WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam radiation therapy

  1. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    External beam radiation therapy is used to treat many types of cancer. it is a local treatment, where a machine aims radiation at your cancer. Learn more about different types of external beam radiation therapy, and what to expect if you're receiving treatment.

  2. Radiation therapy apparatus having retractable beam stopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coad, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to a radiation therapy apparatus which utilized a linear translation mechanism for positioning a beam stopper. An apparatus is described wherein the beam stopper is pivotally attached to the therapy machine with an associated drive motor in such a way that the beam stopper retracts linearly

  3. 21 CFR 892.5710 - Radiation therapy beam-shaping block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radiation therapy beam-shaping block. 892.5710 Section 892.5710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... block. (a) Identification. A radiation therapy beam-shaping block is a device made of a highly...

  4. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granja, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.granja@utef.cvut.cz; Opalka, Lukas [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Jakubek, Jan [Advacam, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-07

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  5. Imaging and characterization of primary and secondary radiation in ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granja, Carlos; Opalka, Lukas; Martisikova, Maria; Gwosch, Klaus; Jakubek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging in ion beam therapy is an essential and increasingly significant tool for treatment planning and radiation and dose deposition verification. Efforts aim at providing precise radiation field characterization and online monitoring of radiation dose distribution. A review is given of the research and methodology of quantum-imaging, composition, spectral and directional characterization of the mixed-radiation fields in proton and light ion beam therapy developed by the IEAP CTU Prague and HIT Heidelberg group. Results include non-invasive imaging of dose deposition and primary beam online monitoring.

  6. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy (IOEBRT) for carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R. Jr.; Konski, A.A.; Merrick, H.W. III; Bronn, D.G.; Schifeling, D.; Kamen, C.

    1991-01-01

    The abdominal cavities of 50 patients were explored in a specially constructed intraoperative radiotherapy operating amphitheater at the Medical College of Ohio. Twenty-six patients were treated with intraoperative and postoperative precision high dose external beam therapy, 12 with intraoperative irradiation but no external beam therapy, and 12 with palliative surgery alone. All but two patients completed the postoperative external beam radiation therapy as initially prescribed. The median survival time for patients treated with palliative surgery alone was 4 months, and that for patients treated with intraoperative radiotherapy without external beam therapy was 3.5 months. Patients undergoing intraoperative irradiation and external beam radiation therapy had a median survival time of 10.5 months. Four patients died within 30 days of surgery and two patients died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage 5 months posttreatment

  7. Proton-beam radiation therapy dosimetry standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, K.P.

    1995-01-01

    Beams of protons have been used for radiation therapy applications for over 40 years. In the last decade the number of facilities treating patients and the total number of patients being treated has begun go grow rapidly. Due to the limited and experimental nature of the early programs, dosimetry protocols tended to be locally defined. With the publication of the AAPM Task Group 20 report open-quotes Protocol for Dosimetry of Heavy Charged Particlesclose quotes and the open-quotes European Code of Practice for Proton-Beam Dosimetryclose quotes the practice of determining dose in proton-beam therapy was somewhat unified. The ICRU has also recently commissioned a report on recommendations for proton-beam dosimetry. There have been three main methods of determining proton dose; the Faraday cup technique, the ionization chamber technique, and the calorimeter technique. For practical reasons the ionization chamber technique has become the most widely used. However, due to large errors in basic parameters (e.g., W-value) is also has a large uncertainty for absolute dose. It has been proposed that the development of water calorimeter absorbed dose standards would reduce the uncertainty in absolute proton dose as well as the relative dose between megavoltage X-ray beams and proton beams. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  8. Radiation optic neuropathy after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Hoving, Marjanke A.; Links, Thera P.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.; Ranchor, Adelita V.; Weeme, Cees A. ter; Canrinus, Alof A.; Szabo, Ben G.; Pott, Jan-Willem R.

    2003-01-01

    For diagnosing radiation optic neuropathy (RON) ophthalmological and imaging data were evaluated from 63 acromegalic patients, irradiated between 1967 and 1998. Two patients developed RON: one patient in one optic nerve 10 years and another patient in both optic nerves 5 months after radiation therapy. RON is a rare complication after external beam radiation therapy for acromegaly, which can occur after a considerable latency period

  9. The evaluation of properties for radiation therapy techniques with flattening filter-free beam and usefulness of time and economy to a patient with the radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Jang Hyeon; Won, Hui Su; Hong, Joo Wan; Chang, Nam Jun; Park, Jin Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to appraise properties for radiation therapy techniques and effectiveness of time and economy to a patient in the case of applying flattening filter-free (3F) and flattening filter (2F) beam to the radiation therapy. Alderson rando phantom was scanned for computed tomography image. Treatment plans for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with 3F and 2F beam were designed for prostate cancer. To evaluate the differences between the 3F and 2F beam, total monitor units (MUs), beam on time (BOT) and gantry rotation time (GRT) were used and measured with TrueBeam TM STx and Surveillance And Measurement (SAM) 940 detector was used for photoneutron emitted by using 3F and 2F. To assess temporal and economical aspect for a patient, total treatment periods and medical fees were estimated. In using 3F beam, total MUs in IMRT plan increased the highest up to 34.0% and in the test of BOT, GRT and photoneutron, the values in SBRT plan decreased the lowest 39.8, 38.6 and 48.1%, respectively. In the temporal and economical aspect, there were no differences between 3F and 2F beam in all of plans and the results showed that 10 days and 169,560 won was lowest in SBRT plan. According as the results, total MUs increased by using 3F beam than 2F beam but BOT, GRT and photoneutron decreased. From above the results, using 3F beam can decrease intra-fraction setup error and risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy. But, using 3F beam did not make the benefits of temporal and economical aspect for a patient with the radiation therapy

  10. The evaluation of properties for radiation therapy techniques with flattening filter-free beam and usefulness of time and economy to a patient with the radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jang Hyeon; Won, Hui Su; Hong, Joo Wan; Chang, Nam Jun; Park, Jin Hong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul national university Bundang hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to appraise properties for radiation therapy techniques and effectiveness of time and economy to a patient in the case of applying flattening filter-free (3F) and flattening filter (2F) beam to the radiation therapy. Alderson rando phantom was scanned for computed tomography image. Treatment plans for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with 3F and 2F beam were designed for prostate cancer. To evaluate the differences between the 3F and 2F beam, total monitor units (MUs), beam on time (BOT) and gantry rotation time (GRT) were used and measured with TrueBeam{sup TM} STx and Surveillance And Measurement (SAM) 940 detector was used for photoneutron emitted by using 3F and 2F. To assess temporal and economical aspect for a patient, total treatment periods and medical fees were estimated. In using 3F beam, total MUs in IMRT plan increased the highest up to 34.0% and in the test of BOT, GRT and photoneutron, the values in SBRT plan decreased the lowest 39.8, 38.6 and 48.1%, respectively. In the temporal and economical aspect, there were no differences between 3F and 2F beam in all of plans and the results showed that 10 days and 169,560 won was lowest in SBRT plan. According as the results, total MUs increased by using 3F beam than 2F beam but BOT, GRT and photoneutron decreased. From above the results, using 3F beam can decrease intra-fraction setup error and risk of radiation-induced secondary malignancy. But, using 3F beam did not make the benefits of temporal and economical aspect for a patient with the radiation therapy.

  11. Laser-Driven Very High Energy Electron/Photon Beam Radiation Therapy in Conjunction with a Robotic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhisa Nakajima

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a new external-beam radiation therapy system using very-high-energy (VHE electron/photon beams generated by a centimeter-scale laser plasma accelerator built in a robotic system. Most types of external-beam radiation therapy are delivered using a machine called a medical linear accelerator driven by radio frequency (RF power amplifiers, producing electron beams with an energy range of 6–20 MeV, in conjunction with modern radiation therapy technologies for effective shaping of three-dimensional dose distributions and spatially accurate dose delivery with imaging verification. However, the limited penetration depth and low quality of the transverse penumbra at such electron beams delivered from the present RF linear accelerators prevent the implementation of advanced modalities in current cancer treatments. These drawbacks can be overcome if the electron energy is increased to above 50 MeV. To overcome the disadvantages of the present RF-based medical accelerators, harnessing recent advancement of laser-driven plasma accelerators capable of producing 1-GeV electron beams in a 1-cm gas cell, we propose a new embodiment of the external-beam radiation therapy robotic system delivering very high-energy electron/photon beams with an energy of 50–250 MeV; it is more compact, less expensive, and has a simpler operation and higher performance in comparison with the current radiation therapy system.

  12. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, Charles; Lang, Philippe; Dessard-Diana, Bernadette; Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm 3 (range, 0.9-243 cm 3 ) and 116 cm 3 (range, 24-731 cm 3 ), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas

  13. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  14. T2-weighted endorectal magnetic resonance imaging of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kurhanewicz, John; Cunha, Rui M.G.; Hsu, I-Chow; Kornak, John; Zhao, Shoujun; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively determine the accuracy of T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy and to investigate the relationship between imaging accuracy and time since therapy. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained and the study was HIPPA compliant. We identified 59 patients who underwent 1.5 Tesla endorectal MR imaging of the prostate between 1999 and 2006 after definitive external beam radiation therapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer. Two readers recorded the presence or absence of tumor on T2-weighted images. Logistic regression and Fisher's exact tests for 2x2 tables were used to determine the accuracy of imaging and investigate if accuracy differed between those imaged within 3 years of therapy (n = 25) and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (n = 34). Transrectal biopsy was used as the standard of reference for the presence or absence of recurrent cancer. Results: Thirty-four of 59 patients (58%) had recurrent prostate cancer detected on biopsy. The overall accuracy of T2-weighted MR imaging in the detection cancer after external beam radiation therapy was 63% (37/59) for reader 1 and 71% for reader 2 (42/59). For both readers, logistic regression showed no difference in accuracy between those imaged within 3 years of therapy and those imaged more than 3 years after therapy (p = 0.86 for reader 1 and 0.44 for reader 2). Conclusion: T2-weighted endorectal MR imaging has low accuracy in the detection of prostate cancer after external beam radiation therapy, irrespective of the time since therapy. (author)

  15. Treatment of Head and Neck Paragangliomas With External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupin, Charles, E-mail: c.dupin@bordeaux.unicancer.fr [Department of Radiotherapy, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Institut Bergonié, Bordeaux (France); Lang, Philippe [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France); Dessard-Diana, Bernadette [Department of Radiotherapy, Hopital Européen Georges Pompidou, Paris (France); Simon, Jean-Marc; Cuenca, Xavier; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Feuvret, Loïc [Department of Radiotherapy, Pitié Salpétrière, Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess the outcomes of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck paragangliomas. Methods and Materials: From 1990 to 2009, 66 patients with 81 head and neck paragangliomas were treated by conventional external beam radiation therapy in 25 fractions at a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 41.4-68 Gy). One case was malignant. The median gross target volume and planning target volume were 30 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.9-243 cm{sup 3}) and 116 cm{sup 3} (range, 24-731 cm{sup 3}), respectively. Median age was 57.4 years (range, 15-84 years). Eleven patients had multicentric lesions, and 8 had family histories of paraganglioma. Paragangliomas were located in the temporal bone, the carotid body, and the glomus vagal in 51, 18, and 10 patients, respectively. Forty-six patients had exclusive radiation therapy, and 20 had salvage radiation therapy. The median follow-up was 4.1 years (range, 0.1-21.2 years). Results: One patient had a recurrence of temporal bone paraganglioma 8 years after treatment. The actuarial local control rates were 100% at 5 years and 98.7% at 10 years. Patients with multifocal tumors and family histories were significantly younger (42 years vs 58 years [P=.002] and 37 years vs 58 years [P=.0003], respectively). The association between family predisposition and multifocality was significant (P<.001). Two patients had cause-specific death within the 6 months after irradiation. During radiation therapy, 9 patients required hospitalization for weight loss, nausea, mucositis, or ophthalmic zoster. Two late vascular complications occurred (middle cerebral artery and carotid stenosis), and 2 late radiation-related meningiomas appeared 15 and 18 years after treatment. Conclusion: Conventional external beam radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment option that achieves excellent local control; it should be considered as a first-line treatment of choice for head and neck paragangliomas.

  16. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT

  17. Study on external beam radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seoung Yul; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Ji, Young Hoon; Lee, Dong Han; Lee, Dong Hoon; Choi, Mun Sik; Yoo, Dae Heon; Lee, Hyo Nam; Kim, Kyeoung Jung

    1999-04-01

    To develop the therapy technique which promote accuracy and convenience in external radiation therapy, to obtain the development of clinical treatment methods for the global competition. The contents of the R and D were 1. structure, process and outcome analysis in radiation therapy department. 2. Development of multimodality treatment in radiation therapy 3. Development of computation using networking techniques 4. Development of quality assurance (QA) system in radiation therapy 5. Development of radiotherapy tools 6. Development of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) tools. The results of the R and D were 1. completion of survey and analysis about Korea radiation therapy status 2. Performing QA analysis about ICR on cervix cancer 3. Trial of multicenter randomized study on lung cancers 4. Setting up inter-departmental LAN using MS NT server and Notes program 5. Development of ionization chamber and dose-rate meter for QA in linear accelerator 6. Development on optimized radiation distribution algorithm for multiple slice 7. Implementation on 3 dimensional volume surface algorithm and 8. Implementation on adaptor and cone for IORT.

  18. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in lung cancer (including mesothelioma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjelkengren, Goeran [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    A Swedish group of oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. It is estimated that about 350 patients with lung cancer and about 20 patients with mesothelioma annually may benefit from proton beam therapy.

  19. Electron beams in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruinvis, I.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Clinical electron beams in interaction with beam flattening and collimating devices are studied, in order to obtain the means for adequate electron therapy. A treatment planning method for arbitrary field shapes is developed that takes the properties of the collimated electron beams into account. An electron multiple-scattering model is extended to incorporate a model for the loss of electrons with depth, in order to improve electron beam dose planning. A study of ionisation measurements in two different phantom materials yields correction factors for electron beam dosimetry. (Auth.)

  20. External-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer. Long-term outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, C.V.; Calvo, F.A.; Lozano, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sansegundo, C.; Gonzalez-Bayon, L.; Alvarez, A.; Lizarraga, S.; Garcia-Sabrido, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors in patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer (ORGC). From January 1995 to December 2012, 61 patients with ORGC [uterine cervix (52 %), endometrial (30 %), ovarian (15 %), vagina (3 %)] underwent IOERT (12.5 Gy, range 10-15 Gy), and surgical resection to the pelvic (57 %) and paraaortic (43 %) recurrence tumor bed. In addition, 29 patients (48 %) also received EBRT (range 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 42 months (range 2-169 months). The 10-year rates for overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) were 17 and 65 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no tumor fragmentation (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), time interval from primary tumor diagnosis to locoregional recurrence (LRR) < 24 months (HR 4.02; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.95; p = 0.02) retained significance with regard to LRR. Time interval from primary tumor to LRR < 24 months (HR 2.32; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.77; p = 0.04) showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. External-beam radiation therapy at the time of pelvic recurrence, time interval for relapse ≥24 months and not multi-involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with ORGC. As suggested from the present analysis a significant group of ORGC patients could potentially benefit from multimodality rescue treatment. (orig.)

  1. External-beam radiation therapy after surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer. Long-term outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, C.V. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Radiomedicina, Service of Radiation Oncology, Santiago (Chile); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Calvo, F.A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lozano, M.A.; Gonzalez-Sansegundo, C. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Bayon, L. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, A. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of Radiation Oncology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Lizarraga, S. [Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Institute of Research Investigation, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Sabrido, J.L. [Complutense University, School of Medicine, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Service of General Surgery, Madrid (Spain); Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Department of Gynecology, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The goal of the present study was to analyze prognostic factors in patients treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT), surgical resection and intraoperative electron-beam radiotherapy (IOERT) for oligorecurrent gynecological cancer (ORGC). From January 1995 to December 2012, 61 patients with ORGC [uterine cervix (52 %), endometrial (30 %), ovarian (15 %), vagina (3 %)] underwent IOERT (12.5 Gy, range 10-15 Gy), and surgical resection to the pelvic (57 %) and paraaortic (43 %) recurrence tumor bed. In addition, 29 patients (48 %) also received EBRT (range 30.6-50.4 Gy). Survival outcomes were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and risk factors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Median follow-up time for the entire cohort of patients was 42 months (range 2-169 months). The 10-year rates for overall survival (OS) and locoregional control (LRC) were 17 and 65 %, respectively. On multivariate analysis, no tumor fragmentation (HR 0.22; p = 0.03), time interval from primary tumor diagnosis to locoregional recurrence (LRR) < 24 months (HR 4.02; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.95; p = 0.02) retained significance with regard to LRR. Time interval from primary tumor to LRR < 24 months (HR 2.32; p = 0.02) and no EBRT at the time of pelvic recurrence (HR 3.77; p = 0.04) showed a significant association with OS after adjustment for other covariates. External-beam radiation therapy at the time of pelvic recurrence, time interval for relapse ≥24 months and not multi-involved fragmented resection specimens are associated with improved LRC in patients with ORGC. As suggested from the present analysis a significant group of ORGC patients could potentially benefit from multimodality rescue treatment. (orig.)

  2. An implantable radiation dosimeter for use in external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarantino, Charles W.; Ruslander, David M.; Rini, Christopher J.; Mann, Gregory G.; Nagle, H. Troy; Black, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    An implantable radiation dosimeter for use with external beam therapy has been developed and tested both in vitro and in canines. The device uses a MOSFET dosimeter and is polled telemetrically every day during the course of therapy. The device is designed for permanent implantation and also acts as a radiographic fiducial marker. Ten dogs (companion animals) that presented with spontaneous, malignant tumors were enrolled in the study and received an implant in the tumor CTV. Three dogs received an additional implant in collateral normal tissue. Radiation therapy plans were created for the animals and they were treated with roughly 300 cGy daily fractions until completion of the prescribed cumulative dose. The primary endpoints of the study were to record any adverse events due to sensor placement and to monitor any movement away from the point of placement. No adverse events were recorded. Unacceptable device migration was experienced in two subjects and a retention mechanism was developed to prevent movement in the future. Daily dose readings were successfully acquired in all subjects. A rigorous in vitro calibration methodology has been developed to ensure that the implanted devices maintain an accuracy of ±3.5% relative to an ionization chamber standard. The authors believe that an implantable radiation dosimeter is a practical and powerful tool that fosters individualized patient QA on a daily basis

  3. Evaluation of a GEM and CAT-based detector for radiation therapy beam monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Ostling, J.; Peskov, V.; Wallmark, M.

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a radiation therapy beam monitor for the Karolinska Institute. This monitor will consist of two consecutive detectors confined in one gas chamber: a 'keV-photon detector', which will allow diagnostic quality visualization of the patient, and a 'MeV-photon detector', that will measure the absolute intensity of the therapy beam and its position with respect to the patient. Both detectors are based on highly radiation resistant gas and solid photon to electron converters, combined with GEMs and a CAT as amplification structures. We have performed systematic studies of the high-rate characteristics of the GEM and the CAT, as well as tested the electron transfer through these electron multipliers and various types of converters. The tests show that the GEM and the CAT satisfy all requirements for the beam monitoring system. As a result of these studies we successfully developed and tested a full section of the beam monitor equipped with a MeV-photon converter placed between the GEM and the CAT

  4. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  5. External beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, Jeffrey D.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The intent of this course is to review the issues involved in the management of non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. -- The value of pre-treatment prognostic factors including stage, grade and PSA value will be presented, and their value in determining therapeutic strategies will be discussed. -- Controversies involving the simulation process and treatment design will be presented. The value of CT scanning, Beams-Eye View, 3-D planning, intravesicle, intraurethral and rectal contrast will be presented. The significance of prostate and patient movement and strategies for dealing with them will be presented. -- The management of low stage, low to intermediate grade prostate cancer will be discussed. The dose, volume and timing of irradiation will be discussed as will the role of neo-adjuvant hormonal therapy, neutron irradiation and brachytherapy. The current status of radical prostatectomy and cryotherapy will be summarized. Treatment of locally advanced, poorly differentiated prostate cancer will be presented including a discussion of neo-adjuvant and adjuvant hormones, dose-escalation and neutron irradiation. -- Strategies for post-radiation failures will be presented including data on cryotherapy, salvage prostatectomy and hormonal therapy (immediate, delayed and/or intermittent). New areas for investigation will be reviewed. -- The management of patients post prostatectomy will be reviewed. Data on adjuvant radiation and therapeutic radiation for biochemical or clinically relapsed patients will be presented. This course hopes to present a realistic and pragmatic overview for treating patients with non-metastatic prostatic cancer

  6. Radiation dermatitis following electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    Ten patients, who had been treated for mycosis fungoides with electron beam radiation ten or more years previously, were examined for signs of radiation dermatitis. Although most patients had had acute radiation dermatitis, only a few manifested signs of mild chronic changes after having received between 1,000 and 2,800 rads

  7. SU-F-T-209: Multicriteria Optimization Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Pencil Proton Beam Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, C; Kamal, H [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To provide a multicriteria optimization algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning. Methods: Intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning requires efficient optimization algorithms to overcome the uncertainties in the Bragg peaks locations. This work is focused on optimization algorithms that are based on Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment planning and use the weights and the dose volume histogram (DVH) control points to steer toward desired plans. The proton beam treatment planning process based on single objective optimization (representing a weighted sum of multiple objectives) usually leads to time-consuming iterations involving treatment planning team members. We proved a time efficient multicriteria optimization algorithm that is developed to run on NVIDIA GPU (Graphical Processing Units) cluster. The multicriteria optimization algorithm running time benefits from up-sampling of the CT voxel size of the calculations without loss of fidelity. Results: We will present preliminary results of Multicriteria optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy based on DVH control points. The results will show optimization results of a phantom case and a brain tumor case. Conclusion: The multicriteria optimization of the intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning provides a novel tool for treatment planning. Work support by a grant from Varian Inc.

  8. SU-F-T-209: Multicriteria Optimization Algorithm for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Using Pencil Proton Beam Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, C; Kamal, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a multicriteria optimization algorithm for intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning. Methods: Intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning requires efficient optimization algorithms to overcome the uncertainties in the Bragg peaks locations. This work is focused on optimization algorithms that are based on Monte Carlo simulation of the treatment planning and use the weights and the dose volume histogram (DVH) control points to steer toward desired plans. The proton beam treatment planning process based on single objective optimization (representing a weighted sum of multiple objectives) usually leads to time-consuming iterations involving treatment planning team members. We proved a time efficient multicriteria optimization algorithm that is developed to run on NVIDIA GPU (Graphical Processing Units) cluster. The multicriteria optimization algorithm running time benefits from up-sampling of the CT voxel size of the calculations without loss of fidelity. Results: We will present preliminary results of Multicriteria optimization for intensity modulated proton therapy based on DVH control points. The results will show optimization results of a phantom case and a brain tumor case. Conclusion: The multicriteria optimization of the intensity modulated radiation therapy using pencil proton beam scanning provides a novel tool for treatment planning. Work support by a grant from Varian Inc.

  9. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, Robert L; Haddock, Michael G; Yan, Elizabeth; Laack, Nadia N; Arndt, Carola A S

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy

  10. Computer-assisted selection of coplanar beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugachev, A.; Xing, L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States)]. E-mail: lei@reyes.stanford.edu

    2001-09-01

    In intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the incident beam orientations are often determined by a trial and error search. The conventional beam's-eye view (BEV) tool becomes less helpful in IMRT because it is frequently required that beams go through organs at risk (OARs) in order to achieve a compromise between the dosimetric objectives of the planning target volume (PTV) and the OARs. In this paper, we report a beam's-eye view dosimetrics (BEVD) technique to assist in the selection of beam orientations in IMRT. In our method, each beam portal is divided into a grid of beamlets. A score function is introduced to measure the 'goodness' of each beamlet at a given gantry angle. The score is determined by the maximum PTV dose deliverable by the beamlet without exceeding the tolerance doses of the OARs and normal tissue located in the path of the beamlet. The overall score of the gantry angle is given by a sum of the scores of all beamlets. For a given patient, the score function is evaluated for each possible beam orientation. The directions with the highest scores are then selected as the candidates for beam placement. This procedure is similar to the BEV approach used in conventional radiation therapy, except that the evaluation by a human is replaced by a score function to take into account the intensity modulation. This technique allows one to select beam orientations without the excessive computing overhead of computer optimization of beam orientation. It also provides useful insight into the problem of selection of beam orientation and is especially valuable for complicated cases where the PTV is surrounded by several sensitive structures and where it is difficult to select a set of 'good' beam orientations. Several two-dimensional (2D) model cases were used to test the proposed technique. The plans obtained using the BEVD-selected beam orientations were compared with the plans obtained using equiangular spaced beams. For

  11. The potential of proton beam radiation therapy in intracranial and ocular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, Erik [Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology; Bjelkengren, Goeran [Univ. Hospital, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Glimelius, Bengt [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology and Pathology; Akademiska sjukhuset, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology

    2005-12-01

    A group of oncologists and hospital physicists have estimated the number of patients in Sweden suitable for proton beam therapy. The estimations have been based on current statistics of tumour incidence, number of patients potentially eligible for radiation treatment, scientific support from clinical trials and model dose planning studies and knowledge of the dose-response relations of different tumours and normal tissues. In intracranial benign and malignant tumours, it is estimated that between 130 and 180 patients each year are candidates for proton beam therapy. Of these, between 50 and 75 patients have malignant glioma, 30-40 meningeoma, 20-25 arteriovenous malformations, 20-25 skull base tumours and 10-15 pituitary adenoma. In addition, 15 patients with ocular melanoma are candidates.

  12. New modalities in radiation therapy for treatment of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a generic term for a large group of diseases characterized by rapid creation of abnormal cells that grow beyond their usual boundaries, and which can then invade adjoining parts of the body and spread to other organs. Cancer mortality is the second and most common cause of death in the USA and in most European countries. In India, it is the fourth leading disease and the major cause of death. Cancer remains one of the most dreadful disease and approximately ten million cases of cancer occur in the world every year. The course of cancer treatment depends on the type of cancer, its location, and its state of advancement. Cancer is treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy and targeted therapy. Radiation therapy is an important an affordable modality for cancer treatment with minimal side effects. Radiation kills cancer cells with high-energy rays targeted directly to the tumor. Radiation therapy works by damaging the DNA and preventing its replication: therefore, it preferentially kills cancer cells, which rapidly divides. Radiation therapy is used for cure, control, and palliation of cancers in more than 60% of cancer patients. The goal of radiotherapy is to treat the cancer and spare the normal tissue as much as possible. Advances have been made in radiotherapy that allow delivery of higher doses of radiation to the tumor while sparing a greater amount of surrounding tissue, thus achieving more cures and fewer acute and long-term side effects. Technological advances and research are being continued to result in improvements in the field. Several new devices and techniques are used these days in radiotherapy for accurate treatment of cancer. Teletherapy (external radiation therapy) used focused radiation beams targeting well defined tumor through extremely detailed imaging scans. Conventional external beam radiation therapy (2DXRT) is delivered via two-dimensional beams using linear accelerator machines (X

  13. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Linda; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D 1cc , V 60GyEq , V 40GyEq , and D mean between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality

  14. Noncoplanar Beam Angle Class Solutions to Replace Time-Consuming Patient-Specific Beam Angle Optimization in Robotic Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Linda, E-mail: l.rossi@erasmusmc.nl; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Aluwini, Shafak; Heijmen, Ben

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate development of a recipe for the creation of a beam angle class solution (CS) for noncoplanar prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy to replace time-consuming individualized beam angle selection (iBAS) without significant loss in plan quality, using the in-house “Erasmus-iCycle” optimizer for fully automated beam profile optimization and iBAS. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, Erasmus-iCycle was first used to generate 15-, 20-, and 25-beam iBAS plans for a CyberKnife equipped with a multileaf collimator. With these plans, 6 recipes for creation of beam angle CSs were investigated. Plans of 10 patients were used to create CSs based on the recipes, and the other 20 to independently test them. For these tests, Erasmus-iCycle was also used to generate intensity modulated radiation therapy plans for the fixed CS beam setups. Results: Of the tested recipes for CS creation, only 1 resulted in 15-, 20-, and 25-beam noncoplanar CSs without plan deterioration compared with iBAS. For the patient group, mean differences in rectum D{sub 1cc}, V{sub 60GyEq}, V{sub 40GyEq}, and D{sub mean} between 25-beam CS plans and 25-beam plans generated with iBAS were 0.2 ± 0.4 Gy, 0.1% ± 0.2%, 0.2% ± 0.3%, and 0.1 ± 0.2 Gy, respectively. Differences between 15- and 20-beam CS and iBAS plans were also negligible. Plan quality for CS plans relative to iBAS plans was also preserved when narrower planning target volume margins were arranged and when planning target volume dose inhomogeneity was decreased. Using a CS instead of iBAS reduced the computation time by a factor of 14 to 25, mainly depending on beam number, without loss in plan quality. Conclusions: A recipe for creation of robust beam angle CSs for robotic prostate stereotactic body radiation therapy has been developed. Compared with iBAS, computation times decreased by a factor 14 to 25. The use of a CS may avoid long planning times without losses in plan quality.

  15. Nanoscale insights into ion-beam cancer therapy

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art understanding of the molecular and nano-scale processes that play significant roles in ion-beam cancer therapy. It covers experimental design and methodology, and reviews the theoretical understanding of the processes involved. It offers the reader an opportunity to learn from a coherent approach about the physics, chemistry and biology relevant to ion-beam cancer therapy, a growing field of important medical application worldwide. The book describes phenomena occurring on different time and energy scales relevant to the radiation damage of biological targets and ion-beam cancer therapy from the molecular (nano) scale up to the macroscopic level. It illustrates how ion-beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue whilst maximizing cell-killing within the tumour, offering a significant development in cancer therapy. The full potential ...

  16. The clinical case for proton beam therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foote Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past 20 years, several proton beam treatment programs have been implemented throughout the United States. Increasingly, the number of new programs under development is growing. Proton beam therapy has the potential for improving tumor control and survival through dose escalation. It also has potential for reducing harm to normal organs through dose reduction. However, proton beam therapy is more costly than conventional x-ray therapy. This increased cost may be offset by improved function, improved quality of life, and reduced costs related to treating the late effects of therapy. Clinical research opportunities are abundant to determine which patients will gain the most benefit from proton beam therapy. We review the clinical case for proton beam therapy. Summary sentence Proton beam therapy is a technically advanced and promising form of radiation therapy.

  17. Protection of the patient in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the ICRP report (ICRP-Pub-44) a broad picture of radiotheraphy is presented useful to all involved in the care of cancer patients, for instance to physicians, including medical oncologists, and to medical physicists, radiographers, dosimetrists, and administrators. Information is given on the general principles of radiation therapy including external beam therapy and brachytherapy; the accuracy of radiation delivery and quality assurance; the biological radiation response; the expected risk to specific organs or tissues from therapeutic irradiation; the absorbed dose to tissues inside and outside the useful radiation beams; the organization and planning of radiation oncology services; radiation therapy staff education, training and duties; and finally medical research involving the use of radiation therapy. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Effect of Photon Beam Energy, Gold Nanoparticle Size and Concentration on the Dose Enhancement in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahideh Gharehaghaji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gold nanoparticles have been used as radiation dose enhancing materials in recent investigations. In the current study, dose enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles on tumor cells was evaluated using Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Methods: We used MCNPX code for MC modeling in the current study. A water phantom and a tumor region with a size of 1×1×1 cm3 loaded with gold nanoparticles were simulated. The macroscopic dose enhancement factor was calculated for gold nanoparticles with sizes of 30, 50, and 100 nm. Also, we simulated different photon beams including mono-energetic beams (50-120 keV, a Cobalt-60 beam, 6 & 18 MV photon beams of a conventional linear accelerator. Results: We found a dose enhancement factor (DEF of from 1.4 to 3.7 for monoenergetic kilovoltage beams, while the DEFs for megavoltage beams were negligible and less than 3% for all GNP sizes and concentrations. The optimum energy for higher DEF was found to be the 90 keV monoenergetic beam. The effect of GNP size was not considerable, but the GNP concentration had a substantial impact on achieved DEF in GNP-based radiation therapy. Conclusion: The results were in close agreement with some previous studies considering the effect of photon energy and GNP concentration on observed DEF. Application of GNP-based radiation therapy using kilovoltage beams is recommended.

  19. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  20. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martišíková, Mária; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Hartmann, Bernadette; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Jäkel, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient`s condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2-30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  1. Measurement of secondary radiation during ion beam therapy with the pixel detector Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martišíková, Mária; Hartmann, Bernadette; Jäkel, Oliver; Jakubek, Jan; Granja, Carlos; Opálka, Lukáš; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    In ion beam therapy the finite range of the ion beams in tissue and the presence of the Bragg-peak are exploited. Unpredictable changes in the patient's condition can alter the range of the ion beam in the body. Therefore it is desired to verify the actual ion range during the treatment, preferably in a non-invasive way. Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used successfully to monitor the applied dose distributions. This method however suffers from limited applicability and low detection efficiency. In order to increase the detection efficiency and to decrease the uncertainties, in this study we investigate the possibility to measure secondary charged particles emerging from the patient during irradiation. An initial experimental study to register the particle radiation coming out of a patient phantom during the therapy was performed at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center (HIT) in Germany. A static narrowly-focused beam of carbon ions was directed into a head phantom. The emerging secondary radiation was measured with the position-sensitive Timepix detector outside of the phantom. The detector, developed by the Medipix Collaboration, consists of a silicon sensor bump bonded to a pixelated readout chip (256 × 256 pixels with 55 μm pitch). Together with the USB-based readout interface, Timepix can operate as an active nuclear emulsion registering single particles online with 2D-track visualization. In this contribution we measured the signal behind the head phantom and investigated its dependence on the beam energy (corresponding to beam range in water 2–30 cm). Furthermore, the response was measured at four angles between 0 and 90 degrees. At all investigated energies some signal was registered. Its pattern corresponds to ions. Differences in the total amount of signal for different beam energies were observed. The time-structure of the signal is correlated with that of the incoming beam, showing that we register products of prompt processes. Such

  2. Radiation therapy in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Jin; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of hilar cholangiocarcinoma is very rare worldwide. Radical resection is the only prognostic factor for long survival in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Postoperative radiation therapy can improve local control and survival rates for patients with palliative resection, but it remains controversial in patients with radical resection. Biliary drainage can effectively release bile duct obstruction for the majority of patients with locally advanced disease, and may even prolong survival when combined with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy includes extrernal beam therapy alone, external beam therapy with intraluminal brachytheapy and new radiation technique, such as three dimentional conformal therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The propective randomized clinical study is needed for further investigation in the role of combined modality therapy especially for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  3. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  4. Role of beam orientation optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugachev, Andrei; Li, Jonathan G.; Boyer, Arthur L.; Hancock, Steven L.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Lei Xing

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of beam orientation optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and to examine the potential benefits of noncoplanar intensity-modulated beams. Methods and Materials: A beam orientation optimization algorithm was implemented. For this purpose, system variables were divided into two groups: beam position (gantry and table angles) and beam profile (beamlet weights). Simulated annealing was used for beam orientation optimization and the simultaneous iterative inverse treatment planning algorithm (SIITP) for beam intensity profile optimization. Three clinical cases were studied: a localized prostate cancer, a nasopharyngeal cancer, and a paraspinal tumor. Nine fields were used for all treatments. For each case, 3 types of treatment plan optimization were performed: (1) beam intensity profiles were optimized for 9 equiangular spaced coplanar beams; (2) orientations and intensity profiles were optimized for 9 coplanar beams; (3) orientations and intensity profiles were optimized for 9 noncoplanar beams. Results: For the localized prostate case, all 3 types of optimization described above resulted in dose distributions of a similar quality. For the nasopharynx case, optimized noncoplanar beams provided a significant gain in the gross tumor volume coverage. For the paraspinal case, orientation optimization using noncoplanar beams resulted in better kidney sparing and improved gross tumor volume coverage. Conclusion: The sensitivity of an IMRT treatment plan with respect to the selection of beam orientations varies from site to site. For some cases, the choice of beam orientations is important even when the number of beams is as large as 9. Noncoplanar beams provide an additional degree of freedom for IMRT treatment optimization and may allow for notable improvement in the quality of some complicated plans

  5. Partial Breast Radiation Therapy With Proton Beam: 5-Year Results With Cosmetic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Do, Sharon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Lum, Sharon; Garberoglio, Carlos [Department of Surgical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Patyal, Baldev; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: We updated our previous report of a phase 2 trial using proton beam radiation therapy to deliver partial breast irradiation (PBI) in patients with early stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had invasive nonlobular carcinoma with a maximal dimension of 3 cm. Patients underwent partial mastectomy with negative margins; axillary lymph nodes were negative on sampling. Subjects received postoperative proton beam radiation therapy to the surgical bed. The dose delivered was 40 Gy in 10 fractions, once daily over 2 weeks. Multiple fields were treated daily, and skin-sparing techniques were used. Following treatment, patients were evaluated with clinical assessments and annual mammograms to monitor toxicity, tumor recurrence, and cosmesis. Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled and treated. All patients completed the assigned treatment and were available for post-treatment analysis. The median follow-up was 60 months. Patients had a mean age of 63 years; 90% had ductal histology; the average tumor size was 1.3 cm. Actuarial data at 5 years included ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence-free survival of 97% (95% confidence interval: 100%-93%); disease-free survival of 94%; and overall survival of 95%. There were no cases of grade 3 or higher acute skin reactions, and late skin reactions included 7 cases of grade 1 telangiectasia. Patient- and physician-reported cosmesis was good to excellent in 90% of responses, was not changed from baseline measurements, and was well maintained throughout the entire 5-year follow-up period. Conclusions: Proton beam radiation therapy for PBI produced excellent ipsilateral breast recurrence-free survival with minimal toxicity. The treatment proved to be adaptable to all breast sizes and lumpectomy cavity configurations. Cosmetic results appear to be excellent and unchanged from baseline out to 5 years following treatment. Cosmetic results may be improved over those reported with photon

  6. Improving intensity-modulated radiation therapy using the anatomic beam orientation optimization algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrebko, Peter S.; McCurdy, Boyd M. C.; Butler, James B.; El-Gubtan, Adel S.

    2008-01-01

    A novel, anatomic beam orientation optimization (A-BOO) algorithm is proposed to significantly improve conventional intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The A-BOO algorithm vectorially analyses polygonal surface mesh data of contoured patient anatomy. Five optimal (5-opt) deliverable beam orientations are selected based on (1) tangential orientation bisecting the target and adjacent organ's-at-risk (OARs) to produce precipitous dose gradients between them and (2) parallel incidence with polygon features of the target volume to facilitate conformal coverage. The 5-opt plans were compared to standard five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beam plans (5-equi, 7-equi, 9-equi) for: (1) gastric, (2) Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) P-0126 prostate, and (3) RTOG H-0022 oropharyngeal (stage-III, IV) cancer patients. In the gastric case, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan reduced the right kidney V 20 Gy by 32.2%, 23.2%, and 20.6% compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams. In the prostate case, the coplanar 5-opt plan produced similar rectal sparing as the 7-equi and 9-equi plans with a reduction of the V 75, V 70, V 65, and V 60 Gy of 2.4%, 5.3%, 7.0%, and 9.5% compared to the 5-equi plan. In the stage-III and IV oropharyngeal cases, the noncoplanar 5-opt plan substantially reduced the V 30 Gy and mean dose to the contralateral parotid compared to plans with five, seven, and nine equiangular-spaced beams: (stage-III) 7.1%, 5.2%, 6.8%, and 5.1, 3.5, 3.7 Gy and (stage-IV) 10.2%, 10.2%, 9.8% and 7.0, 7.1, 7.2 Gy. The geometry-based A-BOO algorithm has been demonstrated to be robust for application to a variety of IMRT treatment sites. Beam orientations producing significant improvements in OAR sparing over conventional IMRT can be automatically produced in minutes compared to hours with existing dose-based beam orientation optimization methods

  7. TH-C-17A-05: Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) Imaging During Multi-Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R; Pogue, B [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Holt, R [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH - New Hampshire (United States); Esipova, T; Vinogradov, S [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gladstone, D [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Hanover, City of Lebanon (Lebanon)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Cherenkov radiation is created during external beam radiation therapy that can excite phosphorescence in tissue from oxygen-sensitive, bio-compatible probes. Utilizing the known spatial information of the treatment plan with directed multiple beam angles, Cherenkov Excited Phosphorescence Oxygen (CEPhOx) imaging was realized from the reconstructions of Cherenkov excited phosphorescence lifetime. Methods: Platinum(II)-G4 (PtG4) was used as the oxygen-sensitive phosphorescent probe and added to a oxygenated cylindrical liquid phantom with a oxygenated/deoxygenated cylindrical anomaly. Cherenkov excited phosphorescence was imaged using a time-gated ICCD camera temporallysynchronized to the LINAC pulse output. Lifetime reconstruction was carried out in NIRFAST software. Multiple angles of the incident radiation beam was combined with the location of the prescribed treatment volume (PTV) to improve the tomographic recovery as a function of location. The tissue partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the background and PTV was calculated based on the recovered lifetime distribution and Stern-Volmer equation. Additionally a simulation study was performed to examine the accuracy of this technique in the setting of a human brain tumor. Results: Region-based pO2 values in the oxygenated background and oxygenated/deoxygenated PTV were correctly recovered, with the deoxygenated anomaly (15.4 mmHg) easily distinguished from the oxygenated background (143 mmHg). The data acquisition time could be achieved within the normal irradiation time for a human fractionated plan. The simulations indicated that CEPhOx would be a sufficient to sample tumor pO2 sensing from tumors which are larger than 2cm in diameter or within 23mm depth from the surface. Conclusion: CEPhOx could be a novel imaging tool for pO2 assessment during external radiation beam therapy. It is minimally invasive and should work within the established treatment plan of radiation therapy with multiple beams in

  8. Imaging Changes in Pediatric Intracranial Ependymoma Patients Treated With Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Compared to Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, Jillian R.; Sato, Mariko; Chintagumpala, Murali; Ketonen, Leena; Jones, Jeremy Y.; Allen, Pamela K.; Paulino, Arnold C.; Okcu, M. Fatih; Su, Jack M.; Weinberg, Jeffrey; Boehling, Nicholas S.; Khatua, Soumen; Adesina, Adekunle; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William E.; Mahajan, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The clinical significance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes after radiation therapy (RT) in children with ependymoma is not well defined. We compared imaging changes following proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) to those after photon-based intensity modulated RT (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Seventy-two patients with nonmetastatic intracranial ependymoma who received postoperative RT (37 PBRT, 35 IMRT) were analyzed retrospectively. MRI images were reviewed by 2 neuroradiologists. Results: Sixteen PBRT patients (43%) developed postradiation MRI changes at 3.8 months (median) with resolution by 6.1 months. Six IMRT patients (17%) developed changes at 5.3 months (median) with 8.3 months to resolution. Mean age at radiation was 4.4 and 6.9 years for PBRT and IMRT, respectively (P=.06). Age at diagnosis (>3 years) and time of radiation (≥3 years) was associated with fewer imaging changes on univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, P=.048; OR: 0.36, P=.05). PBRT (compared to IMRT) was associated with more frequent imaging changes, both on univariate (OR: 3.68, P=.019) and multivariate (OR: 3.89, P=.024) analyses. Seven (3 IMRT, 4 PBRT) of 22 patients with changes had symptoms requiring intervention. Most patients were treated with steroids; some PBRT patients also received bevacizumab and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. None of the IMRT patients had lasting deficits, but 2 patients died from recurrent disease. Three PBRT patients had persistent neurological deficits, and 1 child died secondarily to complications from radiation necrosis. Conclusions: Postradiation MRI changes are more common with PBRT and in patients less than 3 years of age at diagnosis and treatment. It is difficult to predict causes for development of imaging changes that progress to clinical significance. These changes are usually self-limiting, but some require medical intervention, especially those involving the brainstem

  9. External beam radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medini, Eitan; Medini, Allen; Gapany, Markus; Levitt, Seymour H.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy for carcinoma of the soft palate aims to achieve loco-regional control with normal speech, nasal function, swallowing mechanism, and minimal side effects such as nasal speech and regurgitation of food into the nasopharynx. In this report we present our results of radiotherapy in the treatment of 24 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the soft palate were treated at the Veterans Administration Medical Center Minneapolis, MN, between February 1977 and May 1992. Of the 24 patients 2 had T1, 19 T2, 1 T3, and 2 had T4 lesions. Nineteen patients did not have clinical nodal disease, stage (N0), 1 had N1, 2 N2, and 2 N3 disease (Table 1). All the patients were treated by 4 MeV linear accelerator. A 1.75 Gy median dose was administered per fraction to a total of 70 Gy median dose. Bilateral opposed compensated shrinking fields technique was used. Results: The 3-year disease free survival rate after external beam radiation therapy was 100% (1 out of 1), 64.7% (11 out of 17), 100% (1 out of 1), and 0%, for patients with T1, T2, T3, and T4 disease, respectively. Salvage surgery for recurrent disease was successful in 57.1% (4 out of 7 patients). The ultimate 3-year disease free survival rate for the entire group, including surgical salvage, was 81% (17 out of 21). Conclusion: Radiation therapy alone in our institution resulted in tumor control and survival rates compare favorably to previously published reports in the literature. Surgery can be reserved as salvage procedure

  10. Beam angle optimization for intensity-modulated radiation therapy using a guided pattern search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Humberto; Dias, Joana M; Ferreira, Brígida C; Lopes, Maria C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, the inverse planning of radiation therapy consists mainly of the fluence optimization. The beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) consists of selecting appropriate radiation incidence directions and may influence the quality of the IMRT plans, both to enhance better organ sparing and to improve tumor coverage. However, in clinical practice, most of the time, beam directions continue to be manually selected by the treatment planner without objective and rigorous criteria. The goal of this paper is to introduce a novel approach that uses beam’s-eye-view dose ray tracing metrics within a pattern search method framework in the optimization of the highly non-convex BAO problem. Pattern search methods are derivative-free optimization methods that require a few function evaluations to progress and converge and have the ability to better avoid local entrapment. The pattern search method framework is composed of a search step and a poll step at each iteration. The poll step performs a local search in a mesh neighborhood and ensures the convergence to a local minimizer or stationary point. The search step provides the flexibility for a global search since it allows searches away from the neighborhood of the current iterate. Beam’s-eye-view dose metrics assign a score to each radiation beam direction and can be used within the pattern search framework furnishing a priori knowledge of the problem so that directions with larger dosimetric scores are tested first. A set of clinical cases of head-and-neck tumors treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Coimbra is used to discuss the potential of this approach in the optimization of the BAO problem. (paper)

  11. Some computer graphical user interfaces in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, James C L

    2016-03-28

    In this review, five graphical user interfaces (GUIs) used in radiation therapy practices and researches are introduced. They are: (1) the treatment time calculator, superficial X-ray treatment time calculator (SUPCALC) used in the superficial X-ray radiation therapy; (2) the monitor unit calculator, electron monitor unit calculator (EMUC) used in the electron radiation therapy; (3) the multileaf collimator machine file creator, sliding window intensity modulated radiotherapy (SWIMRT) used in generating fluence map for research and quality assurance in intensity modulated radiation therapy; (4) the treatment planning system, DOSCTP used in the calculation of 3D dose distribution using Monte Carlo simulation; and (5) the monitor unit calculator, photon beam monitor unit calculator (PMUC) used in photon beam radiation therapy. One common issue of these GUIs is that all user-friendly interfaces are linked to complex formulas and algorithms based on various theories, which do not have to be understood and noted by the user. In that case, user only needs to input the required information with help from graphical elements in order to produce desired results. SUPCALC is a superficial radiation treatment time calculator using the GUI technique to provide a convenient way for radiation therapist to calculate the treatment time, and keep a record for the skin cancer patient. EMUC is an electron monitor unit calculator for electron radiation therapy. Instead of doing hand calculation according to pre-determined dosimetric tables, clinical user needs only to input the required drawing of electron field in computer graphical file format, prescription dose, and beam parameters to EMUC to calculate the required monitor unit for the electron beam treatment. EMUC is based on a semi-experimental theory of sector-integration algorithm. SWIMRT is a multileaf collimator machine file creator to generate a fluence map produced by a medical linear accelerator. This machine file controls

  12. Treatment facilities, human resource development, and future prospect of particle beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The number of particle beam therapy facilities is increasing globally. Among the countries practicing particle beam therapy, Japan is one of the leading countries in the field with four operating carbon-ion therapy facilities and ten operating proton therapy facilities. With the increasing number of particle beam therapy facilities, the human resource development is becoming extremely important, and there has been many such efforts including the Gunma University Program for Cultivating Global Leaders in Heavy Ion Therapeutics and Engineering, which aimed to educate and train the radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator engineers, and radiation biologists to become global leaders in the field of particle beam therapy. In the future, the benefit and effectiveness of particle beam therapy should be discussed and elucidated objectively in a framework of comprehensive cancer care. (author)

  13. An examination of human factors in external beam radiation therapy: Findings and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.E. Jr.; Morisseau, D.S.; Persensky, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To better understand the contributing factors to human error in external beam radiation therapy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has undertaken a series of human factors evaluations. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation technologists, conducted visits to 24 radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of human-system interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. Representative findings and implications for improvement are discussed within the context of a dynamic model which holds that misadministration likely results from the unanticipated interaction of several necessary but singly insufficient conditions

  14. Dosimetry of beams for negative pi-meson radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicello, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Several new facilities have been built in the last few years which can produce high intensity beams of pions. As a result, a significant amount of new data related to pion dosimetry is available. Results of beam composition, beam shaping, and collimation are given along with depth dose curves and isodose contours. Experimental data which describe the radiation quality of pion beams and the change in radiation quality with position are presented. Experimental data determining the fraction of the dose resulting from neutrons are discussed. The present techniques used in pion dosimetry are summarized, and those areas of pion dosimetry which require additional effort in order to achieve routine treatment planning for patients are reviewed

  15. An investigation of the adjoint method for external beam radiation therapy treatment planning using Monte Carlo transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    A relatively new technique for achieving the right dose to the right tissue, is intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this technique, a megavoltage x-ray beam is rotated around a patient, and the intensity and shape of the beam is modulated as a function of source position and patient anatomy. The relationship between beam-let intensity and patient dose can be expressed under a matrix form where the matrix D ij represents the dose delivered to voxel i by beam-let j per unit fluence. The D ij influence matrix is the key element that enables this approach. In this regard, sensitivity theory lends itself in a natural way to the process of computing beam weights for treatment planning. The solution of the adjoint form of the Boltzmann equation is an adjoint function that describes the importance of particles throughout the system in contributing to the detector response. In this case, adjoint methods can provide the sensitivity of the dose at a single point in the patient with respect to all points in the source field. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using the adjoint method and Monte Carlo transport for radiation therapy treatment planning

  16. WE-D-210-04: Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Ultrasound Contrast Agents in View of Non-Invasive Dosimetry in External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callens, M; Verboven, E; Van Den Abeele, K [Department of Physics, Wave Propagation and Signal Processing, KU Leuven KULAK, Kortrijk (Belgium); D’Agostino, E [DoseVue NV, Hasselt (Belgium); Pfeiffer, H [Department of Materials Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); D’hooge, J [Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Bio-Medical Science Group, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA’s) based on gas-filled microbubbles encapsulated by an amphiphilic shell are well established as safe and effective echo-enhancers in diagnostic imaging. In view of an alternative application of UCA’s, we investigated the use of targeted microbubbles as radiation sensors for external beam radiation therapy. As radiation induces permanent changes in the microbubble’s physico-chemical properties, a robust measure of these changes can provide a direct or indirect estimate of the applied radiation dose. For instance, by analyzing the ultrasonic dispersion characteristics of microbubble distributions before and after radiation treatment, an estimate of the radiation dose at the location of the irradiated volume can be made. To increase the radiation sensitivity of microbubbles, polymerizable diacetylene molecules can be incorporated into the shell. This study focuses on characterizing the acoustic response and quantifying the chemical modifications as a function of radiation dose. Methods: Lipid/diacetylene microbubbles were irradiated with a 6 MV photon beam using dose levels in the range of 0–150 Gy. The acoustic response of the microbubbles was monitored by ultrasonic through-transmission measurements in the range of 500 kHz to 20 MHz, thereby providing the dispersion relations of the phase velocity, attenuation and nonlinear coefficient. In addition, the radiation-induced chemical modifications were quantified using UV-VIS spectroscopy. Results: UV-VIS spectroscopy measurements indicate that ionizing radiation induces the polymerization of diacetylenes incorporated in the microbubble shell. The polymer yield strongly depends on the shell composition and the radiation-dose. The acoustic response is inherently related to the visco-elastic properties of the shell and is strongly influenced by the shell composition and the physico-chemical changes in the environment. Conclusion: Diacetylene-containing microbubbles are

  17. Technological progress in radiation therapy for brain tumors

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vernimmen, Frederik Jozef

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a good therapeutic ratio the radiation dose to the tumor should be as high as possible with the lowest possible dose to the surrounding normal tissue. This is especially the case for brain tumors. Technological ad- vancements in diagnostic imaging, dose calculations, and radiation delivery systems, combined with a better un- derstanding of the pathophysiology of brain tumors have led to improvements in the therapeutic results. The widely used technology of delivering 3-D conformal therapy with photon beams (gamma rays) produced by Li-near Accelerators has progressed into the use of Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Particle beams have been used for several decades for radiotherapy because of their favorable depth dose characteristics. The introduction of clinically dedicated proton beam therapy facilities has improved the access for cancer patients to this treatment. Proton therapy is of particular interest for pediatric malignancies. These technical improvements are further enhanced by the evolution in tumor physiology imaging which allows for improved delineation of the tumor. This in turn opens the potential to adjust the radiation dose to maximize the radiobiological effects. The advances in both imaging and radiation therapy delivery will be discussed.

  18. Insufficiency fractures following radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikushima, Hitoshi; Takegawa, Yoshihiro; Matsuki, Hirokazu; Yasuda, Hiroaki; Kawanaka, Takashi; Shiba, Atsushi; Kishida, Yoshiomi; Iwamoto, Seiji; Nishitani, Hiromu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, clinical and radiological findings of insufficiency fractures (IF) of the female pelvis following radiation therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the radiation oncology records of 108 patients with gynecologic malignancies who underwent external beam radiation therapy of the whole pelvis. All patients underwent conventional radiography and computed tomography (CT) scan every 6 months in follow-up after radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radionuclide bone scan were added when the patients complained of pelvic pain. Thirteen of 108 patients (12%) developed IF in the irradiated field with a median interval of 6 months (range 3-51) from the completion of external beam radiation therapy. All patients who developed IF were postmenopausal women. Age of the patients who developed IF was significantly higher than that of the other patients. The parts of IF were sacroiliac joints, pubis, sacral body and 5th lumbar vertebra and six of 14 patients had multiple lesions. Treatment with rest and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs lead to symptomatic relief in all patients, although symptoms lasted from 3 to 20 months. Radiation-induced pelvic IF following radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies were frequently observed in the post-menopausal patients within 1 year after external beam radiation therapy. Symmetrical fractures of the bilateral sacroiliac joint and pubis were the characteristic pattern of pelvic IF. All patients healed with conservative treatment, and nobody became non-ambulant. (author)

  19. Radiation therapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaRue, S.M.; Gillette, S.M.; Poulson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, radiotherapy of thoracic and abdominal tumors in animals has been limited. However, the availability of computerized tomography and other imaging techniques to aid in determining the extent of tumor, an increase in knowledge of dose tolerance of regional organs, the availability of isocentrically mounted megavoltage machines, and the willingness of patients to pursue more aggressive treatment is making radiation therapy of tumors in these regions far more common. Tumor remission has been reported after radiation therapy of thymomas. Radiation therapy has been used to treat mediastinal lymphoma refractory to chemotherapy, and may be beneficial as part of the initial treatment regimen for this disease. Chemodectomas are responsive to radiation therapy in human patients, and favorable response has also been reported in dogs. Although primary lung tumors in dogs are rare, in some cases radiation therapy could be a useful primary or adjunctive therapy. Lung is the dose-limiting organ in the thorax. Bladder and urethral tumors in dogs have been treated using intraoperative and external-beam radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy. These tumors are difficult to control locally with surgery alone, although the optimal method of combining treatment modalities has not been established. Local control of malignant perianal tumors is also difficult to achieve with surgery alone, and radiation therapy should be used. Intraoperative radiation therapy combined with external-beam radiation therapy has been used for the management of metastatic carcinoma to the sublumbar lymph nodes. Tolerance of retroperitoneal tissues may be decreased by disease or surgical manipulation

  20. Radiation therapy with laser-driven accelerated particle beams: physical dosimetry and spatial dose distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, Sabine; Assmann, Walter [Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Kneschaurek, Peter; Wilkens, Jan [MRI, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the main goals of the Munich Centre for Advanced Photonics (MAP) is the application of laser driven accelerated (LDA) particle beams for radiation therapy. Due to the unique acceleration process ultrashort particle pulses of high intensity (> 10{sup 7} particles /cm{sup 2}/ns) are generated, which makes online detection an ambitious task. So far, state of the art detection of laser accelerated ion pulses are non-electronic detectors like radiochromic films (RCF), imaging plates (IP) or nuclear track detectors (e.g. CR39). All these kind of detectors are offline detectors requiring several hours of processing time. For this reason they are not qualified for an application in radiation therapy where quantitative real time detection of the beam is an essential prerequisite. Therefore we are investigating pixel detectors for real time monitoring of LDA particle pulses. First tests of commercially available systems with 8-20 MeV protons are presented. For radiobiological experiments second generation Gafchromic films (EBT2) have been calibrated with protons of 12 and 20 MeV for a dose range of 0.3-10 Gy. Dose verification in proton irradiation of subcutaneous tumours in mice was successfully accomplished using these films.

  1. Current External Beam Radiation Therapy Quality Assurance Guidance: Does It Meet the Challenges of Emerging Image-Guided Technologies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu, Chihray; Li, Jonathan G.

    2008-01-01

    The traditional prescriptive quality assurance (QA) programs that attempt to ensure the safety and reliability of traditional external beam radiation therapy are limited in their applicability to such advanced radiation therapy techniques as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity-modulated radiation therapy, inverse treatment planning, stereotactic radiosurgery/radiotherapy, and image-guided radiation therapy. The conventional QA paradigm, illustrated by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Radiation Therapy Committee Task Group 40 (TG-40) report, consists of developing a consensus menu of tests and device performance specifications from a generic process model that is assumed to apply to all clinical applications of the device. The complexity, variation in practice patterns, and level of automation of high-technology radiotherapy renders this 'one-size-fits-all' prescriptive QA paradigm ineffective or cost prohibitive if the high-probability error pathways of all possible clinical applications of the device are to be covered. The current approaches to developing comprehensive prescriptive QA protocols can be prohibitively time consuming and cost ineffective and may sometimes fail to adequately safeguard patients. It therefore is important to evaluate more formal error mitigation and process analysis methods of industrial engineering to more optimally focus available QA resources on process components that have a significant likelihood of compromising patient safety or treatment outcomes

  2. Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Proton Beam Radiation Therapy with Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of an Interim Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Smith, Jason C. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Volk, Michael L. [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Reeves, Mark E. [VA Loma Linda Health Care System, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheng, Jason [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Grove, Roger [Department of Radiation Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Vera, Michael E. de [Transplantation Institute and Liver Center, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To describe results of a planned interim analysis of a prospective, randomized clinical trial developed to compare treatment outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had either clinical or pathologic diagnosis of HCC and met either Milan or San Francisco transplant criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) or to proton beam radiation therapy. Patients randomized to TACE received at least 1 TACE with additional TACE for persistent disease. Proton beam radiation therapy was delivered to all areas of gross disease to a total dose of 70.2 Gy in 15 daily fractions over 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival, with secondary endpoints of overall survival, local tumor control, and treatment-related toxicities as represented by posttreatment days of hospitalization. Results: At the time of this analysis 69 subjects were available for analysis. Of these, 36 were randomized to TACE and 33 to proton. Total days of hospitalization within 30 days of TACE/proton was 166 and 24 days, respectively (P<.001). Ten TACE and 12 proton patients underwent liver transplantation after treatment. Viable tumor identified in the explanted livers after TACE/proton averaged 2.4 and 0.9 cm, respectively. Pathologic complete response after TACE/proton was 10%/25% (P=.38). The 2-year overall survival for all patients was 59%, with no difference between treatment groups. Median survival time was 30 months (95% confidence interval 20.7-39.3 months). There was a trend toward improved 2-year local tumor control (88% vs 45%, P=.06) and progression-free survival (48% vs 31%, P=.06) favoring the proton beam treatment group. Conclusions: This interim analysis indicates similar overall survival rates for proton beam radiation therapy and TACE. There is a trend toward improved local tumor control and progression-free survival with proton beam. There are

  3. Acoustic signal generation in excised muscle by pulsed proton beam irradiation and the possibility of its clinical application to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Yoshinori; Tada, Junichiro; Inada, Tetsuo; Kitagawa, Toshio; Wagai, Toshio; Yoshioka, Katsuya.

    1989-01-01

    Acoustic signals generated in liquids and in metals by pulsed proton beam are thought to be thermal shock wave due to localized energy deposition of incident protons. Thus the intensity of generated acoustic signals is almost proportional to the energy deposited at the region. This suggests the possibility for measuring spatial distribution of energy deposition of proton beam using the acoustic method. In proton beam radiation therapy, treatment planning is developed from data of X-ray computer tomography which reflects the information on the electron density distribution in the patient's body. Ensuring the agreement of the dose distribution in the patient with the planned one, however, is difficult. It is expected that the acoustic method can provide a useful tool for this purpose. The pulsed proton beam of 50ns in pulse width is used for cancer therapy at the University of Tsukuba. A hydrophone is used to detect acoustic signals generated by pulsed proton beam. Detected signals are amplified ten thousand times before being averaged and analyzed by digital oscilloscope. Measurements made suggest that the method could be useful for radiation therapy. (N.K.)

  4. Anticipated Intraoperative Electron Beam Boost, External Beam Radiation Therapy, and Limb-Sparing Surgical Resection for Patients with Pediatric Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity: A Multicentric Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Alvarez, Ana; Gonzalez, Carmen [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Jose [Service of Pediatric Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); San Julian, Mikel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Martinez-Monge, Rafael [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To perform a joint analysis of data from 3 contributing centers within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT)-Spanish program, to determine the potential of IOERT as an anticipated boost before external beam radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: From June 1993 to May 2013, 62 patients (aged <21 years) with a histologic diagnosis of primary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing grossly resected surgery, external beam radiation therapy (median dose 40 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 10 Gy) were considered eligible for this analysis. Results: After a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 4-235 months), 10-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 85%, 76%, and 81%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, tumor size >5 cm (P=.04) and R1 margin status (P=.04) remained significantly associated with local relapse. In regard to overall survival only margin status (P=.04) retained association on multivariate analysis. Ten patients (16%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: An anticipated IOERT boost allowed for external beam radiation therapy dose reduction, with high local control and acceptably low toxicity rates. The combined radiosurgical approach needs to be tested in a prospective trial to confirm these results.

  5. Anticipated Intraoperative Electron Beam Boost, External Beam Radiation Therapy, and Limb-Sparing Surgical Resection for Patients with Pediatric Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremity: A Multicentric Pooled Analysis of Long-Term Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Polo, Alfredo; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Alvarez, Ana; Gonzalez, Carmen; Gonzalez, Jose; San Julian, Mikel; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a joint analysis of data from 3 contributing centers within the intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT)-Spanish program, to determine the potential of IOERT as an anticipated boost before external beam radiation therapy in the multidisciplinary treatment of pediatric extremity soft-tissue sarcomas. Methods and Materials: From June 1993 to May 2013, 62 patients (aged <21 years) with a histologic diagnosis of primary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma with absence of distant metastases, undergoing limb-sparing grossly resected surgery, external beam radiation therapy (median dose 40 Gy) and IOERT (median dose 10 Gy) were considered eligible for this analysis. Results: After a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 4-235 months), 10-year local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival was 85%, 76%, and 81%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, tumor size >5 cm (P=.04) and R1 margin status (P=.04) remained significantly associated with local relapse. In regard to overall survival only margin status (P=.04) retained association on multivariate analysis. Ten patients (16%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: An anticipated IOERT boost allowed for external beam radiation therapy dose reduction, with high local control and acceptably low toxicity rates. The combined radiosurgical approach needs to be tested in a prospective trial to confirm these results

  6. WE-A-207-02: Electron Beam Therapy - Current Status and Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q. [Duke University Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    In memory of the significant contribution of Dr. Jacques Ovadia to electron beam techniques, this session will review recent, advanced techniques which are reinvigorating the science of electron beam radiation therapy. Recent research efforts in improving both the applicability and quality of the electron beam therapy will be discussed, including modulated electron beam radiotherapy (MERT) and dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR). Learning Objectives: To learn about recent advances in electron beam therapy, including modulated electron beam therapy and dynamic electron arc therapy (DEAR). Put recent advances in the context of work that Dr. Ovadia pursued during his career in medical physics.

  7. WE-A-207-02: Electron Beam Therapy - Current Status and Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    In memory of the significant contribution of Dr. Jacques Ovadia to electron beam techniques, this session will review recent, advanced techniques which are reinvigorating the science of electron beam radiation therapy. Recent research efforts in improving both the applicability and quality of the electron beam therapy will be discussed, including modulated electron beam radiotherapy (MERT) and dynamic electron arc radiotherapy (DEAR). Learning Objectives: To learn about recent advances in electron beam therapy, including modulated electron beam therapy and dynamic electron arc therapy (DEAR). Put recent advances in the context of work that Dr. Ovadia pursued during his career in medical physics

  8. Definitive proton beam radiation therapy for inoperable gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Susumu; Takase, Yasuhiro; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Orii, Kazuo; Sharma, N.; Iwasaki, Yoji; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tsujii, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    Proton beam radiation therapy using 250 MeV protons was carried out on two patients with early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0). One patient was an 85-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIa + IIc. The other one was a 70-year-old man with early gastric cancer of type IIc. In both cases histological examination of biopsy specimens showed differential adenocarcinoma; distant metastasis was not found by other examinations. Both patients were considered inoperable due to their poor cardiac and/or respiratory functions. Therefore, it was decided to treat them by definitive proton irradiation, delivering total doses of 86 Gy and 83 Gy, respectively. In both patients, skin erythema that did not require any special treatment was found in the irradiation field. Hematobiological examinations did not show any abnormality. Although endoscopic examination at two years after irradiation in the former case and at seven months in the latter case showed persistent gastric ulcer at the site of the cancerous lesions, cancer cells were not found histologically. Therefore, we concluded that proton irradiation therapy was useful for inoperable early gastric cancers. (author)

  9. Review of electron beam therapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Almond, Peter R

    2006-01-01

    For over 50 years, electron beams have been an important modality for providing an accurate dose of radiation to superficial cancers and disease and for limiting the dose to underlying normal tissues and structures. This review looks at many of the important contributions of physics and dosimetry to the development and utilization of electron beam therapy, including electron treatment machines, dose specification and calibration, dose measurement, electron transport calculations, treatment and treatment-planning tools, and clinical utilization, including special procedures. Also, future changes in the practice of electron therapy resulting from challenges to its utilization and from potential future technology are discussed. (review)

  10. Short-term Androgen-Deprivation Therapy Improves Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality in Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumsteg, Zachary S.; Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Yoshiya; Kalikstein, Abraham; Kuk, Deborah; Zhang, Zhigang; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the benefit of short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PC) receiving dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study comprised 710 intermediate-risk PC patients receiving external beam radiation therapy with doses of ≥81 Gy at a single institution from 1992 to 2005, including 357 patients receiving neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT. Prostate-specific antigen recurrence-free survival (PSA-RFS) and distant metastasis (DM) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. PC-specific mortality (PCSM) was assessed using competing-risks analysis. Results: The median follow-up was 7.9 years. Despite being more likely to have higher PSA levels, Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7, multiple National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate-risk factors, and older age (P≤.001 for all comparisons), patients receiving ADT had improved PSA-RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.598; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.435-0.841; P=.003), DM (HR, 0.424; 95% CI, 0.219-0.819; P=.011), and PCSM (HR, 0.380; 95% CI, 0.157-0.921; P=.032) on univariate analysis. Using multivariate analysis, ADT was an even stronger predictor of improved PSA-RFS (adjusted HR [AHR], 0.516; 95% CI, 0.360-0.739; P<.001), DM (AHR, 0.347; 95% CI, 0.176-0.685; P=.002), and PCSM (AHR, 0.297; 95% CI, 0.128-0.685; P=.004). Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7 and ≥50% positive biopsy cores were other independent predictors of PCSM. Conclusions: Short-term ADT improves PSA-RFS, DM, and PCSM in patients with intermediate-risk PC undergoing dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy

  11. Evaluation of Delivery Costs for External Beam Radiation Therapy and Brachytherapy for Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer-Nilsen, Kristine; Hill, Colin; Trifiletti, Daniel M; Libby, Bruce; Lash, Donna H; Lain, Melody; Christodoulou, Deborah; Hodge, Constance; Showalter, Timothy N

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the delivery costs, using time-driven activity-based costing, and reimbursement for definitive radiation therapy for locally advanced cervical cancer. Process maps were created to represent each step of the radiation treatment process and included personnel, equipment, and consumable supplies used to deliver care. Personnel were interviewed to estimate time involved to deliver care. Salary data, equipment purchasing information, and facilities costs were also obtained. We defined the capacity cost rate (CCR) for each resource and then calculated the total cost of patient care according to CCR and time for each resource. Costs were compared with 2016 Medicare reimbursement and relative value units (RVUs). The total cost of radiation therapy for cervical cancer was $12,861.68, with personnel costs constituting 49.8%. Brachytherapy cost $8610.68 (66.9% of total) and consumed 423 minutes of attending radiation oncologist time (80.0% of total). External beam radiation therapy cost $4055.01 (31.5% of total). Personnel costs were higher for brachytherapy than for the sum of simulation and external beam radiation therapy delivery ($4798.73 vs $1404.72). A full radiation therapy course provides radiation oncologists 149.77 RVUs with intensity modulated radiation therapy or 135.90 RVUs with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, with total reimbursement of $23,321.71 and $16,071.90, respectively. Attending time per RVU is approximately 4-fold higher for brachytherapy (5.68 minutes) than 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (1.63 minutes) or intensity modulated radiation therapy (1.32 minutes). Time-driven activity-based costing was used to calculate the total cost of definitive radiation therapy for cervical cancer, revealing that brachytherapy delivery and personnel resources constituted the majority of costs. However, current reimbursement policy does not reflect the increased attending physician effort and delivery costs of brachytherapy. We

  12. A Study of volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy in case of multi-target liver cancer using flattening filter free beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeom, Mi Sook; Yoon, In Ha; Hong, Dong Gi; Back, Geum Mun

    2015-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has proved its efficacy in several patient populations with primary and metastatic limited tumors. Because SBRT prescription is high dose level than Conventional radiation therapy. SBRT plan is necessary for effective Organ at risk (OAR) protection and sufficient Planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage. In particular, multi-target cases may result excessive doses to OAR and hot spot due to dose overlap. This study evaluate usefulness of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in dosimetric and technical considerations using Flattening filter free (FFF) beam. The treatment plans for five patients, being treated on TrueBeam STx(Varian™, USA) with VMAT using 10MV FFF beam and Standard conformal radiotherapy (CRT) using 15MV Flattening filter (FF) beam. PTV, liver, duodenum, bowel, spinal cord, esophagus, stomach dose were evaluated using the dose volume histogram(DVH). Conformity index(CI), homogeneity index(HI), Paddick's index(PCI) for the PTV was assessed. Total Monitor unit (MU) and beam on time was assessed. Average value of CI, HI and PCI for PTV was 1.381±0.028, 1.096±0.016, 0.944±0.473 in VMAT and 1.381± 0.042, 1.136±0.042, 1.534±0.465 in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT. VMAT for SBRT in multi-target liver cancer using FFF beam is effective treatment techniqe in dosimetric and technical considerations. VMAT decrease intra-fraction error due to treatment time shortening using high dose rate of FFF beam

  13. A Study of volumetric modulated arc therapy for stereotactic body radiation therapy in case of multi-target liver cancer using flattening filter free beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Mi Sook; Yoon, In Ha; Hong, Dong Gi; Back, Geum Mun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, ASAN Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has proved its efficacy in several patient populations with primary and metastatic limited tumors. Because SBRT prescription is high dose level than Conventional radiation therapy. SBRT plan is necessary for effective Organ at risk (OAR) protection and sufficient Planning target volume (PTV) dose coverage. In particular, multi-target cases may result excessive doses to OAR and hot spot due to dose overlap. This study evaluate usefulness of Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in dosimetric and technical considerations using Flattening filter free (FFF) beam. The treatment plans for five patients, being treated on TrueBeam STx(Varian™, USA) with VMAT using 10MV FFF beam and Standard conformal radiotherapy (CRT) using 15MV Flattening filter (FF) beam. PTV, liver, duodenum, bowel, spinal cord, esophagus, stomach dose were evaluated using the dose volume histogram(DVH). Conformity index(CI), homogeneity index(HI), Paddick's index(PCI) for the PTV was assessed. Total Monitor unit (MU) and beam on time was assessed. Average value of CI, HI and PCI for PTV was 1.381±0.028, 1.096±0.016, 0.944±0.473 in VMAT and 1.381± 0.042, 1.136±0.042, 1.534±0.465 in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT respectively. OAR dose in CRT plans evaluated 1.8 times higher than VMAT. Total MU in VMAT evaluated 1.3 times increase than CRT. Average beam on time was 6.8 minute in VMAT and 21.3 minute in CRT. VMAT for SBRT in multi-target liver cancer using FFF beam is effective treatment techniqe in dosimetric and technical considerations. VMAT decrease intra-fraction error due to treatment time shortening using high dose rate of FFF beam.

  14. Monte Carlo techniques in radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Verhaegen, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Modern cancer treatment relies on Monte Carlo simulations to help radiotherapists and clinical physicists better understand and compute radiation dose from imaging devices as well as exploit four-dimensional imaging data. With Monte Carlo-based treatment planning tools now available from commercial vendors, a complete transition to Monte Carlo-based dose calculation methods in radiotherapy could likely take place in the next decade. Monte Carlo Techniques in Radiation Therapy explores the use of Monte Carlo methods for modeling various features of internal and external radiation sources, including light ion beams. The book-the first of its kind-addresses applications of the Monte Carlo particle transport simulation technique in radiation therapy, mainly focusing on external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy. It presents the mathematical and technical aspects of the methods in particle transport simulations. The book also discusses the modeling of medical linacs and other irradiation devices; issues specific...

  15. Ion beam therapy fundamentals, technology, clinical applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book provides a detailed, up-to-date account of the basics, the technology, and the clinical use of ion beams for radiation therapy. Theoretical background, technical components, and patient treatment schemes are delineated by the leading experts that helped to develop this field from a research niche to its current highly sophisticated and powerful clinical treatment level used to the benefit of cancer patients worldwide. Rather than being a side-by-side collection of articles, this book consists of related chapters. It is a common achievement by 76 experts from around the world. Their expertise reflects the diversity of the field with radiation therapy, medical and accelerator physics, radiobiology, computer science, engineering, and health economics. The book addresses a similarly broad audience ranging from professionals that need to know more about this novel treatment modality or consider to enter the field of ion beam therapy as a researcher. However, it is also written for the interested public an...

  16. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Rüdiger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Hütter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Lüdemann, Lutz

    2009-06-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasimonochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kalpha emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  17. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten Kα emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement factor

  18. Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy with quasi-monochromatic computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, Gregor; Mensing, Tristan; Golfier, Sven; Lawaczeck, Ruediger; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huetter, Joachim; Cibik, Levent; Gerlach, Martin; Krumrey, Michael; Fratzscher, Daniel; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Wedell, Reiner; Haschke, Michael; Langhoff, Norbert; Wust, Peter; Luedemann, Lutz [TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany); TRG Diagnostic Imaging, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Applied Photonics e.V., 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute for Scientific Instruments GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiotherapy, Charite Medical Centre, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Photoelectric-enhanced radiation therapy is a bimodal therapy, consisting of the administration of highly radiation-absorbing substances into the tumor area and localized regional irradiation with orthovoltage x-rays. Irradiation can be performed by a modified computed tomography (CT) unit equipped with an additional x-ray optical module which converts the polychromatic, fan-shaped CT beam into a monochromatized and focused beam for energy-tuned photoelectric-enhanced radiotherapy. A dedicated x-ray optical module designed for spatial collimation, focusing, and monochromatization was mounted at the exit of the x-ray tube of a clinical CT unit. Spectrally resolved measurements of the resulting beam were performed using an energy-dispersive detection system calibrated by synchrotron radiation. The spatial photon fluence was determined by film dosimetry. Depth-dose measurements were performed and compared to the polychromatic CT and a therapeutic 6 MV beam. The spatial dose distribution in phantoms using a rotating radiation source (quasi-monochromatic CT and 6 MV, respectively) was investigated by gel dosimetry. The photoelectric dose enhancement for an iodine fraction of 1% in tissue was calculated and verified experimentally. The x-ray optical module selectively filters the energy of the tungsten K{alpha} emission line with an FWHM of 5 keV. The relative photon fluence distribution demonstrates the focusing characteristic of the x-ray optical module. A beam width of about 3 mm was determined at the isocenter of the CT gantry. The depth-dose measurements resulted in a half-depth value of approximately 36 mm for the CT beams (quasi-monochromatic, polychromatic) compared to 154 mm for the 6 MV beam. The rotation of the radiation source leads to a steep dose gradient at the center of rotation; the gel dosimetry yields an entrance-to-peak dose ratio of 1:10.8 for the quasi-monochromatic CT and 1:37.3 for a 6 MV beam of the same size. The photoelectric dose enhancement

  19. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: new methods for mini-beams radiation therapy and treatment follow-up by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deman, P.

    2012-01-01

    An innovative method of synchrotron radiation therapy, called mini-beams, was proposed by A. Dilmanian et al. in 2006. Mini-beams consists in tumor irradiation with monochromatic sub-millimetric x-ray beams spatially fractionated produced by a synchrotron source. To obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume, an interleaving is realized using two orthogonal incidences. Adjacent healthy tissue is only partially irradiated by mini-beams, the areas between the beams only receive scattered radiation and therefore the energy deposited is 10 to 15 times lower than on one mini-beam axis, leading to a sparing effect of healthy tissue even when a high dose is deposited in the target volume. The thesis project is the development of this experimental method of monochromatic mini-beams, which involves the control of the irradiation geometry, the control of dosimetry and its modeling by Monte Carlo simulations. To evaluate the method, preclinical experiments on models of brain tumors implanted in rats (F98) are performed. Follow-up by anatomical and functional imaging is carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Functional imaging of cerebral perfusion (volume and cerebral blood flow, mean transit time of heavy elements) appears to be associated in the literature as a relevant method for monitoring prognostic. The key parameters of the cerebral vasculature are mainly studied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), because of the harmlessness of this imaging modality. The relation between MRI signal and contrast agent concentration is very complex and no quantitative relationship is well known. Synchrotron Radiation Computed Tomography (SRCT) is an imaging modality with performances to measure absolute contrast agent concentration very close to the theoretical limits and can be used as gold-standard. The used pharmacokinetic models need as input parameters a contrast agent concentration versus time. A comparison of perfusion measurements between MRI and SRCT

  20. Development of local radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed.

  1. Development of local radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, Chang Woon; Chai, Jong Su; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Mi Sook; Yoo, Seong Yul; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Yong Sik; Lee, Hyun Moo

    1999-04-01

    The major limitations of radiation therapy for cancer are the low effectiveness of low LET and inevitable normal tissue damage. Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a form of potent radiation therapy using Boron-10 having a high propensityof capturing theraml neutrons from nuclear reactor and reacting with a prompt nuclear reaction. Photodynamic therapy is a similiar treatment of modality to BNCT using tumor-seeking photosenistizer and LASER beam. If Boron-10 and photosensitizers are introduced selectively into tumor cells, it is theoretically possible to destroy the tumor and to spare the surrounding normal tissue. Therefore, BNCT and PDT will be new potent treatment modalities in the next century. In this project, we performed PDT in the patients with bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer, and skin cancers. Also we developed I-BPA, new porphyrin compounds, methods for estimation of radiobiological effect of neutron beam, and superficial animal brain tumor model. Furthermore, we prepared preclinical procedures for clinical application of BNCT, such as the macro- and microscopic dosimetry, obtaining thermal neutron flux from device used for fast neutron production in KCCH have been performed

  2. Prostate biopsy after definitive treatment by interstitial iodine 125 implant or external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellhammer, P.F.; el-Mahdi, A.M.; Higgins, E.M.; Schultheiss, T.E.; Ladaga, L.E.; Babb, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    The response to definitive radiation therapy of localized carcinoma of the prostate by iodine 125 implantation or external beam radiotherapy was monitored by examining specimens from biopsies performed after treatment. We analyzed 126 biopsy specimens obtained 18 months or more after treatment: 71 were obtained from 109 patients treated by iodine 125 and 55 from 197 patients treated by external beam radiotherapy. Thereafter, the disease status of these patients was examined at minimum 3-year intervals. No significant statistical difference was found between the negative specimen rates of the 2 treatment modalities: 46 of 71 (65 per cent) after iodine 125 implantation and 39 of 55 (71 per cent) after external beam radiotherapy were negative. To analyze the predictive value of biopsy results 103 patients whose prostatic examination results were normal at biopsy or who showed regression of tumor size and tumor induration after radiation were evaluated. The biopsy results from all patients were combined for analysis. Of 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 16 (21 per cent) have had recurrent disease, compared to 17 of 26 (65 per cent) with positive biopsy specimens (p equals 0.00005). Of the 77 patients with negative biopsy specimens 7 (9 per cent) had local disease recurrence, compared to 12 of 26 (46 per cent) with a positive biopsy specimen (p equals 0.0001). The value of a positive specimen to predict failure remained significant with patients stratified by pre-treatment clinical stage and grade of the disease. Our results show that patients with positive specimens from the prostate who had been judged clinically by rectal examination to have responded to radiation therapy had a significantly increased incidence of local and distant failure compared to patients who had negative biopsy specimens

  3. Proton Beam Therapy Versus Conformal Photon Radiation Therapy for Childhood Craniopharyngioma: Multi-institutional Analysis of Outcomes, Cyst Dynamics, and Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Greenfield, Brad [Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Mahajan, Anita [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Paulino, Arnold C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Okcu, M. Fatih [Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Kahalley, Lisa S. [Section of Psychology, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); McAleer, Mary F.; McGovern, Susan L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Whitehead, William E. [Department of Neurosurgery, Texas Children' s Cancer and Hematology Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Grosshans, David R., E-mail: dgrossha@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: We compared proton beam therapy (PBT) with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for pediatric craniopharyngioma in terms of disease control, cyst dynamics, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: We reviewed records from 52 children treated with PBT (n=21) or IMRT (n=31) at 2 institutions from 1996-2012. Endpoints were overall survival (OS), disease control, cyst dynamics, and toxicity. Results: At 59.6 months' median follow-up (PBT 33 mo vs IMRT 106 mo; P<.001), the 3-year outcomes were 96% for OS, 95% for nodular failure-free survival and 76% for cystic failure-free survival. Neither OS nor disease control differed between treatment groups (OS P=.742; nodular failure-free survival P=.546; cystic failure-free survival P=.994). During therapy, 40% of patients had cyst growth (20% requiring intervention); immediately after therapy, 17 patients (33%) had cyst growth (transient in 14), more commonly in the IMRT group (42% vs 19% PBT; P=.082); and 27% experienced late cyst growth (32% IMRT, 19% PBT; P=.353), with intervention required in 40%. Toxicity did not differ between groups. On multivariate analysis, cyst growth was related to visual and hypothalamic toxicity (P=.009 and .04, respectively). Patients given radiation as salvage therapy (for recurrence) rather than adjuvant therapy had higher rates of visual and endocrine (P=.017 and .024, respectively) dysfunction. Conclusions: Survival and disease-control outcomes were equivalent for PBT and IMRT. Cyst growth is common, unpredictable, and should be followed during and after therapy, because it contributes to late toxicity. Delaying radiation therapy until recurrence may result in worse visual and endocrine function.

  4. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Audrey; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda; El Atifi, Michèle; Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec'h, Céline; Laissue, Jean Albert; Pelletier, Laurent; Le Duc, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  5. Better Efficacy of Synchrotron Spatially Microfractionated Radiation Therapy Than Uniform Radiation Therapy on Glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, Audrey, E-mail: audrey.m.bouchet@gmail.com [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Prezado, Yolanda [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); El Atifi, Michèle [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Rogalev, Léonid; Le Clec' h, Céline [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Laissue, Jean Albert [University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Pelletier, Laurent, E-mail: laurent.pelletier@ujf-grenoble.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble (France); Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble (France); Le Duc, Géraldine [Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is based on the spatial fractionation of the incident, highly focused synchrotron beam into arrays of parallel microbeams, typically a few tens of microns wide and depositing several hundred grays. This irradiation modality was shown to have a high therapeutic impact on tumors, especially in intracranial locations. However, mechanisms responsible for such a property are not fully understood. Methods and Materials: Thanks to recent progress in dosimetry, we compared the effect of MRT and synchrotron broad beam (BB) radiation therapy delivered at comparable doses (equivalent to MRT valley dose) on tumor growth control and on classical radiobiological functions by histologic evaluation and/or transcriptomic analysis. Results: MRT significantly improved survival of rats bearing 9L intracranial glioma compared with BB radiation therapy delivered at a comparable dose (P<.001); the efficacy of MRT and BB radiation therapy was similar when the MRT dose was half that of BB. The greater efficacy of MRT was not correlated with a difference in cell proliferation (Mki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen) or in transcriptomic stimulation of angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor A or tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 2) but was correlated with a higher cell death rate (factor for apoptosis signals) and higher recruitment of macrophages (tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and epidermal growth factor-like domains 1 and CD68 transcripts) a few days after MRT. Conclusions: These results show the superiority of MRT over BB radiation therapy when applied at comparable doses, suggesting that spatial fractionation is responsible for a specific and particularly efficient tissue response. The higher induction of cell death and immune cell activation in brain tumors treated by MRT may be involved in such responses.

  6. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Clayton B.; Thompson, Holly M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Seibert, J. Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T.; Chen, Allen M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”

  7. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Clayton B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Thompson, Holly M. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Benedict, Stanley H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Seibert, J. Anthony [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Wong, Kenneth [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Vaughan, Andrew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University California Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, Sacramento, California (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning—a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of “gentle IGRT.”.

  8. Proposal for a program in particle-beam radiation therapy in the United States. A report from the Committee for Radiation Oncology Studies (CROS) and its particle subcommittee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Program for Particle Therapy proposes utilization of hospital-based particle generators in a nationwide program to evaluate, through meaningful clinical trials, article radiation therapy and the impact its utilization can have in cancer care. The scientific rationale for use of particle therapy compared to conventional radiation in the effort to achieve uncomplicated local control of cancer, to heal, cure and palliate the patient, indicates the advantages of particle therapy consist of either or both (a) enhanced biological effect and (b) physical properties leading to improvement in dose distribution. Any new modality enabling the therapist to increase dose to tumor, while sparing critical normal tissue, can enhance local control and benefit systemic therapy. Limited clinical trials to date warrant further definitive clinical study of particle beams. Physical and biologic considerations of fast-neutron beams have been essentially completed; equipment design, availability, and predicted reliability are good; and the medical community has indicated support of further study. A major clinical investigation can be implemented to provide the scientific basis for judging clinical merit of use of high LET radiations. Concurrently, the first phase of work can be started with protons, negative pions, and heavy ions. It is anticipated that clinical results will accrue much more rapidly with hospital-based facilities in two phases, over a 10-year period

  9. Synchrotron accelerator technology for proton beam therapy with high accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramoto, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Proton beam therapy was applied at the beginning to head and neck cancers, but it is now extended to prostate, lung and liver cancers. Thus the need for a pencil beam scanning method is increasing. With this method radiation dose concentration property of the proton beam will be further intensified. Hitachi group has supplied a pencil beam scanning therapy system as the first one for M. D. Anderson Hospital in United States, and it has been operational since May 2008. Hitachi group has been developing proton therapy system to correspond high-accuracy proton therapy to concentrate the dose in the diseased part which is located with various depths, and which sometimes has complicated shape. The author described here on the synchrotron accelerator technology that is an important element for constituting the proton therapy system. (K.Y.)

  10. Prior image constrained scatter correction in cone-beam computed tomography image-guided radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Stephen; Nett, Brian E; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-02-21

    X-ray scatter is a significant problem in cone-beam computed tomography when thicker objects and larger cone angles are used, as scattered radiation can lead to reduced contrast and CT number inaccuracy. Advances have been made in x-ray computed tomography (CT) by incorporating a high quality prior image into the image reconstruction process. In this paper, we extend this idea to correct scatter-induced shading artifacts in cone-beam CT image-guided radiation therapy. Specifically, this paper presents a new scatter correction algorithm which uses a prior image with low scatter artifacts to reduce shading artifacts in cone-beam CT images acquired under conditions of high scatter. The proposed correction algorithm begins with an empirical hypothesis that the target image can be written as a weighted summation of a series of basis images that are generated by raising the raw cone-beam projection data to different powers, and then, reconstructing using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. The weight for each basis image is calculated by minimizing the difference between the target image and the prior image. The performance of the scatter correction algorithm is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated through phantom studies using a Varian 2100 EX System with an on-board imager. Results show that the proposed scatter correction algorithm using a prior image with low scatter artifacts can substantially mitigate scatter-induced shading artifacts in both full-fan and half-fan modes.

  11. Radiation therapy for chordomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakamura, Yuji; Niibe, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Chordomas are slow-growing primary malignant bone tumors which originate from remnants of the fetal notochordal system. They are difficult to control by surgery alone. Four patients with chordomas treated with radiation therapy were studied, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was evaluated. These 4 (3.8%) patients were among 106 patients with primary malignant bone tumors referred to us from 1959 to 1987. Primary sites were the sacrococcygeal region in three patients and the clivus in one. The patients' ages ranged from 51 to 75 years. The male : female ratio was 1 : 1. Patients received 48 to 60 Gy of radiation to the primary sites. Because the radiosensitivity of the tumors was low, the responses were poor. The duration of survival was 6, 33, 68, and 125 months. The cause of death in each case was local recurrence of tumor. As a result, a dose greater than 60 Gy is thought to be necessary for curative radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy seems to be best choice for chordomas in the clivus, and mixed-beam (proton and megavolt age X-ray) therapy or multiportal irradiation, which gives an ideal spatial dose distribution, seems to be most suitable for sacrococcygeal chordomas. (author)

  12. Dose reporting in ion beam therapy. Proceedings of a meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    Following the pioneering work in Berkeley, USA, ion beam therapy for cancer treatment is at present offered in Chiba and Hyogo in Japan, and Darmstadt in Germany. Other facilities are coming close to completion or are at various stages of planning in Europe and Japan. In all these facilities, carbon ions have been selected as the ions of choice, at least in the first phase. Taking into account this fast development, the complicated technical and radiobiological research issues involved, and the hope it raises for some types of cancer patients, the IAEA and the International Commission on Radiation Units and measurements (ICRU) jointly sponsored a technical meeting held in Vienna, 23-24 June 2004. That first meeting was orientated mainly towards radiobiology: the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions versus photons, and related issues. One of the main differences between ion beam therapy and other modern radiotherapy techniques (such as proton beam therapy or intensity modulated radiation therapy) is related to radiobiology and in particular the increased RBE of carbon ions compared to both protons and photons (i.e., high linear energy transfer (LET) versus low LET radiation). Another important issue for international agencies and commissions, such as the IAEA and the ICRU, is a worldwide agreement and harmonisation for reporting the treatments. In order to evaluate the merits of ion beam therapy, it is essential that the treatments be reported in a similar/comparable way in all centres so that the clinical reports and protocols can be understood and interpreted without ambiguity by the radiation therapy community in general. For the last few decades, the ICRU has published several reports containing recommendations on how to report external photon beam or electron beam therapy, and brachytherapy. A report on proton beam therapy, jointly prepared by the ICRU and the IAEA, is now completed and is being published in the ICRU series. In line with this

  13. Clinical significance of increased gelatinolytic activity in the rectal mucosa during external beam radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovdenak, Nils; Wang Junru; Sung, C.-C.; Kelly, Thomas; Fajardo, Luis F.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity (proctitis) is a dose-limiting factor in pelvic radiation therapy. Mucosal atrophy, i.e., net extracellular matrix degradation, is a prominent feature of radiation proctitis, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We prospectively examined changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 (gelatinase A and B) in the rectal mucosa during radiation therapy of prostate cancer, as well as the relationships of these changes with symptomatic, structural, and cellular evidence of radiation proctitis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer were prospectively enrolled. Symptoms of gastrointestinal toxicity were recorded, and endoscopy with biopsy of the rectal mucosa was performed before radiation therapy, as well as 2 and 6 weeks into the treatment course. Radiation proctitis was assessed by endoscopic scoring, quantitative histology, and quantitative immunohistochemistry. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were localized immunohistochemically, and activities were determined by gelatin zymography. Results: Symptoms, endoscopic scores, histologic injury, and mucosal macrophages and neutrophils increased from baseline to 2 weeks. Symptoms increased further from 2 weeks to 6 weeks, whereas endoscopic and cellular evidence of proctitis did not. Compared to pretreatment values, there was increased total gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at 2 weeks (p=0.02 and p=0.004, respectively) and 6 weeks (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively). Active MMP-2 was increased at both time points (p=0.0001 and p=0.002). Increased MMP-9 and MMP-2 at 6 weeks was associated with radiation-induced diarrhea (p=0.007 and p=0.02, respectively) and with mucosal neutrophil infiltration (rho=0.62). Conclusions: Pelvic radiation therapy causes increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the rectal mucosa. These changes correlate with radiation-induced diarrhea and granulocyte infiltration and may contribute to abnormal

  14. Radiation therapy services in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    available were pooled according to health regions and related to population ... Megavoltage radiation therapy units in South Africa. Photon. Electron. Machine energy beam. Tvl .... Remote afrerloading brachytherapy devices have developed ...

  15. Dosimetric effect of beam arrangement for intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yuchuan; Deng, Min; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Lin, Qiang; Du, Bin; Tian, Xue; Xu, Yong; Wang, Jin; Lu, You; Gong, Youling

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the lung sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with upper thoracic esophageal tumors extending inferiorly to the thorax by different beam arrangement. Overall, 15 patient cases with cancer of upper thoracic esophagus were selected for a retrospective treatment-planning study. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans using 4, 5, and 7 beams (4B, 5B, and 7B) were developed for each patient by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). All plans were evaluated with respect to dose volumes to irradiated targets and normal structures, with statistical comparisons made between 4B with 5B and 7B intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans. Differences among plans were evaluated using a two-tailed Friedman test at a statistical significance of p < 0.05. The maximum dose, average dose, and the conformity index (CI) of planning target volume 1 (PTV1) were similar for 3 plans for each case. No significant difference of coverage for planning target volume 1 and maximum dose for spinal cords were observed among 3 plans in present study (p > 0.05). The average V 5 , V 13 , V 20 , mean lung dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) for the total lung were significantly lower in 4B-plans than those data in 5B-plans and 7B-plans (p < 0.01). Although the average V 30 for the total lung were significantly higher in 4B-plans than those in 5B-plans and 7B-plans (p < 0.05). In addition, when comparing with the 4B-plans, the conformity/heterogeneity index of the 5B- and 7B-plans were significantly superior (p < 0.05). The 4B-intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan has advantage to address the specialized problem of lung sparing to low- and intermediate-dose exposure in the thorax when dealing with relative long tumors extended inferiorly to the thoracic esophagus for upper esophageal carcinoma with the cost for less conformity. Studies are needed to compare the superiority of volumetric modulated arc therapy with intensity

  16. Dosimetric effect of beam arrangement for intensity-modulated radiation therapy in the treatment of upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yuchuan [Division of Radiation Physics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Deng, Min; Zhou, Xiaojuan [Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Lin, Qiang; Du, Bin [Division of Radiation Physics, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Tian, Xue; Xu, Yong; Wang, Jin; Lu, You [Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Gong, Youling, E-mail: gongyouling@hotmail.com [Department of Thoracic Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the lung sparing in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with upper thoracic esophageal tumors extending inferiorly to the thorax by different beam arrangement. Overall, 15 patient cases with cancer of upper thoracic esophagus were selected for a retrospective treatment-planning study. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans using 4, 5, and 7 beams (4B, 5B, and 7B) were developed for each patient by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). All plans were evaluated with respect to dose volumes to irradiated targets and normal structures, with statistical comparisons made between 4B with 5B and 7B intensity-modulated radiation therapy plans. Differences among plans were evaluated using a two-tailed Friedman test at a statistical significance of p < 0.05. The maximum dose, average dose, and the conformity index (CI) of planning target volume 1 (PTV1) were similar for 3 plans for each case. No significant difference of coverage for planning target volume 1 and maximum dose for spinal cords were observed among 3 plans in present study (p > 0.05). The average V{sub 5}, V{sub 13}, V{sub 20}, mean lung dose, and generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) for the total lung were significantly lower in 4B-plans than those data in 5B-plans and 7B-plans (p < 0.01). Although the average V{sub 30} for the total lung were significantly higher in 4B-plans than those in 5B-plans and 7B-plans (p < 0.05). In addition, when comparing with the 4B-plans, the conformity/heterogeneity index of the 5B- and 7B-plans were significantly superior (p < 0.05). The 4B-intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan has advantage to address the specialized problem of lung sparing to low- and intermediate-dose exposure in the thorax when dealing with relative long tumors extended inferiorly to the thoracic esophagus for upper esophageal carcinoma with the cost for less conformity. Studies are needed to compare the superiority of volumetric modulated arc therapy

  17. Pertinence analysis of intensity-modulated radiation therapy dosimetry error and parameters of beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi Zifeng; Liu Dan; Cao Yankun; Li Runxiao; Han Chun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between parameter settings in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) planning in order to explore the effect of parameters on absolute dose verification. Methods: Forty-three esophageal carcinoma cases were optimized with Pinnacle 7.6c by experienced physicist using appropriate optimization parameters and dose constraints with a number of iterations to meet the clinical acceptance criteria. The plans were copied to water-phantom, 0.13 cc ion Farmer chamber and DOSE1 dosimeter was used to measure the absolute dose. The statistical data of the parameters of beams for the 43 cases were collected, and the relationships among them were analyzed. The statistical data of the dosimetry error were collected, and comparative analysis was made for the relation between the parameters of beams and ion chamber absolute dose verification results. Results: The parameters of beams were correlated among each other. Obvious affiliation existed between the dose accuracy and parameter settings. When the beam segment number of IMRT plan was more than 80, the dose deviation would be greater than 3%; however, if the beam segment number was less than 80, the dose deviation was smaller than 3%. When the beam segment number was more than 100, part of the dose deviation of this plan was greater than 4%. On the contrary, if the beam segment number was less than 100, the dose deviation was smaller than 4% definitely. Conclusions: In order to decrease the absolute dose verification error, less beam angles and less beam segments are needed and the beam segment number should be controlled within the range of 80. (authors)

  18. MO-A-BRB-03: Integration Issues in Electronic Charting for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutlief, S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of converting to an electronic chart for radiation therapy can be daunting. It requires a dedicated committee to first research and choose appropriate software, to review the entire documentation policy and flow of the clinic, to convert this system to electronic form or if necessary, redesign the system to more easily conform to the electronic process. Those making the conversion and those who already use electronic charting would benefit from the shared experience of those who have been through the process in the past. Therefore TG262 was convened to provide guidance on electronic charting for external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This course will present the results of an internal survey of task group members on EMR practices in External Beam Radiation Therapy as well as discuss important issues in EMR development and structure for both EBRT and brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: Be familiarized with common practices and pitfalls in development and maintenance of an electronic chart in Radiation Oncology Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in External Beam Radiation Therapy Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in Brachytherapy

  19. Radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: comparison of results with lens-sparing versus lateral beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, B.; Ellsworth, R.; Abramson, D.; Haik, B.; Tome, M.; Grabowski, E.; LoSasso, T.

    1988-01-01

    From 1979 through 1986, 170 children were seen at our institution diagnosed with retinoblastoma. Sixty-six of the children with involvement of 121 eyes, were referred for definitive external beam radiation to one or both eyes. During the study period, two distinct radiation techniques were used. From 1980 through mid-1984, a lens-sparing technique included an anterior electron beam with a contact lens mounted lead shield, combined with a lateral field, was used. Since mid-1984, a modified lateral beam technique has been used, mixing lateral electrons and superior and inferior lateral oblique split beam wedged photons. Doses prescribed were similar for both techniques, ranging from 3,850 to 5,000 cGy in 4 to 5 weeks. The lens-sparing and the modified lateral techniques are compared for local control. For eyes with Group I through III disease, the lens-sparing technique resulted in local control in 33% of the eyes treated, where the modified lateral technique controlled 83% of the eyes treated (p = .006). Mean time to relapse was identical in both groups, that is 24 and 26 months respectively. Most relapses were successfully treated with further local therapy, including laser or cryosurgery, or 60Co plaques. Five eyes required enucleation following initial treatment with the lens-sparing technique, but none thus far with the lateral beam technique. For eyes with Group IV and V disease, no significant differences were found between the two techniques in terms of local control or eventual need for enucleation. With a mean follow-up time of 33 months for the entire group, the 4-year survival is 93%. Two of the 4 deaths are due to second primary tumor, and all 4 have occurred in the lens-sparing group. Because follow-up time is more limited in the lateral beam group, this is not statistically significant and direct survival comparisons are premature

  20. Quality assurance study for dosimetry of Radiation Therapy equipment in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mokhlef, Jazi M.; Nabaz, Noori

    2003-01-01

    International standards address the accuracy of dose delivery for radiation therapy machines as well as quality assurance and staffing levels for radiation therapy centers. We performed absolute calibrations of gamma ,X-ray and electron radiotherapy beams in all radiation therapy centers in Saudi Arabia. We also assessed quality assurance and staffing levels Dosimetric measurements were made with a portable dosimetry system, which consisted of a calibrated Farmer ionization chamber and an electrometer, small water phantom, barometer and thermometer. Differences between the measured and the expected output (c Gy/MU or c Gy/min) were found to be in the range of -11%+5%. About 17% of radiotherapy beams were not within the acceptable tolerance level (+/-3%). Quality assurance in some radiation centers was poor and staffing levels were inadequate. We found poor compliance with internationally accepted tolerance levels for dose calibration of radiotherapy beams at radiation therapy centers in Saudi Arabia. Analysis of medical physics staffing revealed severe discrepancies from those recommended by international guidelines .We recommend that radiation therapy centers be adequately staffed with qualified medical physics personnel and that periodic audit programs be required a governmental body. (author)

  1. Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnbaum, E.H.; Dreznik, Z.; Myerson, R.J.; Lacey, D.L.; Fry, R.D.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The early of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10 patients. Anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound were performed before and four weeks after radiotherapy. No significant difference in mean maximal squeeze or resting pressure was found after radiation therapy. An increase in mean minimal sensory threshold was significant. Histologic examination revealed minimal radiation changes at the distal margin in 8 of 10 patients who underwent low anterior resection and in 1 of 3 patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection. The authors conclude that preoperative radiation therapy has minimal immediate effect on the anal sphincter and is not a major contributing factor to postoperative incontinence in patients after sphincter-saving operations for rectal cancer

  2. Heavy ion facility for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemann, C.; Alonso, J.; Clark, D.; Grunder, H.; Hoyer, E.; Lou, K.; Staples, J.; Voelker, F.

    1977-03-01

    The accelerator requirements of particle radiation therapy are reviewed and a preliminary design of a heavy ion synchrotron for hospital installation is presented. Beam delivery systems and multi-treatment room arrangements are outlined

  3. Current status of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Araki, Hitoshi; Sakai, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    External-beam radiation therapy has been one of the treatment options for prostate cancer. The dose response has been observed for a dose range of 64.8-81 Gy. The problem of external-beam radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer is that as the dose increases, adverse effects also increase. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) has enabled us to treat patients with up to 72-76 Gy to the prostate, with a relatively acceptable risk of late rectal bleeding. Recently, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has been shown to deliver a higher dose to the target with acceptable low rates of rectal and bladder complications. The most important things to keep in mind when using an IMRT technique are that there is a significant trade-off between coverage of the target, avoidance of adjacent critical structures, and the inhomogeneity of the dose within the target. Lastly, even with IMRT, it should be kept in mind that a ''perfect'' plan that creates completely homogeneous coverage of the target volume and zero or small dose to the adjacent organs at risk is not always obtained. Participating in many treatment planning sessions and arranging the beams and beam weights create the best approach to the best IMRT plan. (author)

  4. Procedure for field axes measurement, beam indication adjustment, and figure of convergence determination within performance tests for radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quast, U; Krause, K; Rassow, J [Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Klinische Strahlenphysik

    1976-09-01

    A routine measuring procedure for the verification of radiation field axes and figure of convergence within a spatial resolution of +- 0.5 mm is described. Measurements are done in two parallel planes in a certain distance before and behind the presumed isocentre. The used test arrangement permits rapid check and controlled adjustment of the alignment of beam or isocentre indicating devices for all isocentric radiation therapy equipment.

  5. Prevalence and Predicting Factors for Commonly Neglected Sexual Side Effects to External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Anders; Pedersen, Christian; Lindberg, Henriette; Bisbjerg, Rasmus; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2017-04-01

    Changes in sexual function other than erectile dysfunction are sparsely investigated after radiation therapy for prostate cancer. To investigate orgasmic dysfunction, urinary incontinence during sexual activity, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis in patients with prostate cancer treated with external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT). In February 2015, men treated with EBRT at our center 3 months to 5 years previously (N = 519) received a study-specific questionnaire. This was developed from purpose-built questions and validated tools including the Erection Hardness Scale. All patients had received a radiation dose of 78 Gy. Androgen deprivation therapy was administered according to disease characteristics. Outcome measurements were prevalence rates and predictors of these side effects as identified by multivariate logistic regression analyses. One hundred nine patients were eligible (sexually active and had completed androgen deprivation therapy) for inclusion. Twenty-four percent reported anorgasmia, 44% reported a decreased intensity of their orgasms, and 40% reported that the time it took to reach orgasm had increased. Eleven percent reported anejaculation. Fifteen percent reported orgasm-associated pain. Only 4% reported urinary incontinence during sexual activity. Subjective penile length loss in excess of 1 cm was reported by 42%. Twelve percent reported an altered curvature of their penis after EBRT. Six percent reported painful erections. Twenty-seven percent reported decreased sensitivity in the penis after EBRT, 2% reported a cold sensation, and 2% reported paresthesia. Increasing time since final treatment increased the risk of penile sensory disturbances (odds ratio = 1.05; P = .028). Orgasmic dysfunction, changes in penile morphology, and sensory disturbances in the penis are common side effects of ERBT. Patients should be properly informed of the occurrence of these side effects before deciding which treatment to

  6. Nano-scale processes behind ion-beam cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdutovich, Eugene; Garcia, Gustavo; Mason, Nigel; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2016-04-01

    This topical issue collates a series of papers based on new data reported at the third Nano-IBCT Conference of the COST Action MP1002: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy, held in Boppard, Germany, from October 27th to October 31st, 2014. The Nano-IBCT COST Action was launched in December 2010 and brought together more than 300 experts from different disciplines (physics, chemistry, biology) with specialists in radiation damage of biological matter from hadron-therapy centres, and medical institutions. This meeting followed the first and the second conferences of the Action held in October 2011 in Caen, France and in May 2013 in Sopot, Poland respectively. This conference series provided a focus for the European research community and has highlighted the pioneering research into the fundamental processes underpinning ion beam cancer therapy. Contribution to the Topical Issue "COST Action Nano-IBCT: Nano-scale Processes Behind Ion-Beam Cancer Therapy", edited by Andrey V. Solov'yov, Nigel Mason, Gustavo Garcia and Eugene Surdutovich.

  7. Applications of linac-mounted kilovoltage Cone-beam Computed Tomography in modern radiation therapy: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Kavitha; Mohammadi, Mohammad; Shepherd, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The use of Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in radiotherapy is increasing due to the widespread implementation of kilovoltage systems on the currently available linear accelerators. Cone beam CT acts as an effective Image-Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) tool for the verification of patient position. It also opens up the possibility of real-time re-optimization of treatment plans for Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART). This paper reviews the most prominent applications of CBCT (linac-mounted) in radiation therapy, focusing on CBCT-based planning and dose calculation studies. This is followed by a concise review of the main issues associated with CBCT, such as imaging artifacts, dose and image quality. It explores how medical physicists and oncologists can best apply CBCT for therapeutic applications

  8. Radiation Therapy of Large Intact Breasts Using a Beam Spoiler or Photons with Mixed Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lief, Eugene P.; Hunt, Margie A.; Hong, Linda X.; Amols, Howard I.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation treatment of large intact breasts with separations of more than 24 cm is typically performed using x-rays with energies of 10 MV and higher, to eliminate high-dose regions in tissue. The disadvantage of the higher energy beams is the reduced dose to superficial tissue in the buildup region. We evaluated 2 methods of avoiding this underdosage: (1) a beam spoiler: 1.7-cm-thick Lucite plate positioned in the blocking tray 35 cm from the isocenter, with 15-MV x-rays; and (2) combining 6- and 15-MV x-rays through the same portal. For the beam with the spoiler, we measured the dose distribution for normal and oblique incidence using a film and ion chamber in polystyrene, as well as a scanning diode in a water tank. In the mixed-energy approach, we calculated the dose distributions in the buildup region for different proportions of 6- and 15-MV beams. The dose enhancement due to the beam spoiler exhibited significant dependence upon the source-to-skin distance (SSD), field size, and the angle of incidence. In the center of a 20 x 20-cm 2 field at 90-cm SSD, the beam spoiler raises the dose at 5-mm depth from 77% to 87% of the prescription, while maintaining the skin dose below 57%. Comparison of calculated dose with measurements suggested a practical way of treatment planning with the spoiler-usage of 2-mm 'beam' bolus-a special option offered by in-house treatment planning system. A second method of increasing buildup doses is to mix 6- and 15-MV beams. For example, in the case of a parallel-opposed irradiation of a 27-cm-thick phantom, dose to D max for each energy, with respect to midplane, is 114% for pure 6-, 107% for 15-MV beam with the spoiler, and 108% for a 3:1 mixture of 15- and 6-MV beams. Both methods are practical for radiation therapy of large intact breasts

  9. On-site audits to investigate the quality of radiation physics of radiation therapy institutions in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Chun, Minsoo; Kim, Sang-Tae

    2017-08-01

    To investigate and improve the domestic standard of radiation therapy in the Republic of Korea. On-site audits were performed for 13 institutions in the Republic of Korea. Six items were investigated by on-site visits of each radiation therapy institution, including collimator, gantry, and couch rotation isocenter check; coincidence between light and radiation fields; photon beam flatness and symmetry; electron beam flatness and symmetry; physical wedge transmission factors; and photon beam and electron beam outputs. The average deviations of mechanical collimator, gantry, and couch rotation isocenter were less than 1mm. Those of radiation isocenter were also less than 1mm. The average difference between light and radiation fields was 0.9±0.6mm for the field size of 20cm×20cm. The average values of flatness and symmetry of the photon beams were 2.9%±0.6% and 1.1%±0.7%, respectively. Those of electron beams were 2.5%±0.7% and 0.6%±1.0%, respectively. Every institutions showed wedge transmission factor deviations less than 2% except one institution. The output deviations of both photon and electron beams were less than ±3% for every institution. Through the on-site audit program, we could effectively detect an inappropriately operating linacs and provide some recommendations. The standard of radiation therapy in Korea is expected to improve through such on-site audits. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Computer-aided beam arrangement based on similar cases in radiation treatment-planning databases for stereotactic lung radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magome, Taiki; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Arimura, Hidetaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided method for determination of beam arrangements based on similar cases in a radiotherapy treatment-planning database for stereotactic lung radiation therapy. Similar-case-based beam arrangements were automatically determined based on the following two steps. First, the five most similar cases were searched, based on geometrical features related to the location, size and shape of the planning target volume, lung and spinal cord. Second, five beam arrangements of an objective case were automatically determined by registering five similar cases with the objective case, with respect to lung regions, by means of a linear registration technique. For evaluation of the beam arrangements five treatment plans were manually created by applying the beam arrangements determined in the second step to the objective case. The most usable beam arrangement was selected by sorting the five treatment plans based on eight plan evaluation indices, including the D95, mean lung dose and spinal cord maximum dose. We applied the proposed method to 10 test cases, by using an RTP database of 81 cases with lung cancer, and compared the eight plan evaluation indices between the original treatment plan and the corresponding most usable similar-case-based treatment plan. As a result, the proposed method may provide usable beam arrangements, which have no statistically significant differences from the original beam arrangements (P>0.05) in terms of the eight plan evaluation indices. Therefore, the proposed method could be employed as an educational tool for less experienced treatment planners. (author)

  11. Comparison of particle-radiation-therapy modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of dose distribution, beam alignment, and radiobiological advantages accorded to high LET radiation were reviewed and compared for various particle beam radiotherapeutic modalities (neutron, Auger electrons, p, π - , He, C, Ne, and Ar ions). Merit factors were evaluated on the basis of effective dose to tumor relative to normal tissue, linear energy transfer (LET), and dose localization, at depths of 1, 4, and 10 cm. In general, it was found that neutron capture therapy using an epithermal neutron beam provided the best merit factors available for depths up to 8 cm. The position of fast neutron therapy on the Merit Factor Tables was consistently lower than that of other particle modalities, and above only 60 Co. The largest body of clinical data exists for fast neutron therapy; results are considered by some to be encouraging. It then follows that if benefits with fast neutron therapy are real, additional gains are within reach with other modalities

  12. Radiation therapy for children: evolving technologies in the era of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, Larry E.; Beltran, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of ever more sophisticated oncologic imaging and technologies providing far more precise radiation therapy have combined to increase the utilization of sophisticated radiation therapy in childhood cancer. For a majority of children with common central nervous system, soft tissue, bone, and dysontogenic neoplasms, local irradiation is fundamental to successful multi-disciplinary management. Along with more precise target volume definition and radiation delivery, new technologies provide added certainty of patient positioning (electronic portal imaging, cone beam CT) and conformality of dose delivery (3-D conformal irradiation, intensity modulated radiation therapy, proton beam therapy). Each of the major areas of technology development are able to better confine the high-dose region to the intended target, but they are also associated with the potential for larger volumes of uninvolved tissues being exposed to low radiation doses. The latter issue plays a role in documented levels of secondary carcinogenesis, sometimes with greater anticipated incidence than that seen in conventional radiation therapy. Parameters related to carcinogenesis, such as dose-volume relationships and neutron contamination that accompanies high-energy photon irradiation and proton therapy, can be identified, sometimes modulated, and accepted as part of the clinical decision process in fine tuning radiation therapy in this more vulnerable age group. (orig.)

  13. Radiation Therapy in Elderly Skin Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Hee [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the long term results (local control, survival, failure, and complications) after radiation therapy for skin cancer in elderly patients. The study spanned from January 1990 to October 2002. Fifteen elderly patients with skin cancer were treated by radiotherapy at the Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center. The age distribution of the patients surveyed was 72 to 95 years, with a median age of 78.8 years. The pathologic classification of the 15 patients included squamous cell carcinoma (10 patients), basal cell carcinoma (3 patients), verrucous carcinoma (1 patient) and skin adnexal origin carcinoma (1 patient). The most common tumor location was the head (13 patients). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (range 2 to 9 cm). The radiation dose was delivered via an electron beam of 6 to 15 MeV. The dose range was adjusted to the tumor diameter and depth of tumor invasion. The total radiation dose ranged from 50{approx}80 Gy (mean: 66 Gy) with a 2 Gy fractional dose prescribed to the 80% isodose line once a day and 5 times a week. One patient with lymph node metastasis was treated with six MV photon beams boosted with electron beams. The length of the follow-up periods ranged from 10 to 120 months with a median follow-up period of 48 months. The local control rates were 100% (15/15). In addition, the five year disease free survival rate (5YDFS) was 80% and twelve patients (80%) had no recurrence and skin cancer recurrence occurred in 3 patients (20%). Three patients have lived an average of 90 months (68{approx}120 months) without recurrence or metastasis. A total of 9 patients who died as a result of other causes had a mean survival time of 55.8 months after radiation therapy. No severe acute or chronic complications were observed after radiation therapy. Only minor complications including radiation dermatitis was treated with supportive care. The results suggest that radiation therapy is an effective and safe treatment method for the treatment of skin

  14. Efficacy of flattening-filter-free beam in stereotactic body radiation therapy planning and treatment: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Thu M.; Peters, Mitchell J.; Hickey, Brigid; Semciw, Adam

    2017-01-01

    A linear accelerator with the flattening-filter removed generates a non-uniform dose profile beam. We aimed to analyse and compare plan quality and treatment time between flattened beam (FB) and flattening-filter-free (FFF) beam to assess the efficacy of FFF beam for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The search strategy was based around 3 concepts; radiation therapy, flattening-filter-free and treatment delivery. The years searched were restricted from 2010 to date of review (October 2015). All plan quality comparisons were between FFF and FB plans from the same data sets. We identified 210 potential studies based on the three searched concepts. All articles were screened by two authors for title and abstract and by three authors for full text. Ten studies met the eligibility criteria. Plan quality was evaluated using conformity index (CI), heterogeneity index (HI) and gradient index (GI). Dose to organs-at-risk (OAR) and healthy tissues were compared. Differences between beam-on-time (BOT) and treatment time (T × T) were also analysed. Normalized percentage ratios of CI and HI demonstrated no clinical differences among the studied articles. GI displayed small variations between the articles favouring FFF beam. The BOT with FFF is substantially reduced, and appears to impact the frequency of intra-fraction imaging which, in turn, affects total treatment time. Based on planning tumour volume (PTV) coverage, dose to OAR and healthy tissue sparing, FFF beam is clinically effective for the treatment of cancer patients using SBRT. We recommend the use of FFF beam for SBRT based on these factors and the reported overall treatment time reduction.

  15. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K.

    1998-01-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a 'pseudotumour' or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. A comparison of two methods for estimating the technical costs of external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayman, James A.; Lash, Kathy A.; Tao, May L.; Halman, Marc A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To accurately assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment with external beam radiation, it is necessary to have accurate estimates of its cost. One of the most common methods for estimating technical costs has been to convert Medicare charges into costs using Medicare Cost-to-Charge Ratios (CCR). More recently, health care organizations have begun to invest in sophisticated cost-accounting systems (CAS) that are capable of providing procedure-specific cost estimates. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these competing approaches result in similar cost estimates for four typical courses of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Technical costs were estimated for the following treatment courses: 1) a palliative 'simple' course of 10 fractions using a single field without blocks; 2) a palliative 'complex' course of 10 fractions using two opposed fields with custom blocks; 3) a curative course of 30 fractions for breast cancer using tangent fields followed by an electron beam boost; and 4) a curative course of 35 fractions for prostate cancer using CT-planning and a 4-field technique. Costs were estimated using the CCR approach by multiplying the number of units of each procedure billed by its Medicare charge and CCR and then summing these costs. Procedure-specific cost estimates were obtained from a cost-accounting system, and overall costs were then estimated for the CAS approach by multiplying the number of units billed by the appropriate unit cost estimate and then summing these costs. All costs were estimated using data from 1997. The analysis was also repeated using data from another academic institution to estimate their costs using the CCR and CAS methods, as well as the appropriate relative value units (RVUs) and conversion factor from the 1997 Medicare Fee Schedule to estimate Medicare reimbursement for the four treatment courses. Results: The estimated technical costs for the CCR vs. CAS approaches for the four

  17. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosunen, A

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?){sup water} {sub air}, in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in {sup 60}Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?){sup water} {sub air} can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation

  18. Metrology and quality of radiation therapy dosimetry of electron, photon and epithermal neutron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosunen, A.

    1999-08-01

    In radiation therapy using electron and photon beams the dosimetry chain consists of several sequential phases starting by the realisation of the dose quantity in the Primary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory and ending to the calculation of the dose to a patient. A similar procedure can be described for the dosimetry of epithermal neutron beams in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). To achieve the required accuracy of the dose delivered to a patient the quality of all steps in the dosimetry procedure has to be considered. This work is focused on two items in the dosimetry chains: the determination of the dose in the reference conditions and the evaluation of the accuracy of dose calculation methods. The issues investigated and discussed in detail are: a)the calibration methods of plane parallel ionisation chambers used in electron beam dosimetry, (b) the specification of the critical dosimetric parameter i.e. the ratio of stopping powers for water to air, (S I ?) water air , in photon beams, (c) the feasibility of the twin ionization chamber technique for dosimetry in epithermal neutron beams applied to BNCT and (d) the determination accuracy of the calculated dose distributions in phantoms in electron, photon, and epithermal neutron beams. The results demonstrate that up to a 3% improvement in the consistency of dose determinations in electron beams is achieved by the calibration of plane parallel ionisation chambers in high energy electron beams instead of calibrations in 60 Co gamma beams. In photon beam dosimetry (S I ?) water air can be determined with an accuracy of 0.2% using the percentage dose at the 10 cm depth, %dd(10), as a beam specifier. The use of %odd(10) requires the elimination of the electron contamination in the photon beam. By a twin ionisation chamber technique the gamma dose can be determined with uncertainty of 6% (1 standard deviation) and the total neutron dose with an uncertainty of 15 to 20% (1 standard deviation). To improve the accuracy

  19. Beam orientation optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy using adaptive l2,1-minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xun; Men Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B; Lou Yifei

    2011-01-01

    Beam orientation optimization (BOO) is a key component in the process of intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning. It determines to what degree one can achieve a good treatment plan in the subsequent plan optimization process. In this paper, we have developed a BOO algorithm via adaptive l 2,1 -minimization. Specifically, we introduce a sparsity objective function term into our model which contains weighting factors for each beam angle adaptively adjusted during the optimization process. Such an objective function favors a small number of beam angles. By optimizing a total objective function consisting of a dosimetric term and the sparsity term, we are able to identify unimportant beam angles and gradually remove them without largely sacrificing the dosimetric objective. In one typical prostate case, the convergence property of our algorithm, as well as how beam angles are selected during the optimization process, is demonstrated. Fluence map optimization (FMO) is then performed based on the optimized beam angles. The resulting plan quality is presented and is found to be better than that of equiangular beam orientations. We have further systematically validated our algorithm in the contexts of 5-9 coplanar beams for five prostate cases and one head and neck case. For each case, the final FMO objective function value is used to compare the optimized beam orientations with the equiangular ones. It is found that, in the majority of cases tested, our BOO algorithm leads to beam configurations which attain lower FMO objective function values than those of corresponding equiangular cases, indicating the effectiveness of our BOO algorithm. Superior plan qualities are also demonstrated by comparing DVH curves between BOO plans and equiangular plans.

  20. Adaptive Radiation Therapy for Postprostatectomy Patients Using Real-Time Electromagnetic Target Motion Tracking During External Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Mingyao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Bharat, Shyam [Philips Research North America, Briarcliff Manor, New York (United States); Michalski, Jeff M.; Gay, Hiram A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States); Hou, Wei-Hsien [St Louis University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Using real-time electromagnetic (EM) transponder tracking data recorded by the Calypso 4D Localization System, we report inter- and intrafractional target motion of the prostate bed, describe a strategy to evaluate treatment adequacy in postprostatectomy patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and propose an adaptive workflow. Methods and Materials: Tracking data recorded by Calypso EM transponders was analyzed for postprostatectomy patients that underwent step-and-shoot IMRT. Rigid target motion parameters during beam delivery were calculated from recorded transponder positions in 16 patients with rigid transponder geometry. The delivered doses to the clinical target volume (CTV) were estimated from the planned dose matrix and the target motion for the first 3, 5, 10, and all fractions. Treatment adequacy was determined by comparing the delivered minimum dose (D{sub min}) with the planned D{sub min} to the CTV. Treatments were considered adequate if the delivered CTV D{sub min} is at least 95% of the planned CTV D{sub min}. Results: Translational target motion was minimal for all 16 patients (mean: 0.02 cm; range: −0.12 cm to 0.07 cm). Rotational motion was patient-specific, and maximum pitch, yaw, and roll were 12.2, 4.1, and 10.5°, respectively. We observed inadequate treatments in 5 patients. In these treatments, we observed greater target rotations along with large distances between the CTV centroid and transponder centroid. The treatment adequacy from the initial 10 fractions successfully predicted the overall adequacy in 4 of 5 inadequate treatments and 10 of 11 adequate treatments. Conclusion: Target rotational motion could cause underdosage to partial volume of the postprostatectomy targets. Our adaptive treatment strategy is applicable to post-prostatectomy patients receiving IMRT to evaluate and improve radiation therapy delivery.

  1. Proton beam therapy how protons are revolutionizing cancer treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Yajnik, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam therapy is an emerging technology with promise of revolutionizing the treatment of cancer. While nearly half of all patients diagnosed with cancer in the US receive radiation therapy, the majority is delivered via electron accelerators, where photons are used to irradiate cancerous tissue. Because of the physical properties of photon beams, photons may deposit energy along their entire path length through the body. On the other hand, a proton beam directed at a tumor travels in a straight trajectory towards its target, gives off most of its energy at a defined depth called the Bragg peak, and then stops. While photons often deposit more energy within the healthy tissues of the body than within the cancer itself, protons can deposit most of their cancer-killing energy within the area of the tumor. As a result, in the properly selected patients, proton beam therapy has the ability to improve cure rates by increasing the dose delivered to the tumor and simultaneously reduce side-effects by decreasing...

  2. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  3. Radiation therapy in pseudotumour haemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lal, P.; Biswal, B.M.; Thulkar, S.; Patel, A.K.; Venkatesh, R.; Julka, P.K. [Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi (India). Departments of Radiation Oncology, Radiodiagnosis and Haematology

    1998-11-01

    Total or partial deficiency of factor VIII and IX in the coagulation cascade leads to haemophilia. Haemophilia affecting weight-bearing joints gives a `pseudotumour` or haemarthrosis-like condition. Surgery and cryoprecipitate infusions have been the treatment for this condition. Radiocolloids and radiation therapy have been used with some benefit. One case of ankle pseudotumour which was treated by low-dose external beam radiation is presented here. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Improving efficiency and safety in external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery using a Kaizen approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Adair, Nilda; O'Brien, Mildred; Naparstek, Nikoleta; Cangelosi, Thomas; Zuvic, Petrina; Joseph, Sherin; Meier, Jason; Bloom, Beatrice; Potters, Louis

    Modern external beam radiation therapy treatment delivery processes potentially increase the number of tasks to be performed by therapists and thus opportunities for errors, yet the need to treat a large number of patients daily requires a balanced allocation of time per treatment slot. The goal of this work was to streamline the underlying workflow in such time-interval constrained processes to enhance both execution efficiency and active safety surveillance using a Kaizen approach. A Kaizen project was initiated by mapping the workflow within each treatment slot for 3 Varian TrueBeam linear accelerators. More than 90 steps were identified, and average execution times for each were measured. The time-consuming steps were stratified into a 2 × 2 matrix arranged by potential workflow improvement versus the level of corrective effort required. A work plan was created to launch initiatives with high potential for workflow improvement but modest effort to implement. Time spent on safety surveillance and average durations of treatment slots were used to assess corresponding workflow improvements. Three initiatives were implemented to mitigate unnecessary therapist motion, overprocessing of data, and wait time for data transfer defects, respectively. A fourth initiative was implemented to make the division of labor by treating therapists as well as peer review more explicit. The average duration of treatment slots reduced by 6.7% in the 9 months following implementation of the initiatives (P = .001). A reduction of 21% in duration of treatment slots was observed on 1 of the machines (P Kaizen approach has the potential to improve operational efficiency and safety with quick turnaround in radiation therapy practice by addressing non-value-adding steps characteristic of individual department workflows. Higher effort opportunities are identified to guide continual downstream quality improvements. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by

  5. Quasi-VMAT in high-grade glioma radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadda, G.; Massazza, G.; Zucca, S.; Durzu, S.; Meleddu, G.; Possanzini, M.; Farace, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare a quasi-volumetric modulated arc therapy (qVMAT) with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT technique is a fast method of radiation therapy in which multiple equispaced beams analogous to those in rotation therapy are radiated in succession. Patients and methods: This study included 12 patients with a planning target volume (PTV) that overlapped at least one organ at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT was planned using 2-3 non-coplanar beams, whereby the field-in-field technique (FIF) was used to divide each field into 1-3 subfields to shield the OAR. The qVMAT strategy was planned with 15 equispaced beams and IMRT was planned using 9 beams with a total of 80 segments. Inverse planning for qVMAT and IMRT was performed by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) to deliver a homogenous dose distribution of 60 Gy within the PTV and simultaneously limit the dose received by the OARs to the recommended values. Finally, the effect of introducing a maximum dose objective (max. dose 95% and conformity index (CI) values in comparison to 3D-CRT (PTV 95% = 90.7 % vs. 82.0 %; CI = 0.79 vs. 0.74, respectively). A further improvement was achieved by IMRT (PTV 95% = 94.4 %, CI = 0.78). In qVMAT and IMRT, the addition of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV produced a significant increase in CI (0.87 and 0.88, respectively), but dosage homogeneity within the PTV was considerably reduced (PTV 95% = 88.5 % and 92.3 %, respectively). The time required for qVMAT dose delivery was similar to that required using 3D-CRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that qVMAT should be preferred to 3D-CRT for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT method could be applied in hospitals, for example, which have limited departmental resources and are not equipped with systems capable of VMAT delivery. (orig.)

  6. Intraoperative Electron-Beam Radiation Therapy for Pediatric Ewing Sarcomas and Rhabdomyosarcomas: Long-Term Outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, Claudio V.; Calvo, Felipe A.; Polo, Alfredo; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Gonzalez, Carmen; Desco, Manuel; Martinez-Monge, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess long-term outcomes and toxicity of intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT) in the management of pediatric patients with Ewing sarcomas (EWS) and rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS). Methods and Materials: Seventy-one sarcoma (EWS n=37, 52%; RMS n=34, 48%) patients underwent IOERT for primary (n=46, 65%) or locally recurrent sarcomas (n=25, 35%) from May 1983 to November 2012. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. For survival outcomes, potential associations were assessed in univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: After a median follow-up of 72 months (range, 4-310 months), 10-year LC, disease-free survival, and OS was 74%, 57%, and 68%, respectively. In multivariate analysis after adjustment for other covariates, disease status (P=.04 and P=.05) and R1 margin status (P<.01 and P=.04) remained significantly associated with LC and OS. Nine patients (13%) reported severe chronic toxicity events (all grade 3). Conclusions: A multimodal IOERT-containing approach is a well-tolerated component of treatment for pediatric EWS and RMS patients, allowing reduction or substitution of external beam radiation exposure while maintaining high local control rates

  7. A Novel Approach to Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Using Scanned Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depauw, Nicolas, E-mail: ndepauw@partners.org [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Batin, Estelle; Daartz, Julianne [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Rosenfeld, Anatoly [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia); Adams, Judith; Kooy, Hanne; MacDonald, Shannon; Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), currently offered at Massachusetts General Hospital, uses proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) with intensity modulation, achieving complete target coverage of the chest wall and all nodal regions and reduced dose to the cardiac structures. This work presents the current methodology for such treatment and the ongoing effort for its improvements. Methods and Materials: A single PBS field is optimized to ensure appropriate target coverage and heart/lung sparing, using an in–house-developed proton planning system with the capability of multicriteria optimization. The dose to the chest wall skin is controlled as a separate objective in the optimization. Surface imaging is used for setup because it is a suitable surrogate for superficial target volumes. In order to minimize the effect of beam range uncertainties, the relative proton stopping power ratio of the material in breast implants was determined through separate measurements. Phantom measurements were also made to validate the accuracy of skin dose calculation in the treatment planning system. Additionally, the treatment planning robustness was evaluated relative to setup perturbations and patient breathing motion. Results: PBS PMRT planning resulted in appropriate target coverage and organ sparing, comparable to treatments by passive scattering (PS) beams but much improved in nodal coverage and cardiac sparing compared to conventional treatments by photon/electron beams. The overall treatment time was much shorter than PS and also shorter than conventional photon/electron treatment. The accuracy of the skin dose calculation by the planning system was within ±2%. The treatment was shown to be adequately robust relative to both setup uncertainties and patient breathing motion, resulting in clinically satisfying dose distributions. Conclusions: More than 25 PMRT patients have been successfully treated at Massachusetts General Hospital by using single-PBS fields

  8. A Novel Approach to Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy Using Scanned Proton Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, Nicolas; Batin, Estelle; Daartz, Julianne; Rosenfeld, Anatoly; Adams, Judith; Kooy, Hanne; MacDonald, Shannon; Lu, Hsiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT), currently offered at Massachusetts General Hospital, uses proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) with intensity modulation, achieving complete target coverage of the chest wall and all nodal regions and reduced dose to the cardiac structures. This work presents the current methodology for such treatment and the ongoing effort for its improvements. Methods and Materials: A single PBS field is optimized to ensure appropriate target coverage and heart/lung sparing, using an in–house-developed proton planning system with the capability of multicriteria optimization. The dose to the chest wall skin is controlled as a separate objective in the optimization. Surface imaging is used for setup because it is a suitable surrogate for superficial target volumes. In order to minimize the effect of beam range uncertainties, the relative proton stopping power ratio of the material in breast implants was determined through separate measurements. Phantom measurements were also made to validate the accuracy of skin dose calculation in the treatment planning system. Additionally, the treatment planning robustness was evaluated relative to setup perturbations and patient breathing motion. Results: PBS PMRT planning resulted in appropriate target coverage and organ sparing, comparable to treatments by passive scattering (PS) beams but much improved in nodal coverage and cardiac sparing compared to conventional treatments by photon/electron beams. The overall treatment time was much shorter than PS and also shorter than conventional photon/electron treatment. The accuracy of the skin dose calculation by the planning system was within ±2%. The treatment was shown to be adequately robust relative to both setup uncertainties and patient breathing motion, resulting in clinically satisfying dose distributions. Conclusions: More than 25 PMRT patients have been successfully treated at Massachusetts General Hospital by using single-PBS fields

  9. Increasing Use of Dose-Escalated External Beam Radiation Therapy for Men With Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Woo, Kaitlin; Smaldone, Marc; Uzzo, Robert; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine recent practice patterns, using a large national cancer registry, to understand the extent to which dose-escalated external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) has been incorporated into routine clinical practice for men with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective observational cohort study using the National Cancer Data Base, a nationwide oncology outcomes database in the United States. We identified 98,755 men diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer between 2006 and 2011 who received definitive EBRT and classified patients into National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) risk groups. We defined dose-escalated EBRT as total prescribed dose of ≥75.6 Gy. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association of patient, clinical, and demographic characteristics with the use of dose-escalated EBRT. Results: Overall, 81.6% of men received dose-escalated EBRT during the study period. The use of dose-escalated EBRT did not vary substantially by NCCN risk group. Use of dose-escalated EBRT increased from 70.7% of patients receiving treatment in 2006 to 89.8% of patients receiving treatment in 2011. On multivariable analysis, year of diagnosis and use of intensity modulated radiation therapy were significantly associated with receipt of dose-escalated EBRT. Conclusions: Our study results indicate that dose-escalated EBRT has been widely adopted by radiation oncologists treating prostate cancer in the United States. The proportion of patients receiving dose-escalated EBRT increased nearly 20% between 2006 and 2011. We observed high utilization rates of dose-escalated EBRT within all disease risk groups. Adoption of intensity modulated radiation therapy was strongly associated with use of dose-escalated treatment

  10. Place of radiation therapy for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulard-Durdux, C.; Housset, M.

    1995-01-01

    External-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are currently used both as curative and as palliative therapy in patients with gynecologic and urologic tumors. Ionizing radiation plays a key role in the locoregional control of uterine and prostatic tumors, in particular in combination with surgery. External-beam radiation therapy in combination with concomitant radiosensitizing chemotherapy may allow conservation of the bladder in patients with infiltrating vesical tumors classically treated by cystectomy. It has beneficial effects on some of the most incapacitating complications of these cancers: its hemostatic effect is valuable in patients with vaginal bleeding or hematuria and it relieves the pain due to bone metastases, which are particularly common in prostatic cancer. Furthermore, use of high energy accelerators, development of better imaging techniques, and advances in dosimetry have substantially reduced the rate of delayed radiation-induced complications. Thus, external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are important tools for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors. A discussion is provided of the role of radiation therapy in the four most common types of gynecologic and urologic cancer: cancers of the prostate, bladder, uterine cervix, and uterine corpus. (authors). 52 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Intra-oral cone radiation therapy for selected carcinomas of the oral cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.C.; Doppke, K.P.; Biggs, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    A study of 101 patients with early carcinomas of the oral cavity, T1 and T2, treated by external cobalt 60 beam and/or intra-oral cone (IOC) radiation therapy between 1964 through 1980 was made. The two year disease-free survival rate, including surgical salvage, was 88% and the local control rate was 85%. The incidence of radiation complications, i.e., soft tissue ulceration and/or osteoradionecrosis, was 14% and varied with various tumor sites and radiation doses delivered. The present review shows that local control and radiation complications are closely related to radiation doses and varies with different tumor sites of the oral cavity. Radiation therapy dosages expressed in terms of TDF values for these lesions are herein recommended. With proper selections of lesions arising from the oral cavity, combined external beam and IOC radiation therapy has been found extremely efficacious in achieving good local tumor control and high survival rates with excellent cosmetic and functional results and minimum radiation sequalae

  12. Expanding options in radiation oncology: neutron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, L.

    1982-01-01

    Twelve years experience with neutron beam therapy in Britain, the USA, Europe and Japan shows that local control is achievable in late-stage epidermoid cancer somewhat more frequently than with conventional radiotherapy. Tumours reputed to be radioresistant (salivary gland, bladder, rectosigmoid, melanoma, bone and soft-tissue sarcomas) have proved to be particularly responsive to neutrons. Pilot studies in brain and pancreatic tumours suggest promising new approaches to management of cancer in these sites. The availability of neutron therapy in the clinical environment opens new prospects for irradiation of 'radioresistant' tumours, permits more conservative cancer surgery, expands the use of elective chemotherapy and provides a wider range of options for cancer patients. (author)

  13. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy: the tomo-therapy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linthout, N.; Verellen, D.; Coninck, P. de; Bel, A.; Storme, G.

    2000-01-01

    Conformal radiation therapy allows the possibility of delivering high doses at the tumor volume whilst limiting the dose to the surrounding tissues and diminishing the secondary effects. With the example of the conformal radiation therapy used at the AZ VU8 (3DCRT and tomo-therapy), two treatment plans of a left ethmoid carcinoma will be evaluated and discussed in detail. The treatment of ethmoid cancer is technically difficult for both radiation therapy and surgery because of the anatomic constraints and patterns of local spread. A radiation therapy is scheduled to be delivered after surgical resection of the tumor. The treatment plan for the radiation therapy was calculated on a three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning system based on virtual simulation with a beam's eye view: George Sherouse's Gratis. An effort was made to make the plan as conformal and as homogeneous as possible to deliver a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions at the tumor bed with a maximum dose of 56 Gy to the right optic nerve and the chiasma. To establish the clinical utility and potential advantages of tomo-therapy over 3DCRT for ethmoid carcinoma, the treatment of this patient was also planned with Peacock Plant. For both treatment plans the isodose distributions and cumulative dose volume histograms (CDVH) were computed. Superimposing the CDVHs yielded similar curves for the target and an obvious improvement for organs at risk such as the chiasma, brainstem and the left eye when applying tomo-therapy. These results have also been reflected in the tumor control probabilities (equal for both plans) and the normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP), yielding significant reductions in NTCP for tomo-therapy. The probability of uncomplicated tumor control was 52.7% for tomo-therapy against 38.3% for 3DCRT. (authors)

  14. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J.

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification

  15. Implementation of MRI gel dosimetry in radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, S.Aa.J

    1998-12-01

    Gel dosimetry was used together with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure three-dimensional absorbed dose distributions in radiation therapy. Two different dosimeters were studied: ferrous- and monomer gel, based on the principles of radiation-induced oxidation and polymerisation, respectively. Single clinical electron and photon beams were evaluated and gel dose distributions were mainly within 2% of conventional detector results. The ferrous-gel was also used for clinical proton beams. A decrease in signal per absorbed dose was found close to the end of the range of the protons (15-20%). This effect was explained as a linear energy transfer dependence, further supported with Monte Carlo simulations. A method for analysing and comparing data from treatment planning system (TPS) and gel measurements was developed. The method enables a new pixel by pixel evaluation, isodose comparison and dose volume histogram verification. Two standard clinical radiation therapy procedures were examined using the developed TPS verification method. The treatment regimes included several beams of different radiation qualities. The TPS calculated data were in very good agreement with the dose distribution measured by the ferrous-gel. However, in a beam abutment region, larger dose difference was found. Beam adjustment errors and a minor TPS underestimation of the lateral scatter contribution outside the primary electron beam may explain the discrepancy. The overall uncertainty in the ferrous-gel dose determination was considerably reduced using an optimised MRI acquisition protocol and a new MRI scanner. The relative dose uncertainty was found to be better than 3.3% for all dose levels (95% confidence level). Using the method developed for comparing measured gel data with calculated treatment plans, the gel dosimetry method was proven to be a useful tool for radiation treatment planning verification 103 refs, 20 figs, 6 tabs

  16. A Monte Carlo-based treatment-planning tool for ion beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Böhlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Haberer, T; Parodi, K; Patera, V; Mairan, A

    2013-01-01

    Ion beam therapy, as an emerging radiation therapy modality, requires continuous efforts to develop and improve tools for patient treatment planning (TP) and research applications. Dose and fluence computation algorithms using the Monte Carlo (MC) technique have served for decades as reference tools for accurate dose computations for radiotherapy. In this work, a novel MC-based treatment-planning (MCTP) tool for ion beam therapy using the pencil beam scanning technique is presented. It allows single-field and simultaneous multiple-fields optimization for realistic patient treatment conditions and for dosimetric quality assurance for irradiation conditions at state-of-the-art ion beam therapy facilities. It employs iterative procedures that allow for the optimization of absorbed dose and relative biological effectiveness (RBE)-weighted dose using radiobiological input tables generated by external RBE models. Using a re-implementation of the local effect model (LEM), theMCTP tool is able to perform TP studies u...

  17. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Brain and hypophysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, S.; Assouline, A.; Mazeron, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Anticancer treatments-induced central nervous system neurotoxicity has become a major problem in recent years. Real advances in therapeutic results for cancer treatments have improved patients survival. Nowadays, central nervous system radiation therapy is widely prescribed, both for palliative and curative treatments in the management of malignant or benign tumors. Recent data on tolerance of normal central nervous system to radiation therapy are reviewed here, early and delayed radiation-induced effects are described and dose recommendations are suggested for clinical practice. (authors)

  18. A Monte Carlo code for ion beam therapy

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Initially developed for applications in detector and accelerator physics, the modern Fluka Monte Carlo code is now used in many different areas of nuclear science. Over the last 25 years, the code has evolved to include new features, such as ion beam simulations. Given the growing use of these beams in cancer treatment, Fluka simulations are being used to design treatment plans in several hadron-therapy centres in Europe.   Fluka calculates the dose distribution for a patient treated at CNAO with proton beams. The colour-bar displays the normalized dose values. Fluka is a Monte Carlo code that very accurately simulates electromagnetic and nuclear interactions in matter. In the 1990s, in collaboration with NASA, the code was developed to predict potential radiation hazards received by space crews during possible future trips to Mars. Over the years, it has become the standard tool to investigate beam-machine interactions, radiation damage and radioprotection issues in the CERN accelerator com...

  19. MOSFET dosimetry of the radiation therapy microbeams at the European synchrotron radiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, A.; Lerch, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: We have developed an innovative on-line MOSFET readout system for use in the quality assurance of radiation treatment beams. Recently the system has found application in areas where excellent spatial resolution is also a requirement in the quality assurance process, for example IMRT, and microbeam radiation therapy. The excellent spatial resolution is achieved by using a quadruple RADFET TM chip in 'edge on' mode. In developing this approach we have found that the system can be utilised to determine any error in the beam profile measurements due to misalignment of RADFET with respect to the radiation beam or microbeam. Using this approach will ensure that the excellent spatial resolution of the RADFET used in 'edge-on' mode is fully utilised. In this work we report on dosimetry measurements performed at the microbeam radiation therapy beamline located at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The synchrotron planar array microbeam with size 10-30 μm and pitch ∼200 μm has found an important application in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) of brain tumours in infants for whom other kinds of radiotherapy are inadequate and/or unsafe. The radiation damage from an array of parallel microbeams correlates strongly with the range of peak-valley dose ratios (PVDR), ie, the range of the ratio of the absorbed dose to tissue directly in line with the mid-plane of the microbeam to that in the mid-plane between adjacent microbeams. Novel physical dosimetry of the microbeams using the online MOSFET reader system will be presented. Comparison of the experimental results with both GaF film measurements and Monte Carlo computer-simulated dosimetry are described here for selected points in the peak and valley regions of a microbeam-irradiated tissue phantom

  20. Prognostic Value of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With Surgical Resection and Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Multicentric Long-Term Outcome Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Felipe A. [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Sole, Claudio V., E-mail: cvsole@uc.cl [Department of Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Cambeiro, Mauricio [Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Montero, Angel; Polo, Alfredo [Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, Carmen [School of Medicine, Complutense University, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Instituto de Radiomedicina, Santiago (Chile); Service of Radiation Oncology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain); Service of Radiation Oncology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); Cuervo, Miguel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, Madrid (Spain); San Julian, Mikel [Service of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Clínica Universitaria, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); and others

    2014-01-01

    Background: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy). Results: From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03). Conclusion: This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy.

  1. Prognostic Value of External Beam Radiation Therapy in Patients Treated With Surgical Resection and Intraoperative Electron Beam Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma: A Multicentric Long-Term Outcome Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Felipe A.; Sole, Claudio V.; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Montero, Angel; Polo, Alfredo; Gonzalez, Carmen; Cuervo, Miguel; San Julian, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Background: A joint analysis of data from centers involved in the Spanish Cooperative Initiative for Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy was performed to investigate long-term outcomes of locally recurrent soft tissue sarcoma (LR-STS) patients treated with a multidisciplinary approach. Methods and Materials: Patients with a histologic diagnosis of LR-STS (extremity, 43%; trunk wall, 24%; retroperitoneum, 33%) and no distant metastases who underwent radical surgery and intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT; median dose, 12.5 Gy) were considered eligible for participation in this study. In addition, 62% received external beam radiation therapy (EBRT; median dose, 50 Gy). Results: From 1986 to 2012, a total of 103 patients from 3 Spanish expert IOERT institutions were analyzed. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range, 2-311 months), 5-year local control (LC) was 60%. The 5-year IORT in-field control, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival were 73%, 43%, and 52%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, no EBRT to treat the LR-STS (P=.02) and microscopically involved margin resection status (P=.04) retained significance in relation to LC. With regard to IORT in-field control, only not delivering EBRT to the LR-STS retained significance in the multivariate analysis (P=.03). Conclusion: This joint analysis revealed that surgical margin and EBRT affect LC but that, given the high risk of distant metastases, DFS remains modest. Intensified local treatment needs to be further tested in the context of more efficient concurrent, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant systemic therapy

  2. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Bridget F; Lee, W Robert

    2013-07-01

    Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed prostate cancer, salvage treatment, or for palliation of advanced disease. Herein we briefly discuss the indications, results, and complications associated with brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy, when used as monotherapy and in combination with each other or androgen deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Just-in-time tomography (JiTT): a new concept for image-guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, G; Rowlands, J A

    2005-01-01

    Soft-tissue target motion is one of the main concerns in high-precision radiation therapy. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been developed recently to image soft-tissue targets in the treatment room and guide the radiation therapy treatment. However, due to its relatively long image acquisition time the CBCT approach cannot provide images of the target at the instant of the treatment and thus it is not adequate for imaging targets with intrafraction motion. In this note, a new approach for image-guided radiation therapy-just-in-time tomography (JiTT)-is proposed. Differing from CBCT, JiTT takes much less time to generate the needed tomographical, beam's-eye-view images of the treatment target at the right moment to guide the radiation therapy treatment. (note)

  4. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  5. The use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy photon beams for improving the dose uniformity of electron beams shaped with MLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalaei, Homeira; Karnas, Scott; Shah, Sheel; Van Doodewaard, Sharon; Foster, Tim; Chen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Electrons are ideal for treating shallow tumors and sparing adjacent normal tissue. Conventionally, electron beams are collimated by cut-outs that are time-consuming to make and difficult to adapt to tumor shape throughout the course of treatment. We propose that electron cut-outs can be replaced using photon multileaf collimator (MLC). Two major problems of this approach are that the scattering of electrons causes penumbra widening because of a large air gap, and available commercial treatment planning systems (TPSs) do not support MLC-collimated electron beams. In this study, these difficulties were overcome by (1) modeling electron beams collimated by photon MLC for a commercial TPS, and (2) developing a technique to reduce electron beam penumbra by adding low-energy intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) photons (4 MV). We used blocks to simulate MLC shielding in the TPS. Inverse planning was used to optimize boost photon beams. This technique was applied to a parotid and a central nervous system (CNS) clinical case. Combined photon and electron plans were compared with conventional plans and verified using ion chamber, film, and a 2D diode array. Our studies showed that the beam penumbra for mixed beams with 90 cm source to surface distance (SSD) is comparable with electron applicators and cut-outs at 100 cm SSD. Our mixed-beam technique yielded more uniform dose to the planning target volume and lower doses to various organs at risk for both parotid and CNS clinical cases. The plans were verified with measurements, with more than 95% points passing the gamma criteria of 5% in dose difference and 5 mm for distance to agreement. In conclusion, the study has demonstrated the feasibility and potential advantage of using photon MLC to collimate electron beams with boost photon IMRT fields. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PREFACE: 1st Nano-IBCT Conference 2011 - Radiation Damage of Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernd A.; Malot, Christiane; Domaracka, Alicja; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2012-07-01

    The 1st Nano-IBCT Conference entitled 'Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems: Nanoscale Insights into Ion Beam Cancer Therapy' was held in Caen, France, in October 2011. The Meeting was organised in the framework of the COST Action MP1002 (Nano-IBCT) which was launched in December 2010 (http://fias.uni-frankfurt.de/nano-ibct). This action aims to promote the understanding of mechanisms and processes underlying the radiation damage of biomolecular systems at the molecular and nanoscopic level and to use the findings to improve the strategy of Ion Beam Cancer Therapy. In the hope of achieving this, participants from different disciplines were invited to represent the fields of physics, biology, medicine and chemistry, and also included those from industry and the operators of hadron therapy centres. Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal healthy tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. Several ion beam cancer therapy clinical centres are now operating in Europe and elsewhere. However, the full potential of such therapy can only be exploited by better understanding the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that lead to cell death under ion irradiation. Considering a range of spatio-temporal scales, the proposed action therefore aims to combine the unique experimental and theoretical expertise available within Europe to acquire greater insight at the nanoscopic and molecular level into radiation damage induced by ion impact. Success in this endeavour will be both an important scientific breakthrough and give great impetus to the practical improvement of this innovative therapeutic technique. Ion therapy potentially provides an important advance in cancer therapy and the COST action MP1002 will be very significant in ensuring Europe's leadership in this field, providing the scientific background, required data and mechanistic insight which

  7. SU-F-J-202: Secondary Radiation Measurements for Charged Particle Therapy Monitoring: Fragmentation of Therapeutic He, C and O Ion Beams Impinging On a PMMA Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rucinski, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Paramatti, R; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Voena, C [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Rome, Rome (Italy); Battistoni, G; Muraro, S [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Milano, Milano, Milano (Italy); Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Camillocci, E Solfaroli [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Italy, Dipartiment, Rome, Rome (Italy); Collini, F [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Pisa, Pisa, Pisa (Italy); De Lucia, E; Piersanti, L; Toppi, M [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (rome), Rome (Italy); Frallicciardi, P [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche E. Fermi, Rome, Rome (Italy); Marafini, M [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Museo Storico dell, Rome, Rome (Italy); Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Traini, G [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Sc, Rome, Rome (Italy); and others

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here. Methods: We present the measurements of the secondary radiation generated by He, C and O beams impinging on a beam stopping PMMA target. The data has been collected at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy center (HIT), where several millions of collisions were recorded at different energies, relevant for therapeutical applications. Results: The experimental setup, as well as the analysis strategies will be reviewed. The detected particle fluxes as a function of the primary beam energy and the emission angle with respect to the beam direction will be presented and compared to the results of other available measurements. In addition, the energy spectra and emission shapes of charged secondary particles will be shown and discussed in the context of the primary beam range monitoring technique that is being developed by the ARPG collaboration, within the INSIDE project funded by the Italian research ministry. The implications for dose monitoring applications will be discussed, in the context of the current (or planned) state-of- the-art detector solutions. Conclusion: The characterization of the radiation produced by 12C, 4He and 16O beams fully supports the feasibility of on-line range monitoring in the clinical practice of CPT by means of secondary particles detection.

  8. SU-F-J-202: Secondary Radiation Measurements for Charged Particle Therapy Monitoring: Fragmentation of Therapeutic He, C and O Ion Beams Impinging On a PMMA Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, A; Mancini-Terracciano, C; Paramatti, R; Pinci, D; Russomando, A; Voena, C; Battistoni, G; Muraro, S; Collamati, F; Faccini, R; Camillocci, E Solfaroli; Collini, F; De Lucia, E; Piersanti, L; Toppi, M; Frallicciardi, P; Marafini, M; Patera, V; Sciubba, A; Traini, G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In Charged Particle Therapy (CPT), besides protons, there has been recently a growing interest in 4He, 12C and 16O beams. The secondary radiation produced in the interaction of those beams with a patient could be potentially used for on-line monitoring of range uncertainties in order to fully exploit the advantages of those light ions resulting from increased Radio Biological Effectiveness, reduced multiple scattering and Oxygen Enhancement Ratio. The study and precise characterization of secondary radiation (beta+, prompt gamma, charged fragments) is the cornerstone of any R&D activity aiming for online monitoring development and purpose of the analysis presented here. Methods: We present the measurements of the secondary radiation generated by He, C and O beams impinging on a beam stopping PMMA target. The data has been collected at the Heidelberg Ionbeam Therapy center (HIT), where several millions of collisions were recorded at different energies, relevant for therapeutical applications. Results: The experimental setup, as well as the analysis strategies will be reviewed. The detected particle fluxes as a function of the primary beam energy and the emission angle with respect to the beam direction will be presented and compared to the results of other available measurements. In addition, the energy spectra and emission shapes of charged secondary particles will be shown and discussed in the context of the primary beam range monitoring technique that is being developed by the ARPG collaboration, within the INSIDE project funded by the Italian research ministry. The implications for dose monitoring applications will be discussed, in the context of the current (or planned) state-of- the-art detector solutions. Conclusion: The characterization of the radiation produced by 12C, 4He and 16O beams fully supports the feasibility of on-line range monitoring in the clinical practice of CPT by means of secondary particles detection.

  9. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance pO2 Image Tumor Oxygen-Guided Radiation Therapy Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epel, Boris; Maggio, Matt; Pelizzari, Charles; Halpern, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Modern standards for radiation treatment do not take into account tumor oxygenation for radiation treatment planning. Strong correlation between tumor oxygenation and radiation treatment success suggests that oxygen-guided radiation therapy (OGRT) may be a promising enhancement of cancer radiation treatment. We have developed an OGRT protocol for rodents. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging is used for recording oxygen maps with high spatial resolution and excellent accuracy better than 1 torr. Radiation is delivered with an animal intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) XRAD225Cx micro-CT/ therapy system. The radiation plan is delivered in two steps. First, a uniform 15% tumor control dose (TCD 15 ) is delivered to the whole tumor. In the second step, an additional booster dose amounting to the difference between TCD 98 and TCD 15 is delivered to radio-resistant, hypoxic tumor regions. Delivery of the booster dose is performed using a multiport conformal beam protocol. For radiation beam shaping we used individual radiation blocks 3D-printed from tungsten infused ABS polymer. Calculation of beam geometry and the production of blocks is performed next to the EPR imager, immediately after oxygen imaging. Preliminary results demonstrate the sub-millimeter precision of the radiation delivery and high dose accuracy. The efficacy of the radiation treatment is currently being tested on syngeneic FSa fibrosarcoma tumors grown in the legs of C3H mice.

  10. Intraoperative electron beam radiation therapy: technique, dosimetry, and dose specification: report of task force 48 of the radiation therapy committee, American association of physicists in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palta, Jatinder R.; Biggs, Peter J.; Hazle, John D.; Huq, M. Saiful; Dahl, Robert A.; Ochran, Timothy G.; Soen, Jerry; Dobelbower, Ralph R.; McCullough, Edwin C.

    1995-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is a treatment modality whereby a large single dose of radiation is delivered to a surgically open, exposed cancer site. Typically, a beam of megavoltage electrons is directed at an exposed tumor or tumor bed through a specially designed applicator system. In the last few years, IORT facilities have proliferated around the world. The IORT technique and the applicator systems used at these facilities vary greatly in sophistication and design philosophy. The IORT beam characteristics vary for different designs of applicator systems. It is necessary to document the existing techniques of IORT, to detail the dosimetry data required for accurate delivery of the prescribed dose, and to have a uniform method of dose specification for cooperative clinical trials. The specific charge to the task group includes the following: (a) identify the multidisciplinary IORT team, (b) outline special considerations that must be addressed by an IORT program, (c) review currently available IORT techniques, (d) describe dosimetric measurements necessary for accurate delivery of prescribed dose, (e) describe dosimetric measurements necessary in documenting doses to the surrounding normal tissues, (f) recommend quality assurance procedures for IORT, (g) review methods of treatment documentation and verification, and (h) recommend methods of dose specification and recording for cooperative clinical trials

  11. SU-F-T-232: Monthly Quality Assurance in External Beam Radiation Therapy Using a Single System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ji, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, The First Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Iordachita, I [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Velarde, E; Hyatt, J; Wong, J

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Monthly quality assurance (QA) is time consuming for external beam radiation therapy, taking as long as 6–8 hours for each machine. It is due to the use and setup of multiple devices for different QA procedures. We have developed a single system with rotational capability for the measurement of both optical light and radiation which significantly reduces the time spent on Monthly QA. Methods: A single system using mirrors, a phosphor screen and a CCD camera is housed on a cylindrical motor so that it can rotate 360 degrees. For monthly QA, the system is placed on the patient couch of the medical accelerator with the plane of the phosphor screen at isocenter for all measurements. For optical QA such as optical distance indicator, room laser and light field, the optical image is collected directly with the camera. For radiation QA such as beam profile, MLC speed, picket-fence test, collimator rotation, table rotation and gantry rotation, a brass build-up plate is attached to the top of the phosphor screen. Two brass plates with islands of different thickness were designed for photon energy and electron energy constancy checks. Flex map, distortion map and uniformity map were developed to calibrate the motor bearing, camera/lens distortion, and the phosphor screen’s measured response across the field. Results: Following the TG142 guidelines for monthly QA with our system, the overall run time is reduced from 6–8 hours to 1.5 hours. Our system’s rotating design allows for quick testing of the gantry radiation isocenter test that is also independent of the sag of the gantry and the EPID. Conclusion: Our system significantly shortens the time needed for monthly QA by unifying the tests with a single system. Future work will be focused on extending the technology to Brachytherapy, IMRT and proton therapy QAs. This work is funded in part by a sponsor research grant from JPLC who owns the Raven technology. John Wong is a co-founder of JPLC.

  12. SU-F-T-232: Monthly Quality Assurance in External Beam Radiation Therapy Using a Single System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, K; Ji, T; Iordachita, I; Velarde, E; Hyatt, J; Wong, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Monthly quality assurance (QA) is time consuming for external beam radiation therapy, taking as long as 6–8 hours for each machine. It is due to the use and setup of multiple devices for different QA procedures. We have developed a single system with rotational capability for the measurement of both optical light and radiation which significantly reduces the time spent on Monthly QA. Methods: A single system using mirrors, a phosphor screen and a CCD camera is housed on a cylindrical motor so that it can rotate 360 degrees. For monthly QA, the system is placed on the patient couch of the medical accelerator with the plane of the phosphor screen at isocenter for all measurements. For optical QA such as optical distance indicator, room laser and light field, the optical image is collected directly with the camera. For radiation QA such as beam profile, MLC speed, picket-fence test, collimator rotation, table rotation and gantry rotation, a brass build-up plate is attached to the top of the phosphor screen. Two brass plates with islands of different thickness were designed for photon energy and electron energy constancy checks. Flex map, distortion map and uniformity map were developed to calibrate the motor bearing, camera/lens distortion, and the phosphor screen’s measured response across the field. Results: Following the TG142 guidelines for monthly QA with our system, the overall run time is reduced from 6–8 hours to 1.5 hours. Our system’s rotating design allows for quick testing of the gantry radiation isocenter test that is also independent of the sag of the gantry and the EPID. Conclusion: Our system significantly shortens the time needed for monthly QA by unifying the tests with a single system. Future work will be focused on extending the technology to Brachytherapy, IMRT and proton therapy QAs. This work is funded in part by a sponsor research grant from JPLC who owns the Raven technology. John Wong is a co-founder of JPLC.

  13. Just-in-time tomography (JiTT): a new concept for image-guided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, G; Rowlands, J A [Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Centre, 2075 Bayview Avenue, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada); Imaging Research, Sunnybrook and Women' s College Health Sciences Centre, Departments of Radiation Oncology and Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-11-07

    Soft-tissue target motion is one of the main concerns in high-precision radiation therapy. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has been developed recently to image soft-tissue targets in the treatment room and guide the radiation therapy treatment. However, due to its relatively long image acquisition time the CBCT approach cannot provide images of the target at the instant of the treatment and thus it is not adequate for imaging targets with intrafraction motion. In this note, a new approach for image-guided radiation therapy-just-in-time tomography (JiTT)-is proposed. Differing from CBCT, JiTT takes much less time to generate the needed tomographical, beam's-eye-view images of the treatment target at the right moment to guide the radiation therapy treatment. (note)

  14. Quasi-VMAT in high-grade glioma radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadda, G.; Massazza, G.; Zucca, S.; Durzu, S.; Meleddu, G.; Possanzini, M.; Farace, P. [Regional Oncological Hospital, Cagliari (Italy). Dept. of Radio-Oncology

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: To compare a quasi-volumetric modulated arc therapy (qVMAT) with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT technique is a fast method of radiation therapy in which multiple equispaced beams analogous to those in rotation therapy are radiated in succession. Patients and methods: This study included 12 patients with a planning target volume (PTV) that overlapped at least one organ at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT was planned using 2-3 non-coplanar beams, whereby the field-in-field technique (FIF) was used to divide each field into 1-3 subfields to shield the OAR. The qVMAT strategy was planned with 15 equispaced beams and IMRT was planned using 9 beams with a total of 80 segments. Inverse planning for qVMAT and IMRT was performed by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) to deliver a homogenous dose distribution of 60 Gy within the PTV and simultaneously limit the dose received by the OARs to the recommended values. Finally, the effect of introducing a maximum dose objective (max. dose < 54 Gy) for a virtual OAR in the form of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV was investigated. Results: The qVMAT method gave rise to significantly improved PTV{sub 95%} and conformity index (CI) values in comparison to 3D-CRT (PTV{sub 95%} = 90.7 % vs. 82.0 %; CI = 0.79 vs. 0.74, respectively). A further improvement was achieved by IMRT (PTV{sub 95%} = 94.4 %, CI = 0.78). In qVMAT and IMRT, the addition of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV produced a significant increase in CI (0.87 and 0.88, respectively), but dosage homogeneity within the PTV was considerably reduced (PTV{sub 95%} = 88.5 % and 92.3 %, respectively). The time required for qVMAT dose delivery was similar to that required using 3D-CRT. Conclusion: These findings suggest that qVMAT should be preferred to 3D-CRT for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT method could be applied in hospitals, for example

  15. Can We Advance Proton Therapy for Prostate? Considering Alternative Beam Angles and Relative Biological Effectiveness Variations When Comparing Against Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, Tracy, E-mail: tunderwood@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Giantsoudi, Drosoula; Moteabbed, Maryam; Zietman, Anthony; Efstathiou, Jason; Paganetti, Harald; Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: For prostate treatments, robust evidence regarding the superiority of either intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or proton therapy is currently lacking. In this study we investigated the circumstances under which proton therapy should be expected to outperform IMRT, particularly the proton beam orientations and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) assumptions. Methods and Materials: For 8 patients, 4 treatment planning strategies were considered: (A) IMRT; (B) passively scattered standard bilateral (SB) proton beams; (C) passively scattered anterior oblique (AO) proton beams, and (D) AO intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). For modalities (B)-(D) the dose and linear energy transfer (LET) distributions were simulated using the TOPAS Monte Carlo platform and RBE was calculated according to 3 different models. Results: Assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1, our implementation of IMRT outperformed SB proton therapy across most normal tissue metrics. For the scattered AO proton plans, application of the variable RBE models resulted in substantial hotspots in rectal RBE weighted dose. For AO IMPT, it was typically not possible to find a plan that simultaneously met the tumor and rectal constraints for both fixed and variable RBE models. Conclusion: If either a fixed RBE of 1.1 or a variable RBE model could be validated in vivo, then it would always be possible to use AO IMPT to dose-boost the prostate and improve normal tissue sparing relative to IMRT. For a cohort without rectum spacer gels, this study (1) underlines the importance of resolving the question of proton RBE within the framework of an IMRT versus proton debate for the prostate and (2) highlights that without further LET/RBE model validation, great care must be taken if AO proton fields are to be considered for prostate treatments.

  16. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohammad; Anbiaei, Robabeh; Zamani, Hanie; Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Ameri, Ahmad; Emami-Ardekani, Alireza; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Seid Ratki, Kazem Razavi; Roknabadi, Alireza Momen

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right-sided cancer. To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring) were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT) to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions) over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol) was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed) and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls)] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH) [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46). In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03) and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049) walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS) of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%), while in five of the controls (13.9%),(Odds ratio=1.3). There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. The risk of radiation induced myocardial perfusion abnormality in patients treated with CRT on the

  17. Relationships between cone beam CT value and physical density in image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaoqin; Bai Sen; Zhong Renming; Tang Zhiquan; Jiang Qinfeng; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the main factors affecting the relationship between physical density and CT value in cone-beam computed tomography(CBCT) for imaging guided radiation therapy(IGRT) by comparing the CT value in the image from cone-beam scanner and from fan-beam (FBCT) scanner of a reference phantom. Methods: A taking-park reference phantom with a set of tissue equivalent inserts was scanned at different energies different fields of view (FOV) for IGRT-CBCT and FBCT. The CT value of every insert was measured and compared. Results: The position of inserts in phantom, the size of phantom, the FOV of scanner and different energies had more effect on the relationships between physical density and the CT value from IGRT-CBCT than those from the normal FBCT. The higher the energy was, the less effect of the position of inserts in phantom, the size of phantom and the FOV of scanner on CT value, and the poorer density contrast was observed. Conclusion: At present, the CT value of IGRT-CBCT is not in the true HU value since the manufacturer has not corrected its number. Therefore, we are not able to use the CT value of CBCT for dose calculation in TPS. (authors)

  18. Radiation Therapy for Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishan, Amar U. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Modjtahedi, Bobeck S.; Morse, Lawrence S. [Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California (United States); Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In the enormity of the public health burden imposed by age-related macular degeneration (ARMD), much effort has been directed toward identifying effective and efficient treatments. Currently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections have demonstrated considerably efficacy in treating neovascular ARMD, but patients require frequent treatment to fully benefit. Here, we review the rationale and evidence for radiation therapy of ARMD. The results of early photon external beam radiation therapy are included to provide a framework for the sequential discussion of evidence for the usage of stereotactic radiation therapy, proton therapy, and brachytherapy. The evidence suggests that these 3 modern modalities can provide a dose-dependent benefit in the treatment of ARMD. Most importantly, preliminary data suggest that all 3 can be used in conjunction with anti-VEGF therapeutics, thereby reducing the frequency of anti-VEGF injections required to maintain visual acuity.

  19. Dose Recalculation and the Dose-Guided Radiation Therapy (DGRT) Process Using Megavoltage Cone-Beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Joey; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Yom, Sue S.; Gottschalk, Alexander R.; Celi, Juan Carlos; Pouliot, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: At University of California San Francisco, daily or weekly three-dimensional images of patients in treatment position are acquired for image-guided radiation therapy. These images can be used for calculating the actual dose delivered to the patient during treatment. In this article, we present the process of performing dose recalculation on megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography images and discuss possible strategies for dose-guided radiation therapy (DGRT). Materials and Methods: A dedicated workstation has been developed to incorporate the necessary elements of DGRT. Patient image correction (cupping, missing data artifacts), calibration, completion, recontouring, and dose recalculation are all implemented in the workstation. Tools for dose comparison are also included. Examples of image correction and dose analysis using 6 head-and-neck and 2 prostate patient datasets are presented to show possible tracking of interfraction dosimetric endpoint variation over the course of treatment. Results: Analysis of the head-and-neck datasets shows that interfraction treatment doses vary compared with the planning dose for the organs at risk, with the mean parotid dose and spinal cord D 1 increasing by as much as 52% and 10%, respectively. Variation of the coverage to the target volumes was small, with an average D 5 dose difference of 1%. The prostate patient datasets revealed accurate dose coverage to the targeted prostate and varying interfraction dose distributions to the organs at risk. Conclusions: An effective workflow for the clinical implementation of DGRT has been established. With these techniques in place, future clinical developments in adaptive radiation therapy through daily or weekly dosimetric measurements of treatment day images are possible.

  20. Impact of cradle immobilization on setup reproducibility during external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentel, Gunilla C.; Marks, Lawrence B.; Krishnamurthy, Rupa

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the setup accuracy during fractionated radiation therapy for two patient groups with lung cancer treated with and without an immobilization cradle. Methods: Three hundred ninety-seven port films from 30 patients immobilized in the Alpha Cradle TM1 were compared with 329 port films from 30 patients who were not immobilized with the cradle. All patients were treated with curative intent for nonmetastatic lung cancer. The frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts were compared in the two groups using a two-tailed chi-square test. Initial port films taken on the first day of treatment, routine films taken usually weekly during radiation therapy, and requested films taken after a requested shift were considered separately. The immobilization device consisted of a custom-made foam cradle that extended from above the head to the knees. Patients were generally treated with their arms above their heads, and treatment setup marks in the immobilized patients were placed on both the patients' skin and the immobilization cradle. For the noncradle patients, setup marks were placed only on the patients' skin. Results: For the routine films, the frequency of physician-requested isocenter shifts was lower in immobilized patients than in the nonimmobilized group (p = 0.139). Most of this reduction was seen on oblique fields (p = 0.038). No benefits were seen among initial or requested films. The two groups were well balanced with regard to stage, age, field size, and total dose. Conclusions: The use of aggressive immobilization improves the setup reproducibility in patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for lung cancer, especially during treatment with oblique fields. This improvement in treatment accuracy might improve the therapeutic ratio

  1. A NOVEL, REMOVABLE, CERROBEND, BEAM-BLOCKING DEVICE FOR RADIATION THERAPY OF THE CANINE HEAD AND NECK: PILOT STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael S; Berlato, Davide; Vanhaezebrouck, Isabelle; Gordon, Ira K; Hansen, Katherine S; Theon, Alain P; Holt, Randall W; Trestrail, Earl A

    2017-01-01

    Radiation therapy of the head and neck can result in mucositis and other acute affects in the oral cavity. This prospective pilot study evaluated a novel, intraoral, beam-blocking device for use during imaging and therapeutic procedures. The beam-blocking device was made from a metal alloy inserted into a coated frozen dessert mold (Popsicle® Mold, Cost Plus World Market, Oakland, CA). The device was designed so that it could be inserted into an outer shell, which in turn allowed it to be placed or removed depending on the need due to beam configuration. A Farmer type ionization chamber and virtual water phantom were used to assess effects of field size on transmission. Six large breed cadaver dogs, donated by the owner after death, were recruited for the study. Delivered dose at the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the device, with and without the alloy block in place, were measured using radiochromic film. It was determined that transmission was field size dependent with larger field sizes leading to decreased attenuation of the beam, likely secondary to scatter. The mean and median transmission on the ventral surface without the beam-blocking device was 0.94 [range 0.94-0.96]. The mean and median transmission with the beam-blocking device was 0.52 [range 0.50-0.57]. The mean and median increase in dose due to backscatter on the dorsal surface of the beam-blocking device was 0.04 [range 0.02-0.04]. Findings indicated that this novel device can help attenuate radiation dose ventral to the block in dogs, with minimal backscatter. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  2. Cutaneous complication after electron beam therapy in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalilian

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and the second cause of death among them. There are several treatment methods for breast cancer, one of which is radiation therapy. There are two important methods of radiation therapy: tangential field and single oppositional field. Main goal of this study is evaluation of factors that have a role in producing acute side effects such as skin burning in breast cancer patients treated by electron beam,in order to decrease these side effects. Methods: From 1/2003 through 7/2004, 200 consecutive patients were evaluated during 18 months in seid-al-shohad hospital, whose mean age was 49 years old. In this study a questionnaire was used including some questions about personal profile such as patient's name, address, registration number, age and some other factors. All patients who were candidated to enter in this investigation filled out the questionnaire at the end of radiation therapy. The patients were examined and their skin burning grades were evaluated by RTOG scale. Data were analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 11 software. Results: None of patients showed grades O or 4 of burning. 31.5 % of Patients showed grade 1, 64.5 % showed grade 2, 4 % showed grade 3 of burning. There was statistically significant correlation between posterior axillary field and skin burning and there wasnot any meaning between the other factors. Conclusion: It is necessary to pay more attention to posterior axillary field planning including field size, location, photon energy, depth and dose of treatment. Keywords: breast cancer, electron beam radiation therapy, skin burning

  3. Proton beam therapy: reliability of the synchrocyclotron at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisterson, J.M.; Cascio, E.; Koehler, A.M.; Johnson, K.N.

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of the synchrocyclotron at Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory has been studied over the period 1980-1989 to see if proton beam therapy can compare in reliability to linear accelerators used in radiation therapy departments. Breakdowns in relation to patient load are reviewed in outline. (U.K.)

  4. SU-F-T-137: Out-Of-Beam Dose for a Compact Double-Scattering Proton Beam Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, M; Ahmad, S; Jin, H [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The out-of-beam dose is important for understanding the peripheral dose in radiation therapy. In proton radiotherapy, the study of out-of-beam dose is scarce and the treatment planning system (TPS) based on pencil beam algorithm cannot accurately predict the out-of-beam dose. This study investigates the out-of-beam dose for the single-room Mevion S250 double scattering proton therapy system using experimentally measured and treatment planning software generated data. The results are compared with those reported for conventional photon beam therapy. However, this study does not incorporate the neutron contribution in the scattered dose. Methods: A total of seven proton treatment plans were generated using Varian Eclipse TPS for three different sites (brain, lung, and pelvis) in an anthropomorphic phantom. Three field sizes of 5×5, 10×10, and 20×20 cm{sup 2} (lung only) with typical clinical range (13.3–22.8 g/cm{sup 2}) and modulation widths (5.3–14.0 g/cm{sup 2}) were used. A single beam was employed in each treatment plan to deliver a dose of 181.8 cGy (200.0 cGy (RBE)) to the selected target. The out-of-beam dose was measured at 2.0, 5.0, 10.0, and 15.0 cm from the beam edge in the phantom using a thimble chamber (PTW TN31010). Results: The out-of-beam dose generally increased with field size, range, and volume irradiated. For all the plans, the scattered dose sharply fell off with distance. At 2.0 cm, the out-of-beam dose ranged from 0.35% to 2.16% of the delivered dose; however, the dose was clinically negligible (<0.3%) at a distance of 5.0 cm and greater. In photon therapy, the slightly greater out-of-beam dose was reported (TG36; 4%, 2%, and 1% for 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 cm, respectively, using 6 MV beam). Conclusion: The measured out-of-beam dose in proton therapy excluding neutron contribution was observed higher than the TPS calculated dose and comparable to that of photon beam therapy.

  5. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginot, A.; Doyen, J.; Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Courdi, A.

    2010-01-01

    Acute skin toxicity is frequent during radiation therapy and can lead to temporary arrest of the treatment. Chronic toxicity can occur and conduct to cosmetic problems. Alopecia is the most frequent toxicity concerning hair and is most of the time reversible. Several factors linked to patients influence skin toxicity, such as under-nutrition, old age, obesity, smoking, skin diseases, autoimmune diseases, failure of DNA reparation. Skin, hair and nail toxicities depend also on radiation schedule. Acute toxicity is greater when dose per fraction increases. Chronic and acute toxicities are more often when total dose increases. Under 45 Gy, the risk of severe skin toxicity is low, and begins above 50 Gy. Skin toxicity depends also on the duration of radiotherapy and split course schedules are associated with less toxicities. Irradiation surface seems to influence skin toxicity but interaction is more complex. Reirradiation is often feasible in case of cancer recurrence but with a risk of grade 3-4 toxicity above all in head and neck cancer. The benefit/risk ratio has to be always precisely evaluated. Permanent alopecia is correlated with the follicle dose. Modern techniques of radiation therapy allow to spare skin. (authors)

  6. Radiation-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities in breast cancer patients following external beam radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Eftekhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Radiation therapy for breast cancer can induce myocardial capillary injury and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A prospective cohort was conducted to study the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities following radiation therapy of left-sided breast cancer patients as compared to those with right–sided cancer. Methods: To minimize potential confounding factors, only those patients with low 10-year risk of coronary artery disease (based on Framingham risk scoring were included. All patients were initially treated by modified radical mastectomy and then were managed by postoperative 3D Conformal Radiation Therapy (CRT to the surgical bed with an additional 1-cm margin, delivered by 46-50 Gy (in 2 Gy daily fractions over a 5-week course. The same dose-adjusted chemotherapy regimen (including anthracyclines, cyclophosphamide and taxol was given to all patients. Six months after radiation therapy, all patients underwent cardiac SPECT for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. Results: A total of 71 patients with a mean age of 45.3±7.2 years [35 patients with leftsided breast cancer (exposed and 36 patients with right-sided cancer (controls] were enrolled. Dose-volume histogram (DVH [showing the percentage of the heart exposed to >50% of radiation] was significantly higher in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Visual interpretation detected perfusion abnormalities in 42.9% of cases and 16.7% of controls (P=0.02, Odds ratio=1.46. In semiquantitative segmental analysis, only apical (28.6% versus 8.3%, P=0.03 and anterolateral (17.1% versus 2.8%, P=0.049 walls showed significantly reduced myocardial perfusion in the exposed group. Summed Stress Score (SSS of>3 was observed in twelve cases (34.3%, while in five of the controls (13.9%,(Odds ratio=1.3. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusion: The risk of radiation induced myocardial

  7. Optimal starting gantry angles using equiangular-spaced beams with intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer on RTOG 0126: A clinical study of 5 and 7 fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potrebko, Peter S.; McCurdy, Boyd M.C.; Butler, James B.; El-Gubtan, Adel S.; Nugent, Zoann

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To investigate the effects of starting gantry angle and number of equiangular-spaced beams for prostate cancer radiotherapy on the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0126 protocol using intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Materials and methods: Ten localized prostate cancer patients were prescribed to 79.2 Gy in 44 fractions. Static IMRT plans using five and seven equiangular-spaced beams were generated. The starting gantry angles were incremented by 5 o resulting in 15 (5 beams) and 11 (7 beams) plans per patient. Constant target coverage was ensured for all plans in order to isolate the variation in the rectal and bladder metrics as a function of starting gantry angle. Results: The variation with starting gantry angle in rectal metrics using 5 beams was statistically significant (p o and 50 o . Statistically insignificant differences were observed for the bladder metrics using 5 beams. There was little dosimetric variation in the rectal and bladder metrics with 7 beams. Nearly equivalent rectal V 75 Gy was achieved between 5 optimal equiangular-spaced beams starting at 20 o (class solution) and 7 equiangular-spaced beams starting at 0 o for most patients. Conclusions: The use of an optimal starting gantry angle for 5 equiangular-spaced beams, as indicated by a class solution in this study, will facilitate rectal sparing and can produce plans that are equivalent to those employing 7 equiangular-spaced beams

  8. Statistical modeling of the eye for multimodal treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Pica, Alessia; Amstutz, Christoph A; Rudolph, Tobias; Aebersold, Daniel; Kowal, Jens H

    2012-11-15

    Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95%±2% for the sclera and cornea and 91%±2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3±0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14±2 s on a standard personal computer. Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Statistical Modeling of the Eye for Multimodal Treatment Planning for External Beam Radiation Therapy of Intraocular Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueegsegger, Michael B. [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Bach Cuadra, Meritxell [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Center (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Signal Processing Laboratory - LTS5, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Amstutz, Christoph A. [Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Rudolph, Tobias [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland); Aebersold, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, and University of Bern (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H., E-mail: jens.kowal@artorg.unibe.ch [ARTORG Center for Biomedical Engineering Research, University of Bern (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Ocular anatomy and radiation-associated toxicities provide unique challenges for external beam radiation therapy. For treatment planning, precise modeling of organs at risk and tumor volume are crucial. Development of a precise eye model and automatic adaptation of this model to patients' anatomy remain problematic because of organ shape variability. This work introduces the application of a 3-dimensional (3D) statistical shape model as a novel method for precise eye modeling for external beam radiation therapy of intraocular tumors. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentations were compared for 17 patients, based on head computed tomography (CT) volume scans. A 3D statistical shape model of the cornea, lens, and sclera as well as of the optic disc position was developed. Furthermore, an active shape model was built to enable automatic fitting of the eye model to CT slice stacks. Cross-validation was performed based on leave-one-out tests for all training shapes by measuring dice coefficients and mean segmentation errors between automatic segmentation and manual segmentation by an expert. Results: Cross-validation revealed a dice similarity of 95% {+-} 2% for the sclera and cornea and 91% {+-} 2% for the lens. Overall, mean segmentation error was found to be 0.3 {+-} 0.1 mm. Average segmentation time was 14 {+-} 2 s on a standard personal computer. Conclusions: Our results show that the solution presented outperforms state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy, reliability, and robustness. Moreover, the eye model shape as well as its variability is learned from a training set rather than by making shape assumptions (eg, as with the spherical or elliptical model). Therefore, the model appears to be capable of modeling nonspherically and nonelliptically shaped eyes.

  10. MO-A-BRB-01: Review of TG-262 Internal Survey of Practices in EMR for External Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechalakos, J.

    2015-01-01

    The process of converting to an electronic chart for radiation therapy can be daunting. It requires a dedicated committee to first research and choose appropriate software, to review the entire documentation policy and flow of the clinic, to convert this system to electronic form or if necessary, redesign the system to more easily conform to the electronic process. Those making the conversion and those who already use electronic charting would benefit from the shared experience of those who have been through the process in the past. Therefore TG262 was convened to provide guidance on electronic charting for external beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. This course will present the results of an internal survey of task group members on EMR practices in External Beam Radiation Therapy as well as discuss important issues in EMR development and structure for both EBRT and brachytherapy. Learning Objectives: Be familiarized with common practices and pitfalls in development and maintenance of an electronic chart in Radiation Oncology Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in External Beam Radiation Therapy Be familiarized with important issues related to electronic charting in Brachytherapy

  11. A set cover approach to fast beam orientation optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy for total marrow irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chieh-Hsiu Jason; Aleman, Dionne M; Sharpe, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    The beam orientation optimization (BOO) problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is a nonlinear problem, and existing methods to obtain solutions to the BOO problem are time consuming due to the complex nature of the objective function and size of the solution space. These issues become even more difficult in total marrow irradiation (TMI), where many more beams must be used to cover a vastly larger treatment area than typical site-specific treatments (e.g., head-and-neck, prostate, etc). These complications result in excessively long computation times to develop IMRT treatment plans for TMI, so we attempt to develop methods that drastically reduce treatment planning time. We transform the BOO problem into the classical set cover problem (SCP) and use existing methods to solve SCP to obtain beam solutions. Although SCP is NP-Hard, our methods obtain beam solutions that result in quality treatments in minutes. We compare our approach to an integer programming solver for the SCP to illustrate the speed advantage of our approach.

  12. A set cover approach to fast beam orientation optimization in intensity modulated radiation therapy for total marrow irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chieh-Hsiu Jason; Aleman, Dionne M [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada); Sharpe, Michael B, E-mail: chjlee@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: aleman@mie.utoronto.ca, E-mail: michael.sharpe@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, 610 University Avenue, Toronto, ON M5G 2M9 (Canada)

    2011-09-07

    The beam orientation optimization (BOO) problem in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is a nonlinear problem, and existing methods to obtain solutions to the BOO problem are time consuming due to the complex nature of the objective function and size of the solution space. These issues become even more difficult in total marrow irradiation (TMI), where many more beams must be used to cover a vastly larger treatment area than typical site-specific treatments (e.g., head-and-neck, prostate, etc). These complications result in excessively long computation times to develop IMRT treatment plans for TMI, so we attempt to develop methods that drastically reduce treatment planning time. We transform the BOO problem into the classical set cover problem (SCP) and use existing methods to solve SCP to obtain beam solutions. Although SCP is NP-Hard, our methods obtain beam solutions that result in quality treatments in minutes. We compare our approach to an integer programming solver for the SCP to illustrate the speed advantage of our approach.

  13. Proton-Beam Therapy for Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Ogino, Takashi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Nihei, Keiji; Arahira, Satoko; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Katsuta, Shoichi; Nishio, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established. Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs. Proton-beam therapy can provide better dose distribution compared with X-ray irradiation because of its physical characteristics, and is deemed to be a feasible treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005. A total dose of PBT was 65 cobalt Gray equivalents (Gy E ), with 2.5-Gy E once-daily fractionations. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 40 months. One patient died from disseminated disease. There were two persistent diseases, one of which was successfully salvaged with surgery. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93%, the 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 84%, and the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 71%. Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base). Most patients experienced Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis in the acute phase. No other adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed according to the RTOG/EORTC acute and late morbidity scoring system. Conclusions: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects. Proton-beam therapy is considered a safe and effective modality that warrants further study

  14. Brain tumors and synchrotron radiation: Methodological developments in quantitative brain perfusion imaging and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Jean-Francois

    2005-01-01

    High-grade gliomas are the most frequent type of primary brain tumors in adults. Unfortunately, the management of glioblastomas is still mainly palliative and remains a difficult challenge, despite advances in brain tumor molecular biology and in some emerging therapies. Synchrotron radiation opens fields for medical imaging and radiation therapy by using monochromatic intense x-ray beams. It is now well known that angiogenesis plays a critical role in the tumor growth process and that brain perfusion is representative of the tumor mitotic activity. Synchrotron radiation quantitative computed tomography (SRCT) is one of the most accurate techniques for measuring in vivo contrast agent concentration and thus computing precise and accurate absolute values of the brain perfusion key parameters. The methodological developments of SRCT absolute brain perfusion measurements as well as their preclinical validation are detailed in this thesis. In particular, absolute cerebral volume and blood brain barrier permeability high-resolution (pixel size 2 ) parametric maps were reported. In conventional radiotherapy, the treatment of these tumors remains a delicate challenge, because the damages to the surrounding normal brain tissue limit the amount of radiation that can be delivered. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to infuse an iodinated contrast agent to the patient during the irradiation. The contrast agent accumulates in the tumor, through the broken blood brain barrier, and the irradiation is performed with kilovoltage x rays, in tomography mode, the tumor being located at the center of rotation and the beam size adjusted to the tumor dimensions. The dose enhancement results from the photoelectric effect on the heavy element and from the irradiation geometry. Synchrotron beams, providing high intensity, tunable monochromatic x rays, are ideal for this treatment. The beam properties allow the selection of monochromatic irradiation, at the optimal energy, for a

  15. Quasi-VMAT in high-grade glioma radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, G; Massazza, G; Zucca, S; Durzu, S; Meleddu, G; Possanzini, M; Farace, P

    2013-05-01

    To compare a quasi-volumetric modulated arc therapy (qVMAT) with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT technique is a fast method of radiation therapy in which multiple equispaced beams analogous to those in rotation therapy are radiated in succession. This study included 12 patients with a planning target volume (PTV) that overlapped at least one organ at risk (OAR). 3D-CRT was planned using 2-3 non-coplanar beams, whereby the field-in-field technique (FIF) was used to divide each field into 1-3 subfields to shield the OAR. The qVMAT strategy was planned with 15 equispaced beams and IMRT was planned using 9 beams with a total of 80 segments. Inverse planning for qVMAT and IMRT was performed by direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) to deliver a homogenous dose distribution of 60 Gy within the PTV and simultaneously limit the dose received by the OARs to the recommended values. Finally, the effect of introducing a maximum dose objective (max. dose < 54 Gy) for a virtual OAR in the form of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV was investigated. The qVMAT method gave rise to significantly improved PTV95% and conformity index (CI) values in comparison to 3D-CRT (PTV95% = 90.7 % vs. 82.0 %; CI = 0.79 vs. 0.74, respectively). A further improvement was achieved by IMRT (PTV95% = 94.4 %, CI = 0.78). In qVMAT and IMRT, the addition of a 0.5 cm ring around the PTV produced a significant increase in CI (0.87 and 0.88, respectively), but dosage homogeneity within the PTV was considerably reduced (PTV95% = 88.5 % and 92.3 %, respectively). The time required for qVMAT dose delivery was similar to that required using 3D-CRT. These findings suggest that qVMAT should be preferred to 3D-CRT for the treatment of high-grade gliomas. The qVMAT method could be applied in hospitals, for example, which have limited departmental

  16. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...... axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3...

  17. Individualized Selection of Beam Angles and Treatment Isocenter in Tangential Breast Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninkhof, Joan, E-mail: j.penninkhof@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Spadola, Sara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Baaijens, Margreet [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Heijmen, Ben [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus M.C. Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    Purpose and Objective: Propose a novel method for individualized selection of beam angles and treatment isocenter in tangential breast intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: For each patient, beam and isocenter selection starts with the fully automatic generation of a large database of IMRT plans (up to 847 in this study); each of these plans belongs to a unique combination of isocenter position, lateral beam angle, and medial beam angle. The imposed hard planning constraint on patient maximum dose may result in plans with unacceptable target dose delivery. Such plans are excluded from further analyses. Owing to differences in beam setup, database plans differ in mean doses to organs at risk (OARs). These mean doses are used to construct 2-dimensional graphs, showing relationships between: (1) contralateral breast dose and ipsilateral lung dose; and (2) contralateral breast dose and heart dose (analyzed only for left-sided). The graphs can be used for selection of the isocenter and beam angles with the optimal, patient-specific tradeoffs between the mean OAR doses. For 30 previously treated patients (15 left-sided and 15 right-sided tumors), graphs were generated considering only the clinically applied isocenter with 121 tangential beam angle pairs. For 20 of the 30 patients, 6 alternative isocenters were also investigated. Results: Computation time for automatic generation of 121 IMRT plans took on average 30 minutes. The generated graphs demonstrated large variations in tradeoffs between conflicting OAR objectives, depending on beam angles and patient anatomy. For patients with isocenter optimization, 847 IMRT plans were considered. Adding isocenter position optimization next to beam angle optimization had a small impact on the final plan quality. Conclusion: A method is proposed for individualized selection of beam angles in tangential breast IMRT. This may be especially important for patients with cardiac risk factors or an

  18. Direct-aperture optimization applied to selection of beam orientations in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, J L; Webb, S

    2007-01-01

    Direct-aperture optimization (DAO) was applied to iterative beam-orientation selection in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), so as to ensure a realistic segmental treatment plan at each iteration. Nested optimization engines dealt separately with gantry angles, couch angles, collimator angles, segment shapes, segment weights and wedge angles. Each optimization engine performed a random search with successively narrowing step sizes. For optimization of segment shapes, the filtered backprojection (FBP) method was first used to determine desired fluence, the fluence map was segmented, and then constrained direct-aperture optimization was used thereafter. Segment shapes were fully optimized when a beam angle was perturbed, and minimally re-optimized otherwise. The algorithm was compared with a previously reported method using FBP alone at each orientation iteration. An example case consisting of a cylindrical phantom with a hemi-annular planning target volume (PTV) showed that for three-field plans, the method performed better than when using FBP alone, but for five or more fields, neither method provided much benefit over equally spaced beams. For a prostate case, improved bladder sparing was achieved through the use of the new algorithm. A plan for partial scalp treatment showed slightly improved PTV coverage and lower irradiated volume of brain with the new method compared to FBP alone. It is concluded that, although the method is computationally intensive and not suitable for searching large unconstrained regions of beam space, it can be used effectively in conjunction with prior class solutions to provide individually optimized IMRT treatment plans

  19. FEASIBILITY OF POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY OF DOSE DISTRIBUTION IN PROTON BEAM CANCER THERAPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.J.; DILMANIAN, F.A.; PEGGS, S.G.; SCHLYEER, D.J.; VASKA, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proton therapy is a treatment modality of increasing utility in clinical radiation oncology mostly because its dose distribution conforms more tightly to the target volume than x-ray radiation therapy. One important feature of proton therapy is that it produces a small amount of positron-emitting isotopes along the beam-path through the non-elastic nuclear interaction of protons with target nuclei such as 12 C, 14 N, and 16 O. These radioisotopes, mainly 11 C, 13 N and 15 O, allow imaging the therapy dose distribution using positron emission tomography (PET). The resulting PET images provide a powerful tool for quality assurance of the treatment, especially when treating inhomogeneous organs such as the lungs or the head-and-neck, where the calculation of the dose distribution for treatment planning is more difficult. This paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to predict the yield of positron emitters produced by a 250 MeV proton beam, and to simulate the productions of the image in a clinical PET scanner

  20. Principles and practice of proton beam therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Indra J

    2015-01-01

    Commissioned by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) for their June 2015 Summer School, this is the first AAPM monograph printed in full color. Proton therapy has been used in radiation therapy for over 70 years, but within the last decade its use in clinics has grown exponentially. This book fills in the proton therapy gap by focusing on the physics of proton therapy, including beam production, proton interactions, biology, dosimetry, treatment planning, quality assurance, commissioning, motion management, and uncertainties. Chapters are written by the world's leading medical physicists who work at the pioneering proton treatment centers around the globe. They share their understandings after years of experience treating thousands of patients. Case studies involving specific cancer treatments show that there is some art to proton therapy as well as state-of-the-art science. Even though the focus lies on proton therapy, the content provided is also valuable to heavy charged particle th...

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hayeon, E-mail: kimh2@upmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Smith, Kenneth J. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Single Fraction of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Compared With Single Fraction of External Beam Radiation Therapy for Palliation of Vertebral Bone Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hayeon; Rajagopalan, Malolan S.; Beriwal, Sushil; Huq, M. Saiful; Smith, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been proposed for the palliation of painful vertebral bone metastases because higher radiation doses may result in superior and more durable pain control. A phase III clinical trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0631) comparing single fraction SBRT with single fraction external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in palliative treatment of painful vertebral bone metastases is now ongoing. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to compare these strategies. Methods and Materials: A Markov model, using a 1-month cycle over a lifetime horizon, was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of SBRT (16 or 18 Gy in 1 fraction) with that of 8 Gy in 1 fraction of EBRT. Transition probabilities, quality of life utilities, and costs associated with SBRT and EBRT were captured in the model. Costs were based on Medicare reimbursement in 2014. Strategies were compared using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), and effectiveness was measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). To account for uncertainty, 1-way, 2-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Strategies were evaluated with a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $100,000 per QALY gained. Results: Base case pain relief after the treatment was assumed as 20% higher in SBRT. Base case treatment costs for SBRT and EBRT were $9000 and $1087, respectively. In the base case analysis, SBRT resulted in an ICER of $124,552 per QALY gained. In 1-way sensitivity analyses, results were most sensitive to variation of the utility of unrelieved pain; the utility of relieved pain after initial treatment and median survival were also sensitive to variation. If median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. Conclusion: SBRT for palliation of vertebral bone metastases is not cost-effective compared with EBRT at a $100,000 per QALY gained WTP threshold. However, if median survival is ≥11 months, SBRT costs ≤$100

  3. 3-D conformal radiation therapy - Part I: Treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burman, Chandra M.; Mageras, Gikas S.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: In this presentation we will look into the basic components of 3-dimensional conformal treatment planning, and will discuss planning for some selected sites. We will also review some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning. External beam radiation therapy is one of the arms of cancer treatment. In the recent years 3-D conformal therapy had significant impact on the practice of external beam radiation therapy. Conformal radiation therapy shapes the high-dose volume so as to conform to the target volume while minimizing the dose to the surrounding normal tissues. The advances that have been achieved in conformal therapy are in part due to the development of 3-D treatment planning, which in turn has capitalized on 3-D imaging for tumor and normal tissue localization, as well as on available computational power for the calculation of 3-D dose distributions, visualization of anatomical and dose volumes, and numerical evaluation of treatment plans. In this course we will give an overview of how 3-D conformal treatments are designed and transferred to the patient. Topics will include: 1) description of the major components of a 3-D treatment planning system, 2) techniques for designing treatments, 3) evaluation of treatment plans using dose distribution displays, dose-volume histograms and normal tissue complication probabilities, 4) implementation of treatments using shaped blocks and multileaf collimators, 5) verification of treatment delivery using portal films and electronic portal imaging devices. We will also discuss some current and future trends in 3-D treatment planning, such as field shaping with multileaf collimation, computerized treatment plan optimization, including the use of nonuniform beam profiles (intensity modulation), and incorporating treatment uncertainties due to patient positioning errors and organ motion into treatment planning process

  4. Robust Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Treatment Planning for Rectal Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Kiely, Janid Patricia; White, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a treatment plan design and robustness study, whether proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) has the potential to offer advantages, relative to interfraction uncertainties, over photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in a locally advanced rectal cancer patient population. Methods and Materials: Ten patients received a planning CT scan, followed by an average of 4 weekly offline CT verification CT scans, which were rigidly co-registered to the planning CT. Clinical PBS plans were generated on the planning CT, using a single-field uniform-dose technique with single-posterior and parallel-opposed (LAT) fields geometries. The VMAT plans were generated on the planning CT using 2 6-MV, 220° coplanar arcs. Clinical plans were forward-calculated on verification CTs to assess robustness relative to anatomic changes. Setup errors were assessed by forward-calculating clinical plans with a ±5-mm (left–right, anterior–posterior, superior–inferior) isocenter shift on the planning CT. Differences in clinical target volume and organ at risk dose–volume histogram (DHV) indicators between plans were tested for significance using an appropriate Wilcoxon test (P<.05). Results: Dosimetrically, PBS plans were statistically different from VMAT plans, showing greater organ at risk sparing. However, the bladder was statistically identical among LAT and VMAT plans. The clinical target volume coverage was statistically identical among all plans. The robustness test found that all DVH indicators for PBS and VMAT plans were robust, except the LAT's genitalia (V5, V35). The verification CT plans showed that all DVH indicators were robust. Conclusions: Pencil beam scanning plans were found to be as robust as VMAT plans relative to interfractional changes during treatment when posterior beam angles and appropriate range margins are used. Pencil beam scanning dosimetric gains in the bowel (V15, V20) over VMAT suggest that using PBS to treat rectal cancer

  5. Robust Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Treatment Planning for Rectal Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Kiely, Janid Patricia, E-mail: jkiely@sas.upenn.edu; White, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate, in a treatment plan design and robustness study, whether proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) has the potential to offer advantages, relative to interfraction uncertainties, over photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) in a locally advanced rectal cancer patient population. Methods and Materials: Ten patients received a planning CT scan, followed by an average of 4 weekly offline CT verification CT scans, which were rigidly co-registered to the planning CT. Clinical PBS plans were generated on the planning CT, using a single-field uniform-dose technique with single-posterior and parallel-opposed (LAT) fields geometries. The VMAT plans were generated on the planning CT using 2 6-MV, 220° coplanar arcs. Clinical plans were forward-calculated on verification CTs to assess robustness relative to anatomic changes. Setup errors were assessed by forward-calculating clinical plans with a ±5-mm (left–right, anterior–posterior, superior–inferior) isocenter shift on the planning CT. Differences in clinical target volume and organ at risk dose–volume histogram (DHV) indicators between plans were tested for significance using an appropriate Wilcoxon test (P<.05). Results: Dosimetrically, PBS plans were statistically different from VMAT plans, showing greater organ at risk sparing. However, the bladder was statistically identical among LAT and VMAT plans. The clinical target volume coverage was statistically identical among all plans. The robustness test found that all DVH indicators for PBS and VMAT plans were robust, except the LAT's genitalia (V5, V35). The verification CT plans showed that all DVH indicators were robust. Conclusions: Pencil beam scanning plans were found to be as robust as VMAT plans relative to interfractional changes during treatment when posterior beam angles and appropriate range margins are used. Pencil beam scanning dosimetric gains in the bowel (V15, V20) over VMAT suggest that using PBS to treat rectal

  6. Equivalent biochemical failure-free survival after external beam radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy in patients with a pretreatment prostate specific antigen of > 4-20 ng/ml

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Anthony V.; Whittington, Richard; Kaplan, Irving; Beard, Clair; Jiroutek, Michael; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wein, Alan; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Biochemical failure-free survival stratified by the pretreatment prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and biopsy Gleason score (bGl) is determined for prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods and Materials: A Cox regression multivariable analysis evaluating the variables of PSA, bGl, and clinical stage was used to evaluate the end point of time to PSA failure in 867 and 757 consecutive prostate cancer patients managed definitively with external beam radiation therapy or radical retropubic prostatectomy, respectively. PSA failure-free survival was determined using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Comparisons were made using the log rank test. Results: The pretreatment PSA, bGl, and clinical stage (T3,4 vs. T1,T2) were found to be independent predictors of time to post-treatment PSA failure for both surgically and radiation managed patients using Cox regression multivariable analysis. Patients with a pretreatment PSA of > 4 ng/ml and ≤ 20 ng/ml could be classified into risk groups for time to post-therapy PSA failure: low = PSA > 4-10 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 4; intermediate = PSA > 4-10 and bGl 5-7; or PSA > 10-20 ng/ml and bGl ≤ 7; high = PSA > 4-20 ng/ml and bGl ≥ 8. Two-year PSA failure-free survival for surgically managed and radiation-managed patients, respectively, were 98% vs. 92% (p = 0.45), 77% vs. 81% (p = 0.86), and 51% vs. 53% (p = 0.48) for patients at low, intermediate, and high risk for post-therapy PSA failure. Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in the 2-year PSA failure-free survival for potentially curable patients managed definitively with surgery or radiation therapy when a retrospective comparison stratifying for the pretreatment PSA and bGl was performed

  7. Definitive Reirradiation for Locoregionally Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Proton Beam Therapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: Predictors of High-Grade Toxicity and Survival Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAvoy, Sarah; Ciura, Katherine; Wei, Caimiao; Rineer, Justin; Liao, Zhongxing; Chang, Joe Y.; Palmer, Matthew B.; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Gomez, Daniel R., E-mail: DGomez@mdanderson.org

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Intrathoracic recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after initial treatment remains a dominant cause of death. We report our experience using proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy for reirradiation in such cases, focusing on patterns of failure, criteria for patient selection, and predictors of toxicity. Methods and Materials: A total of 102 patients underwent reirradiation for intrathoracic recurrent NSCLC at a single institution. All doses were recalculated to an equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2). All patients had received radiation therapy for NSCLC (median initial dose of 70 EQD2 Gy), with median interval to reirradiation of 17 months and median reirradiation dose of 60.48 EQD2 Gy. Median follow-up time was 6.5 months (range, 0-72 months). Results: Ninety-nine patients (97%) completed reirradiation. Median local failure-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and overall survival times were 11.43 months (range, 8.6-22.66 months), 11.43 months (range, 6.83-23.84 months), and 14.71 (range, 10.34-20.56 months), respectively. Toxicity was acceptable, with rates of grade ≥3 esophageal toxicity of 7% and grade ≥3 pulmonary toxicity of 10%. Of the patients who developed local failure after reirradiation, 88% had failure in either the original or the reirradiation field. Poor local control was associated with T4 disease, squamous histology, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score >1. Concurrent chemotherapy improved DMFS, but T4 disease was associated with poor DMFS. Higher T status, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥1, squamous histology, and larger reirradiation target volumes led to worse overall survival; receipt of concurrent chemotherapy and higher EQD2 were associated with improved OS. Conclusions: Intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton beam therapy are options for treating recurrent non-small cell lung cancer. However, rates of

  8. Treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery technqiues for intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengbusch, Evan R.

    Physical properties of proton interactions in matter give them a theoretical advantage over photons in radiation therapy for cancer treatment, but they are seldom used relative to photons. The primary barriers to wider acceptance of proton therapy are the technical feasibility, size, and price of proton therapy systems. Several aspects of the proton therapy landscape are investigated, and new techniques for treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery are presented. The results of these investigations suggest a means by which proton therapy can be delivered more efficiently, effectively, and to a much larger proportion of eligible patients. An analysis of the existing proton therapy market was performed. Personal interviews with over 30 radiation oncology leaders were conducted with regard to the current and future use of proton therapy. In addition, global proton therapy market projections are presented. The results of these investigations serve as motivation and guidance for the subsequent development of treatment system designs and treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery methods. A major factor impacting the size and cost of proton treatment systems is the maximum energy of the accelerator. Historically, 250 MeV has been the accepted value, but there is minimal quantitative evidence in the literature that supports this standard. A retrospective study of 100 patients is presented that quantifies the maximum proton kinetic energy requirements for cancer treatment, and the impact of those results with regard to treatment system size, cost, and neutron production is discussed. This study is subsequently expanded to include 100 cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) patients, and the results are discussed in the context of a proposed dedicated proton SRS treatment system. Finally, novel proton therapy optimization and delivery techniques are presented. Algorithms are developed that optimize treatment plans over beam angle, spot size, spot spacing

  9. A beam monitor using silicon pixel sensors for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen, E-mail: zwang@mails.ccnu.edu.cn; Zou, Shuguang; Fan, Yan; Liu, Jun; Sun, Xiangming, E-mail: sphy2007@126.com; Wang, Dong; Kang, Huili; Sun, Daming; Yang, Ping; Pei, Hua; Huang, Guangming; Xu, Nu; Gao, Chaosong; Xiao, Le

    2017-03-21

    We report the design and test results of a beam monitor developed for online monitoring in hadron therapy. The beam monitor uses eight silicon pixel sensors, Topmetal-II{sup -}, as the anode array. Topmetal-II{sup -} is a charge sensor designed in a CMOS 0.35 µm technology. Each Topmetal-II{sup -} sensor has 72×72 pixels and the pixel size is 83×83 µm{sup 2}. In our design, the beam passes through the beam monitor without hitting the electrodes, making the beam monitor especially suitable for monitoring heavy ion beams. This design also reduces radiation damage to the beam monitor itself. The beam monitor is tested with a carbon ion beam at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). Results indicate that the beam monitor can measure position, incidence angle and intensity of the beam with a position resolution better than 20 µm, angular resolution about 0.5° and intensity statistical accuracy better than 2%.

  10. Improving Outcomes for Esophageal Cancer using Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuong, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hallemeier, Christopher L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jabbour, Salma K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey (United States); Yu, Jen; Badiyan, Shahed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Merrell, Kenneth W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Mishra, Mark V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Li, Heng [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Verma, Vivek [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska (United States); Lin, Steven H., E-mail: shlin@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) plays an essential role in the management of esophageal cancer. Because the esophagus is a centrally located thoracic structure there is a need to balance the delivery of appropriately high dose to the target while minimizing dose to nearby critical structures. Radiation dose received by these critical structures, especially the heart and lungs, may lead to clinically significant toxicities, including pneumonitis, pericarditis, and myocardial infarction. Although technological advancements in photon RT delivery like intensity modulated RT have decreased the risk of such toxicities, a growing body of evidence indicates that further risk reductions are achieved with proton beam therapy (PBT). Herein we review the published dosimetric and clinical PBT literature for esophageal cancer, including motion management considerations, the potential for reirradiation, radiation dose escalation, and ongoing esophageal PBT clinical trials. We also consider the potential cost-effectiveness of PBT relative to photon RT.

  11. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: Adult bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargos, P.; Mamou, N.; Dejean, C.; Henriques de Figueiredo, B.; Kantor, G.; Huchet, A.; Italiano, A.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation tolerance for bone tissue has been mostly evaluated with regard to bone fracture. Main circumstances are mandibula osteoradionecrosis, hip and costal fracture, and patent or radiologic fractures in the treated volume. After radiation therapy of bone metastasis, the analysis of related radiation fracture is difficult to individualize from a pathologic fracture. Frequency of clinical fracture is less than 5% in the large series or cohorts and is probably under-evaluated for the asymptomatic lesions. Women older than 50 years and with osteoporosis are probably the main population at risk. Dose-effect relations are difficult to qualify in older series. Recent models evaluating radiations toxicity on diaphysa suggest an important risk after 60 Gy, for high dose-fraction and for a large volume. (authors)

  12. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenzel, R.L.; Whelan, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter investigates the mechanism by which unstable electrostatic waves of an electron-beam plasma system are converted into observed electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic radiation arises from both natural beam-plasma systems (e.g., type III solar bursts and kilometric radiation), and from man-made electron beams injected from rockets and spacecraft. A pulsed magnetized discharge plasma is produced with a 1 m diam. oxide-coated cathode and the discussed experiment is performed in the quiescent afterglow. The primary beam-plasma instability involves the excitation of electrostatic plasma waves. Electromagnetic radiation from the beam-plasma system is observed with microwave antennas outside the plasma (all probes removed) or with coax-fed dipoles which can be inserted radially and axially into the plasma. The physical process of mode coupling by which electromagnetic radiation is generated in an electrostatic beam-plasma instability is identified. The results are relevant to beam injection experiments from rockets or satellites into space plasmas. The limited penetration of the beam current into the plasma due to instabilities is demonstrated

  13. External beam radiation therapy and a low-dose-rate brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Tobin J.; Hutchinson, Sean Z.; Shrinath, Kushagra; Cruz, Alex A.; Figura, Nicholas B.; Nethers, Kevin; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Heysek, Randy V.; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: To assess outcomes with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost without or with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: From January 2001 through August 2011, 120 intermediate-risk or high-risk prostate cancer patients were treated with EBRT to a total dose of 4,500 cGy in 25 daily fractions and a palladium-103 LDR brachytherapy boost of 10,000 cGy (n = 90) or an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost of 11,000 cGy (n = 30). ADT, consisting of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ± an anti-androgen, was administered to 29/92 (32%) intermediate-risk patients for a median duration of 4 months and 26/28 (93%) high-risk patients for a median duration of 28 months. Results: Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 1.1-12.8 years). There was no statistically-significant difference in biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), or overall survival (OS) without or with ADT. Also, there was no statistically-significant difference in bDFS, DMFS, or OS with a palladium-103 vs. an iodine-125 LDR brachytherapy boost. Conclusions: There was no statistically-significant difference in outcomes with the addition of ADT, though the power of the current study was limited. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0815 and 0924 phase III trials, which have accrual targets of more than 1,500 men, will help to clarify the role ADT in locally-advanced prostate cancer patients treated with EBRT and a brachytherapy boost. Palladium-103 and iodine-125 provide similar bDFS, DMFS, and OS. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  15. SU-E-T-323: The FLUKA Monte Carlo Code in Ion Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldi, I [Heidelberg University Hospital (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Monte Carlo (MC) codes are increasingly used in the ion beam therapy community due to their detailed description of radiation transport and interaction with matter. The suitability of a MC code demands accurate and reliable physical models for the transport and the interaction of all components of the mixed radiation field. This contribution will address an overview of the recent developments in the FLUKA code oriented to its application in ion beam therapy. Methods: FLUKA is a general purpose MC code which allows the calculations of particle transport and interactions with matter, covering an extended range of applications. The user can manage the code through a graphic interface (FLAIR) developed using the Python programming language. Results: This contribution will present recent refinements in the description of the ionization processes and comparisons between FLUKA results and experimental data of ion beam therapy facilities. Moreover, several validations of the largely improved FLUKA nuclear models for imaging application to treatment monitoring will be shown. The complex calculation of prompt gamma ray emission compares favorably with experimental data and can be considered adequate for the intended applications. New features in the modeling of proton induced nuclear interactions also provide reliable cross section predictions for the production of radionuclides. Of great interest for the community are the developments introduced in FLAIR. The most recent efforts concern the capability of importing computed-tomography images in order to build automatically patient geometries and the implementation of different types of existing positron-emission-tomography scanner devices for imaging applications. Conclusion: The FLUA code has been already chosen as reference MC code in many ion beam therapy centers, and is being continuously improved in order to match the needs of ion beam therapy applications. Parts of this work have been supported by the European

  16. The future of high-let radiation in cancer therapy. Justification of the heavy-ion therapy programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambersie, A.

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of new types of ionizing radiations to control the primary tumour is a promising approach in radiation therapy. High-LET (linear energy transfer) radiations produce different biological effects compared to conventional X-rays, leading to a potential therapeutic advantage over low-LET (e.g., protons or helium ions) beams, which only are aimed at improving the physical selectivity. Introduced historically to reduce the OER (oxygen enhancement ratio), there is evidence for a reduction in radiosensitivity differences, which implies an advantage or disadvantage depending on the tumour characteristics and the normal tissues at risk, which in turn raises the problem of patient selection. From clinical data, fast neutrons were found to be superior to photons in the treatments of salivary gland tumours, prostatic adenocarcinomas, and some carcinomas. Heavy ions combine the advantages of a high physical selectivity and the potential advantage of high-LET for some tumour types. Clinical indications for the use of heavy-ion beams are therefore those tumours that reside in problematic sites but are of a type for which high-LET radiations were already shown to be useful. This review discusses the improvement of the physical selectivity with proton and helium ion beams; the differential effect and the potential advantage of neutrons and high-LET radiations (including both the radiological considerations and the clinical data); and presents the rationale for heavy-ion therapy. 38 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  17. SU-F-T-174: Patient-Specific Point Dose Measurement Using Fiber Optic Radiation Sensor Using Cerenkov Radiation for Proton Therapeutic Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, J [Korea University, Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Center, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M [Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Busan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, M [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, D [National Cancer Center, Goyang-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov radiation (FOCR) has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for proton therapeutic beam. We developed the FOCR, and it applied to patient-specific point dose measurement in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the FOCR system for proton therapy QA. Methods: Calibration of FOCR was performed with an ionization chamber whose absolute doses were determined according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. To determine the calibration curve, the FOCR was irradiated perpendicularly to the proton beam at the 13 dose levels steps. We selected five actual patient treatment plans performed at proton therapy center and compared the resulting FOCR measurements with the ionization chamber measurements. Results: The Cerenkov light yield of the FOCR increases linearly with as the dose measured using the ionization chamber increases from 0 cGy to 500 cGy. The results indicate that the fitting curve is linear, suggesting that dose measurement based on the light yield of the FOCR is possible. The results of proton radiation dose QA performed using the FOCR for 10 proton fields and five patients are good agreement with an ionization chamber. Conclusion: We carried out the patient QA using the FOCR for proton therapeutic beam and evaluated the effectiveness of the FOCR as a proton therapy QA tool. Our results indicate that the FOCR is suitable for use in patient QA of clinical proton beams.

  18. Sacral chordomas: Impact of high-dose proton/photon-beam radiation therapy combined with or without surgery for primary versus recurrent tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Lily; De Laney, Thomas F.; Liebsch, Norbert J.; Hornicek, Francis J.; Goldberg, Saveli; Mankin, Henry; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Rosenthal, Daniel I.; Suit, Herman D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of definitive treatment of sacral chordoma by high-dose proton/photon-beam radiation therapy alone or combined with surgery. Methods and Materials: The records of 16 primary and 11 recurrent sacral chordoma patients treated from November 1982 to November 2002 by proton/photon radiation therapy alone (6 patients) or combined with surgery (21 patients) have been analyzed for local control, survival, and treatment-related morbidity. The outcome analysis is based on follow-up information as of 2005. Results: Outcome results show a large difference in local failure rate between patients treated for primary and recurrent chordomas. Local control results by surgery and radiation were 12/14 vs. 1/7 for primary and recurrent lesions. For margin-positive patients, local control results were 10 of 11 and 0 of 5 in the primary and recurrent groups, respectively; the mean follow-up on these locally controlled patients was 8.8 years (4 at 10.3, 12.8, 17, and 21 years). Radiation alone was used in 6 patients, 4 of whom received ≥73.0 Gy (E); local control was observed in 3 of these 4 patients for 2.9, 4.9, and 7.6 years. Conclusion: These data indicate a high local control rate for surgical and radiation treatment of primary (12 of 14) as distinct from recurrent (1 of 7) sacral chordomas. Three of 4 chordomas treated by ≥73.0 Gy (E) of radiation alone had local control; 1 is at 91 months. This indicates that high-dose proton/photon therapy offers an effective treatment option

  19. Seeing the invisible: direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Ceballos, Andrew; Türkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S; Pratx, Guillem

    2014-01-01

    To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300-430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r(2) = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r(2) = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

  20. Seeing the invisible: Direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahimian, Benjamin; Türkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S.; Pratx, Guillem, E-mail: pratx@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ceballos, Andrew [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Methods: Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300–430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Results: Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Conclusions: Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

  1. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: first reported treatment in Australasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corry, J.; Joon, D.L.; Hope, G.; Smylie, J.; Henkul, Z.; Wills, J.; Cramb, J.; Towns, S.; Archer, P.

    2002-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is an exciting new advance in the practice of radiation oncology. It is the use of non-uniform radiation beams to achieve conformal dose distributions. As a result of the high initial capital costs and the time and complexity of planning, IMRT is not yet a widely available clinical treatment option. We describe the process involved in applying this new technology to a case of locally advanced nasopharyngeal cancer. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Rectal necrosis following external radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, S.H.Q.; O'Kelly, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the use of radiation therapy in the management of primary carcinoma of the prostate. Since 1965, radical radiation therapy has been used at Memorial Hospital to treat primary carcinoma of the prostate. Small primary tumors are treated by implantation with radioactive iodine ( 125 I) seeds and larger tumors considered unsuitable for implantation are treated by external supervoltage beam therapy. Fifty patients had been treated by implantation and 30 by external beam therapy at the time of this report. None of the patients treated by implantation developed rectal symptoms. Proctitis developed in all patients treated by external radiation therapy and in half the patients chronic proctitis ensued, accompanied by the passage of mucus. The constant leaking of mucus through the anal sphincter produces irritation of the skin and intermittent attacks of pruritus ani, a discomfiting sequel. Apart from the proctitis, most patients tolerated treatment well, with one notable exception, in whom rectal necrosis developed. This case is described

  3. Radiation Therapy of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Yoon; Choi, Doo Ho; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Il Han; Ha, Sung Whan; Park, Charn Il

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed on 15 patients with suprasellar germ cell tumors treated by megavoltage external beam irradiation between Feb. 1979 and Dec. 1985. Follow-up period of survivors was 30 to 91 months. Histologic diagnosis was obtained before radiation therapy in 10 patients (9 germinomas and 1 mixed). Five patients were treated without histologic verification. In 9 patients with biopsy-proven germinomas radiation therapy was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 6, to the whole brain in 3. In 5 patients with mixed germ cell tumor or elevated tumor marker, irradiation was delivered to the craniospinal axis in 2, to the whole brain in 2, and to the primary site only in 1. Total doses ranged from 5,000 to 5,500 cGy to the primary site, 3,000 to 4,400 cGy to the whole brain, and 1,300 to 3,000 cGy to the spine. In these 14, local tumor was controlled and primary or spinal failure was not observed. One patient without elevated tumor marker was treated to the whole brain, The tumor was not controlled and he had spinal recurrence. It is proven that radiation therapy is an effective treatment for suprasellar germ cell tumors. The neuroendocrinologic presentation, tumor marker status, early response to radiation measured on CT seem to be useful means for selecting patients for radiation therapy when tissue diagnosis is not available

  4. Megavoltage radiation therapy: Meeting the technological needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In its simplest description, the purpose of radiation therapy is to hit the target and to miss all other parts of the patient. While there are multiple technological methods available for doing this, the actual radiation treatment needs to be considered in the broader context of the total radiation treatment process. This process contains multiple steps, each of which has an impact on the quality of the treatment and on the possible clinical outcome. One crucial step in this process is the determination of the location and extent of the disease relative to the adjacent normal tissues. This can be done in a variety of ways, ranging from simple clinical examination to the use of complex 3-D imaging, sometimes aided by contrast agents. As part of this localization process, it is very important that patient immobilization procedures be implemented to ensure that the same patient position will be used during both the planning and the daily treatment stages. With the knowledge of the location of the target and the critical tissues, decisions can be made about the appropriate beam arrangements to provide adequate tumour coverage while sparing the healthy tissues. This beam arrangement may have to be confirmed on a therapy simulator prior to actual implementation of the radiation treatment. In summary, the treatment process includes diagnosis, patient immobilization, target and normal tissue localization, beam selection, beam shaping, dose calculation, technique optimization, simulation, prescription, treatment verification and, finally, treatment. Dependent on the type of disease, it is not necessary that every patient undergoes all of the steps in the process; however, it is necessary that each step of the process used for a particular patient be carried out with the greatest accuracy. Uncertainties at any stage of the process will be carried through to subsequent stages and have an impact on clinical outcome. It is, therefore, important to recognize, when

  5. Impact of cardio-synchronous brain pulsations on Monte Carlo calculated doses for synchrotron micro- and mini-beam radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchado de Sola, Francisco; Vilches, Manuel; Prezado, Yolanda; Lallena, Antonio M

    2018-05-15

    To assess the effects of brain movements induced by heartbeat on dose distributions in synchrotron micro- and mini-beam radiaton therapy and to develop a model to help guide decisions and planning for future clinical trials. The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to simulate the irradiation of a human head phantom with a variety of micro- and mini-beam arrays, with beams narrower than 100 μm and above 500 μm, respectively, and with radiation fields of 1cm × 2cm and 2cm × 2cm. The dose in the phantom due to these beams was calculated by superposing the dose profiles obtained for a single beam of 1μm × 2cm. A parameter δ, accounting for the total displacement of the brain during the irradiation and due to the cardio-synchronous pulsation, was used to quantify the impact on peak-to-valley dose ratios and the full-width at half-maximum. The difference between the maximum (at the phantom entrance) and the minimum (at the phantom exit) values of the peak-to-valley dose ratio reduces when the parameter δ increases. The full-width at half-maximum remains almost constant with depth for any δ value. Sudden changes in the two quantities are observed at the interfaces between the various tissues (brain, skull and skin) present in the head phantom. The peak-to-valley dose ratio at the center of the head phantom reduces when δ increases, remaining above 70% of the static value only for mini-beams and δ smaller than ~ 200 μm. Optimal setups for brain treatments with synchrotron radiation micro- and mini-beam combs depend on the brain displacement due to cardio-synchronous pulsation. Peak-to-valley dose ratios larger than 90% of the maximum values obtained in the static case occur only for mini-beams and relatively large dose rates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling radiation fields of ion beams in tissue-like materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burigo, Lucas Norberto

    2014-01-01

    Fast nuclei are ionizing radiation which can cause deleterious effects to irradiated cells. The modelling of the interactions of such ions with matter and the related effects are very important to physics, radiobiology, medicine and space science and technology. A powerful method to study the interactions of ionizing radiation with biological systems was developed in the field of microdosimetry. Microdosimetry spectra characterize the energy deposition to objects of cellular size, i.e., a few micrometers. In the present thesis the interaction of ions with tissue-like media was investigated using the Monte Carlo model for Heavy-Ion Therapy (MCHIT) developed at the Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies. MCHIT is a Geant4-based application intended to benchmark the physical models of Geant4 and investigate the physical properties of therapeutic ion beams. We have implemented new features in MCHIT in order to calculate microdosimetric quantities characterizing the radiation fields of accelerated nucleons and nuclei. The results of our Monte Carlo simulations were compared with recent experimental microdosimetry data. In addition to microdosimetry calculations with MCHIT, we also investigated the biological properties of ion beams, e.g. their relative biological effectiveness (RBE), by means of the modified Microdosimetric-Kinetic model (MKM). The MKM uses microdosimetry spectra in describing cell response to radiation. MCHIT+MKM allowed us to study the physical and biological properties of ion beams. The main results of the thesis are as follows: MCHIT is able to describe the spatial distribution of the physical dose in tissue-like media and microdosimetry spectra for ions with energies relevant to space research and ion-beam cancer therapy; MCHIT+MKM predicts a reduction of the biological effectiveness of ions propagating in extended medium due to nuclear fragmentation reactions; We predicted favourable biological dose-depth profiles for monoenergetic helium and

  7. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each “planning scan” to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  8. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Poonam; Kozak, Kevin; Tolakanahalli, Ranjini; Ramasubramanian, V.; Paliwal, Bhudatt R.; Welsh, James S.; Rong, Yi

    2012-01-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each “planning scan” to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields. PMID:21925866

  9. Adaptive planning using megavoltage fan-beam CT for radiation therapy with testicular shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Poonam [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); School of Advance Sciences, Vellore Institue of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Kozak, Kevin [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Tolakanahalli, Ranjini [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Ramasubramanian, V. [School of Advance Sciences, Vellore Institue of Technology University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Paliwal, Bhudatt R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Riverview Cancer Centre, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States); Welsh, James S. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Rong, Yi, E-mail: rong@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI (United States); University of Wisconsin, Riverview Cancer Centre, Wisconsin Rapids, WI (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This study highlights the use of adaptive planning to accommodate testicular shielding in helical tomotherapy for malignancies of the proximal thigh. Two cases of young men with large soft tissue sarcomas of the proximal thigh are presented. After multidisciplinary evaluation, preoperative radiation therapy was recommended. Both patients were referred for sperm banking and lead shields were used to minimize testicular dose during radiation therapy. To minimize imaging artifacts, kilovoltage CT (kVCT) treatment planning was conducted without shielding. Generous hypothetical contours were generated on each 'planning scan' to estimate the location of the lead shield and generate a directionally blocked helical tomotherapy plan. To ensure the accuracy of each plan, megavoltage fan-beam CT (MVCT) scans were obtained at the first treatment and adaptive planning was performed to account for lead shield placement. Two important regions of interest in these cases were femurs and femoral heads. During adaptive planning for the first patient, it was observed that the virtual lead shield contour on kVCT planning images was significantly larger than the actual lead shield used for treatment. However, for the second patient, it was noted that the size of the virtual lead shield contoured on the kVCT image was significantly smaller than the actual shield size. Thus, new adaptive plans based on MVCT images were generated and used for treatment. The planning target volume was underdosed up to 2% and had higher maximum doses without adaptive planning. In conclusion, the treatment of the upper thigh, particularly in young men, presents several clinical challenges, including preservation of gonadal function. In such circumstances, adaptive planning using MVCT can ensure accurate dose delivery even in the presence of high-density testicular shields.

  10. Stereotactic body radiation therapy for reirradiation of localized adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lominska Chris E

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local control rates are poor in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We investigated the role of hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT for salvage or boost treatment after conventional doses of external beam radiation therapy. Methods All patients treated with SBRT for pancreatic adenocarcinoma at Georgetown University from June 2002 through July 2007 were examined. Eligible patients had prior external beam radiation therapy to the pancreas. Treatment parameters and clinical and radiographic follow-up were evaluated. Results Twenty-eight patients were identified who received SBRT after a median prior external beam radiotherapy dose of 50.4 Gy. The median patient age was 63 years old and the median follow-up was 5.9 months. Twelve of fourteen (85.7% evaluable patients were free from local progression, with three partial responses and nine patients with stable disease. Toxicity consisted of one case of acute Grade II nausea/vomiting, and two cases of Grade III late GI toxicity. The median overall survival was 5.9 months, with 18% survival and 70% freedom from local progression at one year. Conclusions Hypofractionated SBRT reirradiation of localized pancreatic cancer is a well-tolerated treatment. Most patients are free from local progression, albeit with limited follow-up, but overall survival remains poor.

  11. Dosimetric comparison to the heart and cardiac substructure in a large cohort of esophageal cancer patients treated with proton beam therapy or Intensity-modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Yutaka; Xu, Cai; Yang, Jinzhong; Komaki, Ritsuko; Lin, Steven H

    2017-10-01

    To compare heart and cardiac substructure radiation exposure using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. proton beam therapy (PBT) for patients with mid- to distal esophageal cancer who received chemoradiation therapy. We identified 727 esophageal cancer patients who received IMRT (n=477) or PBT (n=250) from March 2004 to December 2015. All patients were treated to 50.4Gy with IMRT or to 50.4 cobalt Gray equivalents with PBT. IMRT and PBT dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the whole heart, atria, ventricles, and four coronary arteries were compared. For PBT patients, passive scattering proton therapy (PSPT; n=237) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT; n=13) DVHs were compared. Compared with IMRT, PBT resulted in significantly lower mean heart dose (MHD) and heart V5, V10, V20, V30, and V40as well as lower radiation exposure to the four chambers and four coronary arteries. Compared with PSPT, IMPT resulted in significantly lower heart V20, V30, and V40 but not MHD or heart V5 or V10. IMPT also resulted in significantly lower radiation doses to the left atrium, right atrium, left main coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, but not the left ventricle, right ventricle, left anterior descending artery, or right coronary artery. Factors associated with lower MHD included PBT (Pheart and cardiac substructures than IMRT. Long-term studies are necessary to determine how this cardiac sparing effect impacts the development of coronary artery disease and other cardiac complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of dose load of personnel in intratissue gamma beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stavitskij, R.V.; Zamyatin, O.A.; Varennikov, O.I.; Astakhova, I.V.

    1995-01-01

    Suggest a method for retrospective assessment of levels of irradiation of small groups of personnel exposed to radiation sources. Presents estimated values of cumulative and local doses obtained by personnel during intratissue gamma beam therapy carried out by manual consecutive injections of intrastats and irradiation sources. 3 refs.; 5 tabs

  13. Modular design of H - synchrotrons for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R. L.

    1989-04-01

    A modular synchrotron for accelerating H - ions and a proton beam delivery system are being developed for radiation therapy with protons under SBIR grants from the National Cancer Institute. The advantage proposed for accelerating H - ions and utilizing charge exchange as a slow extraction mechanism lies in enhanced control of the extracted beam current, important for beam delivery with raster scanning for 3D dose contouring of a tumor site. Under these grants prototype magnets and vacuum systems are being constructed, appropriate H - sources are being developed and beam experiments will be carried out to demonstrate some of the key issues of this concept. The status of this program is described along with a discussion of a relatively inexpensive beam delivery system and a proposed program for its development.

  14. Modular design of H- synchrotrons for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    A modular synchrotron for accelerating H - ions, and a proton beam delivery system are being developed for radiation therapy with protons under SBIR grants for the National Cancer Institute. The advantage proposed for accelerating H - ions and utilizing charge exchange as a slow extraction mechanism lies in enhanced control of the extracted beam current, important for beam delivery with raster scanning for 3D dose contouring of a tumor site. Under these grants prototype magnets and vacuum systems are being constructed, appropriate H - sources are being developed and beam experiments will be carried out to demonstrate some of the key issues of this concept. The status of this program is described along with a discussion of a relatively inexpensive beam delivery system and a proposed program for its development. (orig.)

  15. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  16. Design principles and clinical possibilities with a new generation of radiation therapy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruden, B P [Department of Hospital physics Karolinska institute, (Sudan)

    1997-12-31

    The main steps in the development of isocentric megavoltage external beam radiation therapy machines are briefly reviewed identifying three principal types or generations of equipment to date. The new fourth generation of equipment presented here is characterized by considerably increased flexibility in dose delivery through the use of scanned elementary electron and photon beams of very high quality. Furthermore, the wide energy range and the possibility of using high resolution multi leaf collimation with all beam modalities makes it possible to simplify irradiation techniques and increase the accuracy in dose delivery. The main design features are described including a dual magnet scanning system, a photon beam purging magnet, a helium atmosphere in the treatment head, a beam`s eye view video read-out system of the collimator setting and a radiotherapeutic computed tomography facility. Some of the clinical applications of this new type of radiation therapy machine are finally reviewed, such as the ease of performance, became flattening, beam filtering and compensation, and the simplification of many treatment techniques using the wide spectrum of high quality electron and photon beams. Finally, the interesting possibility of doing conformation and more general isocentric treatments with non-uniform beams using the multi leaf collimator and the scanning systems are demonstrated. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dose distribution following selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.A.; Klemp, P.F.; Egan, G.; Mina, L.L.; Burton, M.A.; Gray, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Selective Internal Radiation Therapy is the intrahepatic arterial injection of microspheres labelled with 90Y. The microspheres lodge in the precapillary circulation of tumor resulting in internal radiation therapy. The activity of the 90Y injected is managed by successive administrations of labelled microspheres and after each injection probing the liver with a calibrated beta probe to assess the dose to the superficial layers of normal tissue. Predicted doses of 75 Gy have been delivered without subsequent evidence of radiation damage to normal cells. This contrasts with the complications resulting from doses in excess of 30 Gy delivered from external beam radiotherapy. Detailed analysis of microsphere distribution in a cubic centimeter of normal liver and the calculation of dose to a 3-dimensional fine grid has shown that the radiation distribution created by the finite size and distribution of the microspheres results in an highly heterogeneous dose pattern. It has been shown that a third of normal liver will receive less than 33.7% of the dose predicted by assuming an homogeneous distribution of 90Y

  18. Measurements and simulations of focused beam for orthovoltage therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Hassan; Mahato, Dip N.; Satti, Jahangir; MacDonald, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Megavoltage photon beams are typically used for therapy because of their skin-sparing effect. However, a focused low-energy x-ray beam would also be skin sparing, and would have a higher dose concentration at the focal spot. Such a beam can be produced with polycapillary optics. MCNP5 was used to model dose profiles for a scanned focused beam, using measured beam parameters. The potential of low energy focused x-ray beams for radiation therapy was assessed. Methods: A polycapillary optic was used to focus the x-ray beam from a tungsten source. The optic was characterized and measurements were performed at 50 kV. PMMA blocks of varying thicknesses were placed between optic and the focal spot to observe any variation in the focusing of the beam after passing through the tissue-equivalent material. The measured energy spectrum was used to model the focused beam in MCNP5. A source card (SDEF) in MCNP5 was used to simulate the converging x-ray beam. Dose calculations were performed inside a breast tissue phantom. Results: The measured focal spot size for the polycapillary optic was 0.2 mm with a depth of field of 5 mm. The measured focal spot remained unchanged through 40 mm of phantom thickness. The calculated depth dose curve inside the breast tissue showed a dose peak several centimeters below the skin with a sharp dose fall off around the focus. The percent dose falls below 10% within 5 mm of the focus. It was shown that rotating the optic during scanning would preserve the skin-sparing effect of the focused beam. Conclusions: Low energy focused x-ray beams could be used to irradiate tumors inside soft tissue within 5 cm of the surface

  19. Proton beam therapy in the management of skull base chordomas: systematic review of indications, outcomes, and implications for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matloob, Samir A; Nasir, Haleema A; Choi, David

    2016-08-01

    Chordomas are rare tumours affecting the skull base. There is currently no clear consensus on the post-surgical radiation treatments that should be used after maximal tumour resection. However, high-dose proton beam therapy is an accepted option for post-operative radiotherapy to maximise local control, and in the UK, National Health Service approval for funding abroad is granted for specific patient criteria. To review the indications and efficacy of proton beam therapy in the management of skull base chordomas. The primary outcome measure for review was the efficacy of proton beam therapy in the prevention of local occurrence. A systematic review of English and non-English articles using MEDLINE (1946-present) and EMBASE (1974-present) databases was performed. Additional studies were reviewed when referenced in other studies and not available on these databases. Search terms included chordoma or chordomas. The PRISMA guidelines were followed for reporting our findings as a systematic review. A total of 76 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for this review. Limitations included the lack of documentation of the extent of primary surgery, tumour size, and lack of standardised outcome measures. Level IIb/III evidence suggests proton beam therapy given post operatively for skull base chordomas results in better survival with less damage to surrounding tissue. Proton beam therapy is a grade B/C recommended treatment modality for post-operative radiation therapy to skull base chordomas. In comparison to other treatment modalities long-term local control and survival is probably improved with proton beam therapy. Further, studies are required to directly compare proton beam therapy to other treatment modalities in selected patients.

  20. Leaflet manual of external beam radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of the indications, evidences, and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim CH

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chai Hong Rim, Won Sup Yoon Department of Radiation Oncology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University Medical College, Ansan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The use of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, which was rarely performed due to liver toxicity with a previous technique, has increased. Palliation of portal vein thrombosis, supplementation for insufficient transarterial chemoembolization, and provision of new curative opportunities using stereotactic body radiotherapy are the potential indications for use of EBRT. The mechanism of EBRT treatment, with its radiobiological and physical perspectives, differs from those of conventional medical treatment or surgery. Therefore, understanding the effects of EBRT may be unfamiliar to physicians other than radiation oncologists, especially in the field of HCC, where EBRT has recently begun to be applied. The first objective of this review was to concisely explain the indications for use of EBRT for HCC for all physicians treating HCC. Therefore, this review focuses on the therapeutic outcomes rather than the detailed biological and physical background. We also reviewed recent clinical trials that may extend the indications for use of EBRT. Finally, we reviewed the current clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of HCC and discuss the current recommendations and future perspectives. Keywords: hepatocellular carcinoma, liver neoplasm, external beam radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, clinical trials, sorafenib, guidelines

  1. Microbeam radiation therapy. Physical and biological aspects of a new cancer therapy and development of a treatment planning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartzsch, Stefan

    2014-11-05

    Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) is a novel treatment strategy against cancer. Highly brilliant synchrotron radiation is collimated to parallel, a few micrometre wide, planar beams and used to irradiate malignant tissues with high doses. The applied peak doses are considerably higher than in conventional radiotherapy, but valley doses between the beams remain underneath the established tissue tolerance. Previous research has shown that these beam geometries spare normal tissue, while being effective in tumour ablation. In this work physical and biological aspects of the therapy were investigated. A therapy planning system was developed for the first clinical treatments at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble (France) and a dosimetry method based on radiochromic films was created to validate planned doses with measurements on a micrometre scale. Finally, experiments were carried out on a cellular level in order to correlate the physically planned doses with the biological damage caused in the tissue. The differences between Monte Carlo dose and dosimetry are less than 10% in the valley and 5% in the peak regions. Developed alternative faster dose calculation methods deviate from the computational intensive MC simulations by less than 15% and are able to determine the dose within a few minutes. The experiments in cell biology revealed an significant influence of intercellular signalling on the survival of cells close to radiation boundaries. These observations may not only be important for MRT but also for conventional radiotherapy.

  2. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with the minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam’s-eye-view) known as ‘apertures’. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as ‘neighbor cuts’, based on the concept of ‘adjacent beams’. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans. (paper)

  3. Is proton beam therapy the future of radiotherapy? Part I: Clinical aspects; La protontherapie: avenir de la radiotherapie? Premiere partie: aspects cliniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Feuvret, L.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V. [Centre de protontherapie d' Orsay, institut Curie, campus universitaire, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouyon-Monteau, A.; Alapetite, C.; Bolle, S.; Dendale, R.; Helfre, S.; Calugaru, V.; Cosset, J.M.; Bey, P. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 75 - Paris (France); Habrand, J.L.; Datchary, J. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Feuvret, L. [Departement d' oncologie-radiotherapie, hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    2010-12-15

    Proton beam therapy uses positively charged particles, protons, whose physical properties improve dose-distribution (Bragg peak characterized by a sharp distal and lateral penumbra) compared with conventional photon-based radiation therapy (X-ray). These ballistic advantages apply to the treatment of deep-sited tumours located close to critical structures and requiring high-dose levels. [60-250 MeV] proton-beam therapy is now widely accepted as the 'gold standard' in specific indications in adults - ocular melanoma, chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull - and is regarded as a highly promising treatment modality in the treatment of paediatric malignancies (brain tumours, sarcomas..). This includes the relative sparing of surrounding normal organs from low and mid-doses that can cause deleterious side-effects such as radiation-induced secondary malignancies. Other clinical studies are currently testing proton beam in dose-escalation evaluations, in prostate, lung, hepatocellular cancers, etc. Clinical validation of these new indications appears necessary. To date, over 60, 000 patients worldwide have received part or all of their radiation therapy program by proton beams, in approximately 30 treatment facilities. (authors)

  4. Practical use of a plastic scintillator for quality assurance of electron beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogo, Katsunori; Tatsuno, Yuya; Tsuneda, Masato; Aono, Yuki; Mochizuki, Daiki; Fujisawa, Yoshiki; Matsushita, Akihiro; Ishigami, Minoru; Ishiyama, Hiromichi; Hayakawa, Kazushige

    2017-06-07

    Quality assurance (QA) of clinical electron beams is essential for performing accurate and safe radiation therapy. However, with advances in radiation therapy, QA has become increasingly labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator for quick and easy QA of clinical electron beams. The proposed tool comprises a plastic scintillator plate and a charge-coupled device camera that enable the scintillation light by electron beams to be recorded with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution. Further, the Cerenkov image is directly subtracted from the scintillation image to discriminate Cerenkov emissions and accurately measure the dose profiles of electron beams with high spatial resolution. Compared with conventional methods, discrepancies in the depth profile improved from 7% to 2% in the buildup region via subtractive corrections. Further, the output brightness showed good linearity with dose, good reproducibility (deviations below 1%), and dose rate independence (within 0.5%). The depth of 50% dose measured with the tool, an index of electron beam quality, was within  ±0.5 mm of that obtained with an ionization chamber. Lateral brightness profiles agreed with the lateral dose profiles to within 4% and no significant improvement was obtained using Cerenkov corrections. Field size agreed to within 0.5 mm with those obtained with ionization chamber. For clinical QA of electron boost treatment, a disk scintillator that mimics the shape of a patient's breast is applied. The brightness distribution and dose, calculated using a treatment planning system, was generally acceptable for clinical use, except in limited zones. Overall, the proposed plastic scintillator plate tool efficiently performs QA for electron beam therapy and enables simultaneous verification of output constancy, beam quality, depth, and lateral dose profiles during monthly QAs at lower doses of irradiation (small monitor units, MUs).

  5. Skin protection by sucralfate cream during electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiche, A.

    1994-01-01

    We performed a double-blind randomized study to compare the efficacy of sucralfate cream to a base cream in 50 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative electron beam therapy to their chest wall. The acute radiation reaction of the skin was statistically significantly prevented by the sucralfate cream. The recovery of the skin was also significantly faster in the sucralfate cream group. Side-effects due to the cream were rare. (orig./MG)

  6. Skin protection by sucralfate cream during electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiche, A. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology); Isokangas, O.P. (Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Oncology); Groehn, P. (Deaconess Hospital, Helsinki (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    We performed a double-blind randomized study to compare the efficacy of sucralfate cream to a base cream in 50 breast cancer patients receiving postoperative electron beam therapy to their chest wall. The acute radiation reaction of the skin was statistically significantly prevented by the sucralfate cream. The recovery of the skin was also significantly faster in the sucralfate cream group. Side-effects due to the cream were rare. (orig./MG).

  7. Anesthesia for pediatric external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortney, Jennifer T.; Halperin, Edward C.; Hertz, Caryn M.; Schulman, Scott R.

    1999-01-01

    Background: For very young patients, anesthesia is often required for radiotherapy. This results in multiple exposures to anesthetic agents over a short period of time. We report a consecutive series of children anesthetized for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods: Five hundred twelve children ≤ 16 years old received EBRT from January 1983 to February 1996. Patient demographics, diagnosis, anesthesia techniques, monitoring, airway management, complications, and outcome were recorded for the patients requiring anesthesia. Results: One hundred twenty-three of the 512 children (24%) required 141 courses of EBRT with anesthesia. Anesthetized patients ranged in age from 20 days to 11 years (mean 2.6 ± 1.8 ). The frequency of a child receiving EBRT and requiring anesthesia by age cohort was: ≤ 1 year (96%), 1-2 years (93%), 2-3 years (80%), 3-4 years (51%), 4-5 years (36%), 5-6 years (13%), 6-7 years (11%), and 7-16 years (0.7%). Diagnoses included: primary CNS tumor (28%), retinoblastoma (27%), neuroblastoma (20%), acute leukemia (9%), rhabdomyosarcoma (6%), and Wilms' tumor (4%). Sixty-three percent of the patients had been exposed to chemotherapy prior to EBRT. The mean number of anesthesia sessions per patient was 22 ± 16. Seventy-eight percent of the treatment courses were once daily and 22% were twice daily. Anesthesia techniques included: short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (21%), inhalation only (20%), ketamine (19%), propofol only (12%), propofol induction + inhalation maintenance (7%), ketamine induction + inhalation maintenance (6%), ketamine or short-acting barbiturate induction + inhalation maintenance (6%). Monitoring techniques included: EKG (95%), O 2 saturation (93%), fraction of inspired O 2 (57%), and end-tidal CO 2 (55%). Sixty-four percent of patients had central venous access. Eleven of the 74 children with a central line developed sepsis (15%): 6 of the 11 were anesthetized with propofol (55%), 4 with a

  8. Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresl, John J.; Schild, Steven E.; Henning, George T.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Donohue, John; Pitot, Henry; Haddock, Michael G.; Nagorney, David

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the outcome of patients with gallbladder cancer who received postoperative concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Curative resection followed by adjuvant combined modality therapy with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and chemotherapy was attempted in 21 consecutive gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) patients at the Mayo Clinic from 1985 through 1997. All patients received concurrent 5-fluorouracil during EBRT. EBRT fields encompassed the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes (median dose of 54 Gy in 1.8-2.0-Gy fractions). One patient received 15 Gy intraoperatively after EBRT. A retrospective analysis was performed for the end points of local control, distant failure, and overall survival. Results: After maximal resection, 12 patients had no residual disease on pathologic evaluation, 5 had microscopic residual disease, and 4 had gross residual disease. One patient had Stage I disease, and 20 had Stage III-IV disease. With median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2.6-11.5 years), 5-year survival for the entire cohort was 33%. The 5-year survival rate of patients with Stage I-III disease was 65% vs. 0% for those with Stage IV disease (p 54 Gy (microscopic residual, 3 patients; gross residual, 1 patient; negative but narrow margins, 2 patients) vs. 65% for the 15 who received a lower dose (3, gross residual; 2, microresidual; 10, negative margins). Conclusion: Patients with completely resected (negative margins) GBC followed by adjuvant EBRT plus 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy had a relatively favorable prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate of 64%. These results seem to be superior to historical surgical controls from the Mayo Clinic and other institutions, which report 5-year survival rates of approximately 33% with complete resection alone. Both tumor stage and extent of resection seemed to influence survival and local control. More aggressive measures using current cancer therapies and integration

  9. Systematic measurements of whole-body imaging dose distributions in image-guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hälg, Roger A.; Besserer, Jürgen; Schneider, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The full benefit of the increased precision of contemporary treatment techniques can only be exploited if the accuracy of the patient positioning is guaranteed. Therefore, more and more imaging modalities are used in the process of the patient setup in clinical routine of radiation therapy. The improved accuracy in patient positioning, however, results in additional dose contributions to the integral patient dose. To quantify this, absorbed dose measurements from typical imaging procedures involved in an image-guided radiation therapy treatment were measured in an anthropomorphic phantom for a complete course of treatment. The experimental setup, including the measurement positions in the phantom, was exactly the same as in a preceding study of radiotherapy stray dose measurements. This allows a direct combination of imaging dose distributions with the therapy dose distribution. Methods: Individually calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters were used to measure absorbed dose in an anthropomorphic phantom at 184 locations. The dose distributions from imaging devices used with treatment machines from the manufacturers Accuray, Elekta, Siemens, and Varian and from computed tomography scanners from GE Healthcare were determined and the resulting effective dose was calculated. The list of investigated imaging techniques consisted of cone beam computed tomography (kilo- and megavoltage), megavoltage fan beam computed tomography, kilo- and megavoltage planar imaging, planning computed tomography with and without gating methods and planar scout views. Results: A conventional 3D planning CT resulted in an effective dose additional to the treatment stray dose of less than 1 mSv outside of the treated volume, whereas a 4D planning CT resulted in a 10 times larger dose. For a daily setup of the patient with two planar kilovoltage images or with a fan beam CT at the TomoTherapy unit, an additional effective dose outside of the treated volume of less than 0.4 mSv and 1

  10. In vivo dosimetry in radiation therapy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Jacob; Blomquist, Michael

    2010-07-01

    A prerequisite for achieving high radiation safety for patients receiving external beam radiation therapy is that the hospitals have a quality assurance program. The program should include include monitoring of the radiation dose given to the patient. Control measurements are performed both at the system level and at the individual level. Control measurement is normally performed using in vivo dosimetry, e.g. a method to measure the radiation dose at the individual level during the actual radiation treatment time. In vivo dosimetry has proven to be an important tool to detect and prevent serious errors in patient treatment. The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent to which vivo dosimetry is used and the methods available for this at Swedish radiation therapy clinics. The authority also wanted to get an overall picture of how hospitals manage results of in vivo dosimetry, and how clinics control radiation dose when using modern treatment techniques. The report reflects the situation in Swedish radiotherapy clinics 2007. The report shows that all hospitals use some form of in vivo dosimetry. The instruments used are mainly diodes and termoluminiscence dosimeters

  11. Novel imaging and quality assurance techniques for ion beam therapy a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Rinaldi, I; Jäkel, O; Mairani, A; Parodi, K

    2010-01-01

    Ion beams exhibit a finite and well defined range in matter together with an “inverted” depth-dose profile, the so-called Bragg peak. These favourable physical properties may enable superior tumour-dose conformality for high precision radiation therapy. On the other hand, they introduce the issue of sensitivity to range uncertainties in ion beam therapy. Although these uncertainties are typically taken into account when planning the treatment, correct delivery of the intended ion beam range has to be assured to prevent undesired underdosage of the tumour or overdosage of critical structures outside the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to define dedicated Quality Assurance procedures to enable in-vivo range verification before or during therapeutic irradiation. For these purposes, Monte Carlo transport codes are very useful tools to support the development of novel imaging modalities for ion beam therapy. In the present work, we present calculations performed with the FLUKA Monte Carlo code and pr...

  12. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  13. Radiation collimator for use with high energy radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malak, S.P.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is described for use with a beam of radiation, and in particular, for use in controlling the cross-sectional size and shape of the radiation beam and intercepting undesired off-focus radiation in an x-ray apparatus. The collimator is positioned adjacent to the source of radiation and embodies a plurality longitudinally extending leaves pivotally mounted on and between two supports, the leaves move about their pivots to close overlapping relation to define a hollow cone. The cone defines an aperture at its narrow end which can be adjusted in size and shape by rotation of the two supports which are adaptable to being moved one relative to the other, to cause an expansion or contraction of the hollow cone and correspondingly an increase or decrease of the cross-sectional size and/or shape of the radiation beam passing through the aperture

  14. Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy Versus Intensity-Modulated and Proton Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthan, Anju; Pruttivarasin, Narin; Davies, Diane; Taylor, Douglas C. A.; Pawar, Vivek; Bijlani, Akash; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Chen, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publicly available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: Compared to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and proton beam therapy (PT), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75% and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusion: Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  15. SU-E-T-66: Characterization of Radiation Dose Associated with Dark Currents During Beam Hold for Respiratory-Gated Electron Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessler, J; Gupta, N; Rong, Y; Weldon, M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to estimate the radiation dose contributed by dark currents associated with the respiratory-gated electron therapy during beam hold. The secondary aim was to determine clinical benefits of using respiratory-gated electron therapy for left-sided breast cancer patients with positive internal mammary nodes (IMN). Methods: Measurements of the dark current-induced dose in all electron modes were performed on multiple Siemens and Varian linear accelerators by manually simulating beam-hold during respiratory gating. Dose was quantified at the machine isocenter by comparing the collected charge to the known output for all energies ranging from 6 to 18 MeV for a 10cm × 10cm field at 100 SSD with appropriate solid-water buildup. Using the Eclipse treatment planning system, we compared the additional dose associated with dark current using gated electron fields to the dose uncertainties associated with matching gated photon fields and ungated electron fields. Dose uncertainties were seen as hot and cold spots along the match line of the fields. Results: The magnitude of the dose associated with dark current is highly correlated to the energy of the beam and the amount of time the beam is on hold. For lower energies (6–12 MeV), there was minimal dark current dose (0.1–1.3 cGy/min). Higher energies (15–18 MeV) showed measurable amount of doses. The dark current associated with the electron beam-hold varied between linear accelerator vendors and depended on dark current suppression and the age of the linear accelerator. Conclusion: For energies up to 12 MeV, the dose associated with the dark current for respiratorygated electron therapy was shown to be negligible, and therefore should be considered an option for treating IMN positive left-sided breast cancer patients. However, at higher energies the benefit of respiratory gating may be outweighed by dose due to the dark current

  16. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarepisheh, M; Li, R; Xing, L [Stanford UniversitySchool of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Ye, Y [Stanford Univ, Management Science and Engineering, Stanford, Ca (United States); Boyd, S [Stanford University, Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  17. SU-E-T-295: Simultaneous Beam Sampling and Aperture Shape Optimization for Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarepisheh, M; Li, R; Xing, L; Ye, Y; Boyd, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Station Parameter Optimized Radiation Therapy (SPORT) was recently proposed to fully utilize the technical capability of emerging digital LINACs, in which the station parameters of a delivery system, (such as aperture shape and weight, couch position/angle, gantry/collimator angle) are optimized altogether. SPORT promises to deliver unprecedented radiation dose distributions efficiently, yet there does not exist any optimization algorithm to implement it. The purpose of this work is to propose an optimization algorithm to simultaneously optimize the beam sampling and aperture shapes. Methods: We build a mathematical model whose variables are beam angles (including non-coplanar and/or even nonisocentric beams) and aperture shapes. To solve the resulting large scale optimization problem, we devise an exact, convergent and fast optimization algorithm by integrating three advanced optimization techniques named column generation, gradient method, and pattern search. Column generation is used to find a good set of aperture shapes as an initial solution by adding apertures sequentially. Then we apply the gradient method to iteratively improve the current solution by reshaping the aperture shapes and updating the beam angles toward the gradient. Algorithm continues by pattern search method to explore the part of the search space that cannot be reached by the gradient method. Results: The proposed technique is applied to a series of patient cases and significantly improves the plan quality. In a head-and-neck case, for example, the left parotid gland mean-dose, brainstem max-dose, spinal cord max-dose, and mandible mean-dose are reduced by 10%, 7%, 24% and 12% respectively, compared to the conventional VMAT plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Conclusion: Combined use of column generation, gradient search and pattern search algorithms provide an effective way to optimize simultaneously the large collection of station parameters and significantly improves

  18. Hypothyroidism in a dog after surgery and radiation therapy for a functional thyroid adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.W.; Price, G.S.; Spodnick, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Hypothyroidism was diagnosed in a dog which had undergone unilateral thyroid lobectomy and external beam irradiation (48 Gy in 3 Gy fractions) for a functional cystic thyroid adenocarcinoma. Hypothyroidism became biochemically apparent within 4 months of completion of radiation therapy, and clinically apparent within 7 months. Clinical signs resolved after thyroid hormone supplementation. The potential for alterations in thyroid function should be considered in any animal undergoing radiation therapy in which the thyroid gland is included in the radiation field. This potential may be greater if surgery and radiation are combined

  19. Photon beam audits for radiation therapy clinics: A pilot mailed dosemeter study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yegingil, Z.; DeWerd, L. A.; Davis, S. D.; Hammer, C.; Kunugi, K.

    2012-01-01

    A thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) mailed dose audit programme was performed at five radiotherapy clinics in Turkey. The intercomparison was organised by the Univ. of Wisconsin Radiation Calibration Laboratory (UWRCL), which was responsible for the technical aspects of the study including reference irradiations, distribution, collection and evaluation. The purpose of these audits was to perform an independent dosimetry check of the radiation beams using TLDs sent by mail. Acrylic holders, each with five TLD chips inside and instructions for their irradiation to specified absorbed dose to water of 2 Gy, were mailed to all participating clinics. TLD irradiations were performed with a 6 MV linear accelerator and 60 Co photon beams. The deviations from the TL readings of UWRCL were calculated. Discrepancies inside the limits of ±5 % between the participant-stated dose, and the TLD-measured dose were considered acceptable. One out of 10 beams checked was outside this limit, with a difference of 5.8 %. (authors)

  20. Early observed transient prostate-specific antigen elevations on a pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and fractionated MRI guided High Dose Rate brachytherapy boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anurag K; Godette, Denise J; Stall, Bronwyn R; Coleman, C Norman; Camphausen, Kevin; Ménard, Cynthia; Guion, Peter; Susil, Robert C; Citrin, Deborah E; Ning, Holly; Miller, Robert W; Ullman, Karen; Smith, Sharon; Crouse, Nancy Sears

    2006-01-01

    To report early observation of transient PSA elevations on this pilot study of external beam radiation therapy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Eleven patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk localized prostate cancer received MRI guided HDR brachytherapy (10.5 Gy each fraction) before and after a course of external beam radiotherapy (46 Gy). Two patients continued on hormones during follow-up and were censored for this analysis. Four patients discontinued hormone therapy after RT. Five patients did not receive hormones. PSA bounce is defined as a rise in PSA values with a subsequent fall below the nadir value or to below 20% of the maximum PSA level. Six previously published definitions of biochemical failure to distinguish true failure from were tested: definition 1, rise >0.2 ng/mL; definition 2, rise >0.4 ng/mL; definition 3, rise >35% of previous value; definition 4, ASTRO defined guidelines, definition 5 nadir + 2 ng/ml, and definition 6, nadir + 3 ng/ml. Median follow-up was 24 months (range 18–36 mo). During follow-up, the incidence of transient PSA elevation was: 55% for definition 1, 44% for definition 2, 55% for definition 3, 33% for definition 4, 11% for definition 5, and 11% for definition 6. We observed a substantial incidence of transient elevations in PSA following combined external beam radiation and HDR brachytherapy for prostate cancer. Such elevations seem to be self-limited and should not trigger initiation of salvage therapies. No definition of failure was completely predictive

  1. Biological basis of heavy ion beams for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1985-01-01

    Fast neutron therapy has started firstly and proton therapy has commenced secondly, fast neutron shows better biological effects compared to conventional radiations but its dose distribution is not good, and proton demonstrates excellent dose distribution but its biological effects are almost the same as that of conventional radiations. On the other hand, negative pi-mesons and heavy ions indicate high radiobiological effect and excellent dose distribution, therefore these particle radiations is considered to be more attractive for radiotherapeutic radiations to enhance cure rate of cancers. The biological strong points of these particles are as follows : 1) cells exposed to these particle radiations shows less recovery after irradiation compared to conventional radiations, 2) these radiations show high biological effects (high value of relative biological effectiveness = RBE) when the same dose is given, 3) big effects on hypoxic cells which exsist in tumor, i.e. the value of oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) is low, 4) the differences in radiosensitivity by stages of cell cycle are not so great (data was not shown in present paper), 5) biological effects at prepeak plateau region in depth dose curve formed by these particle radiations is less than that at peak region (therefore, if beam is modulated to cover tumor at spraed out broad peak, tumors is given more biological effect compared to normal tissues which is to be exposed to radiations at prepaeak region). Clinical trial using heavy ions are being performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory which is only one facility to be able to try clinical trial. The results of clinical trials at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory suggest to be very prospective to enhance tumor cure rate, however it is too early to estimate the effect of heavy ion therapy. (J.P.N.)

  2. Long-Term Results of an RTOG Phase II Trial (00-19) of External-Beam Radiation Therapy Combined With Permanent Source Brachytherapy for Intermediate-Risk Clinically Localized Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, Colleen A., E-mail: clawton@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Yan, Yan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC (United States); Gillin, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Firat, Selim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Baikadi, Madhava [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northeast Radiation Oncology Center, Scranton, PA (United States); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC (Canada); Kuettel, Michael [Department of Radiation Medicine, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States); Morton, Gerald [Department of Radiation Oncology, Toronto-Sunnybrook Regional Cancer Center, Toronto, ON (Canada); Sandler, Howard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: External-beam radiation therapy combined with low-doserate permanent brachytherapy are commonly used to treat men with localized prostate cancer. This Phase II trial was performed to document late gastrointestinal or genitourinary toxicity as well as biochemical control for this treatment in a multi-institutional cooperative group setting. This report defines the long-term results of this trial. Methods and Materials: All eligible patients received external-beam radiation (45 Gy in 25 fractions) followed 2-6 weeks later by a permanent iodine 125 implant of 108 Gy. Late toxicity was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. Biochemical control was defined by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (ASTRO) Consensus definition and the ASTRO Phoenix definition. Results: One hundred thirty-eight patients were enrolled from 20 institutions, and 131 were eligible. Median follow-up (living patients) was 8.2 years (range, 2.7-9.3 years). The 8-year estimate of late grade >3 genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal toxicity was 15%. The most common grade >3 toxicities were urinary frequency, dysuria, and proctitis. There were two grade 4 toxicities, both bladder necrosis, and no grade 5 toxicities. In addition, 42% of patients complained of grade 3 impotence (no erections) at 8 years. The 8-year estimate of biochemical failure was 18% and 21% by the Phoenix and ASTRO consensus definitions, respectively. Conclusion: Biochemical control for this treatment seems durable with 8 years of follow-up and is similar to high-dose external beam radiation alone or brachytherapy alone. Late toxicity in this multi-institutional trial is higher than reports from similar cohorts of patients treated with high-dose external-beam radiation alone or permanent low-doserate brachytherapy alone, perhaps suggesting further attention to strategies that limit doses to

  3. Charged particle therapy with mini-segmented beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Avraham eDilmanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely Interleaved carbon minibeams and Radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams, both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel minibeams of about 0.3 mm incident beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90º angles and made to interleave at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology six month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain tissue depth

  4. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, Abigail T.; James, Sara St.; Rengan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT), through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning

  5. The Indiana University proton radiation therapy project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, C.; Derenchuk, V.; Cameron, J.; Fasano, M.; Gilmore, J.; Hashemian, R.; Hornback, N.; Low, D.A.; Morphis, J.; Peterson, C.; Rosselot, D.; Sandison, G.; Shen, R.N.; Shidnia, H.

    1993-01-01

    A fixed horizontal beam line at the Indiana University cyclotron facility (IUCF) has been equipped for proton radiation therapy treatment of head, neck, and brain tumors. The complete system will be commissioned and ready to treat patients early in 1993. IUCF can produce external proton beams from 45 to 200 MeV in energy, which corresponds to a maximum range in water of 26 cm. Beam currents over 100 nA are easily attained, allowing dose rates in excess of 200 cGy/min, even for large fields. Beam spreading systems have been tested which provide uniform fields up to 20 cm in diameter. Range modulation is accomplished with a rotating acrylic device, which provides uniform depth dose distributions from 3 to 18 cm in extent. Tests have been conducted on detectors which monitor the beam position and current, and the dose symmetry. This report discusses those devices, as well as the cyclotron characteristics, measured beam properties, safety interlocks, computerized dose delivery/monitoring system, and future plans. (orig.)

  6. Linear algebraic methods applied to intensity modulated radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, S M; Xing, L

    2001-10-01

    Methods of linear algebra are applied to the choice of beam weights for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). It is shown that the physical interpretation of the beam weights, target homogeneity and ratios of deposited energy can be given in terms of matrix equations and quadratic forms. The methodology of fitting using linear algebra as applied to IMRT is examined. Results are compared with IMRT plans that had been prepared using a commercially available IMRT treatment planning system and previously delivered to cancer patients.

  7. Simultaneous beam geometry and intensity map optimization in intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eva K.; Fox, Tim; Crocker, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: In current intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan optimization, the focus is on either finding optimal beam angles (or other beam delivery parameters such as field segments, couch angles, gantry angles) or optimal beam intensities. In this article we offer a mixed integer programming (MIP) approach for simultaneously determining an optimal intensity map and optimal beam angles for IMRT delivery. Using this approach, we pursue an experimental study designed to (a) gauge differences in plan quality metrics with respect to different tumor sites and different MIP treatment planning models, and (b) test the concept of critical-normal-tissue-ring-a tissue ring of 5 mm thickness drawn around the planning target volume (PTV)-and its use for designing conformal plans. Methods and Materials: Our treatment planning models use two classes of decision variables to capture the beam configuration and intensities simultaneously. Binary (0/1) variables are used to capture 'on' or 'off' or 'yes' or 'no' decisions for each field, and nonnegative continuous variables are used to represent intensities of beamlets. Binary and continuous variables are also used for each voxel to capture dose level and dose deviation from target bounds. Treatment planning models were designed to explicitly incorporate the following planning constraints: (a) upper/lower/mean dose-based constraints, (b) dose-volume and equivalent-uniform-dose (EUD) constraints for critical structures, (c) homogeneity constraints (underdose/overdose) for PTV, (d) coverage constraints for PTV, and (e) maximum number of beams allowed. Within this constrained solution space, five optimization strategies involving clinical objectives were analyzed: optimize total intensity to PTV, optimize total intensity and then optimize conformity, optimize total intensity and then optimize homogeneity, minimize total dose to critical structures, minimize total dose to critical structures and optimize conformity

  8. Monte Carlo design, dosimetry and radiation protection studies for a new mobile electron accelerator for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka-Rabin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivers a large, single fraction dose of radiation to a surgically exposed tumor or tumor bed. This presentation reviews the design concept and dosimetry characteristics of an electron beam forming system for an IORT accelerator, with special emphasis on beam flatness, X-ray contamination and protecting personnel from dose delivered outside the treatment field. The Monte Carlo code, BEAMnrc/EGSnrc, was used to design, verify and optimize the electron beam forming system for two different docking methods with circular metallic applicators. Calculations of therapeutic beam characteristics were performed at the patient surface. Findings were obtained for initially mono-energetic electron beams with an energy range from 4 to 12 MeV, SSD equal to 60 cm, and circular applicators with diameters from 3 to 12 cm. The aim was to build an electron beam forming system (collimators, scattering-flattening foils, applicators) that is universal for all beam energy and field diameters described above

  9. Proton radiation therapy for retinoblastoma: Comparison of various intraocular tumor locations and beam arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krengli, Marco; Hug, Eugen B.; Adams, Judy A.; Smith, Alfred R.; Tarbell, Nancy J.; Munzenrider, John E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study the optimization of proton beam arrangements for various intraocular tumor locations; and to correlate isodose distributions with various target and nontarget structures. Methods and materials: We considered posterior-central, nasal, and temporal tumor locations, with straight, intrarotated, or extrarotated eye positions. Doses of 46 cobalt grey equivalent (CGE) to gross tumor volume (GTV) and 40 CGE to clinical target volume (CTV) (2 CGE per fraction) were assumed. Using three-dimensional planning, we compared isodose distributions for lateral, anterolateral oblique, and anteromedial oblique beams and dose-volume histograms of CTVs, GTVs, lens, lacrimal gland, bony orbit, and soft tissues. Results: All beam arrangements fully covered GTVs and CTVs with optimal lens sparing. Only 15% of orbital bone received doses ≥20 CGE with a lateral beam, with 20-26 CGE delivered to two of three growth centers. The anterolateral oblique approach with an intrarotated eye resulted in additional reduction of bony volume and exposure of only one growth center. No appreciable dose was delivered to the contralateral eye, brain tissue, or pituitary gland. Conclusions: Proton therapy achieved homogeneous target coverage with true lens sparing. Doses to orbit structures, including bony growth centers, were minimized with different beam arrangements and eye positions. Proton therapy could reduce the risks of second malignancy and cosmetic and functional sequelae

  10. Risk management of radiation therapy. Survey by north Japan radiation therapy oncology group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masahiko; Abe, Yoshinao; Yamada, Shogo; Hareyama, Masato; Nakamura, Ryuji; Sugita, Tadashi; Miyano, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    A North Japan Radiation Oncology Group (NJRTOG) survey was carried out to disclose the risk management of radiation therapy. During April 2002, we sent questionnaires to radiation therapy facilities in northern Japan. There were 31 replies from 27 facilities. Many incidents and accidents were reported, including old cases. Although 60% of facilities had a risk management manual and/or risk manager, only 20% had risk management manuals for radiation therapy. Eighty five percent of radiation oncologists thought that incidents may be due to a lack of manpower. Ninety percent of radiation oncologists want to know the type of cases happened in other facilities. The risk management system is still insufficient for radiation therapy. We hope that our data will be a great help to develop risk management strategies for radiation therapy for all radiation oncologists in Japan. (author)

  11. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, M; Soares, C G [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC (USA)

    1981-08-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams.

  12. Measurement assurance studies of high-energy electron and photon dosimetry in radiation-therapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, M.; Soares, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    This is a brief review of surveys on the dosimetry of radiation-therapy beams by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Covered are the NBS ferrous-sulfate (Fricke) dosimetry service, a recently completed survey carried out with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) on the dosimetry in cobalt-60 teletherapy beams, and plans for a TLD survey of dosimetry in high-energy bremsstrahlung beams. (author)

  13. Effectiveness of Cepharanthin in decreasing interruptions during radiation therapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yuka; Murakami, Shumei; Kamimoto, Naoya; Nakatani, Atsutoshi; Furukawa, Souhei

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Cepharanthin (Kakensyoyaku, Tokyo, Japan) at decreasing side effects during radiation therapy for oral cancer and thereby allowing the completion of radiation therapy without interruption. Two hundred fifteen patients diagnosed with oral cancers were assigned to either Cepharanthin or control groups and underwent external beam irradiation. The completion of the course of radiation therapy and the occurrence of side effects such as mucositis, dysgeusia, and xerostomia during the radiation therapy were evaluated and compared. The completion rate was 87.4% for the Cepharanthin group versus 67.0% for the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). Mucositis did not appear in 58 of 127 cases (45.7%) in the Cepharanthin group or in 21 of 88 cases (23.9%) in the control group. Mucositis developed in 24.6% of the Cepharanthin group and 53.7% of the control group within 2 weeks of irradiation. There were significant relationships between the use of Cepharanthin and the development and timing of mucositis (both P<0.01). Cepharanthin improved the completion of radiation therapy without interruption and reduced or delayed the development of mucositis during radiation therapy for oral cancer. (author)

  14. Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma; Hypofractionated radiation therapy for the treatment of feline facial squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, S.C.S.; Corgozinho, K.B.; Holguin, P.G.; Ferreira, A.M.R., E-mail: simonecsc@gmail.co [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, L.A.V. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Canary, P.C.; Reisner, M. [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, A.N.; Souza, H.J.M. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The efficacy of hypofractionated radiation protocol for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma was evaluated. Hypofractionated radiation therapy was applied to five cats showing single or multiple facial squamous cell carcinomas, in a total of ten histologically confirmed neoplastic lesions. Of the lesions, two were staged as T{sub 1}, four as T{sub 2}, two as T{sub 3}, and two as T{sub 4}. The animals were submitted to four radiation fractions from 7.6 to 10 grays each, with one week intervals. The equipment was a linear accelerator with electrons beam. The cats were evaluated weekly during the treatment and 30 and 60 days after the end of the radiation therapy. In this study, 40% of the lesions had complete remission, 40% partial remission, and 20% did not respond to the treatment. Response rates were lower as compared to other protocols previously used. However, hypofractionated radiation protocol was considered safe for feline facial squamous cell carcinoma. (author)

  15. LHCB: A LHCb-VELO module as beam quality monitor for proton therapy beam at the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology

    CERN Multimedia

    Casse, G; Patel, G D; Smith, N A; Kacperek, A; Marsland, B

    2010-01-01

    The progress in detector technology, driven by the needs of particle tracking and vertexing in the present LHC and its upgrade (sLHC), has led to the design of silicon sensors with low mass, high granularity, high speed and unprecedented radiation hardness. The sensors designed for such a harsh environment can be profitably used for instrumenting the control systems of therapeutic hadron beams. The high granularity and readout clock speed are well suited for monitoring continuous beam currents. The low mass allows reduced interference with the beam whilst monitoring its profile with high precision. The high resolution and sensitivity to minimum ionising particles allows monitoring of the beam spot position by measurement of the halo in real time, without any interference with the beam spot used in therapy.

  16. Radiation therapy for endometrial cancer in patients treated for postoperative recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, Kimberly B.; Han, Ihn; Shamsa, Falah; Court, Wayne S.; Chuba, Paul; Deppe, Gunter; Malone, John; Christensen, Carl; Porter, Arthur T.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the outcome and risk factors in patients treated with radiation for endometrial cancer at time of recurrence. Materials and Methods: Three hundred ninety-nine women were treated with radiation therapy for endometrial cancer at KCI/WSU from January 1980 to December 1994. Of these, 26 patients treated primarily with surgery received radiation therapy at the time of recurrence. Median time to recurrence after surgery was 8 months, with all recurrences occurring within 24 months. Twenty-four patients had recurrences in the vaginal cuff, vagina, or pelvis. These patients received external-beam radiation to the pelvis (45.00-50.40 Gy) and periaortic lymph nodes (45.00-50.00 Gy), along with a boost given by external-beam radiation or brachytherapy (16.00-30.00 Gy). Mean follow-up was 15 months (range 1-85 months). Results: The 2-year survival was 50% and median survival was 16 months (survival range 1-85 months). Of 26 patients, 54% (14) failed locally following radiation therapy. Factors indicative of poor survival included histology (sarcoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma), grade, and lymph node positivity. Histological differentiation influenced local control; lymphovascular space invasion was of borderline significance with regard to local control. Conclusion: Local control and survival for surgically treated endometrial cancer patients who receive radiation at the time of recurrence are poor, with the exception of those patients with recurrent disease limited to the vagina. Early detection of recurrence may improve outcome. Pathologic risk factors may identify those patients at risk for extrapelvic recurrence. Alternative treatment modalities need to be developed for this high-risk group of patients

  17. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-02-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCTFM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCTST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCTFM and CBCTST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland-Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoAmean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCTFM and ±3.0 mm for CBCTST . Differences between CBCTST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCTFM (AvCBCTFM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCTST and AvCBCTFM . CBCTFM and CBCTST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCTFM 95% LoAmean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCTST 95% LoAmean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCTST with AvCBCTFM resulted in 95% LoA of -4.9 to 2.6, -1.6 to 2.5 and -4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior-inferior, left-right and anterior-posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy. © 2014 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Assessment of cone beam CT registration for prostate radiation therapy: fiducial marker and soft tissue methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deegan, Timothy; Owen, Rebecca; Holt, Tanya; Fielding, Andrew; Biggs, Jennifer; Parfitt, Matthew; Coates, Alicia; Roberts, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aimed to assess the consistency and accuracy of radiation therapists (RTs) performing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) alignment to fiducial markers (FMs) (CBCT FM ) and the soft tissue prostate (CBCT ST ). Six patients receiving prostate radiation therapy underwent daily CBCTs. Manual alignment of CBCT FM and CBCT ST was performed by three RTs. Inter-observer agreement was assessed using a modified Bland–Altman analysis for each alignment method. Clinically acceptable 95% limits of agreement with the mean (LoA mean ) were defined as ±2.0 mm for CBCT FM and ±3.0 mm for CBCT ST . Differences between CBCT ST alignment and the observer-averaged CBCT FM (AvCBCT FM ) alignment were analysed. Clinically acceptable 95% LoA were defined as ±3.0 mm for the comparison of CBCT ST and AvCBCT FM . CBCT FM and CBCT ST alignments were performed for 185 images. The CBCT FM 95% LoA mean were within ±2.0 mm in all planes. CBCT ST 95% LoA mean were within ±3.0 mm in all planes. Comparison of CBCT ST with AvCBCT FM resulted in 95% LoA of −4.9 to 2.6, −1.6 to 2.5 and −4.7 to 1.9 mm in the superior–inferior, left–right and anterior–posterior planes, respectively. Significant differences were found between soft tissue alignment and the predicted FM position. FMs are useful in reducing inter-observer variability compared with soft tissue alignment. Consideration needs to be given to margin design when using soft tissue matching due to increased inter-observer variability. This study highlights some of the complexities of soft tissue guidance for prostate radiation therapy.

  19. WE-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Nanoparticles Improve Clinical MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detappe, A [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Lyon, FR (France); Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Sancey, L; Motto-Ros, V; Tillement, O [Institut Lumiere-Matiere, Lyon, FR (France)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: MR-guided radiation therapy is a current and emerging clinical reality. We have designed and tested a silica-based gadolinium chelates nanoparticle (AGuIX) for integration with MR-guided radiation therapy. The AGuIX nanoparticles used in this study are a dual-modality probe with radiosensitization properties and better MRI contrast than current FDA-approved gadolinium chelates. In advance of an approved Phase I clinical trial, we report on the efficacy and safety in multiple animal models and clinically relevant radiation conditions. By modeling our study on current clinic workflows, we show compatibility with modern patient care, thus heightening the translational significance of this research. Methods: The dual imaging and therapy functionality of AGuIX was investigated in mice with clinical radiation beams while safety was evaluated in mice, and nonhuman primates after systemic injection of 0.25 mg/g of nanoparticles. MRI/ICP-MS were used to measure tumor uptake and biodistribution. Due to their small size (2–3 nm), AGuIX have good renal clearance (t1/2=19min). We performed in vitro cell uptake quantification and radiosensitization studies (clonogenic assays and DNA damage quantification). In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed with both 6MV and 6MV-FFF clinical radiation beams. Histology was performed to measure the increase in DNA damage in the tumor and to evaluate the toxicity in healthy tissues. Results: In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in DNA damage, tumor growth supression and survival (+100 days) compared to radiation alone. Negligible toxicity was observed in all of the animal models. The combination of 6MV-FFF/AGuIX demonstrated a substantial dose enhancement compared to 6MV/AGuIX (DEF = 1.36 vs. 1.22) due to the higher proportion of low energy photons. Conclusion: With demonstrated efficacy and negligible toxicity in mice and non-human primates, AGuIX is a biocompatible

  20. WE-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Nanoparticles Improve Clinical MR-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detappe, A; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R; Sancey, L; Motto-Ros, V; Tillement, O

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MR-guided radiation therapy is a current and emerging clinical reality. We have designed and tested a silica-based gadolinium chelates nanoparticle (AGuIX) for integration with MR-guided radiation therapy. The AGuIX nanoparticles used in this study are a dual-modality probe with radiosensitization properties and better MRI contrast than current FDA-approved gadolinium chelates. In advance of an approved Phase I clinical trial, we report on the efficacy and safety in multiple animal models and clinically relevant radiation conditions. By modeling our study on current clinic workflows, we show compatibility with modern patient care, thus heightening the translational significance of this research. Methods: The dual imaging and therapy functionality of AGuIX was investigated in mice with clinical radiation beams while safety was evaluated in mice, and nonhuman primates after systemic injection of 0.25 mg/g of nanoparticles. MRI/ICP-MS were used to measure tumor uptake and biodistribution. Due to their small size (2–3 nm), AGuIX have good renal clearance (t1/2=19min). We performed in vitro cell uptake quantification and radiosensitization studies (clonogenic assays and DNA damage quantification). In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed with both 6MV and 6MV-FFF clinical radiation beams. Histology was performed to measure the increase in DNA damage in the tumor and to evaluate the toxicity in healthy tissues. Results: In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in DNA damage, tumor growth supression and survival (+100 days) compared to radiation alone. Negligible toxicity was observed in all of the animal models. The combination of 6MV-FFF/AGuIX demonstrated a substantial dose enhancement compared to 6MV/AGuIX (DEF = 1.36 vs. 1.22) due to the higher proportion of low energy photons. Conclusion: With demonstrated efficacy and negligible toxicity in mice and non-human primates, AGuIX is a biocompatible

  1. X-band Linac for a 6 MeV dual-head radiation therapy gantry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Shin, Seung-Wook; Lee, Jongchul; Kim, Hui-Su [WCU Department of Energy Science, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung-Chul [Radiation Instrumentation Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 56212 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyung-dal; Song, Ki-back [Radiation Technology eXcellence (RTX), Daejeon 305-500 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho-seung; Mun, Sangchul; Ha, Donghyup [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Chai, Jong-Seo, E-mail: jschai@skku.edu [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-21

    We developed a design for a 6 MeV X-band linear accelerator for radiation therapy in a dual-head gantry layout. The dual-head gantry has two linacs that can be operated independently. Each X-band linac accelerates electron bunches using high-power RF and generates X-rays for radiation therapy. It requires a versatile RF system and pulse sequence to accomplish various radiation therapy procedures. The RF system consists of 9.3 GHz, 2 MW X-band magnetron and associated RF transmission components. A test linac was assembled and operated to characterize its RF performance without beam. This paper presents these results along with a description of the gantry linacs and their operational requirements.

  2. Measurement of the radiation in the accelerator-therapy room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutz, Hayo

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the scattering radiation in the accelerator-therapy room of the PTB is described. The accelerators are commercial linear accelerators of the firm Elektra of the type ''Precise''. The measurements were performed by means of secondary-normal ionization chambers and a special measurement technique developed in the PTB both with and without the used beam. (HSI)

  3. Radiation Dose-Response Model for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer After Preoperative Chemoradiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, A. L.; Ploen, J.; Vogelius, I. R.

    2013-01-01

    estimated radiation dose-response curves for various grades of tumor regression after preoperative CRT. Methods and Materials: A total of 222 patients, treated with consistent chemotherapy and radiation therapy techniques, were considered for the analysis. Radiation therapy consisted of a combination...... of external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy. Response at the time of operation was evaluated from the histopathologic specimen and graded on a 5-point scale (TRG1-5). The probability of achieving complete, major, and partial response was analyzed by ordinal logistic regression, and the effect...... of including clinical parameters in the model was examined. The radiation dose-response relationship for a specific grade of histopathologic tumor regression was parameterized in terms of the dose required for 50% response, D-50,D-i, and the normalized dose-response gradient, gamma(50,i). Results: A highly...

  4. The role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Suk; Choi, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Sik [Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the effect of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on local failure-free survival rate (LFFS) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) invading the trachea. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced PTC invading the trachea were treated with surgical resection. After surgery, 21 patients received adjuvant EBRT and radioactive iodine therapy (EBRT group) and 35 patients were treated with radioactive iodine therapy (control group). The age range was 26–87 years (median, 56 years). The median follow-up period was 43 months (range, 4 to 145 months). EBRT doses ranged from 50.4 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Esophagus invasion and gross residual disease was more frequent in the EBRT group. In the control group, local recurrence developed in 9 (9/35, 26%) and new distant metastasis in 2 (2/35, 6%) patients, occurring 4 to 68 months (median, 37 months) and 53 to 68 months (median, 60 months) after surgery, respectively. Two patients had simultaneous local recurrence and new distant metastasis. There was one local failure in the EBRT group at 18 months after surgery (1/21, 5%). The 5-year LFFS was 95% in the EBRT group and 63% in the control group (p = 0.103). In the EBRT group, one late grade 2 xerostomia was developed. Although, EBRT group had a higher incidence of esophagus invasion and gross residual disease, EBRT group showed a better 5-year LFFS. Adjuvant EBRT may have contributed to the better LFFS in these patients.

  5. Deep Inspiration Breath Hold—Based Radiation Therapy: A Clinical Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit, E-mail: judit.boda-heggemann@umm.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany); Knopf, Antje-Christin [The Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Cancer Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Simeonova-Chergou, Anna; Wertz, Hansjörg; Stieler, Florian; Jahnke, Anika; Jahnke, Lennart; Fleckenstein, Jens; Vogel, Lena; Arns, Anna; Blessing, Manuel; Wenz, Frederik; Lohr, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Several recent developments in linear accelerator–based radiation therapy (RT) such as fast multileaf collimators, accelerated intensity modulation paradigms like volumeric modulated arc therapy and flattening filter-free (FFF) high-dose-rate therapy have dramatically shortened the duration of treatment fractions. Deliverable photon dose distributions have approached physical complexity limits as a consequence of precise dose calculation algorithms and online 3-dimensional image guided patient positioning (image guided RT). Simultaneously, beam quality and treatment speed have continuously been improved in particle beam therapy, especially for scanned particle beams. Applying complex treatment plans with steep dose gradients requires strategies to mitigate and compensate for motion effects in general, particularly breathing motion. Intrafractional breathing-related motion results in uncertainties in dose delivery and thus in target coverage. As a consequence, generous margins have been used, which, in turn, increases exposure to organs at risk. Particle therapy, particularly with scanned beams, poses additional problems such as interplay effects and range uncertainties. Among advanced strategies to compensate breathing motion such as beam gating and tracking, deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) gating is particularly advantageous in several respects, not only for hypofractionated, high single-dose stereotactic body RT of lung, liver, and upper abdominal lesions but also for normofractionated treatment of thoracic tumors such as lung cancer, mediastinal lymphomas, and breast cancer. This review provides an in-depth discussion of the rationale and technical implementation of DIBH gating for hypofractionated and normofractionated RT of intrathoracic and upper abdominal tumors in photon and proton RT.

  6. Comparative cost-effectiveness of stereotactic body radiation therapy versus intensity-modulated and proton radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju eParthan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the cost-effectiveness of several external beam radiation treatment modalities for the treatment of patients with localized prostate cancer.Methods. A lifetime Markov model incorporated the probabilities of experiencing treatment-related long-term toxicity or death. Toxicity probabilities were derived from published sources using meta-analytical techniques. Utilities and costs in the model were obtained from publically available secondary sources. The model calculated quality-adjusted life expectancy and expected lifetime cost per patient, and derived ratios of incremental cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY gained between treatments. Analyses were conducted from both a payer and societal perspectives. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed.Results. Compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and proton beam therapy (PT, stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT was less costly and resulted in more QALYs. Sensitivity analyses showed that the conclusions in the base-case scenario were robust with respect to variations in toxicity and cost parameters consistent with available evidence. At a threshold of $50,000/QALY, SBRT was cost effective in 75%, and 94% of probabilistic simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, from a payer perspective. From a societal perspective, SBRT was cost-effective in 75%, and 96% of simulations compared to IMRT and PT, respectively, at a threshold of $50,000/QALY. In threshold analyses, SBRT was less expensive with better outcomes compared to IMRT at toxicity rates 23% greater than the SBRT base-case rates. Conclusions. Based on the assumption that each treatment modality results in equivalent long-term efficacy, SBRT is a cost-effective strategy resulting in improved quality-adjusted survival compared to IMRT and PT for the treatment of localized prostate cancer.

  7. Pulsed laser radiation therapy of skin tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, A.P.; Moskalik, K.G.

    1980-11-15

    Radiation from a neodymium laser was used to treat 846 patients with 687 precancerous lesions or benign tumors of the skin, 516 cutaneous carcinomas, 33 recurrences of cancer, 51 melanomas, and 508 metastatic melanomas in the skin. The patients have been followed for three months to 6.5 years. No relapses have been observed during this period. Metastases to regional lymph nodes were found in five patients with skin melanoma. Pulsed laser radiation may be successfully used in the treatment of precancerous lesions and benign tumors as well as for skin carcinoma and its recurrences, and for skin melanoma. Laser radiation is more effective in the treatment of tumors inaccessible to radiation therapy and better in those cases in which surgery may have a bad cosmetic or even mutilating effect. Laser beams can be employed in conjunction with chemo- or immunotherapy.

  8. Role of radiation therapy in bladder cancer in the Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochet, F.; Barrette, L.R.

    1998-01-01

    Bladder cancer is more frequent in Quebec, especially in Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean than in other Canadian provinces and in the USA. From 1983 to 1996, only 78 patients presenting with bladder cancer received external beam radiation therapy. Sixty-eight were treated with curative intent Overall survival rates were 70% at 3 years, 66% at 5 years, and 40% at 10 years. Retrospective analysis of these cases and literature review show that preoperative radiation therapy is useful in the management of bladder cancer, especially in T3 tumors. It is also useful for patients whose tumor objectively responds to radiation therapy, without an increase in morbidity. (authors)

  9. Assessment of organ dose reduction and secondary cancer risk associated with the use of proton beam therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy in treatment of neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi; Harada, Hideyuki; Asakura, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Schneider, Uwe; Ishida, Yuji; Konno, Masahiro; Yamashita, Haruo; Kase, Yuki; Murayama, Shigeyuki; Onoe, Tsuyoshi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    To compare proton beam therapy (PBT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in terms of their organ doses and ability to cause secondary cancer in normal organs. Five patients (median age, 4 years; range, 2–11 years) who underwent PBT for retroperitoneal neuroblastoma were selected for treatment planning simulation. Four patients had stage 4 tumors and one had stage 2A tumor, according to the International Neuroblastoma Staging System. Two patients received 36 Gy, two received 21.6 Gy, and one received 41.4 Gy of radiation. The volume structures of these patients were used for simulations of CRT and IMRT treatment. Dose–volume analyses of liver, stomach, colon, small intestine, pancreas, and bone were performed for the simulations. Secondary cancer risks in these organs were calculated using the organ equivalent dose (OED) model, which took into account the rates of cell killing, repopulation, and the neutron dose from the treatment machine. In all evaluated organs, the mean dose in PBT was 20–80% of that in CRT. IMRT also showed lower mean doses than CRT for two organs (20% and 65%), but higher mean doses for the other four organs (110–120%). The risk of secondary cancer in PBT was 24–83% of that in CRT for five organs, but 121% of that in CRT for pancreas. The risk of secondary cancer in IMRT was equal to or higher than CRT for four organs (range 100–124%). Low radiation doses in normal organs are more frequently observed in PBT than in IMRT. Assessments of secondary cancer risk showed that PBT reduces the risk of secondary cancer in most organs, whereas IMRT is associated with a higher risk than CRT

  10. Optimal Neutron Source and Beam Shaping Assembly for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujic, J.; Greenspan, E.; Kastenber, W.E.; Karni, Y.; Regev, D.; Verbeke, J.M.; Leung, K.N.; Chivers, D.; Guess, S.; Kim, L.; Waldron, W.; Zhu, Y.

    2003-01-01

    There were three objectives to this project: (1) The development of the 2-D Swan code for the optimization of the nuclear design of facilities for medical applications of radiation, radiation shields, blankets of accelerator-driven systems, fusion facilities, etc. (2) Identification of the maximum beam quality that can be obtained for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) from different reactor-, and accelerator-based neutron sources. The optimal beam-shaping assembly (BSA) design for each neutron source was also to e obtained. (3) Feasibility assessment of a new neutron source for NCT and other medical and industrial applications. This source consists of a state-of-the-art proton or deuteron accelerator driving and inherently safe, proliferation resistant, small subcritical fission assembly

  11. Noninvasive referencing of intraocular tumors for external beam radiation therapy using optical coherence tomography: A proof of concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Steiner, Patrick; Kowal, Jens H.; Geiser, Dominik; Pica, Alessia; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: External beam radiation therapy is currently considered the most common treatment modality for intraocular tumors. Localization of the tumor and efficient compensation of tumor misalignment with respect to the radiation beam are crucial. According to the state of the art procedure, localization of the target volume is indirectly performed by the invasive surgical implantation of radiopaque clips or is limited to positioning the head using stereoscopic radiographies. This work represents a proof-of-concept for direct and noninvasive tumor referencing based on anterior eye topography acquired using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A prototype of a head-mounted device has been developed for automatic monitoring of tumor position and orientation in the isocentric reference frame for LINAC based treatment of intraocular tumors. Noninvasive tumor referencing is performed with six degrees of freedom based on anterior eye topography acquired using OCT and registration of a statistical eye model. The proposed prototype was tested based on enucleated pig eyes and registration accuracy was measured by comparison of the resulting transformation with tilt and torsion angles manually induced using a custom-made test bench. Results: Validation based on 12 enucleated pig eyes revealed an overall average registration error of 0.26 ± 0.08° in 87 ± 0.7 ms for tilting and 0.52 ± 0.03° in 94 ± 1.4 ms for torsion. Furthermore, dependency of sampling density on mean registration error was quantitatively assessed. Conclusions: The tumor referencing method presented in combination with the statistical eye model introduced in the past has the potential to enable noninvasive treatment and may improve quality, efficacy, and flexibility of external beam radiotherapy of intraocular tumors

  12. Correlation of microdosimetric measurements with relative biological effectiveness from clinical experience for two neutron therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinchcomb, T.G.; Kuchnir, F.T.; Myrianthopoulos, L.C.; Horton, J.L. Jr.; Roberts, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    Microdosimetric measurements were made for the neutron therapy beams at the University of Chicago and at the Cleveland Clinic with the same geometry and phantom material using the same tissue-equivalent spherical proportional counter and standard techniques. The energy deposition spectra (dose distributions in lineal energy) are compared for these beams and for their scattered components (direct beam blocked). The model of dual radiation action (DRA) of Kellerer and Rossi is employed to interpret these data in terms of biological effectiveness over this limited range of radiation qualities. The site-diameter parameter of the DRA theory is determined for the Cleveland beam by setting the biological effectiveness (relative to 60 Co gamma radiation) equal to the relative biological effectiveness value deduced from radiobiology experiments and clinical experience. The resulting value of this site-diameter parameter is then used to predict the biological effectiveness of the Chicago beam. The prediction agrees with the value deduced from radiobiology and clinical experience. The biological effectiveness of the scattered components of both beams is also estimated using the model

  13. Comparison of treatment using teletherapy (external beam radiation) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samea, Renato; Lourenco, Laercio Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Background - Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is still a difficult tumor to treat with very poor prognosis. Aim - To compare the response to teletherapy treatment (external beam radiotherapy) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods - Were studied 49 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus on clinical stage III (TNM-1999). They were separated into two groups. The first, underwent radiation therapy alone with linear accelerator of particles, average dose of 6000 cGy and the second to external beam radiation therapy at a dose of 5040 cGy combined with brachytherapy with Iridium 192 at a dose of 1500 cGy. Brachytherapy started one to two weeks after the end of teletherapy, and it was divided into three weekly applications of 500 cGy. Age, gender, race, habits (smoking and drinking), body mass index (BMI), complications with treatment benefits (pain relief and food satisfaction) and survival were analyzed. Results - The quality of life (food satisfaction, and pain palliation of dysphagia) were better in the group treated with external beam radiation therapy combined with brachytherapy. Survival was higher in the brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy alone. Conclusion - Although the cure rate of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus is almost nil when treated with irradiation alone, this therapy is a form of palliative treatment for most patients in whom surgical contraindication exists. (author)

  14. Comparison of treatment using teletherapy (external beam radiation) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samea, Renato; Lourenco, Laercio Gomes, E-mail: renatosamea@globo.com [Department of Surgical Oncology of Dr. Arnaldo Vieira de Carvalho Hospital, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Background - Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus is still a difficult tumor to treat with very poor prognosis. Aim - To compare the response to teletherapy treatment (external beam radiotherapy) alone versus teletherapy combined with brachytherapy for patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods - Were studied 49 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus on clinical stage III (TNM-1999). They were separated into two groups. The first, underwent radiation therapy alone with linear accelerator of particles, average dose of 6000 cGy and the second to external beam radiation therapy at a dose of 5040 cGy combined with brachytherapy with Iridium 192 at a dose of 1500 cGy. Brachytherapy started one to two weeks after the end of teletherapy, and it was divided into three weekly applications of 500 cGy. Age, gender, race, habits (smoking and drinking), body mass index (BMI), complications with treatment benefits (pain relief and food satisfaction) and survival were analyzed. Results - The quality of life (food satisfaction, and pain palliation of dysphagia) were better in the group treated with external beam radiation therapy combined with brachytherapy. Survival was higher in the brachytherapy combined with external beam radiation therapy alone. Conclusion - Although the cure rate of squamous cell cancer of the esophagus is almost nil when treated with irradiation alone, this therapy is a form of palliative treatment for most patients in whom surgical contraindication exists. (author)

  15. Radiation dermatitis and pneumonitis following breast conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoden, Eisaku; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Imajo, Yoshinari

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the frequency, degree and risk factors of radiation-induced dermatitis and pneumonitis in 255 patients receiving breast conserving therapy between April 1987 and April 1998. The majority of the patients underwent a wide excision or quadrantectomy with a level I, II axillary dissection, followed by radiotherapy consisting of 50 Gy/25 Fr/5 weeks to the preserved breast with a 4 MV beam by tangentially opposed portals using the half-field technique. Eleven patients received an additional 10 Gy/5 Fr of electron therapy to the tumor bed. Most of the patients developed radiation dermatitis which was limited to reddening or dry desquamation, with the exception of 14 patients with a localized moist reaction. The skin reaction was transient in all patients and improved with conservative treatments. Radiation pneumonitis appeared on chest X-rays in 30 patients, with a slight appearance in 21 and patchy appearance in 9. Three patients presented with persistent symptoms requiring medication. They were treated with steroids, resulting in complete resolution of the symptoms. A large volume of the chest wall within the irradiation field and a large area of irradiated skin were the risk factors of radiation dermatitis. The volume of irradiated lung significantly correlated with the frequency and degree of radiation pneumonitis. It was preferable that the maximum thickness of the involved lung should not exceed 3 cm. Complicated disease, adjuvant therapy and boost irradiation had no impact on the radiation dermatitis or pneumonitis. (author)

  16. Normal tissue tolerance to external beam radiation therapy: The stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberdiac, P.; Mineur, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the following article, we will discuss general issues relating to acute and late gastric's radiation toxicities. The tolerance of the stomach to complete or partial organ irradiation is more un-appreciated than for most other organs. We consulted the Medline database via PubMed and used the key words gastric - radiotherapy - toxicity. Currently, 60 Gy or less is prescribed in gastric radiation therapy. Acute clinical toxicity symptoms are predominantly nausea and vomiting. Although there is a general agreement that the whole stomach tolerance is for doses of 40 to 45 Gy without unacceptable complication, it is well established that a stomach dose of 35 Gy increases the risk of ulcer complications. (authors)

  17. Proton Beam Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Current Clinical Evidence and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail T. Berman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cancer cause of death in the United States. Radiotherapy is an essential component of the definitive treatment of early-stage and locally-advanced lung cancer, and the palliative treatment of metastatic lung cancer. Proton beam therapy (PBT, through its characteristic Bragg peak, has the potential to decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy, and, subsequently improve the therapeutic ratio. Herein, we provide a primer on the physics of proton beam therapy for lung cancer, present the existing data in early-stage and locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, as well as in special situations such as re-irradiation and post-operative radiation therapy. We then present the technical challenges, such as anatomic changes and motion management, and future directions for PBT in lung cancer, including pencil beam scanning.

  18. Conventional external beam radiation therapy and high dose rate afterloading brachytherapy as a boost for patients older than 70 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellizzon, Antonio Cassio Assis; Salvajoli, Joao Vitor; Fogaroli, Ricardo Cesar; Novaes, Paulo Eduardo R.S.; Maia, Maria Aparecida Conte; Ferrigno, Robson

    2005-01-01

    The treatment options for patients with non metastatic prostate cancer range from observation, radical prostatectomy, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy to various combination of some to all of them. Objective: we evaluated the impact on biochemical control of disease (bNED), acute and late intestinal (GI) and urological (GU) morbidity for a group of patients older than 70 years presenting initial or locally advanced prostate cancer treated with fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRB) as a boost to conventional external beam radiation therapy (RT) at the Department of Radiation Oncology from Hospital do Cancer A. C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: a total of 56 patients older than 70 were treated from March, 1997 to June, 2002. All patients had prior to HDRB a course of RT to a median dose of 45 Gy. HDRB doses ranged from 16 Gy to 20 Gy, given in 4 fractions. Results: the median age of the patients was 74.4 years (range 70-83) and the median follow-up 33 months (range 24 to 60). The 5-year actuarial bNED rate was 77%. Acute GU and GI morbidity G1-2 were seen in 17.8% and 7.1% of patients, respectively. Late G1 or G2 GU morbidity was seen in 10.7% of the patients, while late G3 morbidity was observed in 7.1% of the patients, represented by urethral strictures. Conclusion: this group of patients had similar bNED rates when compared to literature, with acceptable morbidity rates. (author)

  19. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy on setup errors during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozdemir, Yurday [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare shifts by group. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation of couch shifts between groups. Mean prostate shifts and standard deviations (SD) were calculated and pooled to obtain mean or group systematic error (M), SD of systematic error (Σ), and SD of random error (σ). No significant differences were observed in prostate shifts in any direction between the groups. Shifts on CBCT were all less than setup margins. A significant positive correlation was observed between prostate volume and the z-direction prostate shift (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), regardless of ADT group, but not between volume and x- or y-direction shifts (r = 0.04, p = 0.7; r = 0.03, p = 0.7). Random and systematic errors for all patient cohorts and ADT groups were similar. Hormone therapy given concurrently with RT was not found to significantly impact setup errors. Prostate volume was significantly correlated with shifts in the anterior-posterior direction only. (orig.) [German] Ziel war zu untersuchen, ob Konfigurationsfehler bei der externen Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms durch die Kombination aus Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) und RT beeinflusst werden. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 175 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelten Patienten

  20. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  1. A beam radiation monitoring and protection system for AGS secondary beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, G.S.

    1978-01-01

    A commercially available radiation monitor using a scintillation detector was modified for charged particle beam monitoring. The device controls access to secondary beams of the AGS and limits beam intensity

  2. The role of radiation therapy in malignant pleural mesothelioma: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, Yee C.; Yu, Edward; Falkson, Conrad; Haynes, Adam E.; Stys-Norman, Denise; Evans, William K.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: Radiation therapy may offer patients presenting with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) symptom palliation and improvements in quality of life. This systematic review will address the role of radiation therapy in the management of MPM. Methods: A thorough systematic search of the literature was conducted for published articles and conference proceedings for applicable abstracts. Relevant trials were selected and assessed. Results: Three small randomized controlled trials compared prophylactic external beam radiation therapy to no radiation therapy for patients with thoracic tracts caused by drainage tubes or diagnostic procedures. None of those trials reported any serious adverse effects. A pooled analysis found no significant reduction in the frequency of procedure tract metastases. Four non-comparative studies have shown that hemithoracic irradiation alone resulted in significant toxicity, including radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, radiation pneumonitis, and bronchopleural fistula, without any survival benefit. Few of the identified studies reported on symptom control, and no studies included formal measures of quality of life. Conclusion: There is limited evidence for the role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with MPM. Future studies including radiotherapy for the treatment of such patients should include formal measures of quality of life and symptom control

  3. Regression and statistical shape model based substitute CT generation for MRI alone external beam radiation therapy from standard clinical MRI sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Soumya; Greer, Peter B.; Sun, Jidi; Pichler, Peter; Rivest-Henault, David; Mitra, Jhimli; Richardson, Haylea; Wratten, Chris; Martin, Jarad; Arm, Jameen; Best, Leah; Dowling, Jason A.

    2017-11-01

    In MR only radiation therapy planning, generation of the tissue specific HU map directly from the MRI would eliminate the need of CT image acquisition and may improve radiation therapy planning. The aim of this work is to generate and validate substitute CT (sCT) scans generated from standard T2 weighted MR pelvic scans in prostate radiation therapy dose planning. A Siemens Skyra 3T MRI scanner with laser bridge, flat couch and pelvic coil mounts was used to scan 39 patients scheduled for external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. For sCT generation a whole pelvis MRI (1.6 mm 3D isotropic T2w SPACE sequence) was acquired. Patients received a routine planning CT scan. Co-registered whole pelvis CT and T2w MRI pairs were used as training images. Advanced tissue specific non-linear regression models to predict HU for the fat, muscle, bladder and air were created from co-registered CT-MRI image pairs. On a test case T2w MRI, the bones and bladder were automatically segmented using a novel statistical shape and appearance model, while other soft tissues were separated using an Expectation-Maximization based clustering model. The CT bone in the training database that was most ‘similar’ to the segmented bone was then transformed with deformable registration to create the sCT component of the test case T2w MRI bone tissue. Predictions for the bone, air and soft tissue from the separate regression models were successively combined to generate a whole pelvis sCT. The change in monitor units between the sCT-based plans relative to the gold standard CT plan for the same IMRT dose plan was found to be 0.3%+/-0.9% (mean  ±  standard deviation) for 39 patients. The 3D Gamma pass rate was 99.8+/-0.00 (2 mm/2%). The novel hybrid model is computationally efficient, generating an sCT in 20 min from standard T2w images for prostate cancer radiation therapy dose planning and DRR generation.

  4. SU-F-P-28: A Method of Maximize the Noncoplanar Beam Orientations and Assure the Beam Delivery Clearance for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J [Presence St. Joseph Medical Ctr., Joliet, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Develop a method to maximize the noncoplanar beam orientations and assure the beam delivery clearance for SBRT, therefore, optimize the dose conformality to the target, increase the dose sparing to the critical normal organs and reduce the hot spots in the body. Methods: A SBRT body frame (Elekta, Stockholm, Sweden) was used for patient immobilization and target localization. The SBRT body frame has CT fiducials on its side frames. After patient’s CT scan, the radiation treatment isocenter was defined and its coordinators referring to the body frame was calculated in the radiation treatment planning process. Meanwhile, initial beam orientations were designed based on the patient target and critical organ anatomy. The body frame was put on the linear accelerator couch and positioned to the calculated isocenter. Initially designed beam orientations were manually measured by tuning the body frame position on the couch, the gantry and couch angles. The finalized beam orientations were put into the treatment planning for dosimetric calculations. Results: Without patient presence, an optimal set of beam orientations were designed and validated. The radiation treatment plan was optimized and guaranteed for delivery clearance. Conclusion: The developed method is beneficial and effective in SBRT treatment planning for individual patient. It first allows maximizing the achievable noncoplanar beam orientation space, therefore, optimize the treatment plan for specific patient. It eliminates the risk that a plan needs to be modified due to the gantry and couch collision during patient setup.

  5. Actual survey of dose evaluation method for standardization of radiation therapy techniques. With special reference to display method of radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Kozo; Yoshiura, Takao; Izumi, Takashi; Araki, Fujio; Takada, Takuo; Jingu, Kenichi.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of questionnaire survey for actual conditions of radiation therapy, which was conducted with the aim of establishing the standardization of radiation therapy techniques. Questionnaires were sent to 100 facilities in Japan, and 86 of these answered, consisting of 62 university hospitals, 2 national hospitals, 14 cancer centers, 4 prefectural or municipal hospitals, and 4 other hospitals. In addition to electron beam therapy, the following typical diseases for radiation therapy were selected as standard irradiation models: cancers of the larynx, esophagus, breast, and uterine cervix, and malignant lymphomas. According to these models, questionnaire results are analyzed in terms of the following four items: (1) irradiation procedures, (2) energy used for radiotherapy, (3) the depth for calculating target absorption doses, and (4) points for displaying target absorption doses. (N.K.)

  6. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimura, Takeshi; Ogino, Takashi; Yoshiura, Takashi; Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  7. Effect of Film Dressing on Acute Radiation Dermatitis Secondary to Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimura, Takeshi, E-mail: arimura-takeshi@medipolis.org [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Ogino, Takashi [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan); Yoshiura, Takashi [Department of Radiology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima (Japan); Toi, Yuya; Kawabata, Michiko; Chuman, Ikuko; Wada, Kiyotaka; Kondo, Naoaki; Nagayama, Shinichi; Hishikawa, Yoshio [Medipolis Proton Therapy and Research Center, Ibusuki (Japan)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Acute radiation dermatitis (ARD) is one of the most common adverse events of proton beam therapy (PBT), and there is currently no effective method to manage ARD. The purpose of this study was to examine the prophylactic effect of a film dressing using Airwall on PBT-induced ARD compared with standard skin managements. Methods and Materials: A total of 271 patients with prostate cancer who were scheduled for PBT at our center were divided into 2 groups based on their own requests: 145 patients (53%) chose Airwall (group A) and 126 patients (47%) received standard treatments (group B). We evaluated irradiated skin every other day during PBT and followed up once a week for a month after completion of PBT. Results: Grade 0, 1, 2, and 3 dermatitis were seen in 2, 122, 21, and 0 and 0, 65, 57, and 4 patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<.001). Numbers of days to grades 1 and 2 ARD development were 34.9 ± 14.3 and 54.7 ± 10.3 and 31.8 ± 11.3 and 54.4 ± 11.6 in groups A and B, respectively. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups. Eighteen patients (12%) in group A who experienced problems in the region covered with Airwall switched to standard skin care after peeling the film off. Conclusions: Film dressing using Airwall reduced the severity of ARD without delaying the response time of the skin to proton beam irradiation compared with standard skin management. Hence, film dressing is considered a promising measure for preventing ARD secondary to PBT.

  8. PROTON RADIATION THERAPY: CLINICAL APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES AND RESEARCH PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zabelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the review of literature concerning use of proton beam therapy in treatment of oncology. The staticized data on comparison of effi ciency of this method at an eye melanoma are lit. Advantages of proton therapy on the level of local control and depression of frequency of development of the radio induced cataract are refl ected in the provided data. In evident material the technology of preparation and carrying out radiation of an eye is shortly covered with a fascicle of protons. The experience of use of proton therapy of tumors of a skull base got for the last several decades, showed good results. Physical properties of a fascicle of protons allow to achieve the maximum dose conformality, having lowered, thereby, a radial load on the next crucial anatomical structures. The presented material on an oncopediatrics shows insuffi cient knowledge of scientists concerning advantage of a fascicle of protons over modern methods of photon radiation. There are only preliminary clinical results concerning generally of treatment of cranyopharyngiomas. At cancer therapy of a mammary gland, proton therapy showed the best local control of postoperative recurrent tumors, and also depression of a dose load on the contralateral party. The available results of the retrospective analysis of clinical data in the University medical center of Lome Linda, testify to advantages of proton therapy of the localized prostate cancer. The lack of a biochemical recurrence and a local tumoral progression within 5 years after radiation was shown. The data obtained from experience of use of proton radiation therapy with passively scattered fascicle for cancer therapy of a prostate at an early stage showed the admixed results in comparison with modern methods of radiation therapy with the modulated intensity. In treatment of non-small cell cancer of mild advantage of proton therapy aren’t absolutely proved yet. There are data on extreme toxicity of a combination

  9. Transition radiation electron beam diagnostic study at ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, X.Z.; Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-01-01

    Recently we have started a program to develop transition radiation based electron beam diagnostics at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. In this paper, we will discuss a technique to estimate the lower limit in electron beam divergence measurement with single foil transition radiation and two-foil transition radiation interferometer. Preliminary experimental data from 4.5 MeV electron beam will be presented

  10. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored

  11. Radiative cooling of relativistic electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhirong [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Modern high-energy particle accelerators and synchrotron light sources demand smaller and smaller beam emittances in order to achieve higher luminosity or better brightness. For light particles such as electrons and positrons, radiation damping is a natural and effective way to obtain low emittance beams. However, the quantum aspect of radiation introduces random noise into the damped beams, yielding equilibrium emittances which depend upon the design of a specific machine. In this dissertation, the author attempts to make a complete analysis of the process of radiation damping and quantum excitation in various accelerator systems, such as bending magnets, focusing channels and laser fields. Because radiation is formed over a finite time and emitted in quanta of discrete energies, he invokes the quantum mechanical approach whenever the quasiclassical picture of radiation is insufficient. He shows that radiation damping in a focusing system is fundamentally different from that in a bending system. Quantum excitation to the transverse dimensions is absent in a straight, continuous focusing channel, and is exponentially suppressed in a focusing-dominated ring. Thus, the transverse normalized emittances in such systems can in principle be damped to the Compton wavelength of the electron, limited only by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. In addition, he investigates methods of rapid damping such as radiative laser cooling. He proposes a laser-electron storage ring (LESR) where the electron beam in a compact storage ring repetitively interacts with an intense laser pulse stored in an optical resonator. The laser-electron interaction gives rise to rapid cooling of electron beams and can be used to overcome the space charge effects encountered in a medium energy circular machine. Applications to the designs of low emittance damping rings and compact x-ray sources are also explored.

  12. Characteristics of kilovoltage x-ray beams used for cone-beam computed tomography in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, George X; Duggan, Dennis M; Coffey, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to characterize the beams produced by a kilovoltage (kV) imager integrated into a linear accelerator (Varian on-board imager integrated into the Trilogy accelerator) for acquiring high resolution volumetric cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the patient on the treatment table. The x-ray tube is capable of generating photon spectra with kVp values between 40 and 125 kV. The Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the characteristics of kV beams and the properties of imaged target scatters. The Monte Carlo results were benchmarked against measurements, and excellent agreements were obtained. We also studied the effect of including the electron impact ionization (EII), and the simulation showed that the characteristic radiation is increased significantly in the energy spectra when EII is included. Although only slight beam hardening is observed in the spectra of all photons after passing through the phantom target, there is a significant difference in the spectra and angular distributions between scattered and primary photons. The results also show that the photon fluence distributions are significantly altered by adding bow tie filters. The results indicate that a combination of large cone-beam field size and large imaged target significantly increases scatter-to-primary ratios for photons that reach the detector panel. For phantoms 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm thick of water placed at the isocentre, the scatter-to-primary ratios are 0.94, 3.0 and 7.6 respectively for an open 125 kVp CBCT beam. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the increase of the scatter is proportional to the increase of the imaged volume, and this also applies to scatter-to-primary ratios. This study shows both the magnitude and the characteristics of scattered x-rays. The knowledge obtained from this investigation may be useful in the future design of the image detector to improve the image quality

  13. Radiation effects of ion beams on polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Seiichi

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the radiation effects of ion beams on polymers are reviewed briefly. Our recent work on the radiation effects of ion beams on polystyrene thin films on silicon wafers and time resolved emission studies on polymers are described. (orig.)

  14. Radiation therapy for neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Petrarca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Robert Petrarca, Timothy L JacksonDepartment of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: Antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF therapies represent the standard of care for most patients presenting with neovascular (wet age-related macular degeneration (neovascular AMD. Anti-VEGF drugs require repeated injections and impose a considerable burden of care, and not all patients respond. Radiation targets the proliferating cells that cause neovascular AMD, including fibroblastic, inflammatory, and endothelial cells. Two new neovascular AMD radiation treatments are being investigated: epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery. Epimacular brachytherapy uses beta radiation, delivered to the lesion via a pars plana vitrectomy. Stereotactic radiosurgery uses low voltage X-rays in overlapping beams, directed onto the lesion. Feasibility data for epimacular brachytherapy show a greatly reduced need for anti-VEGF therapy, with a mean vision gain of 8.9 ETDRS letters at 12 months. Pivotal trials are underway (MERLOT, CABERNET. Preliminary stereotactic radiosurgery data suggest a mean vision gain of 8 to 10 ETDRS letters at 12 months. A large randomized sham controlled stereotactic radiosurgery feasibility study is underway (CLH002, with pivotal trials to follow. While it is too early to conclude on the safety and efficacy of epimacular brachytherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery, preliminary results are positive, and these suggest that radiation offers a more durable therapeutic effect than intraocular injections.Keywords: wet age-related macular degeneration, neovascular, radiation therapy, epimacular brachytherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, anti-VEGF

  15. Getting Ready for Ion-Beam Therapy Research in Austria - Building-up Research in Parallel with a Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, Dietmar; Knaeusl; Kuess, Peter; Fuchs, Hermann; Poetter, Richard; Schreiner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    With participation in ion-beam projects funded nationally or by the European Commission (EC), ion-beam research activities were started at the Medical University of Vienna in parallel with the design and construction of the ion-beam center MedAustron in Wiener Neustadt, 50 km from the Austrian capital. The current medical radiation physics research activities that will be presented comprise: (1) Dose calculation and optimization: ion-beam centers focus mostly on proton and carbon-ion therapy. However, there are other ion species with great potential for clinical applications. Helium ions are currently under investigation from a theoretical physics and biology perspective. (2) Image guided and adaptive ion-beam therapy: organ motion and anatomic changes have a severe influence in ion-beam therapy since variations in heterogeneity along the beam path have a significant impact on the particle range. Ongoing research focuses on possibilities to account for temporal variations of the anatomy during radiotherapy. Both during and between fractions also considering temporal variations in tumor biology. Furthermore, research focuses on particle therapy positron emission tomography (PT-PET) verification and the detection of prompt gammas for on-line verification of ion-beam delivery. (3) Basic and applied dosimetry: an end-to-end procedure was designed and successfully tested in both scanned proton and carbon-ion beams, which may also serve as a dosimetric credentialing procedure for clinical trials in the future. (Author)

  16. Half-Fan-Based Intensity-Weighted Region-of-Interest Imaging for Low-Dose Cone-Beam CT in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Boyeol; Son, Kihong; Pua, Rizza; Kim, Jinsung; Solodov, Alexander; Cho, Seungryong

    2016-10-01

    With the increased use of computed tomography (CT) in clinics, dose reduction is the most important feature people seek when considering new CT techniques or applications. We developed an intensity-weighted region-of-interest (IWROI) imaging method in an exact half-fan geometry to reduce the imaging radiation dose to patients in cone-beam CT (CBCT) for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). While dose reduction is highly desirable, preserving the high-quality images of the ROI is also important for target localization in IGRT. An intensity-weighting (IW) filter made of copper was mounted in place of a bowtie filter on the X-ray tube unit of an on-board imager (OBI) system such that the filter can substantially reduce radiation exposure to the outer ROI. In addition to mounting the IW filter, the lead-blade collimation of the OBI was adjusted to produce an exact half-fan scanning geometry for a further reduction of the radiation dose. The chord-based rebinned backprojection-filtration (BPF) algorithm in circular CBCT was implemented for image reconstruction, and a humanoid pelvis phantom was used for the IWROI imaging experiment. The IWROI image of the phantom was successfully reconstructed after beam-quality correction, and it was registered to the reference image within an acceptable level of tolerance. Dosimetric measurements revealed that the dose is reduced by approximately 61% in the inner ROI and by 73% in the outer ROI compared to the conventional bowtie filter-based half-fan scan. The IWROI method substantially reduces the imaging radiation dose and provides reconstructed images with an acceptable level of quality for patient setup and target localization. The proposed half-fan-based IWROI imaging technique can add a valuable option to CBCT in IGRT applications.

  17. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  18. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, Eric S., E-mail: epaulson@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 and Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States); Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53226 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  19. Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ''active'' protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated

  20. Image-guided small animal radiation research platform: calibration of treatment beam alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Kazanzides, Peter; Ford, Eric; Wong, John

    2009-01-01

    Small animal research allows detailed study of biological processes, disease progression and response to therapy with the potential to provide a natural bridge to the clinical environment. The small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) is a portable system for precision irradiation with beam sizes down to approximately 0.5 mm and optimally planned radiation with on-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance. This paper focuses on the geometric calibration of the system for high-precision irradiation. A novel technique for the calibration of the treatment beam is presented, which employs an x-ray camera whose precise positioning need not be known. Using the camera system we acquired a digitally reconstructed 3D 'star shot' for gantry calibration and then developed a technique to align each beam to a common isocenter with the robotic animal positioning stages. The calibration incorporates localization by cone-beam CT guidance. Uncorrected offsets of the beams with respect to the calibration origin ranged from 0.4 mm to 5.2 mm. With corrections, these alignment errors can be reduced to the sub-millimeter range. The calibration technique was used to deliver a stereotactic-like arc treatment to a phantom constructed with EBT Gafchromic films. All beams were shown to intersect at a common isocenter with a measured beam (FWHM) of approximately 1.07 mm using the 0.5 mm collimated beam. The desired positioning accuracy of the SARRP is 0.25 mm and the results indicate an accuracy of 0.2 mm. To fully realize the radiation localization capabilities of the SARRP, precise geometric calibration is required, as with any such system. The x-ray camera-based technique presented here provides a straightforward and semi-automatic method for system calibration.

  1. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandai, Michiko; Ogura, Yuichiro

    1996-01-01

    Authors' results of low dose radiation therapy for ARMD were described. CT scan simulation was performed to determine the irradiation field of posterior pole of eyeball to which more than 90% of radiation was to be absorbed. The photon beam of 6MV was irradiated as to avoid lens at 2 Gy/day for 1 or 2 weeks to attain 10 or 20 Gy in total, respectively. After the treatment, the process was followed every 3 months and examinations with fluorescence contrasting, for visual field and for adverse radiation effects were done every 6 months. Results of reduction, no change and increase of choroidal neovascularization plate within 1 y were seen in 7 (47%), 4 (27%) and 4 eyes (27%) per total 15 eyes, respectively, in the treated group with 10 Gy whereas those in the control untreated group were 1 (6%), 6 (35%) and 10 (59%) eyes per 17 eyes, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the treatment was effective for improvement of serous abruption and of retinal edema and for keeping optesthesia. The radiation therapy with 20 Gy was one too recently introduced to give enough results but may be more promising. (K.H.)

  2. Radiation therapy for age-related macular degeneration (ARMD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandai, Michiko; Ogura, Yuichiro [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1996-09-01

    Authors` results of low dose radiation therapy for ARMD were described. CT scan simulation was performed to determine the irradiation field of posterior pole of eyeball to which more than 90% of radiation was to be absorbed. The photon beam of 6MV was irradiated as to avoid lens at 2 Gy/day for 1 or 2 weeks to attain 10 or 20 Gy in total, respectively. After the treatment, the process was followed every 3 months and examinations with fluorescence contrasting, for visual field and for adverse radiation effects were done every 6 months. Results of reduction, no change and increase of choroidal neovascularization plate within 1 y were seen in 7 (47%), 4 (27%) and 4 eyes (27%) per total 15 eyes, respectively, in the treated group with 10 Gy whereas those in the control untreated group were 1 (6%), 6 (35%) and 10 (59%) eyes per 17 eyes, respectively (P<0.05). In addition, the treatment was effective for improvement of serous abruption and of retinal edema and for keeping optesthesia. The radiation therapy with 20 Gy was one too recently introduced to give enough results but may be more promising. (K.H.)

  3. Alanine EPR dosimeter response in proton therapy beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gall, K.; Serago, C.; Desrosiers, M.; Bensen, D.

    1997-01-01

    We report a series of measurements directed to assess the suitability of alanine as a mailable dosimeter for dosimetry quality assurance of proton radiation therapy beams. These measurements include dose-response of alanine at 140 MeV, and comparison of response vs energy with a parallel plate ionization chamber. All irradiations were made at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory, and the dosimeters were read at NIST. The results encourage us that alanine could be expected to serve as a mailable dosimeter with systematic error due to differential energy response no greater than 3% when doses of 25 Gy are used. (Author)

  4. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parodi, Katia, E-mail: Katia.parodi@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Faculty of Physics, Department of Medical Physics, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich 85748 (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  5. Vision 20/20: Positron emission tomography in radiation therapy planning, delivery, and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly considered as an effective imaging method to support several stages of radiation therapy. The combined usage of functional and morphological imaging in state-of-the-art PET/CT scanners is rapidly emerging to support the treatment planning process in terms of improved tumor delineation, and to assess the tumor response in follow-up investigations after or even during the course of fractionated therapy. Moreover, active research is being pursued on new tracers capable of providing different insights into tumor function, in order to identify areas of the planning volume which may require additional dosage for improved probability of tumor control. In this respect, major progresses in the next years will likely concern the development and clinical investigation of novel tracers and image processing techniques for reliable thresholding and segmentation, of treatment planning and beam delivery approaches integrating the PET imaging information, as well as improved multimodal clinical instrumentation such as PET/MR. But especially in the rapidly emerging case of ion beam therapy, the usage of PET is not only limited to the imaging of external tracers injected to the patient. In fact, a minor amount of positron emitters is formed in nuclear fragmentation reactions between the impinging ions and the tissue, bearing useful information for confirmation of the delivered treatment during or after therapeutic irradiation. Different implementations of unconventional PET imaging for therapy monitoring are currently being investigated clinically, and major ongoing research aims at new dedicated detector technologies and at challenging applications such as real-time imaging and time-resolved in vivo verification of motion compensated beam delivery. This paper provides an overview of the different areas of application of PET in radiation oncology and discusses the most promising perspectives in the years to come for radiation therapy

  6. Monitoring external beam radiotherapy using real-time beam visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Cesare H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Naczynski, Dominik J.; Yu, Shu-Jung S.; Xing, Lei, E-mail: lei@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To characterize the performance of a novel radiation therapy monitoring technique that utilizes a flexible scintillating film, common optical detectors, and image processing algorithms for real-time beam visualization (RT-BV). Methods: Scintillating films were formed by mixing Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb (GOS) with silicone and casting the mixture at room temperature. The films were placed in the path of therapeutic beams generated by medical linear accelerators (LINAC). The emitted light was subsequently captured using a CMOS digital camera. Image processing algorithms were used to extract the intensity, shape, and location of the radiation field at various beam energies, dose rates, and collimator locations. The measurement results were compared with known collimator settings to validate the performance of the imaging system. Results: The RT-BV system achieved a sufficient contrast-to-noise ratio to enable real-time monitoring of the LINAC beam at 20 fps with normal ambient lighting in the LINAC room. The RT-BV system successfully identified collimator movements with sub-millimeter resolution. Conclusions: The RT-BV system is capable of localizing radiation therapy beams with sub-millimeter precision and tracking beam movement at video-rate exposure.

  7. Scattered radiation from applicators in clinical electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battum, L J van; Zee, W van der; Huizenga, H

    2003-01-01

    In radiotherapy with high-energy (4-25 MeV) electron beams, scattered radiation from the electron applicator influences the dose distribution in the patient. In most currently available treatment planning systems for radiotherapy this component is not explicitly included and handled only by a slight change of the intensity of the primary beam. The scattered radiation from an applicator changes with the field size and distance from the applicator. The amount of scattered radiation is dependent on the applicator design and on the formation of the electron beam in the treatment head. Electron applicators currently applied in most treatment machines are essentially a set of diaphragms, but still do produce scattered radiation. This paper investigates the present level of scattered dose from electron applicators, and as such provides an extensive set of measured data. The data provided could for instance serve as example input data or benchmark data for advanced treatment planning algorithms which employ a parametrized initial phase space to characterize the clinical electron beam. Central axis depth dose curves of the electron beams have been measured with and without applicators in place, for various applicator sizes and energies, for a Siemens Primus, a Varian 2300 C/D and an Elekta SLi accelerator. Scattered radiation generated by the applicator has been found by subtraction of the central axis depth dose curves, obtained with and without applicator. Scattered radiation from Siemens, Varian and Elekta electron applicators is still significant and cannot be neglected in advanced treatment planning. Scattered radiation at the surface of a water phantom can be as high as 12%. Scattered radiation decreases almost linearly with depth. Scattered radiation from Varian applicators shows clear dependence on beam energy. The Elekta applicators produce less scattered radiation than those of Varian and Siemens, but feature a higher effective angular variance. The scattered

  8. A beam optics study of the biomedical beam line at a proton therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Chong Cheoul; Kim, Jong-Won

    2007-01-01

    A biomedical beam line has been designed for the experimental area of a proton therapy facility to deliver mm to sub-mm size beams in the energy range of 20-50 MeV using the TRANSPORT/TURTLE beam optics codes and a newly-written program. The proton therapy facility is equipped with a 230 MeV fixed-energy cyclotron and an energy selection system based on a degrader and slits, so that beam currents available for therapy decrease at lower energies in the therapeutic beam energy range of 70-230 MeV. The new beam line system is composed of an energy-degrader, two slits, and three quadrupole magnets. The minimum beam sizes achievable at the focal point are estimated for the two energies of 50 and 20 MeV. The focused FWHM beam size is approximately 0.3 mm with an expected beam current of 20 pA when the beam energy is reduced to 50 MeV from 100 MeV, and roughly 0.8 mm with a current of 10 pA for a 20 MeV beam

  9. Sweeping-window arc therapy: an implementation of rotational IMRT with automatic beam-weight calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C

    2005-01-01

    Sweeping-window arc therapy (SWAT) is a variation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with direct aperture optimization (DAO) that is initialized with a leaf sequence of sweeping windows that move back and forth periodically across the target as the gantry rotates. This initial sequence induces modulation in the dose and is assumed to be near enough to a minimum to allow successful optimization, done with simulated annealing, without requiring excessive leaf speeds. Optimal beam weights are calculated analytically, with easy extension to allow for variable beam weights. In this paper SWAT is tested on a phantom model and clinical prostate case. For the phantom, constant and variable beam weights are used. Although further work (in particular, improving the dose model) is required, the results show SWAT to be a feasible approach to generating deliverable dynamic arc treatments that are optimized

  10. Sweeping-window arc therapy: an implementation of rotational IMRT with automatic beam-weight calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, C [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Center, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Rm G-233, Stanford, CA 94305-5847 (United States)

    2005-09-21

    Sweeping-window arc therapy (SWAT) is a variation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with direct aperture optimization (DAO) that is initialized with a leaf sequence of sweeping windows that move back and forth periodically across the target as the gantry rotates. This initial sequence induces modulation in the dose and is assumed to be near enough to a minimum to allow successful optimization, done with simulated annealing, without requiring excessive leaf speeds. Optimal beam weights are calculated analytically, with easy extension to allow for variable beam weights. In this paper SWAT is tested on a phantom model and clinical prostate case. For the phantom, constant and variable beam weights are used. Although further work (in particular, improving the dose model) is required, the results show SWAT to be a feasible approach to generating deliverable dynamic arc treatments that are optimized.

  11. Multi-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor for ocular proton therapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.W.; Yoo, W.J.; Moon, J.; Han, K.T.; Park, B.G.; Shin, D.; Park, S-Y.; Lee, B.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a multi-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor, which consists of organic scintillators, plastic optical fibers and a water phantom with a polymethyl methacrylate structure for the ocular proton therapy dosimetry. For the purpose of sensor characterization, we measured the spread out Bragg-peak of 120 MeV proton beam using a one-dimensional sensor array, which has 30 fiber-optic radiation sensors with a 1.5 mm interval. A uniform region of spread out Bragg-peak using the one-dimensional fiber-optic radiation sensor was obtained from 20 to 25 mm depth of a phantom. In addition, the Bragg-peak of 109 MeV proton beam was measured at the depth of 11.5 mm of a phantom using a two-dimensional sensor array, which has 10×3 sensor array with a 0.5 mm interval.

  12. Prospective Study of Local Control and Late Radiation Toxicity After Intraoperative Radiation Therapy Boost for Early Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, David W.; Marvelde, Luc te; Chua, Boon H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report the local recurrence rate and late toxicity of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) boost to the tumor bed using the Intrabeam System followed by external-beam whole-breast irradiation (WBI) in women with early-stage breast cancer in a prospective single-institution study. Methods and Materials: Women with breast cancer ≤3 cm were recruited between February 2003 and May 2005. After breast-conserving surgery, a single dose of 5 Gy IORT boost was delivered using 50-kV x-rays to a depth of 10 mm from the applicator surface. This was followed by WBI to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions. Patients were reviewed at regular, predefined intervals. Late toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring systems. Results: Fifty-five patients completed both IORT boost and external-beam WBI. Median follow-up was 3.3 years (range, 1.4-4.1 years). There was no reported locoregional recurrence or death. One patient developed distant metastases. Grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis was detected in 29 (53%) and 8 patients (15%), respectively. Conclusions: The use of IORT as a tumor bed boost using kV x-rays in breast-conserving therapy was associated with good local control but a clinically significant rate of grade 2 and 3 subcutaneous fibrosis

  13. Fan-beam intensity modulated proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick; Westerly, David; Mackie, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a concept for a proton therapy system capable of delivering intensity modulated proton therapy using a fan beam of protons. This system would allow present and future gantry-based facilities to deliver state-of-the-art proton therapy with the greater normal tissue sparing made possible by intensity modulation techniques. A method for producing a divergent fan beam of protons using a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles is described and particle transport through the quadrupole doublet is simulated using a commercially available software package. To manipulate the fan beam of protons, a modulation device is developed. This modulator inserts or retracts acrylic leaves of varying thickness from subsections of the fan beam. Each subsection, or beam channel, creates what effectively becomes a beam spot within the fan area. Each channel is able to provide 0-255 mm of range shift for its associated beam spot, or stop the beam and act as an intensity modulator. Results of particle transport simulations through the quadrupole system are incorporated into the MCNPX Monte Carlo transport code along with a model of the range and intensity modulation device. Several design parameters were investigated and optimized, culminating in the ability to create topotherapy treatment plans using distal-edge tracking on both phantom and patient datasets. Beam transport calculations show that a pair of electromagnetic quadrupoles can be used to create a divergent fan beam of 200 MeV protons over a distance of 2.1 m. The quadrupole lengths were 30 and 48 cm, respectively, with transverse field gradients less than 20 T/m, which is within the range of water-cooled magnets for the quadrupole radii used. MCNPX simulations of topotherapy treatment plans suggest that, when using the distal edge tracking delivery method, many delivery angles are more important than insisting on narrow beam channel widths in order to obtain conformal target coverage. Overall, the sharp distal

  14. The relationship between technical parameters of external beam radiation therapy and complications for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Kei; Shirato, Hiroki; Suzuki, Keishiro

    2000-01-01

    This study was performed to review retrospectively the clinical course of chronic rectal bleeding as a complication of external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer and to analyze the relationship between technical parameters of radiation therapy and the complications. Seventy-one patients with stages A2, B and C were treated with local-field radiotherapy (total dose 52.5-66 Gy, daily dose 2.0-3.28 Gy, field area 30-81 cm 2 , number of fields 3-15 ports, planning simulations X-ray or CT-based) between 1989 and 1998 at three institutions. The protocols were consistent during this same period at these institutions. Multivariate analysis revealed pretreatment PSA and Gleason sum to be statistically significant predictors of 5 year prostatic specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free rates in a median follow-up period of 42 months (range 12-119 months). The significant risk factors for higher grading of acute morbidity were a biological equivalent dose, α/β=10 (BED 10 ) ≥65 Gy, dose per fraction ≥3.0 Gy, field area ≥42 cm 2 , fewer ports and X-ray planning simulation. However, no parameter was associated with higher grading of late morbidity. Eleven patients (15.4%) experienced a late GI complication: grade 1 (4.2%), grade 2 (9.8%), grade 3 (1.4%). The median time to occurrence of rectal bleeding was 12 months after radiotherapy and the mean duration of morbidity was 11 months. Higher total dose and dose per fraction, larger field area, fewer ports and X-ray simulation increased the grades of acute morbidity. A majority of chronic rectal bleedings were transient and responded to conservative treatment. (author)

  15. Comparison study of the partial-breast irradiation techniques: Dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, electron beam therapy, and helical tomotherapy depending on various tumor locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Joo; Park, So-Hyun; Son, Seok-Hyun; Cheon, Keum-Seong; Choi, Byung-Ock; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2013-01-01

    The partial-breast irradiation (PBI) technique, an alternative to whole-breast irradiation, is a beam delivery method that uses a limited range of treatment volume. The present study was designed to determine the optimal PBI treatment modalities for 8 different tumor locations. Treatment planning was performed on computed tomography (CT) data sets of 6 patients who had received lumpectomy treatments. Tumor locations were classified into 8 subsections according to breast quadrant and depth. Three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), electron beam therapy (ET), and helical tomotherapy (H-TOMO) were utilized to evaluate the dosimetric effect for each tumor location. Conformation number (CN), radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI), and dose delivered to healthy tissue were estimated. The Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis. The ET approach showed good sparing effects and acceptable target coverage for the lower inner quadrant—superficial (LIQ-S) and lower inner quadrant—deep (LIQ-D) locations. The H-TOMO method was the least effective technique as no evaluation index achieved superiority for all tumor locations except CN. The ET method is advisable for treating LIQ-S and LIQ-D tumors, as opposed to 3D-CRT or H-TOMO, because of acceptable target coverage and much lower dose applied to surrounding tissue

  16. Multileaf collimator leaf position verification and analysis for adaptive radiation therapy using a video-optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Sohrab B.

    External beam radiation therapy is commonly used to eliminate and control cancerous tumors. High-energy beams are shaped to match the patient's specific tumor volume, whereby maximizing radiation dose to malignant cells and limiting dose to normal tissue. A multileaf collimator (MLC) consisting of multiple pairs of tungsten leaves is used to conform the radiation beam to the desired treatment field. Advanced treatment methods utilize dynamic MLC settings to conform to multiple treatment fields and provide intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Future methods would further increase conformity by actively tracking tumor motion caused by patient cardiac and respiratory motion. Leaf position quality assurance for a dynamic MLC is critical as variation between the planned and actual leaf positions could induce significant errors in radiation dose. The goal of this research project is to prototype a video-optical quality assurance system for MLC leaf positions. The system captures light-field images of MLC leaf sequences during dynamic therapy. Image acquisition and analysis software was developed to determine leaf edge positions. The mean absolute difference between QA prototype predicted and caliper measured leaf positions was found to be 0.6 mm with an uncertainty of +/- 0.3 mm. Maximum errors in predicted positions were below 1.0 mm for static fields. The prototype served as a proof of concept for quality assurance of future tumor tracking methods. Specifically, a lung tumor phantom was created to mimic a lung tumor's motion from respiration. The lung tumor video images were superimposed on MLC field video images for visualization and analysis. The toolbox is capable of displaying leaf position, leaf velocity, tumor position, and determining errors between planned and actual treatment fields for dynamic radiation therapy.

  17. Current and future trends in radiation therapy: towards making it more precise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaroop, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Advent of computers and researches during the few last decades contributed various new techniques to radiotherapy. These techniques are to be used in correct proportion for an effective and complete treatment. The intent of prescribing radiation and extent of combining it with other modalities is different in each case. Today the store holds techniques like CT based computerized treatment planning. Advanced dose planning techniques, Immobilization techniques, External photon beam radiation therapy, IGRT, IMRT, BART, Brachytherapy, Systemic Radiation Therapy and still developing Particle beam radiotherapy. Radiations have similar effect on malignant and non-malignant cells. Moreover, different types of tumors respond differently to XRT. High precision radiotherapy requires most effectiveness on cancerous cells and negligible side effects on normal tissues. Development of such a targeted XRT demands proper study and evaluation of each technique and their post treatment effects with respect to tumor type and patient condition. A multidisciplinary and multimodality based approach is required. The study is based on secondary data. It evaluates the mechanisms and draws light over the controversies arising out of XRT. Evaluation of secondary data shows that cure rates have been significantly increased with use of targeted radiotherapy. It increases the absorbed dose by tumor and decreases the side effects. Particle radiotherapy reduces damage to healthy tissue between the charged particle radiation source and the tumor and sets a finite range for tissue damage after the tumor has been reached. There are rigorous procedures in place to minimize the risk of accidental over exposure of radiation therapy to patients. It concludes that radiotherapy is well established and newer techniques can be utilized successfully keeping in mind the cancer type and patient condition. (author)

  18. Toxicity of Head-and-Neck Radiation Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfilippo, Nicholas J.; Mitchell, James; Grew, David; DeLacure, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the acute morbidity of high dose head and neck RT and CRT in patients with infected with HIV. Methods and Materials: All HIV-positive patients who underwent radiation therapy for head and neck cancer in our department between 2004 and 2008 were reviewed. Treatment related data were examined. All treatments were delivered with megavoltage photon beams or electron beams. Patients were evaluated by an attending radiation oncologist for toxicity and response on a weekly basis during therapy and monthly after treatment in a multidisciplinary clinic. Acute toxicities were recorded using the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group (RTOG) common toxicity criteria. Response to treatment was based on both physical exam as well as post-treatment imaging as indicated. Results: Thirteen patients who underwent RT with a diagnosis of HIV were identified. Median age was 53 years and median follow-up was 22 months. Twelve had squamous cell carcinoma and one had lymphoproliferative parotiditis. Median radiation dose was 66.4 Gy and median duration of treatment was 51 days. The median number of scheduled radiotherapy days missed was zero (range 0 to 7). One patient (8%) developed Grade 4 confluent moist desquamation. Eight patients (61%) developed Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusion: Based on our results, HIV-positive individuals appear to tolerate treatment for head and neck cancer, with toxicity similar to that in HIV-negative individuals.

  19. Anomalous x-ray radiation of beam plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, S.K.; Zavyalov, M.A.; Mikhin, S.G.; Tarasenkov, V.A.; Telkovskij, V.G.; Khrabrov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The properties of non-equilibrium stationary plasma under the conditions of the planned plasma-chemical reactors based on beam-plasma discharge were investigated. The x-ray spectrum of the beam-plasma was measured and anomalous spectral properties were analyzed. Starting with some critical pressure the anomalous radiation was added to the classical bremsstrahlung spectrum. The occurrence of anomalous radiation can be used to diagnose the condition of beam transportation in such systems. (D.Gy.)

  20. Dosimetric comparison of different schemes for arrange beams in intensity modulated radiation therapy for mid- and distal-esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Min; Zhou Li; Zhang Kaixian; Li Ling; Shi Cun

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the difference between five-field plan and seven-field plan in intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with mid- and distal-esophageal carcinoma,and to find out the optimal beam arrangement. Methods: Five-field plan and seven-field plan were designed for each of 12 patients with mid- and distal-esophageal carcinoma. 95% of planning target volume was required to achieve prescription dose. Dose-volume histograms statistics, dose uniformity, and dose conformity in every patient were compared respectively.Results: Superior dose conformity for planning target volume was shown in seven-field plan (t=2.681, P<0.05). Difference was not significant between uniformity in seven-field plan and that in five-field plan. Difference was not significant between doses received by organs at risk,such as spinal cord and heart,in seven-field plan and those in five-field plan. V 5 , V 10 , V 15 of lungs in five-field plan were lower significantly than those in seven-field plan (t=-7.938, -12.055 and -4.859, all P<0.05). Conclusions: For patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma treated by intensity modulate radiation therapy, compared with 7-fielded plan,the volume of lungs with lower dose could be reduced on the premise of acceptable planning target volume coverage by the application of five-plan. Therefore, radiation-induced lung injury occurrence probability would be reduced, and the patient's quality of life would be improved. Five-field plan would be worth applying in the clinical work. (authors)

  1. Modular design of H/sup /minus// synchrotrons for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A modular synchrotron for accelerating H/sup /minus// ions, and a proton beam delivery system are being developed for radiation therapy with protons under SBIR grants from the National Cancer Institute. The advantage proposed for accelerating H/sup /minus// ions and utilizing change exchange as a slow extraction mechanism lies in enhanced control for the extracted beam current, important for beam delivery with raster scanning for 3D dose contouring of a tumor site. Under these grants prototype magnets and vacuum systems are being constructed, appropriate H/sup /minus// sources are being developed and beam experiments will be carried out to demonstrate some of the key issues of this concept. The status of this program is described along with a discussion of a relatively inexpensive beam delivery system and a proposed program for its development. 3 refs

  2. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  3. Risk of Fatal Cerebrovascular Accidents after External Beam Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Glottic Larynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O’Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S.; Bekelman, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) in patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death due to CVA among patients with early stage glottic larynx cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the SEER database. Results The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8 %; 95% CI 2.3%–3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5 %; 95% CI 0.8 %–2.3%, p= 0.024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted HR 1.75; 95% CI 1.04–2.96, p= 0.037). Conclusion Treatment of early stage glottic larynx cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. PMID:23595858

  4. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  5. Radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer in Japan. A patterns of care study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2003-01-01

    The patterns of radical radiation therapy for prostate cancer are unclear in Japan. A Patterns of Care Study was performed throughout Japan to examine the patterns of radiation therapy for prostate cancer. From 1999 to 2000, extramural audits were performed on 50 randomly selected institutions (∼7% of all institutions in Japan). Detailed information was collected on a total of 311 prostate cancer patients without evidence of distant metastases, who were treated by radiation therapy between 1996 and 1998. Of these 311 patients, 162 treated radically using photon beams were analyzed in this study. Eighty percent of the patients had high-risk diseases defined as T3 or T4 tumors, a pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/ml or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Androgen ablation was performed in 85.8% of patients and the median duration of hormonal therapy before and after radiation therapy was 5.3 and 21.4 months, respectively. The median total dose of radiation therapy to the prostate was 65.0 Gy (range: 20-74 Gy). The 3-year overall and biochemical relapse-free survival rates were 86.7 and 86.1%, respectively. Late toxicity was mild, with only nine patients (5.6%) exhibiting grade 2 late morbidity. The majority of the patients who received radical radiation therapy in Japan have high-risk disease. Androgen ablation plus radiation therapy was commonly used to treat these patients and resulted in high rates of initial control with a low risk of complications. (author)

  6. Beam monitoring in radiotherapy and hadron-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontbonne, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy techniques have evolved over the past twenty years. For photon beams, the development of tools such as multi leaf collimators, machines such as Cyberknife or tomo-therapy, have improved the conformation of treatments to the tumor volume and lowered maximum dose to healthy tissue. In another register, the use of proton-therapy is expanding in all countries and the development of carbon ions beams for hadron-therapy is also increasing. If techniques improve, the control requirements for the monitoring of the dose administered to patients are always the same. This document presents, first, the ins and outs of the different techniques of external beam radiotherapy: photon treatments, protons and hadrons. Starting from the basis of clinical requirements, it sets the variables to be measured in order to ensure the quality of treatment for the different considered modalities. It then describes some implementations, based on precise and rigorous specifications, for the monitoring and measurement of beams delivered by external beam radiotherapy equipments. Two instrumental techniques are particularly highlighted, plastic scintillators dosimetry for the control of megavoltage photon beams and ionization chamber dosimetry applied to proton-therapy or radiobiology experiments conducted at the GANIL facility. Analyzes and perspectives, based on the recent developments of treatment techniques, are delivered in conclusion and can serve as guide for future instrumental developments. (author)

  7. Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiation, Proton beam therapy and proton arc therapy for para-aortic lymph node tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Konyang University Hospital. Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To test feasibility of proton arc therapy (PAT) in the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor and compare its dosimetric properties with advanced radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional 3D conformal proton beam therapy (PBT). The treatment plans for para-aortic lymph node tumor were planned for 9 patients treated at our institution using IMRT, PBT, and PAT. Feasibility test and dosimetric evaluation were based on comparisons of dose volume histograms (DVHs) which reveal mean dose, D{sub 30%}, D{sub 60%}, D{sub 90%}, V{sub 30%}, V{sub 60%}, V{sub 90}%, organ equivalent doses (OEDs), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), homogeneity index (HI) and conformity index (CI). The average doses delivered by PAT to the liver, kidney, small bowel, duodenum, stomach were 7.6%, 3%, 17.3%, 26.7%, and 14.4%, of the prescription dose (PD), respectively, which is higher than the doses delivered by IMRT (0.4%, 7.2%, 14.2%, 15.9%, and 12.8%, respectively) and PBT (4.9%, 0.5%, 14.12%, 16.1% 9.9%, respectively). The average homogeneity index and conformity index of tumor using PAT were 12.1 and 1.21, respectively which were much better than IMRT (21.5 and 1.47, respectively) and comparable to PBT (13.1 and 1.23, respectively). The result shows that both NTCP and OED of PAT are generally lower than IMRT and PBT. This study demonstrates that PAT is better in target conformity and homogeneity than IMRT and PBT but worse than IMRT and PBT for most of dosimetric factor which indicate that PAT is not recommended for the treatment of para-aortic lymph node tumor.

  8. Six-dimensional correction of intra-fractional prostate motion with CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eCollins

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractLarge fraction radiation therapy offers a shorter course of treatment and radiobiological advantages for prostate cancer treatment. The CyberKnife is an attractive technology for delivering large fraction doses based on the ability to deliver highly conformal radiation therapy to moving targets. In addition to intra-fractional translational motion (left-right, superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, prostate rotation (pitch, roll and yaw can increase geographical miss risk. We describe our experience with six-dimensional (6D intrafraction prostate motion correction using CyberKnife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT. Eighty-eight patients were treated by SBRT alone or with supplemental external radiation therapy. Trans-perineal placement of four gold fiducials within the prostate accommodated X-ray guided prostate localization and beam adjustment. Fiducial separation and non-overlapping positioning permitted the orthogonal imaging required for 6D tracking. Fiducial placement accuracy was assessed using the CyberKnife fiducial extraction algorithm. Acute toxicities were assessed using Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC v3. There were no Grade 3, or higher, complications and acute morbidity was minimal. Ninety-eight percent of patients completed treatment employing 6D prostate motion tracking with intrafractional beam correction. Suboptimal fiducial placement limited treatment to 3D tracking in 2 patients. Our experience may guide others in performing 6D correction of prostate motion with CyberKnife SBRT.

  9. Summary and recommendations of a National Cancer Institute workshop on issues limiting the clinical use of Monte Carlo dose calculation algorithms for megavoltage external beam radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraass, Benedick A.; Smathers, James; Deye, James

    2003-01-01

    Due to the significant interest in Monte Carlo dose calculations for external beam megavoltage radiation therapy from both the research and commercial communities, a workshop was held in October 2001 to assess the status of this computational method with regard to use for clinical treatment planning. The Radiation Research Program of the National Cancer Institute, in conjunction with the Nuclear Data and Analysis Group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, gathered a group of experts in clinical radiation therapy treatment planning and Monte Carlo dose calculations, and examined issues involved in clinical implementation of Monte Carlo dose calculation methods in clinical radiotherapy. The workshop examined the current status of Monte Carlo algorithms, the rationale for using Monte Carlo, algorithmic concerns, clinical issues, and verification methodologies. Based on these discussions, the workshop developed recommendations for future NCI-funded research and development efforts. This paper briefly summarizes the issues presented at the workshop and the recommendations developed by the group

  10. Analysis of cosmetic results following primary radiation therapy for stages I and II carcinoma of the breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.R.; Levene, M.B.; Svensson, G.; Hellman, S.

    1979-01-01

    In 31 cases of Stages I or II carcinoma of the breast treated by primary radiation therapy, the cosmetic results were analyzed with regard to the details of treatment. Three principal treatment factors were identified which influenced the cosmetic outcome: (1) the extent and location of the biopsy procedure; (2) the time/dose factors of the radiation therapy; and (3) the technique of the radiation therapy. Cosmetic results were lessened when the biopsy procedure included a wide resection of adjacent breast tissue or when the biopsy scar was obvious. Increasing doses of external beam radiation were associated with greater degrees of retraction and fibrosis of the treated breast. All 6 patients who received 6000 rad by external beam had significant retraction, and fibrosis while patients who received 5000 rad rarely showed significant changes. Local boost doses by interstitial implantation did not diminsh the cosmetic outcome. All patients were treated using supervoltage equipment without bolus and skin changes secondary to treatment were infrequent. Seventeen patients developed localized areas of fibrosis and skin changes at the matchline between adjacent radiation fields. Recommendations are made for improved cosmetic results based on these findings

  11. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy with Noncoplanar Beams for Treatment of Prostate Cancer in Patients with Bilateral Hip Prosthesis-A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, Chris; Cheung, Rex Min; Kudchadker, Rajat J.

    2010-01-01

    Megavoltage photon intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is typically used in the treatment of prostate cancer at our institution. Approximately 1% to 2% of patients with prostate cancer have hip prostheses. The presence of the prosthesis usually complicates the planning process because of dose perturbation around the prosthesis, radiation attenuation through the prosthesis, and the introduction of computed tomography artifacts in the planning volume. In addition, hip prostheses are typically made of materials of high atomic number, which add uncertainty to the dosimetry of the prostate and critical organs in the planning volume. When the prosthesis is bilateral, treatment planning is further complicated because only a limited number of beam angles can be used to avoid the prostheses. In this case study, we will report the observed advantages of using noncoplanar beams in the delivery of IMRT to a prostate cancer patient with bilateral hip prostheses. The treatment was planned for 75.6 Gy using a 7-field coplanar approach and a noncoplanar arrangement, with all fields avoiding entrance though the prostheses. Our results indicate that, compared with the coplanar plan, the noncoplanar plan delivers the prescribed dose to the target with a slightly better conformality and sparing of rectal tissue versus the coplanar plan.

  12. Radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, W.J.; Richardson, G.; Hafermann, M.D.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1965, 401 patients with prostate cancer have received intensive local pelvic radiation therapy at the Virginia Mason Medical Center. Two hundred twenty-one of this series were in the Stage C category. The 36 Stage B cancers were either medically nonoperable, or advanced extent, or had high-grade histopathology. Ten patients each were in diffuse Stage A or Stage D groups, the latter receiving local palliative inensive treatment to the prostate area. The mean age of the patients was 67.6 years. The five year survival of the Stage C group was 57.7%. There was no apparent influence on the survival of irradiated Stage C patients who received estrogen therapy. Current treatment techniques employ 10 megavolt photon beam with whole pelvic nodal fields and bilateral are rotational boost fields. The incidence of reactions and complications is presented

  13. External radiation therapy in early stage prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, Howard M.

    1996-01-01

    Optimal therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is controversial. Numerous options are available, however, comparison of results is difficult in view of the insufficiency of phase III randomized trials comparing alternative treatment strategies. These options include such strategies as no curative therapy (so-called watchful waiting), radiotherapy (external and/or internal), cryotherapy, or radical prostatectomy. Clearly, a broad spectrum of clinical approaches. When reported experiences involving radiation therapy and radical prostatectomy are compared, surgical patients tend to be younger, of earlier stage, of higher performance status, and have lower pre-therapy PSA. These prognostic factors influence the probability of disease control, and since patient selection can have a profound impact on results reporting, these issues need to be carefully controlled. A review of patients who are potentially candidates for surgery at the University of Michigan treated with conformal therapy external beam treatment, indicates that these relatively early patients are doing well. These issues will be elaborated upon further during the presentation

  14. Generalized Morphea after Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kushi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 69-year-old woman who received external beam radiation for the treatment of breast cancer. Seven months later, she developed generalized morphea involving the area of irradiated skin of the breast as well as distant sites of the groin and distal lower extremity. Postirradiation morphea is an uncommon yet well-documented phenomenon, usually confined to the radiated site and the immediate surrounding tissue. To our knowledge, this is only the fourth reported case of morphea occurring distant from the radiation field. While most cases of postirradiation morphea have been shown to either resolve spontaneously or respond to topical corticosteroids, our patient required systemic therapy with methotrexate, which resulted in clinical improvement. With this paper, we hope to bring further awareness to this phenomenon and demonstrate a successful treatment response with the use of methotrexate in postirradiation generalized morphea.

  15. Neutron, Proton, and Photonuclear Cross Sections for Radiation Therapy and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors review recent work at Los Alamos to evaluate neutron, proton, and photonuclear cross section up to 150 MeV (to 250 MeV for protons), based on experimental data and nuclear model calculations. These data are represented in the ENDF format and can be used in computer codes to simulate radiation transport. They permit calculations of absorbed dose in the body from therapy beams, and through use of kerma coefficients allow absorbed dose to be estimated for a given neutron energy distribution. For radiation protection, these data can be used to determine shielding requirements in accelerator environments, and to calculate neutron, proton, gamma-ray, and radionuclide production. Illustrative comparisons of the evaluated cross section and kerma coefficient data with measurements are given

  16. A comparison of robotic arm versus gantry linear accelerator stereotactic body radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avkshtol, Vladimir; Dong, Yanqun; Hayes, Shelly B; Hallman, Mark A; Price, Robert A; Sobczak, Mark L; Horwitz, Eric M; Zaorsky, Nicholas G

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer diagnosed in men in the United States besides skin cancer. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT; 6-15 Gy per fraction, up to 45 minutes per fraction, delivered in five fractions or less, over the course of approximately 2 weeks) is emerging as a popular treatment option for prostate cancer. The American Society for Radiation Oncology now recognizes SBRT for select low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients. SBRT grew from the notion that high doses of radiation typical of brachytherapy could be delivered noninvasively using modern external-beam radiation therapy planning and delivery methods. SBRT is most commonly delivered using either a traditional gantry-mounted linear accelerator or a robotic arm-mounted linear accelerator. In this systematic review article, we compare and contrast the current clinical evidence supporting a gantry vs robotic arm SBRT for prostate cancer. The data for SBRT show encouraging and comparable results in terms of freedom from biochemical failure (>90% for low and intermediate risk at 5-7 years) and acute and late toxicity (6 MV). Finally, SBRT (particularly on a gantry) may also be more cost-effective than conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy. Randomized controlled trials of SBRT using both technologies are underway.

  17. Serum testosterone levels after external beam radiation for clinically localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagars, Gunar K.; Pollack, Alan

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether serum total testosterone levels change after external beam radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eighty-five men with clinically localized prostate cancer (T1-T3, N0/NX, M0) who underwent external beam radiation therapy without androgen ablation had pretreatment and 3-month posttreatment total serum testosterone levels determined by radioimmunoassay. Scattered doses to the testicles were measured with thermoluminescent dosimetry in 10 men. Results: Pretreatment serum testosterone levels ranged from 185 to 783 ng/dl, with a mean of 400 ng/dl and a median of 390 ng/dl. The coefficient of variation was 30%. Postradiation 3-month testosterone levels ranged from 163 ng/dl to 796 ng/dl, with mean and median values of 356 ng/dl and 327 ng/ml, respectively. The coefficient of variation was 34%. The 3-month value was significantly lower than the pretreatment value (Wilcoxon paired p = 0.0001). The mean absolute fall was 94 ng/dl and the mean percentage fall was 9%. Although the fall in testosterone level was statistically significant, the difference was very small quantitatively. In contrast, serum prostate-specific antigen levels fell dramatically by 3 months after radiation. Testicular scattered doses ranged from 1.84 to 2.42 Gy, with a mean of 2.07 Gy for a prostatic tumor dose of 68 Gy. Conclusions: Although significant, the fall in serum testosterone level after radiation for localized prostate cancer was small and likely of no pathophysiologic consequence. It is unlikely that scattered testicular radiation plays any significant role in the genesis of this change in testosterone level, which most likely occurs as a nonspecific stress response

  18. Beam diagnostics using transition radiation produced by a 100 Mev electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonka, M.; Leroy, J.; Hanus, X.; Derost, J.C.; Wartski, L.

    1991-01-01

    We report on several experiments using the optical transition radiation (OTR) produced by a 100 MeV electron beam. In using a sensitive video camera coupled with a digital image processing system an accurate and simple beam profile monitor has been devised. In measuring with a photo-multiplier the radiation emitted in a small solid angle around the direction of the OTR emission, a signal very sensitive to beam energy variations has been obtained. These experiments have been carried out on the Saclay ALS linac

  19. Initial Report of Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy for Posthysterectomy Patients With Gynecologic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lilie L., E-mail: lin@xrt.upenn.edu; Kirk, Maura; Scholey, Jessica; Taku, Nicolette; Kiely, Janid B.; White, Benjamin; Both, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: To report the acute toxicities associated with pencil beam scanning proton beam radiation therapy (PBS) for whole pelvis radiation therapy in women with gynecologic cancers and the results of a dosimetric comparison of PBS versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans. Methods and Materials: Eleven patients with posthysterectomy gynecologic cancer received PBS to the whole pelvis. The patients received a dose of 45 to 50.4 Gy relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in 1.8 Gy (RBE) daily fractions. Acute toxicity was scored according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4. A dosimetric comparison between a 2-field posterior oblique beam PBS and an IMRT plan was conducted. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess the potential dosimetric differences between the 2 plans and PBS target coverage robustness relative to setup uncertainties. Results: The median patient age was 55 years (range 23-76). The primary site was cervical in 7, vaginal in 1, and endometrial in 3. Of the 11 patients, 7 received concurrent cisplatin, 1 each received sandwich carboplatin and paclitaxel chemotherapy, both sandwich and concurrent chemotherapy, and concurrent and adjuvant chemotherapy, and 1 received no chemotherapy. All patients completed treatment. Of the 9 patients who received concurrent chemotherapy, the rate of grade 2 and 3 hematologic toxicities was 33% and 11%, respectively. One patient (9%) developed grade 3 acute gastrointestinal toxicity; no patient developed grade ≥3 genitourinary toxicity. The volume of pelvic bone marrow, bladder, and small bowel receiving 10 to 30 Gy was significantly lower with PBS than with intensity modulated radiation therapy (P<.001). The target coverage for all PBS plans was robust relative to the setup uncertainties (P>.05) with the clinical target volume mean dose percentage received by 95% and 98% of the target volume coverage changes within 2% for the individual plans. Conclusions: Our

  20. Emission of electromagnetic radiation from beam driven plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two production mechanisms for electromagnetic radiation from a plasma containing electron-beam-driven weak Langmuir turbulence are studied: induced Compton conversion and two-Langmuir-wave coalescence. Induced Compton conversion in which a Langmuir wave scatters off a relativistic electron while converting into a transversely polarized electromagnetic wave is considered as a means for producing amplified electromagnetic radiation from a beam-plasma system at frequencies well above the electron plasma frequency. The induced emission growth rates of the radiation produced by a monoenergetic ultrarelativistic electron beam are determined as a function of the Langmuir turbulence spectrum in the background plasma and are numerically evaluated for a range of model Langmuir spectra. Induced Compton conversion can play a role in emission from astrophysical beam-plasma systems if the electron beam is highly relativistic and sufficiently narrow. However, it is found that the growth rates for this process are too small in all cases studied to account for the intense high-frequency radiation observed in laboratory experiments. Two-Langmuir-wave coalescence as a means of producing radiation at 2omega/sub p/ is investigated in the setting of the earth's foreshock

  1. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  2. Radiotherapy for ocular lesions by electron beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaishi, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    Radiotherapy can be very significant as the treatment for ocular lesions, eyes need to be preserved as properly as possible on their functions and cosmetics. The appliance of conventional X ray therapy has been gradually abandaned as conventional X ray therapy ceased to be accepted as the general treatment for malignant tumors. Consequently the necessity of electron beam therapy has been rising even as the substituted method for conventional X ray therapy. The department of radiology of Gunma University was obliged to establish a new therapy for ocular lesions, and has been trying electron beam therapy since 1973; It is concluded that electron beam therapy is not at all inferior to conventional X ray therapy as reported above. Basic therapeutic methods for ocular lesions are the following: 1) For epidermoid carcinoma, 600 rads at a time, 3600 - 4200 rads in total is applied by 8 MeV electron twice a week method. 2) For malignant melanoma, 1000 rads at a time, 4000 - 5000 rads in total is applied by 8 MeV electron twice a week method. 3) For orbitar lymphoid neoplasm, Cobalt-60 γ ray or Linac X ray is applied together with electron beam. 4) For embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, adenoid cystic cancer etc., the therapy for whole body is necessary. 5) For benign tumors, a small dose at a time is applied for a long time. (author)

  3. Radiation and shielding around beam absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurkmans, A.; Maas, R.

    1978-12-01

    During operational conditions it is anticipated that a fair amount of the total available beam power is dumped in either the slit system on one of the beam dumps. Thses beam absorbers therefore become strong radioactive sources. The radiation level due to the absorption of a 100 kW electron beam is estimated and the problem of residual activity is treated. Proposed shielding materials are discussed. (C.F.)

  4. Fast shading correction for cone beam CT in radiation therapy via sparse sampling on planning CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linxi; Tsui, Tiffany; Wei, Jikun; Zhu, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The image quality of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is limited by severe shading artifacts, hindering its quantitative applications in radiation therapy. In this work, we propose an image-domain shading correction method using planning CT (pCT) as prior information which is highly adaptive to clinical environment. We propose to perform shading correction via sparse sampling on pCT. The method starts with a coarse mapping between the first-pass CBCT images obtained from the Varian TrueBeam system and the pCT. The scatter correction method embedded in the Varian commercial software removes some image errors but the CBCT images still contain severe shading artifacts. The difference images between the mapped pCT and the CBCT are considered as shading errors, but only sparse shading samples are selected for correction using empirical constraints to avoid carrying over false information from pCT. A Fourier-Transform-based technique, referred to as local filtration, is proposed to efficiently process the sparse data for effective shading correction. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated on one anthropomorphic pelvis phantom and 17 patients, who were scheduled for radiation therapy. (The codes of the proposed method and sample data can be downloaded from https://sites.google.com/view/linxicbct) RESULTS: The proposed shading correction substantially improves the CBCT image quality on both the phantom and the patients to a level close to that of the pCT images. On the phantom, the spatial nonuniformity (SNU) difference between CBCT and pCT is reduced from 74 to 1 HU. The root of mean square difference of SNU between CBCT and pCT is reduced from 83 to 10 HU on the pelvis patients, and from 101 to 12 HU on the thorax patients. The robustness of the proposed shading correction is fully investigated with simulated registration errors between CBCT and pCT on the phantom and mis-registration on patients. The sparse sampling scheme of our method successfully

  5. MO-FG-BRA-07: Theranostic Gadolinium-Based AGuIX Nanoparticles for MRI-Guided Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detappe, A; Rottmann, J; Kunjachan, S; Berbeco, R; Tillement, O

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: AGuIX are gadolinium-based nanoparticles, initially developed for MRI, that have a potential role in radiation therapy as a radiosensitizer. Our goal is to demonstrate that these nanoparticles can both be used as an MRI contrast agent, as well as to obtain local dose enhancement in a pancreatic tumor when delivered in combination with an external beam irradiation. Methods: We performed in vitro cell uptake and radiosensitization studies of a pancreatic cancer cell line in a low energy (220kVp) beam, a standard clinical 6MV beam (STD) and a flattening filter free clinical 6MV beam (FFF). After injection of 40mM of nanoparticles, a biodistribution study was performed in vivo on mice with subcutaneous xenograft pancreatic tumors. In vivo radiation therapy studies were performed at the time point of maximum tumor uptake. Results: The concentration of AGuIX nanoparticles in Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells, determined in vitro by MRI and ICPMS, peaks after 30 minutes with 0.3% of the initial concentration (5mg/g). Clonogenic assays show a significant effect (p<0.05) when the AGuIX are coupled with MV photon irradiation (DEF20%=1.31). Similar AGuIX tumor uptake is found in vivo by both MRI and ICPMS 30 minutes after intravenous injection. For long term survival studies, the choice of the radiation dose is determined with 5 control groups (3mice/group) irradiated with 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20Gy. Afterwards, 4 groups (8mice/group) are used to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. A Logrank test is performed as a statistical test to evaluate the effect of the nanoparticles. Conclusion: The combination of the MRI contrast and radiosensitization properties of gadolinium nanoparticles reveals a strong potential for usage with MRI-guided radiation therapy

  6. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  7. Audit of high energy therapy beams in hospital oncology departments by the National Radiation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, V.G.

    1994-02-01

    In 1993 the output of every high energy radiotherapy beam used clinically in New Zealand was measured by National Radiation Laboratory (NRL) staff using independent dosimetry equipment. The purpose of this was to audit the dosimetry that is used by hospital physicists for the basis of patient treatments, and to uncover any errors that may be clinically significant. This report analyses the uncertainties involved in comparing the NRL and hospital measurements, and presents the results of the 1993 audit. The overall uncertainty turns out to be about 1.5%. The results for linear accelerator photon beams are consistent with a purely random variation within this uncertainty. Electron beams show some small errors beyond the expected uncertainty. Gamma beams have the potential to be the most accurately measured, but in practice are less accurately measured than linear accelerator beams. None of the disagreements indicated an error of clinical significance. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher; Borak, Thomas B; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Nickoloff, Jac A

    2011-06-03

    Ionizing radiation causes many types of DNA damage, including base damage and single- and double-strand breaks. Photons, including X-rays and γ-rays, are the most widely used type of ionizing radiation in radiobiology experiments, and in radiation cancer therapy. Charged particles, including protons and carbon ions, are seeing increased use as an alternative therapeutic modality. Although the facilities needed to produce high energy charged particle beams are more costly than photon facilities, particle therapy has shown improved cancer survival rates, reflecting more highly focused dose distributions and more severe DNA damage to tumor cells. Despite early successes of charged particle radiotherapy, there is room for further improvement, and much remains to be learned about normal and cancer cell responses to charged particle radiation. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Fiber-optic dosimeters for radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Enbang; Archer, James

    2017-10-01

    According to the figures provided by the World Health Organization, cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 8.8 million deaths in 2015. Radiation therapy, which uses x-rays to destroy or injure cancer cells, has become one of the most important modalities to treat the primary cancer or advanced cancer. The newly developed microbeam radiation therapy (MRT), which uses highly collimated, quasi-parallel arrays of x-ray microbeams (typically 50 μm wide and separated by 400 μm) produced by synchrotron sources, represents a new paradigm in radiotherapy and has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies on different animal models. Measurements of the absorbed dose distribution of microbeams are vitally important for clinical acceptance of MRT and for developing quality assurance systems for MRT, hence are a challenging and important task for radiation dosimetry. On the other hand, during the traditional LINAC based radiotherapy and breast cancer brachytherapy, skin dose measurements and treatment planning also require a high spatial resolution, tissue equivalent, on-line dosimeter that is both economical and highly reliable. Such a dosimeter currently does not exist and remains a challenge in the development of radiation dosimetry. High resolution, water equivalent, optical and passive x-ray dosimeters have been developed and constructed by using plastic scintillators and optical fibers. The dosimeters have peak edge-on spatial resolutions ranging from 50 to 500 microns in one dimension, with a 10 micron resolution dosimeter under development. The developed fiber-optic dosimeters have been test with both LINAC and synchrotron x-ray beams. This work demonstrates that water-equivalent and high spatial resolution radiation detection can be achieved with scintillators and optical fiber systems. Among other advantages, the developed fiber-optic probes are also passive, energy independent, and radiation hard.

  10. Leaflet manual of external beam radiation therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: a review of the indications, evidences, and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Chai Hong; Yoon, Won Sup

    2018-01-01

    The use of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was rarely performed due to liver toxicity with a previous technique, has increased. Palliation of portal vein thrombosis, supplementation for insufficient transarterial chemoembolization, and provision of new curative opportunities using stereotactic body radiotherapy are the potential indications for use of EBRT. The mechanism of EBRT treatment, with its radiobiological and physical perspectives, differs from those of conventional medical treatment or surgery. Therefore, understanding the effects of EBRT may be unfamiliar to physicians other than radiation oncologists, especially in the field of HCC, where EBRT has recently begun to be applied. The first objective of this review was to concisely explain the indications for use of EBRT for HCC for all physicians treating HCC. Therefore, this review focuses on the therapeutic outcomes rather than the detailed biological and physical background. We also reviewed recent clinical trials that may extend the indications for use of EBRT. Finally, we reviewed the current clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of HCC and discuss the current recommendations and future perspectives.

  11. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy to bilateral lower limb extremities concurrently: a planning case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Emma, E-mail: emmafitz1390@gmail.com; Miles, Wesley; Fenton, Paul; Frantzis, Jim [Radiation Oncology, Epworth HealthCare, Victoria (Australia)

    2014-09-15

    Non-melanomatous skin cancers represent 80% of all newly diagnosed cancers in Australia with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) being the most common. A previously healthy 71-year-old woman presented with widespread and tender superficial skin cancers on the lower bilateral limbs. External beam radiation therapy through the use of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was employed as the treatment modality of choice as this technique provides conformal dose distribution to a three-dimensional treatment volume while reducing toxicity to surrounding tissues. The patient was prescribed a dose of 60 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV) with 1.0 cm bolus over the ventral surface of each limb. The beam arrangement consisted of six treatment fields that avoided entry and exit through the contralateral limb. The treatment plans met the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) guidelines and produced highly conformal dosimetric results. Skin toxicity was measured against the National Cancer Institute: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NCI: CTCAE) version 3. A well-tolerated treatment was delivered with excellent results given the initial extent of the disease. This case study has demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of IMRT for skin cancers as an alternative to surgery and traditional superficial radiation therapy, utilising a complex PTV of the extremities for patients with similar presentations.

  12. Dosimetry for ocular proton beam therapy at the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory based on the ICRU Report 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newhauser, W.D.; Burns, J.; Smith, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    The Massachusetts General Hospital, the Harvard Cyclotron Laboratory (HCL), and the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary have treated almost 3000 patients with ocular disease using high-energy external-beam proton radiation therapy since 1975. The absorbed dose standard for ocular proton therapy beams at HCL was based on a fluence measurement with a Faraday cup (FC). A majority of proton therapy centers worldwide, however, use an absorbed dose standard that is based on an ionization chamber (IC) technique. The ion chamber calibration is deduced from a measurement in a reference 60 Co photon field together with a calculated correction factor that takes into account differences in a chamber's response in 60 Co and proton fields. In this work, we implemented an ionization chamber-based absolute dosimetry system for the HCL ocular beamline based on the recommendations given in Report 59 by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. Comparative measurements revealed that the FC system yields an absorbed dose to water value that is 1.1% higher than was obtained with the IC system. That difference is small compared with the experimental uncertainties and is clinically insignificant. In June of 1998, we adopted the IC-based method as our standard practice for the ocular beam

  13. Radiation therapy in old patients. Side effects and results of radiation therapy in old patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, H.; Zimmermann, F.B.; Molls, M.

    1999-01-01

    Background: Despite a growing number of elderly patients receiving radiation therapy little is known about side effects and outcome of irradiation in this section of the population. Methods: In a review article epidemiologic data, aspects of radiation-biology as well as side effects and outcome of radiation therapy of elderly patients are discussed. Results: Cancer incidence rises with age and is exceeding 3.5% for males older than 85 years. With a life expectancy of more than 4 years, curative therapy is indicated even at this age. Furthermore, several retrospective studies indicate that local control and disease-Specific survival after radiation therapy of elderly patients is comparable with that of younger persons. The exception contains elderly patients with grade-III to IV gliomas or with rectal carcinoma who show a reduced survival which is perhaps caused by less aggressive combined treatment (tumor resection). Although some biological and molecular data indicate a rise in radiation sensitivity with growing age like the reduction of the capacity of some DNA-repair enzymes, there is no convincing evidence in animal studies or in retrospective clinical studies that radiation therapy is generally less well tolerated by older individuals. Some age-depending differences in organ toxicities are described in 3 large studies, which evaluate the data of patients who were enrolled in different EORTC-trials: Older patients suffer more of functional mucositis in case of radiation therapy to the head and neck, they have an increased weight loss and a higher frequency of late esophageal damage when irradiated in the thorax, and they show a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction when treated with radiation therapy to the pelvis. On the other hand younger patients suffer more from acute toxicity like skin damage, nausea, and deterioration of the performance status during pelvic radiotherapy. When discussing the dose intensity of radiation therapy concomitant disease which

  14. A randomized trial comparing radical prostatectomy plus endocrine therapy versus external beam radiotherapy plus endocrine therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer. Results at median follow-up of 102 months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakura, Koichiro; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ichikawa, Tomohiko

    2006-01-01

    The background of this study was to investigate the optimal treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer, a prospective randomized trial was conducted to compare radical prostatectomy plus endocrine therapy versus external beam radiotherapy plus endocrine therapy. One hundred patients with T2b-3N0M0 prostate cancer were enrolled and 95 were evaluated. Of 95 cases, 46 underwent radical prostatectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection and 49 were treated with external beam radiation by linear accelerator with 40-50 Gy to the whole pelvis and 20-Gy boost to the prostatic area. For all patients, endocrine therapy was initiated 8 weeks before surgery or radiotherapy and continued thereafter. The long-term outcome and morbidity were examined. Median follow-up period was 102 months. At 10 years overall survival rates in the surgery group were better than the radiation group (76.2% versus 71.1% for biochemical progression-free rates; P=0.25, 83.5% versus 66.1% for clinical progression-free rates; P=0.14, 85.7% versus 77.1% for cause-specific survival rates; P=0.06, and 67.9% versus 60.9% for overall survival rates; P=0.30), although none of them reached statistical significance. Erectile dysfunction was recognized in almost all patients as a result of continuous endocrine therapy. Incontinence requiring more than one pad per day was observed more frequently in the surgery group than the radiation group (P<0.01). For the treatment of patients with locally advanced prostate cancer, when combined with endocrine therapy, either radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy demonstrated favorable long-term outcomes. The radiation dose of 60-70 Gy might not be enough for the local treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer. (author)

  15. Fast infrared detectors for beam diagnostics with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocci, A.; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.; Drago, A.; Piccinini, M.; Cestelli Guidi, M.; De Sio, A.; Sali, D.; Morini, P.; Piotrowski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beam diagnostic is a fundamental constituent of any particle accelerators either dedicated to high-energy physics or to synchrotron radiation experiments. All storage rings emit radiations. Actually they are high brilliant sources of radiation: the synchrotron radiation emission covers from the infrared range to the X-ray domain with a pulsed structure depending on the temporal characteristics of the stored beam. The time structure of the emitted radiation is extremely useful as a tool to perform time-resolved experiments. However, this radiation can be also used for beam diagnostic to determine the beam stability and to measure the dimensions of the e - or e + beam. Because of the temporal structure of the synchrotron radiation to perform diagnostic, we need very fast detectors. Indeed, the detectors required for the diagnostics of the stored particle bunches at third generation synchrotron radiation sources and FEL need response times in the sub-ns and even ps range. To resolve the bunch length and detect bunch instabilities, X-ray and visible photon detectors may be used achieving response times of a few picoseconds. Recently, photon uncooled infrared devices optimized for the mid-IR range realized with HgCdTe semiconductors allowed to obtain sub-nanosecond response times. These devices can be used for fast detection of intense IRSR sources and for beam diagnostic. We present here preliminary experimental data of the pulsed synchrotron radiation emission of DAΦNE, the electron positron collider of the LNF laboratory of the INFN, performed with new uncooled IR detectors with a time resolution of a few hundreds of picoseconds

  16. Adjuvant radiation therapy for pancreatic cancer: a 15-year experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, Ralph R.; Merrick, Hollis W.; Khuder, Sadik; Battle, Joyce A.; Herron, Lisa M.; Pawlicki, Todd

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective analysis to determine differences in survival of patients with pancreatic aden carcinoma treated by radical surgery with and without adjuvant radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1995, 249 patients with pancreatic tumors were identified at the Medical College of Ohio. Forty-four of these patients underwent radical surgical procedures with curative intent. These patients were divided into four groups according to treatment: surgery alone (n = 14), surgery plus intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) (n = 6), surgery plus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) (n = 14), or surgery plus both IORT and EBRT (n = 10). Outcome and survival were analyzed among the four groups. Results: The median survival time of patients treated with radical surgery alone was 6.5 months. The median survival time for the surgery plus IORT group was 9 months; however, 33.3% (two of six) of these patients survived longer than 5 years. This survival pattern was borderline significantly better than that for the surgery alone group (p = 0.0765). The surgery plus EBRT and the surgery plus IORT and EBRT groups had median survival times of 14.5 and 17.5 months, respectively. These were significantly better than that of the surgery alone group (p = 0.0004 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The addition of radiation therapy did not affect the treatment complication rate. Conclusion: The survival of patients who were treated with radical surgery alone was significantly poorer than that of patients who received adjuvant radiation therapy. These results are consistent with other studies in the literature. Patients treated with all three modalities (surgery, IORT, and EBRT) displayed the best median survival time

  17. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  18. Brief Report: External Beam Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Teratomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew S; Tang, Chad; Hong, Wan Xing; Park, Sujin; Bazalova-Carter, Magdalena; Nelson, Geoff; Sanchez-Freire, Veronica; Bakerman, Isaac; Zhang, Wendy; Neofytou, Evgenios; Connolly, Andrew J; Chan, Charles K; Graves, Edward E; Weissman, Irving L; Nguyen, Patricia K; Wu, Joseph C

    2017-08-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells, including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced PSCs (hiPSCs), have great potential as an unlimited donor source for cell-based therapeutics. The risk of teratoma formation from residual undifferentiated cells, however, remains a critical barrier to the clinical application of these cells. Herein, we describe external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) as an attractive option for the treatment of this iatrogenic growth. We present evidence that EBRT is effective in arresting growth of hESC-derived teratomas in vivo at day 28 post-implantation by using a microCT irradiator capable of targeted treatment in small animals. Within several days of irradiation, teratomas derived from injection of undifferentiated hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated complete growth arrest lasting several months. In addition, EBRT reduced reseeding potential of teratoma cells during serial transplantation experiments, requiring irradiated teratomas to be seeded at 1 × 10 3 higher doses to form new teratomas. We demonstrate that irradiation induces teratoma cell apoptosis, senescence, and growth arrest, similar to established radiobiology mechanisms. Taken together, these results provide proof of concept for the use of EBRT in the treatment of existing teratomas and highlight a strategy to increase the safety of stem cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 2017;35:1994-2000. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Place of radiation therapy for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors in 1994; Place de la radiotherapie dans les tumeurs gynecologiques et urologiques. Le point en 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maulard-Durdux, C.; Housset, M. [Hopital Saint-Louis, 75 - Paris (France)

    1995-06-01

    External-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are currently used both as curative and as palliative therapy in patients with gynecologic and urologic tumors. Ionizing radiation plays a key role in the locoregional control of uterine and prostatic tumors, in particular in combination with surgery. External-beam radiation therapy in combination with concomitant radiosensitizing chemotherapy may allow conservation of the bladder in patients with infiltrating vesical tumors classically treated by cystectomy. It has beneficial effects on some of the most incapacitating complications of these cancers: its hemostatic effect is valuable in patients with vaginal bleeding or hematuria and it relieves the pain due to bone metastases, which are particularly common in prostatic cancer. Furthermore, use of high energy accelerators, development of better imaging techniques, and advances in dosimetry have substantially reduced the rate of delayed radiation-induced complications. Thus, external-beam radiation therapy and brachytherapy are important tools for the treatment of gynecologic and urologic tumors. A discussion is provided of the role of radiation therapy in the four most common types of gynecologic and urologic cancer: cancers of the prostate, bladder, uterine cervix, and uterine corpus. (authors). 52 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Spin-polarized free electron beam interaction with radiation and superradiant spin-flip radiative emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gover

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of spin-polarized free-electron beam interaction with electromagnetic wave at electron-spin resonance conditions in a magnetic field and of superradiant spin-flip radiative emission are analyzed in the framework of a comprehensive classical model. The spontaneous emission of spin-flip radiation from electron beams is very weak. We show that the detectivity of electron spin resonant spin-flip and combined spin-flip/cyclotron-resonance-emission radiation can be substantially enhanced by operating with ultrashort spin-polarized electron beam bunches under conditions of superradiant (coherent emission. The proposed radiative spin-state modulation and the spin-flip radiative emission schemes can be used for control and noninvasive diagnostics of polarized electron/positron beams. Such schemes are of relevance in important scattering experiments off nucleons in nuclear physics and off magnetic targets in condensed matter physics.

  1. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R 50 was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V 20 , V 10 , and V 5 were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor coverage and

  2. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin [Department of Industrial and Operations Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sheng, Ke, E-mail: ksheng@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  3. Chemotherapy and molecular target therapy combined with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been established as standard treatment approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer and so on through randomized clinical trials. However, radiation-related morbidity such as acute toxicity also increased as treatment intensity has increased. In underlining mechanism for enhancement of normal tissue reaction in chemo-radiation therapy, chemotherapy enhanced radiosensitivity of normal tissues in addition to cancer cells. Molecular target-based drugs combined with radiation therapy have been expected as promising approach that makes it possible to achieve cancer-specific enhancement of radiosensitivity, and clinical trials using combined modalities have been performed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In order to obtain maximum radiotherapeutic gain, a detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying the interaction between radiation and Molecular target-based drugs is indispensable. Among molecular target-based drugs, inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its signal transduction pathways have been vigorously investigated, and mechanisms regarding the radiosensitizing effect have been getting clear. In addition, the results of randomized clinical trials demonstrated that radiation therapy combined with cetuximab resulted in improvement of overall and disease-specific survival rate compared with radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. In this review, clinical usefulness of chemo-radiation therapy and potential molecular targets for potentiation of radiation-induced cell killing are summarized. (author)

  4. A proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingchang

    2001-01-01

    A scattering proton beam delivery system for conformal therapy and intensity modulated therapy is described. The beam is laterally spread out by a dual-ring double scattering system and collimated by a program-controlled multileaf collimator and patient specific fixed collimators. The proton range is adjusted and modulated by a program controlled binary filter and ridge filters

  5. SU-C-303-01: Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase Confers Cancer Resistance to Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, S; La Count, S; Liu, J; Bai, X; Lu, L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study the role of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in malignant cell resistance to radiation therapy. Methods: We first developed several small devices that could be used to adopt radiation beams from clinical high dose rate brachy therapy (HDR) or linac-based megavoltage machines to perform pre-clinical cell and mouse experiments. Then we used these devices to deliver radiation to AID-positive and AID-silenced cancer cells or tumors formed by these cells in mice. Cells and mice bearing tumors received the same dose under the same experimental conditions. For cells, we observed the apoptosis and the cell survival rate over time. For mice bearing tumors, we measured and recorded the tumor sizes every other day for 4 weeks. Results: For cell experiments, we found that the AID-positive cells underwent much less apoptosis compared with AID-silenced cells upon radiation. And for mouse experiments, we found that AID-positive tumors grew significantly faster than the AID-silenced tumors despite of receiving the same doses of radiation. Conclusion: Our study suggests that AID may confer cancer resistance to radiation therapy, and AID may be a significant biomarker predicting cancer resistance to radiation therapy for certain cancer types

  6. Ultra-High Density Electron Beams for Beam Radiation and Beam Plasma Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Scott; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Jacob, Jeremy S; Lim, Jae; Musumeci, Pietro; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    Current and future applications of high brightness electron beams, which include advanced accelerators such as the plasma wake-field accelerator (PWFA) and beam-radiation interactions such as inverse-Compton scattering (ICS), require both transverse and longitudinal beam sizes on the order of tens of microns. Ultra-high density beams may be produced at moderate energy (50 MeV) by compression and subsequent strong focusing of low emittance, photoinjector sources. We describe the implementation of this method used at LLNL's PLEIADES ICS x-ray source in which the photoinjector-generated beam has been compressed to 300 fsec duration using the velocity bunching technique and focused to 20 μm rms size using an extremely high gradient, permanent magnet quadrupole (PMQ) focusing system.

  7. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Dunn, Rodney L. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hembroff, A. Larry [Office for Survey Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Kaplan, Irving [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Ciezki, Jay [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei, John T. [Department of Urology, The University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sanda, Martin G. [Department of Urology, Emory University Medical Center, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  8. Multi-institutional Prospective Evaluation of Bowel Quality of Life After Prostate External Beam Radiation Therapy Identifies Patient and Treatment Factors Associated With Patient-Reported Outcomes: The PROSTQA Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamstra, Daniel A.; Conlon, Anna S.C.; Daignault, Stephanie; Dunn, Rodney L.; Sandler, Howard M.; Hembroff, A. Larry; Zietman, Anthony L.; Kaplan, Irving; Ciezki, Jay; Kuban, Deborah A.; Wei, John T.; Sanda, Martin G.; Michalski, Jeff M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patients treated with external beam radiation therapy as part of the multicenter Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment (PROSTQA), to identify factors associated with posttreatment patient-reported bowel health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods and Materials: Pretreatment characteristics and treatment details among 292 men were evaluated using a general linear mixed model for their association with measured HRQOL by the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite instrument through 2 years after enrollment. Results: Bowel HRQOL had a median score of 100 (interquartile range 91.7-100) pretreatment and 95.8 (interquartile range 83.3-100) at 2 years, representing new moderate/big problems in 11% for urgency, 7% for frequency, 4% for bloody stools, and 8% for an overall bowel problems. Baseline bowel score was the strongest predictor for all 2-year endpoints. In multivariable models, a volume of rectum ≥25% treated to 70 Gy (V70) yielded a clinically significant 9.3-point lower bowel score (95% confidence interval [CI] 16.8-1.7, P=.015) and predicted increased risks for moderate to big fecal incontinence (P=.0008). No other radiation therapy treatment-related variables influenced moderate to big changes in rectal HRQOL. However, on multivariate analyses V70 ≥25% was associated with increases in small, moderate, or big problems with the following: incontinence (3.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-13.4, P=.03), rectal bleeding (3.6-fold; 95% CI 1.3-10.2, P=.018), and bowel urgency (2.9-fold; 95% CI 1.1-7.6, P=.026). Aspirin use correlated with a clinically significant 4.7-point lower bowel summary score (95% CI 9.0-0.4, P=.03) and an increase in small, moderate, or big problems with bloody stools (2.8-fold; 95% CI 1.2-6.4, P=.018). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was associated with higher radiation therapy doses to the prostate and lower doses to the rectum but did not independently correlate with bowel HRQOL

  9. Intraoperative radiation therapy in gynecologic cancer: update of the experience at a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garton, Graciela R.; Gunderson, Leonard L.; Webb, Maurice J.; Wilson, Timothy O.; Cha, Stephen S.; Podratz, Karl C.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To update the Mayo Clinic experience with intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in patients with gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: Between January 1983 and June 1991, 39 patients with recurrent or locally advanced gynecologic malignancies received intraoperative radiation therapy with electrons. The anatomical area treated was pelvis (side walls or presacrum) or periaortic nodes or a combination of both. In addition to intraoperative radiation therapy, 28 patients received external beam irradiation (median dose, 45 Gy; range, 0.9 to 65.7 Gy), and 13 received chemotherapy preoperatively. At the time of intraoperative radiation therapy and after maximum debulking operation, 23 patients had microscopic residual disease and 16 had gross residual disease up to 5 cm in thickness. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 43.4 months (range, 27.1 to 125.4 months). Results: The 5-year actuarial local control with or without central control was 67.4%, and the control within the IORT field (central control) was 81%. The risk of distant metastases at 5 years was 52% (82% in patients with gross residual disease and 33% in patients with only microscopic disease postoperatively). Actuarial 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival was 31.5 and 40.5%, respectively. Patients with microscopic disease had 5-year disease-free and overall survival of 55 and 50%, respectively. Grade 3 toxicity was directly associated with IORT in six patients (15%). Conclusion: Patients with local, regionally recurrent gynecologic cancer may benefit from maximal surgical debulking and IORT with or without external beam irradiation, especially those with microscopic residual disease

  10. Pitfalls of tungsten multileaf collimator in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, Vadim; Cheng, Chee-Wai; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States) and Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center (Formerly Midwest Proton Radiotherapy Institute), Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: Particle beam therapy is associated with significant startup and operational cost. Multileaf collimator (MLC) provides an attractive option to improve the efficiency and reduce the treatment cost. A direct transfer of the MLC technology from external beam radiation therapy is intuitively straightforward to proton therapy. However, activation, neutron production, and the associated secondary cancer risk in proton beam should be an important consideration which is evaluated. Methods: Monte Carlo simulation with FLUKA particle transport code was applied in this study for a number of treatment models. The authors have performed a detailed study of the neutron generation, ambient dose equivalent [H*(10)], and activation of a typical tungsten MLC and compared with those obtained from a brass aperture used in a typical proton therapy system. Brass aperture and tungsten MLC were modeled by absorber blocks in this study, representing worst-case scenario of a fully closed collimator. Results: With a tungsten MLC, the secondary neutron dose to the patient is at least 1.5 times higher than that from a brass aperture. The H*(10) from a tungsten MLC at 10 cm downstream is about 22.3 mSv/Gy delivered to water phantom by noncollimated 200 MeV beam of 20 cm diameter compared to 14 mSv/Gy for the brass aperture. For a 30-fraction treatment course, the activity per unit volume in brass aperture reaches 5.3 x 10{sup 4} Bq cm{sup -3} at the end of the last treatment. The activity in brass decreases by a factor of 380 after 24 h, additional 6.2 times after 40 days of cooling, and is reduced to background level after 1 yr. Initial activity in tungsten after 30 days of treating 30 patients per day is about 3.4 times higher than in brass that decreases only by a factor of 2 after 40 days and accumulates to 1.2 x 10{sup 6} Bq cm{sup -3} after a full year of operation. The daily utilization of the MLC leads to buildup of activity with time. The overall activity continues to increase

  11. Fan beam intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Patrick M.

    A fan beam proton therapy is developed which delivers intensity modulated proton therapy using distal edge tracking. The system may be retrofit onto existing proton therapy gantries without alterations to infrastructure in order to improve treatments through intensity modulation. A novel range and intensity modulation system is designed using acrylic leaves that are inserted or retracted from subsections of the fan beam. Leaf thicknesses are chosen in a base-2 system and motivated in a binary manner. Dose spots from individual beam channels range between 1 and 5 cm. Integrated collimators attempting to limit crosstalk among beam channels are investigated, but found to be inferior to uncollimated beam channel modulators. A treatment planning system performing data manipulation in MATLAB and dose calculation in MCNPX is developed. Beamlet dose is calculated on patient CT data and a fan beam source is manually defined to produce accurate results. An energy deposition tally follows the CT grid, allowing straightforward registration of dose and image data. Simulations of beam channels assume that a beam channel either delivers dose to a distal edge spot or is intensity modulated. A final calculation is performed separately to determine the deliverable dose accounting for all sources of scatter. Treatment plans investigate the effects that varying system parameters have on dose distributions. Beam channel apertures may be as large as 20 mm because the sharp distal falloff characteristic of proton dose provides sufficient intensity modulation to meet dose objectives, even in the presence of coarse lateral resolution. Dose conformity suffers only when treatments are delivered from less than 10 angles. Jaw widths of 1--2 cm produce comparable dose distributions, but a jaw width of 4 cm produces unacceptable target coverage when maintaining critical structure avoidance. Treatment time for a prostate delivery is estimated to be on the order of 10 minutes. Neutron production

  12. Design and development of radiation absorber for sighting beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Shukla, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    During the commissioning of Indus-2 , it is necessary to view the synchrotron radiation that will be emanating from the dipole exit ports. The 10 0 beam line from dipole 11 was earmarked for sighting beam line. The synchrotron radiation power density would be around 340 watts on the photon absorber inside the radiation absorber module, at the specified beam power of Indus-2. The beam striking on this photon absorber produces x-rays and Bremsstrahlung radiation. These are to be stopped and absorbed by radiation absorber. The photon absorber and the radiation absorber are integrated in a single vacuum chamber and actuated by a pneumatic cylinder connected using a bellow. Radiation absorber was needed to isolate the diagnostic components and to protect them from radiation a well as heat when they were not in use. The paper describes the design, calculation and development of the dynamic photon cum radiation absorber. The ultimate vacuum performance is also described. (author)

  13. The Results and Prognostic Factors of Postoperative Radiation Therapy in the Early Stages of Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Ja

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the results and prognostic factors for postoperative adjuvant radiation therapy in patients at stages I and II of endometrial cancer. Materials and Methods: Between January 1991 and December 2006, 35 patients with FIGO stages I and II disease, who received adjuvant radiation therapy following surgery for endometrial cancer at Ewha Womans University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. A total of 17 patients received postoperative pelvic external beam radiation therapy; whereas, 12 patients received vaginal brachytherapy alone, and 6 patients received both pelvic radiation therapy and vaginal brachytherapy. Results: The median follow-up period for all patients was 54 months. The 5-yr overall survival and disease-free survival rates for all patients were 91.4% and 81.7%, respectively. The 5-yr overall survival rates for low-risk, intermediate-risk, and high-risk groups were 100%, 100% and 55.6%, respectively. In addition, the 5-yr disease-free survival rates were 100%, 70.0%, and 45.7%, respectively. Although no locoregional relapses were identified, distant metastases were observed in 5 patients (14%). The most common site of distant metastases was the lung, followed by bone, liver, adrenal gland, and peritoneum. A univariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between distant metastases and risk-group (p=0.018), pathology type (p=0.001), and grade (p=0.019). A multivariate analysis also revealed that distant metastases were correlated with pathology type (p=0.009). Papillary, serous and clear cell carcinoma cases demonstrated a poor patient survival rate compared to cases of endometrioid adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma. The most common complication of pelvic external beam radiation therapy was enteritis (30%), followed by proctitis, leucopenia, and lymphedema. All these complications were of RTOG grades 1 and 2; no grades 3 and 4 were observed. Conclusion: For the low-risk and intermediate-risk groups (stages 1 and 2) endometrial

  14. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a combined electron-ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G; Samoshenkov, Yu K [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Optiko-Fizicheskikh Izmerenij, Moscow (USSR)

    1977-07-01

    The intensity of coherent electromagnetic radiation due to interaction of a modulated electron beam with a modulated ion beam is calculated. It is shown that the radiation intensity has a sharp maximum at the frequency equal to the difference of the modulation frequency of the electron and ion beams. The results obtained are compared with those corresponding to the scattering of a modulated electron beam on randomly distributed gas ions.

  15. Survival Analysis of F98 Glioma Rat Cells Following Minibeam or Broad-Beam Synchrotron Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Silvia; Sarun, Sukhéna; Biete, Albert; Prezado, Yolanda; Sabés, Manel

    2011-01-01

    In the quest of a curative radiotherapy treatment for gliomas new delivery modes are being explored. At the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), a new spatially-fractionated technique, called Minibeam Radiation Therapy (MBRT) is under development. The aim of this work is to compare the effectiveness of MBRT and broad-beam (BB) synchrotron radiation to treat F98 glioma rat cells. A dose escalation study was performed in order to delimit the range of doses where a therapeutic effect could be expected. These results will help in the design and optimization of the forthcoming in vivo studies at the ESRF. Two hundred thousand F98 cells were seeded per well in 24-well plates, and incubated for 48 hours before being irradiated with spatially fractionated and seamless synchrotron x-rays at several doses. The percentage of each cell population (alive, early apoptotic and dead cells, where either late apoptotic as necrotic cells are included) was assessed by flow cytometry 48 hours after irradiation, whereas the metabolic activity of surviving cells was analyzed on days 3, 4, and 9 post-irradiation by using QBlue test. The endpoint (or threshold dose from which an important enhancement in the effectiveness of both radiation treatments is achieved) obtained by flow cytometry could be established just before 12 Gy in the two irradiation schemes, whilst the endpoints assessed by the QBlue reagent, taking into account the cell recovery, were set around 18 Gy in both cases. In addition, flow cytometric analysis pointed at a larger effectiveness for minibeams, due to the higher proportion of early apoptotic cells. When the valley doses in MBRT equal the dose deposited in the BB scheme, similar cell survival ratio and cell recovery were observed. However, a significant increase in the number of early apoptotic cells were found 48 hours after the minibeam radiation in comparison with the seamless mode

  16. Long-Term Treatment Sequelae After External Beam Irradiation With or Without Hormonal Manipulation for Adenocarcinoma of the Prostate: Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Studies 85-31, 86-10, and 92-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, Colleen A.; Bae, Kyoungwha; Pilepich, Miljenko; Hanks, Gerald; Shipley, William

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity from external beam irradiation used to treat adenocarcinoma of the prostate continue to be a concern of physicians and patients alike. In addition, for locally advanced/high-risk cancer, the appropriate use of hormonal manipulation in addition to radiation therapy (RT) may increase toxicity. We analyzed three large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies (85-31, 86-10, and 92-02) to try to address these issues. Methods and Materials: A total of 2,922 patients were accrued with a median follow-up of 10.3 years for surviving patients. The RTOG scoring scheme was used to assess GI, GU, and other toxicities. Toxicity reported was Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Patient toxicity level was assessed by study and by treatment type combining RT only vs. RT + short-course hormone therapy (STH) vs. RT + long-term hormone therapy (LTH). Results: Multivariate analysis reveals that age >70 was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in late any Grade 3+ toxicity (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, p = 0.0476) adjusted for treatment type. Comparing treatment type, patients treated with RT+STH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GI, GU, and other toxicity compared with RT alone (p = .00006; p = 0.0037; p = 0.0127, respectively). Patients treated with RT+LTH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GU toxicity compared with RT alone (p = 0.023). Conclusions: These data show that external beam radiation therapy remains a safe option for locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer, and the use of hormonal manipulation does appear to be protective for GU and GI toxicity depending upon length of treatment

  17. Low Z target switching to increase tumor endothelial cell dose enhancement during gold nanoparticle-aided radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berbeco, Ross I., E-mail: rberbeco@partners.org; Detappe, Alexandre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Tsiamas, Panogiotis [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children’s Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee 38105 (United States); Parsons, David; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Robar, James [Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 1V7 (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have introduced gold nanoparticles as vascular-disrupting agents during radiation therapy. Crucial to this concept is the low energy photon content of the therapy radiation beam. The authors introduce a new mode of delivery including a linear accelerator target that can toggle between low Z and high Z targets during beam delivery. In this study, the authors examine the potential increase in tumor blood vessel endothelial cell radiation dose enhancement with the low Z target. Methods: The authors use Monte Carlo methods to simulate delivery of three different clinical photon beams: (1) a 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam, (2) a 6 MV flattening filter free (Cu/W), and (3) a 6 MV (carbon) beam. The photon energy spectra for each scenario are generated for depths in tissue-equivalent material: 2, 10, and 20 cm. The endothelial dose enhancement for each target and depth is calculated using a previously published analytic method. Results: It is found that the carbon target increases the proportion of low energy (<150 keV) photons at 10 cm depth to 28% from 8% for the 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam. This nearly quadrupling of the low energy photon content incident on a gold nanoparticle results in 7.7 times the endothelial dose enhancement as a 6 MV standard (Cu/W) beam at this depth. Increased surface dose from the low Z target can be mitigated by well-spaced beam arrangements. Conclusions: By using the fast-switching target, one can modulate the photon beam during delivery, producing a customized photon energy spectrum for each specific situation.

  18. Measurement of Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) for the Radiation Beam from Neutron Source Reactor YAYOI -Comparisons with Cyclotron Neutron and 60Co Gamma Ray-

    OpenAIRE

    HIROAKI, WAKABAYASHI; SHOZO, SUZUKI; AKIRA, ITO; Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, the University of Tokyo; Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo; Institute of Medical Science, the University of Tokyo

    1983-01-01

    Radiation biology and/or therapy research and development for a research reactor beam need specific RBEs of neutrons as well as of specific reactions. RBEs for reactor beams measured in situ condition are interesting because actual radiation effects on each biological system are different depending on detailed conditions of irradiation. A small powered research reactor (Fast Neutron Source Reactor: YAYOI) was examined here as a neutron beam source for obtaining survival curves in a manner usu...

  19. Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinders, Suzanne M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Méndez Romero, Alejandra [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schaart, Dennis [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, Yvette, E-mail: y.seppenwoolde@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

  20. Risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents after external beam radiation therapy for early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher-McClure, Samuel; Mitra, Nandita; Lin, Alexander; Ahn, Peter; Wan, Fei; O'Malley, Bert; Weinstein, Gregory S; Bekelman, Justin E

    2014-05-01

    This study compared the risk of fatal cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) in patients with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer receiving surgery or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Using a competing risks survival analysis, we compared the risk of death because of CVA among patients with early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer receiving surgery or EBRT in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The cumulative incidence of fatal CVA at 15 years was higher in patients receiving EBRT (2.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3% to 3.4%) compared to surgery (1.5%; 95% CI, 0.8% to 2.3%; p = .024). In multivariable competing risks regression models, EBRT remained associated with an increased risk of fatal CVA compared to surgery (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.04-2.96; p = .037). Treatment for early-stage glottic laryngeal cancer with EBRT was associated with a small increase in the risk of late fatal CVA events relative to surgery. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Investigation of cone-beam CT image quality trade-off for image-guided radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Junguo; Sharp, Gregory C.; Park, Yang-Kyun; Ouyang, Jinsong; Bortfeld, Thomas; El Fakhri, Georges

    2016-05-01

    It is well-known that projections acquired over an angular range slightly over 180° (so-called short scan) are sufficient for fan-beam reconstruction. However, due to practical imaging conditions (projection data and reconstruction image discretization, physical factors, and data noise), the short-scan reconstructions may have different appearances and properties from the full-scan (scans over 360°) reconstructions. Nevertheless, short-scan configurations have been used in applications such as cone-beam CT (CBCT) for head-neck-cancer image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) that only requires a small field of view due to the potential reduced imaging time and dose. In this work, we studied the image quality trade-off for full, short, and full/short scan configurations with both conventional filtered-backprojection (FBP) reconstruction and iterative reconstruction algorithms based on total-variation (TV) minimization for head-neck-cancer IGRT. Anthropomorphic and Catphan phantoms were scanned at different exposure levels with a clinical scanner used in IGRT. Both visualization- and numerical-metric-based evaluation studies were performed. The results indicate that the optimal exposure level and number of views are in the middle range for both FBP and TV-based iterative algorithms and the optimization is object-dependent and task-dependent. The optimal view numbers decrease with the total exposure levels for both FBP and TV-based algorithms. The results also indicate there are slight differences between FBP and TV-based iterative algorithms for the image quality trade-off: FBP seems to be more in favor of larger number of views while the TV-based algorithm is more robust to different data conditions (number of views and exposure levels) than the FBP algorithm. The studies can provide a general guideline for image-quality optimization for CBCT used in IGRT and other applications.

  2. Results of a 5-Week Schedule of Modern Total Skin Electron Beam Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Stephen Lloyd, E-mail: stephen.morris@gstt.nhs.uk [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom); McGovern, Mark; Bayne, Sally; Wain, Mary; Child, Fiona; Whittaker, Sean [St Johns Institute of Dermatology, Guys and St Thomas Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a 5-week schedule of total skin electron beam radiation therapy (TSEB) for mycosis fungoides (MF). Methods: Over 5 years, 41 patients with confirmed MF were treated with a modern TSEB technique delivering 30 Gy in 20 fractions over 5 weeks to the whole skin surface. Data were collected prospectively and entered into the skin tumor unit research database. Skin modified skin weighted assessment tool score data were collected to determine response, duration of response, survival, and toxicity. The outcomes were analyzed according to the patient's stage before TSEB, prognostic factors, and adjuvant treatments. Results: Seventeen patients were stage 1B, 19 were stage IIB, 3 were stage III, and 2 were stage IV. The overall response rate was 95%, with a complete response rate of 51%. Seventy-six percent of patients had relapsed at median follow-up of 18 months. The median time to relapse was 12 months, to systemic therapy was 15 months, and to modified skin weighted assessment tool progression above baseline was 44 months. The complete response rate was 59% in stage IB and 47% in stage IIB patients. The median time to skin relapse was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, 18 months versus 9 months. The median time to systemic therapy was longer in stage IB compared with stage IIB, >56 months versus 8 months. The median overall survival was 35 months: >56 months for stage IB, 25 months for stage IIB, 46 months for stage III, and 23.5 months for stage IV. Fifteen patients received adjuvant psoralen + ultraviolet A treatment with no difference seen in the time to relapse. Conclusions: This 5-week schedule of TSEB for MF has a high response rate with comparable duration of response to other regimens. Future studies are needed to find adjuvant and combination treatments to improve the duration of response.

  3. Outcome of self-expanding metal stenting followed by radiation therapy for unresectable extrahepatic bile duct cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jing; Gao Li; Yu Zihao; Han Jianzhu; Zhai Renyou

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the efficacy for self-expanding metal stenting followed by radiation therapy for unresectable extrahepatic bile duct cancer. Methods: From Jan 1996 to Sep 2002, 17 patients were treated with self-expanding metal stenting followed by Ir 192 high dose brachytherapy (brachytherapy group, n=5)and by external beam radiation therapy(external radiation therapy group, n=9). Brachytherapy was delivered on the same day or the following day after stenting with the total dose of DT 20- 30 Gy, twice daily, for 2-3 days. The median total dosage of external radiation therapy was 48 Gy (14-66 Gy), 2 Gy/fraction. Results: Jaundice was released after metal stenting from 71.4% to 14.3% (P=0.001), showing no significant difference between brachytherapy and external radiation therapy in terms of jaundice release(χ 2 =0.21, P=0.65). The median survival period(5-35 months)for whole groups was 12 months 1-, 2-year survival rates were 40.8% and 8.16%, respectively. No significant difference was shown for patients received either brachytherapy or external radiation therapy for 8 months, but with 1,2 year survival rate as 40.0%, 13.3%, respectively (χ 2 =1.10, P=0.29). Conclusions: Self-expanding metal stenting is able to release jaundice significantly and followed by high dose radiation therapy may further prolong the survival. (authors)

  4. Evaluation on the Radiation Exposure of Radiation Workers in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Tae Yoon; Jeong, Do Hyung; Choi, Gye Suk

    2012-01-01

    Unlike the existing linear accelerator with photon, proton therapy produces a number of second radiation due to the kinds of nuclide including neutron that is produced from the interaction with matter, and more attention must be paid on the exposure level of radiation workers for this reason. Therefore, thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) that is being widely used to measure radiation was utilized to analyze the exposure level of the radiation workers and propose a basic data about the radiation exposure level during the proton therapy. The subjects were radiation workers who worked at the proton therapy center of National Cancer Center and TLD Badge was used to compare the measured data of exposure level. In order to check the dispersion of exposure dose on body parts from the second radiation coming out surrounding the beam line of proton, TLD (width and length: 3 mm each) was attached to on the body spots (lateral canthi, neck, nipples, umbilicus, back, wrists) and retained them for 8 working hours, and the average data was obtained after measuring them for 80 hours. Moreover, in order to look into the dispersion of spatial exposure in the treatment room, TLD was attached on the snout, PPS (Patient Positioning System), Pendant, block closet, DIPS (Digital Image Positioning System), Console, doors and measured its exposure dose level during the working hours per day. As a result of measuring exposure level of TLD Badge of radiation workers, quarterly average was 0.174 mSv, yearly average was 0.543 mSv, and after measuring the exposure level of body spots, it showed that the highest exposed body spot was neck and the lowest exposed body spot was back (the middle point of a line connecting both scapula superior angles). Investigation into the spatial exposure according to the workers' movement revealed that the exposure level was highest near the snout and as the distance becomes distant, it went lower. Even a small amount of exposure will eventually increase

  5. Radiation therapy for operable rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, G.V.; Semikoz, N.G.; Bashejev, V.Kh.; Borota, O.V.; Bondarenko, M.V.; Kiyashko, O.Yu.

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a review of the literature on modern tendencies of radiation therapy application to treatment of operable rectal cancer. Many randomized control studies compared the efficacy of combination of radiation therapy (pre-operative or post-operative) and surgery versus surgery only demonstrating various results. Meta-analysis of the data on efficacy of combination of radiation therapy and standard surgery revealed 22 randomized control studies (14 with pre-operative radiation therapy and 8 with post-operative radiation therapy) with total number of 8507 patients (Colorectal Cancer Collaborative Group, 2000). The use of combination treatment reduced the number of isolated locoregional relapses both with pre-operative (22.5 - 12.5 %; p < 0.00001) and post-operative radiation therapy (25.8 - 16.7 %; p - 0.00001). The influence on total survival was not significant (62 % vs. 63 %; p - 0.06).

  6. Prostate position late in the course of external beam therapy: patterns and predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellars, Richard C.; Roberson, Peter L.; Strawderman, Myla; Zhang Daowen; Sandler, Howard M.; Haken, Randall K. ten; Osher, David; McLaughlin, P. William

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To examine prostate and seminal vesicles position late in the course of radiation therapy and to determine the effect and predictive value of the bladder and rectum on prostate and seminal vesicles positioning. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients with localized prostate cancer underwent a computerized tomography scan (CT1) before the start of radiation therapy. After 4-5 weeks of radiation therapy, a second CT scan (CT2) was obtained. All patients were scanned in the supine treatment position with instructions to maintain a full bladder. The prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder, and rectum were contoured. CT2 was aligned via fixed bony anatomy to CT1. The geometrical center and volume of each structure were obtained and directly compared. Results: The prostate shifted along a diagonal axis extending from an anterior-superior position to a posterior-inferior position. The dominant shift was to a more posterior-inferior position. On average, bladder and rectal volumes decreased to 51% (no. +-no. 29%) and 82% (no. +-no. 45%) of their pretreatment values, respectively. Multiple regression analysis (MRA) revealed that bladder movement and volume change and upper rectum movement were independently associated with prostate motion (p = 0.016, p = 0.003, and p = 0.052 respectively). Conclusion: Patients are often instructed to maintain a full bladder during a course of external beam radiation therapy, in the hopes of decreasing bladder and small bowel toxicity. However, our study shows that large bladder volumes late in therapy are strongly associated with posterior prostate displacement. This prostate displacement may result in marginal miss

  7. Theory for beam-plasma millimeter-wave radiation source experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, M.; Krall, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on theoretical studies for millimeter-wave plasma source experiments. In the device, millimeter-wave radiation is generated in a plasma-filled waveguide driven by counter-streaming electron beams. The beams excite electron plasma waves which couple to produce radiation at twice the plasma frequency. Physics topics relevant to the high electron beam current regime are discussed

  8. Electromagnetic Transponders Indicate Prostate Size Increase Followed by Decrease During the Course of External Beam Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Benjamin L.; Butler, Wayne M.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Kurko, Brian S.; Reed, Joshua L.; Murray, Brian C.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time image guidance enables more accurate radiation therapy by tracking target movement. This study used transponder positions to monitor changes in prostate volume that may be a source of dosimetric and target inaccuracy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four men with biopsy-proven T1c-T3a prostate cancer each had three electromagnetic transponders implanted transperineally. Their coordinates were recorded by the Calypso system, and the perimeter of the triangle formed by the transponders was used to calculate prostate volumes at sequential time points throughout the course of radiation therapy to a dose of 81 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Results: There was a significant decrease in mean prostate volume of 10.9% from the first to the final day of radiation therapy. The volume loss did not occur monotonically but increased in most patients (75%) during the first several weeks to a median maximum on Day 7. The volume increased by a mean of 6.1% before decreasing by a mean maximum difference of 18.4% to nadir (p < 0.001 for both increase and decrease). Glandular shrinkage was asymmetric, with the apex to right base dimension varying more than twice that of the lateral dimension. For all dimensions, the mean change was <0.5 cm. Conclusion: Real-time transponder positions indicated a volume increase during the initial days of radiation therapy and then significant and asymmetric shrinkage by the final day. Understanding and tracking volume fluctuations of the prostate during radiation therapy can help real-time imaging technology perform to its fullest potential.

  9. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Ja; Moon, Hye Seong; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kim, Chong Il; Ahn, Jung Ja

    2003-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative radiotherapy, and to investigate the prognostic factors for FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer patients who were treated with simple hysterectomy, or who had high-risk factors following radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection. Between March 1986 and December 1998, 58 patients, with FIGO stages IB-IIB cervical cancer were included in this study, The indications for postoperative radiation therapy were based on the pathological findings, including lymph node metastasis, positive surgical margin, parametrial extension, Iymphovascular invasion, invasion of more than half the cervical stroma, uterine extension and the incidental finding of cervix cancer following simple hysterectomy. All patients received external pelvic radiotherapy, and 5 patients, received an additional intracavitary radiation therapy. The radiation dose from the external beam to the whole pelvis was 45 - 50 Gy. Vagina cuff irradiation was performed, after completion of the external beam irradiation, al a low-dose rate of CS-137, with the total dose of 4488-4932 chy (median: 4500 chy) at 5 mm depth from the vagina surface. The median follow-up period was 44 months (15-108 months), The 5-yr actuarial local control rate, distant free survival and disease-free survival rate were 98%, 95% and 94%, respectively. A univariate analysis of the clinical and pathological parameters revealed that the clinical stage (p=0.0145), status of vaginal resection margin (p=0.0002) and parametrial extension (p=0.0001) affected the disease-free survival. From a multivariate analysis, only a parametrial extension independently influenced the disease-free survival. Five patients (9%) experienced Grade 2 late treatment-related complications, such as radiation proctitis (1 patient), cystitis (3 patients) and lymphedema of the leg (1 patient). No patient had grade 3 or 4 complications. Our results indicate that postoperative radiation therapy can

  10. Job satisfaction among radiation therapy educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swafford, Larry G; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    Job satisfaction is one of the most consistent variables related to employee retention and is especially relevant considering the shortage of radiation therapists and radiation therapy educators in the United States. To investigate job satisfaction levels among radiation therapy educators certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists and employed in programs accredited by the Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology. The long form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) was mailed to 158 radiation therapy educators to measure job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction and subscales were calculated based on MSQ methodology. A total of 90 usable surveys were returned for a 56.9% response rate. With a "general satisfaction" score of 69.64, radiation therapy educators ranked in the lowest 25th percentile of the nondisabled norm scale for job satisfaction. Respondents reported higher degrees of job satisfaction on the moral values, social service and achievement subscales. Lower job satisfaction levels were associated with the company policies and practices, advancement and compensation subscales. Radiation therapy educators report low job satisfaction. Educational institutions must tailor recruitment and retention efforts to better reflect the positive aspects of being a radiation therapy educator. Furthermore, improving retention and recruitment efforts might help offset the current shortages of radiation therapy educators and, ultimately, clinical radiation therapists.

  11. Clinical Implementation of Intrafraction Cone Beam Computed Tomography Imaging During Lung Tumor Stereotactic Ablative Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruijiang; Han, Bin; Meng, Bowen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Maxim, Peter G.; Xing, Lei; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: Diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To develop and clinically evaluate a volumetric imaging technique for assessing intrafraction geometric and dosimetric accuracy of stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients received SABR for lung tumors using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). At the beginning of each fraction, pretreatment cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to align the soft-tissue tumor position with that in the planning CT. Concurrent with dose delivery, we acquired fluoroscopic radiograph projections during VMAT using the Varian on-board imaging system. Those kilovolt projections acquired during millivolt beam-on were automatically extracted, and intrafraction CBCT images were reconstructed using the filtered backprojection technique. We determined the time-averaged target shift during VMAT by calculating the center of mass of the tumor target in the intrafraction CBCT relative to the planning CT. To estimate the dosimetric impact of the target shift during treatment, we recalculated the dose to the GTV after shifting the entire patient anatomy according to the time-averaged target shift determined earlier. Results: The mean target shift from intrafraction CBCT to planning CT was 1.6, 1.0, and 1.5 mm; the 95th percentile shift was 5.2, 3.1, 3.6 mm; and the maximum shift was 5.7, 3.6, and 4.9 mm along the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions. Thus, the time-averaged intrafraction gross tumor volume (GTV) position was always within the planning target volume. We observed some degree of target blurring in the intrafraction CBCT, indicating imperfect breath-hold reproducibility or residual motion of the GTV during treatment. By our estimated dose recalculation, the GTV was consistently covered by the prescription dose (PD), that is, V100% above 0.97 for all patients, and minimum dose to GTV >100% PD for 18 patients and >95% PD for all patients. Conclusions: Intrafraction CBCT during VMAT can provide

  12. The Modern Role of Radiation Therapy in Treating Advanced-Stage Retinoblastoma: Long-Term Outcomes and Racial Differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orman, Amber [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Koru-Sengul, Tulay [Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Miao, Feng [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Markoe, Arnold [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Panoff, Joseph E., E-mail: jpanoff@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): To evaluate the effects of various patient characteristics and radiation therapy treatment variables on outcomes in advanced-stage retinoblastoma. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 41 eyes of 30 patients treated with external beam radiation therapy between June 1, 1992, and March 31, 2012, with a median follow-up time of 133 months (11 years). Outcome measures included overall survival, progression-free survival, local control, eye preservation rate, and toxicity. Results: Over 90% of the eyes were stage V. Definitive external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) was delivered in 43.9% of eyes, adjuvant EBRT in 22% of eyes, and second-line/salvage EBRT in 34.1% of eyes. A relative lens sparing (RLS) technique was used in 68.3% of eyes and modified lens sparing (MLS) in 24.4% of eyes. Three eyes were treated with other techniques. Doses ≥45 Gy were used in 68.3% of eyes. Chemotherapy was a component of treatment in 53.7% of eyes. The 10-year overall survival was 87.7%, progression-free survival was 80.5%, and local control was 87.8%. White patients had significantly better overall survival than did African-American patients in univariate analysis (hazard ratio 0.09; 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.84; P=.035). Toxicity was seen in 68.3% of eyes, including 24.3% with isolated acute dermatitis. Conclusions: External beam radiation therapy continues to be an effective treatment modality for advanced retinoblastoma, achieving excellent long-term local control and survival with low rates of treatment-related toxicity and secondary malignancy.

  13. Energy and intensity modulated radiation therapy with electrons

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Lennart

    2005-01-01

    In recent years intensity modulated radiation therapy with photons (xIMRT) has gained attention due to its ability to reduce the dose in the tissues close to the tumour volume. However, this technique also results in a large low dose volume. Electron IMRT (eIMRT) has the potential to reduce the integral dose to the patient due to the dose fall off in the electron depth dose curves. This dose fall off makes it possible to modulate the dose distribution in the direction of the beam by selecting...

  14. Preoperative Single-Fraction Partial Breast Radiation Therapy: A Novel Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Protocol With Radiation Response Biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, Janet K., E-mail: janet.horton@duke.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Blitzblau, Rachel C.; Yoo, Sua [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Geradts, Joseph [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chang, Zheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Baker, Jay A. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Georgiade, Gregory S. [Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Chen, Wei [Department of Bioinformatics: Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Wang, Chunhao [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Broadwater, Gloria [Department of Biostatistics: Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Groth, Jeff [Department of Pathology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Palta, Manisha; Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Barry, William T. [Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Duffy, Eileen A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Women with biologically favorable early-stage breast cancer are increasingly treated with accelerated partial breast radiation (PBI). However, treatment-related morbidities have been linked to the large postoperative treatment volumes required for external beam PBI. Relative to external beam delivery, alternative PBI techniques require equipment that is not universally available. To address these issues, we designed a phase 1 trial utilizing widely available technology to 1) evaluate the safety of a single radiation treatment delivered preoperatively to the small-volume, intact breast tumor and 2) identify imaging and genomic markers of radiation response. Methods and Materials: Women aged ≥55 years with clinically node-negative, estrogen receptor–positive, and/or progesterone receptor–positive HER2−, T1 invasive carcinomas, or low- to intermediate-grade in situ disease ≤2 cm were enrolled (n=32). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was used to deliver 15 Gy (n=8), 18 Gy (n=8), or 21 Gy (n=16) to the tumor with a 1.5-cm margin. Lumpectomy was performed within 10 days. Paired pre- and postradiation magnetic resonance images and patient tumor samples were analyzed. Results: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. At a median follow-up of 23 months, there have been no recurrences. Physician-rated cosmetic outcomes were good/excellent, and chronic toxicities were grade 1 to 2 (fibrosis, hyperpigmentation) in patients receiving preoperative radiation only. Evidence of dose-dependent changes in vascular permeability, cell density, and expression of genes regulating immunity and cell death were seen in response to radiation. Conclusions: Preoperative single-dose radiation therapy to intact breast tumors is well tolerated. Radiation response is marked by early indicators of cell death in this biologically favorable patient cohort. This study represents a first step toward a novel partial breast radiation approach. Preoperative radiation should

  15. Preoperative Single-Fraction Partial Breast Radiation Therapy: A Novel Phase 1, Dose-Escalation Protocol With Radiation Response Biomarkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, Janet K.; Blitzblau, Rachel C.; Yoo, Sua; Geradts, Joseph; Chang, Zheng; Baker, Jay A.; Georgiade, Gregory S.; Chen, Wei; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Wang, Chunhao; Broadwater, Gloria; Groth, Jeff; Palta, Manisha; Dewhirst, Mark; Barry, William T.; Duffy, Eileen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Women with biologically favorable early-stage breast cancer are increasingly treated with accelerated partial breast radiation (PBI). However, treatment-related morbidities have been linked to the large postoperative treatment volumes required for external beam PBI. Relative to external beam delivery, alternative PBI techniques require equipment that is not universally available. To address these issues, we designed a phase 1 trial utilizing widely available technology to 1) evaluate the safety of a single radiation treatment delivered preoperatively to the small-volume, intact breast tumor and 2) identify imaging and genomic markers of radiation response. Methods and Materials: Women aged ≥55 years with clinically node-negative, estrogen receptor–positive, and/or progesterone receptor–positive HER2−, T1 invasive carcinomas, or low- to intermediate-grade in situ disease ≤2 cm were enrolled (n=32). Intensity modulated radiation therapy was used to deliver 15 Gy (n=8), 18 Gy (n=8), or 21 Gy (n=16) to the tumor with a 1.5-cm margin. Lumpectomy was performed within 10 days. Paired pre- and postradiation magnetic resonance images and patient tumor samples were analyzed. Results: No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. At a median follow-up of 23 months, there have been no recurrences. Physician-rated cosmetic outcomes were good/excellent, and chronic toxicities were grade 1 to 2 (fibrosis, hyperpigmentation) in patients receiving preoperative radiation only. Evidence of dose-dependent changes in vascular permeability, cell density, and expression of genes regulating immunity and cell death were seen in response to radiation. Conclusions: Preoperative single-dose radiation therapy to intact breast tumors is well tolerated. Radiation response is marked by early indicators of cell death in this biologically favorable patient cohort. This study represents a first step toward a novel partial breast radiation approach. Preoperative radiation should

  16. Characterization of a microDiamond detector in high-dose-per-pulse electron beams for intra operative radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Venanzio, C; Marinelli, Marco; Tonnetti, A; Verona-Rinati, G; Falco, M D; Pimpinella, M; Ciccotelli, A; De Stefano, S; Felici, G; Marangoni, F

    2015-12-01

    To characterize a synthetic diamond dosimeter (PTW Freiburg microDiamond 60019) in high dose-per-pulse electron beams produced by an Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) dedicated accelerator. The dosimetric properties of the microDiamond were assessed under 6, 8 and 9 MeV electron beams by a NOVAC11 mobile accelerator (Sordina IORT Technologies S.p.A.). The characterization was carried out with dose-per-pulse ranging from 26 to 105 mGy per pulse. The microDiamond performance was compared with an Advanced Markus ionization chamber and a PTW silicon diode E in terms of dose linearity, percentage depth dose (PDD) curves, beam profiles and output factors. A good linearity of the microDiamond response was verified in the dose range from 0.2 Gy to 28 Gy. A sensitivity of 1.29 nC/Gy was measured under IORT electron beams, resulting within 1% with respect to the one obtained in reference condition under (60)Co gamma irradiation. PDD measurements were found in agreement with the ones by the reference dosimeters, with differences in R50 values below 0.3 mm. Profile measurements evidenced a high spatial resolution of the microDiamond, slightly worse than the one of the silicon diode. The penumbra widths measured by the microDiamond resulted approximately 0.5 mm larger than the ones by the Silicon diode. Output factors measured by the microDiamond were found within 2% with those obtained by the Advanced Markus down to 3 cm diameter field sizes. The microDiamond dosimeter was demonstrated to be suitable for precise dosimetry in IORT applications under high dose-per-pulse conditions. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic Image Guidance for Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Purdie, Thomas G.; Higgins, Jane A.; Li, Winnie; Bezjak, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the geometric accuracy of lung cancer radiotherapy using daily volumetric, cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance and online couch position adjustment. Methods and Materials: Initial setup accuracy using localization CBCT was analyzed in three lung cancer patient cohorts. The first (n = 19) involved patients with early-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). The second (n = 48) and third groups (n = 20) involved patients with locally advanced NSCLC adjusted with manual and remote-controlled couch adjustment, respectively. For each group, the couch position was adjusted when positional discrepancies exceeded ±3 mm in any direction, with the remote-controlled couch correcting all three directions simultaneously. Adjustment accuracy was verified with a second CBCT. Population-based setup margins were derived from systematic (Σ) and random (σ) positional errors for each group. Results: Localization imaging demonstrates that 3D positioning errors exceeding 5 mm occur in 54.5% of all delivered fractions. CBCT reduces these errors; post-correction Σ and σ ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 mm for Group 1, with 82% of all fractions within ±3 mm. For Group 2, Σ and σ ranged between 0.8 and 1.8 mm, with 76% of all treatment fractions within ±3 mm. For Group 3, the remote-controlled couch raised this to 84%, and Σ and σ were reduced to 0.4 to 1.7 mm. For each group, the postcorrection setup margins were 4 to 6 mm, 3 to 4 mm, and 2 to 3 mm, respectively. Conclusions: Using IGRT, high geometric accuracy is achievable for NSCLC patients, potentially leading to reduced PTV margins, improved outcomes and empowering adaptive radiation