14. Xerostomia among older home care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljakainen, Sari; Nykänen, Irma; Ahonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Kaija; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Tiihonen, Miia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine drug use and other factors associated with xerostomia in home care clients aged 75 years or older. The study sample included 270 home care clients aged ≥75 years living in Eastern and Central Finland. The home care clients underwent in-home interviews carried out by trained home care nurses, nutritionists, dental hygienists and pharmacists. The collected data contained information on sociodemographic factors, health and oral health status, drug use, depressive symptoms (GDS-15), cognitive functioning (MMSE), functional ability (Barthel Index, IADL) and nutrition (MNA). The primary outcome was xerostomia status (never, occasionally or continuously). Among the home care clients, 56% (n = 150) suffered from xerostomia. Persons with continuous xerostomia used more drugs and had more depressive symptoms and a higher number of comorbidities than other home care clients. In multivariate analyses, excessive polypharmacy (OR = 1.83, 95% Cl 1.08-3.10) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.03-1.22) were associated with xerostomia. Xerostomia is a common problem among old home care clients. Excessive polypharmacy, use of particular drug groups and depressive symptoms were associated with xerostomia. The findings support the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the care of older home care clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. BRIEF OVERVIEW OF XEROSTOMIA PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Podvyaznikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The saliva is indispensable for preservation of healthy mouth and teeth, due to its composition and physical and chemical properties. Saliva preserves the teeth and favors their remineralization for account of afflux of irreplaceable minerals: calcium and phosphor. Due to contents of such epidermal growth factor it participates in tissue repair. The saliva contains the antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal drug resistance factors, suppressing the bacterial colonization of teeth and mucosa.Dry mouth (xerostomia results in development of stomatitis, periodontitis effects, increases a risk of infectious lesions of oral mucosa. The severest forms of such pathology (Degrees II–III are observed in the patients administered of X-ray therapy on head and neck area and in case of Sjogren’s syndrome, when the irreversible degenerative changes develop in эпителии salivary glands epithelium. Etiology and pathogenesis of xerostomia are not exhaustively studied yet, and treatment of such complex pathology is still symptomatic.

  16. Radiation-Induced Liver Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz-Schuffenegger, Pablo; Ng, Sylvia; Dawson, Laura A

    2017-10-01

    The advent of highly conformal radiation therapy (RT) has defined a new role for RT in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver cancer. Despite major advances in how RT is delivered, radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) remains a concern. Classic RILD, characterized by anicteric ascites and hepatomegaly, is unlikely to occur if treating to doses of ≤30Gy in 2Gy per fraction in patients with baseline Child-Pugh A liver function. On the other hand, nonclassic RILD is a spectrum of liver toxicity, including a general decline in liver function and elevation of liver enzymes. It is less well defined and less predictable, especially in patients with underlying liver disease. Scoring and quantifying RILD remains a challenge. The Child-Pugh score has been the most consistently used parameter. Other scoring systems such as the albumin-bilirubin score provide further discrimination in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, although their value in patients treated with RT remains to be established. Many serum and imaging biomarkers of liver function are currently being investigated, and they will provide further useful information in the future for local and global liver function assessment, for planning optimization, and for treatment adaptation. To date, no pharmacological therapies have provided consistent results in mitigating RILD once it has manifested clinically. Numerous promising treatment strategies including TGFβ inhibition, Hedgehog inhibition, CXCR4 inhibition, hepatocyte transplantation, and bone marrow-derived stromal cell therapy, have potential to be helpful in the treatment of RILD in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of saliva in oral health: strategies for prevention and management of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosky, Mary Elizabeth

    2007-05-01

    Oral complications are the most frequent and debilitating sequelae of radiation treatment for patients with head and neck cancer. Impaired salivary function and consequent xerostomia can persist for years after radiation treatment, significantly increasing the risk of oral and dental disease and negatively affecting patients' quality of life. Current evidence indicates that many patients undergoing radiation treatment do not receive adequate oral and dental care and follow-up and that patients' compliance with oral care recommendations is frequently poor. Topical lubricants, coating agents,and saliva substitutes or lozenges may provide transient relief from xerostomia. Cholinergic stimulants such as pilocarpine improve salivary flow but have had mixed results in improving patients' assessments of symptoms or other quality-of-life measures. Advances in radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, have enabled increased delivery of therapeutic doses of radiation to tumors while limiting exposure to normal tissues, thereby reducing the incidence, duration, and severity of xerostomia in some patients with head and neck cancers. Additionally, radioprotective agents such as amifostine have been shown to reduce radiation-induced toxicity to normal tissues within the radiation field. Studies are ongoing to determine the optimal approaches for these techniques and agents to maximize clinical response while improving the overall quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer.

  18. Radiation-induced carcinoma of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.D.; Pryor, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Two patients with carcinoma of the penis were treated with interstitial radiation. They were cured of their disease for 17 and 21 years respectively and then developed radiation-induced tumours. (author)

  19. Radiation Induced Bystander Effect in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Chai, Yunfei; Hei K. Tom

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of biological effects in cells that are not directly traversed by radiation, but merely in the presence of cells that are. Although radiation induced bystander effects have been well defined in a variety of in vitro models using a range of endpoints including clonogenic survival, mutations, neoplastic transformation, apoptosis, micronucleus, chromosomal aberrations and DNA double strand breaks, the mechanism(s) as well as the pres...

  20. Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0531 TITLE: Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William H. McBride CONTRACTING...FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiation-Induced Vaccination to...determine abscopal responses that are hypothesized to be due to RT- induced vaccination . RT was started 10 days after the first and 3rd dose of

  1. Radiation Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0531 TITLE: Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: William H. McBride CONTRACTING...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Radiation-Induced Vaccination to Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0531 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...therapy to generate an in situ tumor vaccine and abscopal effects at distant tumor sites (13), giving some rationale for this attempt to examine this

  2. Xerostomia. Diagnosis and management in dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid

    2010-03-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of oral dryness. It is caused by many factors, among them, hypo/hyper salivation. This article covers the etiology, local and systemic factors related to dryness of the mouth, its diagnosis, and clinical and at-home management of the syndrome. It also reviews the role of dental hygiene intervention to improve and promote the patient's quality of life. It is hoped this review will help dental health care providers better respond to patients afflicted with xerostomia.

  3. Chemical Induced Xerostomia Among Institutionalized Eldery

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovski, Mihajlo; Minovska, Ana; Ivanovski, Kiro; Forna, Doriana Agop; Forna, Consuela Norna

    2015-01-01

    Subjective presence of dry mouth is most common oral problem among the institutionalized elderly. To assess the subjective presence of xerostomia among institutionalized elderly. Total numbers of 70 subjects older than 65 years institutionalized in one nursing home were evaluated. The subjective presence of xerstomia was determinated. To determine the level of expressiveness of xerostomia is used questionnaire recommended by Carda et al. 62.8% from the subjects believed that they ...

  4. Comprehensive assessment of xerostomia in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Aditya Yadaraju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Xerostomia is a well known complication of radiation for head and neck cancer. It causes significant impairment of Quality Of Life (QOL.Comprehensive assessment is possible with the help of scintigraphy, Dose-volume histogram (DVH parameters as well as QOL questionnaire.Methods: Thirty patients of head and neck cancer undergoing radiation were assessed for xerostomia. Scintigraphic assessment of parotid gland function was done before and at six weeks after radiation. QOL questionnaire was administered before, during, and at six weeks after radiation as well as at two years of follow up. Dose received by parotids were correlated with scintigraphic and QOL outcomes.Results: Mean parotid gland volume and dose received were 24.9 cc and 45.3 Gy respectively. Mean Salivary Excretion Factor (SEF decreased from 54.1 to 12 at six weeks after radiation. QOL scores worsened from first week (mean value: 2.37 of radiotherapy (RT to fourth week (mean value: 15.50, p < 0.0000 , remained same till completion of RT (mean value: 17.57, p = 0.1063 and at six weeks after radiation (mean value:16.10, p = 0.2519 . There was a significant decrease in QOL scores between post RT six weeks versus two years follow up (p < 0.0000. Mean parotid dose and QOL scores correlated at six weeks (p < 0.0000, whereas no correlation was found between SEF and QOL.Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of parotid gland function with Scintigraphy, QOL questionnaire and its correlation with dose volume parameters is helpful in quantifying xerostomia. Even though radiation induced xerostomia persisted for a long time after radiation, it did not translate to decreased QOL.

  5. Evaluation of xerostomia following 3 dimensional conformal radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Je; Ahn, Yong Chan; Park, Won; Ju, Sang Gyu; Nam, Hee Rim; Oh, Dong Ryul; Park, Hee Chul

    2006-01-01

    This study is to evaluate the xerostomia following 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D CRT) in nasopharynx cancer patients using the xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS). Questionnaire study was done on 51 patients with nasopharynx cancer who received 3D CRT from Dec. 2000 to Aug. 2005. 3D CRT technique is based on 'serial shrinking field' concept by 3 times of computed tomography (CT) simulation. Total target dose to the primary tumor was 72 Gy with 1.8 Gy daily fractions. Xerostomia was assessed with 4-questions XQS, and the associations between XQS and time elapsed after RT, age, sex, stage, concurrent chemotherapy, an parotid dose were analyzed. Concurrent chemotherapy was given to 40 patients and RT alone was given to 11 patients. The median time elapsed after 3D CRT was 20 (1 ∼ 58) months and the mean XQS of all 51 patients was 8.4 ± 1.9 (6 ∼ 14). XQS continuously and significantly decreased over time after 3D CRT (χ 2 -0.484, ρ < 0.05). There was no significant difference in XQS according to sex, age, and stag. However, XQS of concurrent chemotherapy patients was significantly higher than RT alone patients (ρ = 0.001). XQS of patients receiving total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy was significantly higher than < 35 Gy (ρ = 0.05). Decreasing tendency of XQS over time after 3D CRT was observed. Concurrent chemotherapy and total mean parotid dose ≥ 35 Gy were suggested to adversely affect radiation-induced xerostomia

  6. [Xerostomia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre Donat, F J

    1990-09-01

    A great many conditions may lead to dry mouth; indeed, xerostomy is a very frequent clinical finding that occasionally does not receive the attention deserved. A review of this condition is carried out, providing a practical perspective for the general stomatologist regarding the physiopatological mechanisms involved, the clinical manifestations, diagnostic procedures and current therapeutic approaches.

  7. Hazard of the radiation induced thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, Ye.Ye.

    2001-01-01

    The level of thyroid cancer in Belarus before Chernobyl accident was low and made in different age and sex groups 0,03-2,5 (male) and 0,1-3,9 (female) per 100000 correspondingly. Different risk factors, which can influence the thyroid cancer development, are being taken into account. They are the factors of environment (strong external irradiation, long-time irradiation for medical purposes or in result of disaster), endo gen factors (hormonal, reproductive, genetic predisposition), some medicinal preparations and other. The protective effect of vegetable and fish consumption was found out. Among the factors of thyroid cancer development one of the most important is radiation. There is a point of view, which assumes that one of the reasons of thyroid cancer cases increase among the population of developed countries is increase of radiation induced thyroid cancer. The results of first research testify the influence of radiation factor on thyroid cancer development. During the period 1920 -1960 in the USA X-ray therapy was applied for the treatment of different good-quality diseases. Thyroid got in the zone of irradiation during the complex treatment with using of radiation. The results of the research of 1970 revealed that 70% of children with thyroid cancer were exposed to radiation in children's age. The subsequent researches of by-effects from the side of a thyroid at beam therapy of various diseases alongside with the results of the estimation of consequences of inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki irradiation owing to nuclear bombardment have shown the influence of irradiation of a thyroid on cancer development. High quantity of radio-epidemiological researches was directed to the studying of the consequences of thyroid external irradiation at young age. In all carried out researches the quantity of observed thyroid cancer cases among irradiated people has exceeded number of expected. The influence of thyroid internal irradiation by I-131 at young age was

  8. Dental management of xerostomia--opportunity, expertise, obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinegger, Cynthia L

    2007-06-01

    Xerostomia often goes undiagnosed and unmanaged. Failure to properly deal with this condition leaves patients at greater risk for other problems. Dentists have the opportunity, the expertise, and the obligation to identify and manage xerostomia and its complications. This article presents a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment of xerostomia and its complications.

  9. Radiation-induced erectile dysfunction: Recent advances and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Mahmood, PhD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the United States. A large number of patients undergo radiation therapy (RT as a standard care of treatment; however, RT causes erectile dysfunction (radiation-induced erectile dysfunction; RiED because of late side effects after RT that significantly affects quality of life of prostate cancer patients. Within 5 years of RT, approximately 50% of patients could develop RiED. Based on the past and current research findings and number of publications from our group, the precise mechanism of RiED is under exploration in detail. Recent investigations have shown prostate RT induces significant morphologic arterial damage with aberrant alterations in internal pudendal arterial tone. Prostatic RT also reduces motor function in the cavernous nerve which may attribute to axonal degeneration may contributing to RiED. Furthermore, the advances in radiogenomics such as radiation induced somatic mutation identification, copy number variation and genome-wide association studies has significantly facilitated identification of biomarkers that could be used to monitoring radiation-induced late toxicity and damage to the nerves; thus, genomic- and proteomic-based biomarkers could greatly improve treatment and minimize arterial tissue and nerve damage. Further, advanced technologies such as proton beam therapy that precisely target tumor and significantly reduce off-target damage to vital organs and healthy tissues. In this review, we summarize recent advances in RiED research and novel treatment modalities for RiED. We also discuss the possible molecular mechanism involved in the development of RiED in prostate cancer patients. Further, we discuss various readily available methods as well as novel strategies such as stem cell therapies, shockwave therapy, nerve grafting with tissue engineering, and nutritional supplementations might be used to

  10. Radiation-induced linking reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoepfl, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Three types of measurements are reported relating to chemical reactions in polyethylene induced by ionizing radiation: 1) viscometric and low-angle laser light scattering measurements to determine the effect of a radical scavenger on the yield of links; 2) calorimetric measurements to determine the effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene; and 3) high-resolution solution carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry measurements to determine the nature of the links and the method of their formation. The NMR results present the first direct detection of radiation-induced long-chain branching (Y links) in polyethylene, and place an apparent upper limit on the yield of H-shaped crosslinks that are formed when polyethylene is irradiated to low absorbed doses. The effect of radiation-induced linking on the melting behavior of polyethylene was examined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that radiation-induced links do not change the heat of fusion of polythylene crystals, but decrease the melt entropy and increase the fold surface free energy per unit area of the crystals. The carbon 13 NMR results demonstrate that long-chain branches (Y links) are formed much more frequently than H-shaped crosslinks at low absorbed doses. The Y links are produced by reactions of alkyl free radicals with terminal vinyl groups in polyethylene

  11. Mechanisms of transient radiation-induced creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyatiletov, Yu.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation-induced creep at the transient stage is investigated for metals. The situation, when several possible creep mechanisms operate simultaneously is studied. Among them revealed are those which give the main contribution and determine thereby the creep behaviour. The time dependence of creep rate and its relation to the smelling rate is obtained. The results satisfactorily agree with the available experimental data [ru

  12. Radiation-induced leukemias in ankylosing spondylitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toolis, F.; Potter, B.; Allan, N.C.; Langlands, A.O.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of leukemia occurred in patients with ankylosing spondylitis treated by radiotherapy. In each case, the leukemic process exhibited bizarre features suggesting that radiation is likely to induce atypical forms of leukemia possessing unusual attributes not shared by spontaneously developing leukemia. The likely distinctive aspects of radiation-induced leukemia are discussed

  13. Xerostomia: aetiology and management in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S

    1998-07-01

    Although oral complications are common sequelae of cancer/cancer treatment, only sporadic research is published in the literature. It is clear that 'routine' oral hygiene measures are inadequate; a little time and effort may, however, reduce oral discomfort. This is particularly true in the case of xerostomia, which is often thought to be a relatively minor symptom with few deleterious effects. Many patients, however, find xerostomia a significant cause of distress, and for this reason alone, health care professionals require knowledge and appreciation of the pathology and aetiology of the condition and approaches to its management. This paper reviews the physiology of salivation and the aetiology of xerostomia and considers the ways in which the condition can be managed.

  14. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  15. Views of xerostomia among health care professionals: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Solgun; Fridlund, Bengt; Paulsson, Gun

    2009-03-01

    To explore and describe views of xerostomia among health care professionals. Xerostomia (dry mouth) is caused by changes in quality and quantity of saliva due to poor health, certain drugs and radiation therapy. It is a common symptom, particularly among older people and has devastating consequences with regard to oral health and general well-being. Data were obtained and categorised by interviewing 16 health care professionals. Qualitative content analysis was chosen as the method of analysis. Qualitative. The latent content was formulated into a theme: xerostomia is a well-known problem, yet there is inadequate management of patients with xerostomia. The findings identified three categories expressing the manifest content: awareness of xerostomia, indifferent attitude and insufficient support. Although xerostomia was recognised as commonly occurring, it was considered to be an underestimated and an ignored problem. Proper attention to conditions of xerostomia and subsequent patient management were viewed as fragmentary and inadequate. Additional qualitative studies among patients with xerostomia would be desirable to gain further understanding of the problems with xerostomia, its professional recognition and management. A holistic view, positive professional attitudes and enhanced knowledge of xerostomia seem essential to augment collaboration among health care professionals and to improve compassion for and support of patients with xerostomia.

  16. Radiation-induced brain injury: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Robbins, Mike E.; Peiffer, Ann M.; Shaw, Edward G.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Chan, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their

  17. Radiation-induced meningiomas in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, S.D.; Rockswold, G.L.; Chou, S.N.; Yock, D.; Berger, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-induced meningiomas rarely have latency periods short enough from the time of irradiation to the clinical presentation of the tumor to present in the pediatric patient. Three cases of radiation-induced intracranial meningiomas in pediatric patients are presented. The first involved a meningioma of the right frontal region in a 10-year-old boy 6 years after the resection and irradiation of a 4th ventricular medulloblastoma. Review of our pediatric tumor cases produced a second case of a left temporal fossa meningioma presenting in a 15-year-old boy with a history of irradiation for retinoblastoma at age 3 years and a third case of a right frontoparietal meningioma in a 15-year-old girl after irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Only three cases of meningiomas presenting in the pediatric age group after radiation therapy to the head were detected in our review of the literature

  18. Radiation induced peroxidative damage: mechanism and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, Anjali; Kale, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    An interest has been generated in free radicals after the discovery of superoxide dismutase. These free radicals cause a number of diseases and are involved in the detrimental effect of ionizing radiation. Efforts have been made to understand their role in damage and death of the cell using lipid peroxidation process. Lipid peroxidation is an important effect of radiation on membranes, which apart from DNA, are critical targets of radiation action. This paper addresses the basic mechanism of radiation induced lipid peroxidation. Various factors, which determine the mode and magnitude of lipid peroxidation, are also discussed. Lipid peroxidation is shown to have importance in understanding the modifications of radiation effects. Efforts are made to show similarities between radiolytic and non-radiolytic lipid peroxidation. Recent findings related to the close link between radiation-induced lipid peroxidation and apoptosis are likely to open new avenues for future research and to develop new approaches for radio modification of biological effects. (author)

  19. Ionizing radiation induced malignancies in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    Using data on gene and chromosome alterations in human cancers, it is proposed that most radiation induced cancers are a consequence of recessive mutations of tumor suppressor genes. This explains the long delay between radiation exposure and the cancer onset. As a consequence, radiation induced cancers belong to groups of tumors where no specific translocations (forming or activating oncogenes) but multiple unbalanced chromosome rearrangements (deletions unmasking recessive mutations) exist. This explains why osteosarcomas, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, chondrosarcomas are frequently induced, but not liposarcoma, Ewing sarcomas and rhabdomyosarcomas, among others. A single exception confirms this rule: papillary thyroid cancer, frequently induced in exposed children, in which structural rearrangements frequently form a RET/PTC3 fusion gene. This fusion gene is the results of the inversion of a short segment of chromosome 10, and it is assumed that such rearrangement (small para-centric inversion) can easily occur after exposure to radiations, at contrast with translocations between to genes belonging to different chromosomes. (author)

  20. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlow, F.L.; Dekovich, A.A.; Priest, R.J.; Beher, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style

  1. XEROSTOMIA: FAKTOR ETIOLOGI, ETIOLOGI DAN PENANGGULANGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuti Hasibuan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a complex oral secretion, which producd by major and minor salivary glans about 1.5 liters in 24 hours. In the oral cavity, saliva has several important functions include cleansing action, lubrication, facilitates for chewing and swallowing, food, speaking, buffer system.protecting teeth and a paart of mucosal immune system. These functions will be optimum if salivary secretion produced in normal quantitiy and quality. When salivary flow is diminished, it may express disorder in the form of xerostomia or oral dryness. Several factors can contribute as causing this condition, such as radiation to head and neck region, local diseases that affect salivary gland, systemic diseases, side effect of drugs and age. There are many problems usually presented by patients with xerostomia. These problems reflect the major funcitonal roles of saliva. So, the dentist must know the management of xerostomic patients, that aimed at elimination of the etiology of xerostomia, clinical manifestationsa and the management of xerostomia so that the dentist can arrange treatment planning rationally.id

  2. Xerostomia: a day and night difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkema, T.; Raaijmakers, C.P.; Braam, P.M.; Roesink, J.M.; Monninkhof, E.M.; Terhaard, C.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare patient-reported xerostomia during daytime and during nighttime with objectively measured parotid and submandibular gland function in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 138 HNC patients underwent objective

  3. Radiation induced transformation of CO in cyclohexane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugovoi, Y.M.; Park, H.-R.; Getoff, N.

    1989-01-01

    The radiation induced incorporation of CO in cyclohexane leads to formation of: bicyclohexylketone (G i = 2.40), α,α-bicyclohexyldiketone (G i = 0.90), cyclohexanone (G i = 0.24), cyclohexanol (G i = 0.20), cyclohexanecarboxylic acid (G i 0.10), in addition to bicyclohexyl (G i = 1.30) and polymers. The G i -values are strongly dependent on the CO-concentration in the solution. Probable reaction mechanisms are presented. (author)

  4. Radiation induced glioblastoma. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Naoki; Kayama, Takamasa; Sakurada, Kaori; Saino, Makoto; Kuroki, Akira [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-05-01

    We report a surgical case of a 54-year-old woman with a radiation induced glioblastoma. At the age of 34, the patient was diagnosed to have a non-functioning pituitary adenoma. It was partially removed followed by 50 Gy focal irradiation with a 5 x 5 cm lateral opposed field. Twenty years later, she suffered from rapidly increasing symptoms such as aphasia and right hemiparesis. MRI showed a large mass lesion in the left temporal lobe as well as small mass lesions in the brain stem and the right medial temporal lobe. These lesions situated within the irradiated field. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed relatively high lactate signal and decreased N-acetyl aspartate, choline, creatine and phosphocreatine signals. Increased lactate signal meant anaerobic metabolism that suggested the existence of a rapidly growing malignant tumor. Thus, we planned surgical removal of the left temporal lesion with the diagnosis of a radiation induced malignant glioma. The histological examination revealed a glioblastoma with radiation necrosis. MIB-1 staining index was 65%. Postoperatively, her symptoms improved, but she died from pneumonia 1 month after the surgery. A autopsy was obtained. The lesion of the left temporal lobe was found to have continuity to the lesion in the midbrain, the pons and the right temporal lobe as well. High MIB-1 staining index suggested that a radiation induced glioblastoma had high proliferative potential comparing with a de novo and secondary glioblastoma. (author)

  5. Genetic alterations during radiation-induced carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Seiji

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews radiation-induced genetic alterations and its carcinogenesis, focusing on the previous in vitro assay outcome. A colony formation assay using Syrian hamster fetal cells and focus formation assay using mouse C3H10T1/2 cells are currently available to find malignant transformation of cells. Such in vitro assays has proposed the hypothesis that radiation-induced carcinogenesis arises from at least two-stage processes; i.e., that an early step induced by irradiation plays an important role in promoting the potential to cause the subsequent mutation. A type of genetic instability induced by radiation results in a persistently elevated frequency of spontaneous mutations, so-called the phenomenon of delayed reproductive death. One possible mechanism by which genetic instability arises has been shown to be due to the development of abnormality in the gene group involved in the maintenance mechanism of genome stability. Another possibility has also been shown to stem from the loss of telomere (the extremities of a chromosome). The importance of search for radiation-induced genetic instability is emphasized in view of the elucidation of carcinogenesis. (N.K.)

  6. Xerostomia health-related quality of life: NRG oncology RTOG 0537.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gwen; Pugh, Stephanie L; Wong, Raimond K W; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Francis S; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, Ian; Krempl, Greg A; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Yeh, Alexander M; Berk, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine change in overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) based on patient data obtained from NRG Oncology RTOG 0537 as measured by the RTOG-modified University of Washington Head and Neck Symptom Score (RM-UWHNSS). A multi-site prospective randomized clinical trial design stratified 137 patients with post-radiation therapy xerostomia according to prior pilocarpine (PC) treatment and time after radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy and randomized patients into two groups. Patients were assigned to acupuncture or PC. Twenty-four sessions of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) were administered over 12 weeks, or oral PC (5 mg) three times daily over the same 12 weeks. The RM-UWHNSS was administered at baseline and at 4, 6, 9, and 15 months after the date of randomization. There were no between-arm differences in change scores on the RM-UWHNSS in the individual items, total score, or factor scores. For statistical modeling, race and time were significant for all outcomes (total and factor scores), while treatment arm was not significant. The ALTENS arm showed greater yet nonsignificant improvement in outcomes compared to the PC arm. Although no significant treatment differences were seen in this trial, patients receiving ALTENS consistently had lower scores, indicating better function, as compared to those receiving PC. Radiation-induced xerostomia improved over time for all patients.

  7. Xerostomia: A day and night difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Braam, Pètra M.; Roesink, Judith M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare patient-reported xerostomia during daytime and during nighttime with objectively measured parotid and submandibular gland function in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT. Materials and methods: A cohort of 138 HNC patients underwent objective measurements of parotid (PF) and submandibular (SMF) gland function and completed a xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) before RT, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT. No attempt was made to spare the submandibular gland(s). The XQ contained specific questions concerning the sensation of dry mouth during day- (XD) and nighttime (XN), scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients with no or mild (grade 1–3) xerostomia and patients with more severe (grade 4–5) complaints were grouped together. Results: Before RT, no association existed between dry mouth complaints and PF or SMF. At 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT; 37%, 51% and 36% had grade 4–5 XD and 65%, 64% and 56% had grade 4–5 XN, respectively. Patients with grade 4–5 XD and XN had significantly worse SMF at all time points after RT compared to patients with grade 1–3 XD and XN, while PF was significantly worse only at 6 weeks after RT. In multivariate analyses, SMF was consistently the most important factor related to XN after treatment. PF significantly influenced XD at 6 weeks and 1 year after RT. Conclusions: Differentiating between complaints during day- and nighttime in xerostomia research is necessary. Dry mouth at night is a frequent problem after (parotid-sparing) RT for HNC and is explained by submandibular gland dysfunction. Sparing of the contralateral submandibular gland, in addition to parotid gland sparing, may result in improved patient-reported xerostomia.

  8. Radiation-induced gene expression in human subcutaneous fibroblasts is predictive of radiation-induced fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødningen, Olaug Kristin; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Alsner, Jan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breast cancer patients show a large variation in normal tissue reactions after ionizing radiation (IR) therapy. One of the most common long-term adverse effects of ionizing radiotherapy is radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), and several attempts have been made over the last...... years to develop predictive assays for RIF. Our aim was to identify basal and radiation-induced transcriptional profiles in fibroblasts from breast cancer patients that might be related to the individual risk of RIF in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from 31 individuals......-treated fibroblasts. Transcriptional differences in basal and radiation-induced gene expression profiles were investigated using 15K cDNA microarrays, and results analyzed by both SAM and PAM. RESULTS: Sixty differentially expressed genes were identified by applying SAM on 10 patients with the highest risk of RIF...

  9. Xerostomia in the Geriatric Patient: Causes, Oral Manifestations, and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouanounou, Aviv

    2016-05-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is common among elderly people and is typically associated with decreased salivary gland function. Causes of xerostomia in the geriatric population have been attributed to the use of medications, chronic disorders, and radiation therapy to the head and neck region. Patients with chronic xerostomia may have multiple oral and dental consequences such as dental caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, ill-fitting dentures, and taste alterations. Xerostomia can seriously impact quality of life and may alter speech, eating, and swallowing. Current therapeutics for the management of xerostomia are grouped as local and systemic salivary stimulation. This article reviews the main reasons for xerostomia and the complications it causes in the oral cavity. It also discusses the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic agents used to treat this condition.

  10. Radiation-induced cerebrovascular disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, T.L.; Bresnan, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation-induced internal carotid artery occlusion has not been well recognized previously as a cause of childhood cerebrovascular disease. A child who had received radiation as a neonate for a hemangioma involving the left orbit at the age of 6 years experienced a recurrent right-sided paresis, vascular headaches, and speech difficulties. Angiography showed a hypoplastic left carotid artery with occlusion of both the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Collateral vessels bypassed the occluded-stenotic segments. Review of the literature showed two additional cases of large vessel occlusion in childhood associated with anastomatic telangiectatic vessel development following early radiation therapy of facial hemangioma

  11. A report on radiation-induced gliomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvati, M.; Artico, M.; Caruso, R.; Rocchi, G.; Orlando, E.R.; Nucci, F. (Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy))

    1991-01-15

    Radiation-induced gliomas are uncommon, with only 73 cases on record to date. The disease that most frequently occasioned radiation therapy has been acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three more cases are added here, two after irradiation for ALL and one after irradiation for tinea capitis. In a review of the relevant literature, the authors stress the possibility that the ALL-glioma and the retinoblastoma-glioma links point to syndromes in their own right that may occur without radiation therapy.56 references.

  12. Radiation induced liver disease: A clinical update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, R.; Madan, R.; Chander, S.; Kilambi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) or radiation hepatitis is a sub-acute form of liver injury due to radiation. It is one of the most dreaded complications of radiation which prevents radiation dose escalation and re irradiation for hepatobiliary or upper gastrointestinal malignancies. This complication should be kept in mind whenever a patient is planned for irradiation of these malignancies. Although, incidence of RILD is decreasing due to better knowledge of liver tolerance, improved investigation modalities and modern radiation delivery techniques, treatment options are still limited. In this review article, we have focussed on pathophysiology, risk factors, prevention and management of RILD

  13. Radiation-induced damage of membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonei, Shuji

    1977-01-01

    An outline of membranous structure was stated, and radiation-induced damage of membranes were surveyed. By irradiation, permeability of membranes, especially passive transportation mechanism, was damaged, and glycoprotein in the surface layers of cells and the surface layer structures were changed. The intramembranous damage was induced by decrease of electrophoresis of nuclear mambranes and a quantitative change of cytochrome P450 of microsomal membranes of the liver, and peroxidation of membranous lipid and SH substitute damage of membranous protein were mentioned as the mechanism of membranous damage. Recovery of membranous damage depends on radiation dose and temperature, and membranous damage participates largely in proliferation death. (tsunoda, M.)

  14. Injection profiles with radiation induced copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    The injectivity profile of a heterogeneous formation and/or vertical conformance is improved by injecting an aqueous solution into the formation, the solution containing a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in a 10 to 60 percent aqueous solution with gamma radiation; the aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25 to 99 percent acrylamide and 1 to 75 percent sodium acrylate. Immiscible, miscible, or miscible-like displacing processes can be used in conjunction with this invention. 20 claims

  15. Concise review: Adult salivary gland stem cells and a potential therapy for xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Sarah; Van Os, Ronald; Coppes, Robert P

    2013-04-01

    The ability to speak, swallow, masticate, taste food, and maintain a healthy oral cavity is heavily reliant on the presence of saliva, the hugely important effect of which on our everyday lives is often unappreciated. Hyposalivation, frequently experienced by people receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancers, results in a plethora of symptoms whose combined effect can drastically reduce quality of life. Although artificial lubricants and drugs stimulating residual function are available to ameliorate the consequences of hyposalivation, their effects are at best transient. Such management techniques do not address the source of the problem: a lack of functional saliva-producing acinar cells, resulting from radiation-induced stem cell sterilization. Post-radiotherapy stimulation of cell proliferation only results in improved saliva secretion when part of the tissue has been spared or when the dose to the salivary gland (SG) remains below a certain level. Therefore, stem cell replacement therapy may be a good option to treat radiation-induced hyposalivation. Substantial progress has been made lately in the understanding of cell turnover in the SG, and the recent identification of stem and progenitor cell populations in the SG provides a basis for studies toward development of a stem cell-based therapy for xerostomia. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of SG stem cells and their potential for use in a cell-based therapy that may provide a more durable cure for hyposalivation. Copyright © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  16. Electrostimulating device in the management of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strietzel, F P; Martín-Granizo, R; Fedele, S; Lo Russo, L; Mignogna, M; Reichart, P A; Wolff, A

    2007-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a recently developed electrostimulating device mounted on an individualized intra-oral removable appliance. The device, containing electrodes, a wetness sensor, an electronic circuit and a power source, was tested on patients with xerostomia in a crossover, randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded, multicenter study. Electrical stimulation and also sham were delivered during 10 min to the oral mucosa, in the mandibular third molar region. Oral dryness was measured by the sensor. As the primary outcome, sensor dryness and xerostomia symptom changes as a result of device wearing were assessed, and compared between active and sham modes. In addition, side-effects were recorded. Electrostimulation resulted in a significant decrease in sensor dryness, leading to a beneficial effect on patients' subjective condition. No significant side-effects were observed.

  17. Specific xerostomia during Urbach-Wiethe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier, P; Harlé, J R; Andrac, L; Swiader, L; Weiller, P J

    1994-01-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year-old woman who had suffered from a typical Urbach-Wiethe disease since childhood and who complains of progressive mouth and ocular dryness since the age of 54 years. Xerostomia was severe with very poor salivation and was associated with a slight keratoconjunctivitis sicca. A specific lipoid proteinosis was evidenced in salivary glands (lower lip biopsy) with a PAS-positive hyalin-like deposit around vessels, capillaries and salivary gland canaliculi. An ultrastructural study showed the typical aspect of multilamination of the basal lamina of capillary vessels. Dysphonia and hoarseness are commonly found in Urbach-Wiethe disease, but, to our knowledge, a specific xerostomia has never been reported.

  18. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Alessandro; Connell,Christopher; Abati,Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Alessandro Villa,1,2 Christopher L Connell,3 Silvio Abati4 1Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of General Dentistry, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4Dental Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano, Italy Abstract: Xerostomia, the su...

  19. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  20. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Blake [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Schwartz, David L., E-mail: dschwartz3@nshs.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, New Hyde Park, New York (United States); Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D{sub Met} (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). Conclusions: In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D{sub Met} may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  1. Metabolic Imaging Biomarkers of Postradiotherapy Xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L.; Dong Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Results: Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D Met (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p Met may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing.

  2. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villa A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Villa,1,2 Christopher L Connell,3 Silvio Abati4 1Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of General Dentistry, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4Dental Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano, Italy Abstract: Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Keyword: saliva stimulation, dry mouth, saliva substitutes, sialogogues

  3. Study of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfring, E.

    2004-06-01

    A method for determining chromosomal aberrations was established for the purpose of examining the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of photon radiation with respect to mammary epithelium cells. Cells were exposed to 25 kV X-radiation and to 200 kV X-radiation for comparison and the resulting concentrations of chromosomal aberrations were compared. The RBE M value for radiation-induced fragmentation was found to be 4.2 ± 2.4, while the RBE M value for radiation-induced generation of dicentric chromosomes was found to be 0.5 ± 0.5. In addition to the evaluation of chromosomal aberrations the number of cell cycles undergone by the cells was monitored by means of BrDU staining. As expected, the proportion of cells which underwent more than one cell cycle following exposure to 5 Gy was very low in both cases, amounting to 1.9% (25 kV) and 3.2 (200 kV). Non-radiated cells yielded control values of 26.0% and 12.6%, suggesting variations in external conditions from day to day

  4. Cell kinetic studies on radiation induced leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Isamu; Suzuki, Gen; Imai, Yasufumi; Kawase, Yoshiko; Nose, Masako; Hirashima, Kunitake; Bessho, Masami

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to determine the clonal origin of radiation-induced thymic lymphoma in mice with cellular mosaicism for phosphoglycerate kinase; (2) to determine the incidence and latent period of myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma induced by whole-body exposure to median doses (3.0 Gy or less) in RFM/MsNrs-2 mice; and (3) to examine the influence of human recombinant interleukin-2 (hrIL-2). Thymic lymphoma was of a single cell origin. The incidence of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma in RFM mice increased in a dose dependent fashion. Mean latent periods of both myeloid leukemia and thymic lymphoma after irradiation became shorter in proportion to radiation doses. When hrIL-2 was injected to RFM mice receiving 3.0 Gy, mean survivals were shorter in thymoma-bearing mice than the control mice. This suggested that hrIL-2 shortens the promotion step of thymoma. Administration of hrIL-2 failed to alter the incidence of myeloid leukemia or the mean survival of mice having myeloid leukemia, indicating that the protocol of hrIL-2 administration was not so sufficient as to alter the myeloid leukemogenesis. (Namekawa, K)

  5. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Suresh Kandagal; Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (pXerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had 'moderate' to 'severe' xerostomia whereas the control group had 'mild' xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18-49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had significantly more dryness of lip and mucosa than healthy controls. A moderate

  6. Relationship between xerostomia and gingival condition in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, S; Ekuni, D; Tomofuji, T; Azuma, T; Kataoka, K; Yamane, M; Iwasaki, Y; Morita, M

    2015-02-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth. Although a correlation between xerostomia and oral conditions in the elderly has been reported, there are few such studies in the young adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of xerostomia with the gingival condition in university students. A total of 2077 students (1202 male subjects and 875 female subjects), 18-24 years of age, were examined. The disease activity and severity of the gingival condition were assessed as the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (%BOP) and the presence of teeth with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm, respectively. Additional information on xerostomia, oral health behaviors, coffee/tea intake and nasal congestion was collected via a questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test pathways from xerostomia to the gingival condition. One-hundred and eighty-three (8.8%) students responded that their mouths frequently or always felt dry. Xerostomia was related to %BOP and dental plaque formation, but was not related to the presence of probing pocket depth ≥ 4 mm. In the structural model, xerostomia was related to dental plaque formation (p Xerostomia was associated with coffee/tea intake (p Xerostomia was indirectly related to gingival disease activity through the accumulation of dental plaque. Nasal congestion and coffee/tea intake also affected xerostomia. These findings suggest that xerostomia should be considered in screening for gingivitis risk in young adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandasamy, S.B.; Hunt, W.A.; Harris, A.H. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-05-01

    The role of neurotensin in radiation-induced hypothermia was examined. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neurotensin produced dose-dependent hypothermia. Histamine appears to mediate neurotensin-induced hypothermia because the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and antihistamines blocked the hypothermic effects of neurotensin. An ICV pretreatment with neurotensin antibody attenuated neurotensin-induced hypothermia, but did not attenuate radiation-induced hypothermia, suggesting that radiation-induced hypothermia was not mediated by neurotensin.

  8. Reservoir Complete Denture in a Patient with Xerostomia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reservoir Complete Denture in a Patient with Xerostomia Secondary to Radiotherapy for Oral Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature. ... In severe xerostomia salivary substitutes can be used and if the xerostomic patient is edentulous, then reservoir space for artificial salivary substitute can be created in partial ...

  9. Internet information on xerostomia : what should patients expect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K.; Livas, C.; Spijkervet, F. K.; Vissink, A.

    ObjectiveTo assess the qualitative standards of the information distributed via the Internet regarding xerostomia. Materials and MethodsA comprehensive electronic search was performed for xerostomia' and dry mouth' separately using four search engines. The first 30 results from each search

  10. Salivary Gland Dysfunction and Xerostomia in Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjogren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact of

  11. Xerostomia Due to Systemic Disease: A Review of 20 Conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Xerostomia is a common complaint of nearly half of the elderly population and about one‑fifth of younger adults. It causes several signs and symptoms, and compromise oral functions and health‑related quality‑of‑life. Multiple reasons are proposed to describe the etiology of xerostomia such as local factors, psychogenic ...

  12. Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H.; Zimbrick, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to nonrandom types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Electron migration along DNA is significantly influenced by the DNA base sequence and DNA conformation. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution which compares to average migration distances of 6 to 10 bases for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 base pairs for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5' to 3' direction along DNA. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation

  13. Radiation-induced mutation at minisatellite loci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrova, Y.E.; Nesterov, V.N.; Krouchinsky, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the radiation-induced increase of mutation rate in minisatellite loci in mice and humans. Minisatellite mutations were scored by multilocus DNA fingerprint analysis in the progeny of γ-irradiated and non-irradiated mice. The frequency of mutation in offspring of irradiated males was 1.7 higher that in the control group. Germline mutation at human minisatellite loci was studied among children born in heavily polluted areas of the Mogilev district of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident and in a control population. The frequency of mutation assayed both by DNA fingerprinting and by eight single locus probes was found to be two times higher in the exposed families than in the control group. Furthermore, mutation rate was correlated with the parental radiation dose for chronic exposure 137 Cs, consistent with radiation-induction of germline mutation. The potential use of minisatellites in monitoring germline mutation in humans will be discussed

  14. Transesophageal Echocardiography and Radiation-induced Damages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottini, Marzia; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Pino, Paolo Giuseppe; Buffa, Vitaliano; Musumeci, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The long-term sequelae of mantle therapy include, especially lung and cardiac disease but also involve the vessels and the organs in the neck and thorax (such as thyroid, aorta, and esophagus). We presented the case of 66-year-old female admitted for congestive heart failure in radiation-induced heart disease. The patient had undergone to massive radiotherapy 42 years ago for Hodgkin's disease (type 1A). Transesophageal echocardiography was performed unsuccessfully with difficulty because of the rigidity and impedance of esophageal walls. Our case is an extraordinary report of radiotherapy's latency effect as a result of dramatic changes in the structure of mediastinum, in particular in the esophagus, causing unavailability of a transesophageal echocardiogram.

  15. Radiation-induced emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwa, Takeshi

    1979-10-01

    The radiation-induced emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) has been studied at initial pressure 2 - 25 kg/cm 2 and temperature 30 0 - 110 0 C for dose rate 0.57 x 10 4 - 3.0 x 10 4 rad/hr. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a hydrophobic polymer, forms as a stable latex in the absence of an emulsifier. Stability of the latex is governed by the dose rate/TFE pressure ratio; it increases with sufficient TFE monomer. PTFE particles produced in this polymerization system are stable due to the carboxyl end groups and adsorption of OH - and HF on the particles. PTFE latex of molecular weight higher than 2 x 10 7 is obtained by addition of a radical scavenger such as hydroquinone. The molecular weight of PTFE can be measured from the heat of crystallization conveniently with high reliability, which was found in the course of study on the melting and crystallization behavior. (author)

  16. Radiation-induced premature menopause: a misconception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Berit L.; Giudice, Linda; Donaldson, Sarah S.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To disprove the common view that women who have undergone irradiation to fields excluding the pelvis are at risk for radiation-induced premature menopause, we reviewed menstrual function and fertility among women treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. Methods and Materials: Treatment and follow-up records of all women less than age 50 at the time of diagnosis of Stage I or II supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's Disease, treated with subtotal lymphoid irradiation alone and enrolled in radiotherapy trials from 1967 to 1985, were reviewed. In addition, patients were surveyed regarding their menstrual status and fertility history. Results: Thirty-six women, aged 10 to 40 years, with normal menstrual function at the time of Hodgkin's diagnosis, were identified. Mean follow-up was 14 years, with a range of 1.25-22.75 years. The average radiation dose to mantle and paraaortic fields was 40-44 Gy; the calculated scatter radiation dose to the pelvis at the ovaries was 3.2 Gy. There were 38 pregnancies in 18 women; all offspring are normal. One of 36 women (2.7%) experienced premature menopause. The reported rate of premature menopause in women who have not undergone irradiation is 1-3%; not significantly different than the rate in our study. There is a syndrome whereby antibodies to several endocrine organs occur (including the ovary), which is associated with premature ovarian failure. This syndrome may be associated with prior radiation to the thyroid, such as that given by mantle-irradiation for Hodgkin's Disease. We report such a case. Conclusion: There is little risk of premature menopause in women treated with radiation fields that exclude the pelvis. Women with presumed radiation-induced premature menopause warrant an evaluation to exclude other causes of ovarian failure, such as autoimmune disorders

  17. An update of the etiology and management of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Hegarty, A M

    2004-01-01

    Salivary gland disease gives rise to salivary gland enlargement, pain, and prolonged xerostomia (dry mouth). Xerostomia is the most common long-standing problem for the majority of affected patients. There are many causes of dry mouth, with long-standing xerostomia being a particular problem in Sjögren's syndrome and after radiation to the head and neck region. Xerostomia is usually managed with saliva substitutes, but a large number of potential systemic therapies of long-standing xerostomia now exist. Some-particularly immunosuppressants-are of fundamental interest for the potential reduction of gland damage in Sjögren's syndrome but as yet are of limited clinical usefulness. Others, particularly pilocarpine and cevimeline, are, or have the potential to be, clinically useful in stimulating salivation by virtue of their action on cholinergic receptors.

  18. The Treatment Outcome and Radiation-Induced Toxicity for Patients with Head and Neck Carcinoma in the IMRT Era: A Systematic Review with Dosimetric and Clinical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilis Kouloulias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive analysis was made in terms of the related radiation induced acute and late mucositis and xerostomia along with survival and tumor control rates (significance level at 0.016, bonferroni correction, for irradiation in head and neck carcinomas with either 2D Radiation Therapy (2DRT and 3D conformal (3DCRT or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT. The mean score of grade > II xerostomia for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 0.31 ± 0.23 and 0.56 ± 0.23, respectively (Mann Whitney, P<0.001. The parotid-dose for IMRT versus 2-3D RT was 29.56 ± 5.45 and 50.73 ± 6.79, respectively (Mann Whitney, P=0.016. The reported mean parotid-gland doses were significantly correlated with late xerostomia (spearman test, rho = 0.5013, P<0.001. A trend was noted for the superiority of IMRT concerning the acute oral mucositis. The 3-year overall survival for either IMRT or 2-3DRT was 89.5% and 82.7%, respectively (P=0.026, Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean 3-year locoregional control rate was 83.6% (range: 70–97% and 74.4 (range: 61–82%, respectively (P=0.025, Kruskal-Wallis. In conclusion, no significant differences in terms of locoregional control, overall survival and acute mucositis could be noted, while late xerostomia is definitely higher in 2-3D RT versus IMRT. Patients with head and neck carcinoma should be referred preferably to IMRT techniques.

  19. Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radiation induced changes in the airway - anaesthetic implications: case report. Mallika Balakrishnan, Renju Kuriakose, Rachel Cherian Koshy. Abstract. Radiation induces a variety of changes in the airway that can potentially lead to difficult intubation. Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible, a severe consequence of ...

  20. Radiation induced diffusion as a method to protect surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumvol, I.J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation induced diffusion forms a coating adeherent and without interface on the surface of metalic substrates. This coating improves the behaviour of metal to corrosion and abrasion. The effect of radiation induced diffusion of tin and calcium on pure iron surface is described and analyzed in this work. (author) [pt

  1. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Metachronous cancer of both breasts and radiation-induced carcinoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinova, L.; Todorov, Y.; Terziev, I.

    1999-01-01

    A case of female patient presenting bilateral breast cancer, running a metachronous course and radiation-induced laiomyosarcoma is described. A right breast cancer is diagnosed and subjected to complex treatment (pre- and postoperative interstitial radiotherapy, amputation after Patey and chemotherapy course). After a 2-year interval, skin metastases are discovered necessitating ovariectomy, followed by repeated irradiation of the right chest wall with electron beams and polychemotherapy. Twelve years later, leiomyosarcoma involving the operative scar is diagnosed and after 2 years - cancer of the left breast. Proceeding from the results of complex breast cancer treatment, prolongation of the patient's survival in pathologically proved skin metastases is comprehensively discussed. The overall long-term survival is taken to be a precondition of the clinical development of a second primary breast cancer and radiation-induced sarcoma

  3. Radiation-induced cancer in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shoji; Sekizuka, Eiichi [National Saitama Hospital, Wako (Japan); Yamashita, Hisao [Keio Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Takami, Akira [Yamawaki Coll., Tokyo (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-12-01

    Results of two questionnaire surveys on radiation-induced malignant tumors conducted in 1977 and 1984 in Japan are briefly summarized. A total of 234 universities and general hospitals (139 in 1977, and 95 in 1984) responded and provided data from 1945 to 1977 and from 1978 to 1984. The number of patients with benign disease who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 150 in the first survey (1977) and 86 in the second survey (1984). The underlying benign diseases of these patients included tuberculous lymphadenitis, skin disease, hemangioma, and thyroid disease, and the most frequent radiation-induced malignant tumors in these patients were malignant tumors of the pharynx (80), cancer of the larynx (26), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (22), cancer of the esophagus (219), and skin cancer (21). In patients with head and neck diseases the highest correlation between underlying benign disease and radiation-induced malignant tumors was between cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and tumors of the pharynx (67 patients), followed by cancer of the larynx (19), and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (11). There were also correlations between thyroid disease and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (8 patients), hemangioma and skin cancer (7), and skin disease and skin cancer (8). The ratio of the observed values to predicted values (O/E ratio) in these patients was highest for cancer of the pharynxy (118), followed by cancer of the parotid gland (42), skin cancer (31), cancer of the esophagus (22), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (21), and cancer of the larynx (16). The number of patients with malignant tumors who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 140 in 1977 and 108 in 1984, and the underlying malignant tumors in these patients included tumors of the uterus (106), breast (32), and head and neck (80). The most frequent secondary malignant tumors were soft tissue tumors, followed by leukemia

  4. Radiation-induced cancer in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Shoji; Sekizuka, Eiichi; Yamashita, Hisao; Takami, Akira; Kubo, Atsushi

    2001-01-01

    Results of two questionnaire surveys on radiation-induced malignant tumors conducted in 1977 and 1984 in Japan are briefly summarized. A total of 234 universities and general hospitals (139 in 1977, and 95 in 1984) responded and provided data from 1945 to 1977 and from 1978 to 1984. The number of patients with benign disease who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 150 in the first survey (1977) and 86 in the second survey (1984). The underlying benign diseases of these patients included tuberculous lymphadenitis, skin disease, hemangioma, and thyroid disease, and the most frequent radiation-induced malignant tumors in these patients were malignant tumors of the pharynx (80), cancer of the larynx (26), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (22), cancer of the esophagus (219), and skin cancer (21). In patients with head and neck diseases the highest correlation between underlying benign disease and radiation-induced malignant tumors was between cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis and tumors of the pharynx (67 patients), followed by cancer of the larynx (19), and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (11). There were also correlations between thyroid disease and malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (8 patients), hemangioma and skin cancer (7), and skin disease and skin cancer (8). The ratio of the observed values to predicted values (O/E ratio) in these patients was highest for cancer of the pharynx (118), followed by cancer of the parotid gland (42), skin cancer (31), cancer of the esophagus (22), malignant tumors of the thyroid gland (21), and cancer of the larynx (16). The number of patients with malignant tumors who developed secondary malignant tumors following radiation therapy was 140 in 1977 and 108 in 1984, and the underlying malignant tumors in these patients included tumors of the uterus (106), breast (32), and head and neck (80). The most frequent secondary malignant tumors were soft tissue tumors, followed by leukemia, and

  5. Radiation induced degradation of dyes-An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauf, M.A.; Ashraf, S. Salman

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as ·H, ·OH and e aq - are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e aq - is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by ·OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  6. Radiation induced degradation of dyes--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, M A; Ashraf, S Salman

    2009-07-15

    Synthetic dyes are a major part of our life. Products ranging from clothes to leather accessories to furniture all depend on extensive use of organic dyes. An unfortunate side effect of extensive use of these chemicals is that huge amounts of these potentially carcinogenic compounds enter our water supplies. Various advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) including the use of high-energy radiation have been developed to degrade these compounds. In this review, dye decoloration and degradation as a result of its exposure to high energy radiation such as gamma radiation and pulsed electron beam are discussed in detail. The role of various transient species such as H, OH and e(aq)(-) are taken into account as reported by various researchers. Literature citations in this area show that e(aq)(-) is very effective in decolorization but is less active in the further degradation of the products formed. The degradation of the dyes is initiated exclusively by OH attack on electron-rich sites of the dye molecules. Additionally, various parameters that affect the efficiency of radiation induced degradation of dyes, such as effect of radiation dose, oxygen, pH, hydrogen peroxide, added ions and dye classes are also reviewed and summarized. Lastly, pilot plant application of radiation for wastewater treatment is briefly discussed.

  7. Radiation-induced polymerization of some vinyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panta, P.; Gluszewski, W.; Zimek, Z.; Wojtynska, E.K.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The action of accelerator electron beams (E.B.) and Co-60 gamma rays in inducing polymerization of monomers and oligomers of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, acrylic acid and vinyl acetate was investigated. Using 10 MeV and 10 kW E.B. the time of free radical polymerization as short as several seconds was evaluated. The second order kinetics of polymerization reactions is proposed. Life times of free radicals generated during irradiation of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, acrylic acid and vinyl acetate are very short at room temperature. For ESR measurements suitable samples were irradiated at 77 K and measured during defrosting. According to available literature data and own results the radiation-induced polymerization of above mentioned vinyl compounds is stopped during EB irradiation, without post effect. Besides polymerization of individual compounds we observe also mutual co-polymerization of appropriate mixtures of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate with acrylic acid and also vinyl acetate. Product of such co-polymerization exhibit some adhesive properties

  8. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Marlene; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Precheur, Isabelle; Lamure, Julie; Pouyssegur-Rougier, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    Polypharmacy is a common cause of xerostomia. This study aimed to investigate whether xerostomia could be an adverse drug event of mouthwashes, when they are used for longer than 2 weeks by patients taking polypharmacy. This cross-sectional observational study included 120 hospitalized patients (60 middle-aged and 60 elderly patients), taking polypharmacy (≥4 drugs daily) and at risk of drug-induced xerostomia. Xerostomia was assessed by questioning participants. A total of 62.5% of patients complained of xerostomia. In the middle-aged group (mean age=44.0 (8.7) years; 35.0% women) xerostomia seemed independently associated to mouthwashes, at the limit of significance (OR=5.00, 95% CI=0.99-25.3, p=0.052). Active principles in mouthwashes were mainly quaternary ammonium compounds (91.9%). Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. The biofilm contains mucins, salivary glycoproteins with oligosaccharides side chains able to sequester water and endogenous bacteria surrounded by a glycocalyx. Oral bacteria are fully susceptible to quaternary ammonium (chlorhexidine, hexetidine, cetylpyridinium chloride) and to other antiseptics used in mouthwashes, such as betain, resorcin, triclosan, essential oils and alcohol. However, caregivers currently recommend such dental plaque control products to patients suffering from xerostomia in order to reduce the risk of caries and periodontitis. This study is the first report that use of antiseptic mouthwashes for more than 2 weeks could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Oral care protocols should avoid this iatrogenic practice, particularly when xerostomia alters the quality-of-life and worsens malnutrition.

  10. Expression of Wnt-1, TGF-β and related cell–cell adhesion components following radiotherapy in salivary glands of patients with manifested radiogenic xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Samer George; Ribbat, Julika; Berndt, Alexander; Richter, Petra; Kosmehl, Hartwig; Benedek, Geza A.; Jacobsen, Hans Christian; Trenkle, Thomas; Sieg, Peter; Rades, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Background: Radiation-induced xerostomia still represents a common symptom following radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies, which significantly impairs the patient’s quality of life. In this cross-sectional study, human salivary glands were investigated to assess the role of Wnt/β-catenin and TGF-β pathways in the pathogenic process of radiogenic impairment of salivary function. Methods: Irradiated human salivary glands were investigated in patients with manifested xerostomia. Alteration of Wnt-1 and cell–cell adhesion was evaluated immunohistologically as well as changes in the expression of TGF-β were assessed in salivary gland tissue. Results: We assessed two alteration patterns in which Wnt-1 expression represents one change along with up-regulation of β-catenin and E-cadherin in irradiated but viable acinar cells. Increased expression of tenascin-C was observed in sites of epithelial–mesenchymal interaction and loss of cell–cell adhesion was assessed in translocated epithelial cells in the stroma. Conclusion: Increased transdifferentiation and remodeling of acinar structures was associated with decrease of viable acinar structures. The role of Wnt and TGF signaling may provide a potential therapeutic approach to prevent radiation-induced damage to salivary glands during radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

  11. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  12. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05< p<0.10). Following establishment of defunctioning colostomy on account of rectovaginal fistulae in 25 patients, eight patients developed new fistulae, Significantly more patients with fistulae died of recurrence as compared with patients with other lesions (p<0.01). Defunctioning colostomy in the treatment of rectal fistula is a reasonable form of treatment in elderly patients and in case of recurrence. Younger patients should be assessed in a special department in view of the possibility of a sphincter-preserving procedure following resection of the rectum and restorative anastomosis. (author)

  13. Operative treatment of radiation-induced fistulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balslev, I.; Harling, H.

    1987-01-01

    Out of 136 patients with radiation-induced intestinal complications, 45 had fistulae. Twenty-eight patients had rectovaginal fistulae while the remainder had a total of 13 different types of fistulae. Thirty-seven patients were treated operatively and eight were treated conservatively. Thirty-three patients were submitted to operation for rectal fistulae. Of these, 28 were treated by defunctioning colostomy, three were treated by Hartmann's method and resection and primary anastomosis was carried out in two patients. In the course of the period of observation, 35% of the patients developed new radiation damage. The frequency in the basic material without fistulae was 21% (0.05

  14. Gamma Radiation-Induced Template Polymerization Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siyam, T.

    2005-01-01

    Gamma radiation induced copolymerization of acrylamide sodiumacrylate (AM-AANa) in the presence and absence of the polymer additive was studied at low monomer concentration(1.4M/l). The results showed that the exponents of the dose rate for the polymerization rate was found to be 1.3 and 1.4 in the absence and in the presence of the polymer additive respectively. The molecular weight of the formed polymer increased by addition of the polymer to the system. In the presence of the polymer the comonomers polymerize on the added polymer. In the absence of the added polymer the comonomers polymerize according to the copolymerization process at the initial stage of the copolymerization. While at high conversion the residual comonomers polymerize on the formed macromolecular chains of the produced polymer. These studies showed that the copolymerization in the presence of added polymer is completely template copolymerization while in the absence of the polymer the copolymerization process is only template process with a high conversion

  15. Pathology of radiation induced lung damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yoshinori; Murata, Yoshihiko; Ogata, Hideo; Katagiri, Shiro; Sugita, Hironobu; Iwai, Kazuo; Sakurai, Isamu.

    1985-01-01

    We examined pathological findings of radiation induced lung damage. Twenty-three cases are chosen from our hospital autopsy cases for 9 years, which fulfil strict criteria of radiation lung damage. Lung damage could be classified into 3 groups : 1) interstitial pneumonia type (9 cases), 2) intermediate pneumonia type (8 cases), and 3) alveolar pneumonia type (6 cases), according to the degree of intra-luminal exudation. These classification is well correlated with clinical findings. Pathological alveolar pneumonia type corresponds to symptomatic, radiologic ground glass pneumonic shadow. And pathologic interstitial type corresponds to clinical asymptomatic, radiologic reticulo-nodular shadow. From the clinico-pathological view point these classification is reasonable one. Radiation affects many lung structures and showed characteristic feature of repair. Elastofibrosis of the alveolar wall is observed in every cases, obstructive bronchiolitis are observed in 5 cases, and obstructive bronchiolitis in 9 cases. They are remarkable additional findings. Thickening of the interlobular septum, broncho-vascular connective tissue, and pleural layer are observed in every cases together with vascular lesions. (author)

  16. Radiation induced mutations for breeding of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretaudeau, A.

    1997-01-01

    Several sorghum cultivars of Mali were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays and compared with the Caudatum types. Radio-sensitivity studies suggested that the local types were less sensitive to radiation than the introduced types. Whereas the local varieties survived dose of 300 Gy, in Caudatum types, seed germination and growth were significantly reduced at 200 Gy. Several agronomically important mutants were obtained among the progeny of the local types. Some of the mutants were shorter and had improved panicle characteristics. Radiation-induced variation was observed in several characters such as plant height, resistance to lodging, plant architecture, drought tolerance, panicle length and compactness, seed size and color, seed quality (viterous or floury) and protein content, glume color and structure, flowering data (early and late maturity), and tillering capacity. One mutant was drought tolerant. Promising mutants were selected and are presently under evaluation in the National List Trials to confirm their potential and future release. Selected variants have been also crossed with local types to obtain promising material. (author). 8 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Radiation-induced ηe-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Yu, M.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Impurity radiation in a plasma can cause not only static instabilities, but also dynamic instabilities related to the drift and acoustic waves. Radiative instabilities are of much interest because they are associated with relatively high frequency and short wavelength fluctuations, which have been suspected to be responsible for anomalous electron energy transport in tokamak edge plasmas. In this paper, we consider radiation-induced η e instabilities, taking into account electrostatic effects as well as density and temperature inhomogeneities. Also included are the effects of finite gyroradius and dissipation. It is found that the latter can cause strong linear coupling between the modes of interest. The resulting instabilities can have larger growth rates than the static radiative instability. Analytical expressions for the growth rates and instability regimes are given for the limiting cases of practical interest. In particular, it is shown that the η e -mode can couple to both radiation and dissipation to cause resistive instabilities. The parameter regimes of the original radiative as well as the dissipative modes are thereby broadened and shifted because of the interaction. (author) 3 refs

  18. Update on xerostomia: current treatment modalities and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Edward

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses some of the current treatment modalities available to those who suffer from xerostomia and looks at some therapies currently being explored to ameliorate the condition. With the number of elderly patients in the U.S. population expected to increase--concomitant with the increase in incidence of xerostomia in this group as well as other special patient population groups (that is, postradiation, Sjogren's syndrome, and so forth)--it is increasingly important that dentists maintain an awareness of the clinical implications of xerostomia and a knowledge of appropriate treatment recommendations.

  19. Radiation induced lung injury: prediction, assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giridhar, Prashanth; Mallick, Supriya; Rath, Goura Kishore; Julka, Pramod Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Radiation induced lung injury has long been considered a treatment limiting factor for patients requiring thoracic radiation. This radiation induced lung injury happens early as well as late. Radiation induced lung injury can occur in two phases viz. early (radiation pneumonitis and late (>6 months) when it is called radiation induced lung fibrosis. There are multiple factors that can be patient, disease or treatment related that predict the incidence and severity of radiation pneumonitis. Radiation induced damage to the type I pneumocytes is the triggering factor to initiate such reactions. Over the years, radiation therapy has witnessed a paradigm shift in radiation planning and delivery and successfully reduced the incidence of lung injury. Radiation pneumonitis is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. Steroids, ACE inhibitors and pentoxyphylline constitute the cornerstone of therapy. Radiation induced lung fibrosis is another challenging aspect. The pathophysiology of radiation fibrosis includes continuing inflammation and microvascular changes due to pro-angiogenic and pro- fibrogenic stimuli resembling those in adult bronchiectasis. General supportive management, mobilization of airway secretions, anti-inflammatory therapy and management of acute exacerbations remains the treatment option. Radiation induced lung injury is an inevitable accompaniment of thoracic radiation.

  20. Radiation-Induced Alopecia after Endovascular Embolization under Fluoroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipawee Ounsakul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced alopecia after fluoroscopically guided procedures is becoming more common due to an increasing use of endovascular procedures. It is characterized by geometric shapes of nonscarring alopecia related to the area of radiation. We report a case of a 46-year-old man presenting with asymptomatic, sharply demarcated rectangular, nonscarring alopecic patch on the occipital scalp following cerebral angiography with fistula embolization under fluoroscopy. His presentations were compatible with radiation-induced alopecia. Herein, we also report a novel scalp dermoscopic finding of blue-grey dots in a target pattern around yellow dots and follicles, which we detected in the lesion of radiation-induced alopecia.

  1. Delayed Radiation-Induced Vasculitic Leukoencephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Philipp J. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Park, Henry S. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Knisely, Jonathan P.S. [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, New York (United States); Chiang, Veronica L. [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Vortmeyer, Alexander O., E-mail: alexander.vortmeyer@yale.edu [Departments of Pathology and Neurosurgery, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Recently, single-fraction, high-dosed focused radiation therapy such as that administered by Gamma Knife radiosurgery has been used increasingly for the treatment of metastatic brain cancer. Radiation therapy to the brain can cause delayed leukoencephalopathy, which carries its own significant morbidity and mortality. While radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy is known to be clinically different from that following fractionated radiation, pathological differences are not well characterized. In this study, we aimed to integrate novel radiographic and histopathologic observations to gain a conceptual understanding of radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy. Methods and Materials: We examined resected tissues of 10 patients treated at Yale New Haven Hospital between January 1, 2009, and June 30, 2010, for brain metastases that had been previously treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery, who subsequently required surgical management of a symptomatic regrowing lesion. None of the patients showed pathological evidence of tumor recurrence. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging data for each of the 10 patients were then studied retrospectively. Results: We provide evidence to show that radiosurgery-induced leukoencephalopathy may present as an advancing process that extends beyond the original high-dose radiation field. Neuropathologic examination of the resected tissue revealed traditionally known leukoencephalopathic changes including demyelination, coagulation necrosis, and vascular sclerosis. Unexpectedly, small and medium-sized vessels revealed transmural T-cell infiltration indicative of active vasculitis. Conclusions: We propose that the presence of a vasculitic component in association with radiation-induced leukoencephalopathy may facilitate the progressive nature of the condition. It may also explain the resemblance of delayed leukoencephalopathy with recurring tumor on virtually all imaging modalities used for posttreatment follow-up.

  2. A case of radiation induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozawa, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchikawa, Kohzo; Sato, Akira; Kato, Joji (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata (Japan). School of Dentistry at Niigata)

    1994-06-01

    A case of carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa is presented. The case was suspected to have been induced by irradiation therapy for a carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. An external radiotherapy, 6-MeV Linac, had been done for the carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa in a 55-year-old female, with single lateral direction from the left to the right in 1977. In 1985, a papillary lesion on the right buccal mucosa was detected, and histological examination revealed a papilloma without atypism. In 1991, as an ulcer on the right upper buccal fold as well as three papillary lesions in the central portion of the right buccal mucosa were found, the patient was referred to our clinic. Microscopical findings were consistent with the early invasive carcinomas. A surgical excision of these whole lesions and skin graft were completed. The criteria of this case for the suspicion of radiation-induced carcinoma were as follows. There was a long latent period of 14 years. The previous dose of irradiation, 60 Gy, was sufficient. The right buccal mucosa was involved in the radiation field. A severe scar on the left cheek resulted from the previous irradiation. Anatomically, there is no evidence of the secondary carcinoma on the right buccal mucosa with the primary carcinoma on the left buccal mucosa. No evidence for recurrence of the tumors on both sides of buccal mucosa has been detected so far. Further observations will be necessary to detect other tumors in the irradiated field later on. (author).

  3. Radiation-induced carotid artery atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujral, Dorothy M.; Chahal, Navtej; Senior, Roxy; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Carotid arteries frequently receive significant doses of radiation as collateral structures in the treatment of malignant diseases. Vascular injury following treatment may result in carotid artery stenosis (CAS) and increased risk of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA). This systematic review examines the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the carotid arteries, looking at the incidence of stroke in patients receiving neck radiotherapy. In addition, we consider possible surrogate endpoints such as CAS and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) and summarise the evidence for radiation-induced carotid atherosclerosis. Materials and methods: From 853 references, 34 articles met the criteria for inclusion in this systematic review. These papers described 9 studies investigating the incidence of stroke/TIA in irradiated patients, 11 looking at CAS, and 14 examining CIMT. Results: The majority of studies utilised suboptimally-matched controls for each endpoint. The relative risk of stroke in irradiated patients ranged from 1.12 in patients with breast cancer to 5.6 in patients treated for head and neck cancer. The prevalence of CAS was increased by 16–55%, with the more modest increase seen in a study using matched controls. CIMT was increased in irradiated carotid arteries by 18–40%. Only two matched-control studies demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT of 36% and 22% (p = 0.003 and <0.001, respectively). Early prospective data demonstrated a significant increase in CIMT in irradiated arteries at 1 and 2 years after RT (p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Conclusions: The incidence of stroke was significantly increased in patients receiving RT to the neck. There was a consistent difference in CAS and CIMT between irradiated and unirradiated carotid arteries. Future studies should optimise control groups

  4. Drug induced xerostomia in elderly individuals: An institutional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Ram Shetty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : With better health care facilities and nutritional levels the average life expectancy of Indian population has been on the rise over the years. Most of the geriatric population is under long-term medication. Aim : The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of multiple xerostomia drugs. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva was measured in 60 geriatric patients, and xerostomia questionnaire and quality-of-life scale were also administered. Results : There was a very highly significant reduction in the salivary flow rates of patients under multiple xerostomia-inducing drugs. Conclusion : The synergistic effect of the xerostomia inducing medication could be the possible factor responsible for reduced salivary flow in elderly individuals using such drugs

  5. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose–response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) and minor salivary glands within the oral cavity, and the contribution of radiotherapy-related effect on important swallowing structures causing dysphagia. Recommendations for dose limits to these organs, based on measurements of xerostomia and dysphagia following radiotherapy, are provided here

  6. Xerostomia of Various Etiologies: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasiewicz, Marta; Hildebrandt, Tomasz; Obersztyn, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, evaluation and treatment of mouth dryness. Xerostomia affects 1-29% of the population, mostly women. It is observed in geriatric patients and in individuals using certain medications, those subjected to radiotherapy of the head and neck region or affected with autoimmune conditions. The main signs of xerostomia include the impression of a dry mouth, problems with food ingestion and dryness of the oral mucosa and skin. Evaluation is based on structured interviews (the Fox test) and determinations of unstimulated and stimulated salivary volume. The signs of xerostomia can be attenuated with saliva substitutes, cevimeline or malic acid. Only palliative treatment of this condition is available at present. Untreated xerostomia significantly impairs the quality of life, which can potentially lead to depression.

  7. Indomethacin attenuation of radiation-induced hyperthermia does not modify radiation-induced motor hypoactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.L.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Harris, A.H.; Davis, H.D.; Landauer, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of rats to 5-10 Gy of ionizing radiation produces hyperthermia and reduces motor activity. Previous studies suggested that radiation-induced hyperthermia results from a relatively direct action on the brain and is mediated by prostaglandins. To test the hypothesis that hypoactivity may be, in part, a thermoregulatory response to this elevation in body temperature, adult male rats were given indomethacin (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a blocker of prostaglandin synthesis, and were either irradiated (LINAC 18.6 MeV (nominal) high-energy electrons, 10 Gy at 10 Gy/min, 2.8 μsec pulses at 2 Hz) or sham-irradiated. The locomotor activity of all rats was then measured for 30 min in a photocell monitor for distance traveled and number of vertical movements. Rectal temperatures of irradiated rats administered vehicle only were elevated by 0.9±0.2degC at the beginning and the end of the activity session. Although indomethacin, at the two higher doses tested, attenuated the hyperthermia in irradiated rats by 52-75%, it did not attenuate radiation-induced reductions in motor activity. These results indicate that motor hypoactivity after exposure to 10 Gy of high-energy electrons is not due to elevated body temperature or to the increased synthesis of prostaglandins. (author)

  8. A risk prediction model for xerostomia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Alessandro; Nordio, Francesco; Gohel, Anita

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of xerostomia in dental patients and built a xerostomia risk prediction model by incorporating a wide range of risk factors. Socio-demographic data, past medical history, self-reported dry mouth and related symptoms were collected retrospectively from January 2010 to September 2013 for all new dental patients. A logistic regression framework was used to build a risk prediction model for xerostomia. External validation was performed using an independent data set to test the prediction power. A total of 12 682 patients were included in this analysis (54.3%, females). Xerostomia was reported by 12.2% of patients. The proportion of people reporting xerostomia was higher among those who were taking more medications (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13) or recreational drug users (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Rheumatic diseases (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.88-2.51), psychiatric diseases (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.05-2.68), eating disorders (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.55-3.36) and radiotherapy (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.43-2.80) were good predictors of xerostomia. For the test model performance, the ROC-AUC was 0.816 and in the external validation sample, the ROC-AUC was 0.799. The xerostomia risk prediction model had high accuracy and discriminated between high- and low-risk individuals. Clinicians could use this model to identify the classes of medications and systemic diseases associated with xerostomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose?response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses...

  10. Image Guidance and Assessment of Radiation Induced Gene Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelizzari, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Image guidance and assessment techniques are being developed for combined radiation/gene therapy, which utilizes a radiation-inducible gene promoter to cause expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha...

  11. Characterization of a Novel Radiation-Induced Sarcoma Cell Line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lang, J.; Zhu, W.Z.; Nokes, B.; Sheth, S.G.; Novák, Petr; Fuchs, L.; Watts, G.; Futscher, B. W.; Mineyev, N.; Ring, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 6 (2015), s. 669-682 ISSN 0022-4790 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Sarcoma * radiation-induced * breast * cancer Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2015

  12. Physical mechanisms of radiation induced creep in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodin, V.A.; Ryazanov, A.I.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of available experimental data has been conducted. It enables to correlate reliably the character of evolution of dislocation structure of irradiated materials with different stages of radiation induced creep. This provides reliable basis for the general conclusions concerning the character of some parametric dependences of deformation rate of these materials. Analysis of different modern theoretical models enables to evaluate regions of their applicability and their relative significance for radiation induced creep description. 20 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Xerostomia relates to the degree of asthma control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar Navarrete, Bernardino; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Romero Palacios, Pedro José

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationships between xerostomia and the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia in a respiratory outpatient clinic and its relationship with bronchial asthma and ICS use. A cross-sectional observational study of patients recruited in an outpatient setting divided them according to previous diagnoses of bronchial asthma. Data about pulmonary function, concomitant medication, medical comorbidities, Xerostomia Inventory test (XI test), and the degree of asthma control by ACT (asthma control test) were collected for each patient. A linear regression model was applied, using the XI score as dependent variable and the ACT score as independent variable. The 57 patients were divided into asthmatics (40 patients, 70.2%) and control group without asthma (17, 29.8%). The prevalence of xerostomia was 87.7% (50 patients), with no differences between the study groups or current dose of ICS. In the asthmatic group, patients with uncontrolled asthma had worse XI scores than those with partially or totally controlled asthma (30.43 ± 8.71 vs. 24.92 ± 8.08; P Xerostomia is a common symptom in the ambulatory setting. There is a moderate relationship between the degree of asthma control and the severity of xerostomia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Radiation-induced reactions in polymer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscoglio, Michael Benedict

    Since the 1950's, there has been a considerable interest in the effects of ionizing radiation on the physical properties of polymer systems. Radiation induced chemical changes that were found to be helpful in producing specialty polymers, but also potentially harmful by degrading the physical performance of the material. Therefore, solute molecules, which act as excited state quenchers, and free radical scavengers, have been incorporated into the polymers in order to regulate the crosslinking, scission and desaturation reactions. This work is focused on using spectroscopic techniques to characterize the physical properties of polymeric media and the reactions occurring within them following pulsed radiolysis. This is done primarily by using arene doped polymer films which have highly absorbing excited states and radical ions that are easily monitored by transient studies. The probes are used to characterize the polymeric microenvironment, to monitor reaction rates, and to interfere in the radical reactions. Photophysical and photochemical characterization of partially crystalline polyethylene complements data previously obtained by conventional physical techniques for polymer characterization. Probe molecules are excluded from crystalline zones and distributed in a networked structure of amorphous zones. Upon high energy radiolysis, it is found that polyolefin systems efficiently donate all radical ions and excited states to the solute molecules, even when the energy is absorbed within the polymer crystalline zones. Studies of the subsequent reactions of the solute excited states and radical ions reveal information about their long term effectiveness as protectants. It is found that highly excited states formed by the recombination of solute radical ions are energetic enough to cause dissociation of halo-arenes. Also, arenes are found to become attached to the polymer chain through a polymer-aryl radical intermediate. These intermediates have been isolated and

  15. Xerostomia and chronic oral complications among patients treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Bots, C.P.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the severity of xerostomia (subjective dry mouth) in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and to investigate the association of xerostomia with other chronic oral complications. Design: Cross-sectional study. Study participants and methods: Participants were

  16. The association of xerostomia and inadequate intake in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodus, N L; Brown, J

    1990-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that nearly one in five older adults has xerostomia (dry mouth). Salivary gland dysfunction and/or inadequate saliva increases the difficulty of these older adults in obtaining proper nutrition. Problems in lubricating, masticating, tolerating, tasting, and swallowing food contribute notably to the complex physiological and psychological manifestations of aging. To our knowledge, the literature has not demonstrated an association between xerostomia and malnutrition in the elderly. We randomly selected 67 older adults from institutionalized and free-living geriatric populations. Nutritional intake analysis was performed on both groups of study subjects, who were found to have xerostomia by use of sialometry, and on control subjects matched for age, sex, and physical status. Intake of total energy, protein, dietary fiber, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, calcium, iron, and zinc was compared with the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowances. Subjects' intakes were also compared with that of a control group. Medical systemic information and number and types of medications were compared among the groups. Statistical analysis of the data indicated significant (p less than .001) inadequacies in the nutritional intake patterns of institutionalized and free-living older adults with xerostomia. Subjects with xerostomia (more than 75% of the free-living and institutionalized seniors) had significant deficiencies of fiber, potassium, vitamin B-6, iron, calcium, and zinc. Taste and food perception were significantly reduced in the elders with xerostomia. Our study indicates the potential contribution of xerostomia to the high prevalence of geriatric malnutrition in the United States.

  17. Risk factors associated with xerostomia in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pintor, R-M; López-Pintor, L; Casañas, E; de Arriba, L; Hernández, G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation in Haemodialysis (HD) patients, to clarify risk factors, assess patient's quality of life, and to establish a possible correlation among interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and xerostomia. This study was performed on a group of 50 HD patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic and clinical variables, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for xerostomia, IDWG, and an oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected. A total of 28 HD patients (56%) suffered xerostomia. Dry mouth was associated with hypertension (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.11-24.89) and benzodiazepine consumption (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.05-33.99). The mean xerostomia VAS and OHIP-14 scores were 31.74±14.88 and 24.38±11.98, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between IDWG% and VAS and OHIP total score. Nonetheless, a positive correlation between VAS level of thirst and IDWG% was found (r=0.48 p=0.0001). UWS and SWS means (determined in 30 patients) were 0.16±0.17 and 1.12±0.64, respectively. Decreased values of UWS and SWS were reported in 53.33% and 36.66% of HD patients. Xerostomia in HD has a multifactorial aetiology due to accumulative risks as advanced age, systemic disorders, drugs, fluid intake restriction, and salivary parenchymal fibrosis and atrophy. Therefore, it is important to detect possible xerostomia risk factors to treat correctly dry mouth in HD patients and avoid systemic complications.

  18. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    OpenAIRE

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older) experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction.Study ...

  19. Xerostomia after radiotherapy in the head and neck area: Long-term observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messmer, Marc-Benjamin; Thomsen, Andreas; Kirste, Simon; Becker, Gerhild; Momm, Felix

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the development of xerostomia more than 5 years after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, a prospective longitudinal study was done. A xerostomia questionnaire was answered by 42 patients 41 and 90 months after radiotherapy: xerostomia at rest did not change significantly over time whereas the difficulties with speaking improved and the difficulties with eating worsened. Subjective xerostomia does not reach a steady state even more than 5 years after radiotherapy.

  20. Radiation induced oxidation for water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehringer, P.

    1997-01-01

    The action of ionizing radiation on halogenated hydrocarbons, in the presence and absence of ozone, was studied in water and wastewater. The combined ozone/electron-beam irradiation process was found especially suited for remediation of low-level contaminated groundwater. This combined treatment was often more effective than irradiation alone for wastewater decontamination. It reduced the COD without a simultaneous increase of BOD. Introduction of gaseous ozone directly into the irradiation chamber improved the water-flow turbulence, allowing treatment in layers thicker than the penetration range of the electrons, with increased decontamination efficiency. (author)

  1. Role of endothelium in radiation-induced normal tissue damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliat, F.

    2007-05-01

    More than half of cancers are treated with radiation therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The goal of radiation therapy is to deliver enough ionising radiation to destroy cancer cells without exceeding the level that the surrounding healthy cells can tolerate. Unfortunately, radiation-induced normal tissue injury is still a dose limiting factor in the treatment of cancer with radiotherapy. The knowledge of normal tissue radiobiology is needed to determine molecular mechanisms involved in normal tissue pathogenic pathways in order to identify therapeutic targets and develop strategies to prevent and /or reduce side effects of radiation therapy. The endothelium is known to play a critical role in radiation-induced injury. Our work shows that endothelial cells promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, migration and fibro-genic phenotype after irradiation. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time the importance of PAI-1 in radiation-induced normal tissue damage suggesting that PAI-1 may represent a molecular target to limit injury following radiotherapy. We describe a new role for the TGF-b/Smad pathway in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced damages. TGF-b/Smad pathway is involved in the fibro-genic phenotype of VSMC induced by irradiated EC as well as in the radiation-induced PAI-1 expression in endothelial cells. (author)

  2. Prevalence of xerostomia in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric clinic: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manvir; Himadi, Elaine; Chi, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with psychiatric conditions may be at risk for xerostomia. In this preliminary study, we estimated xerostomia prevalence in adolescents ages 9 to 17 years from an inpatient psychiatric clinic (N = 25) and examined whether: (1) gender and age were associated with xerostomia and (2) xerostomia was associated with self-reported cavities. We used a modified 11-item Xerostomia Index to identify xerostomia (no/yes) and asked if adolescents ever had or currently have cavities (no/yes). The mean age was 14 years (SD = 2.3) and 72% were male. Sixty percent reported xerostomia (SD = 50). There were no significant associations between xerostomia and gender (p = 0.99) or age (p = 0.66), or between xerostomia and past (p = 0.26) or current cavities (p = 0.11). Larger proportions of adolescents with xerostomia reported previous and current cavities. Sixty percent of adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric clinic reported having xerostomia, which may lead to increased caries risk over time. Additional research should examine the prevalence and consequences of xerostomia in high-risk adolescents. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Managing the patient presenting with xerostomia: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvanathan, V; Nix, P

    2010-02-01

    Patients complaining of a dry mouth can present themselves to various clinicians such as the primary care physician, dentists, otolaryngologists and/or oral surgeons. The aim of our review is to provide a systematic method of assessing and managing these patients based on current best evidence published in the literature. A literature search was performed on 20th April 2009 using MEDLINE and EMBASE using the terms dry mouth and xerostomia in combination with diagnosis, management, investigations and treatment. There appears to be little correlation between patient symptoms and objectives tests of salivary flow. Therefore clinical management should be based on patient symptoms. There is good evidence to support that xerostomia is commonly associated with anticholinergic drugs, and altering such agents plays an important role in the management of these patients. In patients with residual salivary gland function, the use of salivary stimulants appears to be more beneficial than salivary substitutes. Xerostomia can be debilitating and primarily affects the middle aged and elderly population. The most common causes of xerostomia include medications with anticholinergic properties, dehydration, diabetes and radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Treatment of xerostomia essentially involves addressing the cause followed by salivary substitutes and/or salivary stimulants.

  4. Xerostomia related to HIV infection /AIDS: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Fuzer Grael TINÓS

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presence of oral manifestations in HIV positive individuals is quite common. Xerostomia appears as one of the most frequent problems and may lead to a reduction in the quality of life of this population. Objective: This study was a critical review of the relationship between xerostomia and HIV infection, to attract the attention of dentists on the importance of dental care to these patients. Material and method: We included articles published between 2000 and 2009, indexed in PUBMED database. The descriptors used were "HIV" and "xerostomia", the exclusion criteria adopted were: the absence of these descriptors associated, non-location of the full-text, articles based on case studies or case series and the absence of the abstract in the database. Result: Based on studies in the review, it can be said that the xerostomia is a common manifestation of HIV infection, predisposing the patient to several other oral problems. Among the risk factors for its occurrence it was reported: low counts of CD4+ T cells, high plasma viral load, the use of some medications and antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS can change the salivary glands, and were considered important risk factors for the occurrence of xerostomia the presence of didanosine and the drug class which corresponds to protease inhibitors in antiretroviral therapy.

  5. Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, Sandra; Faull, Jennifer; Klein, Barbara; Aref, Amr; Fontanesi, James; Stachler, Robert; Shamsa, Falah; Jones, Lewis; Simpson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Very little objective data has been reported on mastication and swallowing in xerostomic patients, which would substantiate presumed causal relationships between xerostomia and patient complaints. The purpose was to elucidate which components of mastication and swallowing were abnormal, and most directly related to xerostomia, and which appeared unaffected. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of timing events in mastication and swallowing was done using videofluoroscopic data for 15 cancer patients with xerostomia, and 20 normal controls. Scintigraphy was also used to determine oropharyngeal residue after a water swallow. Cancer treatment modalities included radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. Results: For barium liquid and paste substances, timing measures were equivalent for controls and patients. Xerostomic patients took 46% longer to masticate a shortbread cookie, and timing for the initiation of swallowing was shorter, but duration of swallowing appeared unaffected. Oral and pharyngeal residues following the swallow were greater in the patient group. Conclusions: Xerostomia primarily affected mastication and oral manipulation of a dry, absorbent food material. Increased oral and pharyngeal residues after a water swallow are ambiguously related to xerostomia. The initiation and duration of the pharyngeal swallow was not abnormal

  6. Membrane phospholipids and radiation-induced death of mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, H.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation-induced cell killing is generally believed to be a consequence of residual DNA damage or damage that is mis-repaired. However, besides this DNA damage, damage to other molecules or structures of the cell may be involved in the killing. Especially membranes have been suggested as a determinant in cellular radiosensitivity. In this thesis experiments are described, dealing with the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced killing of mammalian cells. A general treatise of membrane structure is followed by information concerning deleterious effects of radiation on membranes. Consequences of damage to structure and function of membranes are reviewed. Thereafter evidence relating to the possible involvement of membranes in radiation-induced cell killing is presented. (Auth.)

  7. Control of radiation-induced diarrhea with cholestyramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusinkveld, R.S.; Manning, M.R.; Aristizabal, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Cholestyramine is a non-absorbable ion-exchange resin which specifically binds bile salts. We have treated seven patients with acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea that was refractory to the usual methods of control with cholestyramine. In each case, the diarrhea was controlled with cholestyramine. This observation supports previous experimental work with animals which indicated that bile salts contribute to the genesis of radiation-induced diarrhea. Cholestyramine is well-tolerated, but should not be administered with certain oral medications. The results of this small series are preliminary, but point the way toward a more extensive clinical trial to define the usefulness of cholestyramine in the treatment of refractory acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea

  8. Radiation-induced radical ions in calcium sulfite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogushevich, S. E.

    2006-07-01

    We have used EPR to study the effect of γ radiation on calcium sulfite. We have observed and identified the radiation-induced radical ions SO 2 - (iso) with g = 2.0055 and SO 2 - (orth-1) with g1 = 2.0093, g2 = 2.0051, g3 = 2.0020, identical to the initial and thermally induced SO 2 - respectively, SO 3 - (iso) with g = 2.0031 and SO 3 - (axial) with g⊥ = 2.0040, g∥ = 2.0023, identical to mechanically induced SO 3 - . We have established the participation of radiation-induced radical ions SO 3 - in formation of post-radiation SO 2 - .

  9. Radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following treatment for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Y.G.; Reif, R.

    1977-01-01

    A patient with radiation-induced fibrosarcoma following mastectomy and postoperative radiation for bilateral breast carcinoma is described. Only six such cases have been reported in the literature. In this patient erosion of the axillary artery produced massive hemorrhage, and emergency transthoracic ligation of the subclavian artery caused gangrene of the extremity and empyema and sepsis. Interscapulothoracic amputation not only was life-saving but offered the patient a reasonable chance for long-term survival. Only aggressive surgical management can salvage a patient with radiation-induced sarcoma

  10. Synchrotron-Radiation Induced X-Ray Emission (SRIXE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Keith W.

    1999-09-01

    and increase in scientific use can be maintained for the synchrotron x-ray source. A short summary of the present state of the synchrotron radiation-induced x-ray emission (SRIXE) method is presented here. Basically, SRIXE experiments can include any that depend on the detection. of characteristic x-rays produced by the incident x-ray beam born the synchrotron source as they interact with a sample. Thus, experiments done to measure elemental composition, chemical state, crystal, structure, and other sample parameters can be considered in a discussion of SRIXE. It is also clear that the experimentalist may well wish to use a variety of complementary techniques for study of a given sample. For this reason, discussion of computed microtomography (CMT) and x-ray diffraction is included here. It is hoped that this present discussion will serve as a succinct introduction to the basic ideas of SRIXE for those not working in the field and possibly help to stimulate new types of work by those starting in the field as well as by experienced practitioners of the art. The topics covered include short descriptions of (1) the properties of synchrotron radiation, (2) a description of facilities used for its production, (3) collimated microprobe, (4) focused microprobes, (5) continuum and monoenergetic excitation, (6) detection limits, (7) quantitation, (8) applications of SRIXE, (9) computed microtomography (CMT), and (10)chemical speciation using x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). An effort has been made to cite a wide variety of work from different laboratories to show the vital nature of the field.

  11. Radiation induced crosslinking of cellulose ethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wach, A.R.; Mitomo, H.; Yoshii, F.; Kume, T.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high-energy radiation on four ethers of cellulose: carboxymethyl (CMC); hydroxypropyl (HPC), hydroxyethyl (HEC) and methylcellulose (MC) were investigated. Polymers are irradiated in solid state and in aqueous solutions at various concentrations. Degree of substitution (DS) of the derivatives, the concentration of their aqueous solutions and irradiation conditions had a significant impact on the obtained products. Irradiation of polymers in solid state and in diluted aqueous solutions resulted in their degradation. However, it was found that for concentrated solutions gel formation occurred. Paste-like form of the initial material, when water plasticizes the bulk of polymer as well as the high dose rate, what prevents oxygen penetration of the polymer during irradiation, have been found favourable for hydrogel formation. Up to 95% of gel fraction was obtained from solutions of CMC with concentration over 50% irradiated by γ-rays or electron beam. It was pointed out that the ability to the formation of the three-dimensional network is related to the DS of anhydroglucose units and a type of chemical group introduced to main chain of cellulose. Produced hydrogels swelled markedly in water. Despite of the crosslinked structure they underwent degradation by the action of cellulase enzyme or microorganisms from compost, and can be included into the group of biodegradable materials. (author)

  12. Application of controlled radiation-induced degradation in polymers: less exploited aspect of radiation processing of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji Saeid, M.; Guven, O.

    2007-01-01

    Industrial use of ionizing radiation treatment has been most successful in applications related to polymeric materials. The polymer, plastics and rubber industries have benefited from the unique advantages of ionizing radiation since its inception as an industrial tool to modify their properties and manufacture novel materials with value addition to the end product. The established and emerging applications of electron beam processing of polymers are based on the well known ultimate effects of ionizing radiation on polymers namely, crosslinking, curing, grafting and chain scissioning. Radiation-induced crosslinking dominates most applications, whereas the chain scissioning effect is much less explored and currently limited to radiation-induced degradation of Teflon, cellulose and polypropylene. The controlling of radiation-induced degradation for achieving a target average molecular weight or distribution has been evaluated for some polysaccharides, biopolymers and waste inner tubes whereas mitigation of the degradative effects of radiation has been analyzed from the point of view of using certain stabilizers, copolymers and annealing at an appropriate temperature. Several new or highly specialized techniques such as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Rutherford backscattering, elastic recoil detection analysis and solid waste NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy have been applied to the study or radiation-induced degradation. New information has been collected on the morphological changes associated with radiation-induced degradation processes, including chain scission, oxidation and free volume alteration. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Controlling of Degradation Effects in Radiation Processing of Polymers dealt with the role and importance of using ionizing radiation in controlling properties of natural and synthetic polymers through its degradative effect. This paper provides a summary of most important results

  13. Pharmacological activation of the EDA/EDAR signaling pathway restores salivary gland function following radiation-induced damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Hill

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1 normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.

  14. Chronic xerostomia increases esophageal acid exposure and is associated with esophageal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsten, M.A.; Rosman, A.S.; Fishbein, S.; Shlein, R.D.; Goldberg, H.E.; Biener, A.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of chronic xerostomia on parameters of gastroesophageal reflux and esophagitis. DESIGN: Observational study of a cohort of male patients with xerostomia and age-matched control subjects. SETTING: Tertiary-care Veterans Affairs Medical Center. SUBJECTS: Sixteen male patients with chronic xerostomia secondary to radiation for head and neck cancers or medications. Nineteen age-matched male control subjects with comparable alcohol and smoking histories. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Esophageal motility was similar in patients with xerostomia and controls. Clearance of acid from the esophagus and 24-hour intraesophageal pH were markedly abnormal in patients with xerostomia. Symptoms and signs of esophagitis were significantly more frequent in subjects with xerostomia. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic xerostomia may predispose to esophageal injury, at least in part, by decreasing the clearance of acid from the esophagus and altering 24-hour intraesophageal pH. Esophageal injury is a previously unreported complication of long-term salivary deficiency

  15. Homoeologous chromatin exchange in a radiation-induced gene transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, J.; Knott, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Some of the ionizing-radiation-induced translocations between alien and wheat chromosomes show no deleterious effects and are transmitted normally through the pollen. Translocations of this type will be called ''compensating''. In one such compensating translocation, designated T4, it was found that chromatin in the long arm of wheat chromosome 7D was replaced with homoeologous chromatin of the Agropyron chromosome

  16. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  17. Kinetics of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.; Kumar, A.; Wiedersich, H.

    1982-01-01

    Model calculations of radiation-induced segregation in ternary alloys have been performed, using a simple theory. The theoretical model describes the coupling between the fluxes of radiation-induced defects and alloying elements in an alloy A-B-C by partitioning the defect fluxes into those occurring via A-, B-, and C-atoms, and the atom fluxes into those taking place via vacancies and interstitials. The defect and atom fluxes can be expressed in terms of concentrations and concentration gradients of all the species present. With reasonable simplifications, the radiation-induced segregation problem can be cast into a system of four coupled partial-differential equations, which can be solved numerically for appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Model calculations have been performed for ternary solid solutions intended to be representative of Fe-Cr-Ni and Ni-Al-Si alloys under various irradiation conditions. The dependence of segregation on both the alloy properties and the irradiation variables, e.g., temperature and displacement rate, was calculated. The sample calculations are in good qualitative agreement with the general trends of radiation-induced segregation observed experimentally

  18. Dose rate effectiveness in radiation-induced teratogenesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, F.; Ootsuyama, A.; Norimura, T.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the role of p53 gene in tissue repair of teratogenic injury, we compared incidence of radiation-induced malformations in homozygous p53(-/-) mice, heterozygous p53(+/-) mice and wild-type p53(+/+) mice. After X-irradiation with 2 Gy at high dose rate on 9.5 days of gestation, p53(-/-) mice showed higher incidences of anomalies and higher resistance to prenatal deaths than p53(+/+) mice. This reciprocal relationship of radiosensitivity to anomalies and deaths supports the notion that embryos or fetuses have a p53-dependent 'guardian' that aborts cells bearing radiation-induced teratogenic DNA damage. In fact, after X-irradiation, the number of apoptotic cells was greatly increased in p53(+/+) fetuses but not in p53(-/-) fetuses. The same dose of γ-ray exposure at low dose rate on 9.5-10.5 day of gestation produced significant reduction of radiation-induced malformation in p53(+/+) and p53(+/-) mice, remained teratogenic for p53(-/-) mice. These results suggest that complete elimination of teratogenic damage from irradiated tissues requires the concerted cooperation of two mechanisms; proficient DNA repair and the p53-dependent apoptotic tissue repair. When concerted DNA repair and apoptosis functions efficiently, there is a threshold dose-rate for radiation-induced malformations. (author)

  19. Preparation of polymer microspheres by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yoshida, Y.; Tagawa, S.

    1995-01-01

    Cross-liking monomer, diethylene glycol dimethacrylate gives microspheres from organic solution by radiation-induced polymerization. /One of the remarkable result is that the number of the microspheres is not changing during the polymerization. Ethyl methacrylate, maleic anhydride, styrene and acrylamide are used as comonomers. These comonomers give the microspheres in the range of 0 to 0.4 as mol fractions. (author)

  20. Radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Lefkovits, I.; Troup, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation-induced augmentation of the immune response has been shown to occur both in vivo and in vitro. Evidence is presented to implicate injury to an extremely radiosensitive T cell in the expression of this phenomenon. Experiments are outlined which could be employed to support or reflect this hypothesis

  1. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida G Fostad

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED. At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS questionnaire (SSQ. Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%, 20 to 39 (25%, 40 to 59 (34%, 60 to 79 (35% and 80 to 99 (5%. Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81% than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; P<0.001. Patients with xerostomia (60 ± 15 years were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; P<0.001. The use of prescription drugs was more prevalent among xerostomia patients (65% than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; P<0.021; adjusted for age and sex. Patients with xerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0 than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; P<0.001. Moreover, xerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7 than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046. Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  2. Radiation-Induced Grafting with One-Step Process of Waste Polyurethane onto High-Density Polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    The recycling of waste polyurethane (PU) using radiation-induced grafting was investigated. The grafting of waste PU onto a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) matrix was carried out using a radiation technique with maleic anhydride (MAH). HDPE pellets and PU powders were immersed in a MAH-acetone solution. Finally, the prepared mixtures were irradiated with an electron beam accelerator. The grafted composites were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), surface morphology, and mechanical properties. To make a good composite, the improvement in compatibility between HDPE and PU is an important factor. Radiation-induced grafting increased interfacial adhesion between the PU domain and the HDPE matrix. When the absorbed dose was 75 kGy, the surface morphology of the irradiated PU/HDPE composite was nearly a smooth and single phase, and the elongation at break increased by approximately three times compared with that of non-irradiated PU/HDPE composite. PMID:28787813

  3. Radiation-Induced Grafting with One-Step Process of Waste Polyurethane onto High-Density Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Seok Park

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste polyurethane (PU using radiation-induced grafting was investigated. The grafting of waste PU onto a high-density polyethylene (HDPE matrix was carried out using a radiation technique with maleic anhydride (MAH. HDPE pellets and PU powders were immersed in a MAH-acetone solution. Finally, the prepared mixtures were irradiated with an electron beam accelerator. The grafted composites were characterized by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, surface morphology, and mechanical properties. To make a good composite, the improvement in compatibility between HDPE and PU is an important factor. Radiation-induced grafting increased interfacial adhesion between the PU domain and the HDPE matrix. When the absorbed dose was 75 kGy, the surface morphology of the irradiated PU/HDPE composite was nearly a smooth and single phase, and the elongation at break increased by approximately three times compared with that of non-irradiated PU/HDPE composite.

  4. Specitic gene alterations in radiation-induced tumorigenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Joo Mee; Kang, Chang Mo; Lee, Seung Sook; Cho, Chul Koo; Bae, Sang Woo; Lee, Su Jae; Lee, Yun Sil [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    To identify a set of genes involved in the development of radiation-induced tumorigenesis, we used DNA microarrays consisting of 1,176 mouse genes and compared expression profiles of radioresistant cells, designated NIH3T3-R1 and -R4. These cells were tumorigenic in a nude mouse grafting system, as compared to the parental NIH3T3 cells. Expressions of MDM2, CDK6 and CDC25B were found to increase more than 3-fold. Entactin protein levels were downregulated in NIH3T3-R1 and -R4 cells. Changes in expression genes were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR or western blotting. When these genes were transfected to NIH3T3 cells, the CDC25B and MDM2 overexpressing NIH3T3 cells showed radioresistance, while 2 CDK6 overexpressing cells did not. In the case of entactin overexpressing NIH3T3-R1 or R-4 cells were still radioresistant. Furthermore, the CDC25B and MDM2 overexpressing cells grafted to nude mice, were tumorigenic. NIH3T3-R1 and R4 cells showed increased radiation-induced apoptosis, accompanied by faster growth rate, rather than and earlier radiation-induced G2/M phase arrest, suggesting that the radioresistance of NIH3T3-R1 and R4 cells was due to faster growth rate, rather than induction of apoptosis. In the case of MDM2 and CDC25B overexpressing cells, similar phenomena, such as increased apoptosis and faster growth rate, were shown. The above results, therefore, demonstrate involvement of CDC25B and MDM2 overexpression in radiation-induced tumorigenesis and provide novel targets for detection of radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  5. The effects of cysteamine on the radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Min; Cho, Heung Lae; Park, Chang Gyo; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the pathways of radiation induced apoptosis and the effect of cysteamine (β-mercaptoethylamine), as a radioprotector, on it. HL-60 cells were assigned to control, irradiated, and cysteamine (1 mM, 10 mM) pretreated groups. Irradiation was given in a single fraction of 10 Gy (6 MV x-ray) and cysteamine was administered 1 hour before irradiation. The activities of caspase-8 were measured in control and irradiated group to evaiuate its relation to the radiation induced apoptosis. To evaluate the role of cysteamine in radiation induced apoptosis, the number of viable cells, the expression and activity or caspase-3, and the expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were measured and compared after irradiating the HL cells with cysteamine pretreatment or not. The intracellular caspase-8 activity, known to be related to the death receptor induced apoptosis, was not affected by irradiation( p>0.05). The number of viable cells began to decrease from 6 hours after irradiation (p>0.05), but the number of viable cells in 1 mM cysteamine pretreated group was not decreased after irradiation and was similar to those in the control group. In caspase-3 analyses, known as apoptosis executioner, its expression was not different but its activity was increased by irradialion(p>0.05). However, this increase of activity was suppressed by the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine. The cleavage of PARP, thought to be resulted from caspase-3 activation, occurred, after irradiation, which was attenuated by the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine. These results show that radiation induced apoptotic process is somewhat different from death receptor induced one and the pretreatment of 1 mM cysteamine has a tendency to decrease the radiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells

  6. Radiation-induced crosslinking and post-processing of poly(L-lactic acid) composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kasai, Noboru; Yagi, Toshiaki; Yoshii, Fumio; Tamada, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Poly(L-lactic acid), PLLA, was irradiated using electron beams (EBs) in the presence of triallyl isocyanurate (TAIC) at 5% concentration as crosslinking agent. The crosslinked PLLA obtained has heat resistance, as demonstrated by retention of its original shape at glass transition temperature or even higher than 200 o C. As an application of this fact, crosslinked PLLA is applied in spectacle lens to prevent shape deformation of eyeglass frames in displaying and transporting. However, in this application to lens, it is not enough to improve the thermal deformation of PLLA under stress at 70 o C. Radiation-induced crosslinking of a PLLA/silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) composite with TAIC and post-processing of the crosslinked PLLA composite by heating were further investigated from the viewpoint of thermal deformation. The PLLA materials have several advantages such as high heat resistance and transparency. It is therefore proved that the combination of radiation-induced crosslinking, composition of SiO 2 and post-heating is beneficial for expanding the applications of PLLA.

  7. Radiation-induced grain subdivision and bubble formation in U3Si2 at LWR temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Gong, Bowen; He, Lingfeng; Harp, Jason; Tonks, Michael; Lian, Jie

    2018-01-01

    U3Si2, an advanced fuel form proposed for light water reactors (LWRs), has excellent thermal conductivity and a high fissile element density. However, limited understanding of the radiation performance and fission gas behavior of U3Si2 is available at LWR conditions. This study explores the irradiation behavior of U3Si2 by 300 keV Xe+ ion beam bombardment combining with in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. The crystal structure of U3Si2 is stable against radiation-induced amorphization at 350 °C even up to a very high dose of 64 displacements per atom (dpa). Grain subdivision of U3Si2 occurs at a relatively low dose of 0.8 dpa and continues to above 48 dpa, leading to the formation of high-density nanoparticles. Nano-sized Xe gas bubbles prevail at a dose of 24 dpa, and Xe bubble coalescence was identified with the increase of irradiation dose. The volumetric swelling resulting from Xe gas bubble formation and coalescence was estimated with respect to radiation dose, and a 2.2% volumetric swelling was observed for U3Si2 irradiated at 64 dpa. Due to extremely high susceptibility to oxidation, the nano-sized U3Si2 grains upon radiation-induced grain subdivision were oxidized to nanocrystalline UO2 in a high vacuum chamber for TEM observation, eventually leading to the formation of UO2 nanocrystallites stable up to 80 dpa.

  8. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pintor, Rosa María; Casañas, Elisabeth; González-Serrano, José; Serrano, Julia; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%-53.5% versus 0-30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection.

  9. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María López-Pintor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1 to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2 to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3 to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%–53.5% versus 0–30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%. In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection.

  10. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  11. How should we measure and report radiotherapy-induced xerostomia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Rhodus, Nelson; Rosenthal, David; Murphy, Barbara; Rasch, Coen; Sonis, Stephen; Scarantino, Charles; Brizel, David

    2003-01-01

    Xerostomia is commonly measured and graded using objective measures of major salivary gland output and observer-rated toxicity grading. The separation between the different grades is somewhat ambiguous in the current toxicity grading systems. We propose a new grading system based primarily on the

  12. The prevention and treatment of radiotherapy - induced xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Rhodus, Nelson; Rosenthal, David; Murphy, Barbara; Rasch, Coen; Sonis, Stephen; Scarantino, Charles; Brizel, David

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to reduce the severity of postradiotherapy xerostomia include the use of salivary substitutes to gain symptomatic relief, salivary gland stimulants, agents delivered to protect the glands during radiotherapy (RT), and physical means to partially spare the major salivary glands from RT while

  13. Radiation-induced camptocormia and dropped head syndrome. Review and case report of radiation-induced movement disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Clemens; Kuhnt, Thomas; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Hering, Kathrin [Leipzig University, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    In recent years, camptocormia and dropped head syndrome (DHS) have gained attention as particular forms of movement disorders. Camptocormia presents with involuntary forward flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that typically increases during walking or standing and may severely impede walking ability. DHS is characterized by weakness of the neck extensors and a consecutive inability to extend the neck; in severe cases the head is fixed in a ''chin to chest position.'' Many diseases may underlie these conditions, and there have been some reports about radiation-induced camptocormia and DHS. A PubMed search with the keywords ''camptocormia,'' ''dropped head syndrome,'' ''radiation-induced myopathy,'' ''radiation-induced neuropathy,'' and ''radiation-induced movement disorder'' was carried out to better characterize radiation-induced movement disorders and the radiation techniques involved. In addition, the case of a patient developing camptocormia 23 years after radiation therapy of a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the abdomen is described. In total, nine case series of radiation-induced DHS (n = 45 patients) and - including our case - three case reports (n = 3 patients) about radiogenic camptocormia were retrieved. Most cases (40/45 patients) occurred less than 15 years after radiotherapy involving extended fields for Hodgkin's disease. The use of wide radiation fields including many spinal segments with paraspinal muscles may lead to radiation-induced movement disorders. If paraspinal muscles and the thoracolumbar spine are involved, the clinical presentation can be that of camptocormia. DHS may result if there is involvement of the cervical spine. To prevent these disorders, sparing of the spine and paraspinal muscles is desirable. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren haben Bewegungsstoerungen von Wirbelsaeule und paraspinaler Muskulatur in

  14. A study of radiation-induced cerebral vascular injury in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhong Ye

    Full Text Available To investigate radiation-induced carotid and cerebral vascular injury and its relationship with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients.Fifty eight NPC patients with radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis (TLN were recruited in the study. Duplex ultrasonography was used to scan bilateral carotid arterials to evaluate the intima-media thickness (IMT and occurrence of plaque formation. Flow velocities of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs, internal carotid arteries (ICAs and basal artery (BA were estimated through Transcranial Color Doppler (TCD. The results were compared with data from 33 patients who were free from radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis after radiotherapy and 29 healthy individuals.Significant differences in IMT, occurrence of plaques of ICAs and flow velocities of both MCAs and ICAs were found between patients after radiotherapy and healthy individuals (p<0.05. IMT had positive correlation with post radiation interval (p = 0.049. Compared with results from patients without radiation-induced TLN, the mean IMT was significantly thicker in patients with TLN (p<0.001. Plaques were more common in patients with TLN than patients without TLN (p = 0.038. In addition, flow velocities of MCAs and ICAs in patients with TLN were much faster (p<0.001, p<0.001. Among patients with unilateral TLN, flow velocity of MCAs was significantly different between ipsilateral and contralateral sides to the lesion (p = 0.001.Thickening of IMT, occurrence of plaque formation and hemodynamic abnormality are more common in patients after radiotherapy, especially in those with TLN, compared with healthy individuals.

  15. Systematic literature review: xerostomia in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanchanale, Sarika; Adkinson, Lucy; Daniel, Sunitha; Fleming, Michelle; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth (xerostomia) is one of the commonest symptoms in cancer patients and can adversely affect quality of life. The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in treating xerostomia in adult advanced cancer patients. The literature search was performed in February 2014 using databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BNI and Cochrane library. The search was carried out using standard MeSH terms and was limited to adult population and English language. Studies investigating xerostomia secondary to head and neck cancer treatment and autoimmune disease were excluded. Titles and abstracts were screened and reviewed for eligibility. Only studies involving primary research were included in the analysis. Six studies met the eligibility criteria for review: three randomized controlled trials and three prospective studies. The quality assessment and reporting was performed using PRISMA, Jadad and STROBE. These studies compared acupuncture, pilocarpine, Saliva Orthana and chewing gum with each other or with placebo. All interventions were considered effective in treating xerostomia. However, effectiveness versus placebo could not be demonstrated for Saliva Orthana. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the study type and intervention. Limited published data exists reporting the effectiveness of measures in the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Based on primary research of low quality, firm conclusions cannot be drawn. However, pilocarpine, artificial saliva, chewing gum and acupuncture can be tried based on the available data. This highlights the explicit need to improve our evidence base. Properly constructed randomized controlled trials demonstrating effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for dry mouth are required.

  16. Sialendoscopy for Patients with Radioiodine-Induced Sialadenitis and Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhayani, Mihir K; Acharya, Varun; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Farah, Sally; Roberts, Dianna B; Sterba, Jennifer; Chambers, Mark S; Lai, Stephen Y

    2015-07-01

    We examined outcomes in patients treated for radioactive iodine-induced sialadenitis (RAIS) and xerostomia with sialendoscopy. Data was prospectively collected for all patients undergoing sialendoscopy for RAIS from a single institution. Interventional details and intraoperative findings were recorded. Qualitative data were obtained through patient examination, telephone interviews, and use of a standard quality of life questionnaire, Xerostomia Questionnaire. Quantitative data were obtained from patients who underwent sialometry. Twenty-six patients (24 women and 2 men; median age, 43 years; age range, 19-57 years) underwent interventional sialendoscopy after conservative management of symptoms proved unsuccessful. Sialadenitis was present in 25 patients and xerostomia in 22 patients. Mucus plugging in the duct of the gland was the most common finding (22 patients) followed by stenosis (18 patients), inflammation (eight patients), and erythema (eight patients). Median follow-up time was 23.4±12.1 months. Sixteen patients (64%) reported complete resolution; seven (28%), partial resolution; one (4%), no change in symptoms; and one (4%), regression in RAIS-related symptoms. Patients subjectively noted the following regarding their xerostomia symptoms: seven (31.8%) had complete resolution; 10 (45.5%), partial resolution; four (18.2%), no change; and one (4.5%), regression. Statistical analysis of the available sialometry data revealed a statistically significant difference in saliva production at 6 months following sialendoscopy for unstimulated saliva production (p=0.028). Sialendoscopy is an effective treatment option for the management of RAIS and xerostomia refractory to conservative therapy and medical management. Patients in our cohort report durable improvement in symptoms after intervention.

  17. Risk factors, hyposalivation and impact of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklander, Sven; Veas, Laura; Barrera, Cristina; Fuentes, Flavio; Chiappini, Giuliana; Marshall, Maureen

    2017-01-16

    To determine xerostomia-related frequency, factors, salivary flow rates and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of patients attending the Universidad Andrés Bello Dental School Clinic, in the city of Viña del Mar, Chile. The study involved 566 patients assessed with xerostomia, based on a single standardized questionnaire. The severity and impact of xerostomia on OHRQoL was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-14sp), respectively. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates were obtained from a sample of patients. Xerostomia was reported in 61 patients (10.8%), comprising 50 women (83.3%) and 11 men (16.7%) (p xerostomia. Hyposalivation was found in 10 of the 35 patients with xerostomia (28.6%) and in 2 patients without it (p xerostomia had a reduced OHRQoL, compared with patients without xerostomia, as shown by the total OHIP-14sp score (p Xerostomia was a common, potentially debilitating condition with a major impact on the OHRQoL of a patient population attending a university-based dental clinic. Hyposalivation was present in almost 30% of the patients who complained of xerostomia. It is important that general dentists be aware of this condition, so that they can provide patients with a good diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  18. The diagnostic suitability of a xerostomia questionnaire and the association between xerostomia, hyposalivation and medication use in a group of nursing home residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Putten, G.J.; Brand, H.S.; Schols, J.M.G.A.; de Baat, C.

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to explore the diagnostic suitability of the Xerostomia Inventory and the association between xerostomia, hyposalivation and medication use in a group of nursing home residents. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 50 physically impaired nursing home residents (20 men)

  19. Radiation-induced grafting of dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate onto PE/PP nonwoven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavakli, Pinar Akkas; Kavakli, Cengiz; Seko, Noriaki; Tamada, Masao; Gueven, Olgun

    2007-01-01

    A new adsorbent was prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (DMAEMA) onto polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric. The trunk polymer was irradiated by electron beam at a voltage of 2 MeV and a current of 3 mA in nitrogen atmosphere at dry-ice temperature to different doses. The degree of grafting was determined as a function of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, temperature and reaction time. Grafting conditions were optimized and about 150% grafted samples were used for further experiments. DMAEMA grafted polymer was later protonated in acid solution to prepare specialty adsorbent for the removal of phosphate. Adsorption experiments were performed in column mode for removal of phosphate. It was shown that 2000 bed volumes of phosphate-free water can be produced from 100 ppb phosphate (as P) solution at high space velocity

  20. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko [Matsunami General Hospital, Kasamatsu, Gifu (Japan); Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  1. A case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kouji; Shimizu, Yukio; Yura, Jirou; Itoh, Yasufumi; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Outsubo, Toshio; Saitou, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of radiation-induced cancer of the hypopharynx in a 65-year-old woman. The patient had received radiation treatment for Basedow's disease for several years starting at the age of 10 years. On June 26, 1993, she was examined at our hospital because of hoarseness and dysphagia. On July 22, right lobectomy was performed for suspected thyroid cancer. During this operation, endoscopy revealed hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-two days after surgery, total pharyngolaryngectomy and total esophagectomy were performed and a pharyngogastrostomy and a permanent tracheostomy were created. Histologic examination revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell cancer. This case was diagnosed as radiation-induced caner according to the diagnostic criteria of Sakai. (author)

  2. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Erkang; Wu, Lijun

    2009-04-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE).

  3. Radiation-induced tritium labelling and product analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, C.T. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Pharmaceutical Chemistry)

    1993-05-01

    By-products formed in radiation-induced tritium labelling are identified by co-chromatography with authentic samples or by structure prediction using a quantitative structure-retention index relationship. The by-products, formed from labelling of steroids, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 7-membered heterocyclic ring structures, 1,4-benzodiazepines, 1-haloalkanes, etc. with activated tritium and adsorbed tritium, are shown to be specifically labelled and anticipated products from known chemical reactions. From analyses of the by-products, one can conclude that the hydrogen abstraction by tritium atoms and the substitution by tritium ions are the mechanisms of labelling. Classification of the tritium labelling methods, on the basis of the type of tritium reagent, clearly shows the active role played by tritium atoms and ions in radiation-induced methods. (author).

  4. Radiation induced DNA damage and repair in mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    The central theme in cellular radiobiological research has been the mechanisms of radiation action and the physiological response of cells to this action. Considerable effort has been directed toward the characterization of radiation-induced DNA damage and the correlation of this damage to cellular genetic change that is expressed as mutation or initiating events leading to cellular transformation and ultimately carcinogenesis. In addition, there has been a significant advancement in their understanding of the role of DNA repair in the process of mutation leading to genetic change in cells. There is extensive literature concerning studies that address radiation action in both procaryotic and eucaryotic systems. This brief report will make no attempt to summarize this voluminous data but will focus on recent results from their laboratory of experiments in which they have examined, at both the cellular and molecular levels, the process of ionizing radiation-induced mutagenesis in cultured human cells

  5. Radiation Induced Color Centers in a La Doped PWO Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Qun

    1998-01-01

    This report presents result of a study on radiation induced color center densities in a La doped lead tungstate ( PWO) crystal. The creation and annihilation constants of radiation induced color centers were determined by using transmittance data measured for a PWO sample before and during Co-60 gamma ray irradiation at a dose rate of 15 rad/hr. Following a model of color center kinetics, these constants were used to calculate color center densities under irradiations at 100 rad/hr. The result was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data, indicating that this model of color center kinetics can be used to predict behavior of PWO crystals under irradiation.

  6. Radiation induced sarcomas of bone following therapeutic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.H.; Woodward, H.Q.; Huvos, A.

    1983-01-01

    Because of new therapeutic trends of multi-modality and the importance of late effects, we have updated our series of radiation induced bone sarcomas seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center over the past four decades. A total of 37 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bone in the irradiated field was analyzed. The median for latent period from irradiation to diagnosis of bone sarcoma was 11 years with a minimum latent period of four years. The median radiation dose for the bone sarcoma was 6000 rad in 6 weeks with a minimum total radiation dose of 3000 rad in 3 weeks. We have found nine patients who developed bone sarcomas in the radiation field after successful treatment of Hodgkin's disease. Criteria for radiation induced bone sarcomas and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcomas are briefly discussed

  7. Radiation-induced soft-tissue and bone sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Chu, F.C.; Woodard, H.Q.; Melamed, R.; Huvos, A.; Cantin, J.

    1978-01-01

    From the records of Memorial Hospital of the past 50 years, 47 cases with an established diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma were identified and divided into two groups: the first included 20 cases of soft-tissue sarcoma arising from irradiated tissues, and the second comprised 27 cases of bone sarcoma arising from normal bones in the irradiated field. Medians for the latent periods from irradiation to diagnosis of bone and soft-tissue sarcoma were 11 and 12, years, respectively. In bone sarcomas, the latent period was longer after larger radiation doses and children appeared to be more susceptible to cancer induction than adults. Criteria for establishing the diagnosis of radiation-induced sarcoma and the magnitude of the risk of bone sarcoma are discussed

  8. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  9. [Symptoms and treatment of radiation-induced reactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Idziak, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods of cancer treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy. It is applied in about 60% of oncological patients. However, in spite of its clinical usefulness, radiotherapy is associated with a high risk of radiation-induced side effects, including dermatitis, enteritis, cystitis, pericarditis, pneumonia or depression, sexual function disorders, cardiomiopathy, coronary heart disease, anomalies of heart valves and development of second malignant tumor. The early diagnosis and proper treatment of radiation-induced side effects have a major impact on patients` quality of life and future prognosis. Radiation reactions can be categorized as acute or late, occurring before and after six months after radiotherapy. Among the most common acute reactions there were observed: skin rash, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, fever and radiation pneumonitis. Within reference to the late complications, we distinguish for instance fibrosis of organs, a radiation necrosis of bone, ulcers, fistulas, sexual dysfunction and the development of second malignant carcinomas. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  10. Radiation-induced malignant tumours: a specific cytogenetic profile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauveinc, L.; Gaboriaux, G.; Dutrillaux, A. M.; Dutrillaux, B.; Chauveinc, L.; Ricoul, M.; Sabatier, L.; Dutrillaux, B.

    1997-01-01

    To date, there is no criterion enabling to determine the spontaneous or radio-induced origin of malignant tumour occurring in a previously irradiated patient. Biological studies are rare. The cytogenetic data which could be found in the literature for eleven radio-induced tumours suggest that aneuploidies and polyclonality are frequent events. We studied, by R-Banding cytogenetic technique, five patients with short-term cultures (3 cases), short and long-term cultures (1 case) and xeno-grafting on nude pattern a high rate of balanced translocations, numerous random break points and a polyclonal evolution (10 clones). All other tumours, including the xeno-grafting sarcoma, had a monoclonal profile with complex karyotypes, hypo-diploid formulas and many deletions. These results show that the mechanism of radiation-induced tumours frequently involves chromosomes losses and deletions. The most likely explanation is that these alterations unmask radiation induced recessive mutations of tumour suppressor genes. (authors)

  11. Ubiquitin-dependent system controls radiation induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delic, J.; Magdelenat, H.; Glaisner, S.; Magdelenat, H.; Maciorowski, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The selective proteolytic pathway, dependent upon 'N-end rule' protein recognition/ubiquitination and on the subsequent proteasome dependent processing of ubiquitin conjugates, operates in apoptosis induced by γ-irradiation. The proteasome inhibitor peptide aldehyde, MG132, efficiently induced apoptosis and was also able (at doses lower than those required for apoptosis induction) to potentiate apoptosis induced by DNA damage. Its specificity is suggested by the induction of the ubiquitin (UbB and UbC) and E1 (ubiquitin activating enzyme) genes and by an altered ubiquitination pattern. More selectively, a di-peptide competitor of the 'N-end rule' of ubiquitin dependent protein processing inhibited radiation induced apoptosis. This inhibition is also followed by an altered ubiquitination pattern and by activation of Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These data strongly suggest that early apoptosis radiation induced events are controlled by ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic processing. (author)

  12. Regulation of radiation-induced protein kinase Cδ activation in radiation-induced apoptosis differs between radiosensitive and radioresistant mouse thymic lymphoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tetsuo; Yukawa, Osami; Tsuji, Hideo; Ohyama, Harumi; Wang, Bing; Tatsumi, Kouichi; Hayata, Isamu; Hama-Inaba, Hiroko

    2006-01-01

    Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has an important role in radiation-induced apoptosis. The expression and function of PKCδ in radiation-induced apoptosis were assessed in a radiation-sensitive mouse thymic lymphoma cell line, 3SBH5, and its radioresistant variant, XR223. Rottlerin, a PKCδ-specific inhibitor, completely abolished radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5. Radiation-induced PKCδ activation correlated with the degradation of PKCδ, indicating that PKCδ activation through degradation is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis in radiosensitive 3SBH5. In radioresistant XR223, radiation-induced PKCδ activation was lower than that in radiosensitive 3SBH5. Cytosol PKCδ levels in 3SBH5 decreased markedly after irradiation, while those in XR223 did not. There was no apparent change after irradiation in the membrane fractions of either cell type. In addition, basal cytosol PKCδ levels in XR223 were higher than those in 3SBH5. These results suggest that the radioresistance in XR223 to radiation-induced apoptosis is due to a difference in the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation compared to that of 3SBH5. On the other hand, Atm -/- mouse thymic lymphoma cells were more radioresistant to radiation-induced apoptosis than wild-type mouse thymic lymphoma cells. Irradiated wild-type cells, but not Atm -/- cells, had decreased PKCδ levels, indicating that the Atm protein is involved in radiation-induced apoptosis through the induction of PKCδ degradation. The decreased Atm protein levels induced by treatment with Atm small interfering RNA had no effect on radiation-induced apoptosis in 3SBH5 cells. These results suggest that the regulation of radiation-induced PKCδ activation, which is distinct from the Atm-mediated cascade, determines radiation sensitivity in radiosensitive 3SBH5 cells

  13. Heavy-ion radiation induced bystander effect in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing; Zhang, Meng; Wang, Wei; Cui, Changna

    2012-07-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect is defined as the induction of damage in neighboring non-hit cells by signals released from directly-irradiated cells. Recently, Low dose of high LET radiation induced bystander effects in vivo have been reported more and more. It has been indicated that radiation induced bystander effect was localized not only in bystander tissues but also in distant organs. Genomic, epigenetic, metabolomics and proteomics play significant roles in regulating heavy-ion radiation stress responses in mice. To identify the molecular mechanism that underlies bystander effects of heavy-ion radiation, the male mice head were exposed to 2000mGy dose of 12C heavy-ion radiation and the distant organ liver was detected on 1h, 6h, 12h and 24h after radiation, respectively. MSAP was used to monitor the level of polymorphic DNA methylation changes. The results show that heavy-ion irradiate mouse head can induce liver DNA methylation changes significantly. The percent of DNA methylation changes are time-dependent and highest at 6h after radiation. We also prove that the hypo-methylation changes on 1h and 6h after irradiation. But the expression level of DNA methyltransferase DNMT3a is not changed. UPLC/Synapt HDMS G2 was employed to detect the proteomics of bystander liver 1h after irradiation. 64 proteins are found significantly different between treatment and control group. GO process show that six of 64 which were unique in irradiation group are associated with apoptosis and DNA damage response. The results suggest that mice head exposed to heavy-ion radiation can induce damage and methylation pattern changed in distant organ liver. Moreover, our findings are important to understand the molecular mechanism of radiation induced bystander effects in vivo.

  14. [Effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation-induced pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Sun, Yu; Cai, Qing; Li, Yongheng; Zhu, Guangying

    2011-03-01

    Radiation-induced lung injure is one of the major factors of limitation in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Whether the use of thymosin and radiotherapy simultaneously would increase the radiation-induced lung injure is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation induced pneumonitis in mice. Three groups of mice, control (C), radiation alone (RT), thymosin alpha-1 plus radiation (T+RT), were entered into the study. The weight and mortality of mice, pleural effusion, quantity of protein and cell count in the bronchoalvealar lavage (BAL) and pulmonary fibrosis score were evaluated as the outcome measures. The mortality ratio of the T+RT and RT groups were 3/14, 2/10, respectively. The time of death were all in the 23-24 weeks after radiotherapy. There was no pleural effusion in the T+RT group other than 2/2 occurred in RT group. The quantity of protein, cell number and neutrophil number in the BAL and lung coefficient in mice of T+RT group were remarkably lower than that of RT group, but the BALF macrophages number was remarkably higher than that in RT group in the 8 weeks. The quantity of protein, cell number, neutrophil number and macrophages number in the BAL, lung coefficient, the scores of lung fibrosis in mice of T+RT group were significantly lower than that of RT group in the 24 weeks. All test data were lowest in mice of C group. And there was no obvious pulmonary fibrosis in the mice of C group. Thymosin alpha-1 could relieve radiation-induced acute and late pulmonary injuries.

  15. Radiation-induced morphea of the breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheah Nellie LC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiation-induced morphea (RIM of the breast is a rare complication of radiotherapy. It is disfiguring, painful and defeats the purpose of achieving a good cosmesis in breast-conservation surgery. This report describes a severe case of RIM in a breast cancer patient together with photographic illustrations of the serial changes over time and histopathology slides. A review of the literature is provided.

  16. Protection against radiation-induced performance decrement in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Pant, Kanchan; Goel, H.C.; Jain, Viney

    1997-01-01

    Recognizing that there is lack of information on the effects of low-level ionizing radiations and the modifying role of radioprotectors, an attempt has been made in this study to explore the relationship between impairment of spatial learning and low level of radiation exposure. A radial arm maze was utilised to evaluate radiation-induced behavioural alterations and performance decrement in mice. Immediately after whole body exposure to gamma radiation (absorbed dose, 1 Gy) significant perturbations in the learned behaviour of the animals were observed. The regular control movement became irregular and the food consumption time was reduced appreciably (40%). Recovery took place in four days. If diltiazem (7 mg/kg b.w.), a Ca 2+ channel blocker and a radioprotector, was administered i.p. 20-30 min prior to irradiation, radiation-induced behavioural abnormalities were reduced. Mechanisms underlying protection by diltiazem against radiation-induced performance decrement observed in the present study need to be investigated. (author). 23 refs., 2 figs

  17. Radiation induced enterocolitis in uterine cervical cancer after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Risheng; Xu Lirong; Ye Shiqi; He Guilian; Li Jing; Wang Qiong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To approach the cause of radiation induced enterocolitis and its relationship with retropostion of the uterus in uterine cervical cancer after radiotherapy. Methods: Twenty-two patients with radiation induced enterocolitis, from 212 patients with uterine cervical cancer who had received radio-therapy during 2002-2005, were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence between patients with anteposition and patients with retroposition of uterus was compared. The distance between uterine central axis and the rectum of 15 patients with anteposition and 15 patients with retroposition of the uterus was measured, as well as the uterus retroversional flexion angle of the retropositioned uterus. Results: The incidence of radiation enterocolitis in patients with retroposition of uterus was obviously higher than that in patients with anteposition (χ 2 =21.10, P<0.01). The distance between point C and the rectum in patients with retroposition of uterus was shorter(t=7.33, P<0.05). The retroversional flexion angle of retropostitioned uterus were between 9-22 degree with a median angle of 17 degree. Conclusion: The incidence of radiation induced enterocolitis is higher in patients with retropostition of uterus after radiotherapy, because the distance between the uterine central axis and the rectum is shorter. The y axis and z axis often form an acute angle in the rectal direction during after-loading therapy, which would had led to an excessive dose to the rectum. (authors)

  18. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuele, W.; Gieb, M.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 130 0 C becoming negligibly small above 158 0 C and decreases drastically below 60 0 C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 40 0 C. Above 158 0 C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 158 0 C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  19. Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa-Rah; Ahn, Ji-Yeon; Han, Young-Soo; Shim, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook; Song, Jie-Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    One of the most common tumors in many countries is lung cancer and patients with lung cancer may take radiotherapy. Although radiotherapy may have its own advantages, it can also induce serious problems such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of {alpha}-SMA and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta}), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) are related to fibrosis. Among them TGF-{beta} with Smad signaling is known to be the main stream and other signaling molecules such as MAPK, ERK and JNK (3) also participates in the process. In addition to those above factors, it is thought that more diverse and complicate mechanisms may involve in the radiationinduced fibrosis. Therefore, to investigate the underlying mechanisms in radiation induced fibrosis, first of all, we confirmed whether radiation induces trans differentiation in human normal lung fibroblasts. Here, we suggest that not only TGF-{beta} but also radiation can induce trans differentiation in human lung fibroblast WI-38 and IMR-90.

  20. Radiation-induced products of peptides and their enzymatic digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, E.

    1983-01-01

    Chemical characterization of radiation-induced products of peptides and proteins is essential for understanding the effect of ionizing radiation on peptides and proteins. Furthermore, peptides containing radiation-altered amino acid residues might not be completely digestible by proteolytic enzymes. In this work, small homopeptides of Ala, Phe and Met were chosen as model peptides. Lysozyme was used to investigate the effect of ionizing radiation on a small protein. All peptides and lysozyme were irradiated in diluted, oxygen free, N 2 O-saturated aqueous solutions, using a 60 Co-γ-source. HPLC, capillary GC and GC-MS were applied to isolate and characterize the radiation-induced products. The enzymatic digestibility of the products was investigated using aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. It was found that irradiation of peptides examined in this work leads to racemization and alteration of amino acid residues and crosslinks between the peptide chains. In addition, it was established that exopeptidases act differently on radiation-induced dimers of peptides composed of aliphatic, aromatic and sulfur-containing amino acids

  1. Radiation-induced grain boundary segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, S.M.; Charlot, L.A.; Vetrano, J.S.; Simonen, E.P.

    1994-11-01

    Radiation-induced segregation (RIS) to grain boundaries in Fe-Ni-Cr-Si stainless alloys has been measured as a function of irradiation temperature and dose. Heavy-ion irradiation was used to produce damage levels from 1 to 20 displacements per atom (dpa) at temperatures from 175 to 550 degrees C. Measured Fe, Ni, and Cr segregation increased sharply with irradiation dose (from G to 5 dpa) and temperature (from 175 to about 350 degrees C). However, grain boundary concentrations did not change significantly as dose or temperatures were further increased. Although interfacial compositions were similar, the width of radiation-induced enrichment or depletion profiles increased consistently with increasing dose or temperature. Impurity segregation (Si and P) was also measured, but only Si enrichment appeared to be radiation-induced. Grain boundary Si peaked at levels approaching 10 at% after irradiation doses to 10 dpa at an intermediate temperature of 325 degrees C. No evidence of grain boundary silicide precipitation was detected after irradiation at any temperature. Equilibrium segregation of P was measured in the high-P alloys, but interfacial concentration did not increase with irradiation exposure. Comparisons to reported RIS in neutron-irradiated stainless steels revealed similar grain boundary compositional changes for both major alloying and impurity elements

  2. A case of radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in the chest wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaoka, Norio; Uchiyama, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Akihiro; Muraoka, Masashi; Kondou, Masamichi; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hashiyada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Koji [Oita Prefectural Hospital (Japan)

    1995-08-01

    A case of radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma arising from the chest wall is reported. A 34-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of an anterochest mass of 3 cm in diameter. He had been irradiated Liniac 6,000 rads for an invasive thymoma in the same area of the chest wall 6 years and 3 months before. A percutaneous needle biopsy of the mass indicated that it was histologically sarcoma. Chest CT scan visualized that the tumor localized in the chest wall. Wide en-bloc excision of the whole chest wall was performed. Histological diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma arising from the chest wall was made. He died of local recurrence one year and 6 months after the operation. Our case was fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Cahan`s radiation-induced sarcoma. Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma rarely occurs. A total of 10 cases including this case have been reported in the Japanese and foreign literature, which are also discussed and reviewed. (author).

  3. A case of radiation induced leiomyosarcoma in the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Norio; Uchiyama, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Akihiro; Muraoka, Masashi; Kondou, Masamichi; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hashiyada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Koji

    1995-01-01

    A case of radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma arising from the chest wall is reported. A 34-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of an anterochest mass of 3 cm in diameter. He had been irradiated Liniac 6,000 rads for an invasive thymoma in the same area of the chest wall 6 years and 3 months before. A percutaneous needle biopsy of the mass indicated that it was histologically sarcoma. Chest CT scan visualized that the tumor localized in the chest wall. Wide en-bloc excision of the whole chest wall was performed. Histological diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma arising from the chest wall was made. He died of local recurrence one year and 6 months after the operation. Our case was fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of Cahan's radiation-induced sarcoma. Radiation-induced leiomyosarcoma rarely occurs. A total of 10 cases including this case have been reported in the Japanese and foreign literature, which are also discussed and reviewed. (author)

  4. Controlling radiation induced segregation in austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedabadi, Parag M.; Kain, Vivekanand

    2011-01-01

    In-core components of austenitic stainless steels in light water reactors (LWRs) are susceptible to irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) in high temperature and high pressure oxygenated water at temperature around 300 deg C . Though, the exact mechanism for IASCC is not fully understood, radiation-induced segregation (RIS) is considered to be a part of a complex process that leads to IASCC. Therefore, controlling RIS in austenitic stainless steels may lead to improvement in resistance to IASCC. RIS is non-equilibrium segregation/depletion of alloying elements in austenitic stainless steels at LWR operating temperatures. RIS occurs due to adsorption of point defects at grain boundaries and leads to segregation of Si and P and depletion of Cr at grain boundaries. Thus by controlling point defect flux towards grain boundaries, the extent of RIS at grain boundaries can be controlled. An extensive study was carried out to simulate and control RIS in austenitic stainless steels using proton irradiation at 300 deg C . The primary aim of this study was to reduce point defect flux towards grain boundaries. Various approaches viz. grain boundary engineering, addition of oversized alloying element, residual strain within matrix and presence of fine precipitates within the grains and at grain boundaries were employed to control RIS in austenitic stainless steels. A novel approach involving combination of electrochemical technique followed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) examination has been used to examine the nature and the extent of RIS. Type 304, 316 and 347 stainless steels were irradiated at 300 deg C (in FOTIA and PELLETRON) in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 dpa using proton beam. The results obtained so far have indicated that a small amount of pre-strain within the grains is very effective in reducing the flux of point defects towards grain boundaries and reducing the extent of RIS at grain boundaries. The presence of NbC precipitates within the grains is

  5. Xerostomia associada ao uso de medicamentos em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A xerostomia, também conhecida como sensação de boca seca, tem como principal sinal uma redução na produção de volume salivar. É um problema comum em idosos e está principalmente associada ao uso de medicamentos com potencial xerostômico.  Além da sensação de boca seca, pode causar dificuldade ao deglutir alimentos, ao falar, adaptação de prótese, ardência na boca, halitose, cárie.  Este estudo tem por objetivo verificar a inter-relação entre o uso de medicamentos e a presença de xerostomia em 14 idosos residentes no Abrigo Nossa Senhora da Luz, Passo Fundo – RS, através da aplicação de questionário para análise dos fatores envolvidos em Xerostomia, como o uso de medicamentos, dados sociais, odontológicos e médicos; bem como de auto-percepção quanto aos sinais de xerostomia. Em seguida foi coletada amostra de saliva, mascando um pequeno pedaço de lençol de borracha (1cmx1cm e expelindo em um recipiente de plástico, após estímulo de um minuto para a mensuração de fluxo salivar (ml./min.. Encontrou-se como resultado em relação à xerostomia uma prevalência de 57.14% dentre os idosos avaliados, o uso de medicação antihipertensiva e antidepressiva em onze idosos (78,57%, o uso de ansiolíticos em cinco (35,71%, quatro de hiploglicemiantes (28,57%, oito (57,14% idosos corresponderam aos sintomas de secura bucal, cinco (35,72% a sensação de ardência, oito a sede constante (57,14% e dois (14,28% à dificuldade de deglutição. Conclui-se que a xerostomia é de causa multifatorial, estando associada à idade avançada devido a uma maior necessidade de uso concomitante de medicamentos com alto potencial xerostômico, sendo estes para tratamento de doenças sistêmicas.

  6. Relationship between radiation induced activation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in human cell line A431

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bom, Hee Seung; Min, Jung Jun; Kim, Kyung Keun; Choi, Keun Hee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between radiation-induced acivation of DNA repair genes and radiation induced apoptosis in A431 cell line. Five and 25 Gys of gamma radiation were given to A431 cells by a Cs-137 cell irradiator. Apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry using annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining. The expression of DNA repair genes was evaluated by both Northern and Western blot analyses. The number of apoptotic cells increased with the increased radiation dose. It increased most significantly at 12 hours after irradiation. Expression of p53, p21, and ℎRAD50 reached the highest level at 12 hours after 5 Gy irradiation. In response to 25 Gy irradiation, ℎRAD50 and p21 were expressed maximally at 12 hours, but p53 and GADD45 genes showed the highest expression level after 12 hours. Induction of apoptosis and DNA repair by ionizing radiation were closely correlated. The peak time of inducing apoptosis and DNA repair was 12 hours in this study model. ℎRAD50, a recently discovered DNA repair gene, was also associated with radiation-induced apoptosis.=20

  7. Prevalence of xerostomia in patients attending Shorish dental speciality in Sulaimani city

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients and explore the possible risk factors and symptoms associated with this condition. Patient and Methods: The prevalence of xerostomia and its associations were investigated among patients (n=1132) who were visiting the department of oral medicine at shorish dental speciality in sulaimani city. The age range was between 10-79 years. 512 (45.2%) of participants were males and 620 (54.8%) were females. The data collected were age, sex, systemic diseases, medications and habit of smoking. Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the association of xerostomia with age, systemic diseases and medications and Chi Square test was also used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of xerostomia was 16.07%. Prevalence of xerostomia was significantly higher among females (19.51%) than males (11.91%) (P=0.001). The most common diseases with the highest prevalence of xerostomia were psychological disorders (57.14%) followed by diabetes mellitus (53.84%), neurological disorders (40%), thyroid disorders (37.5%) and hypertension (36.48%). The most common medication with the highest prevalence of xerostomia was antihistamine (66.66%) followed by psychotherapeutic medications (60%), pain medications (55.88%), endocrinologic agents (51.21%), antidyslipidic agents (50%) and antihypertensive medication (38.98%). Xerostomia was significantly associated with ageing (OR: 1.02, P=0.000), systemic diseases (OR: 2.80, P=0.000) and medications (OR: 5.17, P=0.000). There was a high prevalence of reported symptoms of xerostomia and these symptoms were more prevalent among females, Prevalence of xerostomia was higher in heavy smoker patients (19.48%) than non smoker patients but not significantly (16.14%) (p= 0.44). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients; xerostomia was significantly more

  8. Xerostomia and salivary hypofunction in vulnerable elders: prevalence and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Dion, Michael R; Jurasic, M Marianne; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this article is to review existing research on the prevalence and etiology of dry mouth in the vulnerable elders and identify knowledge gaps. Vulnerable elders (VE) are persons aged >65 years who have any or all of the following: limited mobility, limited resources, or complex health status. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed sources from 1989 to May 2010. Evidence was evaluated on the prevalence and etiology of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction (SGH) in VE. The search identified 1,422 publications. The inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded 348 articles, 80 of which are cited herein. Research has showed a high prevalence of xerostomia and SGH in VE. Common etiologies include medications, poor general health, female gender, and age. Gaps still exist in the evaluation of dry mouth in VE. Nonetheless, oral dryness will remain an important health issue as life expectancy increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Xerostomia in geriatric patients: a burgeoning global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed; Preethanath, Reghunathan S; Patil, Shankargouda; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a key role in maintaining oral homeostasis, function, and health. The prevalence of xerostomia and its consequences are rising due to the increasing aging population, the effects of some systemic diseases, medical management, and commonly-prescribed medications that reduce saliva production. When salivary function is diminished, patients are at a greater risk of developing caries, discomfort in wearing dentures, and opportunistic diseases, such as candidiasis. The psychosocial aspects of xerostomia can range from a mild effect on self-rated oral health to frustration, embarrassment, unhappiness, or substantial disruptions in quality of life. This article reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and prevalence of dry mouth, as well as its treatment strategies. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. A case of xerostomia caused by exposure to radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusafuka, Yuji; Kamata, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Kurita, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    Oral radioiodine ( 131 I) therapy is known to be an effective treatment for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, but it can cause salivary gland impairment. We report a case of xerostomia caused by oral radioiodine therapy for thyroid cancer. A 47-year-old woman consulted our hospital because of tongue pain accompanied by xerostomia. The patient had a history of receiving radioiodine therapy for metastatic thyroid carcinoma 3 times (total 9,990 MBq). Clinical examination demonstrated oral dryness and reduced salivary gland function. On the gum test, the salivary flow was 2 ml in 6 minutes. It was hard to continue chewing for more than 6 minutes because of irritation. A computed tomographic scan showed atrophic changes of both parotid glands. On radioiodine whole-body imaging, uptake of radioiodine was evident in both the parotid and submandibular glands. Based on these findings, xerostomia caused by salivary gland injury due to radioiodine therapy was clinically diagnosed. The salivary gland injury was irreversible, and the patient received symptomatic therapy and pilocarpine hydrochoride. Early intervention to avoid salivary gland injury is important in patients who receive radioactive iodine therapy. (author)

  11. Radioprotective effects of melatonin on radiation-induced cataract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karslioglu, Ie.; Ertekin, M.V.; Taysi, S.; Kocer, Ie.; Sezen, O.; Koc, M.; Bakan, N.; Gepdiremen, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the mechanisms proposed to explain lens opacification is the oxidation of crystallins, either by radiation or reactive oxygen species (ROS). It has been shown that melatonin has both an anti-peroxidative effect on several tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant role of melatonin (5 mg/kg/day) against radiation-induced cataract in the lens after total-cranium irradiation of rats with a single dose of 5 Gy. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Control group received neither melatonin nor irradiation. Irradiated rats (IR) and melatonin+irradiated rats (IR+Mel) groups were exposed to total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose by using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. IR+Mel and melatonin (Mel) groups were administered 5 mg/kg melatonin daily by intraperitoneal injections during ten days. Chylack's cataract classification was used in this study. At the end of the 10 th day, the rats were killed and their eyes were enucleated to measure the antioxidant enzymes i.e. the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde (MDA)). Irradiation significantly increased the MDA level, as an end product of lipid peroxidation, and also significantly decreased SOD and GSH-Px activity, emphasizing the generation of increased oxidative stress. Rats injected with melatonin only did not cause cataract formation. Melatonin supplementation with irradiation significantly increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes and significantly decreased the MDA level. Total cranium irradiation of 5 Gy in a single dose enhanced cataract formation, and melatonin supplementation protected the lenses from radiation-induced cataract formation. Our results suggest that supplementing cancer patients with adjuvant therapy of melatonin may reduce patients suffering from toxic therapeutic regimens such as chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and may provide

  12. Construction of radiation - induced metastasis model in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Kuk; Jang, Su Jin; Kang, Sung Wook; Kim, Jae Sung; Hwang, Sang Gu; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    In treatment of cancer, distant metastases are important limiting factor because an estimated 50% of all cancer patients will develop metastases, and the metastases are major causing of cancer treatment failure. Recently a few reports indicated {gamma}-radiation induced an increase of invasiveness of several cancer cells. In this study, we had tried to show the possibility that radiation could also induce metastasis in vivo system. To prove our hypothesis, we constructed primary tumor by using C6-TL transfectant cell line expressing HSV1-tk and firefly luciferase (fLuc), and then {gamma}-radiation was treated to xenografts locally. Treatment of {gamma}-radiation to primary C6-TL xenografts of mice reduced size of xenografts and elongated survival of mice than those of mock control mice. But we also show that {gamma}-radiation treatment was followed by the growth of dormant metastases in various organs including lung and intestine after 2-4 weeks of {gamma}-radiation treatment. When bioluminescence imaging indicated growth of tumor in organs in mice, we sacrificed the mice and repeat acquired bioluminescence imaging after repeatedly. These images presented tumor growth locations exactly in organs. Because metastatic tumor candidates have morphology of foci, biopsies were performed for histological analysis or PCR analysis to confirm metastases. In most foci, histological analysis indicated several features of typical cancer tissue and PCR analysis showed present of fLuc gene in metastases. Detection of fLuc gene in metastases indicated these foci were originated from primary C6-TL xenografts, and the results suggest that {gamma}-radiation could promote metastasis in vivo as well as in vitro system. Although we need to understand changes of intracellular signaling or physiological phenomena of the radiation-induced metastasis yet, these results also imply that {gamma}-radiation treatment only to cancer patients need to pay attention carefully, and development of new

  13. Particle radiation-induced genetic damage in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, P.Y.; Bakke, J.; Lin, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Assessment of radiation-induced alterations in the genomic is important to determine both short and long-term effects after exposure. Transgenic mouse mutation model systems, based on the insertion of specific target genes into the genome of every cell of the animals, provide a rapid and efficient means to obtain statistically reliable results on the frequencies of mutations in all tissues without requiring prior drug selection and clonal expansion of the target cells. We are using the plasmid-based lacZ transgenic mouse model system to measure the dose- and temporal-dependent particle-radiation induced responses. We measured cytogenetic damage to the hematopoietic system as well as mutations in the transgene in both the brain and spleen tissues after an acute dose of 250 MeV/amu protons or 1 GeV/amu iron ions. The level of peripheral blood micronucleated reticulocytes (MN-RET) increased dramatically within 48 h after whole body exposure for both proton or iron irradiated animals and returned to control levels within 1 week after treatment suggesting that these severely damaged transient cell populations are rapidly eliminated from the body. Mutation frequencies (MF) of the lacZ transgene increased as a function of proton dose in the spleen and brain tissues at 1, 8 and 16 wks post irradiation. We demonstrated that the MF of the lacZ target transgene was responsive to low doses of protons with significant increases in the MF (p 0.5 Gy iron ions. The overall magnitude of induction of lacZ MF in the brain is lower than that of the spleen, suggesting that radiation-induced genetic effects are tissue-specific, and tissue physiology plays a role in determining the late effects after particle radiation. This work was supported by NASA/NSBRI NCC 9-58-163

  14. Effects of Thymosin Alpha-1 on Radiation-induced Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong YU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Radiation-induced lung injure is one of the major factors of limitation in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Whether the use of thymosin and radiotherapy simultaneously would increase the radiationinduced lung injure is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation induced pneumonitis in mice. Methods Three groups of mice, control (C, radiation alone (RT, thymosin alpha-1 plus radiation (T+RT, were entered into the study. The weight and mortality of mice, pleural effusion, quantity of protein and cell count in the bronchoalvealar lavage (BAL and pulmonary fibrosis score were evaluated as the outcome measures. Results The mortality ratio of the T+RT and RT groups were 3/14, 2/10, respectively. The time of death were all in the 23-24 weeks after radiotherapy. There was no pleural effusion in the T+RT group other than 2/2 occured in RT group. The quantity of protein, cell number and neutrophil number in the BAL and lung coefficient in mice of T+RT group were remarkably lower than that of RT group, but the BALF macrophages number was remarkably higher than that in RT group in the 8 weeks. The quantity of protein, cell number, neutrophil number and macrophages number in the BAL, lung coefficient, the scores of lung fibrosis in mice of T+RT group were significantly lower than that of RT group in the 24 weeks. All test data were lowest in mice of C group. And there was no obvious pulmonary fibrosis in the mice of C group. Conclusion Thymosin alpha-1 could relieve radiation-induced acute and late pulmonary injuries.

  15. Clinical evaluation of the intraoral fluoride releasing system in radiation-induced xerostomic subjects. Part 2: Phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Mellberg, James R; Keene, Harris J; Bouwsma, Otis J; Garden, Adam S; Sipos, Tibor; Fleming, Terence J

    2006-10-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia can result in the rapid onset and progression of dental caries in head and neck cancer patients. Topically applied fluorides have been successfully used to inhibit the formation of dental caries in this population. However, because intensive daily self-application is required, compliance is an issue. The intraoral fluoride-releasing system (IFRS) containing a sodium fluoride core is a newly developed, sustained-release, passive drug delivery system that does not require patient involvement except for periodic replacement, thus reducing the effect of patient compliance on its effectiveness in dental caries prevention. Twenty-two head and neck cancer patients from U. T. M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, with radiation-induced xerostomia, were entered into a pilot study to contrast the daily home use of a 0.4% stannous fluoride-gel-containing tray (control group) to IFRS (study group) with respect to tolerability and adherence, and to obtain information on relative caries preventive efficacy. Participants were stratified on the basis of radiation exposure and randomly assigned to treatment with either IFRS or stannous fluoride gel. Patients in both groups were fitted with two IFRS retainers and also were instructed to use a 1100-ppm fluoride conventional sodium fluoride dentifrice twice daily. The study was conducted as a single-blinded, parallel-cell trial. Pre-existing carious lesions were restored prior to the beginning of the study. The efficacy variable was determined by the mean number of new or recurrent decayed surfaces. Patients were examined for caries 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks after initiation of treatment. Reports of adverse reactions were based on information volunteered by patients and that were elicited during interviews. At baseline, the resting and stimulated salivary flow rates (g/5min) were significantly greater in the control group than in the study group (pIFRS groups during the study period. The rate of new or

  16. 'Like new': plastic wastes regeneration by radiation induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laizier, J.; Gaussens, G.; Lemaire, F.

    1978-01-01

    The reclaiming and the recycling of plastic wastes is made especially difficult when those wastes are a mixture of various plastics; this is due to the incompatibility of the polymers. The radiation induced grafting allows to overcome this incompatibility. Results are given which shows that, for various mixtures of reclaimed polyethylene, PVC and polystyrene, an improvement of the properties of the processed blends is obtained by grafting the mixtures of wastes by a suitable polymer; the obtained properties of those regenerated plastic blends are enough attractive from the technical point of view to open a market to those products with a reasonable economical value [fr

  17. Radiation-induced rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation of a recurrent meningeal haemangiopericytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka Kit Leung, G.; Chun Kit Lee, W.; Nicholls, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented in 1979 with a posterior fossa meningeal haemangiopericytoma (HPC) for which she underwent surgical resection and post-operative radiotherapy. Repeated tumor recurrences occurred 18 years afterwards which were treated with resections and stereotactic radiotherapy. Surgery for tumor recurrence in 2005 revealed features of rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation within a HPC which was likely to be radiation-induced, and was associated with relentless disease progression more than 20 years after the initial presentation. (author)

  18. Effect of electrodes in the radiation induced conductivity for polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio Filho, R.; Gross, B.

    1988-01-01

    Samples of PET with 23 μm thickness were exposed to continuous X-rays and the radiation-induced conductivity (RIC) as a function of time were measured, using electrodes of evaporated aluminum and gold. The results showed that the use of higher atomic number metal electrodes increase the received dose rate by sample, without almost modifying the time evolution of the RIC or its dependence with the applied electric field intensity. It is also showed that this increase is caused by the electrode placed in the face of the sample where the radiation strikes, as well as by the one placed in the oposite face. (author) [pt

  19. Management of radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftus, C.M.; Biller, J.; Hart, M.N.; Cornell, S.H.; Hiratzka, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with long survival following cervical irradiation are at risk for accelerated carotid atherosclerosis. The neurologic presentation in these patients mimics naturally occurring atheromatous disease, but patients often present at younger ages and with less concurrent coronary or systemic vascular disease. Hypercholesterolemia also contributes to this accelerated arteriosclerosis. Angiographic findings in this disorder include disproportionate involvement of the distal common carotid artery and unusually long carotid lesions. Pathologic findings include destruction of the internal elastic lamina and replacement of the normal intima and media with fibrous tissue. This article describes two surgical patients with radiation-induced accelerated carotid atherosclerosis who typify the presentation and characteristics of this disease

  20. Immobilization of yeast cells by radiation-induced polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, T.; Kaetsu, I.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation-induced polymerization method was applied to the immobilization of yeast cells. The effects of irradiation, cooling and monomer, which are neccessary for polymerization, were recovered completely by subsequent aerobical incubation of yeast cells. The ethanol productive in immobilized yeast cells increased with the increase of aerobical incubation period. The growth of yeast cells in immobilized yeast cells was indicated. The maximum ethanol productivity in immobilized yeast cell system was around three times as much as that in free yeast cell system. (orig.)

  1. Radiation induced degradation of some crystalline amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejvall, T.; Loefroth, G.

    1975-01-01

    The gamma-radiation induced degradation of five crystalline DL-amino acids, leucine, isoleucine, norleucine, valine, and norvaline, has been quantitatively studied. The major products are carboxylic acids formed by deamination of the amino acids, ammonia, amines formed by decarboxylation of the amino acids, and carbon dioxide. In addition, carbonyl compounds and amides, plus small amounts of hydrogen gas and various hydrocarbons have been detected. The total degradation, (-M), has been determined (by isotope dilution) to be 8 for valine and 14 for leucine. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced inhibition of RNA synthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, S.G.; Rustad, R.C.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation-induced disturbances in RNA synthesis were investigated in exponentially growing Tetrahymena. Sub-lethal doses of γ-radiation lead to a transient, dose-dependent decrease in the rate of total RNA synthesis measured by 3 H-uridine incorporation, without an alteration of 3 H-uridine uptake by the cells. The rate of 3 H-uridine incorporation decreased exponentially with dose. In contrast, the duration of inhibition of RNA synthesis was linearly dependent on dose. Target-theory calculations suggest that the sensitive molecule has a molecular weight of about 2x10 7 Daltons. (author)

  3. Use of radiation-induced polymers in cement slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.; Gogarty, W.B.

    1976-01-01

    Water loss from cement slurries is reduced by incorporating within a cement slurry a polymer obtained as a product of radiation-induced polymerization of acrylamide and/or methacrylamide and acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, and/or alkali metal salts thereof. The polymerization is preferably carried out in 10-60 percent aqueous monomer solution with gamma radiation. The aqueous monomer solution preferably contains 25-99 percent acrylamide and 75-1 percent sodium acrylate. The polymer can be present in concentration of about 0.001 to about 3.0 weight percent, based on the aqueous phase of the slurry

  4. Radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szekely, J.G.; Copps, T.P.; Morash, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    Using electron microscopy, we have measured radiation-induced invagination of the nuclear envelope of Chinese hamster V-79 and mouse L cells to produce a quantifiable radiation endpoint on a membrane system. In the dose ranges measured (800 to 3000 rad in L cells and 1270 to 5700 rad in V-79 cells), the amount of invagination increased with dose and continued to develop in intact cells for up to 72 hr after the original population was irradiated. Small vacuoles, which sometimes appeared in the nuclei of L cells, were also more numerous in irradiated cells and increased with dose and incubation time in a similar fashion to invagination development

  5. Radiation induced segregation and point defects in binary copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Considerable progress, both theoretical and experimental, has been made in establishing and understanding the influence of factors such as temperature, time, displacement rate dependence and the effect of initial solute misfit on radiation induced solute diffusion and segregation. During irradiation, the composition of the alloy changes locally, due to defect flux driven non-equilibrium segregation near sinks such as voids, external surfaces and grain boundaries. This change in composition could influence properties and phenomena such as ductility, corrosion resistance, stress corrosion cracking, sputtering and blistering of materials used in thermo-nuclear reactors. In this work, the effect of 1 MeV electron irradiation on the initiation and development of segregation and defect diffusion in binary copper alloys has been studied in situ, with the aid of a high voltage electron microscope. The binary copper alloys had Be, Pt and Sn as alloying elements which had atomic radii less than, similar and greater than that of copper, respectively. It has been observed that in a wide irradiation temperature range, stabilization and growth of dislocation loops took place in Cu-Sn and Cu-Pt alloys. Whereas in the Cu-Be alloy, radiation induced precipitates formed and transformed to the stable γ phase. (Author) [pt

  6. Radiation-induced segregation in binary and ternary alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, P.R.; Rehn, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of our current knowledge of radiation-induced segregation of major and minor elements in simple binary and ternary alloys as derived from experimental techniques such as Auger electron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, ion-backscattering, infrared emissivity measurements and transmission electron microscopy. Measurements of the temperature, dose and dose-rate dependences as well as of the effects of such materials variables as solute solubility, solute misfit and initial solute concentration has proved particularly valuable in understanding the mechanisms of segregation. The interpretation of these data in terms of current theoretical models which link solute segregation behavior to defect-solute binding interactions and/or to the relative diffusion rates of solute and solvent atoms the interstitial and vacancy migration mechanisms has, in general, been fairly successful and has provided considerable insight into the highly interrelated phenomena of solute-defect trapping, solute segregation, phase stability and void swelling. Specific examples in selected fcc, bcc and hcp alloy systems are discussed with particular emphasis given to the effects of radiation-induced segregation on the phase stability of single-phase and two-phase binary alloys and simple Fe-Cr-Ni alloys. (Auth.)

  7. Radiation-induced grafting of styrene on polypropylene pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Camila P.; Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    The changes of radiation-induced in polypropylene (PP) pellets exposed to gamma irradiation in inert atmosphere were investigated in correlation with the applied doses (10 and 50 kGy). Also, results from the grafting of styrene onto PP pellets using simultaneous irradiation at the same doses are presented. The grafting reaction was carried out using toluene as solvent, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The properties of the irradiated and grafted PP pellets were studied using Melt Flow Index, thermal analysis (TG and DSC), and ATR-IR. The degree of grafting (DOG) for the grafted pellets was gravimetrically determined. The results showed that radiation-induced graft polymerization on pellets were successfully obtained and the influence of dose irradiated did not change the thermal properties in spite of the increase in the MFI and consequently this increase in the viscosity results an decrease the molecular mass. The MFI for grafted pellets was not achievable because the high degree of viscosity of polymer, even arising the test temperature, the polymer was not flow enough. (author)

  8. Radiation-induced cataracts. Glance at some new data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-induced cataract has been up to now considered as a quite rare pathology, needing high-dose radiations (beyond a dose threshold roughly estimated at 2 Grays to the lens) consisting mainly in head tumour radiotherapy complications. Several new studies on different exposed populations such as astronauts, Japanese atomic bomb survivors, people undergoing X-ray examinations, Chernobyl accident 'liquidators' as well as data from animal experiments, suggest that dose threshold for detectable opacities as well as for clinical posterior sub-capsular cataract occurring, might be far lower than those previously assumed. Even the existence of a dose threshold is no longer an absolute certitude insofar as radiation-induced cataract pathogenesis might consist not really in a deterministic effect (direct tissue harmful effect, killing or seriously injuring a critical population of cells) as believed until now, but rather in a stochastic effect (genomic damage in target-cells, altered cell division, abnormal lens fibre cell differentiation). More practically, these new data may lead us to reconsider radioprotection of specifically exposed populations : mainly patients and workers. Regarding workers, labour legislation (lens equivalent dose limit of 150 mSv during 12 consecutive months) might be, in the medium term, reassessed downwards. (author)

  9. Novel Radiomitigator for Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, A-S; Shirazi-fard, Y.; Terada, M.; Alwood, J. S.; Steczina, S.; Medina, C.; Tahimic, C. G. T.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced bone loss can occur with radiotherapy patients, accidental radiation exposure and during long-term spaceflight. Bone loss due to radiation is due to an early increase in oxidative stress, inflammation and bone resorption, resulting in an imbalance in bone remodeling. Furthermore, exposure to high-Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation will impair the bone forming progenitors and reduce bone formation. Radiation can be classified as high-LET or low-LET based on the amount of energy released. Dried Plum (DP) diet prevents bone loss in mice exposed to total body irradiation with both low-LET and high-LET radiation. DP prevents the early radiation-induced bone resorption, but furthermore, we show that DP protects the bone forming osteoblast progenitors from high-LET radiation. These results provide insight that DP re-balances the bone remodeling by preventing resorption and protecting the bone formation capacity. This data is important considering that most of the current osteoporosis treatments only block the bone resorption but do not protect bone formation. In addition, DP seems to act on both the oxidative stress and inflammation pathways. Finally, we have preliminary data showing the potential of DP to be radio-protective at a systemic effect and could possible protect other tissues at risk of total body-irradiation such as skin, brain and heart.

  10. Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Takamasa, Tomoji

    2003-01-01

    For nuclear reactor systems, the critical heat flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60 Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and critical heat flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2 mm in thickness, 3 mm in height, and 60 mm in length. Oxidation of the surface was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800 kGy 60 Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases will surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results. (author)

  11. Radiation-induced skin carcinomas of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Preston, D.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation exposures to the scalp during childhood for tinea capitis were associated with a fourfold increase in skin cancer, primarily basal cell carcinomas, and a threefold increase in benign skin tumors. Malignant melanoma, however, was not significantly elevated. Overall, 80 neoplasms were identified from an extensive search of the pathology logs of all major hospitals in Israel and computer linkage with the national cancer registry. Radiation dose to the scalp was computed for over 10,000 persons irradiated for ringworm (mean 7 Gy), and incidence rates were contrasted with those observed in 16,000 matched comparison subjects. The relative risk of radiogenic skin cancer did not differ significantly between men or women or by time since exposure; however, risk was greatest following exposures in early childhood. After adjusting for sex, ethnic origin, and attained age, the estimated excess relative risk was 0.7 per Gy and the average excess risk over the current follow-up was 0.31/10(4) PY-Gy. The risk per Gy of radiation-induced skin cancer was intermediate between the high risk found among whites and no risk found among blacks in a similar study conducted in New York City. This finding suggests the role that subsequent exposure to uv radiation likely plays in the expression of a potential radiation-induced skin malignancy

  12. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Iki, Takehiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami

    2009-01-01

    Radiation therapy in those with head and neck malignancies often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied the numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores from 32 persons undergoing radiation therapy of 60-72 Gy for newly diagnosed laryngeal cancer. The degree of mucositis was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). We divided the 32 into a conventional fractionation (CF) group of 14 and a hyperfractionation (HF) group of 18, and further divided laryngeal cancer into a small-field group of 23 and a large-field group of 9. The mucositis pain course was similar in CF and HF, but mucositis pain was severer in the HF group, which also required more NSAIDs. Those in the large-field group had severer pain and mucositis and required more NSAIDs than those in the small-field group. We therefore concluded that small/large-field radiation therapy, rather fractionation type, was related to the incidence of radiation-induced mucositis pain. (author)

  13. Treatment of a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ichirou; Harashina, Takao; Inoue, Takeo; Ueda, Kouichi; Hatoko, Mituo; Shidara, Yukinobu; Ito, Yoshiyasu.

    1990-01-01

    A radiation-induced brachial plexopathy after a mastectomy causes severe pain and numbness, as well as motor and sensory disorders. Severe pain is often resistant to analgesic blocks, and in most instances, the effect of neurolysis is only temporary. We have treated two such patients with microsurgical neurolysis and then have covered the nerve by transferred muscles. In one case, the exposed brachial plexus was covered with a pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap, and in the other, with a free rectus abdominis muscle flap. Pain and numbness were markedly improved in these two patients soon after the surgery, and the improvement in the sensory function also was relatively satisfactory. In one case, the motor function also improved. These patients have had no recurrence of pain or numbness for 4 years and 2 months and 4 years and 7 months after surgery, respectively. Further, their sensory and motor disorders did not advance. Surgical indications for a radiation-induced brachial plexopathy remain controversial, since the operation does not always ensure a marked improvement in the sensory and motor functions. Further, the operation is ineffective for patients with advanced nerve degeneration. Taking these factors into consideration, the preoperative predication of beneficial effects from this surgery is difficult. Despite our limited experience, however, our surgical method has been thought to be effective because it achieves a marked improvement in the numbness and pain experienced in the arms, which are usually the patients' chief complaints. (author)

  14. Sestrin2 protects the myocardium against radiation-induced damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Yue-Can; Chi, Feng; Xing, Rui; Gao, Song; Chen, Jia-Jia; Duan, Qiong-Yu; Sun, Yu-Nan; Niu, Nan; Tang, Mei-Yue; Wu, Rong [Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center, Shenyang (China); Zeng, Jing [University of Washington School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seattle, WA (United States); Wang, Hong-Mei [Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Guangzhou (China)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Sestrin2 in response to radiation-induced injury to the heart and on the cardiomyopathy development in the mouse. Mice with genetic deletion of the Sestrin2 (Sestrin2 knockout mice [Sestrin2 KO]) and treatment with irradiation (22 or 15 Gy) were used as independent approaches to determine the role of Sestrin2. Echocardiography (before and after isoproterenol challenge) and left ventricular (LV) catheterization were performed to evaluate changes in LV dimensions and function. Masson's trichrome was used to assess myocardial fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect the capillary density. After 22 or 15 Gy irradiation, the LV ejection fraction (EF) was impaired in wt mice at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation when compared with sham irradiation. Compared to wt mice, Sestrin2 KO mice had significant reduction in reduced LVEF at 1 week and 4 months after irradiation. A significant increase in LV end-diastolic pressure and myocardial fibrosis and a significant decrease in capillary density were observed in irradiation-wt mice, as well as in irradiation-Sestrin2 KO mice. Sestrin2 involved in the regulation of cardiomyopathy (such as myocardial fibrosis) after irradiation. Overexpression of Sestrin2 might be useful in limiting radiation-induced myocardial injury. (orig.)

  15. The Role of Radiation Induced Injury on Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Puukila

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 90Y, 91Y, 144Ce, or 90Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. The radiation dose per cell turnover was characterized and related to the cause of death for each animal. Large doses per cell turnover resulted in acute death from lung damage with extensive cell killing, tissue disorganization, chronic inflammatory disease, fibrosis, and pneumonitis. Dogs with lower doses per cell turnover developed a very high frequency of lung cancer. As the dose per cell turnover was further decreased, no marked tissue damage and no significant change in either life span or lung cancer frequency was observed. Radiation induced tissue damage and chronic inflammatory disease results in high cancer frequencies in the lung. At doses where a high frequency of chromosome damage and mutations would be predicted to occur there was no decrease in life span or increase in lung cancer. Such research suggests that cell killing and tissue damage and the physiological responses to that damage are important mechanisms in radiation induced lung cancer.

  16. ROS Mediates Radiation-Induced Differentiation in Human Lung Fibroblast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sa Rah; Ahn, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Hyeung; Lim, Min Jin; Yun, Yeon Sook; Song, Jie Young [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    One of the most common tumors worldwide is lung cancer and the number of patients with lung cancer received radiotherapy is increasing rapidly. Although radiotherapy may have lots of advantages, it can also induce serious adverse effects such as acute radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis is characterized by excessive production of smooth muscle actin-alpha (a-SMA) and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) such as collagen and fibronectin. There has been a great amount of research about fibrosis but the exact mechanism causing the reaction is not elucidated especially in radiation-induced fibrosis. Until now it has been known that several factors such as transforming growth factor (TGF-b), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and reactive oxygen species are related to fibrosis. It is also reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be induced by radiation and can act as a second messenger in various signaling pathways. Therefore we focused on the role of ROS in radiation induced fibrosis. Here, we suggest that irradiation generate ROS mainly through NOX4, result in differentiation of lung fibroblast into myofibroblast.

  17. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, P.; Dubner, D.; Michelin, S.C.; Perez, M.R. Del

    1997-01-01

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  18. Radiation-induced cationic polymerization of vinyl ethers in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffieux, A.; Young, J.A.; Hsieh, W.C.; Squire, D.R.; Stannett, V.

    1983-01-01

    The influences of the polymerization media, the monomer and solvent concentrations and the temperature on the radiation-induced polymerization of isopropyl vinyl ether (IPVE) have been studied in detail under super-dry conditions. Rates of polymerization were measured and estimates of the rate constants of polymerization were calculated according to the simplified Hayashi-Williams equation. A comparison of the results with those previously reported for ethyl vinyl ether (EVE) is made. The much higher reactivity of IPVC in low polar solvents is interpreted by a drastic reduction of the polymer intramolecular solvation of the growing chain ends. This is ascribed to the bulkiness of the isopropyl side-chain groups. The radiation-induced polymerization of IPVE in bulk and in various solvents with different physical and solvating properties was studied. This was to obtain further information on the kinetics and the mechanisms involved with this monomer and also the role of the polymerization media. The influence of the monomer and solvent concentrations and of the polymerization temperature on the rate of polymerization have also been investigated. (author)

  19. Origin of specific chromosome aberration in radiation-induced leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Nobuhiko; Kai, Michiaki; Masuno, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    The theme in the title is discussed from the four aspects of specific chromosome aberration (sAb) patterns in radiation-induced leukemia (RIL), possibility for radiation to induce the sAb in RIL, any evidence for participation of delayed aberration to form sAb and the proportion of such healthy humans as having the specifically rearranged genome. Data of sAb observed in leukemia of 25 A-bomb survivors and of 38 patients post radiotherapy of cancers give a rather common pattern. However, many inconsistent results are obtained for sAb in patients post radiotherapy, A-bomb survivors, residents living in radio-contaminated houses in Taipei, in vitro exposure, and Chernobyl residents. At present, any clear evidence is available neither for sAb derived from the delayed aberration nor for estimating the proportion with the specifically rearranged gene. As above, it is unlikely that radiation induces such a translocation abnormality as BCR-ABL specifically seen in leukemia, and this aspect will be important for studies on the genesis of RIL and its risk assessment. (S.I.)

  20. Radiation-Induced Correlation between Molecules Nearby Metallic Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Osaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate optical absorption of molecules embedded nearby metallic antennas by using discrete dipole approximation method. It is found that the spectral peak of the absorption is shifted due to the radiation-induced correlation between the molecules. The most distinguishing feature of our work is to show that the shift is largely enhanced even when the individual molecules couple with localized surface plasmons near the different antennas. Specifically, we first consider the case that two sets of dimeric gold blocks with a spacing of a few nanometers are arranged and reveal that the intensity and spectral peak of the optical absorption strongly depend on the position of the molecules. In addition, when the dimeric blocks and the molecules are periodically arranged, the peak shift is found to increase up to ~1.2 meV (300 GHz. Because the radiation-induced correlation is essential for collective photon emission, our result implies the possibility of plasmon-assisted superfluorescence in designed antenna-molecule complex systems.

  1. Study on the piezoresistivity of radiation-induced point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochard, Andre.

    1976-06-01

    This study is made of two distinct part. In a first part experimental results on the elastoresistivity of radiation-induced point defects in gold are presented. A comparison with the results on copper and molybdenum confirms the exceptional annealing behavior of gold. However, as for copper, only interstitials contribute to elastoresistivity. The results can be understood if the elastoresistivity on gold is associated to Frenkel defects. In a second part an experimental set up is described allowing the dynamic measurement of the piezoresistivity associated to radiation-induced point defects. Experiments were carried out on pure copper and Al-Cu alloys. It is shown that both, the modulus and the phase angle of the complex piezoresistivity have to be measured simultaneously. The thermoelastic effect, a phenomenon due to temperature changes in the sample under rapidly varying strain was studied as a function of strain amplitude and frequency. A simple theory of this effect yields a correct description of the experimental results [fr

  2. Ionizing radiation induced conductivity in Mylar (PET) and Kapton (Polyimide)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregorio Filho, R.

    1986-01-01

    The extensive results of measurements of the prompt and delayed radiation-induced conductivity of samples of PET and Kapton are presented. Experimental parameters, such as the effective energy of the radiation, the exposure rate, the total dose, the value of the applied electric field, the nature of the electrodes, and the ambiental conditions were changed within wide limits. We also report measurement of thermally stimulated currents for non-irradiated and for irradiated samples which allowed us to investigate the trap-structure of the materials. Measurements of photo-Compton currents with different electrode materials and sample thicknesses gave information about the relation between the nature of the electrodes and the amplitudes of the currents. Based on the generalized rate theory of radiation-induced conduction we developed a theoretical model which includes the effect of the applied electric field on the carrier generation yield (geminate recombination, Onsager effect). Comparison of experimental and theoretical curves allowed us to determine the values of the main conduction parameters, such as carrier mobility, recombination coefficient, trap densities, for the materials under investigation. (Author) [pt

  3. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rij, C. M.; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, W. D.; Ackerstaff, A. H.; Lamers, E. A.; Balm, A. J. M.; Rasch, C. R. N.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Background and purpose: To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and methods: Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to

  4. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Rij (Caroline); W.D. Oughlane-Heemsbergen; A.H. Ackerstaff; E.A. Lamers; A.J.M. Balm (Alfons); C.R.N. Rasch (Coen)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground and purpose: To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods: Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to

  5. Xerostomia and chronic oral complications among patients treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Bots, C. P.; Raber-Durlacher, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the severity of xerostomia (subjective dry mouth) in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients and to investigate the association of xerostomia with other chronic oral complications. Cross-sectional study.Study participants and methods Participants were 48 patients with a

  6. Risk factors and symptoms associated with xerostomia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, A; Abati, S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the symptoms and risk factors associated with self-reported xerostomia. Data were collected from 601 self-administered questionnaires among dental clinic attendees. Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the association for exposures of interest, such as socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported symptoms, oral hygiene habits and xerostomia. Participants reported having dry mouth in 19.6% of cases. Xerostomia was associated with a significant increase in the odds of having dry lips, throat, eye, skin and nose. Patients with self-reported xerostomia were three times more likely to drink water to swallow food than were patients without xerstomia. Older individuals were significantly more likely to report dry mouth, and the prevalence of xerostomia increased with advancing age. The prevalence of xerostomia in patients taking one or more drugs was significantly higher compared to medication-free patients, and increased with increasing numbers of medications used. Finally, individuals with a nervous or mental disorder, or who wore removable dentures were five times more likely to develop xerostomia than patients without disorder or dentures. Dentists should be familiar with the symptoms of xerostomia and be prepared to take an active role in the diagnosis, management and treatment of the oral complications. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  7. Salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) are discussed, with a focus on the pathophysiology of salivary dysfunction in SS, the clinical presentation of dry mouth in SS, how to assess salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in SS, and the impact...

  8. The Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia questionnaire : Development and validation of a new questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetz, I.; Burlage, Fred; Bijl, H.P.; Chouvalova, Olga; Christianen, M.E.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.; de Bock, G.H.; Langendijk, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia (GRIX) questionnaire) that has the ability to distinguish between patient-rated xerostomia during day and night and can be used to evaluate the impact of emerging radiation

  9. Chewing gum and a saliva substitute alleviate thirst and xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Korevaar, Johanna C.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Bezemer, Pieter D.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; ter Wee, Piet M.; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V.

    2005-01-01

    Most patients on haemodialysis (HD) have to maintain a fluid-restricted diet to prevent a high interdialytic weight gain (IWG). The prevalence of xerostomia (the feeling of a dry mouth) is higher in HD patients than in controls. Recently, we demonstrated that xerostomia and thirst were positively

  10. Electrical nerve stimulation for xerostomia: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowri Sivaramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: To conclude, the current evidence does not support the use of TENS in patients with xerostomia and may be considered as a salivary substitute for symptomatic improvement. However the type, frequency and amplitude of current used needs to be studied in detail. High quality randomized controlled trials with adequate power are required, either to support or refute the use of TENS in xerostomia.

  11. Polymers under ionizing radiation: the study of energy transfers to radiation induced defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced defects created in polymers submitted to ionizing radiations, under inert atmosphere, present the same trend as a function of the dose. When the absorbed dose increases, their concentrations increase then level off. This behavior can be assigned to energy transfers from the polymer to the previously created macromolecular defects; the latter acting as energy sinks. During this thesis, we aimed to specify the influence of a given defect, namely the trans-vinylene, in the behavior of polyethylene under ionizing radiations. For this purpose, we proposed a new methodology based on the specific insertion, at various concentrations, of trans-vinylene groups in the polyethylene backbone through chemical synthesis. This enables to get rid of the variety of created defects on one hand and on the simultaneity of their creation on the other hand. Modified polyethylenes, containing solely trans-vinylene as odd groups, were irradiated under inert atmosphere, using either low LET beams (gamma, beta) or high LET beams (swift heavy ions). During irradiations, both macromolecular defects and H 2 emission were quantified. According to experimental results, among all defects, the influence of the trans-vinylene on the behavior of polyethylene is predominant. (author) [fr

  12. Acupuncture for pilocarpine-resistant xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Peng, Y. Peter; May, Byron C.; Inouye, Warren S.; Niemtzow, Richard C.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Xerostomia is a frequent and potentially debilitating toxicity of radiotherapy (XRT) for cancers of the head and neck. This report describes the use of acupuncture as palliation for such patients. Methods and Materials: Eighteen patients with xerostomia refractory to pilocarpine therapy after XRT for head and neck malignancy were offered acupuncture as palliation. All patients are without evidence of cancer recurrence at the primary site. Acupuncture was provided to three auricular points and one digital point bilaterally, with electrostimulation used variably. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was administered retrospectively to provide an objective measure of efficacy. Results: Acupuncture contributed to relief from xerostomia to varying degrees. Palliative effect as measured by the XI varied from nil to robust (pre- minus post- therapy values of over 20 points). Nine patients had benefit of over 10 points on the XI. Conclusions: Acupuncture reduces xerostomia in some patients who are otherwise refractory to best current management

  13. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. OBJECTIVE: Our objective...... was to compile a list of medications affecting salivary gland function and inducing xerostomia or subjective sialorrhea. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published until June 2013. Of 3867 screened records, 269 had an acceptable degree of relevance, quality of methodology......: While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when...

  14. The Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia questionnaire: Development and validation of a new questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetz, Ivo; Burlage, Fred R.; Bijl, Henk P.; Hoegen-Chouvalova, Olga; Christianen, Miranda E.M.C.; Vissink, Arjan; Laan, Bernard F.A.M. van der; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (Groningen Radiotherapy-Induced Xerostomia (GRIX) questionnaire) that has the ability to distinguish between patient-rated xerostomia during day and night and can be used to evaluate the impact of emerging radiation delivery techniques aiming at prevention of xerostomia in more detail. Materials and methods: All questions in the GRIX were generated from an exhaustive list of relevant questions according to xerostomia as reported in the literature and reported by patients and health care providers. Finally the GRIX was reduced from 56 questions to a 14-item questionnaire, with four subscales; xerostomia during day and night and sticky saliva during day and night. 315 patients filled out 2936 questionnaires and the GRIX was evaluated by calculating Crohnbach's α for all subscales. Criterion validity was evaluated to compare the GRIX with patient-rated xerostomia scored with the EORTC QLQ-HN35 and physician-rated xerostomia, test-retest analysis and responsiveness were also tested. Results: Crohnbach's α varied for all subscales between 0.88 and 0.94. The GRIX scored well for criterion-related validity on all subscales with high correlations with the EORTC QLQ-HN35 xerostomia and sticky saliva scale as well with physician-rated toxicity scoring. No significant differences were found between test and retest score and the GRIX showed good responsiveness with different time points for all subscales. Conclusion: The GRIX is a validated questionnaire which can be used in future research focusing on patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva during day and night in relation with the impact of emerging radiation delivery techniques aiming at reduction of xerostomia.

  15. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; Pxerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; Pxerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; Pxerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; Pxerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  16. Radiation induced genome instability: multiscale modelling and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

    2012-07-01

    Genome instability (GI) is thought to be an important step in cancer induction and progression. Radiation induced GI is usually defined as genome alterations in the progeny of irradiated cells. The aim of this report is to demonstrate an opportunity for integrative analysis of radiation induced GI on the basis of multiscale modelling. Integrative, systems level modelling is necessary to assess different pathways resulting in GI in which a variety of genetic and epigenetic processes are involved. The multilevel modelling includes the Monte Carlo based simulation of several key processes involved in GI: DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) generation in cells initially irradiated as well as in descendants of irradiated cells, damage transmission through mitosis. Taking the cell-cycle-dependent generation of DNA/chromosome breakage into account ensures an advantage in estimating the contribution of different DNA damage response pathways to GI, as to nonhomologous vs homologous recombination repair mechanisms, the role of DSBs at telomeres or interstitial chromosomal sites, etc. The preliminary estimates show that both telomeric and non-telomeric DSB interactions are involved in delayed effects of radiation although differentially for different cell types. The computational experiments provide the data on the wide spectrum of GI endpoints (dicentrics, micronuclei, nonclonal translocations, chromatid exchanges, chromosome fragments) similar to those obtained experimentally for various cell lines under various experimental conditions. The modelling based analysis of experimental data demonstrates that radiation induced GI may be viewed as processes of delayed DSB induction/interaction/transmission being a key for quantification of GI. On the other hand, this conclusion is not sufficient to understand GI as a whole because factors of DNA non-damaging origin can also induce GI. Additionally, new data on induced pluripotent stem cells reveal that GI is acquired in normal mature

  17. Sequential activation of proteases in radiation induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watters, D.; Waterhouse, N.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Significant advances have been made in recent years in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis particularly in relation to Fas- and TNF-mediated cell death, however there are considerable gaps in our knowledge of the processes involved in apoptosis induced by ionizing radiation. We have used the degradation of specific proteolytic targets in a pair of isogenic Burkitt's Iymphoma cells lines (BL30A, sensitive and BL30K resistant) to study the sequence of events in the execution of radiation-induced apoptosis. Fodrin can be cleaved to fragments of 150 kDa and 120 kDa. In the case of Fas-mediated apoptosis both cleavages are inhibited by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk at 10 μM, a concentration which inhibits all the hallmarks of apoptosis. However in radiation-induced apoptosis, inhibition of the clevage of fodrin to the 150 kDa fragment requires 100 μM zVAD-fink while apoptosis itself is inhibited at 10 μM. This suggests that different enzymes are responsible for the generation of the 150 kDa fragment in the two models of apoptosis. Fodrin has been reported to be cleaved by μ-calpain to a 150 kDa fragment however, the involvement of μ-calpain in apoptosis has not yet been established. In murine fodrin there is a caspase cleavage site within 1 kDa of the calpain cleavage site. In vitro studies using purified enzymes showed that only caspase-3 and μ-calpain could cleave fodrin in untreated cell extracts to the same sized fragments as seen during apoptosis in vivo. We provide evidence for the early activation of μ-calpain after ionizing radiation in the sensitive BL30A cell line, and show that the time course of μ-calpain activation parallels that of the appearance of the 150 kDa fragment. Caspase-3 is activated much later and is likely to be responsible for the generation of the 120 kDa fragment. μ-Calpain was not activated in the resistant cell line. Based on these results we propose a model for the proteolytic cascade in radiation-induced

  18. Radiation-induced Pulmonary Damage in Lung Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Su Mi; Choi, Ihl Bohng; Kang, Mi Mun; Kim, In Ah; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1993-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the incidence of radiation induced lung damage after the radiation therapy for the patients with carcinoma of the lung. Method and Materials: Sixty-six patients with lung cancer (squamous cell carcinoma 27, adenocarcinoma 14, large cell carcinoma 2, small cell carcinoma 13, unknown 10) were treated with definitive, postoperative or palliative radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy between July 1987 and December 1991. There were 50 males and 16 females with median age of 63 years(range: 33-80 years). Total lung doses ranged from 500 to 6,660 cGy (median 3960 cGy) given in 2 to 38 fractions (median 20) over a range of 2 to 150 days (median 40 days) using 6 MV or 15 MV linear accelerator. To represent different fractionation schedules of equivalent biological effect, the estimated single dose(ED) model, ED=D·N-0.377·T-0.058 was used in which D was the lung dose in cGy, N was the number of fractions, and T was the overall treatment time in days. The range of ED was 370 to 1357. The endpoint was a visible increase in lung density within the irradiated volume on chest X-ray as observed independently by three diagnostic radiologists. Patients were grouped according to ED, treatment duration, treatment modality and age, and the percent incidence of pulmonary damage for each group was determined. Result: In 40 of 66 patients, radiation induced change was seen on chest radiographs between 11 days and 314 days after initiation of radiation therapy. The incidence of radiation pneumonitis was increased according to increased ED, which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Roentgenographic charges consistent with radiation pneumonitis were seen in 100% of patients receiving radiotherapy after lobectomy or pneumonectomy, which was not statistically significant. In 32 patients who also received chemotherapy, there was no difference in the incidence of radiation induced charge between the group with radiation

  19. Effect of pH on radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, W. Song; Park, Heon J.; Lyons, John C.; Auger, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Hyung-Sik

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The effect of environmental pH on the radiation-induced apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro was investigated. Materials and Methods: SCK mammary adenocarcinoma cells of A/J mice were irradiated with γ-rays using a 137 Cs irradiator and incubated in media of different pHs. After incubation at 37 degree sign C for 24-120 hrs., the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, in situ TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, and release of 3 H from 3 H-thymidine labeled cells. The membrane integrity, using the trypan blue exclusion method, and the clonogenicity of the cells were also determined. Results: Irradiation with 2-12 Gy of γ-rays induced apoptosis in pH 7.5 medium within 48 hrs. The radiation-induced apoptosis progressively declined as the medium pH was lowered so that little apoptosis occurred in 48 hrs. after irradiation with 12 Gy in pH 6.6 medium. However, when the cells were irradiated and incubated for 48 hrs. in pH 6.6 medium and then medium was replaced with pH 7.5 medium, apoptosis promptly occurred. Apoptosis also occurred even in pH 6.6 medium when the cells were irradiated and maintained in pH 7.5 medium for 8 hrs. or longer post-irradiation before incubation in pH 6.6 medium. Conclusion: An acidic environment markedly suppresses radiation-induced apoptosis probably by suppressing the expression of initial signals responsible for irradiation-induced apoptosis. Indications are that the signals persist in an acidic environment and trigger apoptosis when the environmental acidity is eased. Our results suggest that the acidic environment in human tumors may inhibit the apoptosis after irradiation. However, apoptosis may be triggered when reoxygenation occurs after irradiation, and thus, the intratumor environment becomes less acidic after irradiation. Not only the change in pO 2 but the change in pH during the course of fractionated radiotherapy may greatly influence the outcome of the treatment

  20. Separation functional fibers by radiation induced graft polymerization and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.

    2007-01-01

    Commercially available non-woven fabric made of polyolefines was used as trunk polymer for radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP). Ion exchange, antimicrobial and catalytic function was introduced on the fabric by RIGP. All of these materials are commercialized. Ion exchange fabric prepared by RIGP are applied for chemical filter to remove ionic impurities in semiconductor factory and are also applied for continuous de-ionization apparatus to make pure water in combination with ion conductive spacer. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodide grafted fabric was produced as antimicrobial fabric and applied for mask. Metal oxide nanoparticle was immobilized onto the ion exchange fabric. This material has catalytic function and was applied for the removal of ozone from air. In all of these applications, long sheets of non-woven fabrics are applied as a trunk polymer. Manufacturing process of RIGP for long sheet is also reported here

  1. Radiation induced phosphorus segregation in austenitic and ferritic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brimhall, J.L.; Baer, D.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The radiation induced surface segregation (RIS) of phosphorus in stainless steel attained a maximum at a dose of 0.8 dpa then decreased continually with dose. This decrease in the surface segregation of phosphorus at high dose levels has been attributed to removal of the phosphorus layer by ion sputtering. Phosphorus is not replenished since essentially all of the phosphorus within the irradiation zone has been segregated to the surface. Sputter removal can explain the previously reported absence of phosphorus segregation in ferritic alloys irradiated at high dosessup(1,2) (>1 dpa) since irradiation of ferritic alloys to low doses has shown measurable RIS. This sputtering phenomenon places an inherent limitation to the heavy ion irradiation technique for the study of surface segregation of impurity elements. The magnitude of the segregation in ferritics is still much less than in stainless steel which can be related to the low damage accumulation in these alloys. (orig.)

  2. Radiation induced mutant crop varieties: accomplishment and societal deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2009-01-01

    One of the peaceful applications of atomic energy is in the field of agriculture. It finds application in crop improvement, crop nutrition, crop protection and food preservation. Genetic improvement of crop plants is a continuous endeavor. Success of a crop improvement programme depends on the availability of large genetic variability, which a plant breeder can combine to generate new varieties. In nature, occurrence of natural variability in the form of spontaneous mutations is extremely low (roughly 10 -6 ), which can be enhanced to several fold (approximately 10 -3 ) by using ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens. Radiation induced genetic variability in crop plants is a valuable resource from which plant breeder can select and combine different desired characteristics to produce better crop varieties. Crop improvement programmes at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) envisage radiation based induced mutagenesis along with recombination breeding in country's important cereals (rice and wheat), oilseeds (groundnut, mustard, soybean and sunflower), grain legumes (blackgram, mungbean, pigeonpea and cowpea), banana and sugarcane

  3. Radiation Induced Cystitis and Proctitis - Prediction, Assessment and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Supriya; Madan, Renu; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K

    2015-01-01

    Cystitis and proctitis are defined as inflammation of bladder and rectum respectively. Haemorrhagic cystitis is the most severe clinical manifestation of radiation and chemical cystitis. Radiation proctitis and cystitis are major complications following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation-induced haemorrhagic cystitis has been investigated using various oral agents with minimal benefit. Bladder irrigation remains the most frequently adopted modality followed by intra-vesical instillation of alum or formalin. In intractable cases, surgical intervention is required in the form of diversion ureterostomy or cystectomy. Proctitis is more common in even low dose ranges but is self-limiting and improves on treatment interruption. However, treatment of radiation proctitis is broadly non-invasive or invasive. Non-invasive treatment consists of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), anti-oxidants, sucralfate, short chain fatty acids and hyperbaric oxygen. Invasive treatment consists of ablative procedures like formalin application, endoscopic YAG laser coagulation or argon plasma coagulation and surgery as a last resort.

  4. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors).

  5. Melting and glass transition of radiation-induced graft polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Tokuda, T.

    1977-01-01

    Melting and glass transition data are reported employing DSC for styrene-grafted high-density polyethylene obtained by γ radiation. Judging from the data of the melting point and the heat of fusion, the grafted polystyrene had no effect on the polyethylene crystallites, but the half-width of the thermogram was observed to increase slightly, showing an effect on the crystallite size distribution. As no effect was observed on the glass transition temperature by grafting, the amorphous region of the polyethylene apparently was not affected. It is suggested, therefore, that the free volume or segmental mobility will not be decreased by radiation-induced grafting. Very few but long grafted chains had negligible effect on the average polyethylene chain length available for segmental motion, and grafted polystyrene should be expected to differ from the styrene homopolymer in thermal motions

  6. Molecular analysis of radiation-induced mutations in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    This review will focus on the nature of specific locus mutations detected in mammalian cells exposed in vitro to different types of ionizing radiations. Ionizing radiation has been shown to produce a wide variety of heritable alterations in DNA. These range from single base pair substitutions to stable loss or translocation of large portions of whole chromosomes. Data will be reviewed for certain test systems that reveal different mutation spectra. Techniques for the analysis of molecular alterations include applications of the polymerase chain reaction, some of which may be coupled with DNA sequence analysis, and a variety of hybridization-based techniques. The complexity of large scale rearrangements is approached with cytogenetic techniques including high resolution banding and various applications of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Radiation-induced mutant frequencies and mutation spectra are a function of the linkage constraints on the recovery of viable mutants for a given locus and test system. 44 refs

  7. Separation functional fibers by radiation induced graft polymerization and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K.

    2007-12-01

    Commercially available non-woven fabric made of polyolefines was used as trunk polymer for radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP). Ion exchange, antimicrobial and catalytic function was introduced on the fabric by RIGP. All of these materials are commercialized. Ion exchange fabric prepared by RIGP are applied for chemical filter to remove ionic impurities in semiconductor factory and are also applied for continuous de-ionization apparatus to make pure water in combination with ion conductive spacer. Polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodide grafted fabric was produced as antimicrobial fabric and applied for mask. Metal oxide nanoparticle was immobilized onto the ion exchange fabric. This material has catalytic function and was applied for the removal of ozone from air. In all of these applications, long sheets of non-woven fabrics are applied as a trunk polymer. Manufacturing process of RIGP for long sheet is also reported here.

  8. Ventricular tachycardia associated with radiation-induced cardiac sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Elijah H; Ballany, Wassim; Trohman, Richard G; Madias, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Cardiac tumors can lead to distinct electrocardiographic changes and ventricular arrhythmias. Benign and malignant cardiac tumors have been associated with ventricular tachycardia. When possible, benign tumors should be resected when ventricular arrhythmias are intractable. Chemotherapy can shrink malignant tumors and eliminate arrhythmias. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with breast sarcoma whom we diagnosed with myocardial metastasis after she presented with palpitations. The initial electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm with new right bundle branch block and ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads. During telemetry, hemodynamically stable, sustained ventricular tachycardia with right ventricular localization was detected. Images showed a myocardial mass in the right ventricular free wall. Amiodarone suppressed the arrhythmia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ventricular tachycardia associated with radiation-induced undifferentiated sarcoma. We discuss the distinct electrocardiographic changes and ventricular arrhythmias that can be associated with cardiac tumors, and we review the relevant medical literature.

  9. Radiation-induced spindle cell sarcoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mubeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has been known to induce malignant transformation in human beings. Radiation-induced sarcomas are a late sequel of radiation therapy. Most sarcomas have been reported to occur after exposure to a radiation dose of 55 Gray (Gy and above, with a dose ranging from 16 to 112 Gys. Spindle cell sarcomas, arising after radiotherapy given to treat the carcinoma of head and neck region is a very uncommon sequel. This is a rare case report of spindle cell sarcoma of left maxilla, in a 24-year-old male, occurring as a late complication of radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 given for the treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye 21 years back.

  10. Cell cycle regulation and radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaudon, V.

    2000-01-01

    Tight control of cell proliferation is mandatory to prevent cancer formation as well as to normal organ development and homeostasis. This occurs through checkpoints that operate in both time and space and are involved in the control of numerous pathways including DNA replication and transcription, cell cycle progression, signal transduction and differentiation. Moreover, evidence has accumulated to show that apoptosis is tightly connected with the regulation of cell cycle progression. In this paper we describe the main pathways that determine checkpoints in the cell cycle and apoptosis. It is also recalled that in solid tumors radiation-induced cell death occurs most frequently through non-apoptotic mechanisms involving oncosis, and mitotic or delayed cell death. (author)

  11. Structure and radiation induced swelling of steels and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    Regularities of vacancy void formation and radiation induced swelling of austenitic chromium-nickel steels and alloyse ferritic steels as well as titanium α-alloys under radiation by light and heavy ions and neutrons are considered. Possible methods for preparation of alloys with increased resistance to radiation swelling are described. Accounting for investigations into ferritic steels and α-alloys of titanium the basic way of weakening vacancy smelling is development of continuous homogeneous decomposition of solid solution using alloying with vividly expressed incubation period at a certain volumetric dilatation as well as decompositions of the type of ordering, K-state, lamination of solid solutions, etc. Additional alloying of solid solutions is also shown to be necessary for increasing recrystallization temperature of cold-deformed steel

  12. Radiation-Induced Heart Disease: Pathologic Abnormalities and Putative Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil K Taunk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a common diagnosis in women. Breast radiation has become a critical in managing patients who receive breast conserving surgery, or have certain high-risk features after mastectomy. Most patients have an excellent prognosis, therefore understanding the late effects of radiation to the chest is important. Radiation induced heart disease (RIHD comprises a spectrum of cardiac pathology including myocardial fibrosis and cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, pericardial disease, and arrhythmias. Tissue fibrosis is a common mediator in RIHD. Multiple pathways converge with both acute and chronic cellular, molecular, and genetic changes to result in fibrosis. In this article, we review the pathophysiology of cardiac disease related to radiation therapy to the chest. Our understanding of these mechanisms has improved substantially, but much work remains to further refine radiation delivery techniques and develop therapeutics to battle late effects of radiation.

  13. Radiation-induced mucositis pain in mesopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Mizuta, Masanobu; Matsubara, Mami; Iki, Takehiro

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy in head and neck malignancy often triggers painful mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). To better understand how radiation-induced pain develops over time, we studied numerical rating scale (NRS 0-5) pain scores in 27 subjects undergoing 60-72 Gy radiation therapy for newly diagnosed cancer- 13 with mesopharynx and 14 with hypopharynx. Mucositis severity was evaluated using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0) based on mucositis pain, analgesic administration, and oral feedings of our subjects, with 8 mesopharyngeal and 10 with hypopharyngeal cancer had been pain-free before radiation therapy. The mucositis and pain course was severer in mesopharyngeal than in hypopharyngeal cancer. NSAIDs and opioid use was similar in both cancer types, which also required tube feeding in 7 subjects (38.9%). (author)

  14. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  15. Radiation induced crystallinity damage in poly(L-lactic acid)

    CERN Document Server

    Kantoglu, O

    2002-01-01

    The radiation-induced crystallinity damage in poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) in the presence of air and in vacuum, is studied. From the heat of fusion enthalpy values of gamma irradiated samples, some changes on the thermal properties were determined. To identify these changes, first the glass transition temperature (T sub g) of L-lactic acid polymers irradiated to various doses in air and vacuum have been investigated and it is found that it is independent of irradiation atmosphere and dose. The fraction of damaged units of PLLA per unit of absorbed energy has been measured. For this purpose, SAXS and differential scanning calorimetry methods were used, and the radiation yield of number of damaged units (G(-u)) is found to be 0.74 and 0.58 for PLLA samples irradiated in vacuum and air, respectively.

  16. γ-radiation-induced solution polymerization of some methyl aryloxymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarajan, Ramaswamy; Balakrishnan, Thaikkannu; Santappa, M.; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian.

    1981-01-01

    The kinetics of γ-radiation-induced solution polymerization of methyl phenoxymethacrylate (MPMA) and methyl p-cresoxymethacrylate (MCMA) in toluene has been studied at 30 and 0 0 C and at dose rates of 0.3, 0.15, and 0.75 Mrad h -1 . The rates of polymerization, which were found to increase with increasing monomer concentration, have direct dependence on dose rate and [monomer] and have inverse dependence on [solvent]. The apparent energies of activation measured at 0.3 Mrad h -1 for MPMA and MCMA respectively are: 46.8 kJ mol -1 and 11.7 kJ mol -1 . The polymerization proceeded in spite of the presence of the inhibitor p-hydroxyphenyl methyl ether (PHME). This suggests that the mechanism of polymerization may be predominantly ionic. A suitable reaction scheme has been proposed. (author)

  17. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario

  18. Two cases of radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) after mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayama, Satoshi; Tamura, Gen; Akasaka, Toshihide; Kon, Saiichi; Ishida, Motoo; Saitoh, Kazuyoshi

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) appearing after mastectomy were reported. First case; 51-year-old female. She was irradiated with 42 Gy rads Linac after mastectomy for breast cancer. Seven years later, fibrosarcoma appeared and she died of the complications after two years. Second case; 59-year-old female. She was irradiated with 80 Gy 60 Co after mastectomy for breast cancer. Twenty-five years later, malignant fibrous histyocytoma appeared. The patient has been well for two years although the tumor once recurred locally. The occurrence rate of RIS after mastectomy is approaching 1% in our hospital. The cases which receive additional radiation therapy after the conservative surgery for localized breast cancer have been on the increase. Therefore, the radiation therapy should be carried out for appropriate patients, and if it is performed, long-term follow-up is necessary. (author)

  19. Studies on radiation induced changes in bovine hemoglobin type A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wdzieczak, J.; Duda, W.; Leyko, W.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the structural and functional changes of gamma irradiated bovine hemoglobin are presented. Aqueous solutions/1%/of HbO 2 were irradiated in air with doses ranging from 1 to 4 Mrad. Isoelectric focusing indicated change of the charge of irradiated hemoglobin. The isoelectric point of hemoglobin was displaced towards more acid values with increasing doses, up from 1 Mrad. Fingerprint analysis and peptide column chromatography of irradiated hemoglobin demonstrated disturbances increasing with the dose. These changes were confirmed by amino acid analysis which showed that Cys, Met, Trp, His, Pro and Tyr residues were destroyed or modified following irradiation. At doses exceeding 1 Mrad the irradiated solutions of hemoglobin showed a decrease of heme-heme interaction and an increase of affinity for oxygen. Differences observed in oxygen-dissociation curves seem to be correlated with the radiation induced destruction of amino acid residues which are responsible for the functional properties of hemoglobin. (auth.)

  20. Influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoki, Kaori; Matsuda, Ken-Ich; Ikebe, Kazunori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Thomson, William Murray

    2014-06-01

    Xerostomia and tooth loss are major oral health problems in the elderly. The aim of this longitudinal study was to characterize the influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among elderly Japanese people. A total of 99 community-dwelling, independently living individuals aged 60 years and older were interviewed and underwent dental examination at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 and the Xerostomia Inventory were used to assess OHRQoL and xerostomia severity, respectively. Participants whose xerostomia worsened over the 5-year period had a significantly poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Linear regression models showed that tooth loss and worsening xerostomia were significant predictors of poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Tooth loss and worsening xerostomia result in poorer OHRQoL among older Japanese people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of salidroside on radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jincan; Chen Xiaoyu; Liu Chengcheng; Zhu Aizhen; Liu Shantao; Liu Gexiu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential and underlying molecular mechanism of salidroside in ameliorating radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and stimulating hematopoiesis. Methods: The female BALB/c mice aged 6-7 weeks were randomly divided into normal control group, radiation group and salidroside group. The radiation group and salidroside group were irradiated with 6.0 Gy of 60 Co γ-rays. The salidroside group was intraperitoneally injected with 30 mg·kg -1 ·d -1 salidroside at 12 h and then every day until 8th d after radiation. The normal control group and radiation group were treated with equal volume of saline as control of salidroside. At 14 d after radiation, the mice weight, peripheral blood count, femur bone marrow histology, and the proportion of adipocyte area were measured, and the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 were detected by q-PCR. Results: After irradiation, the numbers of white blood cells, hemoglobin and platelet in peripheral blood were reduced obviously, and the percentage of adipocyte area was increased significantly. Compared with mice in the radiation group, salidroside inhibited adipogenesis and reduced the proportion of adipocyte area (t = 13.31, P < 0.05) by reducing the expressions of PPAR-γ and FABP4 (t = 8.64, 13.19, P < 0.05). The number of white blood cells was partly recovered at 7 d after irradiation (t = 5.80, P < 0.05). Both white blood cells and hemoglobinin in peripheral blood of the salidroside group were higher than those in the radiation group at 14 d after irradiation. Conclusions: Salidroside could inhibit radiation-induced bone marrow adipogenesis and regulate bone marrow microenvironment, thereby promotes hematopoietic recovery in mice after radiation injury. (authors)

  2. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiravova, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  3. Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.; Hartmann, Andreas; Limoli, Charles L.; Nagar, Shruti; Ponnaiya, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Exposure of GM10115 hamster-human hybrid cells to X-rays can result in the induction of chromosomal instability in the progeny of surviving cells. This instability manifests as the dynamic production of novel sub-populations of cells with unique cytogenetic rearrangements involving the "marker" human chromosome. We have used the comet assay to investigate whether there was an elevated level of endogenous DNA breaks in chromosomally unstable clones that could provide a source for the chromosomal rearrangements and thus account for the persistent instability observed. Our results indicate no significant difference in comet tail measurement between non-irradiated and radiation-induced chromosomally unstable clones. Using two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization we also investigated whether recombinational events involving the interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences in GM10115 cells were involved at frequencies higher than random processes would otherwise predict. Nine of 11 clones demonstrated a significantly higher than expected involvement of these interstitial telomere repeat-like sequences at the recombination junction between the human and hamster chromosomes. Since elevated levels of endogenous breaks were not detected in unstable clones we propose that epigenetic or bystander effects (BSEs) lead to the activation of recombinational pathways that perpetuate the unstable phenotype. Specifically, we expand upon the hypothesis that radiation induces conditions and/or factors that stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These reactive intermediates then contribute to a chronic pro-oxidant environment that cycles over multiple generations, promoting chromosomal recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability.

  4. Role of Oxidative Damage in Radiation-Induced Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Alwood, Joshua S.; Limoli, Charles L.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2014-01-01

    used an array of countermeasures (Antioxidant diets and injections) to prevent the radiation-induced bone loss, although these did not prevent bone loss, analysis is ongoing to determine if these countermeasure protected radiation-induced damage to other tissues.

  5. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  6. Chronic radiation-induced dermatitis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spałek M

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mateusz Spałek Department of Radiotherapy I, The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw, Poland Abstract: Chronic radiation dermatitis is a late side effect of skin irradiation, which may deteriorate patients’ quality of life. There is a lack of precise data about its incidence; however, several risk factors may predispose to the development of this condition. It includes radiotherapy dose, fractionation, technique, concurrent systemic therapy, comorbidities, and personal and genetic factors. Chronic radiation dermatitis is mostly caused by the imbalance of proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Clinical manifestation includes changes in skin appearance, wounds, ulcerations, necrosis, fibrosis, and secondary cancers. The most severe complication of irradiation is extensive radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF. RIF can manifest in many ways, such as skin induration and retraction, lymphedema or restriction of joint motion. Diagnosis of chronic radiation dermatitis is usually made by clinical examination. In case of unclear clinical manifestation, a biopsy and histopathological examination are recommended to exclude secondary malignancy. The most effective prophylaxis of chronic radiation dermatitis is the use of proper radiation therapy techniques to avoid unnecessary irradiation of healthy skin. Treatment of chronic radiation dermatitis is demanding. The majority of the interventions are based only on clinical practice. Telangiectasia may be treated with pulse dye laser therapy. Chronic postirradiation wounds need special dressings. In case of necrosis or severe ulceration, surgical intervention may be considered. Management of RIF should be complex. Available methods are rehabilitative care, pharmacotherapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and laser therapy. Future challenges include the assessment of late skin toxicity in modern irradiation techniques. Special attention should be paid on genomics and

  7. Radiation induces aerobic glycolysis through reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Jim; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Brizel, David M.; Frees, Amy E.; Ramanujam, Nirmala; Batinic-Haberle, Ines; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although radiation induced reoxygenation has been thought to increase radiosensitivity, we have shown that its associated oxidative stress can have radioprotective effects, including stabilization of the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). HIF-1 is known to regulate many of the glycolytic enzymes, thereby promoting aerobic glycolysis, which is known to promote treatment resistance. Thus, we hypothesized that reoxygenation after radiation would increase glycolysis. We previously showed that blockade of oxidative stress using a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic during reoxygenation can downregulate HIF-1 activity. Here we tested whether concurrent use of this drug with radiotherapy would reduce the switch to a glycolytic phenotype. Materials and methods: 40 mice with skin fold window chambers implanted with 4T1 mammary carcinomas were randomized into (1) no treatment, (2) radiation alone, (3) SOD mimic alone, and (4) SOD mimic with concurrent radiation. All mice were imaged on the ninth day following tumor implantation (30 h following radiation treatment) following injection of a fluorescent glucose analog, 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diaxol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG). Hemoglobin saturation was measured by using hyperspectral imaging to quantify oxygenation state. Results: Mice treated with radiation showed significantly higher 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to controls (p = 0.007). Hemoglobin saturation analysis demonstrated reoxygenation following radiation, coinciding with the observed increase in glycolysis. The concurrent use of the SOD mimic with radiation demonstrated a significant reduction in 2-NBDG fluorescence compared to effects seen after radiation alone, while having no effect on reoxygenation. Conclusions: Radiation induces an increase in tumor glucose demand approximately 30 h following therapy during reoxygenation. The use of an SOD mimic can prevent the increase in aerobic glycolysis when used

  8. Defense mechanisms against radiation induced teratogenic damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, F.; Ootsuyama, A.; Nomoto, S.; Norimura, T.

    2002-01-01

    Experimental studies with mice have established that fetuses at midgestational stage are highly susceptible to malformation at high, but not low, doses of radiation. When DNA damage is produced by a small amount of radiation, it is efficiently eliminated by DNA repair. However, DNA repair is not perfect. There must be defense mechanisms other than DNA repair. In order to elucidate the essential role of p53 gene in apoptotic tissue repair, we compared the incidence of radiation-induced malformations and deaths (deaths after day 10) in wild-type p53 (+/+) mice and null p53 (-/-) mice. For p53 (+/+) mice, an X-ray dose of 2 Gy given at a high dose-rate (450 mGy/min) to fetuses at 9.5 days of gestation was highly lethal and considerably teratogenic whereas it was only slightly lethal but highly teratogenic for p53 (-/-) fetuses. This reciprocal relationship of radiosensitivity to malformations and deaths supports the notion that fetal tissues have a p53 -dependent idguardianln of the tissue that aborts cells bearing radiation-induced teratogenic DNA damage. When an equal dose of 2 Gy given at a 400-fold lower dose-rate (1.2 mGy/min), this dose became not teratogenic for p53 (+/+) fetuses exhibiting p53 -dependent apoptosis, whereas this dose remained teratogenic for p53 (-/-) fetuses unable to carry out apoptosis. Furthermore, when the dose was divided into two equal dose fractions (1+1 Gy) at high dose rate, separated by 24 hours, the incidences of malformations were equal with control level for p53 (+/+), but higher for p53 (-/-) mice. Hence, complete elimination of teratogenic damage from irradiated tissues requires a concerted cooperation of two mechanisms; proficient DNA repair and p53-dependent apoptotic tissue repair

  9. Radiation-induced apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Lee, Tae Bum; Nam, Taek Keun; Kee, Keun Hong; Choi, Cheol Hee

    2003-01-01

    This study quantitatively evaluated the apoptosis in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using flow cytometry, and investigated the possibility of using this method, with a small amount of blood, and the time and dose dependence of radiation-induced apoptosis. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from the heparinized venous blood of 11 healthy volunteers, 8 men and 3 women, with each 10 ml of blood being divided into 15 samples. The blood lymphocytes were irradiated using a linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2.4 Gy/min, to deliver doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy. The control samples, and irradiated cells, were maintained in culture medium for 24, 48 and 72 hours following the irradiation. The number of apoptotic cells after the in vitro X-irradiation was measured by flow cytometry after incubation periods of 24, 48 and 72 hours. We also observed the apoptotic cells using a DNA fragmentation assay and electron microscopy. The rate of spontaneous apoptosis increased in relation to the time interval following irradiation (1.761±0.161, 3.563±0.564, 11.098±2.849, at 24, 48, and 72 hours). The apoptotic cells also increased in the samples irradiated with 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 Gy, in a radiation dose and time interval after irradiation manner, with the apoptosis being too great at 72 hours after irradiation. The dose-response curves were characterized by an initial steep increase in the number of apoptotic cells for irradiation doses below 2 Gy, with a flattening of the curves as the dose approached towards 5 Gy. The flow cytometric assay technique yielded adequate data, and required less than 1 mL of blood. The time and dose dependence of the radiation-induced apoptosis, was also shown. It is suggested that the adequate time interval required for the evaluation of apoptosis would be 24 to 48 hours after blood sampling

  10. Genetic analysis of radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kominami, R.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Niwa, O.

    2003-01-01

    Mouse thymic lymphomas are one of the classic models of radiation-induced malignancies, and the model has been used for the study of genes involved in carcinogenesis. ras oncogenes are the first isolate which undergoes mutations in 10 to 30 % of lymphomas, and p16INK4a and p19ARF in the INK4a-ARF locus are also frequently inactivated. In our previous study, the inactivation of Ikaros, a key regurator of lymphoid system, was found in those lymphomas, and it was suggested that there are other responsible genes yet to be discovered. On the other hand, genetic predisposition to radiation-induced lymphoma often differs in different strains, and this reflects the presence of low penetrance genes that can modify the impact of a given mutation. Little study of such modifiers or susceptibility genes has been performed, either. Recent availability of databases on mouse genome information and the power of mouse genetic system underline usefulness of the lymphoma model in search for novel genes involved, which may provide clues to molecular mechanisms of development of the radiogenic lymphoma and also genes involved in human lymphomas and other malignancies. Accordingly, we have carried out positional cloning for the two different types of tumor-related genes. In this symposium, our current progress is presented that includes genetic mapping of susceptibility/ resistance loci on mouse chromosomes 4, 5 and 19, and also functional analysis of a novel tumor suppressor gene, Rit1/Bcl11b, that has been isolated from allelic loss (LOH) mapping and sequence analysis for γ -ray induced mouse thymic lymphomas

  11. Pilocarpina no tratamento de xerostomia em pacientes submetidos à iodoterapia: estudo piloto Pilocarpine used to treat xerostomia in patients submitted to radioactive iodine therapy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Almeida

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Xerostomia é uma queixa tardia frequente associada à iodoterapia. Terapias para o tratamento desta morbidade podem proporcionar melhora na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com câncer de tireoide submetidos à iodoterapia adjuvante. OBJETIVOS: Relatar a experiência com o uso da pilocarpina no tratamento de xerostomia em pacientes com câncer de tireoide submetidos à iodoterapia adjuvante. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cinco pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão e receberam 5mg de pilocarpina, 3 vezes ao dia, por uma semana. Os efeitos colaterais do medicamento e a resposta subjetiva à queixa de xerostomia após o tratamento foram avaliados. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Trata-se de um estudo prospectivo, não-randomizado. RESULTADOS: Sudorese foi o efeito colateral mais comum com o uso da pilocarpina, seguido por cansaço e dor de cabeça. Dois pacientes relataram alívio da xerostomia com o uso da medicação, mas somente um paciente foi capaz de tolerar os efeitos colaterais. CONCLUSÕES: Pilocarpina parece aliviar os sintomas de xerostomia em pacientes submetidos à iodoterapia, já que o medicamento é capaz de estimular o fluxo salivar. No entanto, os efeitos colaterais observados inviabilizam seu uso por recusa por parte dos pacientes em continuar a terapia por períodos mais longos.Xerostomia complaint is very commonly associated to radioactive iodine therapy. Alternatives to treat this morbidity can offer better quality of life to patients with thyroid cancer submitted to adjuvant iodine therapy. AIM: to report on the experience with pilocarpine on the treatment of xerostomia in thyroid cancer patients submitted to adjuvant radioactive iodine therapy (RIT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The five patients who met the inclusion criteria received 5mg of pilocarpine, 3 tid for one week. Side effects of the drug and subjective response to xerostomia complaints after treatment were evaluated. DESIGN: it is a prospective, non-randomized study. RESULTS

  12. An evidence-based review literature about risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2013-05-01

    This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older) experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction. The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present) including clinical trials (CT), randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology. Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol), lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator), night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects. Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia.

  13. Different saliva substitutes for treatment of xerostomia following radiotherapy. A prospective crossover study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, F.; Volegova-Neher, N.J.; Guttenberger, R.; Schulte-Moenting, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and methods: in 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were tested in a prospective crossover design. Xerostomia at baseline and under treatment with each compound was measured with a questionnaire approved in a pilot trial. Results: all compounds significantly improved xerostomia when compared to baseline situation (p < 0.0001). The gel was rated best, the carmellose spray was rated worst by the patients, but the single compounds did not differ significantly in their effects. In spite of this result, most patients chose the carmellose spray as their favorite compound. This is due to its good taste and easy handling, which play an important role for the acceptance of the products. Big individual differences in the preference of the single compounds were found. Conclusion: for most patients considerable relief from xerostomia can be reached by saliva substitutes. Thus, every patient with xerostomia should be given different artificial saliva compounds for a test period. This will help to find the individually best way to cope with the dry mouth. (orig.)

  14. Postradiotherapy quality of life for head-and-neck cancer patients is independent of xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringash, Jolie; Warde, Padraig; Lockwood, Gina; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Cummings, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and xerostomia over time for patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer in a prospective clinical trial. Methods and materials: Patients with head-and-neck cancer were randomized to pilocarpine (n = 65) vs. placebo (n = 65) during RT. QOL was measured using the McMaster Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ). Xerostomia was measured on a linear analog scale. No statistically significant differences were observed between arms; all 130 patients were analyzed together. Results: Baseline QOL data were obtained for 98.5% of participants. The baseline HNRQ score of 5.7 declined significantly to 4.0 (p <0.0001) by RT Week 6 and returned to baseline (5.8) by 6 months after treatment. This represents a large, clinically important change of 1.7 of 7 (24%; effect size 1.34). The decline in HNRQ score during RT paralleled the onset of xerostomia on the linear analog scale (r = 0.36 at 1 month). After treatment, the QOL scores recovered without improvement in xerostomia. The trajectory of the linear analog scale score resembled that of the HNRQ's single xerostomia question (r = 0.75 at 1 month). Conclusion: Quality of life recovers to baseline after RT, despite persistent xerostomia. Either a response shift occurs or xerostomia in the absence of acute mucositis has a relatively small influence on overall QOL

  15. Hyposalivation and xerostomia among Parkinson's disease patients and its impact on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, A G; Heinzler, A; Derman, Shm; Hellmich, M; Timmermann, L; Noack, M J

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects oral health (OH). However, the informative value of xerostomia compared to objective parameters and its impact on quality of life (QoL) are still unclear. This study aimed to explore whether xerostomia correlates with hyposalivation and to define its impact on OH-related QoL. Whole stimulated saliva (WSS) was collected from 30 patients with PD and 30 matched healthy controls. Objective parameters (community periodontal index of treatment needs, plaque/gingivitis index, mucosa situation and cheilitis angularis) and questionnaires (German Oral Health Impact Profile [OHIPG]-14, visual analogue scale [VAS], xerostomia [yes/no] and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-II) were assessed. Eighty-seven per cent of patients with PD showed hyposalivation vs 50% of controls (P = 0.001); 50% of patients with PD reported xerostomia, and none of controls (P xerostomia reported mean VAS values of 4.1 (s.d.: 2.2). WSS did not correlate with VAS values. Half of the patients with PD reported xerostomia and underestimated their xerostomic status, with higher probability than healthy controls. WSS did not reflect the grade of xerostomia. Patients with PD suffered from impaired OH-related QoL. Dental teams should not overlook these oral health risks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  17. Frequency of burning mouth and subjective xerostomia in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salehi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disease which have numerous physical effects for patients. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of subjective xerostomia and burning mouth of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in cities of Sari and Qaemshahr. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, totally 1455 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with complain of xerostomia and/or burning mouth which had referred to diabetes clinic in Sari and Qaemshahr were examined in 2016. For every patient asked about chronic xerostomia and burning mouth and if the answer was positive, the oral examination was done to ensure the absence of mucosal lesions and find signs of xerostomia. Then, xerostomia questionnaire was completed by patients suffering from dry mouth. Finally, the information was statistically analyzed by T test and chi square test. Findings: Prevalence of burning mouth was found 111 (7.6% in diabetic patients that in the women were significantly higher than in men (P<0.0001. Prevalence of xerstomia patients was found 239 (16.4% that was not significant between the male and female. There was a significant correlation between burning mouth and xerostomia with FBS and HbA1c in diabetic patients (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Possibility of burning mouth, and xerostomia will increase in the diabetic patients with low metabolic control which can cause more severe side effects related to oral health.

  18. Relationship of hyposalivation and xerostomia in Mexican elderly with socioeconomic, sociodemographic and dental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Borges-Yáñez, Aida; Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Ángel; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2017-01-17

    We determined the prevalence of hyposalivation and xerostomia in older Mexicans (≥60 years), and its relationship with diverse factors. A cross-sectional study was realized in elderly subjects from Pachuca, Mexico. Chewing-stimulated saliva was collected under standardized conditions and salivary flow was measured; subjects were considered to have hyposalivation if their stimulated salivary flow was less than 0.7 mL per minute. Xerostomia was evaluated by asking subjects 'Does your mouth feel dry?'. Hyposalivation was present in 59.7%, and xerostomia in 25.2% of subjects. 16.5% of subjects had both conditions. Xerostomia was present in 27.7% of subjects with hyposalivation and 21.4% of subjects without hyposalivation, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Thus, 68.3% of older Mexicans had xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Factors associated with hyposalivation were: using fewer devices in oral hygiene, lacking social benefits for retirement/pension, living in a public retirement home, brushing teeth less than twice a day and lacking teeth without dentures. None of the factors included in this study were associated with xerostomia. We concluded that several variables studied were associated with hyposalivation, but none for xerostomia. Additional research should examine the amount of hyposalivation and factors associated with hyposalivation especially in elderly with increased risk for hyposalivation.

  19. Proteomic Profiling of Radiation-Induced Skin Fibrosis in Rats: Targeting the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenjie [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Luo, Judong [Department of Radiotherapy, Changzhou Tumor Hospital, Soochow University, Changzhou (China); Sheng, Wenjiong; Xue, Jiao; Li, Ming [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Ji, Jiang [Department of Dermatology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Pengfei [Department of Gastroenterology, the Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University, Jiangyin (China); Zhang, Xueguang [Institute of Medical Biotechnology and Jiangsu Stem Cell Key Laboratory, Medical College of Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cao, Jianping [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Zhang, Shuyu, E-mail: zhang.shuyu@hotmail.com [School of Radiation Medicine and Protection and Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Cyrus Tang Hematology Center, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2016-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the molecular changes underlying the pathogenesis of radiation-induced skin fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Rat skin was irradiated to 30 or 45 Gy with an electron beam. Protein expression in fibrotic rat skin and adjacent normal tissues was quantified by label-free protein quantitation. Human skin cells HaCaT and WS-1 were treated by x-ray irradiation, and the proteasome activity was determined with a fluorescent probe. The effect of proteasome inhibitors on Transforming growth factor Beta (TGF-B) signaling was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The efficacy of bortezomib in wound healing of rat skin was assessed by the skin injury scale. Results: We found that irradiation induced epidermal and dermal hyperplasia in rat and human skin. One hundred ninety-six preferentially expressed and 80 unique proteins in the irradiated fibrotic skin were identified. Through bioinformatic analysis, the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway showed a significant fold change and was investigated in greater detail. In vitro experiments demonstrated that irradiation resulted in a decline in the activity of the proteasome in human skin cells. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib suppressed profibrotic TGF-β downstream signaling but not TGF-β secretion stimulated by irradiation in HaCaT and WS-1 cells. Moreover, bortezomib ameliorated radiation-induced skin injury and attenuated epidermal hyperplasia. Conclusion: Our findings illustrate the molecular changes during radiation-induced skin fibrosis and suggest that targeting the ubiquitin-proteasome system would be an effective countermeasure.

  20. Evidence for Radiation-Induced Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation as a Major Cause of Radiation-Induced Death in Ferrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Savage, Alexandria R.; Billings, Paul C.; Lin, Liyong; Kennedy, Ann R., E-mail: akennedy@mail.med.upenn.edu

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The studies reported here were performed as part of a program in space radiation biology in which proton radiation like that present in solar particle events, as well as conventional gamma radiation, were being evaluated in terms of the ability to affect hemostasis. Methods and Materials: Ferrets were exposed to 0 to 2 Gy of whole-body proton or gamma radiation and monitored for 30 days. Blood was analyzed for blood cell counts, platelet clumping, thromboelastometry, and fibrin clot formation. Results: The lethal dose of radiation to 50% of the population (LD{sub 50}) of the ferrets was established at ∼1.5 Gy, with 100% mortality at 2 Gy. Hypocoagulability was present as early as day 7 postirradiation, with animals unable to generate a stable clot and exhibiting signs of platelet aggregation, thrombocytopenia, and fibrin clots in blood vessels of organs. Platelet counts were at normal levels during the early time points postirradiation when coagulopathies were present and becoming progressively more severe; platelet counts were greatly reduced at the time of the white blood cell nadir of 13 days. Conclusions: Data presented here provide evidence that death at the LD{sub 50} in ferrets is most likely due to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). These data question the current hypothesis that death at relatively low doses of radiation is due solely to the cell-killing effects of hematopoietic cells. The recognition that radiation-induced DIC is the most likely mechanism of death in ferrets raises the question of whether DIC is a contributing mechanism to radiation-induced death at relatively low doses in large mammals.

  1. Diagnostic performance of labial minor salivary gland flow measurement for assessment of xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Iikubo, Masahiro; Shoji, Noriaki; Sakamoto, Maya; Sasano, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Minor salivary gland flow rate (MF) has been proposed as a key feature of xerostomia (subjective feeling of dry mouth). To assess its diagnostic performance, MF was compared in xerostomia and control subjects. Sixty-six subjects with xerostomia and 30 controls were enrolled. MF was measured in the lower labial mucosa using the iodine-starch filter paper method. Stimulated whole salivary flow rates were also measured using the gum test (stimulated-WF). Both labial-MF and stimulated-WF were significantly lower in xerostomia subjects than in controls. There was a positive correlation between labial-MF and stimulated-WF in control but not xerostomia subjects. In xerostomia subjects compared to controls, there was a significantly larger reduction in labial-MF than in stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most accurately diagnosed using a labial-MF cutoff value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy at this cutoff value were 1.00, 0.87, 0.93, 1.00, and 0.96, respectively. Compared to respective values of 0.64, 1.00, 1.00, 0.56, and 0.75 for stimulated-WF at the traditional cutoff of 1.0 mL/min, these data indicate the higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of labial-MF. Xerostomia was more strongly related to reduction of labial-MF than to that of stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most likely triggered at a labial-MF cut-off value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min based on results from the iodine-starch method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on the Clinical Significance and Related Factors of Thirst and Xerostomia in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Feng Fan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyse the clinical significance and related factors of thirst and xerostomia and to find methods to alleviate thirst and xerostomia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD patients. Methods: Forty-two MHD patients were included for observational study and eleven patients were enrolled for crossover trial. Thirst was assessed by 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS and dialysis thirst inventory (DTI. Meanwhile, xerostomia was assessed by VAS and xerostomia inventory (XI. Depression, kidney disease quality of life (KDQOL, salivary flow rates and inter dialytic weight gain (IDWG were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations between continuous variables. The results of crossover trial were investigated by two-sample T-tests. Results: Strong positive correlations among DTI, VAS thirst score, XI and VAS xerostomia score were found (P=0.000. Daily IDWG was positively correlated with VAS thirst score (r=0.315, P=0.042 and DTI(r=0.391, P=0.010. UWS (unstimulated whole saliva was negatively correlated with VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.308, P=0.048. Residual urine output was negatively correlated with DTI (r=-0.402, P=0.008, VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.461, P=0.002 and XI (r=-0.403, P=0.008. In the crossover trial, DTI, XI, IDWG2d, IDWG3d, VAS thirst and xerostomia score were significantly reduced by the use of chewing gum (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.009, 0.017, 0.038, 0.001. The VAS thirst score, DTI and IDWG3d were significantly reduced by receiveing straw (P=0.016, 0.003, 0.049. Conclusion: Thirst and xerostomia might affect the quality of life in MHD patients. Both chewing gum and straw could decrease thirst and IDWG.

  3. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  4. Increased radiosensitivity and radiation-induced apoptosis in SRC-3 knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jie; Wang Yu; Xu Yang; Chen Shilei; Wang Junping; Ran Xinze; Su Yongping; Wang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a multifunctional transcriptional coactivator, plays an important role in regulation of cell apoptosis in chemoresistant cancer cells. However, its role in radiation-induced apoptosis in hematopoietic cells is still unclear. In this study, we used SRC-3 knockout (SRC-3 -/- ) mice to assess the role of SRC-3 in radiation-induced hematopoietic injury in vivo. After a range of doses of irradiation, SRC-3 -/- mice exhibited lower counts of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) mononuclear cells and excessive BM depression, which resulted in a significantly higher mortality compared with wildtype mice. Moreover, BM mononuclear cells obtained from SRC-3 -/- mice showed a remarkable increase in radiation-induced apoptosis. Collectively, our data demonstrate that SRC-3 plays a role in radiation-induced apoptosis of BM hematopoietic cells. Regulation of SRC-3 might influence the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic cells, which highlights a potential therapeutic target for radiation-induced hematopoietic injury. (author)

  5. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-15

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10{sup 35} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to {phi}{sub eq}=10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E{sub C}-0.460 eV and E205a at E{sub C}-0.395 eV where E{sub C} is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V{sub 3}) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V{sub 3} defect

  6. Influence of radiation induced defect clusters on silicon particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junkes, Alexandra

    2011-10-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) addresses some of today's most fundamental questions of particle physics, like the existence of the Higgs boson and supersymmetry. Two large general-purpose experiments (ATLAS, CMS) are installed to detect the products of high energy protonproton and nucleon-nucleon collisions. Silicon detectors are largely employed in the innermost region, the tracking area of the experiments. The proven technology and large scale availability make them the favorite choice. Within the framework of the LHC upgrade to the high-luminosity LHC, the luminosity will be increased to L=10 35 cm -2 s -1 . In particular the pixel sensors in the innermost layers of the silicon trackers will be exposed to an extremely intense radiation field of mainly hadronic particles with fluences of up to Φ eq =10 16 cm -2 . The radiation induced bulk damage in silicon sensors will lead to a severe degradation of the performance during their operational time. This work focusses on the improvement of the radiation tolerance of silicon materials (Float Zone, Magnetic Czochralski, epitaxial silicon) based on the evaluation of radiation induced defects in the silicon lattice using the Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy and the Thermally Stimulated Current methods. It reveals the outstanding role of extended defects (clusters) on the degradation of sensor properties after hadron irradiation in contrast to previous works that treated effects as caused by point defects. It has been found that two cluster related defects are responsible for the main generation of leakage current, the E5 defects with a level in the band gap at E C -0.460 eV and E205a at E C -0.395 eV where E C is the energy of the edge of the conduction band. The E5 defect can be assigned to the tri-vacancy (V 3 ) defect. Furthermore, isochronal annealing experiments have shown that the V 3 defect exhibits a bistability, as does the leakage current. In oxygen

  7. Radiation-induced segregation in light-ion bombarded Ni-8% Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packan, N.H.; Heatherly, L.; Kesternich, W.; Schroeder, H.

    1986-01-01

    Tensile specimens 60 μm thick of Ni-8 at. % Si have been bombarded at 475 0 C to doses of 0.1 to 0.3 dpa with either 7 MeV proton or 28 MeV alpha particle beams. Deliberate embrittlement by high temperature (700 0 C) preimplantation of helium was required to produce intergranular fracture. Depth profile sputtering and analysis in a Scanning Auger Microprobe was then used to study radiation-induced segregation of silicon both at the external surfaces and at internal interfaces. The external surfaces exhibited a strongly silicon-enriched zone for the first 10 to 20 nm followed by a broad (approx.200 nm), shallow silicon-depleted region. Segregation of silicon to grain boundaries varied from interface to interface and possibly from region to region on a given interface. In general, however, depth profiles of silicon content with distance from internal boundaries showed no noticeable depletion zone and a more gradual fall-off compared to the profiles from external surfaces. The variations of RIS among boundaries and with type of interface probably reflect, at least in part, intrinsic differences in sink efficiency

  8. Role of Honey in Prevention of Radiation induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvi, Z. A.; Mahmood, A.; Rasul, S.; Ali, U.; Arif, S.; Ishtiaq, S.; Maqsood, T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of honey in preventing radiation induced mucositis (RIM) in patients with head and neck cancers. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Oncology Department of Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from July 2011 to September 2012. Patients and Methods: Sixty patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer requiring radiotherapy to the oropharyngeal mucosa were randomized into two groups to receive either radiation alone or radiation and natural honey. Patients were treated using 6-MV X-ray beams from linear accelerator at a dose rate of 2 Gy per day five times a week up to a dose of 66 Gy. In the treatment group, patients were advised to take 20 ml of pure honey 15 minutes before, 15 minutes after and 6 hours after radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated every week for the development of RIM using the WHO oral mucositis grading system. Results: In treatment group, out of 30 patients, 4(13%) developed grade 3 RIM and none developed grade 4 RIM. In control group, out of 30 patients, 12 (40%) developed grade 3 or 4 RIM (p=0.039). Four patients (13%) in treatment group lost more than 5 Kg weight during the course of radiotherapy compared to 16 patients (53%) in control group (p=0.002). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that honey is a simple and cost effective treatment to prevent RIM. Large scale randomized trials are needed to confirm the results of our study. (author)

  9. Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandary, Satheesh; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Madhu, L.N.

    2012-01-01

    Nardostachys jatamansi (family Valerianaceae), an indigenous medicinal plant induces in organism a state of resistance against stress. It helps to promote physical and mental health augment resistance of the body against disease and has shown potent antioxidant activity. To study the anxiolytic and protective effect of 100 mg of ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi was studied on the mice exposed to 6 Gy Electron beam radiation (EBR). The animals were treated with 100 mg of Nardostachys jatamansi extract (NJE) for 15 days before radiation exposure. The anxiety status of animals observed once for every 3 days during experiment period. The level of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) was estimated 15 days after irradiation. The irradiation of animals resulted in an elevation in anxiety, lipid peroxidation and reduction in GSH. Treatment of mice with NJE before irradiation caused a significant depletion in anxiety, lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in GSH. Our results indicate that the protective activity of NJE on radiation induced anxiety and oxidative stress may be due to free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  10. Radiation-induced amorphization of Langasite La3Ga5SiO14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Tiankai; Lu, Fengyuan; Zhang, Haifeng; Gong, Bowen; Ji, Wei; Zuo, Lei; Lian, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Single crystals of Langasite La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS) were irradiated by 1 MeV Kr2+ ions at temperature range from 298 to 898 K in order to simulate the damage effect of neutron radiation on Langasite, a candidate sensor material proposed as high temperature and pressure sensors in nuclear reactors. The microstructure evolution of LGS as functions of irradiation dose and temperature was followed by in-situ TEM observation through electron diffraction pattern. LGS is found to be sensitive to ion beam irradiation-induced amorphization from displacive heavy ions with a low critical dose of ∼0.5 ± 0.2 dpa (neutron fluence of (1.6 ± 0.6) × 1019 neutrons/cm2) at room temperature. The critical amorphization temperature, Tc, is determined to be 910 ± 10 K. Under simultaneous ionizing electron (300 keV, 45 nA) and displacive heavy ion irradiations (1-MeV Kr2+ and flux of 6.25 × 1011 ions/cm2·s), LGS displayed greater stability of crystal structure against amorphization, possibly due to the electron radiation-induced recovery of displacive damage by heavy ions.

  11. Radiation-induced bystander effects in cultured human stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykyta V Sokolov

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiation-induced "bystander effect" (RIBE was shown to occur in a number of experimental systems both in vitro and in vivo as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR. RIBE manifests itself by intercellular communication from irradiated cells to non-irradiated cells which may cause DNA damage and eventual death in these bystander cells. It is known that human stem cells (hSC are ultimately involved in numerous crucial biological processes such as embryologic development; maintenance of normal homeostasis; aging; and aging-related pathologies such as cancerogenesis and other diseases. However, very little is known about radiation-induced bystander effect in hSC. To mechanistically interrogate RIBE responses and to gain novel insights into RIBE specifically in hSC compartment, both medium transfer and cell co-culture bystander protocols were employed.Human bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC and embryonic stem cells (hESC were irradiated with doses 0.2 Gy, 2 Gy and 10 Gy of X-rays, allowed to recover either for 1 hr or 24 hr. Then conditioned medium was collected and transferred to non-irradiated hSC for time course studies. In addition, irradiated hMSC were labeled with a vital CMRA dye and co-cultured with non-irradiated bystander hMSC. The medium transfer data showed no evidence for RIBE either in hMSC and hESC by the criteria of induction of DNA damage and for apoptotic cell death compared to non-irradiated cells (p>0.05. A lack of robust RIBE was also demonstrated in hMSC co-cultured with irradiated cells (p>0.05.These data indicate that hSC might not be susceptible to damaging effects of RIBE signaling compared to differentiated adult human somatic cells as shown previously. This finding could have profound implications in a field of radiation biology/oncology, in evaluating radiation risk of IR exposures, and for the safety and efficacy of hSC regenerative-based therapies.

  12. Scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced damage and lethality in zebrafish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Nitisha; Joshi, Jayadev; Ghosh, Subhajit; Dimri, Manali; Prem Kumar, Indracanti; Sehgal, Neeta

    2014-01-01

    In view of the strategic importance radiation countermeasures hold, the present study was undertaken to screen a collection of small molecule clinical compounds for possible radioprotective action using zebrafish as a model system. Preliminary screening in developing zebrafish embryos (24 hour post fertilization, (hpf)) using damage manifestations and survival as end point identified scopolamine methylbromide (SMB), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, as a potential radiomitigator. It was found to be optimal (60% survival advantage after 6 th post irradiation day) at a dose of 80 μM when added 3 h post 20 Gy exposure. Mechanistic studies suggested that SMB though exhibited no significant antioxidant potential, but was found to limit radiation induced apoptosis (pre G1 population) quantified through flow cytometry (6 and 5% reduction after 8 or 24 h after treatments) and annexin V staining (8% reduction). Further, quantitative analysis, using caspase 3 assay, revealed a 2.46 fold increase in apoptosis in irradiated group and treatment of irradiated zebrafish embryos with SMB led to a significant reduction in global apoptosis (1.7 fold; p<0.05) when compared to irradiated group. In silico studies based on structural and functional similarity with known radioprotectors suggested similarities with atropine, a known anti-inflammatory agent with muscarinic antagonism and radioprotective potential. In view of this SMB was tested, in silico, for possible anti-inflammatory action. Molecular docking studies revealed that SMB interacts (B.E-8.0 Kcal/mole) with cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2). In lieu of this, anti-inflammation activity was assessed through ChIN (chemically induced inflammation) method in 3 dpf (days post fertilization) embryos and SMB was found to significantly inhibit inflammation at all doses studied from 20-200 μM at 3 and 6 hpi (hours post inflammation). Overall the result suggests that scopolamine methylbromide mitigates radiation induced injury and lethality in

  13. Phase III evaluation of sucralfate for radiation-induced esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, W.L.; Loprinzi, C.L.; Buskirk, S.J.; Sloan, J.A.; Novotny, P.J.; Drummond, R.G.; Frank, A.R.; Shanahan, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: To evaluate whether an oral sucralfate solution could prevent or alleviate symptoms of radiation-induced esophagitis in patients receiving thoracic radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: Patients considered for this trial must have been adults scheduled to receive thoracic radiation therapy to include the mediastinum to a dose of ≥ 5,000 cGy using 150 to 200 cGy per fraction or ≥ 4,000 cGy using ≥ 300 cGy per fraction. Contraindications to study participation included a known intolerance to sucralfate; previous radiation to the chest; planned use of sucralfate off study; pregnant or nursing women; cancers involving the mucosa of the esophagus; and/or an inability to take oral medications. Patients were stratified by their radiation therapy treatment plan, their age and their sex. Following stratification, they were randomized in a double blind manner to receive a sucralfate solution or an identical-appearing placebo solution. Esophagitis was measured by the treating physician, using the RTOG esophagitis toxicity grading criteria, at weekly intervals during the course of radiation therapy. In addition, patients completed short questionnaires weekly during the course of radiation therapy and for four weeks following completion of their radiation treatment program. Results: One hundred and two patients were randomized onto this study between August of 1993 and July of 1994. One patient was ineligible and four patients were cancelled prior to starting any study medication, leaving 97 total evaluable patients. All of the stratification factors were well balanced but there was a slightly higher incidence of current tobacco use in the placebo group. There was a differential drop out rate between the two arms. During the first two treatment weeks, only two of the placebo patients (4%) compared to 20 of the sucralfate patients (40%) dropped out of the study. After the second week, relatively equal drop out rates were seen with 9 sucralfate

  14. Radiation-Induced Leukemia at Doses Relevant to Radiation Therapy: Modeling Mechanisms and Estimating Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuryak, Igor; Sachs, Rainer K.; Hlatky, Lynn; Mark P. Little; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Brenner, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Because many cancer patients are diagnosed earlier and live longer than in the past, second cancers induced by radiation therapy have become a clinically significant issue. An earlier biologically based model that was designed to estimate risks of high-dose radiation induced solid cancers included initiation of stem cells to a premalignant state, inactivation of stem cells at high radiation doses, and proliferation of stem cells during cellular repopulation after inactivation. This earlier model predicted the risks of solid tumors induced by radiation therapy but overestimated the corresponding leukemia risks. Methods: To extend the model to radiation-induced leukemias, we analyzed in addition to cellular initiation, inactivation, and proliferation a repopulation mechanism specific to the hematopoietic system: long-range migration through the blood stream of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from distant locations. Parameters for the model were derived from HSC biologic data in the literature and from leukemia risks among atomic bomb survivors v^ ho were subjected to much lower radiation doses. Results: Proliferating HSCs that migrate from sites distant from the high-dose region include few preleukemic HSCs, thus decreasing the high-dose leukemia risk. The extended model for leukemia provides risk estimates that are consistent with epidemiologic data for leukemia risk associated with radiation therapy over a wide dose range. For example, when applied to an earlier case-control study of 110000 women undergoing radiotherapy for uterine cancer, the model predicted an excess relative risk (ERR) of 1.9 for leukemia among women who received a large inhomogeneous fractionated external beam dose to the bone marrow (mean = 14.9 Gy), consistent with the measured ERR (2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 6.4; from 3.6 cases expected and 11 cases observed). As a corresponding example for brachytherapy, the predicted ERR of 0.80 among women who received an inhomogeneous low

  15. Radiation-induced bystander effects in vivo are sex specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koturbash, Igor; Kutanzi, Kristy; Hendrickson, Karl; Rodriguez-Juarez, Rocio; Kogosov, Dmitry; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) effects span beyond the area of direct exposure and can be observed in neighboring and distant naive cells and organs. This phenomenon is termed a 'bystander effect'. IR effects in directly exposed tissue in vivo are epigenetically mediated and distinct in males and females. Yet, IR-induced bystander effects have never been explored in a sex-specificity domain. We used an in vivo mouse model, whereby the bystander effects are studied in spleen of male and female animals subjected to head exposure when the rest of the body is protected by a medical-grade lead shield. We analyzed the induction of DNA damage and alterations in global DNA methylation. Molecular parameters were correlated with cellular proliferation and apoptosis levels. The changes observed in bystander organs are compared to the changes in unexposed animals and animals exposed to predicted and measured scatter doses. We have found the selective induction of DNA damage levels, global DNA methylation, cell proliferation and apoptosis in exposed and bystander spleen tissue of male and female mice. Sex differences were significantly diminished in animals subjected to a surgical removal of gonads. These data constitute the first evidence of sex differences in radiation-induced bystander effects in mouse spleen in vivo. We show the role of sex hormones in spleen bystander responses and discuss implications of the observed changes

  16. Toxic clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers plus radiation-induced toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The operational definition espoused twelve years ago that clinical hypoxic radiation sensitizers should be nontoxic interferes with the recognition and research of useful radiation sensitizers. Eight years ago the toxic antitumor drug cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) was reported to be a hypoxic radiation sensitizer and the selective antitumor action of this drug was stressed as potentially creating tumor-targeted radiation sensitization. This rationale of oxidative antitumor drugs as toxic and targeted clinical sensitizers is useful, and has led to the study reported here. The antitumor drug cis-(1,1-cyclobutane-dicarboxylato)diammineplatinum(II), or JM-8, is being tested in clinical trials. Cells of S. typhimurium in PBS in the presence of 0.2mM JM-8 are found to be sensitized to irradiation under hypoxic, but not oxic, conditions. JM-8 is nontoxic to bacteria at this concentration, but upon irradiation the JM-8 solution becomes highly toxic. This radiation induced toxicity of JM-8 preferentially develops from hypoxic solution, and thus contributes to the rationale of hypoxic tumor cell destruction

  17. Alteration of radiation-induced hematotoxicity by amifostine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momm, Felix; Bechtold, Christine; Rudat, Volker; Strnad, Vratislav; Tsekos, Alexander; Fischer, Karin; Henke, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether amifostine can reduce radiation hematotoxicity. Patients and Methods: Seventy-three patients undergoing radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the university clinics of Freiburg, Heidelberg, and Erlangen were evaluated. All received 60 Gy (50-70 Gy) at 5x2 Gy fractions per week employing standard techniques. Thirty-five were randomized to receive 200 mg/m 2 amifostine i.v. 30 min before radiation; 38 served as control patients. Blood counts (total n=501) were determined before, during, and while completing radiotherapy. Changes of leukocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin levels were determined and compared using the t test. Results: The blood hemoglobin level and the platelet count were not affected by irradiation, for either the amifostine-treated or control patients. Similarly, the leukocyte counts of amifostine-treated patients did not change during irradiation. However, control patients experienced a decrease in leukocyte count from 8.1 x 10 3 /mm 3 to 5.8x10 3 /mm 3 (difference: 2.3x10 3 /mm 3 ). This seems to be line specific: Whereas amifostine does not affect lymphocyte count, a radiation-induced decrease of neutrophil granulocytes seems to be prevented. Conclusion: Amifostine protects from radiation hematotoxicity, particularly affecting the granulocytopoiesis. These data confirm results from our former study

  18. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein, E-mail: vitoriabraga06@gmail.com, E-mail: fernandopereirabh@gmail.com, E-mail: seg@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  19. Radiation-induced intestinal lesions. Prognosis and surgical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haecke, P.; Vitaux, J.; Michot, F.; Hay, J.-M.; Flamant, Y.; Maillard, J.-N.

    1981-01-01

    Thirteen patients with intestinal lesions consecutive to radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterus were operated upon between 1973 and 1979. The small bowel was involved in 9 patients and the colon and rectum in 4 patients. Urinary tract lesions were associated in 3 patients of each group. Intestinal necrosis, progression of the lesions and extensive pelvic fibrosis were the only criteria of poor prognosis. Twenty-two operations were performed: 4 for urinary tract lesions and 18 for intestinal lesions. Five patients died during the immediate post-operative period and five died within 2 to 30 months after surgery, including 4 whose carcinoma recurred. The operative technique should be selected according to the extent and severity of radiation-induced damage, as determined by pre-operative examination and thorough exploration of the abdominal cavity once opened. Limited lesions of the small bowel can be treated by resection, but intestinal bypass with latero-lateral anastomosis seems to be preferable in cases with extensive lesions. Patients with colorectal lesions should have defunctioning colostomy prior to any other procedure dictated by the state of affairs. Multiple anastomosis, extensive resections and excessive dissections should be avoided [fr

  20. Solvent influence during radiation induced grafting of styrene in PVDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Henrique P.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced grafting was studied to produce styrene grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes. PVDF films with 0.125 mm thickness were irradiated at doses between 5 and 20 kGy in the presence of styrene/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), styrene/acetone or styrene/toluene solutions (1:1, v/v) at dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 by simultaneous method, using gamma rays from a Co-60, under nitrogen atmosphere and at room temperature. The films were characterized before and after modification by grafting yield (GY %), infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM and EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). GY results shows that grafting increases with dose and toluene hinders the grafting, leading to a small GY comparing to DMF and acetone. It was possible to confirm the grafting of styrene by FT-IR due to the new characteristics peaks and by the TG and DSC due to changes in thermal behavior of the grafted material. SEM and EDS show surface and cross-section distribution of the grafting, which takes place on the surface and heterogeneously with toluene as solvent and homogeneously and penetrating into the inner layers of the matrix using DMF and acetone as solvent. (author)

  1. R and D activities on radiation induced mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, A.G.; Asencion, A.B.; Santos, I.S.; Grafia, A.O.; Veluz, AM.S.; Barrida, A.C.; Marbella, L.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes the accomplishments, prospects and future plans of mutation breeding for crop improvement at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). Mutation induction has become a proven way creating variation within a crop variety and inducing desired attributes that cannot be found in nature or have been lost during evolution. Several improved varieties with desirable traits were successfully developed through induced mutation breeding at our research institute. In rice, mutation breeding has resulted in the development of new varieties: (1) PARC 2, (2) Milagrosa mutant, (3) Bengawan mutant and (4) Azmil mutant. Mutation breeding in leguminous crops has led to the induction of an improved L 114 soybean mutant that is shorter that the original variety but yield about 40% more. Several PAEC mungbean varieties characterized with long pods that are non-shattering were also induced. In asexually propagated crops, an increase in yield and chlorophyll mutants were obtained in sweet potatos. Likewise, chlorophyll mutant which look-like 'ornamental bromeliads' and a mutant with reduced spines have been developed in pineapple Queen variety. At present, we have started a new project in mutation breeding in ornamentals. Tissue culture is being utilized in our mutation breeding program. In the near future, radiation induced mutagenesis coupled with in vitro culture techniques on protoplast culture and somatic hybridization will be integrated into our mutation breeding program to facilitate the production of new crop varieties. (author)

  2. Radiation-induced hypoxia may perpetuate late normal tissue injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Anscher, Mitchell S.; Feng, Q.-F.; Rabbani, Zahid N.; Amin, Khalid; Samulski, Thaddeus S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Haroon, Zishan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not hypoxia develops in rat lung tissue after radiation. Methods and Materials: Fisher-344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax using a single dose of 28 Gy. Pulmonary function was assessed by measuring the changes in respiratory rate every 2 weeks, for 6 months after irradiation. The hypoxia marker was administered 3 h before euthanasia. The tissues were harvested at 6 weeks and 6 months after irradiation and processed for immunohistochemistry. Results: A moderate hypoxia was detected in the rat lungs at 6 weeks after irradiation, before the onset of functional or histopathologic changes. The more severe hypoxia, that developed at the later time points (6 months) after irradiation, was associated with a significant increase in macrophage activity, collagen deposition, lung fibrosis, and elevation in the respiratory rate. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed an increase in TGF-β, VEGF, and CD-31 endothelial cell marker, suggesting a hypoxia-mediated activation of the profibrinogenic and proangiogenic pathways. Conclusion: A new paradigm of radiation-induced lung injury should consider postradiation hypoxia to be an important contributing factor mediating a continuous production of a number of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

  3. Survey of case reports of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Kusama, T.

    1977-01-01

    A survey of the cases reported as radiation-induced cancer in chief organs (the breast, the uterus, the pharynx and larynx, the colon, and the bone) was carried out. The number of the cases which were found by this survey were 10 in the breast, 548 in the uterus, 130 in the pharyns and larynx, 80 in the colon, and 256 in the bone. The most of these cases had received radiation for the purpose of treatment of non-malignant disease. The average latent period were 15.0 years in the cases of breast cancer, 10.1 years in uterus cancer, 27.3 years in pahrynx and larynx cancer, 13.6 years in colon cancer, and 15.5 years in bone cancer. The lowest radiation dose were 1470 rads in the cases of breast cancer, 900 rads in uterus in colon cancer, 4000 rads in pahrynx and larynx cancer, 460 rads in colon cancer, and 2700 rads in bone cancer. Histopathological findings, sex difference, onset age, and others were investigated in each organ. This survey gave many valuable informations for radiation protection and safety

  4. Mechanism of Hydrophilicity by Radiation-Induced Surface Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Yoshio; Furuya, Masahiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Okamoto, Koji

    When a metal oxide is irradiated by gamma rays, the irradiated surface becomes hydrophilic. This surface phenomenon is called as radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) hydrophilicity. In order to investigate gamma ray-induced and photoinduced hydrophilicity, the contact angles of water droplets on a titanium dioxide surface were measured in terms of irradiation intensity and time for gamma rays of cobalt-60 and for ultraviolet rays. Reciprocals of the contact angles increased in proportion to the irradiation time before the contact angles reached its super-hydrophilic state. The irradiation time dependency is equal to each other qualitatively. In addition, an effect of ambient gas was investigated. In pure argon gas, the contact angle remains the same against the irradiation time. This clearly indicates that certain humidity is required in ambient gas to take place of RISA hydrophilicity. A single crystal titanium dioxide (100) surface was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). After irradiation with gamma rays, a peak was found in the O1s spectrum, which indicates the adsorption of dissociative water to a surface 5-fold coordinate titanium site, and the formation of a surface hydroxyl group. We conclude that the RISA hydrophilicity is caused by chemisorption of the hydroxyl group on the surface.

  5. Outcome of Carotid Artery Stenting for Radiation-Induced Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorresteijn, Lucille; Vogels, Oscar; Leeuw, Frank-Erik de; Vos, Jan-Albert; Christiaans, Marleen H.; Ackerstaff, Rob; Kappelle, Arnoud C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Patients who have been irradiated at the neck have an increased risk of symptomatic stenosis of the carotid artery during follow-up. Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) can be a preferable alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy, which is associated with increased operative risks in these patients. Methods and Materials: We performed a prospective cohort study of 24 previously irradiated patients who underwent CAS for symptomatic carotid stenosis. We assessed periprocedural and nonprocedural events including transient ischemic attack (TIA), nondisabling stroke, disabling stoke, and death. Patency rates were evaluated on duplex ultrasound scans. Restenosis was defined as a stenosis of >50% at the stent location. Results: Periprocedural TIA rate was 8%, and periprocedural stroke (nondisabling) occurred in 4% of patients. After a mean follow-up of 3.3 years (range, 0.3-11.0 years), only one ipsilateral incident event (TIA) had occurred (4%). In 12% of patients, a contralateral incident event was present: one TIA (4%) and two strokes (12%, two disabling strokes). Restenosis was apparent in 17%, 33%, and 42% at 3, 12, and 24 months, respectively, although none of the patients with restenosed vessels became symptomatic. The length of the irradiation to CAS interval proved the only significant risk factor for restenosis. Conclusions: The results of CAS for radiation-induced carotid stenosis are favorable in terms of recurrence of cerebrovascular events at the CAS site.

  6. Hybrid model of the radiation-induced bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Viviane V.B.; Faria, Fernando Pereira de; Grynberg, Suely Epsztein

    2013-01-01

    The radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) refer to biological alterations in non-irradiated cells that occupy the same medium (culture or tissue) of irradiated cells. The biochemical mechanisms of the RIBE are not completely elucidated. However, several experiments indicate its existence. The objective of this work is to quantify the effect via stochastic and deterministic approaches. The hypotheses of the model are: a) one non-irradiated healthy cell interacts with signals that propagate through the medium. These signals are released by irradiated cells. At the time of interaction cell-signal, the cell can become damaged and signaling or damage and not signaling; b) Both types of damage cells repair with certain rate becoming health cells; c) The diffusion of signals obey the discrete diffusion equation with decay in two dimensions. d) The signal concentration released by irradiated cells depends on the dose in the low dose range (< 0.3 Gy) and saturates for higher dose values. As expected, the temporal analysis of the model as a function of the repair rate shows that the survival fraction decreases as the repair rate is reduced. The analysis of the extent of damage triggered by a signal concentration released by a single irradiated cell at time zero show that the damage grows with the maximum simulation time. The results show good agreement with the experimental data. The stochastic and deterministic methods used are in qualitative agreement, as expected. (author)

  7. Chromatin Structure and Radiation-Induced Intrachromosome Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangala; Zhang, Ye; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    We have recently investigated the location of breaks involved in intrachromosomal type exchange events, using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique for human chromosome 3. In human epithelial cells exposed to both low- and high-LET radiations in vitro, intrachromosome exchanges were found to occur preferentially between a break in the 3p21 and one in the 3q11. Exchanges were also observed between a break in 3p21 and one in 3q26, but few exchanges were observed between breaks in 3q11 and 3q26, even though the two regions were on the same arm of the chromosome. To explore the relationships between intrachromosome exchanges and chromatin structure, we used probes that hybridize the three regions of 3p21, 3q11 and 3q26, and measured the distance between two of the three regions in interphase cells. We further analyzed fragile sites on the chromosome that have been identified in various types of cancers. Our results demonstrated that the distribution of breaks involved in radiation-induced intrachromosome aberrations depends upon both the location of fragile sites and the folding of chromatins

  8. Contribution to the study of radiation induced bone tissue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouet, Monique.

    1975-01-01

    In this work four original observations of more or less long-delayed cancers induced by ionizing radiations are compared with 34 other cases in the literature, after which an attempt is made to establish a general and prognostic synthesis of the results; the indications to emerge are as follows: - Ionizing radiation-induced cancers are very rare, especially when compared with the extensive therapeutic use made of X-rays; - The probability of radio-cancer formation, though no figures are given in the many papers consulted, seems nevertheless to be higher in cases of benign lesion irradiation; - Induced cancers have been observed after treatments with all types of radiation, whether or not the lesion is tumoral or cancerous, whatever the patient's age at the time of irradiations; - As a general rule these neoplasms appear after a variable latency period but usually from the 6th post-radiotherapy year onwards, with a greater frequency range between 6 and 12 years; - These induced cancers are generally epitheliomas or sarcomas, the latter being noticeably more predominant than in the case of spontaneous cancers. Leukoses may also be observed [fr

  9. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  10. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadec, Chann [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  11. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations and interphase DNA geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasazzi, N.; Di Giorgio, M.; Otero, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) and their interaction and illegitimate recombination produces chromosome aberrations. Stable chromosome aberrations comprise inter-chromosomal events (translocations) and intra-chromosomal events (inversions). Assuming DSBs induction and interaction is completely random and neglecting proximity effects, the expected ratio of translocations to inversions is F=86, based on chromosome arm lengths. We analyzed the number of translocations and inversions using G-banding, in 16 lymphocyte cultures from blood samples acutely irradiated with γ-rays (dose range: 0.5Gy-3Gy). Our results give F=13.5, significantly smaller than F=86. Literature data show similar small F values but strongly spread. The excess of inversions could be explained by a 'proximity effect', it means that more proximate DSBs have an extra probability of interaction. Therefore, it is possible to postulate a special chromosome arrangement during irradiation and the subsequent interval. We propose a model where individual chromosomes show spherical confinement with some degree of overlapping and DSBs induction proportional to cross section. We assume a DSBs interaction probability function with cut-off length = 1 μ. We propose that large spread in F data could be due to temporal variation in overlapping and spatial chromosome confinement. (author). 14 refs

  12. Radiation-induced tumours of the head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laan, B.F.A.M. van der; Baris, G.; Gregor, R.T.; Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M. [Nederlands Kanker Inst. `Antoni van Leeuwenhoekhuis`, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1995-04-01

    In order to study the induction of malignancy in normal tissues due to ionizing radiation, we reviewed the files of 2500 patients with a tumour of the head and neck treated at the Netherlands Cancer Institute (Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis), Amsterdam, from 1977 to 1993. We then checked whether or not these patients had been previously irradiated. Patients with a thyroid carcinoma or skin cancer were excluded from the study, since it is generally known that previous irradiation is a risk factor in these tumours. Eighteen patients were found to have a malignancy within a previous irradiated area (0.70 per cent). The mean interval between radiation and diagnosis of the head and neck tumour was 36.5 years. There were five soft tissue sarcomas, nine squamous cell carcinomas and four salivary gland tumours. Fourteen patients were operated upon whereas four received palliative treatment only. The median survival of the total group was 3.5 years. Particularly in young patients, because of the better cancer therapy and prolonged survival, one must be aware of the increased risk of radiation-induced tumours. (author).

  13. Radiation-induced embrittlement in light water reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    In operating light water reactor (LWR) commercial power plants, neutron radiation induces embrittlement of the pressure vessel (PV) and its support structures. As a consequence, LWR-PV integrity is a primary safety consideration. LWR-PV integry is a significant economic consideration because the PV and its support structures are nonreplaceable power plant components and embrittlement of these components can therefore limit the effective operating lifetime of the plant. In addition to plant life considerations, LWR-PV embrittlement creates significant cycle-to-cycle impact through the restriction of normal heat-up and cool-down reactor operations. Recent LWR-PV benchmark experiments are analyzed. On this bases, it is established that an exponential representation accurately describes the spatial dependence of neutron exposure in LWR-PV. Implications produced by simple exponental behavior are explained and trend-curve models for the predictions of PV embrittelment are derived. These derivations provide for a clearer understanding and assessment of the assumptions underlying these trend-curve models. It is demonstrated that LWR-PV embrittlement possesses significant material dependence. (orig.)

  14. Radiation-induced oxidative chemical changes in dehydrated egg products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katusin-Rasem, B.; Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation-induced buildup of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and destruction of carotenoids were followed in whole egg powder and egg yolk powder as functions of dose, dose rate, and the presence of oxygen. In the absence of air the formation of LOOH was limited by the available oxygen, while destruction of carotenoids progressed linearly with dose; neither process depended on the dose rate. In the presence of air, the accumulation of LOOH and the destruction of carotenoids were strongly coupled and inversely proportional to the dose rate. The induction dose of 2.5 kGy was observed in air in both whole egg powder and egg yolk powder, independent of the dose rate. The practical consequence is that radiation decontamination can be carried out in the presence of air at the highest available dose rate by a dose not exceeding 2.5 kGy to avoid extensive degradation. This dose is adequate for a 10(3) reduction factor of Salmonella and well within the threshold dose of 3 kGy for organoleptic changes

  15. Radiation induced sarcoma after treatment of glioblastoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Victor Domingos Lisita; Anjos, Caroline Souza dos; Candido, Priscila Barile Marchi; Dias Junior, Antonio Soares; Santos, Evandro Airton Sordi dos; Godoy, Antonio Carlos Cavalcante; Saggioro, Fabiano P.; Carlotti Junior, Carlos Gilberto; Oliveira, Harley Francisco de; Peria, Fernanda Maris

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glioblastoma multiform is the most lethal central nervous system neoplasm, with a median survival of around 13 months and the worst prognosis among all gliomas. The therapeutic approach of glioblastoma consists in neurosurgery with maximum possible resection of tumor volume, followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy reduces the risk of tumor recurrence through direct and indirect damage to tumor deoxyribonucleic acid. The long-term effects of radiation therapy include tissue necrosis, vasculopathy, and radiation-induced neoplasia. The most reported secondary intracranial malignant tumors include meningiomas, gliomas, and sarcomas. The latency period between skull radiotherapy and the appearance of radioinduced lesions varies in the literature from six months to 47 years, with an average of 18.7 years. Case report: The present report describes the appearance of high-grade spindle cell sarcoma after ten months in a patient who received glioblastoma treatment at Hospital das Clínicas of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo. Conclusion: The rarity of this association is probably due to the poor survival of patients with glioblastoma, thus limiting the time to development of secondary neoplasia

  16. Radiation induced destruction of thebaine, papaverine and noscapine in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantoğlu, Ömer; Ergun, Ece

    2016-01-01

    The presence of methanol decreases the efficiency of radiation-induced decomposition of alkaloids in wastewater. Intermediate products were observed before the complete degradation of irradiated alkaloids. In order to identify the structure of the by-products and the formation pathway, thebaine, papaverine and noscapine solutions were prepared in pure methanol and irradiated using a 60 Co gamma cell at absorbed doses of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 30, 50 and 80 kGy. The dose-dependent alkaloid degradation and by-product formation were monitored by ESI mass spectrometer. Molecular structures of the by-products and reaction pathways were proposed. Oxygenated and methoxy group containing organic compounds was observed in the mass spectra of irradiated alkaloids. At initial dose values oxygenated by-products were formed due to the presence of dissolved oxygen in solutions. After the consumption of dissolved oxygen with radicals, the main mechanism was addition of solvent radicals to alkaloid structure. However, it was determined that alkaloids and by-products were completely degraded at doses higher than 50 kGy. The G-value and degradation efficiency of alkaloids were also evaluated. - Highlights: • Oxygenated and methoxy group containing by-products were observed in the mass spectra. • The addition of methanol radiolysis products to alkaloid structure was suggested. • Intermediate products were decomposed at doses above 50 kGy. • The destruction efficiency and degradation G-value of alkaloids were calculated.

  17. Radiation-induced modification of titanium nickelide with fast neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhomenko, V. D.; Dubinin, S. F.

    2012-07-01

    We present a review of the investigations of the effect of fast neutrons on the structure and properties of titanium nickelide that were performed by the authors on an IVV-2M atomic reactor (Zarechnyi). It has been established that at small fluences of fast neutrons atomic disordering of crystals is observed; as the fluence increases, the material becomes partially amorphized; and at fluences higher than 1 × 1020 cm-2, the material transforms completely into the amorphous state. It has been shown that the amorphous state produced by neutron irradiation differs substantially from the amorphous state of materials obtained by conventional methods. In particular, if a single-crystal specimen is subjected to "neutron" amorphization (most of the investigations were carried out using single crystals), after annealing of radiation-induced defects the single crystal is restored with the initial orientation and perfection. The structural studies were conducted by the methods of neutron and X-ray diffraction. Based on these studies, as well as on the results of small-angle neutron scattering and dilatometric and resistivity measurements, the "defect" state of irradiated materials has been examined in detail. The radiation resistance of titanium nickelide has been estimated.

  18. Radiation-induced crosslinking of syndiotactic 1,2-polybutadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Tadashi; Hoshino, Sadao; Yamamoto, Rokuro; Okamoto, Hidemasa; Obana, Kazuyoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Crystalline syndiotactic 1, 2-polybutadiene (hereafter abbreviated as 1, 2-PB) developed in Ube Industries, Ltd. by its own technology is a new thermoplastic resin belonging to the intermediate region between rubber and plastics in its flexibility. By selecting appropriate catalyst composition, 1, 2-PB having the melting point of 90 to 200 deg. C and crystallization of 10 to 65% can be obtained. These 1, 2-PBs can be worked to formed products by general thermoplastic forming methods such as injection molding, extrusion forming and blow forming. Radiation-crosslinked 1, 2-PB changed to very hard polymers through heat treatment. This change has been found to be radical chain reaction of cyclic polymerization. The relation of radiation-induced crosslinking and thermal expansion behavior, and the changes of appearance and structural and physical properties with heat treatment of these polymers are described. That is, specific gravity has increased, tensile strength has been enhanced, and elongation has decreased. While dielectric strength and arc resistivity have been upgraded. Therefore, these polymers can be used for the following applications: food wrapping film, molded notions, molded low foaming material for the soles of footwears, highly foaming moldings such as sponges, electric insulation material such as cable coating and adhesives for many materials. It is considered that crosslinking contributes to the application to electric insulation materials and heat curing to heat-resistant materials and parts. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Radiation-induced degradation of polysaccharide sodium alginate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jiaxia; Li Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The radiation-induced degradation of sodium alginate by 60 Co γ-rays was investigated in air at ambient temperature, and the change in their molecular weights was measured by multi-angle laser light scattering detector equipped with gel permeation chromatography (MALLS/GPC). The molecular weight of sodium alginate decreases with the increase of absorbed dose in the range of 0-60 kGy at the dose rate of 80 Gy/ min. The dispersion of molecular weight distribution of sodium alginate becomes narrow along with the absorbed dose. The weight-average molecular weight (M w ) changes from 321596.5 to 10024 when the absorbed dose increases from o kGy to 60 kGy. It is found that the degraded sodium alginate with molecular weight peak of 6000 is 83.22% of cumulative weight fraction. Anyway, the sodium alginate may have comprehensive application in the fields of agriculture, medicine and cosmetology as it can be absorbed well by biological tissue, if its weight-average molecular weight is below 10000. It is also found that new components will be contained in the products of sodium alginate degraded by irradiation. The further study dealing with the checking the biological safety and purification shall be performed. (authors)

  20. Sucralfate for the treatment of radiation induced mucositis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belka, C.; Hoffmann, W.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy, a cornerstone in the management of head and neck cancer, pelvic cancer, and esophageal cancer is associated with a marked mucosal toxicity. Pain, malnutrition and diarrhea are the most prevalent clinical symptoms of radiation induced mucosal damage. Because there is no known way to obviate radiation mucositis all efforts to prevent aggravation and accelerate healing of mucosal changes are of great importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, antiinflammatory drugs, antidiarrheal drugs, in combination with intensive dietetic care are used to relieve symptoms. Recently coating agents like the polyaluminum-sucrose complex sucralfate were suggested for the prevention and treatment of mucosal reactions. Since sucralfate protects ulcerated epithelium by coating, liberates protective prostaglandins and increases the local availability of protective factors this drug might directly interact with the pathogenesis of mucositis. Patients and Method: The results of available studies are analysed and discussed. Results: The results of several studies indicate that sucralfate treatment especially during radiotherapy for pelvic cancer leads to a significant amelioration of clinical symptoms and morphological changes. An application of sucralfate during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer reveals only limited benefits in most studies performed. Conclusion: Nevertheless sucralfate is a save, cheap and active drug for the prevention and treatment of radiation mucositis especially in patients with pelvic irradiation. (orig.) [de

  1. Radiation-induced aneusomic clones in bone marrow of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohno, Sei-Ichi; Ishihara, Takaaki

    1976-01-01

    Wistar rats 3 months old were given a single whole-body X-irradiation with 700 R. They were killed 9.3 months, on average, after irradiation. From the bone marrows of the 23 irradiated rats, 54 clones of cells with radiation-induced chromosome abnormalities ranging from 3.3 to 78.3% in size were obtained. Karyotype analysis at the banding level showed that 43 out of the 54 clones had balanced chromosome constitutions and that the remaining 11 clones were unbalanced. The 43 balanced clones consisted of 33 clones with reciprocal translocations, 6 with inversions and 4 with both translocations and inversions. The 11 unbalanced clones were made up of 7 aneuploid clones and 4 pseudo-diploid clones. Of the 54 clones, 15 were large with frequencies of more than 25%. Contrary to general belief that cells with unbalanced chromosome constitutions have less capacity to proliferate than those with balanced ones, 8 of the 15 large clones, especially all, except 1, of the largest 6 clones were unbalanced, either aneuploid or pseudo-diploid

  2. Perinatal radiation-induced renal damage in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaenke, R.S.; Angleton, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The developing perinatal kidney is particularly sensitive to radiation. The pathogenesis of the radiation-induced lesion is related to the destruction of outer cortical developing nephrons and direct radiation injury with secondary hemodynamic alterations in remnant nephrons. In this study, which is part of a life span investigation of the effects of whole-body gamma radiation during prenatal and early postnatal life, dogs were given 0, 0.16, 0.83, or 1.25 Gy irradiation at either 55 days postcoitus or 2 days postpartum and were examined morphometrically and histopathologically at 70 days of age. Although irradiated dogs showed no reduction in the total number of nephrons per kidney, there was a significant increase in the total number and relative percentage of immature, dysplastic glomeruli. In addition, deeper cortical glomeruli of irradiated kidneys exhibited mesangial sclerosis similar to that associated with progressive renal failure in our previous studies. These findings are in accord with those reported at doses of 2.24 to 3.57 Gy and demonstrate that the perinatal kidney is affected by radiation doses much lower than previously demonstrated

  3. Modification of synthetic fibers by radiation-induced grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako

    1981-05-01

    The present report describes studies to modify properties of synthetic fibers by radiation-induced grafting technique. This technique was employed since it is considered to be generally applicable to the grafting of a radically polymerizable monomer onto fiber. Three synthetic fibers were used mainly in the present studies; (1) polyester fiber which is ranked as the first in the amount of production in the synthetic fibers at present and is expected to increase in its importance in the future, (2) poly (vinyl chloride) fiber which is inexpensive and fire-retardant, and (3) polyethylene fiber which is not yet used in apparel at present. In order to perform the grafting, the following two methods were studied; one is to graft monomer uniformly in the fiber preventing homopolymerization of the monomer outside of the fiber, and the other to graft monomer only on the fiber surface. Using these methods, the following experiments were carried out and fairly good results as expected were obtained. (1) In the case of polyester fiber it was intended to make this more hydrophilic and fire-retardant. (2) Concerning to poly(vinyl chloride) fiber experiments were carried out to make the fiber more hydrophilic and simultaneously more heat-resistant. (3) In the case of polyethylene fiber, target was fire-retardance and heat-resistance. (author)

  4. Alloantigenic phenotype of radiation-induced thymomas in the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogarth, P.M.; Henning, M.M.; McKenzie, I.F.C.

    1982-01-01

    The alloantigenic phenotype of 21 radiation-induced thymomas is described. Monoclonal antibodies and conventional antisera, absorbed to remove contaminating antibodies, were used to test the thymomas directly for the presence of H-2, Ia, Ly-1, Ly-2, Ly-4, Ly-5, Ly-6, Ly-9, Ly-15, Thy-1, TL, and Qa-2 antigens, and for surface immunoglobulin. The phenotypes obtained by direct tests were also confirmed by absorption studies. The tumors were all of T-cell origin (Thy-1 + Ig - ) and showed a restricted heterogeneity of their cell surface phenotype, concordant with the known alloantigenic phenotypes of functional T-cells. Thus the thymomas could be classified into 7 groups based on the differing expressions of Ia, Ly-1, Ly-2, Ly-4, and Ly-6 specificities; all tumors were H-2 + , Ly-5 + , Ly-9 + , and Ly-15 + . Thus a wide variety of phenotypically diverse tumors could be detected; if these represent the clonal expansion of different functional subsets, they could provide a valuable set of functional T-cells

  5. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism is dose-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littley, M.D.; Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Robinson, E.L.; Sutton, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation-induced hypopituitarism has been studies prospectively for up to 12 years in 251 adult patients treated for pituitary disease with external radiotherapy, ranging in dose from 20 Gy in eight fractions over 11 days to 45 Gy in 15 fractions over 21 days. Ten further patients were studied 2-4 years after whole-body irradiation for haematological malignancies using 12 Gy in six fractions over 3 days and seven patients were studied 3-11 years after whole-brain radiotherapy for a primary brain tumour (30 Gy, eight fractions, 11 days). Five years after treatment, patients who received 20 Gy had an incidence of TSH deficiency of 9% and in patients treated with 35-37 Gy, 40 Gy and 42-45 Gy, the incidence of TSH deficiency increased significantly with increasing dose. A similar relationship was observed for both ACTH and gonadotrophin deficiencies when the 20 Gy group was compared to patients treated with 35-45 Gy. Growth hormone deficiency was universal by 5 years over the dose range 35-45 Gy. In seven patients who were treated with 30 Gy in eight fractions over 11 days, deficiencies were observed at a similar frequency to the 40 Gy group (15 fractions, 21 days). No evidence of pituitary dysfunction was detected in the ten patients who received 12 Gy (six fractions, 3 days). (author)

  6. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table

  7. Radiation induced oxidative damage modification by cholesterol in liposomal membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, B.N. [Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Mishra, K.P. [Radiation Biology and Biochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    1999-05-01

    Ionizing radiation induced structural and chemical alterations in egg lecithin liposomal membrane have been studied by measurements of lipid peroxides, conjugated diene and fluorescence polarization. Predominantly unilamellar phospholipid vesicles prepared by sonication procedure were subjected to radiation doses of {gamma}-rays from Co-60 in aerated, buffered aqueous suspensions. The oxidative damage in irradiated lipid molecules of liposomes has been determined spectrophotometrically by diene conjugate formation and thiobarbituric acid reactive (TBAR) method as a function of radiation dose. A correlation was found between the radiation dose applied (0.1-1 kGy) and the consequent lipid oxidation. The damage produced in irradiated liposomal membrane was measured by 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) fluorescence decay and polarization. The observed decrease in DPH fluorescence and increase in polarization was found dependent on the radiation dose suggesting alterations in rigidity or organizational order in phospholipid bilayer after irradiation. Furthermore, irradiated liposome vesicles composed of cholesterol showed marked reduction in observed radiation mediated peroxide formation and significantly affected the DPH fluorescence parameters. The magnitude of these modifying effects were found dependent on the mole fraction of cholesterol. It is concluded that modulation of structural order in unilamellar vesicle membrane by variations in basic molecular components controlled the magnitude of lipid peroxidation and diene conjugate formation. These observations contribute to our understanding of mechanism of radical reaction mediated damage caused by ionizing radiation in phospholipid membrane.

  8. Radiation-induced sarcomas of the chest wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souba, W.W.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.; Meis, J.; Benjamin, R.; Raymond, A.K.; Mountain, C.F.

    1986-01-01

    Sixteen patients are presented who had sarcomas of the chest wall at a site where a prior malignancy had been irradiated. The first malignancies included breast cancer (ten cases), Hodgkin's disease (four cases), and others (two cases). Radiation doses varied from 4200 to 5500 R (mean, 4900 R). The latency period ranged from 5 to 28 years (mean, 13 years). The histologic types of the radiation-induced sarcomas were as follows: malignant fibrous histiocytoma, nine cases; osteosarcoma, six cases; and malignant mesenchymoma, one case. The only long-term survivor is alive and well 12 years after resection of a clavicular chondroblastic osteosarcoma. Three cases were recently diagnosed. Despite aggressive multimodality treatment, the remaining 13 patients have all died from their sarcomas (mean survival, 13.5 months). All patients have apparently been cured of their first malignancies. Chemotherapy was ineffective. No treatment, including forequarter amputation, appeared to palliate the patients with supraclavicular soft tissue sarcomas. Major chest wall resection offered good palliation for seven of eight patients with sarcomas arising in the sternum or lateral chest wall. Close follow-up is needed to detect signs of these sarcomas in the ever-increasing number of patients receiving therapeutic irradiation

  9. Prevention of gamma radiation induced anaemia in mice by diltiazem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunia, V.; Goyal, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of diltiazem (DTZ), half an hour prior to whole body gamma irradiation (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 Gy), showed the protection of animals from radiation-induced anaemia. Radiation exposure significantly (p<0.001) reduced the number of pro- and normoblasts in bone marrow and red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and erythropoietin (EPO) level in blood, but increased myeloid/erythroid ratio. At all the radiation doses, the maximum decrease in these values was noted on the 3rd day, followed by a gradual recovery from the 7th day, but it was not recorded as normal even until the end of experimentation. In animals pretreated with DTZ, these values were measured higher at all the time periods in comparison to corresponding control, and these were almost normal at the last autopsy interval only at 2.5 Gy radiation dose. DTZ maintained the higher EPO level in blood, which acted on bone marrow and spleen colony forming unit for erythroblast (CFU-E), and stimulated such cells to produce RBCs. These results confirm that DTZ has the potency to alter anaemic condition favorably through the protection of bone marrow stem cells, and subsequently it maintains the higher number of pro-and normoblasts in bone marrow, RBC counts, Hb, Hct percentage, and EPO level in blood and the lower myeloid/erythroid ratio in bone marrow. (author)

  10. [Post-radiotherapy xerostomia in patients with oral cancer. Changes in salivary inorganic components and immunoglobulins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vicente Rodríguez, J C; Cobo Plana, J; Villa Vigil, M A

    1991-09-01

    Following therapeutic doses of irradiation to the salivary glands the glandular tissues suffer an early degeneration of the serous cells and focal necrosis of the parenchyma. Xerostomia is present and persist for a time, depending upon the dose of irradiation.

  11. Radiotherapy induced xerostomia: mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment--evidence based up to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałużny, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Nogala, Hanna; Milecki, Piotr; Kopeć, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Definition and prevalence of xerostomia were shortly presented. Radiosensitivity of the salivary glands, mechanism, diagnostics, and possible prediction methods of the intensity of xerostomia in the pre-radiotherapy period are widely discussed. Prevention of xerostomia: salivary gland sparing radiotherapy, cytoprotective agents, preservation by stimulation with cholinergic muscarinic agonists, surgical transfer of submandibular glands according to ASCO Management Guidelines and Quality of Life Recommendations were cited. Oral Care Study Group (2010) therapeutic approaches for relieving xerostomia are referred. Current therapies, restricted to symptom relief such as oral hygiene with fluoride agents, antimicrobials to prevent dental caries, saliva substitutes to relieve symptoms, and sialogenic agents to stimulate saliva were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Xerostomia during Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Ken; Stevens, Jason; Yepes, Juan Fernando; Randall, Marcus E.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Feddock, Jonathan; Xi, Jing; Kryscio, Richard J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Factors influencing xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were assessed. METHODS A 6-week study of 32 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients was performed. Subjects completed the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and provided stimulated saliva (SS) at baseline, week two and at end of IMRT. Influence of SS flow rate (SSFR), calcium and mucin 5b (MUC5b) concentrations and radiation dose on xerostomia was determined. RESULTS HNC subjects experienced mean SSFR decline of 36% by visit two (N=27; p=0.012) and 57% by visit three (N=20; p=0.0004), Concentrations of calcium and MUC5b increased, but not significantly during IMRT (p>0.05). Xerostomia correlated most with decreasing salivary flow rate as determined by Spearman correlations (pxerostomia. PMID:23523462

  13. Reduction of xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients. A critical review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, O.; Leech, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radical radiotherapy given with or without concurrent chemotherapy is the main treatment modality in non-surgical patients for the management of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck. Xerostomia, which results from reduced salivary production is a debilitating side-effect of radiation therapy to these patients. Xerostomia may greatly impact on quality of life for head and neck cancer patients for up to 24 months post-radiation therapy. Such effects include difficulties in fundamental daily activities such as speech, mastication and swallowing. It is believed that modulated techniques provide better sparing to surrounding salivary glands. The aim of this critical review of the literature is to investigate what advantage intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can provide over 3 dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT) in reducing xerostomia in this subset of patients. Search methodology: An extensive literature search was undertaken to compare the incidence of grade 2 or worse xerostomia in HNSCC patients treated with IMRT or 3DCRT (±chemotherapy). Results: Studies reported a lower incidence of grade 2 or worse xerostomia with IMRT over patients treated with 3DCRT. The highest incidence of xerostomia was reported at 6 months following the completion of radiotherapy treatment. The incidence of xerostomia in patients declined with time, in both patients treated with IMRT and those of the 3DCRT cohort. The incidence of xerostomia was greater in the acute setting than in the late. Conclusion: An IMRT technique can consistently reduce grade 2 or worse xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients over conformal techniques. This will not compromise dose homogeneity or dose coverage. IMRT should remain the standard of care for head and neck patients. - Highlights: • IMRT technique can consistently reduce grade 2 or worse xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients over 3DCRT. • IMRT does not compromise the treatment's dose homogeneity or

  14. Parotid gland mean dose as a xerostomia predictor in low-dose domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabryś, Hubert Szymon; Buettner, Florian; Sterzing, Florian; Hauswald, Henrik; Bangert, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiotherapy resulting from excessive irradiation of salivary glands. Typically, xerostomia is modeled by the mean dose-response characteristic of parotid glands and prevented by mean dose constraints to either contralateral or both parotid glands. The aim of this study was to investigate whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands are suitable for the prediction of xerostomia in a highly conformal low-dose regime of modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. We present a retrospective analysis of 153 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The Lyman Kutcher Burman (LKB) model was used to evaluate predictive power of the parotid gland mean dose with respect to xerostomia at 6 and 12 months after the treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and precision-recall (PR) curves. Average mean doses to ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands were 25.4 Gy and 18.7 Gy, respectively. QUANTEC constraints were met in 74% of patients. Mild to severe (G1+) xerostomia prevalence at both 6 and 12 months was 67%. Moderate to severe (G2+) xerostomia prevalence at 6 and 12 months was 20% and 15%, respectively. G1 + xerostomia was predicted reasonably well with area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.69 to 0.76. The LKB model failed to provide reliable G2 + xerostomia predictions at both time points. Reduction of the mean dose to parotid glands below QUANTEC guidelines resulted in low G2 + xerostomia rates. In this dose domain, the mean dose models predicted G1 + xerostomia fairly well, however, failed to recognize patients at risk of G2 + xerostomia. There is a need for the development of more flexible models able to capture complexity of dose response in this dose regime.

  15. Prevalence of xerostomia in patients attending Shorish dental speciality in Sulaimani city

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Mustafa Jamel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients and explore the possible risk factors and symptoms associated with this condition. Patient and Methods: The prevalence of xerostomia and its associations were investigated among patients (n=1132) who were visiting the department of oral medicine at shorish dental speciality in sulaimani city. The age range was between 10-79 years. 512 (45.2%) of participants were males and 620 (54.8%) were ...

  16. Reducing Xerostomia After Chemo-IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer: Beyond Sparing the Parotid Glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Vineberg, Karen; Cornwall, Craig; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether in addition to sparing parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemo-IMRT of head and neck cancer is affected by reducing doses to other salivary glands. Methods Prospective study: 78 patients with stages III/IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancers received chemo-IMRT aiming to spare the parts outside the targets of bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) (when contralateral level I was not a target). Pretherapy and periodically through 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaires (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia were recorded, and stimulated and unstimulated saliva measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. Mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary glands dysfunction. Regression models assessed XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors. Results Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score in univariate analysis included OC, PG, and SMG mean doses, as well as baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. OC, PG and SMG mean doses were moderately inter-correlated (r=0.47–0.55). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for PG and SMG doses, OC mean dose (p xerostomia. While scatter plots showed no thresholds, OC mean doses xerostomia at almost all post-therapy time points. Conclusion PG, SMG and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia after chemo-IMRT, with OC doses remaining significant after adjusting for PG and SMG doses. These results support efforts to spare all salivary glands by IMRT, beyond the PGs alone. PMID:22056067

  17. Effect of epicatechin against radiation-induced oral mucositis: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Seob Shin

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Radiation-induced oral mucositis limits the delivery of high-dose radiation to head and neck cancer. This study investigated the effectiveness of epicatechin (EC, a component of green tea extracts, on radiation-induced oral mucositis in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The effect of EC on radiation-induced cytotoxicity was analyzed in the human keratinocyte line HaCaT. Radiation-induced apoptosis, change in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and changes in the signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo therapeutic effects of EC for oral mucositis were explored in a rat model. Rats were monitored by daily inspections of the oral cavity, amount of oral intake, weight change and survival rate. For histopathologic evaluation, hematoxylin-eosin staining and TUNEL staining were performed. RESULTS: EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis, change of MMP, and intracellular ROS generation in HaCaT cells. EC treatment markedly attenuated the expression of p-JNK, p-38, and cleaved caspase-3 after irradiation in the HaCaT cells. Rats with radiation-induced oral mucositis showed decreased oral intake, weight and survival rate, but oral administration of EC significantly restored all three parameters. Histopathologic changes were significantly decreased in the EC-treated irradiated rats. TUNEL staining of rat oral mucosa revealed that EC treatment significantly decreased radiation-induced apoptotic cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that EC significantly inhibited radiation-induced apoptosis in keratinocytes and rat oral mucosa and may be a safe and effective candidate treatment for the prevention of radiation-induced mucositis.

  18. Management of Hyposalivation and Xerostomia: Criteria for Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joel B; Beier Jensen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Saliva management in patients with hyposalivation is potentially complex. Future development of oral care products and treatment strategies requires attention to the biology of saliva and the best means of providing a continuum of relief for people with xerostomia--the sensation of dry mouth--and hyposalivation--documented reduction in saliva flow. Improvement in patient care requires that clinicians be aware of approaches to management, desirable qualities of methods and products, and that they seek the development of products that support the functions of saliva and promote comfort and health. In this brief review of the epidemiology of hyposalivation, the biology and functions of saliva are presented in order to guide clinical decision-making to address the needs of patients with dry mouth.

  19. Prevalence and impact of xerostomia on the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Thomaz, Mariana; Toda, Alexandre Issamu; Alanis, Danilo Gustavo Pulita; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of xerostomia on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed on 195 PLWHA. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having "dry mouth," and Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on QOL. Time of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was assessed. A total of 78 (40.0%) subjects presented with xerostomia. Xerostomia was associated with female gender, low amount of saliva perceived (p ≤ .01), difficulty in swallowing food (p ≤ .05), and showed to have a negative impact on QOL as measured by OHIP-14 (p ≤ .01). Xerostomia was frequent and showed to have a negative impact on the QOL of PLWHA. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preparation of Cation-Exchange Particle Designed for High-Speed Collection of Proteins by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Yuta; Shimoda, Yuichi; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Furumoto, Goro; Shirataki, Hironobu; Shinohara, Naoyuki; Kubota, Noboru

    A cation-exchange polymer brush was immobilized onto a polyethylene-based particle with an average diameter of 35 μm by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and subsequent sulfonation with sodium sulfite. A lysozyme solution was forced to flow through a bed (height 2 cm, cross-sectional area 0.61 cm2) charged with the resultant cation-exchange particles at a space velocity ranging from 500 to 2300 h-1. From a viewpoint of equilibrium binding capacity and elution percentage of lysozyme, the dose of electron beam and the degree of GMA grafting were optimized to be 200 kGy and 100%, respectively. The bed exhibited a constant dynamic binding capacity of lysozyme 14 mg⁄mL irrespective of space velocity due to negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance.

  1. Fungiform papillae density in patients with burning mouth syndrome and xerostomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pía; Molino-Pagán, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze fungiform papillae density in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and xerostomia. Study design: In this cross-sectional clinical study, sixty patients were included (20 with BMS, 20 with xerostomia and 20 healthy controls). The fungiform papillae density was analyzed over a small region on the anterior tip of the tongue with the aid of a digital camera. The number of papillae was measured in an area of 19 mm2. Results: The patients with BMS showed significantly higher fungiform papillae density than the patients with xerostomia; though no statistically significant differences were recorded versus the control group. In the BMS group, 65% of all cases presented a density of 71-90 papillae (within an area of 19 mm2), while 10% had more than 90 papillae. On the contrary, 70% of the patients with xerostomia had fewer than 70 papillae in the studied area. Conclusions: The digital camera offers a rapid, noninvasive and relatively simple way to study fungiform papillae density. The patients with BMS have higher fungiform papillae density than the patients with xerostomia. Key words:Tongue, fungiform papillae, burning mouth syndrome, xerostomia. PMID:22143737

  2. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sleep quality in patients with xerostomia: a prospective and randomized case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Lucero Berdugo, Maira; Fernandez-Pujante, Alba; C, Castillo Felipe; Lavella C, Zamora; A, Pons-Fuster; J, Silvestre Rangil; Silvestre, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate sleep quality, anxiety/depression and quality-of-life in patients with xerostomia. Materials and methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of xerostomia patients (n = 30) compared with 30 matched control subjects. The following evaluation scales were used to assess the psychological profile of each patient: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Xerostomia Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results The PSQI obtained 5.3 3 ± 1.78 for patients with xerostomia compared with 4.26 ± 1.01 for control subjects (p = 0.006); ESS obtained 5.7 ± 2.1 for test patients vs 4.4 0 ± 1 for control subjects (p = 0.010). Statistical regression analysis showed that xerostomia was significantly associated with depression (p = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with xerostomia exhibited significant decreases in sleep quality compared with control subjects.

  4. Understanding of xerostomia and strategies for the development of artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Hong-Seop

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is becoming a major issue in dental and medical clinics with an increase of aged population. Medication is the most common etiology of xerostomia, while the most severe xerostomia generally occurs in patients with a history of head and neck radiotherapy. Xerostomic patients usually suffer from diminished quality of life due to various symptoms and complications. Decreased salivary output is a definite objective sign, but oral mucosal wetness is a more reliable factor for the evaluation of xerostomia. At present there are no effective therapeutic methods for the treatment of xerostomia. Sialogogues may have problematic side effects and their therapeutic effects last only brief duration. Artificial saliva typically does not produce satisfactory results in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, further research and development of better therapeutic modalities are necessary. The basic concept for the development of ideal and functional artificial saliva is the mimicry of natural human saliva. We need proper candidate molecules and antimicrobial supplements to simulate the rheological and biological properties of human saliva. We also need better understanding of the interactions between the ingredients of artificial saliva themselves and between the ingredients and components of human saliva both in solution and on surface phases. In addition, we need accepted measures to evaluate the efficacy of artificial saliva. In conclusion, for the development of ideal artificial saliva, research based on the understanding of pathophysiology of xerostomia and knowledge about rheological and biological functions of human saliva are necessary.

  5. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2017-01-01

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease

  6. Geometric Image Biomarker Changes of the Parotid Gland Are Associated With Late Xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Sijtsema, Nanna M

    2017-12-01

    To identify a surrogate marker for late xerostomia 12 months after radiation therapy (Xer 12m ), according to information obtained shortly after treatment. Differences in parotid gland (PG) were quantified in image biomarkers (ΔIBMs) before and 6 weeks after radiation therapy in 107 patients. By performing stepwise forward selection, ΔIBMs that were associated with Xer 12m were selected. Subsequently other variables, such as PG dose and acute xerostomia scores, were added to improve the prediction performance. All models were internally validated. Prediction of Xer 12m based on PG surface reduction (ΔPG-surface) was good (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). Parotid gland dose was related to ΔPG-surface (Pxerostomia scores to the ΔPG-surface improved the prediction of Xer 12m significantly, and vice versa. The final model including ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia had outstanding performance in predicting Xer 12m early after radiation therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.90). Parotid gland surface reduction was associated with late xerostomia. The early posttreatment model with ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia scores can be considered as a surrogate marker for late xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. High prevalence of thyroid disease and role of salivary gland scintigraphy in patients with xerostomia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Son, Seung Hyun; Jeong, Ju Hye; Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine/Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Although Sjös syndrome (SS) is the most common disease causing xerostomia, autoimmune thyroid diseases can also affect the salivary glands. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of thyroid diseases (TD) in subjects with symptoms of xerostomia and evaluate the efficacy of salivary gland scintigraphy (SGS) in the detection of TD in patients with SS and without SS. We retrospectively reviewed the SGS findings of 173 subjects (men:women, 29:144) with symptoms of xerostomia. Ejection fractions (EF) in the parotid and submandibular glands were calculated. Thyroid disease was diagnosed on the basis of the results of the visual assessment of tracer uptake in the thyroid gland on SGS images as well as serological thyroid function tests. Based on the American-European Criteria, 94 patients were diagnosed with SS. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 63 patients, subacute thyroiditis in 23, subclinical hypothyroidism in five, and Graves' disease in one. There were significant differences in the EF values of the parotid and submandibular glands between patients with TD and those with undetermined diagnoses. More than half of patients with xerostomia exhibited TD. Thyroid assessment by SGS is feasible, and SGS appears to be useful for the patients with xerostomia caused by TD. SGS may be the first imaging modality capable of evaluating both salivary gland function and thyroid gland status in patients with xerostomia. This strategy would make the requirement for additional workup for thyroid disease.

  8. Bevacizumab alleviates radiation-induced brain necrosis: A report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiang-Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab on radiation-induced brain necrosis. Four radiation-induced brain necrosis patients, administered with bevacizumab at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg every 3 weeks, 2 times. One case of brain metastasis of lung cancer and one case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with brain necrosis after radiotherapy. However, their physical signs disappeared after the treatment with bevacizumab. One case of brainstem lesion and one case of brain glioma patient showed a transient improvement in signs and symptoms after treatment with bevacizumab. Bevacizumab can significantly alleviate the radiation-induced brain edema, and can improve the symptoms successively.

  9. Radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana on radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajna, P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Intense exposure to ionization radiation by accidental, occupational or therapeutical purpose causes cellular damage mainly by formation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) or by free radicals. Humans are intentionally exposed to ionising radiation for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. The use of ionising radiation in cancer therapy may lead to transient and/or permanent injury to normal tissues within the treatment field. To increase the therapeutic index of radiation therapy, various modes of radioprotection have been developed that selectively reduce cytotoxic effects to normal tissues. Because radiation-induced cellular damage is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, molecules with radical scavenging properties are particularly promising as radioprotectors. Loeseneriella arnottiana, a member of family Hippocrateaceae, is a climbing shrub used by traditional medicine practitioners. To study the antioxidant activity and radioprotective effect of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana against electron beam radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Loeseneriella arnottiana roots were dried and extracted using methanol by solvent extraction method. Antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The lymphocytes were incubated for one hour with two different concentrations 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before exposure to 2 Gy electron beam radiation. 30 μg of methanolic root extract of Loeseneriella arnottiana exhibited 96% radical scavenging activity comparable to 15 μg of ascorbic acid. In reducing power assay it showed dose dependent increase in absorbance indicating that extract is capable of donating hydrogen atoms. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with 10 μg and 50 μg of root extract before irradiation resulted in reduction in the Comet length, Olive tail moment, percentage of DNA in tail when compared to the radiation control group. Results of this

  10. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  11. Micronuclei: sensitivity for the detection of radiation induced damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Taja, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The in vitro cytokinesis-block (CB) micronucleus (MN) assay for human peripheral blood has been used extensively for the assessment of chromosomal damage induced by ionizing radiation and chemicals and considered a suitable biological dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures, particularly in the case of large scale radiation accidents. One of the major drawbacks of the MN assay is its reduced sensitivity for the detection of damage induced by low doses of low LET radiation, due to the high variability among the spontaneous MN frequencies. It is suggested that age, smoking habit and sex are the main confounding factors that contribute to the observed variability. Previous work in our laboratory, shows a significant positive correlation of the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies with age and smoking habit, the latter being the strongest confounder. These findings led to in vitro studies of the dose-response relationships for smoking and non smoking donors evaluated separately, using 60 Co γ rays. The objectives of the present work are: 1-To increase the amount of data of the dose-response relationships, using γ rays from a 60 Co source, for smoking and non smoking donors, in order to find, if applicable, a correction factor for the calibration curve that takes into account the smoking habit of the individual in the case of accidental overexposure dose assessment, particularly in the low dose range. 2-To establish general conclusions on the current state of the technique. The sample for smoking and non smoking calibration curves was enlarged in the range of 0Gy to 2Gy. The fitting of both curves, performed up to the 2Gy dose, resulted in a linear quadratic model. MN distribution among bi nucleated cells was found to be over dispersed with respect to Poisson distribution, the average ratio of variance to mean being 1.13 for non smokers and 1.17 for smokers. Each fitted calibration curve, for smoking and non smoking donors, fell within the 95

  12. Radiation induced hepatic lesions and their amelioration by Rosemarinus oficinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SoyaI, Dhanraj; Goyal, P.K.

    2013-01-01

    autopsy interval (i.e. 30 days), only in experimental group. On contrary, abnormal hepatocytes increased up to day 5 after irradiation. Binucleated hepatocytes showed a biphasic mode of elevation after irradiation, first on day 2 then on day 10 post-treatment in both the groups, but the same was comparatively less marked in experimental group. Several radiation induced hepatic lesions were also visualized in both the groups, but in ROE + radiation treated group, the degree of damage was found to be considerably lesser and the recovery from such lesions was much faster to regain the normal architecture of liver. Hence, the results from the present study suggest that Rosemarinus officinalis leaves extract pretreatment provides protection against radiation-induced histopathological alterations in liver of mammals. (author)

  13. Rosiglitazone attenuates pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced intestinal damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangoni, M.; Gerini, C.; Sottili, M.; Cassani, S.; Stefania, G.; Biti, G. [Radiotherapy Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Castiglione, F. [Department of Human Pathology and Oncology, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy); Vanzi, E.; Bottoncetti, A.; Pupi, A. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Clinical Physiopathology Department, University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Full text of publication follows: Purpose.-The aim of the study was to evaluate radioprotective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on a murine model of late pulmonary damage and of acute intestinal damage. Methods.- Lung fibrosis: C57 mice were treated with the radiomimetic agent bleomycin, with or without rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg/day). To obtain an independent qualitative and quantitative measure for lung fibrosis we used high resolution CT, performed twice a week during the entire observation period. Hounsfield Units (HU) of section slides from the upper and lower lung region were determined. On day 31 lungs were collected for histological analysis. Acute intestinal damage: mice underwent 12 Gy total body irradiation with or without rosiglitazone. Mice were sacrificed 24 or 72 h after total body irradiation and ileum and colon were collected. Results.- Lung fibrosis: after bleomycin treatment, mice showed typical CT features of lung fibrosis, including irregular septal thickening and patchy peripheral reticular abnormalities. Accordingly, HU lung density was dramatically increased. Rosiglitazone markedly attenuated the radiological signs of fibrosis and strongly inhibited HU lung density increase (60% inhibition at the end of the observation period). Histological analysis revealed that in bleomycin-treated mice, fibrosis involved 50-55% of pulmonary parenchyma and caused an alteration of the alveolar structures in 10% of parenchyma, while in rosiglitazone-treated mice, fibrosis involved only 20-25% of pulmonary parenchyma, without alterations of the alveolar structures. Acute intestinal damage: 24 h after 12 Gy of total body irradiation intestinal mucosa showed villi shortening, mucosal thickness and crypt necrotic changes. Rosiglitazone showed a histological improvement of tissue structure, with villi and crypts normalization and oedema reduction. Conclusion.- These results demonstrate that rosiglitazone displays a protective effect on pulmonary fibrosis and radiation-induced

  14. Multiple factors participating in radiation-induced adaptive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoi, Mitsuru; Vares, G.; Wang, Bing

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced adaptive response (RAR) is essentially the acquisition of radiation resistance by pre-exposed low dose radiation (priming). In this paper, in vitro findings on RAR-related factors are reviewed and authors' studies of RAR-related gene analysis in lethality and malformation of mouse fetus are described for future view. Studies on in vitro RAR have involved such participating factors as signal transduction, response appearance and bystander effect, and gene expression profiling. In RAR, DNA double strand break (DSB) by priming is conceivably the initial stimulation. In various cell systems including p53-knockout cells and in enzyme inhibition studies, intracellular signaling factors like protein kinase C, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C have been shown to participate. Increased activities of antioxidant and of damaged DNA repairing system, modulation of cell cycle, heat-shock reactions and apoptosis are suggested to concern to RAR appearance. Relationship between RAR and bystander effect is conceived to be important based on findings of cell lethality, mutagenesis, gap junction and NO radical. Genes relating to DSB repair, stress response, cell cycle and apoptosis have been shown to be specifically changed in RAR by their expression profile. Authors have conducted in vivo studies on RAR using embryogenetic system in the mouse. They have shown by gene profiling that signaling evoked by priming is important when the fetal lethality and malformation are used as RAR measures, and that in the subsequent process to RAR appearance, many signaling factors, particularly the transcription factor like p53, play a role. Database construction according to measures employed in individual studies, classification of living systems studied, radiation factors like linear energy transfer (LET), dose and dose rate, and functional genes concerned is thought useful for understanding the ultimate molecular mechanisms involved in ARA. (K.T.)

  15. Case of radiation induced carcinoma of the cervical esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwase, K.; Miura, K.; Kawase, K.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kondo, S. (Fujita-Gakuen Univ., Nagoya (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1980-07-01

    A patient with carcinoma of the cervical esophagus who visited a hospital with a complaint of difficulty in swallowing was reported. This patient was a 50 year old woman. It was 32 years since she had had external irradiation with x- ray over the neck for Basedow's disease at the age of 18. From the age of 30, she had had hypothyroidism and had used thyroid. She became aware of difficulty in swallowing in October, 1976. Then this symptom progressed gradually, and she also had hoarseness. She visited a hospital in August, 1977. At the first medical examination, pigmentation and atrophic changes in the neck induced by radiation were observed, and some lymphnodes with the size of a red bean were palpated. Esophageal roentogenography revealed circular and spiral type lesion in the cervical esophagus, which was 4 cm in length and had a clear boundary. Endoscopic examination revealed circular stenotic lesion. This lesion was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma by biopsy. Total of 3,000 rad of Linac x-ray was irradiated over the neck and the clavicle before operation. Operation findings revealed fibrosis, atrophy, and hardening of the thyroid gland caused by radiation. Carcinoma with the size 35 mm x 18 mm was limited to the cervical esophagus, and the degree of the progress was A/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, M/sub 0/ (Pl/sub 0/). Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and its metastases to the right supraclaviclar lymphnodes. This carcinoma was diagnosed as radiation-induced carcinoma of the cervical esophagus, because this patient had had irradiation over the neck, locally marked atrophic changes and scar remained, and carcinoma occurred in the area which had been irradiated with x-ray.

  16. A comparative review of radiation-induced cancer risk models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [Risk and Environmental Safety Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    With the need for a domestic level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), it is essential to develop a Korea-specific code. Health effect assessments study radiation-induced impacts; in particular, long-term health effects are evaluated in terms of cancer risk. The objective of this study was to analyze the latest cancer risk models developed by foreign organizations and to compare the methodology of how they were developed. This paper also provides suggestions regarding the development of Korean cancer risk models. A review of cancer risk models was carried out targeting the latest models: the NUREG model (1993), the BEIR VII model (2006), the UNSCEAR model (2006), the ICRP 103 model (2007), and the U.S. EPA model (2011). The methodology of how each model was developed is explained, and the cancer sites, dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF) and mathematical models are also described in the sections presenting differences among the models. The NUREG model was developed by assuming that the risk was proportional to the risk coefficient and dose, while the BEIR VII, UNSCEAR, ICRP, and U.S. EPA models were derived from epidemiological data, principally from Japanese atomic bomb survivors. The risk coefficient does not consider individual characteristics, as the values were calculated in terms of population-averaged cancer risk per unit dose. However, the models derived by epidemiological data are a function of sex, exposure age, and attained age of the exposed individual. Moreover, the methodologies can be used to apply the latest epidemiological data. Therefore, methodologies using epidemiological data should be considered first for developing a Korean cancer risk model, and the cancer sites and DDREF should also be determined based on Korea-specific studies. This review can be used as a basis for developing a Korean cancer risk model in the future.

  17. Radiation induced early onset of neuro-cognitive changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mayank; Haridas, Seenu; Gupta, Mamta; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subhash; Manda, Kailash

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiations has been shown to cause many detrimental effects. Primarily, the effects observed are broadly classified into hematopoietic syndrome at lower doses, gastrointestinal syndrome and central nervous system dysfunctions at high doses. However, recent studies reported that even at lower doses, there is an effect seen on the nervous system which can be observed as a decline in cognitive abilities. This has been reported in patients undergoing radiotherapy. The cognitive decline, especially in young patients affects development and has been shown to persist for years after the therapy. Thus, the aim of this study was to study and consolidate the early effects of radiation exposure which result in behavioural alterations and cognitive decline. Since, radiation-induced early changes in behavioural functions are poorly understood, therefore, the present investigation aimed to conceptualize and design behavioural test batteries in order to systematically study the immediate alterations in behavioural function following irradiation with a-rays. The behavioural alterations were correlated to changes in the different area of brain like hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus and corpus callosum using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies. Present study reported profound changes in behaviour, as well as alterations in the morphology of the brain tissue as perceived by DTI, 48 hours after exposure to ionizing radiations. These changes need to be correlated and clarified further to understand the mechanisms behind the cognitive dysfunctions occurring immediately after radiation exposure as well as to find out a therapeutic window to counteract or reduce the effect of long term cognitive changes following irradiation. (author)

  18. Treatment of radiation-induced normal tissue lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Normal tissue damage is the most important limiting factor in radiotherapy. It must be possible, at least theoretically, to eradicate a localised tumour if a large enough dose of radiation could be delivered to tumour, however, practically, there is always the danger of damaging normal tissues adjacent to the tumour. Factors such as the total radiation dose, overall treatment time, dose per fraction, dose-rate and the effects of changing the irradicated volume of the spinal cord have been examined in order to improve therapeutic ratio in radiotherapy. The majority of these studies have concentrated on optimizing dose fractionation schedules. Only recently have attempts been made to modify this effect by the administration of therapeutic agents after irradiation but before the development of the lesion. Despite this interest the problem still exists. At present there is no effective clinically applied treatment towards radiation-induced normal tissue injury, however, some symptoms for example swelling or pain during inflammatory phase may respond to corticosteroids. There are a number of agents, which have been used experimentally, some clinically, to alleviate radiation damage. The results of these studies are reviewed. A number of substances, generally named Biological Response Modifiers, with diverse mode of actions have been used in post irradiation modification of normal tissue reactions. The effect and mode of action of a number of these treatments are discussed. Classical radioprotectors, that are mainly thiol-containing substances such as Amifostine, are used for prophylaxis and should be administered before or at the time of irradiation. These substances have been deliberately excluded in this article

  19. Radiation-induced adaptive response in human lymphoblast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatagai, Fumio; Sugasawa, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    Described are the genetic analysis of variant strains obtained by the optimal condition for radiation-induced adaptive response (AR), and molecular elucidation of the suppression of concomitant mutation. The TK6 cells (heterozygous thymidine kinase, +/-) were used for detection of mutation by loss of heterozygosity (LOH). The optimal conditions for reducing the mutation by subsequent irradiation (SI) to its rate of about 60% (vs control 100%, no PI) were found to be 5 cGy of pre-irradiation (PI) of X-ray and 2 Gy of SI with the interval of 6 hr, where mutated cells were of non-LOH type in around 25% and homo-LOH type by homologous recombination (HR) in 60%. By cDNA sequencing, the former cells having changed bases were found to be in variant strain ratio of 1/8 vs control 7/18, suggesting that the mutation was decreased mainly by suppression of base change. Expression of XPC protein, an important component for recognition of the base damage in global genome nucleotide excision repair, was studied by Western blotting as the possible mechanism of suppressing the mutation, which revealed different time dynamics of the protein in cells with PI+SI and SI alone (control). To see the effect of PI on the double strand break (DSB) repair, cells with PI were infected with restriction enzyme I-SceI vector to yield DSB instead of SI, which revealed more efficient repair (70% increase) by HR than control, without significant difference in non-homologous end-joining repair. Micro-array analysis to study the gene expression in the present experimental conditions for AR is in progress. The TK6 cells used here were thought useful for additional studies of the mechanism of AR as mutation by direct or indirect irradiation can be tested. (K.T.)

  20. Pentoxifylline in the treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunieff, Paul; Augustine, Elizabeth; Hicks, Jeanne E; Cornelison, Terri L; Altemus, Rosemary M; Naydich, Boris G; Ding, Ivan; Huser, Amy K; Abraham, Edward H; Smith, Judith J; Coleman, Norman; Gerber, Lynn H

    2004-06-01

    Fibrotic sequelae remain the most important dose-limiting toxicity of radiation therapy to soft tissue. Functionally, this is reflected in loss of range of motion and muscle strength and the development of limb edema and pain. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are abnormally elevated in irradiated tissues, may mediate radiation fibrovascular injury. In an open label drug trial, we studied the effects of pentoxifylline (400 mg orally tid for 8 weeks) on 30 patients who displayed late, radiation-induced fibrosis at 1 to 29 years posttreatment (40 to 84 Gy). The primary outcome measurement was change in physical impairments thought to be secondary to radiation, including active and passive range of motion (AROM and PROM), muscle strength, limb edema, and pain. Plasma levels of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha and FGF2) also were measured. Twenty-seven patients completed baseline and 8-week assessments, and 24 patients completed baseline, 8-week, and 16-week assessments. After 8 weeks of pentoxifylline intervention, 20 of 23 patients with impaired AROM and 19 of 22 with impaired PROM improved; 11 of 19 patients with muscle weakness showed improved motor strength; five of seven patients with edema had decreased limb girth; and nine of 20 patients had decreased pain. Pretreatment FGF2 levels dropped from an average of 44.9 pg/mL to 24.0 pg/mL after 8 weeks of treatment. Patients receiving pentoxifylline demonstrated improved AROM, PROM, and muscle strength and decreased limb edema and pain. Reversal of these delayed radiation effects was associated with a decrease in circulating FGF2.

  1. Radiation-induced apoptosis and developmental disturbance of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    The developing mammalian brain is highly susceptible to ionizing radiation. A significant increase in small head size and mental retardation has been noted in prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing, with the highest risk in those exposed during 8-15 weeks after fertilization. This stage corresponds to day 13 of pregnancy for mice and day 15 for rats in terms of brain development. The initial damage produced by radiation at this stage is cell death in the ventricular zone (VZ) of the brain mantle, the radiosensitive germinal cell population. During histogenesis of the cerebellum the external granular layer (EGL) is also radiosensitive. Although extensive cell death results in microcephaly and histological abnormlity, both VZ and EGL have an ability to recover from a considerable cell loss and form the normal structure of the central nervous system. The number of cell deaths to induce tissue abnormalities in adult brain rises in the range of 15-25% of the germinal cell population; and the threshold doses are about 0.3 Gy for cerebral defects and 1 Gy for cerebellar anomalies in both mice and rats. A similar threshold level is suggested in human cases in induction of mental retardation. Radiation-induced cell death in the VZ and EGL has been revealed as apoptosis, by the nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation, transglutaminase activation, required macromolecular synthesis, and internucleosomal DNA cleavage. Apoptosis of the germinal cell is assumed to eliminate acquired genetic damage. Once an abnormality in DNA has been induced and fixed in a germinal cell, it would be greatly amplified during future proliferation. These cells would commit suicide when injured for replacement by healthy cells, rather than undertake DNA repair. In fact they show very slow repair of cellular damage. Thus the high sensitivity of undifferentiated neural cells to the lethal effect of radiation may constitute a biological defense mechanism. (author) 69 refs

  2. Simvastatin attenuates radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Liping Xu,* Xi Yang,* Jiayan Chen, Xiaolin Ge, Qin Qin, Hongcheng Zhu, Chi Zhang, Xinchen Sun Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: Statins are widely used lipid-lowering drugs, which have pleiotropic effects, such as anti-inflammation, and vascular protection. In our study, we investigated the radioprotective potential of simvastatin (SIM in a murine model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Design: Ninety-six Institute of Cancer Research mice were randomly divided into four groups: solvent + sham irradiation (IR (Group I, SIM + sham IR (Group II, IR + solvent (Group III, and IR + SIM (Group IV. SIM (10 mg/kg body weight, three times per week was administered intraperitoneally 1 week prior to IR through to the end of the experiment. Saliva and submandibular gland tissues were obtained for biochemical, morphological (hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome, and Western blot analysis at 8 hours, 24 hours, and 4 weeks after head and neck IR. Results: IR caused a significant reduction of salivary secretion and amylase activity but elevation of malondialdehyde. SIM remitted the reduction of saliva secretion and restored salivary amylase activity. The protective benefits of SIM may be attributed to scavenging malondialdehyde, remitting collagen deposition, and reducing and delaying the elevation of transforming growth factor β1 expression induced by radiation. Conclusion: SIM may be clinically useful to alleviate side effects of radiotherapy on salivary gland. Keywords: simvastatin, radiation protection, submandibular gland, transforming growth factor-β1, mice

  3. Radiation-Induced Phase Transformations in Ilmenite-Group Minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J. N.

    1997-12-31

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool for characterizing and understanding radiation-induced structural changes in materials. We have irradiated single crystals of ilmenite (FeTiO{sub 3}) and geikielite (MgTiO{sub 3}) using ions and electrons to better understand the response of complex oxides to radiation. Ion irradiation experiments of bulk single crystals at 100 K show that ilmenite amorphized at doses of less than 1x10(exp15) Ar(2+)/sq cm and at a damage level in the peak damage region of 1 displacement per atom (dpa). Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction of a cross-sectioned portion of this crystal confirmed the formation of a 150 am thick amorphous layer. Geikielite proved to be more radiation resistant, requiring a flux of 2x10(exp 15) Xe(2+)/sq cm to induce amorphization at 100 K. This material did not amorphize at 470 K, despite a dose of 2.5 x10(exp 16) Xe(2+)/sq cm and a damage level as high as 25 dpa. Low temperature irradiations of electron- transparent crystals with 1 MeV Kr(+) also show that ilmenite amorphized after a damage level of 2.25 dpa at 175 K.Similar experiments on geikielite show that the microstructure is partially amorphous and partially crystalline after 10 dpa at 150 K. Concurrent ion and electron irradiation of both materials with 1 MeV Kr(+) and 0.9 MeV electrons produced dislocation loops in both materials, but no amorphous regions were formed. Differences in the radiation response of these isostructural oxides suggests that in systems with Mg-Fe solid solution, the Mg-rich compositions may be more resistant to structural changes.

  4. Evaluation of xerostomia following intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Ho; Kim, Tae Hyun; Chie, Eui Kyu

    2004-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate xerostomia following intensity modulated radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer, and to analyze the correlation between the dosimetric parameters and xerostomia parameters. From February till October 2003, 13 patients with 3 months of follow-up were evaluated for xerostomia after being treated for head and neck cancer with IMRT. Their median age was 57 years (range:43 ∼ 77). Xerostomia were assessed with a 4-question xerostomia questionnaire score (XQS) and a test for salivary flow rates (unstimulated and stimulated). The patients were also given a validated LENT SOMA scale (LSC) questionnaire. The evaluations were completed before radiation therapy (pre-RT) and at 1 and. 3 months after radiation therapy (RT). We evaluated xerostomia at pre-RT, 1 and, 3 months after RT. The association between the xerostomia parameters (XQS and LSC) and salivary flow rates (unstimulated and stimulated: USFR and SSFR) was assessed at 1 and 3 months after RT. All 13 patients showed no significant changes in XQS, LSC and Salivary Flow rates. As a result, we couldn't find out about xerostomia development. Based on the total mean parotid dose, 3,500 cGy, we divided these patients into two groups. The 8 patients (< 3,500 cGy) showed no significant changes in XQS, LSC and Salivary Flow rates. However, in 5 patients (≥ 3,500 cGy), there was a significant increase in USFR and, SSFR at 3 months after RT, and for the XQS and, LSC at 1 and 3 months after RT. The correlation between XQS and, LSC, and USFR and, SSFR in all patients (13) was significant at 3 months after RT. The correlation had a tendency to the decrease for USFR and, SSFR in proportion to the increase of XQS and, LSC. Base on the results of this study, IMRT seem to be an effective treatment to significantly decrease the xerostomia. XQS and, LSC seem to be a effective tool for predicting the xerostomia. A total parotid gland mean dose of < 3,500 cGy should be a planning goal if

  5. Xerostomia and its predictors following parotid-sparing irradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisbruch, Avraham; Kim, Hyungjin M.; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Marsh, Lon H.C.; Dawson, Laura A.; Ship, Jonathan A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To assess long-term xerostomia in patients receiving parotid-sparing radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, and to find the patient and therapy-related factors that affect its severity. Patients and Methods: From March 1994 through January 2000, 84 patients received comprehensive bilateral neck RT using conformal and multisegmental intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) aiming to spare the major salivary glands. Before RT and periodically through 2 years after the completion of RT, salivary flow rates from each of the major salivary glands were selectively measured. At the same time intervals, each patient completed an 8-item self-reported xerostomia-specific questionnaire (XQ). To gain a relative measure of the effect of RT on the minor salivary glands, whose output could not be measured, the surfaces of the oral cavity (extending to include the surface of the base of tongue) were outlined in the planning CT scans. The mean doses to the new organ ('oral cavity') were recorded. Forty-eight patients receiving unilateral neck RT were similarly studied and served as a benchmark for comparison. Factors predicting the XQ scores were analyzed using a random-effects model. Results: The XQ was found to be reliable and valid in measuring patient-reported xerostomia. The spared salivary glands which had received moderate doses in the bilateral RT group recovered to their baseline salivary flow rates during the second year after RT, and the spared glands in the unilateral RT group, which had received very low doses, demonstrated increased salivary production beyond their pre-RT levels. The increase in the salivary flow rates during the second year after RT paralleled an improvement in xerostomia in both patient groups. The improvement in xerostomia was faster in the unilateral compared with the bilateral RT group, but the difference narrowed at 2 years. The major salivary gland flow rates had only a weak correlation with the xerostomia scores. Factors found to be

  6. ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry

    2003-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of patients who develop radiation-induced RTOG/EORTC grade 3/4 subcutaneous late tissue morbidity possess a mutated ATM gene...

  7. Design Methodologies and to Combat Radiation Induced Corruption in FPGAs and SoCs, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional radiation hardened by process (RHBP) and radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques have seen success in mitigating the effects of radiation induced...

  8. ATM Mutations and the Development of Severe Radiation-Induced Morbidity Following Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosenstein, Barry

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis being tested in this project is that a greater proportion of patients who develop radiation-induced subcutaneous late tissue morbidity possess a variant allele in the ATM gene compared...

  9. Experimental analysis of recombination and neutralization of radiation-induced charges, using isochronal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quittard, O.; Brisset, C.; Joffre, F.; Oudea, C.; Saigne, F.; Dusseau, L.; Fesquet, J.; Gasiot, J.

    1999-01-01

    The experimental analysis described in this paper made use of the isochronal principle to carry out qualitative and quantitative studies of both aspects of the RICN mechanism (radiation-induced charge neutralization) : recombination and compensation. (authors)

  10. Modelling ionising radiation induced defect generation in bipolar oxides with gated diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, H.J.; Cirba, C.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Kosier, St.; Fouillat, P.; Montagner, X.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-induced oxide defects that degrade electrical characteristics of bipolar junction transistor (BJTs) can be measured with the use of gated diodes. The buildup of defects and their effect on device radiation response are modeled with computer simulation. (authors)

  11. Naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors in SPF mice, and genetic influence in radiation leukemogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, T.

    1979-01-01

    The data obtained so far in this study point to a strong genetic influence not only on the types and incidence of naturally occurring and radiation-induced tumors but also on radiation leukemogenesis. (Auth.)

  12. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  13. Design Methodologies and to Combat Radiation Induced Corruption in FPGAs and SoCs Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Traditional radiation hardened by process (RHBP) and radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques have seen success in mitigating the effects of radiation induced...

  14. Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparations of hemopoiesis in ionizing radiation-induced depression of hemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, M.N.; Golubeva, L.A.; Martirosov, K.S.; Petkevich, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of pyrogend and prodigiosan in radiation-induced depression of hemopoiesis were intestigated in tests on guinea pigs. Both the preparations were shown to produce. The stimulating effect on the postradiation recovery of granulocytopoiesis and lymphopoiesis

  15. RADIATION-INDUCED SARCOMA OF CHEST WALL FOLLOWING BREAST CANCER THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Valizadeh

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available A woman patient who had received external radiotherapyfor breast cancer developed secondary tumor in the irradiated area after nineyears. We offer our observation on this case which seems to be radiation-induced sarcoma

  16. Radiation-induced osteosarcoma 17 years after mediastinal irradiation following surgical removal of thymoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Yoshihisa; Utsumi, Tomoki; Inoue, Masayoshi; Sawabata, Noriyoshi; Minami, Masato; Okumura, Meinoshin

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced osteosarcoma is a rare complication after irradiation of primary malignancies. In the chest wall, it is usually secondary to radiotherapy for breast cancer or lymphoma. We report a rare case of radiation-induced osteosarcoma of the sternum after mediastinal irradiation of a thymoma. A 49-year-old woman presented with a sternal tumor 17 years after surgery plus mediastinal irradiation (50 Gy) for a stage III thymoma. On biopsy, this second tumor was diagnosed as a radiation-induced osteosarcoma. Systemic survey revealed additional metastatic spread to vertebrae and pelvis. Despite intensive combination chemotherapy that initially stabilized her disease, the patient died 2 years after the diagnosis was made. Because thymoma patients receiving mediastinal irradiation are thus at additional risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy, long-term follow-up is advisable. (author)

  17. Comparison of gamma radiation - induced effects in two human prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vucic, V.; Adzic, M.; Ruzdijic, S.; Radojcic, M.B. . E-mail address of corresponding author: vesnav@vin.bg.ac.yu; Vucic, V.)

    2005-01-01

    In this stud