WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam micromachining system

  1. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  2. Advances of focused ion beam in micromachining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. J.; Fang, F. Z.; Hu, X. T.

    2007-12-01

    The applications of focused ion beam (FIB) technology in micromachining has advantages over other micromachining technologies, such as high feature resolution, capable markless process, rapid prototyping and adaptive for various materials and geometries. FIB direct-writing techniques are explored for their excellent abilities in micromachining. In addition to FIB technology and its principles for imaging, milling and deposition, a typical FIB system is presented. The key to FIB direct-writing technology is to operate a FIB with a proper beam size, shape, current and energy to remove or add a required amount of material from a pre-defined location in a controlled manner. In this way, high-precision and complicated three-dimensional structures with controlled profiles can be fabricated. Several examples of using milling technique for making high-quality microdevices or high-precision microcomponents for optical and other applications are given. The demonstration of milling a narrow readout gap at an oblique angle on a microaccelerometer shows a FIB's application on a small but accurate post-processing step on a micromechanical device. The diffractive optical element (DOE) with continuous relief and submicron feature size fabricated by FIB milling is also presented to prove high resolution and accurate relief control. Furthermore, FIB milling is used to shape a variety of cutting tools with extremely precise dimensions and complex tool face shapes.

  3. A beam-membrane structure micromachined differential pressure flow sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P; Zhao, Y L; Tian, B; Li, C; Li, Y Y

    2015-04-01

    A beam-membrane structure micromachined flow sensor is designed, depending on the principle of differential pressure caused by the mass flow, which is directly proportional to the square flow rate. The FSI (fluid structure interaction) characteristics of the differential pressure flow sensor are investigated via numerical analysis and analog simulation. The working mechanism of the flow sensor is analyzed depending on the FSI results. Then, the flow sensor is fabricated and calibrated. The calibration results show that the beam-membrane structure differential pressure flow sensor achieves ideal static characteristics and works well in the practical applications.

  4. Proton beam micromachining on PMMA, Foturan and CR-39 materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rajta, I; Kiss, A Z; Gomez-Morilla, I; Abraham, M H

    2003-01-01

    Proton Beam Micromachining was demonstrated at the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences using three different types of resists: PMMA, Foturan and CR-39 type Solid State Nuclear Track Detector material. Irradiations have been performed on the nuclear microprobe facility at ATOMKI. The beam scanning was done using a National Instruments (NI) card (model 6711), and the new C++ version of the program IonScan, developed specifically for PBM applications called IonScan 2.0. (R.P.)

  5. Silicon-micromachined accelerometers for space inertial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, I.; Islam, R.; Kanakaraju, K.; Jain, Yashwant K.; Alex, T. K.

    1999-11-01

    Accelerometers are key components of various motion control systems ranging in use from inertial guidance of rockets and satellite launch vehicles to safety applications in the automotive industry. The accelerometers that are used for spare inertial systems are characterized by high resolution, small bandwidth, large working range and excellent linearity. Current advances in this field are based on silicon micromachining. Silicon bulk and surface micromachined accelerometers offer advantages of reduced size and weight, less power consumption and the use of a fabrication process derived form an already well established semiconductor fab technology. Of the various approaches to silicon micromachined accelerometers, two are in a well advanced state of development. The first is the capacitive force balanced type and the second the piezoresistive type. The capacitive approach has the advantage of higher stability and resolution and lower temperature coefficients. But it requires proximal detection circuitry to prevent parasitics to overwhelm the circuit. A new approach reported recently uses a silicon micromachined cantilever beam which acts as a Fabry Perot interferometer when light form an optical fiber is impinged on it. In this paper we overview all the approaches and try to select a suitable candidate for use in space borne inertial systems.

  6. High Efficiency Micromachining System Applied in Nanolithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lee, Dong Weon; Choi, Young Soo

    Scanning probe lithography such as direct-writing lithographic processes and nanoscratching techniques based on scanning probe microscopy have presented new micromachining methods for microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper, a micromachining system for thermal scanning probe lithography is introduced, which consists of the cantilever arrays and a big stroke micro XY-stage. A large machining area and high machining speed can be realized by combining arrays of cantilevers possessing sharp tips at their top with the novel micro XY-stage which can obtain big displacements under relatively low driving voltage and in a small size. According to the above configuration, this micromachining system is provided with high throughputs and suitable for industrialization due to its MEMS-based simple fabrication process. The novel micro XY-stage applied in this system is presented in detail including the unique structure and principles, which shows an obvious improvement and distinct advantages in comparison with traditional structures. It is analyzed by mathematical model and then simulated using finite element method (FEM), it is proved to be able to practically serve the micromachining system with high capability.

  7. Design of nanosecond pulse laser micromachining system based on PMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingyan; Fu, Xing; Xu, Linyan; Lin, Qian; Gu, Shuang

    2012-10-01

    Pulse laser micromachining technology, as a branch of laser processing technology, has been widely used in MEMS device processing, aviation, instruments fabrication, circuit board design etc.. In this paper, a novel nanosecond pulse laser micromachining system is presented, which consists of nanosecond pulse LASER, optical path mechanical structure, transmission system, motion control system. Nanosecond pulse UV laser, with 355 nm wavelength and 40ns pulse width, is chosen as the light source. Optical path mechanical structure is designed to get ideal result of laser focusing. Motion control system, combining PMAC card with the PC software, can control the 3-D motion platform and complete microstructure processing. By CCD monitoring system, researchers can get real-time detection on the effect of laser beam focusing and processing process.

  8. Laser Micromachining and Information Discovery Using a Dual Beam Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theppakuttaikomaraswamy, Senthil P. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Lasers have proven to be among the most promising tools for micromachining because they can process features down to the size of the laser wavelength (smaller than 1 micrometer) and they provide a non-contact technology for machining. The demand for incorporating in-situ diagnostics technology into the micromachining environment is driven by the increasing need for producing micro-parts of high quality and accuracy. Laser interferometry can be used as an on-line monitoring tool and it is the aim of this work to enhance the understanding and application of Michelson interferometry principle for the in-situ diagnostics of the machining depth on the sub-micron and micron scales. micromachining is done on two different materials and a comprehensive investigation is done to control the width and depth of the machined feature. To control the width of the feature, laser micromachining is done on copper and a detailed analysis is performed. The objective of this experiment is to make a precision mask for sputtering with an array of holes on it using an Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The diameter of the hole is 50 μm and the spacing between holes (the distance between the centers) is 100 μm. Michelson interferometer is integrated with a laser machining system to control the depth of machining. An excimer laser of 308 nm wavelength is used for micromachining. A He-Ne laser of 632.8 nm wavelength is used as the light source for the interferometer. Interference patterns are created due to the change in the path length between the two interferometer arms. The machined depth information is obtained from the interference patterns on an oscilloscope detected by a photodiode. To compare the predicted depth by the interferometer with the true machining depth, a surface profilometer is used to measure the actual machining depth on the silicon. It is observed that the depths of machining obtained by the surface profile measurement are in accordance with the interferometer

  9. Laser Micromachining and Information Discovery Using a Dual Beam Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil P. Theppakuttaikomaraswamy

    2001-12-31

    Lasers have proven to be among the most promising tools for micromachining because they can process features down to the size of the laser wavelength (smaller than 1 micrometer) and they provide a non-contact technology for machining. The demand for incorporating in-situ diagnostics technology into the micromachining environment is driven by the increasing need for producing micro-parts of high quality and accuracy. Laser interferometry can be used as an on-line monitoring tool and it is the aim of this work to enhance the understanding and application of Michelson interferometry principle for the in-situ diagnostics of the machining depth on the sub-micron and micron scales. micromachining is done on two different materials and a comprehensive investigation is done to control the width and depth of the machined feature. To control the width of the feature, laser micromachining is done on copper and a detailed analysis is performed. The objective of this experiment is to make a precision mask for sputtering with an array of holes on it using an Nd:YAG laser of 532 nm wavelength. The diameter of the hole is 50 {micro}m and the spacing between holes (the distance between the centers) is 100 {micro}m. Michelson interferometer is integrated with a laser machining system to control the depth of machining. An excimer laser of 308 nm wavelength is used for micromachining. A He-Ne laser of 632.8 nm wavelength is used as the light source for the interferometer. Interference patterns are created due to the change in the path length between the two interferometer arms. The machined depth information is obtained from the interference patterns on an oscilloscope detected by a photodiode. To compare the predicted depth by the interferometer with the true machining depth, a surface profilometer is used to measure the actual machining depth on the silicon. It is observed that the depths of machining obtained by the surface profile measurement are in accordance with the

  10. Laser Beam MicroMachining (LBMM) - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjay; Yadava, Vinod

    2015-10-01

    The use of short and ultrashort laser pulses for micromachining application is an emerging technology. Laser Beam MicroMachining (LBMM) has revolutionized many industries by providing innovative solutions in numerous industrial micro-engineering applications. High-intensity short or ultrashort laser pulses are powerful thermal energy source for creating micro-features in wide range of materials. These lasers can precisely ablate various types of materials with little or no collateral damage. An overview of LBMM is given so that we can obtain a current view of capabilities and tradeoffs associated with LBMM of sub-micron size. The fundamental understanding of ultrafast laser ablation process has been elucidated and the various research activities performed with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond, lasers have been discussed to understand the physical mechanisms and the critical experimental parameters involved in the LBMM. The critical analysis of various theoretical and experimental models used to describe the performance analysis of LBMM has been elaborated so that we can identify the relevant principles underlying the process.

  11. Feedback Control of Vibrations in a Micromachined Cantilever Beam with Electrostatic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1998-06-01

    The problem of feedback control of vibrations in a micromachined cantilever beam with nonlinear electrostatic actuators is considered. Various forms of nonlinear feedback controls depending on localized spatial averages of the beam velocity and displacement near the beam tip are derived by considering the time rate-of-change of the total energy of the beam. The physical implementation of the derived feedback controls is discussed briefly. The dynamic behaviour of the beam with the derived feedback controls is determined by computer simulation.

  12. Micromachined systems-on-a-chip: Technology and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachine Dept.; Lemkin, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center

    1997-04-01

    Sacrificial polysilicon surface micromachining is emerging as a technology that enables the mass production of complex microelectromechanical systems by themselves or integrated with microelectronic systems. Early versions of these micromachined systems-on-a-chip have already found application in the commercial world as acceleration sensors for airbag deployment (for example, ADI`s ADXL50). Two technologies described here, enable systems with increasing degrees of complexity to be fabricated. The first is a three-level polysilicon micromachining process which includes a fourth polysilicon electrical interconnect level, while the other is a single-level (+ second electrical interconnect level) polysilicon surface micromachining process integrated with 1.25 micron CMOS. Samples of systems-on-a-chip built in these processes such as combination locks, pop-up mirrors, and multi-axis accelerometers are also given.

  13. Design and Performance of a Focus-Detection System for Use in Laser Micromachining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Xuan Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new approach for locating the focal position in laser micromachining. This approach is based on a feedback system that uses a charge-coupled device (CCD camera, a beam splitter, and a mirror to focus a laser beam on the surface of a work piece. We tested the proposed method for locating the focal position by using Zemax simulations, as well as physically carrying out drilling processes. Compared with conventional methods, this approach is advantageous because: the implementation is simple, the specimen can easily be positioned at the focal position, and the dynamically adjustable scan amplitude and the CCD camera can be used to monitor the laser beam’s profile. The proposed technique will be particularly useful for locating the focal position on any surface in laser micromachining.

  14. Laser micromachining of transparent glass using ultrafast Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Véronique; McCarthy, Nathalie; Piché, Michel

    2009-06-01

    We fabricated optical waveguides in fused silica by focusing femtosecond laser pulses with an axicon. With this technique, we also produced microholes by using chemical etching. The axicon, which is a conical lens, generates an optical beam with a transverse intensity profile that follows a zero-order Bessel function. Bessel beams produced by axicon focusing have a narrow focal line of a few micron width which is invariant along a long distance (>1 cm). By focusing femtosecond pulses with an axicon into fused silica, we induced permanent modifications over the extented focal line of the axicon without scanning axially the glass sample. The waveguides so fabricated exhibit low losses and no detectable birefringence due their excellent circular symmetry. By translating the glass sample during the inscription process, we have fabricated planar waveguides. Microfluidic channels were obtained by soaking the exposed samples into a HF solution.

  15. IBIC characterization of an ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector

    CERN Document Server

    Forneris, J; Jaksic, M; Giudice, A Lo; Olivero, P; Picollo, F; Skukan, N; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Vittone, E

    2016-01-01

    Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) has been used for the direct writing of buried graphitic regions in monocrystalline diamond with micrometric resolution. Aiming at the development and the characterization of a fully ion-beam-micromachined solid state ionization chamber, a device with interdigitated electrodes was fabricated by using a 1.8 MeV He+ ion microbeam scanning on a homoepitaxial, grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD). In order to evaluate the ionizing-radiation-detection performance of the device, charge collection efficiency (CCE) maps were extracted from Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out by probing different arrangements of buried microelectrodes. The analysis of the CCE maps allowed for an exhaustive evaluation of the detector features, in particular the individuation of the different role played by electrons and holes in the formation of the induced charge pulses. Finally, a comparison of the performances of the detector with buried graphitic electrodes with those releva...

  16. Eye Vision Testing System and Eyewear Using Micromachines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel A. Riza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposed is a novel eye vision testing system based on micromachines that uses micro-optic, micromechanic, and microelectronic technologies. The micromachines include a programmable micro-optic lens and aperture control devices, pico-projectors, Radio Frequency (RF, optical wireless communication and control links, and energy harvesting and storage devices with remote wireless energy transfer capabilities. The portable lightweight system can measure eye refractive powers, optimize light conditions for the eye under testing, conduct color-blindness tests, and implement eye strain relief and eye muscle exercises via time sequenced imaging. A basic eye vision test system is built in the laboratory for near-sighted (myopic vision spherical lens refractive error correction. Refractive error corrections from zero up to −5.0 Diopters and −2.0 Diopters are experimentally demonstrated using the Electronic-Lens (E-Lens and aperture control methods, respectively. The proposed portable eye vision test system is suited for children’s eye tests and developing world eye centers where technical expertise may be limited. Design of a novel low-cost human vision corrective eyewear is also presented based on the proposed aperture control concept. Given its simplistic and economical design, significant impact can be created for humans with vision problems in the under-developed world.

  17. Micromachined Systems-on-a-Chip: Infrastructure, Technology and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J. J.; Krygowski, T. W.; Miller, S. L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M. S.; Schriner, H.; Smith, J. H.; Sniegowski, J. J.

    1998-10-09

    A review is made of the infrastructure, technology and capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories for the development of micromechanical systems that have potential space applications. By incorporating advanced fabrication processes, such as chemical mechanical polishing, and several mechanical polysilicon levels, the range' of rrticromechanical systems that can be fabricated in these technologies is virtually limitless. Representative applications include a micro- engine driven mirror, and a micromachined lock. Using a novel integrated MEM!YCMOS technology, a six degree-of-freedom accelerometer/gyroscope system has been designed by researchers at U.C. Berkeley and fabricated on the same silicon chip as the CMOS control circuits to produce an integrated micro-navigational unit.

  18. IBIC characterization of an ion-beam-micromachined multi-electrode diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: forneris@to.infn.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Grilj, V.; Jakšić, M. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Lo Giudice, A.; Olivero, P.; Picollo, F. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Skukan, N. [Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička cesta 54, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Verona, C.; Verona-Rinati, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Vittone, E. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica e Centro di Eccellenza NIS, INFN, sez. Torino, CNISM, sez. Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Deep Ion Beam Lithography (DIBL) has been used for the direct writing of buried graphitic regions in monocrystalline diamond with micrometric resolution. As part of the development and the characterization of a fully ion-beam-micromachined solid-state ionization chamber, a device with interdigitated electrodes was fabricated by using a 1.8 MeV He{sup +} ion microbeam, which scanned a 40 μm thick homoepitaxial detector grade diamond sample grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). In order to evaluate the ionizing-radiation-detection performance of the device, charge collection efficiency (CCE) maps were extracted from Ion Beam Induced Charge (IBIC) measurements carried out by probing different arrangements of buried micro-electrodes. The analysis of the CCE maps allowed an exhaustive evaluation of the detector features, in particular the individuation of the different role played by electrons and holes in the formation of the induced charge pulses. Finally, a comparison of the performances of the detector with buried graphitic electrodes with those relevant to conventional metallic surface electrodes evidenced the formation of a dead layer overlying the buried electrodes as a result of the fabrication process.

  19. Industrial grade fiber-coupled laser systems delivering ultrashort high-power pulses for micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricking, Sebastian; Welp, Petra; Overbuschmann, Johannes; Nutsch, Sebastian; Gebs, Raphael; Fleischhaker, Robert; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Wolf, Martin; Budnicki, Aleksander; Sutter, Dirk H.; Killi, Alexander; Mielke, Michael

    2016-03-01

    We report on an industrial fiber-delivered laser system producing ultra-short pulses in the range of a few picoseconds down to a few hundred femtoseconds with high average power suitable for high-precision micromachining. The delivery fiber is a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber with a Kagomé shaped lattice and a hypocycloid core wall enabling the guiding of laser radiation over several meters with exceptionally low losses and preservation of high beam quality (M2laser head providing a compact footprint without the need for external boxes. The laser head is carefully designed regarding its thermo-mechanical properties to allow a highly reliable coupling stability. The exchangeable delivery fiber is packaged using Trumpf's well established LLK-D connectors which offer a very high mechanical precision, the possibility to add water cooling, as well as full featured safety functions. The fiber is hermetically sealed and protected by a robust but flexible shield providing bend protection and break detection. We show the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the transported laser radiation and discuss its feasibility for pulse compression. Measurements are supported by simulation of pulse propagation by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger equation implementing the split-step Fourier method. In addition, mode properties are measured and confirmed by finite element method simulations. The presented industrial laser system offers the known advantages of ultra-short pulses combined with the flexibility of fiber delivery yielding a versatile tool perfectly suitable for all kinds of industrial micromachining applications.

  20. CO2-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Kutter, Jörg Peter; Geschke, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    , a three-layer polymer microstructure with included optical fibers was fabricated within two days. The use of CO2-laser systems to produce microfluidic systems has not been published before. These systems provide a cost effective alternative to UV-laser systems and they are especially useful...... for microstructured PMMA [poly( methyl methacrylate)] parts were investigated, such as solvent-assisted glueing, melting, laminating and surface activation using a plasma asher. A solvent-assisted thermal bonding method proved to be the most time-efficient one. Using laser micromachining together with bonding......In this article, we focus on the enormous potential of a CO2-laser system for rapidly producing polymer microfluidic structures. The dependence was assessed of the depth and width of laser-cut channels on the laser beam power and on the number of passes of the beam along the same channel...

  1. Micro-machining workstation for a diode pumped Nd:YAG high-brightness laser system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijhorst, R.A.; Offerhaus, H.L.; Bant, P.

    1998-01-01

    A Nd:YAG micro-machining workstation that allows cutting on a scale of a few microns has been developed and operated. The system incorporates a telescope viewing system that allows control during the work and a software interface to translate AutoCad files. Some examples of the performance are given

  2. Residual Strains in a Nanometer Thick Cr Film Measured on Micromachined Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.M. Zhou; Yong Zhou; Ying Cao; Haiping Mao

    2009-01-01

    A Cr film with a 75 nm thickness sputtered on a Si substrate was used to fabricate microbridge and microcan-tilever samples with the MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technique. The profile of the buckled beams was measured by using the interference technique with white light and fitted with a theoretical result. The uniform residual strain in the bridge samples was deduced from the variation of buckling amplitude with the beam length. On the other hand, the gradient residual strain was determined from the deflection profile of the cantilever. The residual uniform and gradient strain in the Cr film are about 4.96×10-3 and 4.2967×10-5, respectively.

  3. CO(2)-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klank, Henning; Kutter, Jorg P; Geschke, Oliver

    2002-11-01

    In this article, we focus on the enormous potential of a CO(2)-laser system for rapidly producing polymer microfluidic structures. The dependence was assessed of the depth and width of laser-cut channels on the laser beam power and on the number of passes of the beam along the same channel. In the experiments the laser beam power was varied between 0 and 40 W and the passes were varied in the range of 1 to 7 times. Typical channel depths were between 100 and 300 microm, while the channels were typically 250 microm wide. The narrowest produced channel was 85 microm wide. Several bonding methods for microstructured PMMA [poly(methyl methacrylate)] parts were investigated, such as solvent-assisted glueing, melting, laminating and surface activation using a plasma asher. A solvent-assisted thermal bonding method proved to be the most time-efficient one. Using laser micromachining together with bonding, a three-layer polymer microstructure with included optical fibers was fabricated within two days. The use of CO(2)-laser systems to produce microfluidic systems has not been published before. These systems provide a cost effective alternative to UV-laser systems and they are especially useful in microfluidic prototyping due to the very short cycle time of production.

  4. Micromachined low-mass RF front-end for beam steering radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidpour, M.; Moallem, M.; East, J.; Sarabandi, K.

    2012-06-01

    Sensors for autonomous small robotic platforms must be low mass, compact size and low power due to the limited space. For such applications, as the dimensions of the structures shrink, standard machining methods are not suitable because of low fabrication tolerances and high cost in assembly. Commonly, the structures show a high degree of fabrication complexity due to error in alignment, air gaps between conductive parts, poor metal contact, inaccuracy in patterning because of non-contact lithography, complex assemblies of various parts, and high number of steps needed for construction. However, micromachining offers high fabrication precision, provides easy fabrication and integration with active devices and hence is suitable for manufacturing high MMW and submillimeter-wave frequency structures. A radar design compatible with micromachining process is developed to fabricate a Y-band high resolution radar structure with a slot-fed patch array antenna. A multi-step silicon DRIE process is developed for the fabrication of the waveguide structure while the slots are suspended on a thin oxide/nitride/oxide membrane to form the top cover of the waveguide trenches and the patch elements are suspended on a thin Parylene membrane. Gold thermocompression bonding and Parylene bonding are used to assemble different parts of the antenna. These processes result in a compact (4.5 cm × 3.5 cm × 1.5 mm) and light-weight (5 g) radar.

  5. Digital Readout System for Micromachined Gyroscope and Analysis for its Demodulation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bin; GAO Zhong-yu; CHEN Huai; ZHANG Rong; CHEN Zhi-yong

    2006-01-01

    A new digital readout system for micromachined gyroscope has been proposed to implement flexible parameter adiustment,improve the control performance of gyroscope,and make error compensation.By digitalizing the output of the gyroscope,this system uses a floatingtype digital signal processor(DSP)to process the signal demodulation and achieve the feedback conffol of the gyroscope.Therefore.the small change of capacitance in the micromachined gyroscope Can be detected.A new demodulation algorithm of least mean square demodulation(LMSD)has been developed inside DSP Simulation and measurement results show that LMSD Can improve 29%of the noise performance compared with the typical multiplication method.In air pressure.a kind ofvibration-wheel micmmachined over the 100-Hz bandwidth by using this digital readout technology.

  6. 5-level polysilicon surface micromachine technology: Application to complex mechanical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, M.S.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1998-06-01

    The authors recently reported on the development of a 5-level poly-ilicon surface micromachine fabrication process consisting of four levels of mechanical poly plus an electrical interconnect layer. They are now reporting on the first components designed for and fabricated in this process. These are demonstration systems, which definitively show that five levels of polysilicon provide greater performance, reliability, and significantly increased functionality. This new technology makes it possible to realize levels of system complexity that have so far only existed on paper, while simultaneously adding to the robustness of many of the individual subassemblies.

  7. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  8. An FPGA-based ultrasound imaging system using capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lawrence L P; Chen, Albert I; Logan, Andrew S; Yeow, John T W

    2012-07-01

    We report the design and experimental results of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based real-time ultrasound imaging system that uses a 16-element phased-array capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer fabricated using a fusion bonding process. The imaging system consists of the transducer, discrete analog components situated on a custom-made circuit board, the FPGA, and a monitor. The FPGA program consists of five functional blocks: a main counter, transmit and receive beamformer, receive signal pre-processing, envelope detection, and display. No dedicated digital signal processor or personal computer is required for the imaging system. An experiment is carried out to obtain the sector B-scan of a 4-wire target. The ultrasound imaging system demonstrates the possibility of an integrated system-in-a-package solution.

  9. System integration design in MEMS – A case study of micromachined load cell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Kumar; K P Venkatesh; S Sam Baskar; S P Madhavi

    2009-08-01

    One of the critical issues in large scale commercial exploitation of MEMS technology is its system integration. In MEMS, a system design approach requires integration of varied and disparate subsystems with one of a kind interface. The physical scales as well as the magnitude of signals of various subsystems vary widely. Known and proven integration techniques often lead to considerable loss in advantages the tiny MEMS sensors have to offer. Therefore, it becomes imperative to think of the entire system at the outset, at least in terms of the concept design. Such design entails various aspects of the system ranging from selection of material, transduction mechanism, structural configuration, interface electronics, and packaging. One way of handling this problem is the system-in-package approach that uses optimized technology for each function using the concurrent hybrid engineering approach. The main strength of this design approach is the fast time to prototype development. In the present work, we pursue this approach for a MEMS load cell to complete the process of system integration for high capacity load sensing. The system includes; a micromachined sensing gauge, interface electronics and a packaging module representing a system-in-package ready for end characterization. The various subsystems are presented in a modular stacked form using hybrid technologies. The micromachined sensing subsystem works on principles of piezo-resistive sensing and is fabricated using CMOS compatible processes. The structural configuration of the sensing layer is designed to reduce the offset, temperature drift, and residual stress effects of the piezo-resistive sensor. ANSYS simulations are carried out to study the effect of substrate coupling on sensor structure and its sensitivity. The load cell system has built-in electronics for signal conditioning, processing, and communication, taking into consideration the issues associated with resolution of minimum detectable signal

  10. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  11. Multi-Level Micromachined Systems-on-a-Chip: Technology and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J.J.; Krygowski, T.W.; Miller, S.L.; Montague, S.; Rodgers, M.S.; Smith, J.H.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1998-10-27

    Researchers at Sandia have recently designed and built several research prototypes, which demonstrate that truly complex mechanical systems can now be realized in a surface micromachined technology. These MicroElectro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) include advanced actuators, torque multiplying gear tmins, rack and pinion assemblies, positionable mirrors, and mechanical discriminators. All of tile mechanical components are batch fabricated on a single chip of silicon using the infrastructure origimdly developed to support today's highly reliabk; and robust microelectronics industry. Sand ia is also developing the technology 10 integrate microelectronic circuits onto the s,ime piece of silicon that is used to fabricate the MEMS devices. This significantly increases sensitivity and reliability, while fhrther reducing package size and fabrication costs. A review of the MEMS technology and capabilities available at Sandia National Laboratories is presented.

  12. SYSTEM-LEVEL SIMULATION OF VIBRATORY MICROMACHINED GYROSCOPE WITH FENCE STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Che Lufeng; Xiong Bin; Wang Yuelin

    2004-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model of a novel fence structure vibratory micromachined gyroscope's oscillating properties is modeled by electrical equivalent circuits according to its dynamics equation. Equivalent circuit model of oscillating and differential detection capacitance model are implemented in the circuit simulation tool PSPICE, which is available in oscillating properties analysis such as oscillating's transient response, steady response and frequency response to angular rate to optimize working mode of the gyroscope. The model also enables sensor simulation with the interfacing electronics to analyse the performances of the whole system. Behavioral simulation of the system is performed to prove the function of detection circuits. The simulation results and measurement results show that the design of circuits is feasible.

  13. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forneris, J.; Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D.; Picollo, F.; Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.; Olivero, P.

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He+ micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV0, λZPL = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400-500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λZPL = 536.3 nm, λZPL = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  14. Electroluminescence from a diamond device with ion-beam-micromachined buried graphitic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forneris, J., E-mail: jacopo.forneris@unito.it [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Battiato, A.; Gatto Monticone, D. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Picollo, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Amato, G.; Boarino, L.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I.P.; Enrico, E.; Genovese, M.; Moreva, E.; Traina, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), Torino (Italy); Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Roma “Tor Vergata”, Roma (Italy); Olivero, P. [Physics Department and NIS Interdepartmental Centre, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy); Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia (CNISM), Sez. Torino, Torino (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    Focused MeV ion microbeams are suitable tools for the direct writing of conductive graphitic channels buried in an insulating diamond bulk, as demonstrated in previous works with the fabrication of multi-electrode ionizing radiation detectors and cellular biosensors. In this work we investigate the suitability of the fabrication method for the electrical excitation of color centers in diamond. Differently from photoluminescence, electroluminescence requires an electrical current flowing through the diamond sub-gap states for the excitation of the color centers. With this purpose, buried graphitic electrodes with a spacing of 10 μm were fabricated in the bulk of a detector-grade CVD single-crystal diamond sample using a scanning 1.8 MeV He{sup +} micro-beam. The current flowing in the gap region between the electrodes upon the application of a 450 V bias voltage was exploited as the excitation pump for the electroluminescence of different types of color centers localized in the above-mentioned gap. The bright light emission was spatially mapped using a confocal optical microscopy setup. The spectral analysis of electroluminescence revealed the emission from neutrally-charged nitrogen-vacancy centers (NV{sup 0}, λ{sub ZPL} = 575 nm), as well as from cluster crystal dislocations (A-band, λ = 400–500 nm). Moreover, an electroluminescence signal with appealing spectral features (sharp emission at room temperature, low phonon sidebands) from He-related defects was detected (λ{sub ZPL} = 536.3 nm, λ{sub ZPL} = 560.5 nm); a low and broad peak around λ = 740 nm was also observed and tentatively ascribed to Si-V or GR1 centers. These results pose interesting future perspectives for the fabrication of electrically-stimulated single-photon emitters in diamond for applications in quantum optics and quantum cryptography.

  15. A surface-micromachining-based inertial micro-switch with compliant cantilever beam as movable electrode for enduring high shock and prolonging contact time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiu [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhuoqing, E-mail: yzhuoqing@sjtu.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Fu, Bo; Li, Jianhua; Wu, Hao [Huaihai Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Changzhi, Shanxi Province, 046012 (China); Zhang, Qihuan; Sun, Yunna; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Micro/Nano Fabrication, School of Electronics Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The designed cantilever beam attached to the proof mass can endure a larger shock acceleration (∼1000 g order of magnitude) compared to those traditional designs (∼100 g order of magnitude). • Effect of the pulse width on the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time is investigated. • A constraint sleeve structure is introduced to lower the off-axis sensitivity. - Abstract: A novel laterally-driven inertial micro-switch with two L-shaped elastic cantilever beams as the movable electrode, which is attached to the proof mass, is proposed in this paper. The advantage of this design is that the contact time of the inertial micro-switch can be prolonged. Meanwhile, the micro-switch can withstand a higher shock than the traditional designs whose cantilever beams are attached to the fixed electrode. The designed inertial micro-switch was simulated and optimized with ANSYS software and fabricated on a quartz substrate by surface micromachining technology. The simulated result demonstrates that the threshold acceleration (a{sub ths}) under stable switch-on state is about 288 g and the contact time is about 198 μs when the pulse width of acceleration loads is 1 ms. At the same time, it indicates that the threshold acceleration, the response time and the contact time of designed micro-switch all increase with the pulse width of acceleration loads. The simulation of impact process in non-sensitive direction shows that the introduced constraint sleeve structure in the novel inertial micro-switch can lower the off-axis sensitivity. The fabricated micro-switch prototype has been tested by a standard dropping hammer system under shock accelerations with various amplitudes and pulse widths. The experimental measurements show that the contact time is about 150 μs when the threshold acceleration is about 288 g. It also indicates that the response time and the contact time both increase with the pulse width, which is consistent with the

  16. Beam Synchronous Timing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, A

    2003-01-01

    For many beam diagnostics purposes beam synchronous timing systems are needed in addition to the timing systems supplied by the control systems of the different accelerators. The demands and techniques of different accelerator facilities will be discussed along the following aspects: Bunch and macro pulse synchronous timing systems Solutions for different time scales from ps to ms Coupling to the RF and control systems of the different accelerators Electronics for the beam synchronous timing systems: parameters, techniques, controlling Use of industrial products for bunch synchronous timing systems, e.g. function generators Distribution of the timing signals: electronically via cables, optically via fibres or wireless Coupling to and use of timing standards: IRIG-B, GPS, ? The participants should present and describe solutions from their facilities with some transparencies as a starting point for the discussion.

  17. Dynamic Analysis of Micro-machined Diamagnetic Stable Permanent Magnet Levitation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel micro-machined diamagnetic stable-levitation system (MDSLS) which is composed of a free permanent magnetic rotor, a ring lifting permanent magnet and two diamagnetic stabilizers was presented. The static and dynamic stable characters of MDSLS were analyzed. The coupled non-linear differential equations were used to describe six-degree-of-freedom motion of the levitated rotor, and the equivalent surface current and combined diamagnetic image current method were utilized to model the interaction forces and torques between the lifting permanent magnet and rotor permanent magnet and also between the rotor permanent magnet and diamagnetic substrates. Because of difficulty to get analytical solution, the numerical calculation based on Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the dynamic model. The vibration frequencies were identified by fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. According to their resonance characteristics and parameters, the translational and angular dynamic stiffness were also calculated. The results show that the levitation of the rotor in MDSLS is stable, and the MDSLS is potential for the application in levitation inertial sensor.

  18. Micromachined Amperometric Nitrate Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dohyun Kim; Ira Goldberg; Jack Judy

    2003-01-01

    A nitrate-sensing system that consists of a micromachined sensor substrate, nitrate-permeable membrane, integrated microfluidic channels, and standard fluidic connectors has been designed, fabricated, assembled, and tested. Our microsensor was designed for in-situ monitoring of nitrate concentrations in ground water. A silver electrode was patterned for amperometric nitrate detection. An electrochemically oxidized silver electrode was used as a reference electrode. Microfluidic channels were ...

  19. Micromachined chemical jet dispenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swierkowski, S.; Ciarlo, D.

    1996-05-13

    Goal is to develop a multi-channel micromachined chemical fluid jet dispenser that is applicable to prototype tests with biological samples that demonstrate its utility for molecular biology experiments. Objective is to demonstrate a new device capable of ultrasonically ejecting droplets from 10-200 {mu}m diameter capillaries that are arranged in an array that is linear or focused. The device is based on several common fabrication procedures used in MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) technology: piezoelectric actuators, silicon, etc.

  20. Ultrafast fiber beam delivery: system technology and industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funck, Max C.; Eilzer, Sebastian; Wedel, Björn

    2017-02-01

    Flexible beam delivery of high power pico- and femtosecond pulses offers great advantages in industrial applications. Complex free space beam delivery as found in robot or gantry systems can be replaced, laser safety and uptime increased and system integration in production environment simplified. Only recently fiber beam delivery has become available for ultrafast lasers while it has been an established standard for cw and pulsed laser sources for many years. Using special kinds of fiber that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that would arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion with micro-structured hollow core fibers. During the last years we have developed a modular beam delivery system that suits industrial ultrafast lasers and can be integrated into existing processing machines. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. We report on the technology required for fiber beam delivery of ultrafast laser pulses and discuss requirements for successful integration into industrial production as well as achievable performance under realistic operation and show examples of micromachining applications.

  1. Beam Instrument Development System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-01-08

    Beam Instrumentation Development System (BIDS) is a collection of common support libraries and modules developed during a series of Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) control and timing/synchronization projects. BIDS includes a collection of Hardware Description Language (HDL) libraries and software libraries. The BIDS can be used for the development of any FPGA-based system, such as LLRF controllers. HDL code in this library is generic and supports common Digital Signal Processing (DSP) functions, FPGA-specific drivers (high-speed serial link wrappers, clock generation, etc.), ADC/DAC drivers, Ethernet MAC implementation, etc.

  2. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  3. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin [High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  4. The laser micro-machining system for diamond anvil cell experiments and general precision machining applications at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubiak, Rostislav; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2015-07-01

    We have designed and constructed a new system for micro-machining parts and sample assemblies used for diamond anvil cells and general user operations at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team, sector 16 of the Advanced Photon Source. The new micro-machining system uses a pulsed laser of 400 ps pulse duration, ablating various materials without thermal melting, thus leaving a clean edge. With optics designed for a tight focus, the system can machine holes any size larger than 3 μm in diameter. Unlike a standard electrical discharge machining drill, the new laser system allows micro-machining of non-conductive materials such as: amorphous boron and silicon carbide gaskets, diamond, oxides, and other materials including organic materials such as polyimide films (i.e., Kapton). An important feature of the new system is the use of gas-tight or gas-flow environmental chambers which allow the laser micro-machining to be done in a controlled (e.g., inert gas) atmosphere to prevent oxidation and other chemical reactions in air sensitive materials. The gas-tight workpiece enclosure is also useful for machining materials with known health risks (e.g., beryllium). Specialized control software with a graphical interface enables micro-machining of custom 2D and 3D shapes. The laser-machining system was designed in a Class 1 laser enclosure, i.e., it includes laser safety interlocks and computer controls and allows for routine operation. Though initially designed mainly for machining of the diamond anvil cell gaskets, the laser-machining system has since found many other micro-machining applications, several of which are presented here.

  5. Micromachined Silicon Stimulating Probes with CMOS Circuitry for Use in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Steven John

    1992-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in the central nervous system is a valuable technique for studying neural systems and is a key element in the development of prostheses for deafness and other disorders. This thesis presents a family of multielectrode probe structures, fulfilling the need for chronic multipoint stimulation tools essential for interfacing to the highly complex neural networks in the brain. These probes are batch-fabricated on silicon wafers, employing photoengraving techniques to precisely control the electrode site and array geometries and to allow the integration of on-chip CMOS circuitry for signal multiplexing and stimulus current generation. Silicon micromachining is used to define the probe shapes, which have typical shank dimensions of 3 mm in length by 100 mu m in width by 15 μm in thickness. Each shank supports up to eight planar iridium oxide electrode sites capable of delivering charge densities in excess of 3 mC/cm^2 during current pulse stimulation. Three active probe circuits have been designed with varied complexity and capability. All three can deliver biphasic stimulus currents through 16 sites using only 5 external leads, and they are all compatible with the same external control system. The most complex design interprets site addresses and stimulus current amplitudes from 16-bit words shifted into the probe at 4 MHz. Sixteen on-chip, biphasic, 8-bit digital-to-analog converters deliver analog stimulus currents in the range of +/- 254 muA to any combination of electrode sites. These DACs exhibit full-scale internal linearity to better than +/-1/2 LSB and can be calibrated by varying the positive power supply voltage. The entire probe circuit dissipates only 80 muW from +/-5 V supplies when not delivering stimulus currents, it includes several safety features, and is testable from the input pads. Test results from the fabricated circuits indicate that they all function properly at clocking frequencies as high as 10 MHz, meeting or exceeding

  6. Laser-micromachined and laminated microfluidic components for miniaturized thermal, chemical, and biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Peter M.; Matson, Dean W.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Stewart, Donald C.; Lin, Yuehe

    1999-03-01

    Microchannel microfluidic components are being developed for heat transfer, chemical reactor, chemical analysis, and biological analytical applications. Specific applications include chemical sensing, DNA replication, blood analysis, capillary electrophoresis, fuel cell reactors, high temperature chemical reactors, heat pumps, combustors, and fuel processors. Two general types of component architectures have been developed and the fabrication processes defined. All involve a lamination scheme using plastic, ceramic, or metal laminates, as opposed to planar components. The first type is a stacked architecture that utilizes functionality built in each layer, with fluid flow interconnects between layers. Each layer of the laminate has specific microchannel geometry, and performs a specific function. Polymeric materials are used primarily. Fabrication processes used are laser micromachining, wet and dry etching, and coating deposition. the laminates can also be micromolded plastics. The second architecture employs laminates to form internal microchannels and interconnects. Materials include ceramic tapes and high temperature metals. Catalysts can be placed in the microchannels. Fabrication processes used are diffusion bonding, ceramic bonding and firing, photochemical etching, and electrochemical micromachining. Bonding, thus sealing, the laminates is an important issue. Process conditions have been develop to reduce distortion of the laminates and to hermetically seal the components.

  7. Ultra Stable, Industrial Green Tailored Pulse Fiber Laser with Diffraction-limited Beam Quality for Advanced Micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deladurantaye, P; Roy, V; Desbiens, L; Drolet, M; Taillon, Y; Galarneau, P, E-mail: pascal.deladurantaye@ino.ca [INO, 2740 rue Einstein, Quebec City, QC, G1P 4S4 (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    We report on a novel pulsed fiber laser platform providing pulse shaping agility at high repetition rates and at a wavelength of 532 nm. The oscillator is based on the direct modulation of a seed laser diode followed by a chain of fiber amplifiers. Advanced Large Mode Area (LMA) fiber designs as well as proprietary techniques to mitigate non-linear effects enable output energy per pulse up to 100 {mu}J at 1064 nm with diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow line widths suitable for efficient frequency conversion. Ultra stable pulses with tailored pulse shapes were demonstrated in the green region of the spectrum at repetition rates higher than 200 kHz. Pulse durations between 2.5 ns and 640 ns are available, as well as pulse to pulse dynamic shape selection at repetition rates up to 1 MHz. The pulse energy stability at 532 nm is better than {+-} 1.5%, 3{sigma}, over 10 000 pulses. Excellent beam characteristics were obtained. The M{sup 2} parameter is lower than 1.05, the beam waist astigmatism and beam waist asymmetry are below 10% and below 8% respectively, with high stability over time. We foresee that the small spot size, high repetition rate and pulse tailoring capability of this platform will provide advantages to practitioners who are developing novel, advanced processes in many industrially important applications.

  8. Corporate array of micromachined dipoles on silicon wafer for 60 GHz communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, M. O.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, an antenna array operating at 60 GHz and realized on 0.675 mm thick silicon substrate is presented. The array is constructed using four micromachined half-wavelength dipoles fed by a corporate feeding network. Isolation between the antenna array and its feeding network is achieved via a ground plane. This arrangement leads to maximizing the broadside radiation with relatively high front-to-back ratio. Simulations have been carried out using both HFSS and CST, which showed very good agreement. Results reveal that the proposed antenna array has good radiation characteristics, where the directivity, gain, and radiation efficiency are around 10.5 dBi, 9.5 dBi, and 79%, respectively. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of

  10. Review of laser micromachining in contract manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Glenn; Gu, Bo

    1998-06-01

    This paper explores the wide range of laser micromachining applications used in contract manufacturing. Contract manufacturing is used in several key industries such as microelectronics packaging, semiconductor, data storage, medical devices, communications, peripherals, automobiles and aerospace. Material types includes plastics, metals, ceramics, inorganics and composites. However laser micromachining is just one available technology for micromachining and other methods will be reviewed. Contract manufacturing offers two important glimpses of the future. Firstly prototype work for new applications often beings in contract manufacturing. Secondly, contract manufacturing can be an economic springboard to allow laser systems to be installed in a production environment.

  11. Integrated mold/surface-micromachining process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Hetherington, D.L.

    1996-03-01

    We detail a new monolithically integrated silicon mold/surface-micromachining process which makes possible the fabrication of stiff, high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures integrated with finely detailed, compliant structures. An important example, which we use here as our process demonstration vehicle, is that of an accelerometer with a large proof mass and compliant suspension. The proof mass is formed by etching a mold into the silicon substrate, lining the mold with oxide, filling it with mechanical polysilicon, and then planarizing back to the level of the substrate. The resulting molded structure is recessed into the substrate, forming a planar surface ideal for subsequent processing. We then add surface-micromachined springs and sense contacts. The principal advantage of this new monolithically integrated mold/surface-micromachining process is that it decouples the design of the different sections of the device: In the case of a sensitive accelerometer, it allows us to optimize independently the proof mass, which needs to be as large, stiff, and heavy as possible, and the suspension, which needs to be as delicate and compliant as possible. The fact that the high-aspect-ratio section of the device is embedded in the substrate enables the monolithic integration of high-aspect-ratio parts with surface-micromachined mechanical parts, and, in the future, also electronics. We anticipate that such an integrated mold/surface micromachining/electronics process will offer versatile high-aspect-ratio micromachined structures that can be batch-fabricated and monolithically integrated into complex microelectromechanical systems.

  12. Electrostatic ion beam scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, G.C.; Curtis, W.D.

    1978-04-01

    An electrostatic scanning system has been designed and built to uniformly implant a 1 cm/sup 2/ sample with a charged particle beam. The full angular scan capability for a 2 MeV beam is 0.5 degrees at 6 kV p-p. The design of the system is extremely simple so it is very compact, easy to operate, and has shown very good reliability.

  13. On-chip micromachined dipole antenna with parasitic radiator for mm-wave wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sallam, Mai O.

    2016-12-19

    In this paper, we present a micromachined dipole antenna with parasitic radiator. The antenna is designed for operation at 60 GHz. It consists of two Ig/2 dipole radiators fed by coplanar strips waveguide. Two slightly shorter dipoles are placed in proximity to the main radiators. They act as parasitic dipole arms which increase the bandwidth of the antenna. Two versions of the same antenna topology are presented in this paper in which one uses a high resistivity silicon substrate while the other uses a low resistivity one. The proposed antenna was optimized using HFSS and the final design was simulated using both HFSS and CST for verifying the obtained results. Both simulators are in good agreement. They show that the antenna has very good radiation characteristics where its directivity is around 7.5 dBi. The addition of the parasitic arms increased the bandwidth of the antenna from 1.3 GHz (3.62 GHz) to 4.3 GHz (7.44 GHz) when designed on high (low) resistivity silicon substrate.

  14. Investigation on micromachining technologies for the realization of LTCC devices and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, T.; Zeilmann, C.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U.

    2011-06-01

    Low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) has established as a widespread platform for advanced functional ceramic devices in different applications, such as in the space and aviation sector, for micro machined sensors as well as in micro fluidics. This is due to high reliability, excellent physical properties, especially in the high frequency range, and the possibility to integrate passive components in the monolithic LTCC body, offering the potential for a high degree of miniaturisation. However, for further improvement of this technology and for an ongoing increase of the integration level, the realization of miniaturized structures is of utmost importance. Therefore, novel techniques for micro-machining are required providing channel structures and cavities inside the glass-ceramic body, enabling for further application scenarios. Those techniques are punching, laser cutting and embossing. One of the most limitations of LTCC is the poor thermal conductivity. Hence, the possibility to integrate channels enables innovative active cooling approaches using fluidic media for heat critical devices. Doing so, a by far better cooling effect can be achieved than by passive devices as heat spreaders or heat sinks. Furthermore, the realization of mechanic devices as integrated pressure sensors for operation under harsh environmental conditions can be realized by integrating the membrane directly into the ceramic body. Finally, for high power devices substantial improvement can be provided by filling those channel structures with electrical conductive material, so that the resistivity can be decreased drastically without affecting the topography of the ceramics.

  15. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  16. Micromachining using femtosecond lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toenshoff, Hans K.; Ostendorf, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Korte, Frank; Bauer, Thorsten

    2000-11-01

    Femtosecond laser systems have been proved to be effective tools for high precision micro-machining. Almost all solid materials can be processed with high precision. The dependence on material properties like thermal conductivity, transparency, heat- or shock sensitivity is strongly reduced and no significant influence on the remaining bulk material is observed after ablation using femtosecond laser pulses. In contrast to conventional laser processing, where the achievable precision is reduced due to a formed liquid phase causing burr formation, the achievable precision using femtosecond pulses is only limited by the diffraction of the used optics. Potential applications of this technique, aincluding the structuring of biodegradable polymers for cardiovascular implants, so-called stents, as well as high precision machining of transparent materials are presented.

  17. CO2-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klank, Henning; Kutter, Jörg Peter; Geschke, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we focus on the enormous potential of a CO2-laser system for rapidly producing polymer microfluidic structures. The dependence was assessed of the depth and width of laser-cut channels on the laser beam power and on the number of passes of the beam along the same channel. In the ...

  18. The ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) to be built at CERN is aimed at substantially increasing the number of antiprotons to the low energy antiproton physics community. It will be a small machine which will decelerate low intensity beams (<4x107) from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV and will be equipped with an electron cooler to avoid beam losses during the deceleration and to significantly reduce beam phase space at extraction. To measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and all the way to the experiments, many systems will be needed to ensure that the desired beam characteristics are obtained. Particular attention needs to be paid to the performance of the electron cooler which depends on reliable instrumentation in order to efficiently cool the antiprotons. This contribution will present the different monitors that have been proposed to measure the various beam parameters as well as some of the developments going on to further improve th...

  19. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  20. Industrial fiber beam delivery system for ultrafast lasers: applications and recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilzer, Sebastian; Funck, Max C.; Wedel, Björn

    2016-03-01

    Fiber based laser beam delivery is the method of choice for high power laser applications whenever great flexibility is required. For cw-lasers fiber beam delivery has long been established but has recently also become available for ultrafast lasers. Using micro-structured hollow core fibers that guide the laser beam mostly inside a hollow core, nonlinear effects and catastrophic damage that arise in conventional glass fibers can be avoided. Today, ultrafast pulses with several 100 μJ and hundreds of MW can be transmitted in quasi single mode fashion. In addition, the technology opens new possibilities for beam delivery systems as the pulse propagation inside the fiber can be altered on purpose. For example to shorten the pulse duration of picosecond lasers down into the femtosecond regime. We present a modular fiber beam delivery system for micromachining applications with industrial pico- and femtosecond lasers that is flexibly integrated into existing applications. Micro-structured hollow core fibers inside the sealed laser light cable efficiently guide high-power laser pulses over distances of several meters with excellent beam quality, while power, pulse duration and polarization are maintained. Robust and stable beam transport during dynamic operation as in robot or gantry systems will be discussed together with optional pulse compression.

  1. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2010-09-21

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  2. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  3. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  4. Requirements of CLIC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Holzer, EB; Jonker, M; Mallows, S; Otto, T; Welsch, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) [1] is a proposed multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider being designed by a world-wide collaboration. It is based on a novel twobeam acceleration scheme in which two beams (drive and main beam) are placed in parallel to each other and energy is transferred from the drive beam to the main one. Beam losses on either of them can have catastrophic consequences for the machine, because of high intensity (drive beam) or high energy and small emittance (main beam). In the framework of machine protection, a Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has to be put in place. This paper discusses the requirements for the beam loss system in terms of detector sensitivity, resolution, dynamic range and ability to distinguish losses originating from various sources. The two-beam module where the protection from beam losses is particularly challenging and important, is studied.

  5. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  6. Micromachined pressure sensors: Review and recent developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, W.P.; Smith, J.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Micromachines Dept.

    1997-03-01

    Since the discovery of piezoresistivity in silicon in the mid 1950s, silicon-based pressure sensors have been widely produced. Micromachining technology has greatly benefited from the success of the integrated circuits industry, burrowing materials, processes, and toolsets. Because of this, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are now poised to capture large segments of existing sensor markets and to catalyze the development of new markets. Given the emerging importance of MEMS, it is instructive to review the history of micromachined pressure sensors, and to examine new developments in the field. Pressure sensors will be the focus of this paper, starting from metal diaphragm sensors with bonded silicon strain gauges, and moving to present developments of surface-micromachined, optical, resonant, and smart pressure sensors. Considerations for diaphragm design will be discussed in detail, as well as additional considerations for capacitive and piezoresistive devices.

  7. Silicon Micromachining for Terahertz Component Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile; Siles, Jose V.; Lee, Choonsup; Lin, Robert; Mehdi, Imran

    2013-01-01

    Waveguide component technology at terahertz frequencies has come of age in recent years. Essential components such as ortho-mode transducers (OMT), quadrature hybrids, filters, and others for high performance system development were either impossible to build or too difficult to fabricate with traditional machining techniques. With micromachining of silicon wafers coated with sputtered gold it is now possible to fabricate and test these waveguide components. Using a highly optimized Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process, we are now able to fabricate silicon micromachined waveguide structures working beyond 1 THz. In this paper, we describe in detail our approach of design, fabrication, and measurement of silicon micromachined waveguide components and report the results of a 1 THz canonical E-plane filter.

  8. Tribological issues of polysilicon surface-micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-12-01

    Polysilicon surface-micromachining is a Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) manufacturing technology where the infrastructure for manufacturing silicon integrated circuits is used to fabricate micro-miniature mechanical devices. This presentation describes a multi-level mechanical polysilicon surface-micromachining technology and includes a discussion of the issues which affect device manufacture and performance. The multi-level technology was developed and is employed primarily to fabricate microactuated mechanisms. The intricate and complex motion offered by these devices is naturally accompanied by various forms of fraction and wear in addition to the classical stiction phenomena associated with micromechanical device fabrication and usage.

  9. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  10. Micromachined Artificial Haircell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Engel, Jonathan (Inventor); Chen, Nannan (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A micromachined artificial sensor comprises a support coupled to and movable with respect to a substrate. A polymer, high-aspect ratio cilia-like structure is disposed on and extends out-of-plane from the support. A strain detector is disposed with respect to the support to detect movement of the support.

  11. Micromachined array-type Mirau interferometer for MEMS metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorecki, C.; Bargiel, S.; Albero, J.; Passilly, N.; Kujawinska, M.; Zeitner, U. D.

    We present the development of an array-type micromachined Mirau interferometers, operating in the regime of low coherence interferometry (LCI) and adapted for massively parallel inspection of MEMS. The system is a combination of free-space microoptical technologies and silicon micromachining, based on the vertical assembly of two glass wafers. The probing wafer is carrying an array of refractive microlenses, diffractive gratings to correct chromatic and spherical aberrations and reference micro-mirrors. The semitransparent beam splitter plate is based on the deposition of a dielectric multilayer, sandwiched between two glass wafers. The interferometer matrix is the key element of a novel inspection system aimed to perform parallel inspection of MEMS. The fabricated demonstrator, including 5x5 channels, allows consequently decreasing the measurement time by a factor of 25. In the following, the details of fabrication processes of the micro-optical components and their assembly are described. The feasibility of the LCI is demonstrated for the measurement of a wafer of MEMS sensors.

  12. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  13. Micromachined glass chips for ion analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardeniers, Han; Mulder, Micha; Lüttge, Regina; Berg, van den Albert

    2002-01-01

    This article describes recent developments at Micronit Microfluidics B.V. and MESA+ in the field of "Lab-on-a-chip" systems for ion analysis. Glass chips with typical micromachined channel geometries for capillary electrophoresis and integrated conductivity detection were developed, with which separ

  14. BEAM CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR NSLS-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, S.L.; Casey, W.; Job, P.K.

    2010-05-23

    The shielding design for the NSLS-II will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam loss in two periods of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of {le} 10% full beam. This will require a system to insure that beam losses don't exceed these levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation levels outside the shield walls. This beam containment system will measure, provide a level of control and alarm indication of the beam power losses along the beam path from the source (e-gun, linac) thru the injection system and the storage ring. This system will consist of collimators that will provide limits to (and potentially to measure) the beam miss-steering and control the loss points of the charge and monitors that will measure the average beam current losses along the beam path and alarm when this beam power loss exceeds the level set by the shielding specifications. This will require some new ideas in beam loss detection capability and collimation. The initial planning and R&D program will be presented.

  15. Micromachined Precision Inertial Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    and vacuum packaging techniques to achieve degree-per-hour inertial micro-gyroscopes. A single-wafer, all-silicon, high aspect-ratio p...Although vacuum packaging substantially reduces the mechanical noise of a surface micromachined accelerometer and lowers the output noise floor...it is desirable to operate sensors in atmosphere since vacuum packaging is not cost effective [15]. Figure 10: Performance improvements for In

  16. Permittivity measurements up to 30 GHz using micromachined probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Mu; Oh, Dong Hoon; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Cho, Jei-Won; Kwon, Youngwoo; Cheon, Changyul; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2005-03-01

    We implemented a micromachined probe for the measurement of biological properties using MEMS technology, and experimentally showed the suitability of the micromachined probe in biological applications. The micromachined probe was fabricated on a silicon substrate, and to remove wave transmission through the silicon substrate, we etched the silicon substrate from beneath a lower ground and made the etched silicon surface conducting by using thermal evaporation of Cr/Au and a coating of conductive epoxy. The micromachined probe consists of a CPW and strip line between benzo cyclo butene (BCB) layers, which is known to be a material with high resistivity, low loss tangent, and low permittivity at high frequency. We measured the permittivity of a number of well-known liquids—0.5%, 0.9% and 1.3% saline, acetone, ethanol, and muscle and fat of pork—as biological samples using the micromachined probe after liquid calibration. The measured permittivity of 0.9% saline agreed well with the expected value of the Cole-Cole equation. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the micromachined probe can provide broadband measurement of measurable solid materials, such as biological samples, and also of well-known liquids at microwave frequencies. The size of the micromachined probe is 2000 µm (width) × 580 µm (thickness) × 30 000 µm (length), and the aperture size of the micromachined probe is only 650 µm × 70 µm. Therefore, we can extract the biological information from very small biological tissues and reduce radiation effects. Thus we show the feasibility of low-cost, small and portable permittivity measurement systems using a micromachined open-ended coaxial RF MEMS probe.

  17. BEAM COUPLING PHENOMENA IN FAST KICKER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; GLENN,J.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    Beam coupling phenomena have been observed in most fast kicker systems through out Brookhaven Collider-Accelerator complex. With ever-higher beam intensity, the signature of the beam becomes increasingly recognizable. The beam coupling at high intensity produced additional heat dissipation in high voltage modulator, thyratron grids, thyratron driver circuit sufficient to damage some components, and causes trigger instability. In this paper, we will present our observations, basic coupling mode analysis, relevance to the magnet structures, issues related to the existing high voltage modulators, and considerations of the future design of the fast kicker systems.

  18. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur, Calin Alexandru, E-mail: calin.ur@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure, IFIN-HH, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  19. Surface micromachined microengine as the driver for micromechanical gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, E.J.; Sniegowski, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    The transmission of mechanical power is often accomplished through the use of gearing. The recently developed surface micromachined microengine provides us with an actuator which is suitable for driving surface micromachined geared systems. In this paper we will present aspects of the microengine as they relate to the driving of geared mechanisms, issues relating to the design of micro gear mechanisms, and details of a design of a microengine-driven geared shutter mechanism.

  20. Optical micromachines for photonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Yoshitada

    2001-10-01

    The optical micromachines controlling the light in spatial and wavelength domains are based on the micro- optomechatronics which handles small objects in micrometers and covers the fields from monolithic fabrication and control techniques. Their advantageous features include quick response, high mechanical stability, and low driving power because of the small inertia effects. A wide variety of functions such as wavelength tuning and optical path switching has been realized. This paper describes typical applications corresponding to these functions and their possible implementations: optical manipulation for small optical components based on momentum transfer of photons, micro lenses fabricated monolithically on a substrate for optical integration circuits, tunable filters with moving mirrors driven by the electrostatic force fro pulse shaping, and optical switches based on thermo capillary for cross connect or add/drop multiplexing operations in network systems. These applications are useful for next-generation photonic reconfigurable networks.

  1. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuezhong; Wang, Haoxu; Xie, Liqiang; Dong, Peitao

    2014-03-01

    Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  2. Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Wu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope are reported in this paper. The relationships between the structure parameters and the frequencies of work mode were analysed by finite element analysis. The structure parameters of the quartz micromachined gyroscope were optimized to reduce the difference between the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode. The simulation results were proved by testing the prototype gyroscope, which was fabricated by micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS technology. Therefore, the frequencies of the drive mode and the sense mode can match each other by the structure optimization and simulation analysis of the quartz micromachined gyroscope, which is helpful in the design of the high sensitivity quartz micromachined gyroscope.

  3. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  4. Trends in laser micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebler, Frank; van Nunen, Joris; Held, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Laser Micromachining is well established in industry. Depending on the application lasers with pulse length from μseconds to femtoseconds and wavelengths from 1064nm and its harmonics up to 5μm or 10.6μm are used. Ultrafast laser machining using pulses with pico or femtosecond duration pulses is gaining traction, as it offers very precise processing of materials with low thermal impact. Large-scale industrial ultrafast laser applications show that the market can be divided into various sub segments. One set of applications demand low power around 10W, compact footprint and are extremely sensitive to the laser price whilst still demanding 10ps or shorter laser pulses. A second set of applications are very power hungry and only become economically feasible for large scale deployments at power levels in the 100+W class. There is also a growing demand for applications requiring fs-laser pulses. In our presentation we would like to describe these sub segments by using selected applications from the automotive and electronics industry e.g. drilling of gas/diesel injection nozzles, dicing of LED substrates. We close the presentation with an outlook to micromachining applications e.g. glass cutting and foil processing with unique new CO lasers emitting 5μm laser wavelength.

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Beam Diagnostic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macek, B; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The beam diagnostic system of the ATLAS detector comprises two diamond sensor based devices. The innovative Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM) is aimed at resolving background from collision particles by sub-ns time-of-flight measurement. The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) is a clone of the LHC machine BLM system, replacing ionization chambers with diamond sensors. BCM uses 16 1x1 cm2 0.5 mm thick polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamond sensors arranged in 8 positions at a radius r ≈ 55 mm, ~1.9 m up- and down-stream the interaction point. Time measurements at 2.56 GHz sampling rate are performed to distinguish between collision and shower particles from beam incidents. A FPGA-based readout system performs real-time data analysis and interfaces the results to ATLAS and the LHC beam permit system. The diamond sensors, the detector modules and their readout system are described. Results of performance with LHC beams of increasing energy and intensity including timing separation of collisions from beam re...

  6. Micromachining of monocrystalline silicon and glass for chemical analysis systems. A look into next century's technology or just a fashionable craze?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manz, A.; Fettinger, J.C.; Verpoorte, E.; Ludi, H.; Widmer, H.M.; Harrison, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Miniaturization of already existing techniques in on-line analytical chemistry is an alternative to compound-selective chemical sensors. Theory indicates higher efficiency, faster analysis time and lower reagent consumption. Micromachining, a well known photolithographic technique for structures in

  7. Design of an electrochemical micromachining machine

    OpenAIRE

    Spieser, A; Ivanov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical micromachining (μECM) is a non-conventional machining process based on the phenomenon of electrolysis. μECM became an attractive area of research due to the fact that this process does not create any defective layer after machining and that there is a growing demand for better surface integrity on different micro applications including microfluidics systems, stress-free drilled holes in automotive and aerospace manufacturing with complex shapes, etc. This work presents the des...

  8. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...

  9. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  10. Micromachined Resonators: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Abdolvand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the remarkable progress that has been made during the past few decades in design, modeling, and fabrication of micromachined resonators. Although micro-resonators have come a long way since their early days of development, they are yet to fulfill the rightful vision of their pervasive use across a wide variety of applications. This is partially due to the complexities associated with the physics that limit their performance, the intricacies involved in the processes that are used in their manufacturing, and the trade-offs in using different transduction mechanisms for their implementation. This work is intended to offer a brief introduction to all such details with references to the most influential contributions in the field for those interested in a deeper understanding of the material.

  11. Micromachining with Nanostructured Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the brief is to explain how nanostructured tools can be used to machine materials at the microscale.  The aims of the brief are to explain to readers how to apply nanostructured tools to micromachining applications. This book describes the application of nanostructured tools to machining engineering materials and includes methods for calculating basic features of micromachining. It explains the nature of contact between tools and work pieces to build a solid understanding of how nanostructured tools are made.

  12. The CERN Beam Interlock System: Principle and Operational Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Puccio, B; Kwiatkowski, M; Romera Ramirez, I; Todd, B

    2010-01-01

    A complex Machine Protection System has been designed to protect the LHC machine from an accidental release of the beam energy, with about 20 subsystems providing status information to the Beam Interlock System that is the backbone of machine protection. Only if the subsystems are in the correct state for beam operation, the Beam Interlock System receives a status flag and beam can be injected into LHC (Large Hadron Collider). The Beam Interlock System also relays commands from the connected subsystems in case of failure for triggering the LHC Beam Dumping System. To maintain the required level of safety of the Beam Interlock System, the performance of the key components is verified before every fill of the machine and validated after every emergency beam dump before beam operation is allowed to continue. This includes all critical paths, starting from the inputs from connected systems triggering a beam dump request, followed by the correct interruption and propagation sequence of the two redundant beam permi...

  13. Beam trip diagnostic system at SSRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Hongtao; ZHAO Shenjie; LUO Chen; ZHAO Yubin; ZHANG Zhigang; FENG Ziqiang; MAO Dongqing; LIU Jianfei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the design and realization of beam trip diagnostic system at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF).The system can find out the first fault signal in the key operation signals related to the RF system by analyzing the time sequence,also it can decide which trips occurs first among the three superconducting RF stations.All the states of monitored signals in a time period ahead and behind beam trip are recorded.The results are compared with those from other diagnostic tools at SSRF.The work is of help in improving reliability of the superconducting RF system and stability of the storage ring operation.

  14. Design of Surface Micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMs, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focused on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  15. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Joe Anthony [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  16. Design of Surface micromachined Compliant MEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Anthony Bradley

    2002-08-01

    The consideration of compliant mechanisms as Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) is the focus of this research endeavor. MEMS are micron to millimeter devices that combine electrical, mechanical, and information processing capabilities on the same device. These MEMS need some mechanical motion or parts that move relative to each other. This relative motion, using multiple parts, is not desired because of the assembly requirement and the friction introduced. Compliant devices limits or eliminates friction and the need for multi-component assembly. Compliant devices improve designs by creating single piece mechanisms. The purpose of this research is to validate surface micromachining as a viable fabrication process for compliant MEMS designs. Specifically, this research has sought to fabricate a micro-compliant gripper and a micro-compliant clamp to illustrate the process. While other researchers have created compliant MEMS, most have used comb-drive actuation methods and bulk micromachining processes. This research focuses on fully-compliant devices that use device flexibility for motion and actuation. Validation of these compliant MEMS is achieved by structural optimization of device design and functional performance testing. This research contributes to the ongoing research in MEMS by evaluating the potential of using surface micromachining as a process for fabricating compliant micro-mechanisms.

  17. Simulation of wavefront reconstruction in beam reshaping system for rectangular laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiong; Liu, Wenguang; Jiang, Zongfu

    2014-05-01

    A new method to calculating the wavefront of slap laser is studied in this paper. The method is based on the ray trace theory of geometrical optics. By using the Zemax simulation software and Matlab calculation software, the wavefront of rectangular beam in beam reshaping system is reconstructed. Firstly, with the x- and y-slope measurement of reshaping beam the direction cosine of wavefront can be calculated. Then, the inverse beam path of beam reshaping system is built by using Zemax simulation software and the direction cosine of rectangular beam can be given, too. Finally, Southwell zonal model is used to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam in computer simulation. Once the wavefront is received, the aberration of laser can be eliminated by using the proper configuration of beam reshaping system. It is shown that this method to reconstruct the wavefront of rectangular beam can evidently reduce the negative influence of additional aberration induced by beam reshaping system.

  18. The Beam Inhibit System for TTF II

    CERN Document Server

    Nölle, D; Neumann, R; Pugachov, D; Wittenburg, K; Wendt, M; Werner, M; Schlarb, H; Staack, M

    2003-01-01

    The new generation of light sources based on SASE Free-Electron-Lasers driven by LINACs operate with electron beams with high beam currents and duty cycles. This is especially true for the superconducting machines like TTF II and the X-RAY FEL, under construction or planning at DESY. Elaborate fast protections systems are required not only to protect the machine from electron beams hitting and destroying the vacuum chamber, but also to prevent the machine from running at high loss levels, dangerous for components like the FEL undulator. This paper will give an overview over the different protection systems currently under construction for TTF II. The very fast systems, based on transmission measurements and distributed loss detection monitors, will be described in detail. This description will include the fast electronics to collect and to transmit the different interlock signals.

  19. Refractive beam shapers for focused laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2016-09-01

    Focusing of laser radiation is most often used approach in various industrial micromachining applications like scribing, PCB drilling, and is important in scientific researches like laser heating in geophysics experiments with diamond anvil cells (DAC). Control of intensity distribution in focal spot is important task since optimum intensity profiles are rather flat-top, doughnut or "inverse-Gauss" than typical for lasers Gaussian profile. Because of high intensity of modern CW and pulsed lasers it is advisable to use refractive beam shaping optics with smooth optical surfaces providing high radiation resistance. Workable optical solutions can be built on the base of diffraction theory conclusion that flat-top intensity profile in focal plane of a lens is created when input beam has Airy-disk intensity distribution. It is suggested to apply refractive beam shapers converting, with minimum wavefront deformation, Gaussian profile of TEM00 beam to a beam with Airy disk intensity distribution, thereby optimizing conditions of interference near the focal plane of a lens after the beam shaper and providing flat-top, doughnut, "inverse-Gauss" profiles. This approach allows operation with CW and ultra-short pulse lasers, using F-theta lenses and objectives, mirror scanners, provides extended depth of field similar to Rayleigh length of comparable TEM00 beam, easy integration in industrial equipment, simple adjustment procedure and switching between profiles, telescope and collimator implementations. There will be considered design basics of beam shapers, analysis of profile behaviour near focal plane, examples of implementations in micromachining systems and experimental DAC setups, results of profile measurements and material processing.

  20. Micromachined permanent magnets and their MEMS applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoung Jin

    2002-01-01

    In this research, new micromachined permanent magnets have been proposed, developed and characterized for MEMS applications. In realizing micromachined permanent magnets, a new electroplating technique using external magnetic field and a bumper filling technique using a photolithographically defined mold with resin bonded magnetic particles have been developed. The newly developed micromachining techniques allow thick film-type permanent magnet components to be integrated to magnetic MEMS devices with dimensional control and alignment. Permanent magnet arrays with the dimensions ranging from 30 mum to 200 mum have been developed with an energy density up to 2.7 kJ/m3 in precisely defined forms in the micro scale. For the applications of the permanent magnets developed in this work, three novel magnetic MEMS devices such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, a magnetically driven optical scanner, and a magnetic cell separator have been successfully realized. After design and modeling, each device has been fabricated and fully characterized. The bi-directional actuator with the electroplated permanent magnet array has achieved bi-directional motion clearly and shown good agreement with the analytical and simulated models. The optical scanner has shown linear bi-directional response under static actuation and stable bi-directional scanning performance under dynamic actuation. As a potential BioMEMS application of the developed permanent magnet, the prototype magnetic cell separator using the electroplated permanent magnet strip array has been proposed and demonstrated for magnetic bead patterning. In conclusion, new thick film-type, electroplated CoNiMnP and epoxy resin bonded Sr-ferrite permanent magnets have been developed and characterized, and then, three new magnetic MEMS devices using the permanent magnets such as a bi-directional magnetic actuator, an optical scanner and a magnetic cell separator have been realized in this research. The new micromachined

  1. Beam Emittance Measurement with Laser Wire Scanners in the ILC Beam Delivery System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agapov, I.; /CERN; Blair, G.A.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Woodley, M.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    Accurate measurement of the beam phase-space is essential for the next generation of electron accelerators. A scheme for beam optics optimization and beam matrix reconstruction algorithms for the diagnostics section of the beam delivery system of the International Linear Collider based on laser-wire beam profile monitors are discussed. Possible modes of operation of the laser-wire system together with their corresponding performance are presented. Based on these results, prospects for reconstructing the ILC beam emittance from representative laser-wire beam size measurements are evaluated.

  2. Apertures in the LHC Beam Dump System and Beam Losses During Beam Abort

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, T; Gyr, M; Koschik, A; Uythoven, J; Weiler, T

    2008-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system (LBDS) is used to dispose accelerated protons and ions in a wide energy range from 450 GeV up to 7 TeV. An abort gap of $3 \\mu$s is foreseen to avoid sweeping particles through the LHC ring aperture. This paper gives a brief overview of the critical apertures in the extraction region and the two beam dump lines. MAD-X tracking studies have been made to investigate the impact of particles swept through the aperture due to extraction kicker failures or the presence of particles within the abort gap. The issue of failures during beam abort is a major concern for machine protection as well as a critical factor for safe operation of the experiments and their detectors.

  3. Optical fiber accelerometer based on a silicon micromachined cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malki, Abdelrafik; Lecoy, Pierre; Marty, Jeanine; Renouf, Christine; Ferdinand, Pierre

    1995-12-01

    An intensity-modulated fiber-optic accelerometer based on backreflection effects has been manufactured and tested. It uses a multimode fiber placed at a spherical mirror center, and the beam intensity is modulated by a micromachined silicon cantilever. This device has applications as an accelerometer and vibrometer for rotating machines. It exhibits an amplitude linearity of +/-1.2% in the range of 0.1-22 m s-2, a frequency linearity of +/-1% in the

  4. Status of the CLIC Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Tomás, R; Resta López, J; Rumolo, G; Schulte, D; Schuler, P; Bolzon, B; Brunetti, L; Brunetti, L; Geffroy, N; Jeremie, A; Seryi, A; Angal-Kalinin, D; Jackson, F

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC Beam Delivery System (BDS) is experiencing the careful revision from a large number of world wide experts. This was particularly enhanced by the successful CLIC’08 workshop held at CERN. Numerous new ideas, improvements and critical points are arising, establishing the path towards the Conceptual Design Report by 2010.

  5. Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show

  6. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T.

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  7. The Beam Delivery System of the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Heine Dølrath; Møller, Søren Pape

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) will apply a fast beam scanning system to redistribute the proton beam transversely across the spallation target surface. The system operates at sweep frequencies of tens of kHz and efficiently evens out the time-averaged beam intensity within a nominal beam...

  8. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. Here, I present the detector...

  9. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly Marie

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  10. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  11. Implementation of EPICS based Control System for Radioisotope Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Mult-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been operating 100 MeV proton linear accelerator . For operating 100 MeV linac, various control system has been implemented such as vacuum, power supply, RCCS and etc. KOMAC is operating two beam lines so that clients can use 100 MeV proton beam for their experiment. KOMAC sends beam to beam line and target room using two dipole magnets and several quadrupole magnets. As demand for experiments and Radius Isotope using beam is increased, another beam line is under construction and RI beam line control system is need. To synchronize with KOMAC control system, RI beam line control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) software. The beam is transported to RI beam line to control magnet power supply and vacuum. Implementation of RI beam line control system is presented and some preliminary results are reported. The base RI beam line control system is implemented. It can control beam direction and vacuum. Comparing archived data and current data, RI beam line and control system will be improved. In the future, scroll pump and gate control system will be implemented using programmable logic controller PLC. RI beam interlock sequence will be added to KOMAC interlock system to protect linac.

  12. Jefferson Lab Personnel Safety Fast Beam Kicker System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, K.; Garza, O.; Stitts, E.; Areti, H.; O'Sullivan, M.

    1997-05-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) uses a continuous electron beam with up to 800 kilowatts of average beam power. The laboratory beam containment policy requires that in the event of an errant beam striking a beam blocking device, the beam must be shut off by three methods in less than 1 millisecond. One method implemented is to shut off the beam at the gun. Two additional methods have been developed which use fast beam kickers to deflect the injector beam on to a water cooled aperture. The kickers designed and implemented at Jefferson Lab are able to deflect the injector beam in less than 200 microseconds. The kicker system includes self-test and monitoring capabilities that enable the system to be used for personnel safety. This paper will describe the requirements and performance of the fast beam kicker system.

  13. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  14. Preservation of beam loss induced quenches, beam lifetime and beam loss measurements with the HERAp beam-loss-monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenburg, Kay

    1994-06-01

    The beam-loss-monitors (BLMs) in the HERA-proton-ring (HERAp) must fulfill the following requirements: They have to measure losses sensitive and fast enough to prevent the superconducting magnets from beam loss induced quenching; the dynamic range of the monitors must exceed several decades in order to measure losses during beam lifetimes of hundreds of hours as well as the much stronger losses that may quench superconducting magnets; they have to be insensitive to the synchrotron radiation of the adjacent electron-ring (HERAe); and their radiation hardness must allow a monitor-lifetime of a few years of HERA operation. These requirements are well satisfied by the HERAp-BLM-System.

  15. Lithium Niobate Micromachining for the Fabrication of Microfluidic Droplet Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Bettella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the first microfluidic junctions for droplet generation directly engraved on lithium niobate crystals by micromachining techniques, preparatory to a fully integrated opto-microfluidics lab-on-chip system. In particular, laser ablation technique and the mechanical micromachining technique are exploited to realise microfluidic channels in T- and cross junction configurations. The quality of both lateral and bottom surfaces of the channels are therefore compared together with a detailed study of their roughness measured by means of atomic force microscopy in order to evaluate the final performance achievable in an optofluidic device. Finally, the microfluidics performances of these water-in-oil droplets generators are investigated depending on these micromachining techniques, with particular focus on a wide range of droplet generation rates.

  16. Laser beam shaping and packaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Daxin; Zhao, Baiqin

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a semiconductor laser beam shaping system, that can collimate the irradiance profile effectively and package the laser diode(LD) at the same time. Due to the semiconductor LD is a kind of line source, a particular ellipsoidal lens is designed after both the fast-axis and the slow-axis of the laser beam analyzed. Geometrical optics analysis based on the ray tracing method is done and the formulas to calculate the shape of the lens are given. Both the theoretical and experimental result show that the laser beam system works effectively; the divergence angle is reduced to less than 0.5 degree in the fast-axial direction and 1.8 degree in the slow-axial direction. In addition, it is the same process that makes the laser beam shaper and packages the LD by using epoxy resin, which simplifies the manufacturing process and reduces the LD volume greatly. Because of the advantages of small volume, low-cost, high rigidity and easy fabrication, the shaper is of great value in the field of semiconductor LD applications.

  17. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterised by mesoscale turbulence, the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organises into a spin-state where neighbouring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence.

  18. Numerical simulation of inclination vibration in magnetic induction micromachines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J-Y; Zhou, J-B; Zhang, W-M; Meng, G [State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: jerrycc@sjtu.edu.cn

    2008-02-15

    This paper studies the inclination vibration of an axial-flux magnetic induction micromachine which is supported by hydrostatic thrust bearings. A mechanical model for the rotor and the corresponding fluid-film bearing is combined with an electromagnetic force model to study the linear and nonlinear rotordynamics of the system. Results obtained for the stability show that magnetic induction micromachine would encounter severe instability problem at high speed operations. The model developed here could serve as a useful reference for design optimization and operation scheme.

  19. Numerical simulation of inclination vibration in magnetic induction micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.; Zhou, J.-B.; Zhang, W.-M.; Meng, G.

    2008-02-01

    This paper studies the inclination vibration of an axial-flux magnetic induction micromachine which is supported by hydrostatic thrust bearings. A mechanical model for the rotor and the corresponding fluid-film bearing is combined with an electromagnetic force model to study the linear and nonlinear rotordynamics of the system. Results obtained for the stability show that magnetic induction micromachine would encounter severe instability problem at high speed operations. The model developed here could serve as a useful reference for design optimization and operation scheme.

  20. Ultra high-speed micromachining of transparent materials using high PRF ultrafast lasers and new resonant scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, F.; Piontek, M. C.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Irradiation of focused laser pulses to transparent materials leads to structural changes and can be used for the fabrication of e.g. LED light guiding components. In these applications both small spot sizes and a high lateral resolution in the μm range are absolutely essential. In order to achieve the industrially required throughput of nearly one million laser markings per second, ultrafast lasers with 100 W of average power and pulse repetition frequencies of several MHz are required. Laser machining of polymers additionally necessitates a wide spatial separation of the markings to avoid heat accumulation effects. Therefore, neither commercially available galvanometer based nor Polygon based scanners with their limited scan speed can be used for beam deflection. In our work, we developed an experimental setup based

  1. Hybrid laser-beam-shaping system for rotatable dual beams with long depth of focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fu-Lung; Chen, Cheng-Huan; Lin, Yu-Chung; Lin, Mao-Chi

    2016-08-01

    A laser processing system consisting of two diffractive elements and one refractive element is proposed enabling a Gaussian laser beam to be transformed into two beams with a depth of focus of up to 150 µm and focal spot smaller than 5 µm. For specific laser processing, the two beams are rotatable when the beam-splitting diffractive element is rotated. The overall system is versatile for laser cutting and drilling.

  2. Transverse beam feedback system for PLS storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, J Y; Kim, D T; Kang, H S; Hwang, W H; Nam, S H

    2001-01-01

    As the stored beam current increases over 240 mA, transverse coupled-beam instability limits higher beam current in Pohang Light Source. A bunch by bunch transverse feedback system has been developed to cure these beam instabilities. It consists of beam oscillation detectors, betatron phase adjuster, power amplifiers and a stripline kicker. Design of each circuit and its functions are described with simple trigonometric equations. The result of the beam test has shown more than 30 dB damping of the beam oscillation in the full bandwidth of the system.

  3. Micromachined dual input axis rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneau, Thor Nelson

    The need for inexpensive yet reliable angular rate sensors in fields ranging from automotive to consumer electronics has motivated prolific micromachined rate gyroscope research. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes based upon either translational resonance, such as tuning forks, or structural mode resonance, such as vibrating rings. However, this work presents a novel, contrasting approach based on angular resonance of a rotating rigid rotor suspended by torsional springs. The inherent symmetry of the circular design allows angular rate measurement about two axes simultaneously, hence the name micromachined dual-axis rate gyroscope. The underlying theory of operation, mechanical structure design optimization, electrical interface circuitry, and signal processing are described in detail. Several operational versions were fabricated using two different fully integrated surface micromachining processes as proof of concept. The heart of the dual-axis rate gyroscope is a ˜2 mum thick polysilicon disk or rotor suspended above the substrate by a four beam suspension. When this rotor in driven into angular oscillation about the axis perpendicular to the substrate, a rotation rate about the two axes parallel to the substrate invokes an out of plane rotor tilting motion due to Coriolis acceleration. This tilting motion is capacitively measured and on board integrated signal processing provides two output voltages proportional to angular rate input about the two axes parallel to the substrate. The design process begins with the derivation of gyroscopic dynamics. The equations suggest that tuning sense mode frequencies to the drive oscillation frequency can vastly increase mechanical sensitivity. Hence the supporting four beam suspension is designed such that electrostatic tuning can match modes despite process variations. The electrostatic tuning range is limited only by rotor collapse to the substrate when tuning-voltage induced

  4. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  5. Requirements of a beam loss monitoring system for the CLIC two beam modules

    CERN Document Server

    Mallows, S; van Hoorne, J; Mechev, A; Welsch, C

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) study investigates the feasibility of a high-energy electron-positron linear collider optimized for a centre of mass energy of 3 TeV. To achieve the high accelerating gradients, the RF power is produced by a novel two-beam acceleration method in which a decelerating drive beam supplies energy to the main accelerating beam. The linacs are arranged in modular structures referred to as the two beam modules which cover 42 km of beamline. Beam losses from either beam can have severe consequences due to the high intensity drive beam and the high energy, small emittance main beam. This paper presents recent developments towards the design of a Cherenkov fiber BLM system and discusses its ability to distinguish losses originating from either beam.

  6. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  7. Fundamental mechanisms of micromachine reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; SNIEGOWSKI,JEFFRY J.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; REDMOND,JAMES M.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; MAYER,THOMAS K.

    2000-01-01

    Due to extreme surface to volume ratios, adhesion and friction are critical properties for reliability of Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS), but are not well understood. In this LDRD the authors established test structures, metrology and numerical modeling to conduct studies on adhesion and friction in MEMS. They then concentrated on measuring the effect of environment on MEMS adhesion. Polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) is the primary material of interest in MEMS because of its integrated circuit process compatibility, low stress, high strength and conformal deposition nature. A plethora of useful micromachined device concepts have been demonstrated using Sandia National Laboratories' sophisticated in-house capabilities. One drawback to polysilicon is that in air the surface oxidizes, is high energy and is hydrophilic (i.e., it wets easily). This can lead to catastrophic failure because surface forces can cause MEMS parts that are brought into contact to adhere rather than perform their intended function. A fundamental concern is how environmental constituents such as water will affect adhesion energies in MEMS. The authors first demonstrated an accurate method to measure adhesion as reported in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 through 5, they then studied the effect of water on adhesion depending on the surface condition (hydrophilic or hydrophobic). As described in Chapter 2, they find that adhesion energy of hydrophilic MEMS surfaces is high and increases exponentially with relative humidity (RH). Surface roughness is the controlling mechanism for this relationship. Adhesion can be reduced by several orders of magnitude by silane coupling agents applied via solution processing. They decrease the surface energy and render the surface hydrophobic (i.e. does not wet easily). However, only a molecular monolayer coats the surface. In Chapters 3-5 the authors map out the extent to which the monolayer reduces adhesion versus RH. They find that adhesion is

  8. Selective Mode Excitation And Detection Of Micromachined Resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prak, Albert; Elwenspoek, Miko; Fluitman, Jan H.J

    1992-01-01

    Distributed mechanical systems such as micromachined resonant strain gages possess an infinite number of modes of vibration. Mostly, one is interested in only one or a few modes. A method is described with which only the desired modes are excited and detected. This is achieved by geometrically shapi

  9. Active Beam Shaping System and Method Using Sequential Deformable Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Colin A. (Inventor); Pueyo, Laurent A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active optical beam shaping system includes a first deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept an entrance beam of light and to provide a first reflected beam of light, a second deformable mirror arranged to at least partially intercept the first reflected beam of light from the first deformable mirror and to provide a second reflected beam of light, and a signal processing and control system configured to communicate with the first and second deformable mirrors. The first deformable mirror, the second deformable mirror and the signal processing and control system together provide a large amplitude light modulation range to provide an actively shaped optical beam.

  10. The LHC Beam Dumping System Trigger Synchronisation and Distribution System

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Voumard, N

    2005-01-01

    Two LHC beam dumping systems (LBDS) will fast-extract the counter-rotating beams safely from the LHC collider during setting-up of the accelerator, at the end of a physics run and in case of emergencies. They consist of 15 fast pulsed magnets per ring for beam extraction from the accelerator combined with 10 fast pulsed magnets for horizontal and vertical beam dilution. Dump requests will come from 3 different sources: the machine protection system for emergency cases, the machine timing system for scheduled dumps or the LBDS itself in case of internal failures. These spontaneously issued dump requests will be synchronised with the 3 µs beam abort gap within a fail-safe trigger synchronisation unit (TSU) based on a digital phase lock loop (DPLL) locked on the beam revolution frequency with a maximum phase error of 40 ns. Afterwards, the synchronised trigger pulse will be distributed to the fast pulsed magnet high voltage generators through a redundant fault tolerant trigger distribution system based on the...

  11. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2015-01-01

    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  12. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Richard S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  13. Status of Beam Diagnostic Systems for the PEFP

    CERN Document Server

    Park Jang Ho; Choi Byung Ho; Ha Hwang Woon; Han, Sang-Hyo; Park, Sung-Ju; Woon Parc, Yong; Yun Huang Jung

    2005-01-01

    A proton linear accelerator is currently the construction at the KAERI (Korea Atomic Research Institute) to the PEFP (Proton Engineering Frontier Project) in Korea. We are accomplished the technique development of beam diagnostic system to be currently the construction. We treat beam diagnostics for the high power proton linear accelerator. Prototype beam position & phase monitor (BPPM) electronics was made and tested successfully in one of the beam diagnostic systems. The beam position monitor pickup electrode is a capacitive type (electrostatic type) which has a button form. Button form electrode, in common use around electron synchrotrons and storage rings, are a variant of the electrode with small button form (e.g., sub mm diameter). However, we are designed button form electrode to measure beam position of proton beam. The BCM (Beam Current Monitor) is developed Tuned CT (Current Transformer) for collaborate with Bergoz Instruments. This paper describes the status of beam diagnostic systems for the P...

  14. Protection and Diagnostic Systems for High Intensity Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, L; Vismara, Giuseppe

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the facilities for beam interlocks and diagnostics to protect the CERN SPS machine. An overview of the existing systems is given, which are based on beam loss and beam current monitors and large beam position excursion in the horizontal plane. The later system mainly protects the system against a failure of the transverse damping system. The design for a new large excursion interlock for both transverse planes is also presented in some detail. For this system a digital approach is being taken to allow post-mortem analysis of the behaviour of the beam prior to the activation of the interlock.

  15. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  16. Laser Micromachining of Glass, Silicon, and Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rihakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is focused on laser micromachining of materials. Micromachining of materials is highly widespread method used in many industries, including semiconductors, electronic, medical, and automotive industries, communication, and aerospace. This method is a promising tool for material processing with micron and submicron resolution. In this paper micromachining of glass, silicon, and ceramics is considered. Interaction of these materials with laser radiation and recent research held on laser material treatment is provided.

  17. Laser Micromachining of Glass, Silicon, and Ceramics

    OpenAIRE

    Rihakova, L.; Chmelickova, H.

    2015-01-01

    A brief review is focused on laser micromachining of materials. Micromachining of materials is highly widespread method used in many industries, including semiconductors, electronic, medical, and automotive industries, communication, and aerospace. This method is a promising tool for material processing with micron and submicron resolution. In this paper micromachining of glass, silicon, and ceramics is considered. Interaction of these materials with laser radiation and recent research held o...

  18. Beam Tests of a Prototype Stripline Beam Position Monitoring System for the Drive Beam of the CLIC Two-beam Module at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, Alfonso; Nappa, Jean-Marc; Vilalte, Sebastien; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with LAPP and IFIC, two units of a prototype stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the CLIC Drive Beam (DB), and its associated readout electronics have been successfully installed and tested in the Two-Beam-Module (TBM) at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. This paper gives a short overview of the BPM system and presents the performance measured under different Drive Beam configurations.

  19. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva

    economical, because the micromachining rates are much higher than in the case of the ultra-short pulsed lasers. Hence, studying the mechanisms of micromachining by nanosecond pulsed laser of semiconductor silicon, transparent dielectric glass and quartz is undertaken for this research work. Laser drilling of an array of miniaturized micro holes is termed as laser micro via. A study of the effect of laser wavelengths, frequency, and energy of the pulses on the depth and diameter of craters and micro via are carried out using high resolution optical microscopy and a nano via 3D profiler. Analytical equations correlating depth and volume of the crater in terms of the optical absorption coefficient and ratio of peak applied to the threshold fluence for ablation of the silicon are derived. The depth of crater is scaled in terms of optical penetration depth times the ratio of crater diameter to the beam diameter. The shorter UV wavelengths are found to be more suitable for ablation of Si and SiO2 than longer IR wavelengths from the study of the absorption coefficient of Si varying with wavelength. Hence, the UV lasers (266 nm or 355 nm) are used for micromachining of Si and SiO2 involving cutting, cleaning, drilling and dicing, micro-milling and texturing of submicron size vertically oriented silicon wires for photovoltaic applications. The high density vertical wires are useful to grab a greater density of solar energy to generate more environmentally-friendly green power. The laser drilling of micro via can be typically of two types: (1) percussion drilling using a stationary laser beam with single or multiple pulses of the laser or (2) trepanned drilling of micro via by the circular motion of laser. Numerical simulation of dynamic drilling of laser micro via of silicon is performed, using control volume (FV) Fluent code in a Cartesian co-ordinate system. Total enthalpy formulation is used to simulate the phase change taking place during the laser ablation process from melting

  20. Optical network of silicon micromachined sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark L.; Burns, David W.; Zook, J. David

    1996-03-01

    The Honeywell Technology Center, in collaboration with the University of Wisconsin and the Mobil Corporation, and under funding from this ARPA sponsored program, are developing a new type of `hybrid' micromachined silicon/fiber optic sensor that utilizes the best attributes of each technology. Fiber optics provide a noise free method to read out the sensor without electrical power required at the measurement point. Micromachined silicon sensor techniques provide a method to design many different types of sensors such as temperature, pressure, acceleration, or magnetic field strength and report the sensor data using FDM methods. Our polysilicon resonant microbeam structures have a built in Fabry-Perot interferometer that offers significant advantages over other configurations described in the literature. Because the interferometer is an integral part of the structure, the placement of the fiber becomes non- critical, and packaging issues become considerably simpler. The interferometer spacing are determined by the thin-film fabrication processes and therefore can be extremely well controlled. The main advantage, however, is the integral vacuum cavity that ensures high Q values. Testing results have demonstrated relaxed alignment tolerances in packaging these devices, with an excellent Signal to Noise Ratio. Networks of 16 or more sensors are currently being developed. STORM (Strain Transduction by Optomechanical Resonant Microbeams) sensors can also provide functionality and self calibration information which can be used to improve the overall system reliability. Details of the sensor and network design, as well as test results, are presented.

  1. The ILC Beam Delivery System - Conceptual Design and RD Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei; /SLAC

    2005-05-27

    The Beam Delivery System of the ILC has many stringent and sometimes conflicting requirements. To produce luminosity, the beams must be focused to nanometer size. To provide acceptable detector backgrounds, particles far from the beam core must be collimated. Unique beam diagnostics and instrumentation are required to monitor parameters of the colliding beams such as the energy spectrum and polarization. The detector and beamline components must be protected against errant beams. After collision, the beams must also be transported to the beam dumps safely and with acceptable losses. An international team is actively working on the design of the ILC Beam Delivery System in close collaboration. Details of the design, recent progress and remaining challenges will be summarized in this paper.

  2. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lizhong; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Chuanjun

    2016-09-01

    Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separations. Small separations exert substantial effects on the real voltages. Accordingly, a DC-voltage small-separation electrochemical micromachining technique was proposed. The double-layer voltage drops sharply as the small separation increases. Thus, the electrochemical reactions are confined to electrode regions in very close proximity even under DC voltage. The machining precision can be significantly enhanced by reducing the voltage and separation between electrodes. With this technique, the machining of conducting materials with submicrometre precision was achieved.

  3. Micromachined magnetohydrodynamic actuators and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Lemoff, Asuncion V.

    2000-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump and microsensor which utilizes micromachining to integrate the electrodes with microchannels and includes a magnet for producing magnetic fields perpendicular to both the electrical current direction and the fluid flow direction. The magnet can also be micromachined and integrated with the micropump using existing technology. The MHD micropump, for example, can generate continuous, reversible flow, with readily controllable flow rates. The flow can be reversed by either reversing the electrical current flow or reversing the magnetic field. By mismatching the electrodes, a swirling vortex flow can be generated for potential mixing applications. No moving parts are necessary and the dead volume is minimal. The micropumps can be placed at any position in a fluidic circuit and a combination of micropumps can generate fluidic plugs and valves.

  4. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  5. Distance effects in electrochemical micromachining

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Considering exponential dependence of currents on double-layer voltage and the feedback effect of the electrolyte resistance, a distance effect in electrochemical micromachining is found, namely that both time constant and double-layer voltage depend on the separation of electrodes. The double-layer voltage is the real voltage used in processing. Under DC voltage, the apparent voltages between two electrodes are constant for different separations, but the real voltages change with the separat...

  6. Magnetic micromachines for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, K.; Sendoh, M.; Arai, K. I.

    2002-04-01

    The spiral-type magnetic micromachine can swim in a liquid and in a gel. In addition, this machine has a function of heating. This machine is suitable for local heat treatment in the body. The active bending is obtained by attached tiny magnet at the tip of the guide-wire. This is simple and useful for inserting the catheter to the lung or to the blood tube.

  7. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  8. Microelectromechanical Propulsion Systems for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    11 5. Excimer Laser Fabrication ...............................................................12...of a Simple Surface Micromachined Cantilever Beam [From 2] 5. Excimer Laser Fabrication Excimer lasers produce relatively wide beams of

  9. The Beam Energy Tracking System of the LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Carlier, E; Gräwer, G; Voumard, N; Gjelsvik, R

    2005-01-01

    The LHC Beam Dumping System (LBDS) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), presently under construction at CERN, will be installed around the straight section 6. It comprises per ring 15 horizontally deflecting extraction kickers, followed by 1 quadrupole, 15 vertically deflecting steel septum magnets, 10 dilution kickers and, in a separate cavern several hundred meters away, an external absorber assembly. A beam dump request can occur at any moment during the operation of the collider, from injection at 450 GeV up to top energy at 7 TeV. The Beam Energy Tracking System (BETS) monitors the deflection strength of each active element of the LBDS with respect to the beam energy in order to guarantee the correct extraction trajectory over the complete operational range and under all operational conditions. Its main functions are the acquisition of the beam energy, the generation of the kick strength reference signals for the extraction and dilution kickers, the continuous checking that the kicker high voltage generat...

  10. Microdrilling in steel using ultrashort pulsed laser beams with radial and azimuthal polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Martin; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Michalowski, Andreas; Voss, Andreas; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2010-10-11

    A linear to radial and/or azimuthal polarization converter (LRAC) has been inserted into the beam delivery of a micromachining station equipped with a picosecond laser system. Percussion drilling and helical drilling in steel have been performed using radially as well as azimuthally polarized infrared radiation at 1030 nm. The presented machining results are discussed on the basis of numerical simulations of the polarization-dependent beam propagation inside the fabricated capillaries.

  11. Commissioning kilovoltage cone-beam CT beams in a radiation therapy treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Parham; Spezi, Emiliano

    2012-11-08

    The feasibility of accounting of the dose from kilovoltage cone-beam CT in treatment planning has been discussed previously for a single cone-beam CT (CBCT) beam from one manufacturer. Modeling the beams and computing the dose from the full set of beams produced by a kilovoltage cone-beam CT system requires extensive beam data collection and verification, and is the purpose of this work. The beams generated by Elekta X-ray volume imaging (XVI) kilovoltage CBCT (kV CBCT) system for various cassettes and filters have been modeled in the Philips Pinnacle treatment planning system (TPS) and used to compute dose to stack and anthropomorphic phantoms. The results were then compared to measurements made using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The agreement between modeled and measured depth-dose and cross profiles is within 2% at depths beyond 1 cm for depth-dose curves, and for regions within the beam (excluding penumbra) for cross profiles. The agreements between TPS-calculated doses, TLD measurements, and Monte Carlo simulations are generally within 5% in the stack phantom and 10% in the anthropomorphic phantom, with larger variations observed for some of the measurement/calculation points. Dose computation using modeled beams is reasonably accurate, except for regions that include bony anatomy. Inclusion of this dose in treatment plans can lead to more accurate dose prediction, especially when the doses to organs at risk are of importance.

  12. The beam delivery modeling and error sources analysis of beam stabilization system for lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Lihua; Hou, Liying; He, Guojun; Ren, Bingqiang; Zeng, Aijun; Huang, Huijie

    2013-12-01

    Beam stabilization system is one of the most important units for lithography, which can accomplish displacement and pointing detection and control and includes beam measurement unit(BMU) and beam steering unit(BSU). Our group has set up a beam stabilization system and verified preliminarily beam stabilization algorithm of precise control beam position and angle. In the article, we establish beam delivery mathematic model and analyze the system inherent error. This shows that the reason why image rotation effect arises at the output plane of beam stabilization is the fast steering mirror (FSM) rotation of BSU in the process of beam stabilization. Two FSMs rotation around 45o axis of FSM make the most contribution to image rotation which rotates 1.414 mrad as two FSMs rotation angle difference changes 1 mrad. It is found that error sources include three key points: FSM accuracy; measurement noise and beam translation by passing through of beam splitters changing as the ambient temperature changing. FSM accuracy leads to the maximum 13.2μm displacement error and 24.49μrad angle error. Measurement inaccuracy as a result of 5μm measurement noise results in the maximum 0.126mm displacement error and 57.2μrad angle error. Beam translation errors can be negligible if temperature is unchanged. We have achieved beam stability of about 15.5μrad for angle and 28μm for displacement (both 1σ) after correcting 2mm initial displacement deviation and 5mrad initial angle deviation with regard to the system rebuilt due to practical requirements.

  13. Effect of axial force on the performance of micromachined vibratory rate gyroscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures.

  14. Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Niu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures.

  15. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  16. Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers for 3-D Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    such transducer arrays, capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology is chosen for this project. Properties such as high bandwidth and high design flexibility makes this an attractive transducer technology, which is under continuous development in the research community. A theoretical...... of state-of-the-art 3-D ultrasound systems. The focus is on row-column addressed transducer arrays. This previously sparsely investigated addressing scheme offers a highly reduced number of transducer elements, resulting in reduced transducer manufacturing costs and data processing. To produce......Real-time ultrasound imaging is a widely used technique in medical diagnostics. Recently, ultrasound systems offering real-time imaging in 3-D has emerged. However, the high complexity of the transducer probes and the considerable increase in data to be processed compared to conventional 2-D...

  17. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  18. Automated Beam Loss Monitoring System At Extraction From U-70

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, A G; Baranov, V T; Gres, V N; Shaposhnikov, P A; Terekhov, V I; Uglekov, V Ya

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the new beam loss monitoring system built and comissioned to detect beam losses in the IHEP extraction area at 16 places of interest. It yields information about possible beam interception by extraction elements over each mode of extracting. Multiple measurements with resolution 10ms are possible to study the dynamic processes over the slow extraction. This system is a part of the U-70 Control System.

  19. Hardware and Initial Beam Commissioning of the LHC RF Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Linnecar, T; Arnaudon, L; Baudrenghien, P; Bohl, T; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Ciapala, Edmond; Dubouchet, F; Ferreira-Bento, J; Glenat, D; Hagmann, G; Höfle, Wolfgang; Julie, C; Killing, F; Kotzian, G; Landre, D; Louwerse, R; Maesen, P; Martinez-Yanez, P; Molendijk, J; Montesinos, E; Nicou, C; Noirjean, J; Papotti, G; Pashnin, A; Pechaud, G; Pradier, J; Rossi, V; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Schokker, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Sorokoletev, R; Stellfeld, D; Tückmantel, Joachim; Valuch, D; Wehrle, U; Weierud, F

    2008-01-01

    Hardware commissioning of the LHC RF Systems, the ACS Superconducting RF systems, ADT Transverse Dampers and APWL Wideband Longitudinal Monitors, started in late 2007 and was completed in time for the first LHC beams in 2008. The RF inter-machine synchroni-sation systems were in place and operational for the LHC synchronization tests in August 2008. The very first beams through IP4 were observed on the RF monitors and beam 2 was captured on 11th September. Measurements with beam on the damper systems were also pos-sible, preparing the way for closing the damper loop with beam. Major milestones during commissioning the ACS and ADT systems and results obtained during first capture tests are presented. Preparatory work for acceleration and multi-bunch operation is described as are the beam tests foreseen for 2009.

  20. Laser Micro-beam Manipulation System for Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥旺; 李岩; 张书练; 张志诚; 赵南明

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a laser micro-beam system for cells manipulation. The laser micro-beam system comprises a laser scissors and a laser tweezers, which are focused by a Nd∶YAG laser and a He-Ne laser through a microscope objective, respectively. Not only the overall design of the laser micro-beam system is discussed, but also the design and choice of the critical components. A laser micro-beam system was constructed and anticipated experiment results were gained. Yeast cells can be successfully manipulated with the laser tweezers. Chromosomes can be successfully incised with the laser scissors.

  1. Micro-machined calorimetric biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Smith, Stephen F.; Oden, Patrick I.; Bryan, William L.; Moore, James A.; Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for detecting and monitoring micro-volumetric enthalpic changes caused by molecular reactions. Micro-machining techniques are used to create very small thermally isolated masses incorporating temperature-sensitive circuitry. The thermally isolated masses are provided with a molecular layer or coating, and the temperature-sensitive circuitry provides an indication when the molecules of the coating are involved in an enthalpic reaction. The thermally isolated masses may be provided singly or in arrays and, in the latter case, the molecular coatings may differ to provide qualitative and/or quantitative assays of a substance.

  2. BeamOptics : a Symbolic Platform for Modeling and the Solution of Beam Optics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Chiu Chao

    2000-11-01

    BeamOptics [1] is a Mathematica-based computing platform devoted to the following objectives: (1) Structured representation and manipulation of particle beam optics systems with symbolic capabilities, (2) Analytical and numerical modeling of beam optics system behaviors, (3) Solution to specific beam optical or general accelerator system problems, in algebraic form in certain cases, through customized algorithms. Taking advantage of and conforming to the highly formal and self-contained structure of Mathematica, BeamOptics provides a unique platform for developing accelerator design and analysis programs. The feature of symbolic computation and the ability to manipulate the beam optics system at the programming language level enable the user to solve or optimize his system with considerably more efficiency, rigour and insight than can be easily achieved with passive modeling or numerical simulation methods. BeamOptics is developed with continuous evolution in mind. New features and algorithms from diverse sources can be incorporated without major modification, due to its formal and generic structure. In this report, a survey is given of the basic structure and methodology of BeamOptics, as well as a demonstration of some of its more specialized applications, and possible direction of evolution.

  3. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  4. Beam stability in synchrotrons with digital transverse feedback systems in dependence on beam tunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhabitsky, V. M.

    2012-07-01

    The beam stability problem in synchrotrons with a digital transverse feedback system (TFS) is studied. The TFS damper kicker (DK) corrects the transverse momentum of a bunch in proportion to its displacement from the closed orbit measured at the location of the beam position monitor (BPM). It is shown that the area and configuration of the beam stability separatrix depend on the beam tune, the feedback gain, the phase balance between the phase advance from BPM to DK and the phase response of the feedback chain at the betatron frequency.

  5. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structure

  6. Silicon and Glass Micromachining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, Edwin; Bomer, Johan G.; van Nieuwkasteele, Jan William; van den Berg, Albert; Herold, K.E.; Rasooly, A.

    The past two decades have seen rapid advancement of Lab on a Chip (LOC) systems with applications ranging from gas chromatography to capillary electrophoresis, and more recently to high-pressure chemistry and single cell analysis. For many applications in clinical medicine, biology and chemistry,

  7. A micromachined mass spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, G.; Siebert, P.; Mueller, J. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Microsystemtechnology

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the concept, the processing and the simulated and measured characteristics of a miniaturised mass spectrometer, with dimensions of approximately only a few cm{sup 3}. The mass spectrometer consists of three main parts to be manufactured by micro structuring: an electron source, an ionisation chamber including accelerating and focusing units and a mass analyser with detector. Its fabrication is based on techniques used in micro-system processing and in particular anisotropic etching, thin film deposition, electroplating, and anodic bonding. The aim of the concept for this micro mass spectrometer is not only to scale down a macroscopic system but it also takes advantage of the added features of a micro system, i.e. a high Knudsen number of about 3 at a pressure of a few Pascal, and high field strengths at a relatively low voltage. Therefore, the demands on the vacuum systems and the electrical circuits are much more simple compared to a macroscopic mass spectrometer. In the presented design of the micro mass spectrometer the resolution is in the range of 10 to 20 at a sensitivity of several tens of ppm. (orig.)

  8. Laser micromachining of semiconductors for photonics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantel, Marc; Yashkir, Yuri; Lee, Seong K.; Mugford, Chas; Hockley, Bernard S.

    2001-10-01

    For decades, precisely machining silicon has been critical for the success of the semiconductor industry. This has traditionally been done through wet chemical etching, but in the pursuit of integrating photonics devices on a single chip, other techniques are worth exploring. This quest opens up interest in finding a non-wet, non-contact, arbitrary-shape milling technique for silicon. In this paper, we present our latest work in the laser micromachining of silicon. A kilohertz-repetition-rate diode-pumped Nd:YLF laser (in infrared, green or ultraviolet modes) is focused on the surface of silicon wafers in a chlorine atmosphere for an enhanced magnitude and control of the etching rate. In the chlorine atmosphere, much less debris is deposited on the surface around the cut, sub-damage threshold machining is achieved for a better control of the etching depth, and etching rates ranging from 20-300,000 micron-cube/s have been measured. In particular, the use of an infrared laser beam is singled out, along with the advantages that it holds. Results of simulations highlight the particular characteristics of the various wavelength chosen for the machining.

  9. New Beam Profile Monitoring System At Extraction From U-70

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, A G; Gorlov, V N; Gres, V N; Sokolov, S V; Terekhov, V I

    2004-01-01

    In the course of upgrading Instrumentation of extracted beams at IHEP the new beam profile monitoring system has been developed and comissioned. It incorporates many improvements towards lower amount of monitor substance to be placed in the beam path, lower cable expenses, higher radiation and noisy resistance, wider dynamic range. New circuitry allows one to measure profiles separately for each extraction in one machine cycle. The system has a capability for multiple measures of beam profile during the slow extraction for exploring dynamic effects. The paper describes hardware and software of system.

  10. Micro-machined resonator oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Dale R.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Bivens, Hugh M.; Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    1994-01-01

    A micro-miniature resonator-oscillator is disclosed. Due to the miniaturization of the resonator-oscillator, oscillation frequencies of one MHz and higher are utilized. A thickness-mode quartz resonator housed in a micro-machined silicon package and operated as a "telemetered sensor beacon" that is, a digital, self-powered, remote, parameter measuring-transmitter in the FM-band. The resonator design uses trapped energy principles and temperature dependence methodology through crystal orientation control, with operation in the 20-100 MHz range. High volume batch-processing manufacturing is utilized, with package and resonator assembly at the wafer level. Unique design features include squeeze-film damping for robust vibration and shock performance, capacitive coupling through micro-machined diaphragms allowing resonator excitation at the package exterior, circuit integration and extremely small (0.1 in. square) dimensioning. A family of micro-miniature sensor beacons is also disclosed with widespread applications as bio-medical sensors, vehicle status monitors and high-volume animal identification and health sensors. The sensor family allows measurement of temperatures, chemicals, acceleration and pressure. A microphone and clock realization is also available.

  11. Micromachined microscanners for optical scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Meng-Hsiung; Solgaard, Olav; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.

    1997-04-01

    We present the design and fabrication of surface- micromachined electrostatic-comb driven microscanners that have high angular precision over a large scan angle. When used as resonant scanners, these mirrors have fast scan rates with very low operating power. We use polysilicon microhinges, which allow the micromirrors to be lifted out of the plane of the substrate after processing is completed, to create high-aspect-ratio optical surfaces with dimensions in the hundreds of micrometers s while taking advantage of the planar surface-micromachining processing technology. Microscanners that are capable of high-speed scanning over large scan angles with high precision have been fabricated. Application of these actuated micromirrors in laser barcode scanning and optical-fiber switches have been demonstrated. These single-mirror scanners can be combined to form more complicated microscanners such as a two-mirror, two-axis raster scanner that have a wide range of applications in areas such as medicine, displays, printing, data storage, and communications.

  12. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  13. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a

  14. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  15. Square shaped flat-top beam in refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim; Ostrun, Aleksei

    2015-08-01

    Lossless transformation of round Gaussian to square shaped flat-top collimated beam is important in building highpower solid state laser systems to improve optical pumping or amplification. There are industrial micromachining applications like scribing, display repair, which performance is improved when a square shaped spot with uniform intensity is created. Proved beam shaping solutions to these techniques are refractive field mapping beam shapers having some important features: flatness of output phase front, small output divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, operation with TEM00 and multimode lasers. Usual approach to design refractive beam shapers implies that input and output beams have round cross-section, therefore the only way to create a square shaped output beam is using a square mask, which leads to essential losses. When an input laser beam is linearly polarized it is suggested to generate square shaped flat-top output by applying beam shaper lenses from birefringent materials or by using additional birefringent components. Due to birefringence there is introduced phase retardation in beam parts and is realized a square shaped interference pattern at the beam shaper output. Realization of this approach requires small phase retardation, therefore weak birefringence effect is enough and birefringent optical components, operating in convergent or divergent beams, can be made from refractive materials, which crystal optical axis is parallel to optical axis of entire beam shaper optical system. There will be considered design features of beam shapers creating square shaped flat-top beams. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  16. Micromachined Thermal Flow Sensors—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T. W. Kuo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microfabrication has greatly matured and proliferated in use amongst many disciplines. There has been great interest in micromachined flow sensors due to the benefits of miniaturization: low cost, small device footprint, low power consumption, greater sensitivity, integration with on-chip circuitry, etc. This paper reviews the theory of thermal flow sensing and the different configurations and operation modes available. Material properties relevant to micromachined thermal flow sensing and selection criteria are also presented. Finally, recent applications of micromachined thermal flow sensors are presented. Detailed tables of the reviewed devices are included.

  17. Micromachining process – current situation and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalakiya Meet Rajeshkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in the scientific innovations and the hunt for the renewable energy increases the urge for producing the bio electronic products, solar cells, bio batteries, nano robots, MEMS, blood less surgical tools which can be possible with the aid of the micromachining. This article helps us to understand the evolution and the challenges faced by the micromachining process. Micro machining is an enabling technology that facilitates component miniaturization and improved performance characteristics. Growing demand for less weight, high accuracy, high precision, meagre lead time, reduced batch size, less human interference are the key drivers for the micromachining than the conventional machining process.

  18. Interpolating sliding mode observer for a ball and beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luai Hammadih, Mohammad; Hosani, Khalifa Al; Boiko, Igor

    2016-09-01

    A principle of interpolating sliding mode observer is introduced in this paper. The observer incorporates multiple linear observers through interpolation of multiple estimates, which is treated as a type of adaptation. The principle is then applied to the ball and beam system for observation of the slope of the beam from the measurement of the ball position. The linearised model of the ball and beam system using multiple linearisation points is developed. The observer dynamics implemented in Matlab/Simulink Real Time Workshop environment. Experiments conducted on the ball and beam experimental setup demonstrate excellent performance of the designed novel interpolating (adaptive) observer.

  19. Beam Commissioning and Performance Characterisation of the LHC Beam Dump Kicker Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, J; Ducimetière, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Magnin, N

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system was commissioned with beam in 2009. This paper describes the operational experience with the kicker systems and the tests and measurements to qualify them for operation. The kicker performance was characterized with beam by measurements of the deflection angles, using bunches extracted at different times along the kicker sweep. The kicker performance was also continuously monitored for each dump with measurement and analysis of all kick pulses, allowing diagnostic of errors and of long-term drifts. The results are described and compared to the expectations.

  20. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R

    1979-07-01

    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  1. Optimization of beam transformation system for laser-diode bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junhong; Guo, Linhui; Wu, Hualing; Wang, Zhao; Gao, Songxin; Wu, Deyong

    2016-08-22

    An optimized beam transformation system (BTS) is proposed to improve the beam quality of laser-diode bars. Through this optimized design, the deterioration of beam quality after the BTS can be significantly reduced. Both the simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the optimized system enables the beam quality of a mini-bar (9 emitters) approximately equal to 5.0 mm × 3.6 mrad in the fast-axis and slow-axis. After beam shaping by the optimized BTS, the laser-diode beam can be coupled into a 100 μm core, 0.15 numerical aperture (NA) fiber with an output power of over 100 W and an electric-optical efficiency of 46.8%.

  2. BEAM TEST RESULTS WITH THE FONT4 ILC PROTOTYPE INTRA-TRAIN BEAM FEEDBACK SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, R; Clarke, C; Constance, B; Dabiri Khah, H; Hartin, T; Perry, C; Resta Lopez, J; Swinson, C; Christian, G B; Kalinin, A

    2009-01-01

    We present the design and beam test results of a prototype beam-based digital feedback system for the Interaction Point of the International Linear Collider. A custom analogue front-end processor, FPGA-based digital signal processing board, and kicker drive amplifier have been designed, built, and tested on the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The system was measured to have a latency of approximately 140 ns.

  3. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics.

  4. Performance Studies of the SPS Beam Dump System for HL-LHC Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Velotti, FM; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Cerutti, F; Cornelis, K; Ducimetiere, L; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Losito, R; Maglioni, C; Meddahi, M; Pasdeloup, F; Senaj, V; Steele, GE

    2014-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam dump system is a concern for the planned High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) operation. The system has initially been designed for very different beam parameters compared to those which will reign after the completion of the LHC injectors upgrade, when the SPS will have to operate with unprecedented beam brightness. This paper describes the relevant operational and failure modes of the dump system together with the expected beam loading levels. Tracking studies are presented, considering both normal operation and failure scenarios, with particular attention to the location and level of proton losses. First FLUKA investigations and thermo-mechanical analysis of the high-energy absorber block are described.

  5. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Beetz, C P; Steinbeck, J; Lemieux, B; Winn, D R

    2000-01-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of approx 0.5 to approx 25 mu m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposite...

  6. Soft micromachines with programmable motility and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hen-Wei; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Petruska, Andrew J.; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2016-07-01

    Nature provides a wide range of inspiration for building mobile micromachines that can navigate through confined heterogenous environments and perform minimally invasive environmental and biomedical operations. For example, microstructures fabricated in the form of bacterial or eukaryotic flagella can act as artificial microswimmers. Due to limitations in their design and material properties, these simple micromachines lack multifunctionality, effective addressability and manoeuvrability in complex environments. Here we develop an origami-inspired rapid prototyping process for building self-folding, magnetically powered micromachines with complex body plans, reconfigurable shape and controllable motility. Selective reprogramming of the mechanical design and magnetic anisotropy of body parts dynamically modulates the swimming characteristics of the micromachines. We find that tail and body morphologies together determine swimming efficiency and, unlike for rigid swimmers, the choice of magnetic field can subtly change the motility of soft microswimmers.

  7. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  8. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  9. Monitoring system experiments on beam loss at SSRF injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Xia, XiaoBin; Xu, XunJiang; Liu, Xin; Xu, JiaQiang; Wang, GuangHong; Zeng, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Experiments on beam loss by using beam loss monitoring (BLM) system were carried out at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) injector. This system used highly sensitive and current-integrated Si-photodiode detectors and an Ethernet data acquisition (DAQ) system. The experimental results demonstrate that the Si-photodiode detectors are a useful tool that provides dynamic information on beam loss and investigates problems of machine operation. It also shows that the Si-photodiode BLM system is suitable for pulse-radiation of high-energy accelerators.

  10. Effect of crosstalk on combined beam characteristics in spectral beam combining systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhen; Zhong, Zheqiang; Zhang, Bin

    2017-02-01

    In a spectral beam combining (SBC) system, crosstalk always happens because stray lights are inevitable due to fabrication errors of optical components and 'smile' effect of laser arrays. Two kinds of crosstalk, including the crosstalk generated between two adjacent emitters of the laser array (ad-crosstalk) and that generated between two non-adjacent emitters (non-ad-crosstalk), have been analyzed. The equivalent light of the crosstalk model has been proposed, and the propagation model of the SBC system with the crosstalk has been built up. On this basis, influences of above two kinds of the crosstalk on the combined beam have been numerically simulated and discussed in detail. The results show that the wavelength composition of the combined beam varies evidently owing to the existence of the crosstalk. With the increasing of the crosstalk intensity, the beam quality of the combined beam degrades, and the side lobes of intensity distribution of the combined beam become more and more obvious. Furthermore, the influence of the non-ad-crosstalk on the beam quality is more serious than that of the ad-crosstalk.

  11. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sykes, N., E-mail: nick.sykes@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Belcher, C. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Choi, C.-H. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Crofts, O. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Crowe, R. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Damiani, C. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain); Delavalle, S.; Meredith, L. [Oxford Technologies Ltd, Abingdon OX14 1RJ (United Kingdom); Mindham, T.; Raimbach, J. [CCFE. Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Tesini, A. [ITER Organisation, CS90 046, 13067 St. Paul les Durance Cedex (France); Van Uffelen, M. [Fusion for Energy, C/Josep Pla 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral-B3, E-08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.

  12. Status of ITER neutral beam cell remote handling system

    CERN Document Server

    Sykes, N; Choi, C-H; Crofts, O; Crowe, R; Damiani, C; Delavalle, S; Meredith, L; Mindham, T; Raimbach, J; Tesini, A; Van Uffelen, M

    2013-01-01

    The ITER neutral beam cell will contain up to three heating neutral beams and one diagnostic neutral beam, and four upper ports. Though manual maintenance work is envisaged within the cell, when containment is breached, or the radiological protection is removed the maintenance must be conducted remotely. This maintenance constitutes the removal and replacement of line replaceable units, and their transport to and from a cask docked to the cell. A design of the remote handling system has been prepared to concept level which this paper describes including the development of a beam line transporter, beam source remote handling equipment, upper port remote handling equipment and equipment for the maintenance of the neutral shield. This equipment has been developed complete the planned maintenance tasks for the components of the neutral beam cell and to have inherent flexibility to enable as yet unforeseen tasks and recovery operations to be performed.

  13. Computers and the design of ion beam optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas R.

    Advances in microcomputers have made it possible to maintain a library of advanced ion optical programs which can be used on inexpensive computer hardware, which are suitable for the design of a variety of ion beam systems including ion implanters, giving excellent results. This paper describes in outline the steps typically involved in designing a complete ion beam system for materials modification applications. Two computer programs are described which, although based largely on algorithms which have been in use for many years, make possible detailed beam optical calculations using microcomputers, specifically the IBM PC. OPTICIAN is an interactive first-order program for tracing beam envelopes through complex optical systems. SORCERY is a versatile program for solving Laplace's and Poisson's equations by finite difference methods using successive over-relaxation. Ion and electron trajectories can be traced through these potential fields, and plots of beam emittance obtained.

  14. Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1979-01-01

    The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...

  15. Multi-electron beam system for high resolution electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bruggen, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of a multi-electron beam system is described which is dedicated for electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with sub-10 nm resolution. EBID is a promising mask-less nanolithography technique which has the potential to become a viable technique for the fabrication of 20-2 nm structures after 2013, as described by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), or can be used for rapid prototyping in research applications. The key point is to combine the throughp...

  16. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Hacek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Li-beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak is an improved and compact system to allow testing of Atomic Beam Probe. • The possibility to measure background corrected density profiles on the few microseconds time scale. • First Li-beam diagnostic system with recirculating neutralizer. • The system includes the redesigned ion source with longer lifetime. - Abstract: An improved lithium beam based beam emission spectroscopy system – installed on COMPASS tokamak – is described. The beam energy enhanced up to 120 keV for Atomic Beam Probe measurement. The size of the ion source is doubled, using a newly developed thermionic heater instead of the conventionally used heating (tungsten or molybdenum) filament. The neutralizer is also improved. It produces the same sodium vapor in a cell but minimize the loss condensing the vapor on a cold surface which is led back (in fluid state) into the sodium oven. This way we call it recirculating neutralizer. The observation system consists of a CCD camera and an avalanche photodiode array.

  17. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  18. Beam Current Measurement and Adjustment System on AMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUShao-yong; HEMING; SUSheng-yong; WANGZhen-jun; JIANGShan

    2003-01-01

    The beam current measurement and adjustment system of HI-13 tandem accelerator mass spectrometry detector system is consisted of the faraday cup, fluorescent target and a series of adjustable vertical slits(Fig. 1). The system's operation is very complicated and the transmission is low for the old system. A new system is instalated for improvement. We put the adjustable vertical slit, Faraday cup.

  19. A sub-cm micromachined electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinerman, A. D.; Crewe, D. A.; Perng, D. C.; Shoaf, S. E.; Crewe, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new approach for fabricating macroscopic (approximately 10x10x10 mm(exp 3)) structures with micron accuracy has been developed. This approach combines the precision of semiconductor processing and fiber optic technologies. A (100) silicon wafer is anisotropically etched to create four orthogonal v-grooves and an aperture on each 10x12 mm die. Precision 308 micron optical fibers are sandwiched between the die to align the v-grooves. The fiber is then anodically bonded to the die above and below it. This procedure is repeated to create thick structures and a stack of 5 or 6 die will be used to create a miniature scanning electron microscope (MSEM). Two die in the structure will have a segmented electrode to deflect the beam and correct for astigmatism. The entire structure is UHV compatible. The performance of an SEM improves as its length is reduced and a sub-cm 2 keV MSEM with a field emission source should have approximately 1 nm resolution. A low voltage high resolution MSEM would be useful for the examination of biological specimens and semiconductors with a minimum of damage. The first MSEM will be tested with existing 6 micron thermionic sources. In the future a micromachined field emission source will be used. The stacking technology presented in this paper can produce an array of MSEMs 1 to 30 mm in length with a 1 mm or larger period. A key question being addressed by this research is the optimum size for a low voltage MSEM which will be determined by the required spatial resolution, field of view, and working distance.

  20. LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System Verification Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B; Zamantzas, C; Jackson, S

    2011-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Mon­i­tor­ing (BLM) sys­tem is one of the most com­plex in­stru­men­ta­tion sys­tems de­ployed in the LHC. In ad­di­tion to protecting the col­lid­er, the sys­tem also needs to pro­vide a means of di­ag­nos­ing ma­chine faults and de­liv­er a feed­back of loss­es to the control room as well as to sev­er­al sys­tems for their setup and analysis. It has to trans­mit and pro­cess sig­nals from al­most 4’000 mon­i­tors, and has near­ly 3 mil­lion con­fig­urable pa­ram­e­ters. The system was de­signed with re­li­a­bil­i­ty and avail­abil­i­ty in mind. The spec­i­fied op­er­a­tion and the fail-safe­ty stan­dards must be guar­an­teed for the sys­tem to per­form its func­tion in pre­vent­ing su­per­con­duc­tive mag­net de­struc­tion caused by par­ti­cle flux. Main­tain­ing the ex­pect­ed re­li­a­bil­i­ty re­quires ex­ten­sive test­ing and ver­i­fi­ca­tion. In this paper we re­port our most re­cent ad­di­t...

  1. Large amplitude forced vibration analysis of cross-beam system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    governing nonlinear differential equation of dynamic equilibrium for forced vibration of a ...... ω is the first natural frequency of the corresponding beam. ..... Although a separate free vibration analysis of the system is not carried out in course.

  2. Dielectric Collimators for Linear Collider Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Kanareykin, A; Baturin, S; Tomás, R

    2011-01-01

    The current status of ILC and CLIC concepts require additional research on wakefield reduction in the collimator sections. New materials and new geometries have been considered recently*. Dielectric collimators for the CLIC Beam Delivery System have been discussed with a view to minimize the BDS collimation wakefields**. Dielectric collimator concepts for the linear collider are presented in this paper; cylindrical and planar collimators for the CLIC parameters have been considered, and simulations to minimize the beam impedance have been performed. The prototype collimator system is planned to be fabricated and experimentally tested at Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams (FACET) at SLAC.

  3. CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR SYSTEM FOR ATF2

    CERN Document Server

    Boogert, S T; Cullinan, F; Joshi, N; Lyapin, A; Aryshev, A; Honda, Y; Naito, T; Terunuma, N; Urakara, J; Heo, A; Kim, E-S; Kim, Y I; McCormick, D; Frisch, J; Nelson, J; Smith, T; White, G R

    2011-01-01

    The Accelerator Test Facility 2 (ATF2) in KEK, Japan, is a prototype scaled demonstrator system for the final focus required for a future high energy lepton linear collider. The ATF2 beam-line is instrumented with a total of 41 high resolution C and S band resonant cavity beam position monitors (BPM) with associated mixer electronics and digitisers. In addition 4 high resolution BPMs have been recently installed at the interaction point, we briefly describe the first operational experience of these cavities in the ATF2 beam-line. The current status of the overall BPM system is also described, with a focus on operational techniques and performance.

  4. A Programmable Beam Shaping System for Tailoring the Profile of High Fluence Laser Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Henesian, M; Haynam, C; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Scanlan, M; Budge, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J

    2010-11-10

    Customized spatial light modulators have been designed and fabricated for use as precision beam shaping devices in fusion class laser systems. By inserting this device in a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain, 'blocker' obscurations can be programmed into the beam profile to shadow small isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. In this two stage system, 1920 x 1080 bitmap images are first imprinted on incoherent, 470 nm address beams via pixilated liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) modulators. To realize defined masking functions with smooth apodized shapes and no pixelization artifacts, address beam images are projected onto custom fabricated optically-addressable light valves. Each valve consists of a large, single pixel liquid cell in series with a photoconductive Bismuth silicon Oxide (BSO) crystal. The BSO crystal enables bright and dark regions of the address image to locally control the voltage supplied to the liquid crystal layer which in turn modulates the amplitude of the coherent beams at 1053 nm. Valves as large as 24 mm x 36 mm have been fabricated with low wavefront distortion (<0.5 waves) and antireflection coatings for high transmission (>90%) and etalon suppression to avoid spectral and temporal ripple. This device in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy represents a new approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics.

  5. PSB LLRF renovation: Initial beam tests of the new digital beam control system

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, ME; Butterworth, A; Findlay, A; Pedersen, F; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2009-01-01

    The beam control renovation project for CERN’s PS Booster (PSB) was started in autumn 2008. Its aim is to equip all four PSB rings with modern digital beam control systems, characterised by fully-PPM parameters and complete remote control. Additionally, all intermediate and input/output signals are to be remotely acquired in a digital way and in full PPM fashion, and displayed via the Oasis application program. The same digital technology concepts have already been successfully applied to the LEIR beam control system, which has acted as a pilot project for the whole PS Complex renovation project. This new technology allows a very flexible performance and can improve the system maintainability by becoming the standard for the PS Complex beam controls. This note details the first step in the PSB consolidation project, namely the beam control prototype tests carried out on PSB ring 4 in October and November 2008. Both C02 and C04 RF system have been successfully controlled; bunch splitting and extraction synch...

  6. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).

    1993-12-31

    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Chaotic synchronization in coupled spatially extended beam-plasma systems

    OpenAIRE

    Filatov, Roman A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; ALEXEY A. KORONOVSKII

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of the chaotic synchronization regimes has been discovered for the coupled spatially extended beam-plasma Pierce systems. The coupling was introduced only on the right bound of each subsystem. It has been shown that with coupling increase the spatially extended beam-plasma systems show the transition from asynchronous behavior to the phase synchronization and then to the complete synchronization regime. For the consideration of the chaotic synchronization we used the concept of...

  8. Beam Tracking in Switched-Beam Antenna System for V2V Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Settawit Poochaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the proposed switched beam antenna system for V2V communication including optimum antenna half power beamwidth determination in urban road environments. SQP optimization method is selected for the computation of optimum antenna half power beamwidth. In addition, beam tracking algorithm is applied to guarantee the best beam selection with maximum RSSI. The results present the success of the proposed system with the increasing of V2V performance metrics. Also, V2V data dissemination via the proposed system introduces the enhancement of V2V link in terms of RSSI, PER, BER, Tsafe, and Rsafe. The results indicate the improvement of V2V link reliability. Consequently, the road safety is improved.

  9. Beam forming system modernization at the MMF linac proton injector

    CERN Document Server

    Derbilov, V I; Nikulin, E S; Frolov, O T

    2001-01-01

    The isolation improvements of the beam forming system (BFS) of the MMF linac proton injector ion source are reported. The mean beam current and,accordingly, BFS electrode heating were increased when the MMF linac has began to operate regularly in long beam sessions with 50 Hz pulse repetition rate. That is why the BFS electrode high-voltage isolation that was made previously as two consequently and rigidly glued solid cylinder insulators has lost mechanical and electric durability. The substitution of large (160 mm) diameter cylinder insulator for four small diameter (20 mm) tubular rods has improved vacuum conditions in the space of beam forming and has allowed to operate without failures when beam currents being up to 250 mA and extraction and focusing voltage being up to 25 and 40 kV respectively. Moreover,the construction provides the opportunity of electrode axial move. The insulators are free from electrode thermal expansion mechanical efforts in a transverse direction.

  10. Simulation of a beam rotation system for a spallation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Reiss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With a nominal beam power of nearly 1 MW on target, the Swiss Spallation Neutron Source (SINQ, ranks among the world’s most powerful spallation neutron sources. The proton beam transport to the SINQ target is carried out exclusively by means of linear magnetic elements. In the transport line to SINQ the beam is scattered in two meson production targets and as a consequence, at the SINQ target entrance the beam shape can be described by Gaussian distributions in transverse x and y directions with tails cut short by collimators. This leads to a highly nonuniform power distribution inside the SINQ target, giving rise to thermal and mechanical stresses. In view of a future proton beam intensity upgrade, the possibility of homogenizing the beam distribution by means of a fast beam rotation system is currently under investigation. Important aspects which need to be studied are the impact of a rotating proton beam on the resulting neutron spectra, spatial flux distributions and additional—previously not present—proton losses causing unwanted activation of accelerator components. Hence a new source description method was developed for the radiation transport code MCNPX. This new feature makes direct use of the results from the proton beam optics code TURTLE. Its advantage to existing MCNPX source options is that all phase space information and correlations of each primary beam particle computed with TURTLE are preserved and transferred to MCNPX. Simulations of the different beam distributions together with their consequences in terms of neutron production are presented in this publication. Additionally, a detailed description of the coupling method between TURTLE and MCNPX is provided.

  11. Invited article: Digital beam-forming imaging riometer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honary, Farideh; Marple, Steve R; Barratt, Keith; Chapman, Peter; Grill, Martin; Nielsen, Erling

    2011-03-01

    The design and operation of a new generation of digital imaging riometer systems developed by Lancaster University are presented. In the heart of the digital imaging riometer is a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), which is used for the digital signal processing and digital beam forming, completely replacing the analog Butler matrices which have been used in previous designs. The reconfigurable nature of the FPGA has been exploited to produce tools for remote system testing and diagnosis which have proven extremely useful for operation in remote locations such as the Arctic and Antarctic. Different FPGA programs enable different instrument configurations, including a 4 × 4 antenna filled array (producing 4 × 4 beams), an 8 × 8 antenna filled array (producing 7 × 7 beams), and a Mills cross system utilizing 63 antennas producing 556 usable beams. The concept of using a Mills cross antenna array for riometry has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. The digital beam forming has been validated by comparing the received signal power from cosmic radio sources with results predicted from the theoretical beam radiation pattern. The performances of four digital imaging riometer systems are compared against each other and a traditional imaging riometer utilizing analog Butler matrices. The comparison shows that digital imaging riometer systems, with independent receivers for each antenna, can obtain much better measurement precision for filled arrays or much higher spatial resolution for the Mills cross configuration when compared to existing imaging riometer systems.

  12. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  13. Note: Nanomechanical characterization of soft materials using a micro-machined nanoforce transducer with an FIB-made pyramidal tip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Gao, S; Brand, U; Hiller, K; Wollschläger, N; Pohlenz, F

    2017-03-01

    The quantitative nanomechanical characterization of soft materials using the nanoindentation tech-nique requires further improvements in the performances of instruments, including their force resolution in particular. A micro-machined silicon nanoforce transducer based upon electrostatic comb drives featuring the force and depth resolutions down to ∼1 nN and 0.2 nm, respectively, is described. At the end of the MEMS transducer's main shaft, a pyramidal tip is fabricated using a focused ion beam facility. A proof-of-principle setup with this MEMS nanoindenter has been established to measure the mechanical properties of soft polydimethylsiloxane. First measurement results demonstrate that the prototype measurement system is able to quantitatively characterize soft materials with elastic moduli down to a few MPa.

  14. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.A.Soliman; M.M.Abdelrahman; A.G.Helal; F.W.Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7.This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics(accel-decel system)to generate an ion beam with low beam emittance and high brightness.The simulation process can provide a good study for optimizing the extraction and focusing system of the ion beam without any losses and transported to the required target.Also,a study of a simulation model for the extraction system of the ion source was used to describe the possible plasma boundary curvatures during the ion extraction that may be affected by the change in an extraction potential with a constant plasma density meniscus.

  15. Micromachined capacitive pressure sensor with signal conditioning electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fragiacomo, Giulio

    Micromachined capacitive pressure sensors for harsh environment together with interfacing electronic circuits have been studied in this project. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have been proposed as substitutes for macro scale sensor’s systems in many different fields and are the only...... a great deal of sensors are used. Pressure sensors are among the most successful MEMS and are used in a huge variety of applications. In this project an absolute capacitive pressure sensor has been developed with the aim to integrate it in pump control systems to improve the efficiency of the pump...

  16. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles P. E-mail: NanoSystem@aol.com; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R. E-mail: winn@fair1.fairfield.edu

    2000-03-11

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of {approx}0.5 to {approx}25 {mu}m, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200 deg. C, also compatible with high-temperature brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  17. Silicon-micromachined microchannel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetz, Charles P.; Boerstler, Robert; Steinbeck, John; Lemieux, Bryan; Winn, David R.

    2000-03-01

    Microchannel plates (MCP) fabricated from standard silicon wafer substrates using a novel silicon micromachining process, together with standard silicon photolithographic process steps, are described. The resulting SiMCP microchannels have dimensions of ˜0.5 to ˜25 μm, with aspect ratios up to 300, and have the dimensional precision and absence of interstitial defects characteristic of photolithographic processing, compatible with positional matching to silicon electronics readouts. The open channel areal fraction and detection efficiency may exceed 90% on plates up to 300 mm in diameter. The resulting silicon substrates can be converted entirely to amorphous quartz (qMCP). The strip resistance and secondary emission are developed by controlled depositions of thin films, at temperatures up to 1200°C, also compatible with high-temperture brazing, and can be essentially hydrogen, water and radionuclide-free. Novel secondary emitters and cesiated photocathodes can be high-temperature deposited or nucleated in the channels or the first strike surface. Results on resistivity, secondary emission and gain are presented.

  18. Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    2015-11-09

    Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.

  19. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W

    2013-11-19

    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  20. Electron beam diagnostic system using computed tomography and an annular sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Teruya, Alan T.

    2014-07-29

    A system for analyzing an electron beam including a circular electron beam diagnostic sensor adapted to receive the electron beam, the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor having a central axis; an annular sensor structure operatively connected to the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor, wherein the sensor structure receives the electron beam; a system for sweeping the electron beam radially outward from the central axis of the circular electron beam diagnostic sensor to the annular sensor structure wherein the electron beam is intercepted by the annular sensor structure; and a device for measuring the electron beam that is intercepted by the annular sensor structure.

  1. Silicon bulk micromachined hybrid dimensional artifact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudet, Andre A.; Tran, Hy D.; Bauer, Todd Marks; Shilling, Katherine Meghan; Oliver, Andrew David

    2010-03-01

    A mesoscale dimensional artifact based on silicon bulk micromachining fabrication has been developed and manufactured with the intention of evaluating the artifact both on a high precision coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and video-probe based measuring systems. This hybrid artifact has features that can be located by both a touch probe and a video probe system with a k=2 uncertainty of 0.4 {micro}m, more than twice as good as a glass reference artifact. We also present evidence that this uncertainty could be lowered to as little as 50 nm (k=2). While video-probe based systems are commonly used to inspect mesoscale mechanical components, a video-probe system's certified accuracy is generally much worse than its repeatability. To solve this problem, an artifact has been developed which can be calibrated using a commercially available high-accuracy tactile system and then be used to calibrate typical production vision-based measurement systems. This allows for error mapping to a higher degree of accuracy than is possible with a glass reference artifact. Details of the designed features and manufacturing process of the hybrid dimensional artifact are given and a comparison of the designed features to the measured features of the manufactured artifact is presented and discussed. Measurement results from vision and touch probe systems are compared and evaluated to determine the capability of the manufactured artifact to serve as a calibration tool for video-probe systems. An uncertainty analysis for calibration of the artifact using a CMM is presented.

  2. Development of pulsed positron beam line with compact pulsing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Masaki, E-mail: maekawa.masaki@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kawasuso, Atsuo [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed slow positron beam with a pulse width of less than 200 ps and a period of 25 ns. The beam apparatus is composed of a Munich-type pre-buncher, a chopper and a buncher. Instead of the conventional RF cavity, a simple double-cylinder electrode is used for the buncher. The beam will be used for positron lifetime measurements. The time resolution of the whole system including lifetime measurement circuits is 250 ps, which is adequate for studying semiconductors and metals.

  3. Radiation Shielding Design for ISOL System Beam Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Feng; QIN; Jiu-chang

    2013-01-01

    The beam line of the ISOL system passes through the shielding wall and connects the HI-13 tandem accelerator.Neutron produced by tandem accelerator will affect the area of BRIF through the beam line.To protect the staff in BRIF area from radiation a shielding design of the beam line is carried out.The neutron source in the vault of tandem accelerator is the H.E Faraday cup of HI-13 tandem accelerator as showed in Fig.1.The Faraday cup is consisted of 1 mm molybdenum sheet and 10 mm

  4. Beam hardening correction for a cone-beam CT system and its effect on spatial resolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Wei; WEI Long; YU Zhong-Qiang; FU Guo-Tao; SUN Cui-Li; WANG Yan-Fang; WEI Cun-Feng; CAO Da-Quan; QUE Jie-Min; TANG Xiao; SHI Rong-Jian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we present a beam hardening correction (BHC) method in three-dimension space for a cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) system in a mono-material case and investigate its effect on the spatial resolution.Due to the polychromatic character of the X-ray spectrum used,cupping and streak artifacts called beam hardening artifacts arise in the reconstructed CT images,causing reduced image quality.In addition,enhanced edges are introduced in the reconstructed CT images because of the beam hardening effect.The spatial resolution of the CBCT system is calculated from the edge response function (ERF) on different planes in space.Thus,in the CT images with beam hardening artifacts,enhanced ERFs will be extracted to calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF),obtaining a better spatial resolution that deviates from the real value.Reasonable spatial resolution can be obtained after reducing the artifacts.The 10% MTF value and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the point spread function with and without BHC are presented.

  5. SPLinac Computer Simulations of SC Linac RF Systems with Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    The beam in a proton linac is very sensitive to field perturbations in the cavities. Therefore a simulation program was written modeling longitudinal beam dynamics in a realistic composite linac RF system. Fast RF vector sum feedback loops control several cavities with b-dependent transit time factors driven by one transmitter. Modeling of feedback loops covers limited transmitter power and bandwidth and possible loop-delay. Vector sum calibration errors, power splitting errors and scatter in the coupling strength to the cavities are optional as well as beam loading of the pulsing beam. Different modes of mechanical cavity perturbations including Lorentz force detuning can be chosen. A multitude of phase-space representation of bunches as well as RF quantity plots are available, most of them can be assembled as a movie, showing the system dynamics in 'real time'.

  6. Fabrication of Micro/Nano Structures on Metals by Femtosecond Laser Micromachining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Tanvir Ahmmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser micromachining has emerged in recent years as a new technique for micro/nano structure fabrication because of its applicability to virtually all kinds of materials in an easy one-step process that is scalable. In the past, much research on femtosecond laser micromachining was carried out to understand the complex ablation mechanism, whereas recent works are mostly concerned with the fabrication of surface structures because of their numerous possible applications. The state-of-the-art knowledge on the fabrication of these structures on metals with direct femtosecond laser micromachining is reviewed in this article. The effect of various parameters, such as fluence, number of pulses, laser beam polarization, wavelength, incident angle, scan velocity, number of scans, and environment, on the formation of different structures is discussed in detail wherever possible. Furthermore, a guideline for surface structures optimization is provided. The authors’ experimental work on laser-inscribed regular pattern fabrication is presented to give a complete picture of micromachining processes. Finally, possible applications of laser-machined surface structures in different fields are briefly reviewed.

  7. First reliability test of a surface micromachined microengine using SHiMMeR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.M.; Smith, N.F.; Bowman, D.J. [and others

    1997-08-01

    The first-ever reliability stress test on surface micromachined microengines developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been completed. We stressed 41 microengines at 36,000 RPM and inspected the functionality at 60 RPM. We have observed an infant mortality region, a region of low failure rate (useful life), and no signs of wearout in the data. The reliability data are presented and interpreted using standard reliability methods. Failure analysis results on the stressed microengines are presented. In our effort to study the reliability of MEMS, we need to observe the failures of large numbers of parts to determine the failure modes. To facilitate testing of large numbers of micromachines. The Sandia High Volume Measurement of Micromachine Reliability (SHiMMeR) system has computer controlled positioning and the capability to inspect moving parts. The development of this parallel testing system is discussed in detail.

  8. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui...

  9. Design of the AGS Booster beam position monitor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beadle, E.; Brennan, J.M.; Ciardullo, D.J.; Savino, J.; Stanziani, V.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Witkover, R.L.; Schulte, E. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    The AGS Booster beam position monitor system must cover a wide range of beam intensity and bunch length for proton and heavy ion acceleration. The detector is designed to maintain 0.1 mm local tolerance following 300{degree}C bakeout. The electronics will be located in the tunnel, communicating via fiber optic links to avoid ground loops. The design will be described and test results for prototype units presented. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Upgrade of Beam Energy Measurement System at BEPC-II

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Yong; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Guo, Di-Zhou; Wang, Jian-Li; Liu, Bai-Qi; Achasov, M N; Krasnov, A A; Muchnoi, N Yu; Pyata, E E; Mamoshkina, E V; Harris, F A

    2015-01-01

    The beam energy measurement system is of great importance and profit for both BEPC-II accelerator and BES-III detector. The system is based on measuring the energies of Compton back-scattered photons. Many advanced techniques and precise instruments are employed to realize the highly accurate measurement of positron/electron beam energy. During five year's running period, in order to meet the requirement of data taking and improve the capacity of measurement itself, the upgradation of system is continued, which involve the component reformation of laser and optics subsystem, replacement of view-port of the laser to vacuum insertion subsystem, the purchase of electric cooling system for high purity germanium detector, and the improvement of data acquisition and processing subsystem. The upgrading of system guarantees the smooth and efficient measuring of beam energy at BEPC-II and accommodates the accurate offline energy values for further physics analysis at BES-III.

  11. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E; Hatae, T; Vayakis, G; Bassan, M; Itami, K

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  12. Chevron beam dump for ITER edge Thomson scattering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Vayakis, G.; Bassan, M.; Itami, K.

    2013-10-01

    This paper contains the design of the beam dump for the ITER edge Thomson scattering system and mainly concerns its lifetime under the harsh thermal and electromagnetic loads as well as tight space allocation. The lifetime was estimated from the multi-pulse laser-induced damage threshold. In order to extend its lifetime, the structure of the beam dump was optimized. A number of bent sheets aligned parallel in the beam dump form a shape called a chevron which enables it to avoid the concentration of the incident laser pulse energy. The chevron beam dump is expected to withstand thermal loads due to nuclear heating, radiation from the plasma, and numerous incident laser pulses throughout the entire ITER project with a reasonable margin for the peak factor of the beam profile. Structural analysis was also carried out in case of electromagnetic loads during a disruption. Moreover, detailed issues for more accurate assessments of the beam dump's lifetime are clarified. Variation of the bi-directional reflection distribution function (BRDF) due to erosion by or contamination of neutral particles derived from the plasma is one of the most critical issues that needs to be resolved. In this paper, the BRDF was assumed, and the total amount of stray light and the absorbed laser energy profile on the beam dump were evaluated.

  13. Vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esashi, Masayoshi [Tohoku Univ., Aobaku, Sendai (Japan); Sugiyama, Susumu [Ritsumeikan Univ., Kusatsu, Shiga (Japan); Ikeda, Kyoichi [Yokogawa Electric Corp., Nagano (Japan); Wang, Y. [Zhejian Univ., Hangzhou (China); Miyashita, Haruzo [Anelva Corp., Yamanashi (Japan)

    1998-08-01

    Considerable progress in silicon pressure sensors has been made in recent years. This paper discusses three types of vacuum-sealed silicon micromachined pressure sensors that represent the present state of the art in this important area. The devices are a capacitive vacuum sensor, a surface-micromachined microdiaphragm pressure sensor, and a resonant pressure sensor. Vacuum sealing for these devices is accomplished using anodic bonding, films deposited using low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, and thermal out-diffusion of hydrogen, respectively. These sensors emphasize high sensitivity; small size, and excellent stability, respectively. The silicon-diaphragm vacuum sensor uses electrostatic force balancing to achieve a wide pressure measurement range.

  14. A silicon micromachined piezoresistive accelerometer for health and condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kevin M.; Henderson, H. Thurman

    1990-01-01

    Silicon micromachining etching techniques were utilized to batch-fabricate hundreds of general purpose microaccelerometers on a single silicon substrate. Piezoresistive sensing elements were aligned to the back-side patterns using an IR mask aligner and then diffused into the areas of maximum stress. Capping of the two-arm cantilever beam structure was achieved using a combination of electrostatic bonding and low temperature glass films. Overrange protection, critical damping, and overall protection from the outside environment are achieved by controlling the cavity depths of the top and bottom covers. Temperature compensation, amplification, and filtering are performed by a companion LSI chip that is interfaced to the accelerometer by conventional wire-bonding techniques.

  15. Fabricating Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducers with Wafer Bonding Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil ARORA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer by wafer bonding technique. Membrane is transferred from SOI wafer to the prime wafer having silicon dioxide cavity. The thickness of cavity height depends on silicon dioxide grown on prime wafer by dry/wet oxidation. Thinning of device wafer of SOI by oxidation, controls membrane thickness. Two wafers are bonded in vacuum under optimized controlled parameters. Using this method, we can get single crystal silicon as membrane, whose mechanical and electrical parameters are well known. Silicon membrane is free from stress and density variation. Focused Ion Beam etching and laser Doppler Vibrometer were used to do structural and electrical characterization respectively. The measured resonance frequency of fabricated device i.e. 2.24 MHz is much closer to the designed value i.e. 2.35 MHz.

  16. A new beam diagnostic system for the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motycak, S.; Rodin, A. M.; Novoselov, A. S.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Vedeneyev, V. Yu.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kliman, J.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Yuchimchuk, S. A.; Komarov, A. B.; Kamas, D.

    2016-09-01

    A new beam diagnostic system based on the PXI standard was developed, tested, and used in the MASHA setup experiment. The beam energy and beam current measurements were carried out using several methods. The online time-of-flight energy measurements were carried out using three pick-up detectors. We used two electronic systems to measure the time between the pick-ups. The first system was based on fast Agilent digitizers (2-channel, 4-GHz sampling rate), and the second one was based on a constant fraction discriminator (CFD) connected to a time-to-digital converter (TDC, 5-ps resolution). A new graphical interface to monitor the electronic devices and to perform the online calculations of energy was developed using MFC C++. The second system based on microchannel plate (time-of-flight) and silicon detectors for the determination of beam energy and the type of accelerated particles was also used. The beam current measurements were carried out with two different sensors. The first sensor is a rotating Faraday cup placed in front of the target, and the second one is an emission detector installed at the rear of the target. This system is now used in experiments for the synthesis of superheavy elements at the U400M cyclotron of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR).

  17. Performance of the beam phase measurement system for LEDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, J. F.; Barr, D.; Gilpatrick, J. D.; Kasemir, K.; Shurter, R. B.; Stettler, M.

    2000-11-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) facility diagnostics include beam phase measurements [1]. Beam signals at 350 MHz from capacitive probes are down-converted to 2 MHz for processing. The phase measurement process includes amplitude leveling, digital sampling of the I and Q vectors, DSP filtering and calibration, and serving of the data to the network. All hardware is fielded in the VXI format and controlled with a PC. Running under Windows NT, a LabVIEW® program controls the operation of the system and serves the data, via channel access, to the EPICS control system. The design and operational performance to date of the system is described.

  18. Rapid cycling medical synchrotron and beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, Stephen G [Port Jefferson, NY; Brennan, J Michael [East Northport, NY; Tuozzolo, Joseph E [Sayville, NY; Zaltsman, Alexander [Commack, NY

    2008-10-07

    A medical synchrotron which cycles rapidly in order to accelerate particles for delivery in a beam therapy system. The synchrotron generally includes a radiofrequency (RF) cavity for accelerating the particles as a beam and a plurality of combined function magnets arranged in a ring. Each of the combined function magnets performs two functions. The first function of the combined function magnet is to bend the particle beam along an orbital path around the ring. The second function of the combined function magnet is to focus or defocus the particle beam as it travels around the path. The radiofrequency (RF) cavity is a ferrite loaded cavity adapted for high speed frequency swings for rapid cycling acceleration of the particles.

  19. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  20. Beam Diagnostics Systems For The National Ignition Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Demaret, R D; Bliss, E S; Gates, A J; Severyn, J R

    2001-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility laser focuses 1.8 Mega-joules of ultraviolet light (wavelength 351 nano-meters) from 192 beams into a 600-micro-meter-diameter volume. Effective use of this output in target experiments requires that the power output from all the beams match within 8% over their entire 20-nanosecond waveform. The scope of NIF beam diagnostics systems necessary to accomplish this task is unprecedented for laser facilities. Each beam line contains 110 major optical components distributed over a 510 meter path, and diagnostic tolerances for beam measurement are demanding. Total laser pulse energy is measured with 2.8% precision, and the inter-beam temporal variation of pulse power is measured with 4% precision. These measurement goals are achieved through use of approximately 160 sensor packages that measure the energy at five locations and power at 3 locations along each beamline using 335 photodiodes, 215 calorimeters and 36 digitizers. Successful operation of such a system requires a high level ...

  1. The LEP RF Trip and Beam Loss Diagnostics System

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaudon, L; Beetham, G; Ciapala, Edmond; Juillard, J C; Olsen, R

    2002-01-01

    During the last years of operation the number of operationally independent RF stations distributed around LEP reached a total of 40. A serious difficulty when running at high energy and high beam intensities was to establish cause and effect in beam loss situations, where the trip of any single RF station would result in beam loss, rapidly producing further multiple RF station trips. For the last year of operation a fast post-mortem diagnostics system was developed to allow precise time-stamping of RF unit trips and beam intensity changes. The system was based on eight local DSP controlled fast acquisition and event recording units, one in each RF sector, connected to critical RF control signals and fast beam intensity monitors and synchronised by GPS. The acquisition units were armed and synchronised at the start of each fill. At the end of the fill the local time-stamped RF trip and beam intensity change history tables were recovered, events ordered and the results stored in a database for subsequent analys...

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Young Modulus in Micromachined Polysilicon Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁建宁; 孟永钢; 温诗铸

    2002-01-01

    The elastic modulus is a very important mechanical property in micromachined structures. Several design issues such as resonant frequencies and stiffness in the micromachined structures are related to the elastic modulus. In addition, the accuracy of results from finite element models is highly dependent upon the elastic modulus. In this study, the Young modulus of micromachined thin polysilicon films has been investigated with a new tensile test machine using a magnetic-solenoid force actuator with linear response, low hysteresis, no friction and direct electrical control. The tensile test results show that the measured average value of Young modulus for a typical sample, (164±1.2) GPa, falls within the theoretical bounds of the texture model. These results will provide more reliable design of polysilicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  3. The development of micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-14

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  4. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunzhu Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs, piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs, surface acoustic wave (SAW gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs, magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs, micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs, micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs, micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs, and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail.

  5. The Development of Micromachined Gyroscope Structure and Circuitry Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Yu, Cheng; Kong, Lun

    2014-01-01

    This review surveys micromachined gyroscope structure and circuitry technology. The principle of micromachined gyroscopes is first introduced. Then, different kinds of MEMS gyroscope structures, materials and fabrication technologies are illustrated. Micromachined gyroscopes are mainly categorized into micromachined vibrating gyroscopes (MVGs), piezoelectric vibrating gyroscopes (PVGs), surface acoustic wave (SAW) gyroscopes, bulk acoustic wave (BAW) gyroscopes, micromachined electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (MESGs), magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSGs), micro fiber optic gyroscopes (MFOGs), micro fluid gyroscopes (MFGs), micro atom gyroscopes (MAGs), and special micromachined gyroscopes. Next, the control electronics of micromachined gyroscopes are analyzed. The control circuits are categorized into typical circuitry and special circuitry technologies. The typical circuitry technologies include typical analog circuitry and digital circuitry, while the special circuitry consists of sigma delta, mode matching, temperature/quadrature compensation and novel special technologies. Finally, the characteristics of various typical gyroscopes and their development tendency are discussed and investigated in detail. PMID:24424468

  6. Study of a final focus system for high intensity beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Eylon, Shmuel; Roy, Prabir K.; Yu, Simon S.; Bieniosek, Frank M.; Shuman, Derek B.; Waldron, William L.

    2004-06-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. The final focus scenario in an HIF driver consists of several large aperture quadrupole magnets followed by a drift section in which the beam space charge is neutralized by a plasma. This beam is required to hit a millimeter-sized target spot at the end of the drift section. The objective of the NTX experiments and associated theory and simulations is to study the various physical mechanisms that determine the final spot size (radius r{sub s}) at a given distance (f) from the end of the last quadrupole. In a fusion driver, f is the standoff distance required to keep the chamber wall and superconducting magnets properly protected. The NTX final quadrupole focusing system produces a converging beam at the entrance to the neutralized drift section where it focuses to a small spot. The final spot is determined by the conditions of the beam entering the quadrupole section, the beam dynamics in the magnetic lattice, and the plasma neutralization dynamics in the drift section. The main issues are the control of emittance growth due to high order fields from magnetic multipoles and image fields. In this paper, we will describe the theoretical and experimental aspects of the beam dynamics in the quadrupole lattice, and how these physical effects influence the final beam size. In particular, we present theoretical and experimental results on the dependence of final spot size on geometric aberrations and perveance.

  7. Tutorial on beam-based feedback systems for linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, L.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Ross, M.; Sass, R.; Shoaee, H.

    1994-08-01

    A generalized fast feedback system stabilizes beams in the SLC. It performs measurements and modifies actuator settings to control beam states such as position, angle, energy and intensity on a pulse to pulse basis. An adaptive cascade feature allows communication between a series of linac loops, avoiding overcorrection problems. The system is based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. Due to the database-driven design, new loops are added without requiring software modifications. Recent enhancements support the monitoring and control of nonlinear states such as beam phase using excitation techniques. In over three years of operation, the feedback system has grown from its original eight loops to more than fifty loops, and it has been invaluable in stabilizing the machine.

  8. X-ray cone beam CT system calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.

    1993-12-01

    Recently x-ray cone beam computed tomography (CT) has become of interest for nondestructive testing (NDT) of advanced materials. Such a technique takes advantage of the cone beam geometry, to reduce the acquisition time and increase the resolution. Performances of CT systems rely mainly on geometric precision and measurement quality. Inaccurate geometry or incorrect data produce artifacts and blurring which limit the spatial resolution. A precise geometric calibration procedure is required and some corrections must be applied to the raw attenuation data in order to obtain accurate measurements. An x-ray cone beam CT system has been developed at the LETI. This machine was designed to control small parts limited to a few centimeters, with a high spatial resolution close to 30 microns. This paper introduces the machine setup and describes the calibration computing resources involved in the system. Then, we discuss the performances on experimental data.

  9. Biomolecular sensing using surface micromachined silicon plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zapata, A.M.; Carlen, E.T.; Kim, E.S.; Hsiao, J.; Traviglia, D.; Weinberg, M.S.; Delapierre, G.; Puers, R.

    2007-01-01

    Micromachined sensors to detect surface stress changes associated with interactions between an immobilized chemically selective receptor and a target analyte are presented. The top isolated sensing surface of a free-standing silicon plate is prepared with a thin Au layer, followed by a covalent atta

  10. Micromachined silicon plates for sensing molecular interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlen, E.T.; Weinberg, M.S.; Dube, C.E.; Zapata, A.M.; Borenstein, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    A micromachined surface stress sensor based on a thin suspended crystalline silicon circular plate measures differential surface stress changes associated with vapor phase chemisorption of an alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer. The isolated face of the suspended silicon plate serves as the sensing

  11. A Versatile Beam Loss Monitoring System for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Kastriotou, Maria; Farabolini, Wilfrid; Holzer, Eva Barbara; Nebot Del Busto, Eduardo; Tecker, Frank; Welsch, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The design of a potential CLIC beam loss monitoring (BLM) system presents multiple challenges. To successfully cover the 48 km of beamline, ionisation chambers and optical fibre BLMs are under investigation. The former fulfils all CLIC requirements but would need more than 40000 monitors to protect the whole facility. For the latter, the capability of reconstructing the original loss position with a multi-bunch beam pulse and multiple loss locations still needs to be quantified. Two main sources of background for beam loss measurements are identified for CLIC. The two-beam accelerator scheme introduces so-called crosstalk, i.e. detection of losses originating in one beam line by the monitors protecting the other. Moreover, electrons emitted from the inner surface of RF cavities and boosted by the high RF gradients may produce signals in neighbouring BLMs, limiting their ability to detect real beam losses. This contribution presents the results of dedicated experiments performed in the CLIC Test Facility to qu...

  12. Understanding Beam Alignment in a Coherent Lidar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Roychoudhari, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Optical beam alignment in a coherent lidar (or ladar) receiver system plays a critical role in optimizing its performance. Optical alignment in a coherent lidar system dictates the wavefront curvature (phase front) and Poynting vector) matching of the local oscillator beam with the incoming receiver beam on a detector. However, this alignment is often not easy to achieve and is rarely perfect. Furthermore, optical fibers are being increasingly used in coherent lidar system receivers for transporting radiation to achieve architectural elegance. Single mode fibers also require stringent mode matching for efficient light coupling. The detector response characteristics vary with the misalignment of the two pointing vectors. Misalignment can lead to increase in DC current. Also, a lens in front of the detector may exasperate phase front and Poynting vector mismatch. Non-Interaction of Waves, or the NIW property indicates the light beams do not interfere by themselves in the absence of detecting dipoles. In this paper, we will analyze the extent of misalignment on the detector specifications using pointing vectors of mixing beams in light of the NIW property.

  13. The control system for the LEP beam dump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlier, E. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Aimar, A. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Bretin, J.L. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Marchand, A. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Mertens, V. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Verhagen, H. (CERN, SL Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland))

    1994-12-15

    A beam abort system has been developed and installed in LEP to allow the controlled disposal of the stored beam energy. In view of the importance of the system for the protection of the experiments and the machine, and the technical problems in a pulsed high-power environment, special care has been taken to arrive at a clean functional separation between the different elements of the control electronics, using optical transmission of information. All interlocks have been implemented in hardware. The slow controls and the monitoring tasks have been realized in the framework of a modular software tool kit. ((orig.))

  14. Fibre Monitoring System for the Beam Permit Loops at the LHC and Future Evolution of the Beam Interlock System

    CERN Document Server

    García-Argos, Carlos; Gabourin, Stéphane; Martin, Christophe; Puccio, Bruno; Siemko, Andrzej P.

    2015-01-01

    The optical fibres that transmit the beam permit loop signals at the CERN accelerator complex are deployed along radiation areas. This may result in increased attenuation of the fibres, which reduces the power margin of the links. In addition, other events may cause the links to not function properly and result in false dumps, reducing the availability of the accelerator chain and affecting physics data taking. In order to evaluate the state of the fibres, an out-of-band fibre monitoring system is proposed, working in parallel to the actual beam permit loops. The future beam interlock system to be deployed during LHC long shutdown 2 will implement online, real-time monitoring of the fibres, a feature the current system lacks. Commercial off-the-shelf components to implement the optical transceivers are proposed whenever possible instead of ad-hoc designs.

  15. The Beam Position System of the CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso Proton Beam Line

    CERN Document Server

    Bogey, T

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Neutrino to Gran Sasso (CNGS) experiment uses 400GeV protons extracted from the SPS, which travel along 825 meters of beam line before reaching the CNGS target. This beam line is equipped with 23 BPMs capable of measuring both the horizontal and vertical position of the beam. The final BPM is linked to the target station and due to radiation constraints has been designed to work in air. This contribution will give an overview of the BPMs used in the transfer line. It will also provide a detailed explanation of their logarithmic amplifier based acquisition electronics, which consists of an autotriggered sequencer controlling an integrator, the A/D conversion and the Manchester encoded transmission of the digital data to the surface. At the surface the digital data is acquired using the Digital Acquisition Board (DAB) developed by TRIUMF (Canada) for the LHC BPM system. Results from both laboratory measurements and beam measurements during the 2006 CNGS run will also be presented.

  16. Effect of finite beam width on current separation in beam plasma system: Particle-in-Cell simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    The electron beam propagation in a plasma medium is susceptible to several instabilities. In the relativistic regime typically the weibel instability leading to the current separation dominates. The linear instability analysis is carried out for a system wherein the transverse extent of the beam is infinite. Even in simulations, infinite transverse extent of the beam has been chosen. In real situations, however, beam width will always be finite. keeping this in view the role of finite beam width on the evolution of the beam plasma system has been studied here using Particle - in - Cell simulations. It is observed that the current separation between the forward and return shielding current for a beam with finite beam occurs at the scale length of the beam width itself. Consequently the magnetic field structures that form have maximum power at the scale length of the beam width. This behaviour is distinct from what happens with a beam with having an infinite extent represented by simulations in a periodic box, ...

  17. A scanned beam THz imaging system for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Li, Wenzao; Suen, Jon; Tewari, Priyamvada; Bennett, David; Bajwa, Neha; Brown, Elliott; Culjat, Martin; Grundfest, Warren; Singh, Rahul

    2011-10-01

    THz medical imaging has been a topic of increased interest recently due largely to improvements in source and detector technology and the identification of suitable applications. One aspect of THz medical imaging research not often adequately addressed is pixel acquisition rate and phenomenology. The majority of active THz imaging systems use translation stages to raster scan a sample beneath a fixed THz beam. While these techniques have produced high resolution images of characterization targets and animal models they do not scale well to human imaging where clinicians are unwilling to place patients on large translation stages. This paper presents a scanned beam THz imaging system that can acquire a 1 cm2 area with 1 mm2 pixels and a per-pixel SNR of 40 dB in less than 5 seconds. The system translates a focused THz beam across a stationary target using a spinning polygonal mirror and HDPE objective lens. The illumination is centered at 525 GHz with ~ 125 GHz of response normalized bandwidth and the component layout is designed to optically co-locate the stationary source and detector ensuring normal incidence across a 50 mm × 50 mm field of view at standoff of 190 mm. Component characterization and images of a test target are presented. These results are some of the first ever reported for a short standoff, high resolution, scanned beam THz imaging system and represent an important step forward for practical integration of THz medical imaging where fast image acquisition times and stationary targets (patients) are requisite.

  18. Leaky Wave Enhanced Feeds for Multi-Beam Reflector Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Llombart, N.; Ettorre, M.; Maagt, P. de

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—This paper discusses the use of dielectric superlayers to shape the radiation pattern of focal plane feeds of a multi-beam reflector system. The shaping of the pattern is obtained by exciting a pair (TE/TM) of leaky waves that radiate incrementally as they propagate between the ground plane

  19. Longitudinal beam instabilities in a double RF system

    CERN Document Server

    Argyropoulos, Theodoros; Gazis, Evangelos

    Operation with a double RF system is essential for many accelerators in order to increase beam stability, to change the bunch shape or to perform various RF manipulations. This is also the case for the operation of the CERN SPS as the LHC proton injector, where in addition to the main RF system, a fourth harmonic RF system is used in bunch shortening mode in order to increase the synchrotron frequency spread inside the bunch and thus to enhance Landau damping of the collective instabilities. In fact the double RF system operation in the SPS is one of the essential means, together with the controlled longitudinal emittance blow-up to significantly increase the longitudinal instability thresholds (single and multi-bunch) and deliver a good quality beam for the LHC. However, for the HiLumi-LHC (HL-LHC) and LHC injector upgrade (LIU) projects higher beam intensities are required. After all upgrades are in place, the main performance limitations of the LHC injector complex are beam instabilities and high intensity...

  20. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belikov, A V; Skrypnik, A V; Shatilova, K V [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained. (laser biophotonics)

  1. Modelling of micromachining of human tooth enamel by erbium laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, A. V.; Skrypnik, A. V.; Shatilova, K. V.

    2014-08-01

    We consider a 3D cellular model of human tooth enamel and a photomechanical cellular model of enamel ablation by erbium laser radiation, taking into account the structural peculiarities of enamel, energy distribution in the laser beam cross section and attenuation of laser energy in biological tissue. The surface area of the texture in enamel is calculated after its micromachining by erbium laser radiation. The influence of the surface area on the bond strength of enamel with dental filling materials is discussed. A good correlation between the computer simulation of the total work of adhesion and experimentally measured bond strength between the dental filling material and the tooth enamel after its micromachining by means of YAG : Er laser radiation is attained.

  2. Fabrication of three-dimensional microdisk resonators in calcium fluoride by femtosecond laser micromachining

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jintian; Tang, Jialei; Wang, Nengwen; Song, Jiangxin; He, Fei; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    We report on fabrication of on-chip calcium fluoride (CaF2) microdisk resonators using water-assisted femtosecond laser micromachining. Focused ion beam (FIB) milling is used to create ultra-smooth sidewalls. The quality (Q)-factors of the fabricated microresonators are measured to be 4.2x10^4 at wavelengths near 1550 nm. The Q factor is mainly limited by the scattering from the bottom surface of the disk whose roughness remains high due to the femtosecond laser micromachining process. This technique facilitates formation of on-chip microresonators on various kinds of bulk crystalline materials, which can benefit a wide range of applications such as nonlinear optics, quantum optics, and chip-level integration of photonic devices.

  3. Petri net and beam search based FMS scheduling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, H.; Sekiguchi, T. (Yokohama National University, Yokohama (Japan))

    1992-04-15

    The present paper proposes an on-line flexible manufacturing system (FMS) scheduling system which takes in consideration the routing flexibility. The FMS was modeled by utilizing a timed Petri net representation. This representation gives real time information about the production evolvement and the situation of each machine and equipment. According to this information, the present system starts to search for the scheduling of the next orders to be assigned. The search is conducted by a beam search based on-line decision method. An algorithm has been developed by integrating the timed Petri net representation to the beam search. In order to test the developed system, a just-in-time production objective was established. The performance of this system was evaluated by exhaustive simulations. Consequently, a better achievement of the production objective as well as a smaller variance under different scheduling conditions can be realized. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Status of the ITER heating neutral beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R.; Decamps, H.; Graceffa, J.; Schunke, B.; Tanaka, M.; Dremel, M.; Tanga, A.; DeEsch, H. P. L.; Geli, F.; Milnes, J.; Inoue, T.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2009-04-01

    The ITER neutral beam (NB) injectors are the first injectors that will have to operate under conditions and constraints similar to those that will be encountered in a fusion reactor. These injectors will have to operate in a hostile radiation environment and they will become highly radioactive due to the neutron flux from ITER. The injectors will use a single large ion source and accelerator that will produce 40 A 1 MeV D- beams for pulse lengths of up to 3600 s. Significant design changes have been made to the ITER heating NB (HNB) injector over the past 4 years. The main changes are: Modifications to allow installation and maintenance of the beamline components with an overhead crane. The beam source vessel shape has been changed and the beam source moved to allow more space for the connections between the 1 MV bushing and the beam source. The RF driven negative ion source has replaced the filamented ion source as the reference design. The ion source and extractor power supplies will be located in an air insulated high voltage (-1 MV) deck located outside the tokamak building instead of inside an SF6 insulated HV deck located above the injector. Introduction of an all metal absolute valve to prevent any tritium in the machine to escape into the NB cell during maintenance. This paper describes the status of the design as of December 2008 including the above mentioned changes. The very important power supply system of the neutral beam injectors is not described in any detail as that merits a paper beyond the competence of the present authors. The R&D required to realize the injectors described in this paper must be carried out on a dedicated neutral beam test facility, which is not described here.

  5. Steerable beam systems for electron cyclotron resonance heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, J.

    1985-08-31

    Several methods are discussed for steering a 200 kW pencil beam of electromagnetic waves in the 60 GHz to 200 GHz frequency range. These include methods incorporating swivelling mirrors, phased arrays, mode converters, and optical materials. It is found that for the near term, the mechanical systems are best, capable of steering times of 3 ms to 100 ms and losses of less than 5%. Optical methods, as yet virtually uninvestigated, appear to offer the only means of beam-steering in the 5..mu..s to 100..mu..s range necessary for MHD mode tracking.

  6. Daily check of the electron beams with a diode system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilette, P. [Hospital Civil de Charleroi (Belgium). Centre for Radiotherapy

    1995-12-01

    A fast systems to check all the accelerator beams on a daily basis has been developed. A cheap home-made detector, based on non-medical diodes (type 1N5408), has been used since July 1992 to verify all the electron beams every day. The relative energy and Top-cGy correspondence is verified with one single irradiation of less than 1 minute by 6 diodes fixed in a polystyrene phantom. The principle of construction, software implementation and results are presented.

  7. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  8. Studies for the LHeC Beam Transfer System

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C

    2013-01-01

    The LHeC would allow for collisions between an electron beam from a new accelerator with the existing LHC hadron beam. Two possible configurations were studied: a separate linac (Linac-Ring) or a new electron ring superimposed on the LHC (Ring-Ring). The racetrack linac is now considered as the baseline for the LHeC design, with the Ring-Ring solution as a backup. The studies performed for the considered options are presented in this paper. For the Linac-Ring option the requirements for the post collision line and the beam dump design have been evaluated in the case of a 60 GeV and a 140 GeV electron beam. In the Ring-Ring option, studies have been performed on the optics design of the transfer line from a 10 GeV injector linac into the LHeC ring and of the injection system. The internal 60 GeV electron beam dump design has also been considered.

  9. Radiation protection system at the RIKEN RI beam factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwamino, Y; Fujita, S; Sakamoto, H; Ito, S; Fukunishi, N; Yabutani, T; Yamano, T; Fukumura, A

    2005-01-01

    The RIKEN RI (radioactive isotope) Beam Factory is scheduled to commence operations in 2006, and its maximum energy will be 400 MeV u(-1) for ions lighter than Ar and 350 MeV u(-1) for uranium. The beam intensity will be 1 pmicroA (6 x 10(12) particles s(-1)) for any element at the goal. For the hands-on-maintenance and the rational shield thickness of the building, the beam loss must be controlled with several kinds of monitors. Three types of radiation monitors will be installed. The first one consists of a neutron dose equivalent monitor and an ionisation chamber, which are commercially available area monitors. The second one is a conventional hand-held dose equivalent monitor wherein the logarithmic signal is read by a programmable logic controller based on the radiation safety interlock system (HIS). The third one is a simple plastic scintillator called a beam loss monitor. All the monitors have threshold levels for alarm and beam stop, and HIS reads all these signals.

  10. The LHC RF System - Experience with beam operation

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P; Argyropoulos, T; Arnaudon, L; Bohl, T; Brunner, O; Butterworth, A; Ciapala, E; Dubouchet, F; Esteban-Muller, J; Ferreira-Bento, J; Glenat, D; Hagmann, G; Hofle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kouzue, S; Landre, D; Lollierou, J; Maesen, P; Martinez Yanez, P; Mastoridis, T; Molendijk, J; Nicou, C; Noirjean, J; Papotti, G; Pashnin, A; Pechaud, G; Pradier, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Shaposhnikova, E; Schokker, M; Stellfeld, D; Tuckmantel, J; Valuch, D; Wehrle, U; Weierud, F

    2011-01-01

    The LHC RF system commissioning with beam and physics operation for 2010 and 2011 are presented. It became clear in early 2010 that RF noise was not a lifetime limiting factor: the crossing of the much feared 50 Hz line for the synchrotron frequency did not affect the beam. The broadband LHC RF noise is reduced to a level that makes its contribution to beam diffusion in physics well below that of Intra Beam Scattering. Capture losses are also under control, at well below 0.5%. Longitudinal emittance blow-up, needed for ramping of the nominal intensity single bunch, was rapidly commissioned. In 2011, 3.5 TeV/beam physics has been conducted with 1380 bunches at 50 ns spacing, corresponding to 55% of the nominal current. The intensity per bunch (1.3 1011 p) is significantly above the nominal 1.15 1011. By August 2011 the LHC has accumulated more than 2 fb-1 integrated luminosity, well in excess of the 1 fb-1 target for 2011.

  11. New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

    2012-02-01

    The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (∼56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

  12. The LHC beam loss monitoring system's data acquisition card

    CERN Document Server

    Effinger, E; Emery, J; Ferioli, G; Gauglio, G; Zamantzas, C

    2007-01-01

    The beam loss monitoring (BLM) system [1] of the LHC is one of the most critical elements for the protection of the LHC. It must prevent the super conducting magnets from quenches and the machine components from damages, caused by beam losses. Ionization chambers and secondary emission based beam loss detectors are used on several locations around the ring. The sensors are producing a signal current, which is related to the losses. This current will be measured by a tunnel electronic, which acquires, digitizes and transmits the data via an optical link to the surface electronic. The so called threshold comparator (TC) [2] collects, analyzes and compares the data with threshold table. It also gives a dump signal through the combiner card to the beam inter lock system (BIC). The usage of the system, for protection and tuning of the LHC and the scale of the LHC, imposed exceptional specification of the dynamic range and radiation tolerance. The input current dynamic range should allow measurements between 10pA a...

  13. Speed and accuracy of a beam tracking system for treatment of moving targets with scanned ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Nami; Bert, Christoph; Chaudhri, Naved; Gemmel, Alexander; Schardt, Dieter; Durante, Marco; Rietzel, Eike [GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: n.saito@gsi.de

    2009-08-21

    The technical performance of an integrated three-dimensional carbon ion pencil beam tracking system that was developed at GSI was investigated in phantom studies. Aim of the beam tracking system is to accurately treat tumours that are subject to respiratory motion with scanned ion beams. The current system provides real-time control of ion pencil beams to track a moving target laterally using the scanning magnets and longitudinally with a dedicated range shifter. The system response time was deduced to be approximately 1 ms for lateral beam tracking. The range shifter response time has been measured for various range shift amounts. A value of 16 {+-} 2 ms was achieved for a water equivalent shift of 5 mm. An additional communication delay of 11 {+-} 2 ms was taken into account in the beam tracking process via motion prediction. Accuracy of the lateral beam tracking was measured with a multi-wire position detector to {<=}0.16 mm standard deviation. Longitudinal beam tracking accuracy was parameterized based on measured responses of the range shifter and required time durations to maintain a specific particle range. For example, 5 mm water equivalence (WE) longitudinal beam tracking results in accuracy of 1.08 and 0.48 mm WE in root mean square for time windows of 10 and 50 ms, respectively.

  14. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  15. Development of an advanced 3D cone beam tomographic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, Pascal; Rizo, Philippe; Martin, M.; Grangeat, Pierre; Morisseau, P.

    Due to its high spatial resolution, the 3D X-ray cone-beam tomograph (CT) maximizes understanding of test object microstructure. In order for the present X-ray CT NDT system to control ceramics and ceramic-matrix composites, its spatial resolution must exceed 50 microns. Attention is given to two experimental data reconstructions that have been conducted to illustrate system capabilities.

  16. Long-Term Outdoor Reliability Assessment of a Wireless Unit for Air-Quality Monitoring Based on Nanostructured Films Integrated on Micromachined Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Decarli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy, where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  17. Long-term outdoor reliability assessment of a wireless unit for air-quality monitoring based on nanostructured films integrated on micromachined platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leccardi, Matteo; Decarli, Massimiliano; Lorenzelli, Leandro; Milani, Paolo; Mettala, Petteri; Orava, Risto; Barborini, Emanuele

    2012-01-01

    We have fabricated and tested in long-term field operating conditions a wireless unit for outdoor air quality monitoring. The unit is equipped with two multiparametric sensors, one miniaturized thermo-hygrometer, front-end analogical and digital electronics, and an IEEE 802.15.4 based module for wireless data transmission. Micromachined platforms were functionalized with nanoporous metal-oxides to obtain multiparametric sensors, hosting gas-sensitive, anemometric and temperature transducers. Nanoporous metal-oxide layer was directly deposited on gas sensing regions of micromachined platform batches by hard-mask patterned supersonic cluster beam deposition. An outdoor, roadside experiment was arranged in downtown Milan (Italy), where one wireless sensing unit was continuously operated side by side with standard gas chromatographic instrumentation for air quality measurements. By means of a router PC, data from sensing unit and other instrumentation were collected, merged, and sent to a remote data storage server, through an UMTS device. The whole-system robustness as well as sensor dataset characteristics were continuously characterized over a run-time period of 18 months.

  18. 用体硅微加工工艺实现的微纳电械系统%Micro-nano electromechanical system by bulk silicon micromachining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical System) based on semiconductor microfabrication plays important roles for example in the periphery of IT systems. NEMS (Nano ElectroMechanical System) contains nano-scale structures. Sophisticated and high performance systems based on the MEMS and the NEMS have been developed. Packaging and electrical interconnection play an important role in realizing practically applicable systems[1].

  19. Microscopic View of Soil on a Micromachined Silicone Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Sol 17 (June 11, 2008) shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a substrate that has been micromachined to produce different patterns of pegs and holes to capture the smallest particles in the Martian soil. The micromachined substrates are designed to tightly hold particles for imaging using the Atomic Force Microscope on Phoenix, which should be able to zoom in another 40 times beyond the magnification in this Optical Microscope image. Each stripe has a different spacing of pegs and holes. The strip third from the left, with a peg spacing of 5 micrometers, has been most successful in collecting the particles. These substrates were fabricated by Imperial College London as the United Kingdom hardware contribution to the Phoenix mission. For scale, each strip is 0.4 millimeter (0.016 inch) wide. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Beam Measurement Systems for the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD)

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, Maria Elena; Ludwig, M; Marqversen, O; Odier, P; Pedersen, F; Raich, U; Søby, L; Tranquille, G; Spickermann, T

    2001-01-01

    The new, low-energy antiproton physics facility at CERN has been successfully commissioned and has been delivering decelerated antiprotons at 100 MeV/c since July 2000. The AD consists of one ring where the 3.5 GeV/c antiprotons produced from a production target are injected, rf manipulated, stochastically cooled, decelerated (with further stages involving additional stochastic and electron cooling and rf manipulation) and extracted at 100 MeV/c. While proton test beams of sufficient intensity could be used for certain procedures in AD commissioning, this was not possible for setting-up and routine operation. Hence, special diagnostics systems had to be developed to obtain the beam and accelerator characteristics using the weak antiproton beams of a few 10E7 particles at all momenta from 3.5 GeV/c down to 100 MeV/c. These include systems for position measurement, intensity, beam size measurements using transverse aperture limiters and scintillators and Schottky-based tools. This paper gives an overall view of...

  1. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  2. Model Design of Piezoelectric Micromachined Modal Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a novel kind of solid-state microgyroscope, which is called piezoelectric micromachined modal gyroscope (PMMG. PMMG has large stiffness and robust resistance to shake and strike because there is no evident mass-spring component in its structure. This work focused on quantitative optimization of the gyroscope, which is still blank for such gyroscope. The modal analysis by the finite element method (FEM was firstly conducted. A set of quantitative indicators were developed to optimize the operation mode. By FEM, the harmonic analysis was conducted to find the way to efficiently actuate the operational mode needed. The optimal configuration of driving electrodes was obtained. At last, the Coriolis analysis was conducted to show the relation between angular velocity and differential output voltage by the Coriolis force under working condition. The results obtained in this paper provide theoretical basis for realizing this novel kind of micromachined gyroscope.

  3. Micromachined Inclinometer Based on Fluid Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Crespy, N; Combette, P; Boyer, P Temple; Giani, A; Foucaran, A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation and experimental results of a one-dimensional thermal inclinometer with the cavity filled of gas and liquid. The sensor principle consists of one heating resistor placed between two detectors. When the resistor is electrically powered, it creates a symmetrical temperature profile inside a micromachined silicon cavity. By applying a tilt to the sensor, the profile shifts in the same direction of the sensible axis corresponding to the horizontal one to one. The temperature profile and the sensitivity according to the CO2 gas and mineral oil SAE50 have been studied using numerical resolution of fluid dynamics equations with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package Fluent V6.2. We have shown that the sensitivity of liquid sensors is higher than the gas sensors one. By using micromachined silicon technique, a thermal inclinometer with one pair of detectors placed at 300 um from the heater has been made. Experimental measurements corroborate with the numeric...

  4. DC proton beam measurements in a single-solenoid low-energy beam transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Schafstall, P.; Schneider, J.D.; Sherman, J.; Zaugg, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Taylor, T. [AECL Research, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada). Chalk River Labs.

    1994-09-01

    High current, CW proton accelerators are being considered for a number of applications including disposition of nuclear wastes, reduction of fissionable nuclear material inventories, safe production of critical nuclear materials, and energy production. All these applications require the development of high current, reliable, hydrogen ion injectors. In 1986, a program using CW RFQ technology was undertaken at CRL in collaboration with LANL and was continued there until 1993. During this time, an accelerator was built which produced 600 keV, 75 mA and 1,250 keV, 55 mA CW proton beams. The present program at Los Alamos using this accelerator is aimed at continuing the CRL work to demonstrate long-term reliability. In the present work, the authors are seeking to determine the optimal match to and the current limit of the 1,250-keV RFQ. This paper discusses the characterization of the 50 keV beams at the exit of the single-solenoid LEBT and presents both the experimental measurements and the beam simulations done to model this system.

  5. The beam transport system in the SRS-1200

    CERN Document Server

    Ivashchenko, V E

    2002-01-01

    In NSC KIPT the synchrotron radiation source SRS-1200 for the Ukrainian national synchrotron center (Kiev) is developed. An injector for a storage ring is the electron linear accelerator with energy 180 MeV. For compactness of a complex LUE-180 dispose under a storage ring. The transport system provides transport of electron beam from linear accelerator without losses and injection him in the storage ring. The calculations of the performances of transport systems with five-lens and three-lens variants of translation line, and also with use 42 and 45-th of degree rectangular and sector bending magnets were carried out. As a result of the comparative analysis the five-lens symmetric variant of translation line with 42-th degree sector bending magnets was chosen. In the report the basic results of calculations, parameters and performances of transport system of electron beam are submitted.

  6. Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls

    CERN Document Server

    Dotson, Danny W

    2005-01-01

    The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic "burn through." Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an "off the shelf" Programmable Logic Controller located in a single controll box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage "Brick" at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

  7. A computational procedure for multibody systems including flexible beam dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, J. D.; Park, K. C.; Chiou, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    A computational procedure suitable for the solution of equations of motions for flexible multibody systems has been developed. The flexible beams are modeled using a fully nonlinear theory which accounts for both finite rotations and large deformations. The present formulation incorporates physical measures of conjugate Cauchy stress and covariant strain increments. As a consequence, the beam model can easily be interfaced with real-time strain measurements and feedback control systems. A distinct feature of the present work is the computational preservation of total energy for undamped systems; this is obtained via an objective strain increment/stress update procedure combined with an energy-conserving time integration algorithm which contains an accurate update of angular orientations. The procedure is demonstrated via several example problems.

  8. Micromachined Parts Advance Medicine, Astrophysics, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Marshall Space Flight Center awarded two SBIR contracts to Potomac Photonics, now based in Baltimore, for the development of computerized workstations capable of mass-producing tiny, intricate, diffractive optical elements. While the company has since discontinued the workstations, those contracts set the stage for Potomac Photonics to be a leader in the micromachining industry, where NASA remains one of its clients.

  9. Design and Test of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongliang Wang; Xiangjun Wang; Changde He; Chenyang Xue; Jijun Xiong; Wendong Zhang; Jing Miao; Yuping Li

    2014-01-01

      Currently, most capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers, adopting surface sacrificial technology encounter various problems such as difficult cavity etch, low controllability of membrane thickness etc...

  10. Micromachined Piezoelectric Actuators for Cryogenic Adaptive Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes micromachined single crystal piezoelectric actuator arrays to enable ultra-large stroke, high precision shape control for large aperture,...

  11. Development of beam current control system in RF-knockout slow extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, K.; Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Furukawa, T.; Katagiri, K.; Takeshita, E.; Iwata, Y.; Himukai, T.; Noda, K.

    2011-12-01

    A raster scanning method has been developed for cancer therapy at NIRS-HIMAC. This method requires a high-accuracy beam current control and fast beam-on/off switching. We have developed a feedback control system of the beam current with the RF-knockout slow extraction method. The system has allowed a stable response to beam-on/off switching using a feedback control delay function with a beam-current ripple of 7%.

  12. Development of beam current control system in RF-knockout slow extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizushima, K., E-mail: mizshima@nirs.go.jp [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Sato, S.; Shirai, T.; Furukawa, T.; Katagiri, K.; Takeshita, E.; Iwata, Y.; Himukai, T.; Noda, K. [Department of Accelerator and Medical Physics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    A raster scanning method has been developed for cancer therapy at NIRS-HIMAC. This method requires a high-accuracy beam current control and fast beam-on/off switching. We have developed a feedback control system of the beam current with the RF-knockout slow extraction method. The system has allowed a stable response to beam-on/off switching using a feedback control delay function with a beam-current ripple of 7%.

  13. ULtrathin vacuum valve and ion beam focusing system

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Qin Jiu Chang; Su Sheng Yong; Wu Long Cheng

    2001-01-01

    Design and fabrication of the ultrathin vacuum valve and ion beam focusing system are introduced for application on CIAE 600 kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator. The valve is integrated with first electrode of focusing system. The electric dizzy and striking sparks on focusing system disappeared after using these devices. The ion source can be replaced easily and quickly because the ultrathin vacuum valve was used, and the vacuum system of generator is protected; especially, safe action of the accelerating tube is maintained; and using live is extended

  14. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  15. Review of micromachining of ceramics by etching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.T.TING; K.A.ABOU-EL-HOSSEIN; H.B.CHUA

    2009-01-01

    In the last two decades, there has been an enormous surge in interest in ceramic materials and, as a result, there have been significant advances in their development and applications. Their inherent properties, such as capability of operating at temperatures far above metals, high level of hardness and toughness, low coefficient of thermal expansion and high thermal conductivity rendered ceramics to be one of the leading engineering materials. Many research works have been conducted in the past few years on machining of advanced ceramics using different processing methods in order to obtain a better surface roughness, higher material removal rate and improved tool life. Micromachining using chemical etching is one of those methods that do not involve the problem of tool life and direct tool-work piece contact. However, only a few research works have been done on micromachining of ceramics using chemical etching. Hence, study of chemical machining of advanced ceramics is still needed as the process has found wide application in the industry because of its relative low operating costs. In this work, we summarize the recent progresses in machining of different types of advanced ceramics, material processing methods such as wet etching and dry etching, and finally the prospects for control of material removal rate and surface quality in the process of ceramic micromachining.

  16. Beam shaping to provide round and square-shaped beams in optical systems of high-power lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2016-05-01

    Optical systems of modern high-power lasers require control of irradiance distribution: round or square-shaped flat-top or super-Gaussian irradiance profiles are optimum for amplification in MOPA lasers and for thermal load management while pumping of crystals of solid-state ultra-short pulse lasers to control heat and minimize its impact on the laser power and beam quality while maximizing overall laser efficiency, variable profiles are also important in irradiating of photocathode of Free Electron lasers (FEL). It is suggested to solve the task of irradiance re-distribution using field mapping refractive beam shapers like piShaper. The operational principle of these devices presumes transformation of laser beam intensity from Gaussian to flat-top one with high flatness of output wavefront, saving of beam consistency, providing collimated output beam of low divergence, high transmittance, extended depth of field, negligible residual wave aberration, and achromatic design provides capability to work with ultra-short pulse lasers having broad spectrum. Using the same piShaper device it is possible to realize beams with flat-top, inverse Gauss or super Gauss irradiance distribution by simple variation of input beam diameter, and the beam shape can be round or square with soft edges. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type and optical layouts of their applying in optical systems of high-power lasers. Examples of real implementations and experimental results will be presented as well.

  17. Development of BPM/BLM DAQ System for KOMAC Beam Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young-Gi; Kim, Jae-Ha; Yun, Sang-Pil; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The KOMAC installed 10 beam lines, 5 for 20-MeV beams and 5 for 100-MeV beams. The proton beam is transmitted to two target room. The KOMAC has been operating two beam lines, one for 20 MeV and one for 100 MeV. New beam line, RI beam line is under commissioning. A Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is essential to monitor beam signals in an analog front-end circuitry from BPM and BLM at beam lines. A data acquisition (DAQ) system is essential to monitor beam signals in an analog front-end circuitry from BPM and BLM at beam lines. The DAQ digitizes beam signal and the sampling is synchronized with a reference signal which is an external trigger for beam operation. The digitized data is accessible by the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS)-based control system, which manages the whole accelerator control. The beam monitoring system integrates BLM and BPM signals into the control system and offers realtime data to operators. The IOC, which is implemented with Linux and a PCI driver, supports data acquisition as a very flexible solution.

  18. HIGH POWER FAST KICKER SYSTEM FOR SNS BEAM EXTRACTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; MI,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; LOCKEY,R.; PAI,C.; TUOZZOLO,J.; NEHRING,T.; WARBURTON,D.

    2002-06-30

    A Blumlein topology based high peak power, high repetition rate, and low beam impedance fast extraction kicker system for ORNL Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The large magnet window size, large deflecting angle, low beam impedance termination and fast deflecting field rise time demand a very strong pulsed power source to drive the SNS extraction fast kicker magnet. This system consists of fourteen high voltage modulators and fourteen lumped kicker magnet sections. All modulators will be located in a service building outside the beam tunnel, which is a revised design requirement adopted in the mid 2000. The high current pulses generated by the high power modulators will be delivered through high voltage pulsed transmission cables to each kicker magnet sections. The designed output capacity of this system, is in multiple GVA. Its first article modulator has been constructed and is being tested. In this paper, we present the system overview, project status and the advantages of this new conceptual design.

  19. A microbeam slit system for high beam currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallentin, T.; Moser, M.; Eschbaumer, S.; Greubel, C.; Haase, T.; Reichart, P.; Rösch, T.; Dollinger, G.

    2015-04-01

    A new microbeam slit system for high beam currents of 10 μA was built up to improve the brightness transport of a proton beam with a kinetic energy of up to 25 MeV into the microprobe SNAKE. The new slit system features a position accuracy of less than 1 μm under normal operating conditions and less than 2 μm if the beam is switched on and off. The thermal management with a powerful watercooling and potential-free thermocouple feedback controlled heating cables is optimized for constant slit aperture at thermal power input of up to 250 W. The transparent zone is optimized to 0.7 μm due to the use of tungsten formed to a cylindrical surface with a radius r = 100 mm and mechanically lapped surface to minimize small angle scattering effects and to minimize the number of ions passing the slits with low energy loss. Electrical isolation of the slit tip enables slit current monitoring, e.g. for tandem accelerator feedback control. With the ability to transport up to 10 μA of protons with the new microslit system, the brightness Bexp transported into the microprobe was increased by a factor of 2 compared to low current injection using the old slit system.

  20. Successful synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    LHC synchronization test successful The synchronization of the LHC's clockwise beam transfer system and the rest of CERN's accelerator chain was successfully achieved last weekend. Tests began on Friday 8 August when a single bunch of a few particles was taken down the transfer line from the SPS accelerator to the LHC. After a period of optimization, one bunch was kicked up from the transfer line into the LHC beam pipe and steered about 3 kilometres around the LHC itself on the first attempt. On Saturday, the test was repeated several times to optimize the transfer before the operations group handed the machine back for hardware commissioning to resume on Sunday. The anti-clockwise synchronization systems will be tested over the weekend of 22 August.

  1. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  2. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV...

  3. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-08-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast in a rapid prototyping manner, to hard polymers that could even be produced by injection moulding, or to silica in which waveguides may either be written directly, or with grooves for optical fibers. Here, we review different solutions to the system and also show results obtained in a polymer chip with DUV written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers.

  4. The system of RF beam control for electron gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnyakov, A. M.; Chernousov, Yu. D.; Ivannikov, V. I.; Levichev, A. E.; Shebolaev, I. V.

    2015-06-01

    The system of RF control of three-electrode electron gun current is described. It consists of a source of microwave signal, coaxial line, coaxial RF switch and RF antenna lead. The system allows one to get the electron beam in the form of bunches with the frequency of the accelerating section to achieve the capture of particles in the acceleration mode close to 100%. The results of calculation and analysis of the elements of the system are presented. Characteristics of the devices are obtained experimentally. The results of using RF control in three-electrode electron gun at electron linear accelerator are described.

  5. The beam synchronous timing system for the LEP instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribaud, G.; Brahy, D.; Cojan, A.; Momal, F.; Rabany, M.; Saban, R.; Wolles, J.C. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). LEP-BI/CS)

    1990-08-01

    The beam instrumentation group of LEP has constructed a number of detectors distributed around the collider: these instruments are interfaced to approximately 100 VME-based computers which acquire and process data autonomously. In order to ensure the coherence of a measurement and to correlate measurements of different instruments, it is essential that the data are acquired at the same moment on all the systems. The beam synchronous timing system ensures this by broadcasting messages that describe to all instruments the action to be performed. The instructions are guaranteed to arrive at exactly the same moment to all stations around the 27 km circumference by careful compensation of the delay for each station. The heart of the system is a commercial 25 MHz 68020-based VME module coupled to an in-house designed message assembler: these are able to synthesize instructions for up to six different kinds of instruments in a single LEP revolution (89 {mu}s). Each listening station provides the hardware with pulses derived from the incoming message, filters the messages according to the addresses and passes them to real-time tasks which set the hardware or acquire the data. A reverse channel, peripheral station to the control room, allows up to eight different signals to inform the master of locally detected events such as beam loss or high background. Special recovery instructions can then be broadcast. (orig.).

  6. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  7. Micromachined high-performance RF passives in CMOS substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Ni, Zao; Gu, Lei; Wu, Zhengzheng; Yang, Chen

    2016-11-01

    This review systematically addresses the micromachining technologies used for the fabrication of high-performance radio-frequency (RF) passives that can be integrated into low-cost complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-grade (i.e. low-resistivity) silicon wafers. With the development of various kinds of post-CMOS-compatible microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) processes, 3D structural inductors/transformers, variable capacitors, tunable resonators and band-pass/low-pass filters can be compatibly integrated into active integrated circuits to form monolithic RF system-on-chips. By using MEMS processes, including substrate modifying/suspending and LIGA-like metal electroplating, both the highly lossy substrate effect and the resistive loss can be largely eliminated and depressed, thereby meeting the high-performance requirements of telecommunication applications.

  8. Femtosecond laser micro-machined polyimide films for cell scaffold applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Šimatonis, Linas; Ulčinas, Orestas; Gadeikytė, Aušra; Abakevičienė, Brigita; Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Mikalayeva, Valeryia; Skeberdis, Vytenis Arvydas; Stankevičius, Edgaras; Tamulevičius, Tomas

    2016-12-11

    Engineering of sophisticated synthetic 3D scaffolds that allow controlling behavior and location of the cells requires advanced micro/nano fabrication techniques. Ultrafast laser micro-machining employing a 1030 nm wavelength Yb:KGW femtosecond laser and a micro-fabrication workstation for micro-machining of commercially available 12.7 and 25.4 µm thickness polyimide (PI) film was applied. Mechanical properties of the fabricated scaffolds, i.e., arrays of differently spaced holes, were examined via custom-built uniaxial micro-tensile testing and finite element method simulations. We demonstrate that experimental micro-tensile testing results could be numerically simulated and explained by 2-material model, assuming that 2-6 µm width rings around the holes possessed up to 5 times higher Young's modulus and yield stress compared with the rest of the laser intacted PI film areas of "dog-bone" shaped specimens. That was attributed to material modification around the micro-machined holes in the vicinity of the position of the focused laser beam track during trepanning drilling. We demonstrate that virgin PI films provide a suitable environment for the mobility, proliferation, and intercellular communication of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and discuss how cell behavior varies on the micro-machined PI films with holes of different diameters (3.1, 8.4, and 16.7 µm) and hole spacing (30, 35, 40, and 45 µm). We conclude that the holes of 3.1 µm diameter were sufficient for metabolic and genetic communication through membranous tunneling tubes between cells residing on the opposite sides of PI film but prevented the trans-migration of cells through the holes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, J. M.; Budde, M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensen, J. P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.

    2016-09-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  10. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, J.M., E-mail: jmkr@danfysik.dk [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Budde, M.; Bødker, F. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Irman, A.; Jochmann, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Kristensen, J.P. [Danfysik A/S, Gregersensvej 8, 2630 Taastrup (Denmark); Lehnert, U.; Michel, P. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Schramm, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstrasse 400, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-09-11

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and divergences of about 10 mrad using the FFS.

  11. Electron beam final focus system for Thomson scattering at ELBE

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødker, F.; Irman, A.; .Jochmann A.; Kristensen, J.P.; Lehnert U., HZDR; Michel, P.; Schrammb, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  12. Electron Beam Final Focus System For Thomson Scattering At Elbe

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, J.M.; Bødkera, F.; Irman, A.; Jochmann, A.; Kristensena, J.P.; Lehnert, U.; Michel, P.; Schramm, U.; 10.1016/j.nima.2015.10.067

    2016-01-01

    The design of an electron beam final focus system (FFS) aiming for high-flux laser-Thomson backscattering X-ray sources at ELBE is presented. A telescope system consisting of four permanent magnet based quadrupoles was found to have significantly less chromatic aberrations than a quadrupole doublet or triplet as commonly used. Focusing properties like the position of the focal plane and the spot size are retained for electron beam energies between 20 and 30 MeV by adjusting the position of the quadrupoles individually on a motorized stage. The desired ultra-short electron bunches require an increased relative energy spread up to a few percent and, thus, second order chromatic effects must be taken into account. We also present the design and test results of the permanent magnet quadrupoles. Adjustable shunts allow for correction of the field strength and compensation of deviations in the permanent magnet material. For a beam emittance of 13 mm mrad, we predict focal spot sizes of about 40 μm (rms) and diverg...

  13. Electronics and Calibration system for the CMS Beam Halo Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Nicolo

    2014-01-01

    In the context of increasing luminosity of LHC, it will be important to accurately measure the Machine Induced Background. A new monitoring system will be installed in the CMS cavern for measuring the beam background at high radius. This detector is composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators, coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMT). The readout chain of this detector will make use of many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadron Calorimeter electronics, with a dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal will be digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing.The backend electronics will record bunch-by-bunch histograms, which will be published to CMS and the LHC using the newly designed CMS beam instrumentation specific DAQ. A calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the sys...

  14. The Ultimate Beam in the LHC 400 MHz RF System

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, J

    2010-01-01

    Recently proposals were made to run LHC with beam currents considerably higher than the so-called ultimate one, since other machines have already operated with even higher beam currents. It seems that it was not generally known that this would require a complete replacement of the RF system, especially the expensive high-power part, probably including the couplers and matched cavities. In this context it was underlined that – apparently also not generally known – already the ultimate current in LHC requires serious upgrades of the (much less expensive) RF system’s low-level part. This caused then doubts on the feasibility of the ultimate current in some people. To clarify the situation, in the present paper we present the facts and try to show the reasons behind in a way understandable also for non-RF specialists.

  15. Latest Beam Test Results from ATF2 with the Font ILC Prototype Intra-train Beam Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Burrows, Philip; Christian, Glenn; Constance, Ben; Dabiri Khah, Hamid; Perry, Colin; Resta Lopez, Javier; Swinson, Christina

    2010-01-01

    We present the design and beam test results of a prototype beam-based digital feedback system for the Interaction Point of the International Linear Collider. A custom analogue front-end signal processor, FPGA-based digital signal processing boards, and kicker drive amplifier have been designed, built, deployed and tested with beam in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF2). The system was used to provide orbit correction to the train of bunches extracted from the ATF damping ring. The latency was measured to be approximately 140 ns.

  16. Size Reduction of Tunable Micromachined Filters for High Speed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki; Hino; Takeru; Amano; Wiganes; Janto; Fumio; Koyama

    2003-01-01

    The size reduction of tunable micromachined filters is carried out for high-speed wavelength tuning. We fabricated micromachined filters having a miniature structure with an air gap of 300 run and a short cantilever of 45 urn, exhibiting fast response of below 3 us.

  17. Size Reduction of Tunable Micromachined Filters for High Speed Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki Hino; Takeru Amano; Wiganes Janto; Fumio Koyama

    2003-01-01

    The size reduction of tunable micromachined filters is carried out for high-speed wavelength tuning. We fabricated micromachined filters having a miniature structure with an air gap of 300 nm and a short cantilever of 45 μm, exhibiting fast response of below 3 μs.

  18. Technology and applications of micromachined silicon adaptive mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vdovin, G.; Middelhoek, S.; Sarro, P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The technology of low-cost high-quality micromachined adaptive mirrors is reported. Adaptive mirrors are fabricated by combining bulk silicon micromachining with standard electronics technologies. Mirrors with tens of control channels, having RMS initial deviation from plane of the order of λ/20 and

  19. Advanced technology trend survey of micromachines in Europe; Oshu ni okeru micromachine sentan gijutsu doko chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    In this research survey, the development trend of micromachine technology in Europe was surveyed, development level of micromachine technology of European companies was grasped, and practical application fields of their target were investigated. Technology development level of private companies in Japan`s national projects and practical application fields of Japan`s target were arranged. Trends of micromachine technology development are compared between Japanese companies and European companies. Among micromachine technology development projects in Europe, ``8520 MUST`` is a part of the ESPRIT Project. About 40,000 companies among about 170,000 companies in whole Europe are relating to the MUST Project. The main fields include the manufacturing technology, process control of machines, technology of safety, sensor technology in environmental fields, and automotive technology. The marketing fields of application include the automobile, military technology, home automation, industrial process, medical technology, environmental technology, and games. The results can be compared with the direction of research and development in Japan. 22 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Propagation Effect of Hollow Gaussian Beams Passing through a Misaligned Optical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cheng-Liang; WANG Li-Gang; LU Xuan-Hui; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A generalized formula of hollow Gaussian beams through the first-order misaligned ABCD systems is derived by using the generalized diffraction integral formula. It is shown that the hollow Gaussian beam passing through the misaligned system becomes a decentred hollow Gaussian beam. The propagation properties of the output beam are investigated when it propagates through a simple misaligned lens system. These results provide a powerful theoretical tool for applications of optical traps.

  1. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  2. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  3. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  4. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  5. Condition monitoring for a neutral beam injector cryopumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, N., E-mail: n.wright@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Dixon, R., E-mail: r.dixon@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Verhoeven, R., E-mail: roel.verhoeven@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The development of a cryopumping condition monitoring scheme is presented. ► A residual generation scheme is used to detect two faults. ► Kalman filtering is used to generate the residuals. ► A filtering and voting arrangement is used to evaluate the residuals. ► A non-linear simulation model is used to verify the scheme. -- Abstract: For neutral beam injection systems, the maintenance of a vacuum inside the injector box is essential for normal operation. Cryogenic pumping systems are often used to create and maintain this vacuum. Cryogenic pumping systems have been deployed on the neutral beam heating systems supporting the Joint European Torus. With these as a target application, the development of a condition monitoring scheme is presented. The scheme uses a residual generation approach. A bank of Kalman filters is used to estimate measured process variables. A residual evaluator is used to map residual signals onto a set of faults. Two example faults are simulated to demonstrate the response of the scheme. This paper contributes to the wider fusion development programme by demonstrating how a contemporary condition monitoring technique can be applied to a fusion support system, in order to improve its availability.

  6. Dynamic simulation and efficiency analysis of beam pumping system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢明明; 董世民; 童志雄; 田然凤; 陈慧玲

    2015-01-01

    An improved whole model of beam pumping system was built. In the detail, for surface transmission system (STS), a new mathematical model was established considering the influence of some factors on the STS’s torsional vibration, such as the time variation characteristic of equivalent stiffness of belt and equivalent rotational inertia of crank. For the sucker rod string (SRS), an improved mathematical model was built considering the influence of some parameters on the SRS’s longitudinal vibration, such as the nonlinear friction of plunger, hydraulic loss of pump and clearance leakage. The dynamic response and system efficiency of whole system were analyzed. The results show that there is a jumping phenomenon in the amplitude frequency curve, and the system.

  7. Micromachined Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lerou, Pieter-Paul Patrick Maurits

    2007-01-01

    Cooling of electronic circuitry to very low temperatures can improve the signal-to-noise ratio and bandwidth of a system. In many cases the system, which is to be cooled, is very small so an accompanying small cooler would be obvious. This thesis describes the research performed in designing, optimi

  8. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Li, Huawei; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-10-01

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  9. Laser micromachined wax-covered plastic paper as both sputter deposition shadow masks and deep-ultraviolet patterning masks for polymethylmethacrylate-based microfluidic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2013-12-16

    We report a technically innovative method of fabricating masks for both deep-ultraviolet (UV) patterning and metal sputtering on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) for microfluidic systems. We used a CO2 laser system to cut the required patterns on wax-covered plastic paper; the laser-patterned wax paper will either work as a mask for deep-UV patterning or as a mask for metal sputtering. A microfluidic device was also fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. The device has two layers: the first layer is a 1-mm thick PMMA substrate that was patterned by deep-UV exposure to create microchannels. The mask used in this process was the laser-cut wax paper. The second layer, also a 1-mm thick PMMA layer, was gold sputtered with patterned wax paper as the shadow mask. These two pieces of PMMA were then bonded to form microchannels with exposed electrodes. This process is a simple and rapid method for creating integrated microfluidic systems that do not require cleanroom facilities.

  10. A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror for large aperture laser applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Haiqing Chen; Hongbin Yu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A novel hybrid surface micromachined segmented mirror array is described. This device is capable of scaling to large apertures for correcting time-varying aberrations in laser applications. Each mirror is composed of bottom electrode, support part, and mirror plate, in which a T-shaped beam structure is used to support the mirror plate. It can provide mirror with vertical movement and rotation around two horizontal axes. The test results show that the maximum deflection along the vertical direction of the mirror plate is 2μm, while the rotation angles around x and y axes are ±2.3° and ±1.45°, respectively.

  11. Beam Switching Cylindrical Array Antenna System for Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Misra

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available The beam switching cylindrical array, which is a unique system, has been designed and developed to cover 360° in azimuth plane by generating 16 beams with specified elevation coverage.In this design, the concept of fast aperture selection (4 x 4 in microseconds from the total cylindrical array has been realised successfully to meet the requirement of point-to-multipoint communication. The components of the array, viz., radiating elements, powder dividers, switches, etc., are designed in printed circuit type, and hence, objectives of lightweight and ease of reproducibility are achieved. The lightweight of the array makes it accessible for easy mounting at a specified height for achieving longer communication range. Finally, a low-loss radome is incorporated to protect the array from environmental conditions. The various parameters, viz., return loss, gain, and switched-beam radiation patterns were measured over a bandwidth of 300 MHz in L- band and typical measured results are presented in this paper.

  12. Beam Pipe HOM Absorber for 750 MHz RF Cavity Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland; Neubauer, Michael

    2014-10-29

    This joint project of Muons, Inc., Cornell University and SLAC was supported by a Phase I and Phase II grant monitored by the SBIR Office of Science of the DOE. Beam line HOM absorbers are a critical part of future linear colliders. The use of lossy materials at cryogenic temperatures has been incorporated in several systems. The design in beam pipes requires cylinders of lossy material mechanically confined in such a way as to absorb the microwave energy from the higher-order modes and remove the heat generated in the lossy material. Furthermore, the potential for charge build-up on the surface of the lossy material requires the conductivity of the material to remain consistent from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this program a mechanical design was developed that solved several design constraints: a) fitting into the existing Cornell load vacuum component, b) allowing the use of different material compositions, c) a thermal design that relied upon the compression of the lossy ceramic material without adding stress. Coating experiments were performed that indicated the design constraints needed to fully implement this approach for solving the charge build-up problem inherent in using lossy ceramics. In addition, the ACE3P program, used to calculate the performance of lossy cylinders in beam pipes in general, was supported by this project. Code development and documentation to allow for the more wide spread use of the program was a direct result of this project was well.

  13. Silicon Micromachined Sensor for Broadband Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Adolfo; Edmans, Daniel; Cormeau, Chris; Seidler, Gernot; Deangelis, Dave; Maby, Edward

    1995-01-01

    The development of a family of silicon based integrated vibration sensors capable of sensing mechanical resonances over a broad range of frequencies with minimal signal processing requirements is presented. Two basic general embodiments of the concept were designed and fabricated. The first design was structured around an array of cantilever beams and fabricated using the ARPA sponsored multi-user MEMS processing system (MUMPS) process at the Microelectronics Center of North Carolina (MCNC). As part of the design process for this first sensor, a comprehensive finite elements analysis of the resonant modes and stress distribution was performed using PATRAN. The dependence of strain distribution and resonant frequency response as a function of Young's modulus in the Poly-Si structural material was studied. Analytical models were also studied. In-house experimental characterization using optical interferometry techniques were performed under controlled low pressure conditions. A second design, intended to operate in a non-resonant mode and capable of broadband frequency response, was proposed and developed around the concept of a cantilever beam integrated with a feedback control loop to produce a null mode vibration sensor. A proprietary process was used to integrat a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) sensing device, with actuators and a cantilever beam, as part of a compatible process. Both devices, once incorporated as part of multifunction data acquisition and telemetry systems will constitute a useful system for NASA launch vibration monitoring operations. Satellite and other space structures can benefit from the sensor for mechanical condition monitoring functions.

  14. Radiation monitoring and beam dump system of the OPAL silicon microvertex detector

    CERN Document Server

    Braibant, S

    1997-01-01

    The OPAL microvertex silicon detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system is described. This system was designed and implemented in order to measure the radiation dose received at every beam crossing and to induce a fast beam dump if the radiation dose exceeds a given threshold.

  15. Experimental Investigation on Complex Structures Machining by Electrochemical Micromachining Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yong; Zhu Di; Zeng Yongbin; Huang Shaofu; Yu Hongbing

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical micromachining(EMM)technology for fabricating micro structures is presented in this article.By applying ultra short pulses,dissolution of a workpiece can be restricted to the region very close to the electrode.First,an EMM system for meeting the requirements of the EMM process is established.Second,sets of experiments is carried out to investigate the influence of some of the predominant electrochemical process parameters such as electrical parameters,feed rate,electrode geometry features and electrolyte composition on machining quality,especially the influences of pulse on time on shape precision and working end shape of electrode on machined surface quality.Finally,after the preliminary experiments,a complex microstructure with good shape precision and surface quality is successfully obtained.

  16. Dynamical modeling and characterization of a surface micromachined microengine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.L.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The practical implementation of the surface micromachined microengine [1,2] to perform useful microactuation tasks requires a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the engine. This understanding is necessary in order to create appropriate drive signals, and to experimentally measure fundamental quantities associated with the engine system. We have developed and applied a dynamical model of the microengine and used it to accomplish three objectives: (1) drive inertial loads in a controlled fashion, i.e. specify and achieve a desired time dependent angular position of the output gear,( 2) minimize stress and frictional forces during operation, and (3) as a function of time, experimentally determine forces associated with the output gear, such as the load torque being applied to the output gear due to friction.

  17. Programmable Beam Spatial Shaping System for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heebner, J; Borden, M; Miller, P; Hunter, S; Christensen, K; Scanlan, M; Haynam, C; Wegner, P; Hermann, M; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Awwal, A; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Wong, N; Seppala, L; Franks, M; Marley, E; Williams, K; Budge, T; Henesian, M; Stolz, C; Suratwala, T; Monticelli, M; Walmer, D; Dixit, S; Widmayer, C; Wolfe, J; Bude, J; McCarty, K; DiNicola, J M

    2011-01-21

    A system of customized spatial light modulators has been installed onto the front end of the laser system at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The devices are capable of shaping the beam profile at a low-fluence relay plane upstream of the amplifier chain. Their primary function is to introduce 'blocker' obscurations at programmed locations within the beam profile. These obscurations are positioned to shadow small, isolated flaws on downstream optical components that might otherwise limit the system operating energy. The modulators were designed to enable a drop-in retrofit of each of the 48 existing Pre Amplifier Modules (PAMs) without compromising their original performance specifications. This was accomplished by use of transmissive Optically Addressable Light Valves (OALV) based on a Bismuth Silicon Oxide photoconductive layer in series with a twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer. These Programmable Spatial Shaper packages in combination with a flaw inspection system and optic registration strategy have provided a robust approach for extending the operational lifetime of high fluence laser optics on NIF.

  18. Medium and high energy electron beam processing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki [Nissin-High Voltage Co., Ltd., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Electron Beam Processing System (EPS) is a useful and powerful tool for industrial irradiation process. The specification of EPS is decided by consideration to irradiate what material with how thick and wide, how much dose, how to handle, in what atmosphere. In designing an EPS, it is necessary to consider safety measure such as x-ray shielding, ozone control and interlock system. The initial costs to install typical EPS are estimated for acceleration voltages from 500 kV to 5 MV, including following items; those are electron beam machine, x-ray shielding, auxiliary equipment, material handling, survey for installation, ozone exhaust duct, cooling water system, wiring and piping. These prices are reference only because the price should be changed for each case. The price of x-ray shielding should be changed by construction cost. Auxiliary equipment includes window, cooling blower, ozone exhaust blower and SF6 gas handling equipment. In installation work at site, actual workers of 3 - 4 persons for 2 months are necessary. Material handling system is considered only rolls provided in the shielding room as reference. In addition to the initial installation, operators and workers may be required to wear a personal radiation monitor. An x-ray monitor of suitable design should be installed outside the shield room to monitor x-ray level in the working area. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  20. The LHC beam loss monitoring system commissioning for 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Chery, C; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Grishin, S; Hajdu, C F; Holzer, E B; Jackson, S; Kurfuerst, C; Marsili, A; Nordt, A; Sapinski, M; Tissier, R; Venturini, G G

    2010-01-01

    The LHC Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is one of the most complex instrumentation systems deployed in the LHC. In addition to protecting the collider, the system also needs to provide a means of diagnosing machine faults and deliver feedback of the losses to the control room as well as to several systems for their setup and analysis. It has to transmit and process signals from approximately 4’000 monitors, and has nearly 3 million configurable parameters. This paper will discuss its performance and ability to provide the expected measurements, the problems encountered and necessary improvements, the adequacy of related software and databases, and in general its readiness and suitability for 3.5 TeV operation.

  1. A metrology system for a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Hinton, Shantell; Honda, Yosuke; Khainovski, Oleg; Kolomensky, Yury; Loscutoff, Peter; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2013-11-01

    International Linear Collider (ILC) interaction region beam sizes and component position stability requirements will likely be as small as a few nanometers. It is important to the ILC design effort to demonstrate that these tolerances can be achieved-ideally using a beam-based stability measurement. We developed a high resolution RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. A triplet of these BPMs, installed in the extraction line of the KEK Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) and tested with its ultra-low emittance beam, achieved a position measurement resolution of 15 nm. A metrology system for the three BPMs was subsequently installed. This system employed optical encoders to measure each BPM's position and orientation relative to a zero-coefficient of thermal expansion carbon fiber frame. We have demonstrated that the three BPMs behave as a rigid-body at the level of less than 5 nm.

  2. Propagation of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈迪; 蔡阳健; 林强

    2005-01-01

    By use of a tensor method, the transform formulae for the beam coherence-polarization matrix of the partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems are derived. As an example, the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beam passing through a misaligned thin lens are illustrated numerically and discussed in detail. The derived formulae provide a convenient way to study the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems.

  3. Novel in situ mechanical testers to enable integrated metal surface micro-machines.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follstaedt, David Martin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Kotula, Paul Gabriel; Hearne, Sean Joseph; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Buchheit, Thomas Edward; Dyck, Christopher William

    2005-10-01

    The ability to integrate metal and semiconductor micro-systems to perform highly complex functions, such as RF-MEMS, will depend on developing freestanding metal structures that offer improved conductivity, reflectivity, and mechanical properties. Three issues have prevented the proliferation of these systems: (1) warpage of active components due to through-thickness stress gradients, (2) limited component lifetimes due to fatigue, and (3) low yield strength. To address these issues, we focus on developing and implementing techniques to enable the direct study of the stress and microstructural evolution during electrodeposition and mechanical loading. The study of stress during electrodeposition of metal thin films is being accomplished by integrating a multi-beam optical stress sensor into an electrodeposition chamber. By coupling the in-situ stress information with ex-situ microstructural analysis, a scientific understanding of the sources of stress during electrodeposition will be obtained. These results are providing a foundation upon which to develop a stress-gradient-free thin film directly applicable to the production of freestanding metal structures. The issues of fatigue and yield strength are being addressed by developing novel surface micromachined tensile and bend testers, by interferometry, and by TEM analysis. The MEMS tensile tester has a ''Bosch'' etched hole to allow for direct viewing of the microstructure in a TEM before, during, and after loading. This approach allows for the quantitative measurements of stress-strain relations while imaging dislocation motion, and determination of fracture nucleation in samples with well-known fatigue/strain histories. This technique facilitates the determination of the limits for classical deformation mechanisms and helps to formulate a new understanding of the mechanical response as the grain sizes are refined to a nanometer scale. Together, these studies will result in a science

  4. Control System of Neutral Beam Injection on HT-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yongjun; Hu Chundong; Liu Zhimin; Liu Sheng; Song Shihua; Yang Daoye

    2005-01-01

    Neutral Beam Injection control system (NBICS) is constructed to measure the plasma current, Magnet current, vacuum pressure, cryopump temperature, control water cooling, filament voltage, and power supply, etc. The NBICS, consisting mainly of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) subsystem, data acquisition and processing subsystem and cryopump and vacuum pressure monitoring subsystem, has successfully been used on a NBI device. In this article, the design of NBICS on HT-7 is discussed and each subsystem is described in particular.In addition, some experimental results are reported which are very important data for further research related to the HT-7 tokamak.

  5. Tuning of the Compact Linear Collider Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, H; Inntjore Levinsen, Y; Latina, A; Tomas, R; Snuverink, J

    2014-01-01

    Tuning the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) BeamDelivery System (BDS), and in particular the Final Focus (FF), is a challenging task. In simulations without misalignments, the goal is to reach 120%o f the nominal luminosity target, in order to allow for 10% loss due to static imperfections, and another 10% loss from dynamic imperfections. Various approaches have been considered to correct the magnet misalignments, including 1-1 correction, Dispersion Free Steering (DFS), and several minimization methods utilizing multipole movers. In this paper we report on the recent advancements towards a feasible tuning approach that reaches the required luminosity target.

  6. The effect of object shape and laser beam shape on lidar system resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongchang; Wang, Jingyi; Ke, Jun

    2016-06-01

    In a LIDAR system, a pulsed laser beam is propagated to a scene, and then reflected back by objects. Ideally if the beam diameter and the pulse width are close to zero, then the reflected beam in time domain is similar to a delta function, which can accurately locate an object's position. However, in a practical system, the beam has finite size. Therefore, even if the pulse width is small, an object shape will make the reflected beam stretched along the time axis, then affect system resolution. In this paper, we assume the beam with Gaussian shape. The beam can be formulated as a delta function convolved with a shape function, such as a rectangular function, in time domain. Then the reflected beam can be defined as a system response function convolved with the shape function. We use symmetric objects to analyze the reflected beam. Corn, sphere, and cylinder objects are used to find a LIDAR system's response function. The case for large beam size is discussed. We assume the beam shape is similar to a plane wave. With this assumption, we get the simplified LIDAR system response functions for the three kinds of objects. Then we use tiny spheres to emulate an arbitrary object, and study its effect to the returned beam.

  7. Free vibrations of a multi-span Timoshenko beam carrying multiple spring-mass systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yusuf Yesilce; Oktay Demirdag; Seval Catal

    2008-08-01

    Structural elements supporting motors or engines are frequently seen in technological applications. The operation of a machine may introduce additional dynamic stresses on the beam. It is important, then, to know the natural frequencies of the coupled beam-mass system, in order to obtain a proper design of the structural elements. The literature regarding the free vibration analysis of Bernoulli–Euler single-span beams carrying a number of spring-mass system and Bernoulli–Euler multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems are plenty, but on Timoshenko multi-span beams carrying multiple spring-mass systems is fewer. This paper aims at determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a Timoshenko multi-span beam. The model allows to analyse the influence of the shear effect and spring-mass systems on the dynamic behaviour of the beams by using Timoshenko Beam Theory (TBT). The effects of attached spring-mass systems on the free vibration characteristics of the 1–4 span beams are studied. The natural frequencies of Timoshenko multi-span beam calculated by using secant method for non-trivial solution are compared with the natural frequencies of multi-span beam calculated by using Bernoulli–Euler Beam Theory (EBT) in literature; the mode shapes are presented in graphs.

  8. A Radio System for Avoiding Illuminating Aircraft with a Laser Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, W A; Melser, J F; Tu, J K; White, G A; Kassabian, K H; Bales, K; Baumgartner, B B

    2009-01-01

    When scientific experiments require transmission of powerful laser or radio beams through the atmosphere the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requires that precautions be taken to avoid inadvertent illumination of aircraft. Here we describe a highly reliable system for detecting aircraft entering the vicinity of a laser beam by making use of the Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponders required on most aircraft. This system uses two antennas, both aligned with the laser beam. One antenna has a broad beam and the other has a narrow beam. The ratio of the transponder power received in the narrow beam to that received in the broad beam gives a measure of the angular distance of the aircraft from the axis that is independent of the range or the transmitter power. This ratio is easily measured and can be used to shutter the laser when the aircraft is too close to the beam. Prototype systems operating on astronomical telescopes have produced good results.

  9. CERN Vacuum-System Activities during the Long Shutdown 1: The LHC Beam Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Baglin, V; Chiggiato, P; Jimenez, JM; Lanza, G

    2014-01-01

    After the Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) and the consolidation of the magnet bus bars, the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will operate with nominal beam parameters. Larger beam energy, beam intensities and luminosity are expected. Despite the very good performance of the beam vacuum system during the 2010-12 physics run (Run 1), some particular areas require attention for repair, consolidation and upgrade. Among the main activities, a large campaign aiming at the repair of the RF bridges of some vacuum modules is conducted. Moreover, consolidation of the cryogenic beam vacuum systems with burst disk for safety reasons is implemented. In addition, NEG cartridges, NEG coated inserts and new instruments for the vacuum system upgrade are installed. Besides these activities, repair, consolidation and upgrades of other beam equipment such as collimators, kickers and beam instrumentations are carried out. In this paper, the motivation and the description for such activities, together with the expected beam vacuum performa...

  10. Two-Pipe Chilled Beam System for Both Cooling and Heating of Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Gordnorouzi, Rouzbeh; Hultmark, Göran;

    2013-01-01

    advantage of renewable energy. The results showed that the energy consumption was 3% less in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the conventional 4-pipe system when moving cooled and heated water through the building, transferring the energy to where it is needed. Using free cooling (taking...... consumption and hence energy savings in the 2-pipe chilled beam system in comparison with the 4-pipe system. The 2-pipe chilled beam system used high temperature cooling and low temperature heating with a water temperature of 20°C to 23°C, available for free most of the year. The system can thus take......Simulations were performed to compare a conventional 4-pipe chilled beam system and a 2-pipe chilled beam system. The objective was to establish requirements, possibilities and limitations for a well-functioning 2-pipe chilled beam system for both cooling and heating of office buildings...

  11. Development of high current beam ns pulsed system

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; Guan Xia Ling; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The development of high current beam ns pulsed system of CPNG and its characteristic, main technological performance and application are introduced. Firstly, important parameters of the system are calculated using theoretical model, the design requirements of some important parts are understood. Some mistakes in physics conception are corrected. Second, the chopper is designed for parallel plate deflector, chopping aperture and sine wave voltage sweeping device. It is emphasized that the conception of parallel plate load impedance is the capacitance load, but not the 50 ohm load impedance. The dynamic capacitance value has been measured. The output emphasizes the output voltage amplitude, but not the output power for sweeping device. The display system of output sweeping voltage was set up and it is sure that the maximum output voltage(V-V) is >=4000 V. The klystron buncher are re-designed. It is emphasized to overcome difficulty of support high voltage electrode in the klystron and insulator of input sine wa...

  12. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kelly

    1991-01-01

    A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes. An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis. The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis.

  13. Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G William Foster et al.

    2004-07-09

    A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

  14. Friction in surface micromachined microengines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.L.; Sniegowski, J.J.; LaVigne, G.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1996-03-01

    Understanding the frictional properties of advanced Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is essential in order to develop optimized designs and fabrication processes, as well as to qualify devices for commercial applications. We develop and demonstrate a method to experimentally measure the forces associated with sliding friction of devices rotating on a hub. The method is demonstrated on the rotating output gear of the microengine recently developed at Sandia National Laboratories. In-situ measurements of an engine running at 18300 rpm give a coefficient of friction of 0.5 for radial (normal) forces less than 4 {mu}N. For larger forces the effective coefficient of friction abruptly increases, suggesting a fundamental change in the basic nature of the interaction between the gear and hub. The experimental approach we have developed to measure the frictional forces associated with the microengine is generically applicable to other MEMS devices.

  15. Solder self-assembled, surface micromachined MEMS for micromirror applications and atom trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Brian

    Solder self-assembly can be used to expand the versatility of a commercial foundry, like MEMSCAP's PolyMUMPs process. These foundries are attractive for prototyping MEMS as they can offer consistent, low cost fabrication runs by sticking to a single process and integrating multiple customers on each wafer. However, this standardization limits the utility of the process for a given application. Solder self-assembly gives back some of this versatility and expands the envelope of surface micromachining capability in the form of a simple post-process step. Here it is used to create novel micromirrors and micromirror arrays as well as to delve into the field of ultracold atom optics where the utility of MEMS as an enabling technology for atom control is explored. Two types of torsional, electrostatic micromirrors are demonstrated, both of which can achieve +/-10° of rotation. The first is a novel out-of-plane micromirror that can be rotated to a desired angle from the substrate. This integrated, on-chip assembly allows much simpler packaging technology to be used for devices that require a laser beam to be steered off-chip. Planar micromirror arrays that use solder self-assembly to tailor the electrode gap height are also demonstrated. With these designs, no special fabrication techniques are required to achieve large gap heights, and micromirrors with a variety of gap heights can even be fabricated on the same chip. Finally, solder self-assembly is used to explore how complex micro-scale structures can be used to control ultracold atoms. For this study, a MEMS version of a magneto-optical trap, the basis for most ultracold atomic systems, is used to control Rb atoms. In doing so, it provides a path for the successful integration of a number of MEMS devices in these types of systems.

  16. Combining the switched-beam and beam-steering capabilities in a 2-D phased array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Che; Chen, Yin-Bing; Hwang, Ruey-Bing

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the development, fabrication, and measurement of a novel beam-forming system consisting of 16 subarray antennas, each containing four aperture-coupled patch antennas, and the application of this system in smart wireless communication systems. The beam patterns of each of the subarray antennas can be switched toward one of nine zones over a half space by adjusting the specific phase delay angles among the four antenna elements. Furthermore, when all subarrays are pointed at the same zone, slightly continuous beam steering in around 1° increments can be achieved by dynamically altering the progressive phase delay angle among the subarrays. Phase angle calibration was implemented by coupling each transmitter output and down converter into the in-phase/quadrature baseband to calculate the correction factor to the weight. In addition, to validate the proposed concepts and the fabricated 2-D phased array antenna system, this study measured the far-field radiation patterns of the aperture-coupled patch array integrated with feeding networks and a phase-calibration system to carefully verify its spatially switched-beam and beam-steering characteristics at a center frequency of 2.4 GHz which can cover the industrial, scientific, and medical band and some long-term evolution applications. In addition, measured results were compared with calculated results, and agreement between them was observed.

  17. Technologies for Lunar Surface Power Systems Power Beaming and Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzwell, Neville; Pogorzelski, Ronald J.; Chang, Kai; Little, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Wireless power transmission within a given working area is required or enabling for many NASA Exploration Systems. Fields of application include robotics, habitats, autonomous rendezvous and docking, life support, EVA, and many others. In robotics applications, for example, the robots must move in the working area without being hampered by power cables and, meanwhile, obtain a continuous and constant power from a power transmitter. The development of modern technology for transmitting electric power over free space has been studied for several decades, but its use in a system has been mainly limited to low power, 1-2 Vdc output voltage at a transmission distance of few meters for which relatively less than 0.5 mW/cm2 is required (e.g., Radio frequency identification RFID). Most of the rectenna conversion efficiency research to date has concentrated in low GHz frequency range of 2.45 to 10 GHz, with some work at 35 GHz. However, for space application, atmospheric adsorbtion is irrelevant and higher frequency systems with smaller transmit and receive apertures may be appropriate. For high power, most of the work on rectennas has concentrated on optimizing the conversion efficiency of the microwave rectifier element; the highest power demonstrated was 35 kW of power over a distance of 1.5 km. The objective of this paper is to establish the manner in which a very large number of very low power microwave devices can be synchronized to provide a beam of microwaves that can be used to efficiently and safely transport a significant amount of power to a remote location where it can be converted to dc (or ac) power by a ``rectenna.'' The proposed system is based on spatial power combining of the outputs of a large number of devices synchronized by mutual injection locking. We have demonstrated at JPL that such power could be achieved by combining 25 sources in a configuration that allows for convenient steering of the resulting beam of microwaves. Retrodirective beam

  18. Experimental analysis of the steady-state behaviour of beam systems with discontinuous support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of the long-term behaviour of periodically excited linear beams supported by a one-sided spring or an elastic stop. Numerical analysis of the beams showed subharmonic, quasi-periodic and chaotic behaviour. Furthermore, in the beam system with the one-s

  19. The effect of frequency on the lifetime of a surface micromachined microengine driving a load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, D.M.; Miller, W.M.; Eaton, W.P.; Irwin, L.W.; Peterson, K.A.; Dugger, M.T.; Senft, D.C.; Smith, N.F.; Tangyunyong, P.; Miller, S.L.

    1998-03-01

    Experiments have been performed on surface micromachined microengines driving load gears to determine the effect of the rotation frequency on median cycles to failure. The authors did observe a frequency dependence and have developed a model based on fundamental wear mechanisms and forces exhibited in resonant mechanical systems. Stressing loaded microengines caused observable wear in the rotating joints and in a few instances led to fracture of the pin joint in the drive gear.

  20. Experimental analysis of beam pointing system based on liquid crystal optical phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yubin; Zhang, Jianmin; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an elementary non-mechanical beam aiming and steering system with a single liquid crystal optical phase array (LC-OPA) and charge-coupled device (CCD). With the conventional method of beam steering control, the LC-OPA device can realize one dimensional beam steering continuously. An improved beam steering strategy is applied to realize two dimensional beam steering with a single LC-OPA. The whole beam aiming and steering system, including an LC-OPA and a retroreflective target, is controlled by the monitor. We test the feasibility of beam steering strategy both in one dimension and in two dimension at first, then the whole system is build up based on the improved strategy. The experimental results show that the max experimental pointing error is 56 μrad, and the average pointing error of the system is 19 μrad.

  1. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  2. The analysis of optical wave beams propagation in lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, I.; Mosentsov, S.; Moskaletz, O.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper some aspects of the formation and propagation of optical wave beams in lens systems were considered. As an example, the two-lens optical information processing system was considered. Analysis of the two-lens optical circuit has been made with a systems approach perspective. As part of the radio-optical analogies had been applied certain provisions of the theory of dynamical systems to the spatial optical system. The lens system is represented as a simple series-connected optical elements with known spatial impulse response. General impulse response of such a system has been received, as well as consider some special cases of the impulse response. The question of the relationship between the parameters and the size of the input aperture lenses for undistorted transmission of the optical signal has been considered. Analysis of the energy loss resulting from the finite aperture of the lens. It's based on an assessment of the fraction of radiation that propagates beyond the lens. Analysis showed that the energy losses depend explicitly on the following parameters: radiation wavelength, distance between input aperture and lens, and ratio of the input aperture and lens aperture. With the computer help simulation the dependence of losses was shown on the above parameters

  3. Quasi-optical ECRH beam system for MFTF-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.; Krause, K.H.; Berkey, J.H.; Fong, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    Multiple frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is required in the anchor regions of MFTF-B. The requirement for a high transmission efficiency as well as some aspects of the operating environment make a quasi-optical transmission system attractive (neutron activation and damage of materials, x-rays, rf window coolant leaks, cryogenic temperatures, etc.). A quasi-optical transmission system increases the transmission efficiency and reduces the complexity of the hardware in the vacuum vessel. A beam transmission efficiency of 94 percent through the off-axis, fundamental electron cyclotron resonance position is achieved if the plasma density is limited to n/sub p/ less than 4 x 10/sup 8/ cm/sup -3/. For MFTF-B parameters and ECRH at 28 GHz the electron mean free path for an ionizing collision is 5 x 10/sup 6/ cm so that most electrons will reach the wall prior to producing additional ionization of the background gas.

  4. Artificial intelligence: Collective behaviors of synthetic micromachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao

    Synthetic nano- and micromotors function through the conversion of chemical free energy or forms of energy into mechanical motion. Ever since the first reports, such motors have been the subject of growing interest. In addition to motility in response to gradients, these motors interact with each other, resulting in emergent collective behavior like schooling, exclusion, and predator-prey. However, most of these systems only exhibit a single type of collective behavior in response to a certain stimuli. The research projects in the disseratation aim at designing synthetic micromotors that can exhibit transition between various collective behaviors in response to different stimuli, as well as quantitative understanding on the pairwise interaction and propulsion mechanism of such motors. Chapter 1 offers an overview on development of synthetic micromachines. Interactions and collective behaviors of micromotors are also summarized and included. Chapter 2 presents a silver orthophosphate microparticle system that exhibits collective behaviors. Transition between two collective patterns, clustering and dispersion, can be triggered by shift in chemical equilibrium upon the addition or removal of ammonia, in response to UV light, or under two orthogonal stimuli (UV and acoustic field) and powering mechanisms. The transitions can be explained by the self-diffusiophoresis mechanism resulting from either ionic or neutral solute gradients. Potential applications of the reported system in logic gates, microscale pumping, and hierarchical assembly have been demonstrated. Chapter 3 introduces a self-powered oscillatory micromotor system in which active colloids form clusters whose size changes periodically. The system consists of an aqueous suspension of silver orthophosphate particles under UV radiation, in the presence of a mixture of glucose and hydrogen peroxide. The colloid particles first attract with each other to form clusters. After a lag time of around 5min, chemical

  5. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Lv

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU based on the Internet of Things (IoT was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  6. An Energy Saving System for a Beam Pumping Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hongqiang; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Jiang, An

    2016-05-13

    Beam pumping units are widely used in the oil production industry, but the energy efficiency of this artificial lift machinery is generally low, especially for the low-production well and high-production well in the later stage. There are a number of ways for energy savings in pumping units, with the periodic adjustment of stroke speed and rectification of balance deviation being two important methods. In the paper, an energy saving system for a beam pumping unit (ESS-BPU) based on the Internet of Things (IoT) was proposed. A total of four types of sensors, including load sensor, angle sensor, voltage sensor, and current sensor, were used to detect the operating conditions of the pumping unit. Data from these sensors was fed into a controller installed in an oilfield to adjust the stroke speed automatically and estimate the degree of balance in real-time. Additionally, remote supervision could be fulfilled using a browser on a computer or smartphone. Furthermore, the data from a practical application was recorded and analyzed, and it can be seen that ESS-BPU is helpful in reducing energy loss caused by unnecessarily high stroke speed and a poor degree of balance.

  7. Parametric instabilities in an electron beam plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakach, R.; Cuperman, S.; Gell, Y.; Levush, B.

    1981-08-01

    The excitation of low-frequency parametric instabilities by a finite wavelength pump in a system consisting of a warm electron plasma traversed by a warm electron beam is investigated in a fluid dissipationless model. The dispersion relation for the three-dimensional problem in a magnetized plasma with arbitrary directions for the waves is derived, and the one-dimensional case is analyzed numerically. For the one-dimensional back-scattering decay process, it is found that when the plasma-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup p/) is larger than the beam-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup b/), two low-frequency electrostatic instability branches with different growth rates may exist simultaneously. When lambda/sub D//sup p/approx. =lambda/sub D//sup b/, the large growth rate instability found in the analysis depends strongly on the amplitude of the pump field. For the case lambda/sub D//sup p/

  8. LogAmp electronics and optical transmission for the new SPS beam position measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogey, T.; Deplano, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Savioz, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    A new front-end board is under development for the CERN SPS Multi ORbit Position System (MOPOS). Based on logarithmic amplifiers, it measures the beam position over a large dynamic range of beam intensities and resolves the multi-batch structure of the SPS beams. Analogue data are digitized at 10 MS/s, packed in frames by an FPGA and on every turn sent to the readout board, via a 2.4 Gb/s optical transmission link. A first prototype has been successfully tested with several SPS beams. This paper presents an overall description of the system and its capabilities highlighted by the first beam measurements.

  9. LogAmp electronics and Optical Transmission for the new SPS Beam Position Measurement System

    CERN Document Server

    Deplano, C; Gonzalez, J L; Savioz, J J

    2013-01-01

    A new front-end board is under development for the CERN SPS Multi ORbit Position System (MOPOS). Based on logarithmic amplifiers, it measures the beam position over a large dynamic range of beam intensities and resolves the multi-batch structure of the SPS beams. Analogue data are digitized at 10 MS/s, packed in frames by an FPGA and on every turn sent to the readout board, via a 2.4 Gb/s optical transmission link. A first prototype has been successfully tested with several SPS beams. This paper presents an overall description of the system and its capabilities highlighted by the first beam measurements.

  10. Micromachining of microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate with CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Heng; Chen, Tao; Yao, Liying; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2009-05-01

    Low-power CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation was used to micromachine a microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate in this work. The influence of the process parameters (the laser power, the moving velocity of the laser beam and the scanning times) on the micromachining quality (the depth, the width and their aspect ratio) of the microchannel was experimentally studied. The depth and width of microchannel both increase with the increase of the laser power and the decrease of the moving velocity of the laser beam. When higher laser power and slower moving velocity were used, the polycarbonate surface bore more heat irradiated from the CO 2 laser for longer time which results in the formation of deeper and wider molten pool, hence the ability to fabricate bigger microchannel. Because of the effect of the laser power on the depth and width of microchannels, higher aspect (depth/width) ratio could be achieved using slower moving velocity and higher laser power, and it would reach a steady state when the laser power increases to 9.0 W possibly caused by the effect of laser power on the different directions of microchannel. The polycarbonate-polycarbonate chip was bonded with hot-press bonding technique.

  11. Design, fabrication and levitation experiments of a micromachined electrostatically suspended six-axis accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Liu, Wu; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhang, Weiping; Wu, Xiaosheng

    2011-01-01

    A micromachined electrostatically suspended six-axis accelerometer, with a square plate as proof mass housed by a top stator and bottom stator, is presented. The device structure and related techniques concerning its operating principles, such as calculation of capacitances and electrostatic forces/moments, detection and levitation control of the proof mass, acceleration measurement, and structural parameters design, are described. Hybrid MEMS manufacturing techniques, including surface micromachining fabrication of thin film electrodes and interconnections, integration fabrication of thick nickel structures about 500 μm using UV-LIGA by successful removal of SU-8 photoresist mold, DRIE of silicon proof mass in thickness of 450 μm, microassembly and solder bonding, were employed to fabricate this prototype microdevice. A levitation experiment system for the fabricated microaccelerometer chip is introduced, and levitation results show that fast initial levitation within 10 ms and stable full suspension of the proof mass have been successfully demonstrated.

  12. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design. Final vesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D{sup {minus}} source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus.

  13. Secondary particle acquisition system for the CERN beam wire scanners upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Sirvent, J L; Emery, J; Diéguez, A

    2015-01-01

    The increasing requirements of CERN experiments make essential the upgrade of beam instrumentation in general, and high accuracy beam profile monitors in particular. The CERN Beam Instrumentation Group has been working during the last years on the Wire Scanners upgrade. These systems cross a thin wire through a circulating beam, the resulting secondary particles produced from beam/wire interaction are detected to reconstruct the beam profile. For the new secondary shower acquisition system, it is necessary to perform very low noise measurements with high dynamic range coverage. The aim is to design a system without tuneable parameters and compatible for any beam wire scanner location at the CERN complex. Polycrystalline chemical vapour deposition diamond detectors (pCVD) are proposed as new detectors for this application because of their radiation hardness, fast response and linearity over a high dynamic range. For the detector readout, the acquisition electronics must be designed to exploit the detector capa...

  14. Improved hollow-core photonic crystal fiber design for delivery of nanosecond pulses in laser micromachining applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Jonathan D; Couny, Francois; Russell, Phillip St J; Jones, Julian D C; Knight, Jonathan C; Hand, Duncan P

    2005-07-20

    We report the delivery of high-energy nanosecond pulses (approximately 65 ns pulse width) from a high-repetition-rate (up to 100 kHz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser through the fundamental mode of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at 1064 nm. The guided mode in the HC-PCF has a low overlap with the glass, allowing delivery of pulses with energies above those attainable with other fibers. Energies greater than 0.5 mJ were delivered in a single spatial mode through the hollow-core fiber, providing the pulse energy and high beam quality required for micromachining of metals. Practical micromachining of a metal sheet by fiber delivery has been demonstrated.

  15. Micromachined Integrated Transducers for Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding

    The purpose of this project is to develop capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) for medical imaging. Medical ultrasound transducers used today are fabricated using piezoelectric materials and bulk processing. To fabricate transducers capable of delivering a higher imaging...... project and collaboration with a lot of partners to improve medical ultrasound imaging. The focus in this part of the project is to design, fabricate and characterize 1D CMUT arrays. Two versions of 1D transducers are made, one at Stanford University and one at DTU. Electrical and acoustical...... resolution it is however necessary to develop new fabrication methods that allows fabrication of transducer elements with smaller dimensions. By using microfabrication technology it is possible to push the dimensions down and provide higher design flexibility. This project is part of a large ultrasound...

  16. Integration of Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasound Transducers to Microfluidic Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Viržonis, Darius

    2013-10-22

    The design and manufacturing flexibility of capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUT) makes them attractive option for integration with microfluidic devices both for sensing and fluid manipulation. CMUT concept is introduced here by presentin

  17. Surface Micromachined Arrays of Transition-Edge Detectors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative surface micromachining technique is described for the fabrication of closely-packed arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) x-ray microcalorimeters....

  18. Datapath system for multiple electron beam lithography systems using image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeehong; Savari, Serap A.; Harris, H. Rusty

    2013-07-01

    The datapath throughput of electron beam lithography systems can be improved by applying lossless image compression to the layout images and using an electron beam writer that contains a decoding circuit packed in single silicon to decode the compressed image on-the-fly. In our past research, we had introduced Corner2, a lossless layout image compression algorithm that achieved significantly better performance in compression ratio, encoding/decoding speed, and decoder memory requirement than Block C4. However, it assumed a somewhat different writing strategy from those currently suggested by multiple electron beam (MEB) system designers. The Corner2 algorithm is modified so that it can support the writing strategy of an MEB system.

  19. Fiber laser micromachining of magnesium alloy tubes for biocompatible and biodegradable cardiovascular stents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ali Gökhan; Previtali, Barbara; Colombo, Daniele; Ge, Qiang; Vedani, Maurizio; Petrini, Lorenza; Wu, Wei; Biffi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Magnesium alloys constitute an attractive solution for cardiovascular stent applications due to their intrinsic properties of biocompatibility and relatively low corrosion resistance in human-body fluids, which results in as a less intrusive treatment. Laser micromachining is the conventional process used to cut the stent mesh, which plays the key role for the accurate reproduction of the mesh design and the surface quality of the produced stent that are important factors in ensuring the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of such a kind of devices. Traditionally continuous or pulsed laser systems working in microsecond pulse regime are employed for stent manufacturing. Pulsed fiber lasers on the other hand, are a relatively new solution which could balance productivity and quality aspects with shorter ns pulse durations and pulse energies in the order of mJ. This work reports the study of laser micromachining and of AZ31 magnesium alloy for the manufacturing of cardiovascular stents with a novel mesh design. A pulsed active fiber laser system operating in nanosecond pulse regime was employed for the micromachining. Laser parameters were studied for tubular cutting on a common stent material, AISI 316L tubes with 2 mm in diameter and 0.2 mm in thickness and on AZ31 tubes with 2.5 mm in diameter and 0.2 in thickness. In both cases process parameters conditions were examined for reactive and inert gas cutting solutions and the final stent quality is compared.

  20. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-09-03

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability.

  1. Comparing cone beam laminographic system trajectories for composite NDT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil O'Brien

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compare the quality of reconstruction obtainable using various laminographic system trajectories that have been described in the literature, with reference to detecting defects in composite materials in engineering. We start by describing a laminar phantom representing a simplified model of composite panel, which models certain defects that may arise in such materials, such as voids, resin rich areas, and delamination, and additionally features both blind and through holes along multiple axes. We simulate ideal cone-beam projections of this phantom with the different laminographic trajectories, applying both Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT and Conjugate Gradient Least Squares (CGLS reconstruction algorithms. We compare the quality of the reconstructions with a view towards optimising the scan parameters for defect detectability in composite NDT applications.

  2. Radiological Studies for the LCLS Beam Abort System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana Leitner, M.; Vollaire, J.; Mao, X.S.

    2008-03-25

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), a pioneer hard x-ray free electron laser is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. It is expected that by 2009 LCLS will deliver laser pulses of unprecedented brightness and short length, which will be used in several forefront research applications. This ambitious project encompasses major design challenges to the radiation protection like the numerous sources and the number of surveyed objects. In order to sort those, the showers from various loss sources have been tracked along a detailed model covering 1/2 mile of LCLS accelerator by means of the Monte Carlo intra nuclear cascade codes FLUKA and MARS15. This article covers the FLUKA studies of heat load; prompt and residual dose and environmental impact for the LCLS beam abort system.

  3. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  4. Experimental beam system studies of plasma-polymer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nest, Dustin George

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has relied on the shrinking of device dimensions to increase device performance and decrease manufacturing costs. However, the high degree of roughening observed during plasma etching of current generation photoresist (PR) polymers can result in poor pattern transfer and ultimately decreased device performance or failure. Plasma-surface interactions are inherently difficult to study due to the highly coupled nature of the plasma enviroment. To better understand these interactions, a beam system approach is employed where polymers are exposed to beams of ions and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons. Through the use of the beam system approach, simultaneous VUV radiation, ion bombardment, and moderate substrate heating have been identified as key elements, acting synergistically, as being responsible for roughening of current generation 193 nm PR during plasma processing. Sequential exposure is not adequate for the development of surface roughness, as observed through AFM and SEM. Ion bombardment results in the formation of a graphitized near-surface region with a depth of a few nanometers, the expected ion penetration depth of 150 eV argon ions. In contrast, VUV radiation results in the loss of carbon-oxygen bonds in the bulk PR as observed through Transmission FTIR. Based on the differing penetration depth of either ions or photons, their resulting chemical modifications, and the temperature dependence of the observed roughening, a mechanism is proposed based on stress relaxation resulting in surface buckling. The surface roughness of poly(4-methyl styrene) (P4MS) and poly(alpha-methyl styrene) (PalphaMS) have also been investigated under exposure to ions and VUV photons. PaMS degrades during VUV radiation above its ceiling temperature of ˜60°C. Despite having the same chemical composition as PalphaMS, P4MS does not degrade during VUV exposure at 70°C due to its relatively high ceiling

  5. Performance of the HIMAC beam control system using multiple-energy synchrotron operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, K.; Furukawa, T.; Iwata, Y.; Hara, Y.; Saotome, N.; Saraya, Y.; Tansho, R.; Sato, S.; Fujimoto, T.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    Multiple-energy synchrotron operation was developed to realize fast 3D scanning irradiation for carbon-ion radiotherapy. This type of operation can output various carbon-ion beams with different energies in a single synchrotron cycle. The beam control system used in this kind of operation was developed to quickly provide the beam energy and intensity required from the irradiation control system. The performance of the system was verified by experimental tests. The system could output beams of 197 different energies in 63 s. The beam intensity could be controlled for all the output beams without large ripples or overshooting. The experimental test of irradiation for prostate cancer treatment was also successfully performed, and the test results proved that our system can greatly reduce the irradiation time.

  6. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail: V.I.Davydenko@inp.nsk.su; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  7. Non-traditional micromachining processes fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, B; Davim, J

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a complete coverage of micromachining processes from their basic material removal phenomena to past and recent research carried by a number of researchers worldwide. Chapters on effective utilization of material resources, improved efficiency, reliability, durability, and cost effectiveness of the products are presented. This book provides the reader with new and recent developments in the field of micromachining and microfabrication of engineering materials.

  8. Comparing 193 nm photoresist roughening in an inductively coupled plasma system and vacuum beam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, M. J.; Nest, D. G.; Chung, T.-Y.; Graves, D. B.

    2009-12-01

    We present a comparison of blanket 193 nm photoresist (PR) roughening and chemical modifications of samples processed in a well-characterized argon (Ar) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) system and an ultra-high vacuum beam system. In the ICP system, PR samples are irradiated with Ar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and Ar ions, while in the vacuum beam system, samples are irradiated with either a Xe-line VUV source or Ar-lamp VUV source with Ar ions. Sample temperature, photon flux, ion flux and ion energy are controlled and measured. The resulting chemical modifications to bulk 193 nm PR and surface roughness are analysed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that under VUV-only conditions in the vacuum beam and ICP (with no substrate bias applied) systems 193 nm PR does not roughen. However, roughness increases with simultaneous high energy (>70 eV) ion bombardment and VUV irradiation and is a function of VUV fluence, substrate temperature and photon-to-ion flux ratio. PR processed in the ICP system experiences increased etching, probably due to release of H- and O-containing gaseous products and subsequent chemical etching, in contrast to samples in the vacuum beam system where etch-products are rapidly pumped away. The surface roughness structure and behaviour, however, remain similar and this is attributed to the synergy between VUV-photon and positive ions.

  9. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  10. Neutron production from beam-modifying devices in a modern double scattering proton therapy beam delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Andújar, Angélica; Newhauser, Wayne D; Deluca, Paul M

    2009-02-21

    In this work the neutron production in a passive beam delivery system was investigated. Secondary particles including neutrons are created as the proton beam interacts with beam shaping devices in the treatment head. Stray neutron exposure to the whole body may increase the risk that the patient develops a radiogenic cancer years or decades after radiotherapy. We simulated a passive proton beam delivery system with double scattering technology to determine the neutron production and energy distribution at 200 MeV proton energy. Specifically, we studied the neutron absorbed dose per therapeutic absorbed dose, the neutron absorbed dose per source particle and the neutron energy spectrum at various locations around the nozzle. We also investigated the neutron production along the nozzle's central axis. The absorbed doses and neutron spectra were simulated with the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The simulations revealed that the range modulation wheel (RMW) is the most intense neutron source of any of the beam spreading devices within the nozzle. This finding suggests that it may be helpful to refine the design of the RMW assembly, e.g., by adding local shielding, to suppress neutron-induced damage to components in the nozzle and to reduce the shielding thickness of the treatment vault. The simulations also revealed that the neutron dose to the patient is predominated by neutrons produced in the field defining collimator assembly, located just upstream of the patient.

  11. Ghost reflections of Gaussian beams in anamorphic optical systems with an application to Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Maksoud, Rania H

    2016-02-20

    In this paper, a methodology is developed to model and analyze the effect of undesired (ghost) reflections of Gaussian beams that are produced by anamorphic optical systems. The superposition of these beams with the nominal beam modulates the nominal power distribution at the recording plane. This modulation may cause contrast reduction, veiling parts of the nominal image, and/or the formation of spurious interference fringes. The developed methodology is based on synthesizing the beam optical paths into nominal and ghost optical beam paths. Similar to the nominal beam, we present the concept that each ghost beam is characterized by a beam size, wavefront radius of curvature, and Gouy phase in the paraxial regime. The nominal and ghost beams are sequentially traced through the system and formulas for estimating the electric field magnitude and phase of each ghost beam at the recording plane are presented. The effective electric field is the addition of the individual nominal and ghost electric fields. Formulas for estimating Gouy phase, the shape of the interference fringes, and the central interference order are introduced. As an application, the theory of the formation of the interference fringes by Michelson interferometer is presented. This theory takes into consideration the ghost reflections that are formed by the beam splitter. To illustrate the theory and to show its wide applicability, simulation examples that include a Mangin mirror, a Michelson interferometer, and a black box optical system are provided.

  12. Surface-micromachined magnetic undulator with period length between 10μm and 1 mm for advanced light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jere; Joshi, Abhijeet; Lake, Jonathan; Candler, Rob; Musumeci, Pietro

    2012-07-01

    A technological gap exists between the μm-scale wiggling periods achieved using electromagnetic waves of high intensity laser pulses and the mm scale of permanent-magnet and superconducting undulators. In the sub-mm range, surface-micromachined soft-magnetic micro-electro-mechanical system inductors with integrated solenoidal coils have already experimentally demonstrated 100 to 500 mT field amplitude across air gaps as large as 15μm. Simulations indicate that magnetic fields as large as 1.5 T across 50μm inductor gaps are feasible. A simple rearranging of the yoke and pole geometry allows for fabrication of 10+ cm long undulator structures with period lengths between 12.5μm and 1 mm. Such undulators find application both in high average power spontaneous emission sources and, if used in combination with ultrahigh-brightness electron beams, could lead to the realization of low energy compact free-electron lasers. Challenges include electron energy broadening due to wakefields and Joule heating in the electromagnet.

  13. The Beam Profile Monitoring System for the CERN IRRAD Proton Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Ravotti, F; Glaser, M; Matli, E; Pezzullo, G; Gan, K K; Kagan, H; Smith, S; Warner, J D

    2016-01-01

    To perform proton irradiation experiments, CERN built during LS1 a new irradiation facility in the East Area at the Proton Synchrotron accelerator. At this facility, named IR-RAD, a high-intensity 24 GeV/c proton beam is used. During beam steering and irradiation, the intensity and the transverse profile of the proton beam are monitored online with custom-made Beam Profile Monitor (BPM) devices. In this work, we present the design and the architecture of the IRRAD BPM system, some results on its performance with the proton beam, as well as its planned grades.

  14. Alignment of optical system components using an ADM beam through a null assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Joseph E. (Inventor); Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system for testing an optical surface includes a rangefinder configured to emit a light beam and a null assembly located between the rangefinder and the optical surface. The null assembly is configured to receive and to reflect the emitted light beam toward the optical surface. The light beam reflected from the null assembly is further reflected back from the optical surface toward the null assembly as a return light beam. The rangefinder is configured to measure a distance to the optical surface using the return light beam.

  15. Low-energy run of Fermilab Electron Cooler's beam generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel; Shemyakin, Alexander; /Fermilab; Fedotov, Alexei; Kewisch, Jorg; /Brookhaven

    2010-08-01

    As a part of a feasibility study of using the Fermilab Electron Cooler for a low-energy Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) run at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), the cooler operation at 1.6 MeV electron beam energy was tested in a short beam line configuration. The main result of the study is that the cooler beam generation system is suitable for BNL needs. In a striking difference with running 4.3 MeV beam, no unprovoked beam recirculation interruptions were observed.

  16. New Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring (BCM1F) system for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083575; Dabrowski, A.E.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.M.; Karacheban, O.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J.L.; Penno, M.; Pozniak, K.T.; Miraglia, M.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.; Lokhovitskiy, A.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project is composed of several systems providing the experiment protection from adverse beam conditions while also measuring the online luminosity and beam background. Although the readout bandwidth of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring system (BCM1F - one of the faster monitoring systems of the CMS BRIL), was sufficient for the initial LHC conditions, the foreseen enhancement of the beams parameters after the LHC Long Shutdown-1 (LS1) imposed the upgrade of the system. This paper presents the new BCM1F, which is designed to provide real-time fast diagnosis of beam conditions and instantaneous luminosity with readout able to resolve the 25 ns sub-bunch structure.

  17. New Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring (BCM1F) system for CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagozdzinska, A. A.; Bell, A. J.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H. M.; Karacheban, O.; Przyborowski, D.; Leonard, J. L.; Penno, M.; Pozniak, K. T.; Miraglia, M.; Lange, W.; Lohmann, W.; Ryjov, V.; Lokhovitskiy, A.; Stickland, D.; Walsh, R.

    2016-01-01

    The CMS Beam Radiation Instrumentation and Luminosity (BRIL) project is composed of several systems providing the experiment protection from adverse beam conditions while also measuring the online luminosity and beam background. Although the readout bandwidth of the Fast Beam Conditions Monitoring system (BCM1F—one of the faster monitoring systems of the CMS BRIL), was sufficient for the initial LHC conditions, the foreseen enhancement of the beams parameters after the LHC Long Shutdown-1 (LS1) imposed the upgrade of the system. This paper presents the new BCM1F, which is designed to provide real-time fast diagnosis of beam conditions and instantaneous luminosity with readout able to resolve the 25 ns bunch structure.

  18. Recent improvements to the ITER neutral beam system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R., E-mail: lgrisham@pppl.gov [Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Agostinetti, P. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Barrera, G. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Association, Avda. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Blatchford, P. [Culham Center for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon. OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Boilson, D.; Chareyre, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Chitarin, G. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Esch, H.P.L. de [CEA-Cadarache, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); De Lorenzi, A. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Franzen, P.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gagliardi, M. [Culham Center for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon. OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kashiwagi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); King, D. [Culham Center for Fusion Energy, Abingdon, Oxon. OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Krylov, A. [Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuriyama, M. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, C.so Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli SaS, Via C. Baslini 13, 23807 Merate (Italy); and others

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvements to ITER accelerator voltage holding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvements to ITER negative ion source design. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvements to ITER megavolt bushing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improvements to beamline components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accelerator design improvements. - Abstract: The ITER [1] fusion device is expected to demonstrate the feasibility of magnetically confined deuterium-tritium plasma as an energy source which might one day lead to practical power plants. Injection of energetic beams of neutral atoms (up to 1 MeV D{sup 0} or up to 870 keV H{sup 0}) will be one of the primary methods used for heating the plasma, and for driving toroidal electrical current within it, the latter being essential in producing the required magnetic confinement field configuration. The design calls for each beamline to inject up to 16.5 MW of power through the duct into the tokamak, with an initial complement of two beamlines injecting parallel to the direction of the current arising from the tokamak transformer effect, and with the possibility of eventually adding a third beamline, also in the co-current direction. The general design of the beamlines has taken shape over the past 17 years [2], and is now predicated upon an RF-driven negative ion source based upon the line of sources developed by the Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at Garching during recent decades [3-5], and a multiple-aperture multiple-grid electrostatic accelerator derived from negative ion accelerators developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) across a similar span of time [6-8]. During the past years, the basic concept of the beam system has been further refined and developed, and assessment of suitable fabrication techniques has begun. While many design details which will be important to the installation and implementation of the ITER beams have been worked out during this time, this paper focuses

  19. Measurement of Phase Difference for Micromachined Gyros Driven by Rotating Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for realizing a phase difference measurement of a new gyro. A silicon micromachined gyro was mounted on rotating aircraft for aircraft attitude control. Aircraft spin drives the silicon pendulum of a gyro rotating at a high speed so that it can sense the transverse angular velocity of the rotating aircraft based on the gyroscopic precession principle when the aircraft has transverse rotation. In applications of the rotating aircraft single channel control system, such as damping in the attitude stabilization loop, the gyro signal must be kept in sync with the control signal. Therefore, the phase difference between both signals needs to be measured accurately. Considering that phase difference is mainly produced by both the micromachined part and the signal conditioning circuit, a mathematical model has been established and analyzed to determine the gyro’s phase frequency characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a dynamic simulation has been done for a case where the spin frequency is 15 Hz. Experimental results with the proposed measurement method applied to a silicon micromachined gyro driven by a rotating aircraft demonstrate that it is effective in practical applications. Measured curve and numerical analysis of phase frequency characteristic are in accordance, and the error between measurement and simulation is only 5.3%.

  20. Measurement of phase difference for micromachined gyros driven by rotating aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengping; Zhang, Fuxue; Zhang, Wei

    2013-08-21

    This paper presents an approach for realizing a phase difference measurement of a new gyro. A silicon micromachined gyro was mounted on rotating aircraft for aircraft attitude control. Aircraft spin drives the silicon pendulum of a gyro rotating at a high speed so that it can sense the transverse angular velocity of the rotating aircraft based on the gyroscopic precession principle when the aircraft has transverse rotation. In applications of the rotating aircraft single channel control system, such as damping in the attitude stabilization loop, the gyro signal must be kept in sync with the control signal. Therefore, the phase difference between both signals needs to be measured accurately. Considering that phase difference is mainly produced by both the micromachined part and the signal conditioning circuit, a mathematical model has been established and analyzed to determine the gyro's phase frequency characteristics. On the basis of theoretical analysis, a dynamic simulation has been done for a case where the spin frequency is 15 Hz. Experimental results with the proposed measurement method applied to a silicon micromachined gyro driven by a rotating aircraft demonstrate that it is effective in practical applications. Measured curve and numerical analysis of phase frequency characteristic are in accordance, and the error between measurement and simulation is only 5.3%.

  1. Modeling and Experimental Study on Characterization of Micromachined Thermal Gas Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Su

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined thermal gas inertial sensors based on heat convection are novel devices that compared with conventional micromachined inertial sensors offer the advantages of simple structures, easy fabrication, high shock resistance and good reliability by virtue of using a gaseous medium instead of a mechanical proof mass as key moving and sensing elements. This paper presents an analytical modeling for a micromachined thermal gas gyroscope integrated with signal conditioning. A simplified spring-damping model is utilized to characterize the behavior of the sensor. The model relies on the use of the fluid mechanics and heat transfer fundamentals and is validated using experimental data obtained from a test-device and simulation. Furthermore, the nonideal issues of the sensor are addressed from both the theoretical and experimental points of view. The nonlinear behavior demonstrated in experimental measurements is analyzed based on the model. It is concluded that the sources of nonlinearity are mainly attributable to the variable stiffness of the sensor system and the structural asymmetry due to nonideal fabrication.

  2. New magnet transport system for the LHC beam transfer lines

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The first of 700 magnets has been installed in one of the two transfer tunnels built to transfer the SPS beam into the LHC. The start of this first installation phase of the LHC transfer lines provides the opportunity to launch a new and highly original modular system for transporting and installing all kinds of magnets in very narrow tunnels. The system (pictured here in one of the tunnels) is based on very compact bogies, up to four of which can be coupled together to form a convoy. The wheels are fitted with individual motors enabling them to swivel through an angle of 90° and the convoy to move laterally. The lead vehicle is powered by an electric rail set into the roof of the tunnel. The system is backed up by electrical batteries that enable it to operate in the absence of an outside power source or in the event of power failure. Last but not least, for the long-distance transport of magnets, it can be optically guided by a line traced on the tunnel floor. The convoy moves through the particularly narr...

  3. Annular beam shaping system for advanced 3D laser brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, Oliver; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Kogel-Hollacher, Markus; Traub, Martin

    2012-10-01

    As laser brazing benefits from advantages such as smooth joints and small heat-affected zones, it has become established as a joining technology that is widely used in the automotive industry. With the processing of complex-shaped geometries, recent developed brazing heads suffer, however, from the need for continuous reorientation of the optical system and/or limited accessibility due to lateral wire feeding. This motivates the development of a laser brazing head with coaxial wire feeding and enhanced functionality. An optical system is designed that allows to generate an annular intensity distribution in the working zone. The utilization of complex optical components avoids obscuration of the optical path by the wire feeding. The new design overcomes the disadvantages of the state-of-the-art brazing heads with lateral wire feeding and benefits from the independence of direction while processing complex geometries. To increase the robustness of the brazing process, the beam path also includes a seam tracking system, leading to a more challenging design of the whole optical train. This paper mainly discusses the concept and the optical design of the coaxial brazing head, and also presents the results obtained with a prototype and selected application results.

  4. A sub nrad beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in GW interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Canuel, Benjamin; Mantovani, Maddalena; Marque, Julien; Ruggi, Paolo; Tacca, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a simple and very effective control system to monitor and suppress the beam jitter noise at the input of an optical system, called Beam Pointing Control (BPC) system, will be described showing the theoretical principle and an experimental demonstration for the application of large scale gravitational wave interferometers, in particular for the Advanced Virgo detector. For this purpose the requirements for the control accuracy and the sensing noise will be computed by taking into account the Advanced Virgo optical configuration and the outcomes will be compared with the experimental measurement obtained in the laboratory. The system has shown unprecedented performance in terms of control accuracy and sensing noise. The BPC system has achieved a control accuracy of ~ $10^{-8}$ rad for the tilt and ~ $10^{-7}$ m for the shift and a sensing noise of less than 1 nrad/$\\sqrt{Hz}$ resulting compliant with the Advance Virgo gravitational wave interferometer requirements.

  5. Status of the OPAL microvertex detector and new radiation monitoring and beam dump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Sijbrand de

    1998-11-01

    The status of the OPAL Phase III microvertex detector is discussed briefly. This is followed by a more detailed description of the OPAL microvertex detector radiation monitoring and beam dump system. This system measures AC currents induced by radiation on each passing of the beams in silicon diodes mounted close to the microvertex detector front-end electronics. Examples are shown for incidents leading to a beam dump trigger. The integrated radiation dose is also discussed.

  6. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Apsimon; D. R. Bett; N. Blaskovic Kraljevic; P. N. Burrows; G. B. Christian; C. I. Clarke; B. D. Constance; Dabiri Khah, H.; M. R. Davis; Perry, C; J. Resta López; C. J. Swinson

    2015-01-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of...

  7. Enhancement of beam pulse controllability for a single-pulse formation system of a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Taguchi, Mitsumasa [Quantum Beam Science Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The single-pulse formation technique using a beam chopping system consisting of two types of high-voltage beam kickers was improved to enhance the quality and intensity of the single-pulse beam with a pulse interval over 1 μs at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency cyclotron facility. A contamination rate of neighboring beam bunches in the single-pulse beam was reduced to less than 0.1%. Long-term purification of the single pulse beam was guaranteed by the well-controlled magnetic field stabilization system for the cyclotron magnet. Reduction of the multi-turn extraction number for suppressing the neighboring beam bunch contamination was achieved by restriction of a beam phase width and precise optimization of a particle acceleration phase. In addition, the single-pulse beam intensity was increased by a factor of two or more by a combination of two types of beam bunchers using sinusoidal and saw-tooth voltage waveforms. Provision of the high quality intense single-pulse beam contributed to improve the accuracy of experiments for investigation of scintillation light time-profile and for neutron energy measurement by a time-of-flight method.

  8. Recent developments in UV laser micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmdahl, R.; Pätzel, Rainer

    2008-02-01

    Stable, high energy excimer lasers providing pulsed output energies ranging from 100 mJ up to over 1000 mJ in the ultraviolet region with photon energies as high as 5 eV (248 nm), 6.3 eV (193 nm) or 7.9 eV (157 nm) lend maximum flexibility to laser microprocessing, since virtually every material is amenable to accurate, high resolution material ablation without subsequent cleaning. Due to the UV photons provided with no up-conversion required as direct output by excimer lasers, output powers of many hundred watts are easily achievable and are key to high throughput, and up-scaling capability of manufacturing processes. Most important for reproducible production results is a temporally and spatially stable behavior of consecutive laser pulses as well as utmost lateral homogeneity of the on-sample energy density (fluence). These requirements constitute the superiority of excimer lasers over other pulsed UV laser sources such as lamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. Pulse-to-pulse stabilities of less than 1 %, rms as easily provided by excimer laser systems which cannot be achieved with frequency converted Nd:YAG. Laser systems. In particular, the large flat-top excimer laser profile is well-suited for most efficient parallel processing of two and three dimensional microstructures. Spectral properties, temporal pulse and laser beam parameters of state of the art UV excimer lasers and beam delivery systems will be compared with frequency converted, flash-lamp pumped Nd:YAG lasers.

  9. Power supply system for KSTAR neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, W., E-mail: franciscocho@nfri.re.kr; Bae, Y.S.; Han, W.S.; Jeong, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; Park, H.T.; Yang, H.L.; Oh, Y.K.; Kwak, J.G.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The power supply system in KSTAR NBI consists of DC power supplies for ion source. • For operation NBI, DC High Voltage based on the low voltage transformer with chopper. • The surge absorber near the ion source limit the energy deposited to accelerator grid. - Abstract: The power supply system in KSTAR neutral beam injector consists of low voltage and high current DC power supplies for plasma generator of ion source and high voltage and high current DC power supply for accelerator grid system. The arc discharge is initiated by an arc power supply supplying the arc voltage between the chamber wall and 12 filaments which are heated by individual filament power supply. The negative output of arc power supply is common to each positive output of 12 filament power supplies. To interrupt the arc discharging for the fault condition of the arc current unbalance, DCCT current monitor is placed at the positive output cable of the filament power supply. The plasma grid (G1) power supply has the maximum capability of 120 kV/70 A which consists of low voltage regulator with IGBT-switched chopper array system for the voltage control in unit of 600 V and the high voltage rectified transformers to supply DC voltage of 20 kV, 30 kV, and 50 kV. The output voltage of the G1 power supply is also connected to the input of the voltage divider system which supplies the gradient voltage to the gradient grid (G2) in the range of 80–90% of G1 voltage by changing tap of winding resistors in unit of 1%. The charged G1 voltage is turned on and off by the high voltage switch (HVS) system consisting of MOSFET fast semiconductor switches which can immediately be opened less than 1 μs when the ion source grid breakdown occurs. The decelerating grid (G3) power supply is inverter system using capacitor-charge power supply to supply maximum −5 kV/5 A. The important component in power supply system is the surge absorber near the ion source to limit the arc energy deposited to

  10. Analytical and simulation studies for diode and triode ion beam extraction systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. M. Abdelrahman1; N. I. Basal; S. G. Zakhary

    2012-01-01

    This work is concerned with ion beam dynamics and compares the emittance to aberration ratios of two-and three-electrode extraction systems.The study is conducted with the aid of Version 7 of SIMION 3D ray-tracing software.The beam dependence on various parameters of the extraction systems is studied and the numerical results lead to qualitative conclusions.Ion beam characteristics using diode and triode extraction systems are investigated with the aid of the computer code SIMION 3 D,Version 7.0. The diode (two electrode extraction system) and triode (threeelectrode extraction,acceleration-deceleration system) extraction systems are designed and optimized with different geometric parameters of the electrode system,voltage applied to the extraction electrode,and plasma parameters inside the ion source chamber,as well as by the ion beam space charge.This work attempts to describe the importance of the acceleration-deceleration extraction system.It shows that besides an increase of the beam energy,the ion beam has lower emittance than the two-electrode extraction system.Ion beams of the highest quality are extracted whenever the half-angular divergence is minimum for which the perveance current intensity and the extraction gap have optimum value.Knowing the electron temperature of the plasma is necessary to determine plasma potential and the exact beam energy.

  11. System effects influencing the bending strength of timber beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Källsner, B.

    1998-01-01

    measurements of the strengths of a large number of shorttest pieces cut from the beams such that judgementally each test piece contains only a single defect cluster. The testpiece is spliced to stronger wood beam shafts in both ends. Due to the occurrence of a substantial number of splicefailures in the total...

  12. Studying Ion Beam Mixing of Te/In Bilayer System .

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, A; Saleh, N

    2002-01-01

    Ion beam mixing at room temperature of Te/In bialayer system induced by 400 keV Ar sup + Ions from Jordan Van De Graff Accelerator (JOVAC) with fluences ranging from 1.11*10 sup 1 sup 4 to 7*10 sup 1 sup 5 ions is studied means of AC electrical resistivity measurements and 2 MeV sup 4 He sup + back scattering spectrometry. Changes in electrical resistivity (rho) were correlated with the growth of an intermixed layer at interface. Data is explained in terms of Riviere et al. Model showing that mixing is due to collisional cascade processes. It was found that primary collisions and collisional cascade mechanism contribute to ion mixing. Demixing is noticed which is attributed to the mechanism of primary collisions with the target atoms . FORTRAN (77) was written to calculate the thickness of upper and lower layers of the Te/In system before and after irradiation and the thickness and composition of intermixed layer at interface with the aid of (RBS) data. Also, a solid solution In sub 6 sub 7 Te sub 3 sub 3 was...

  13. Beam Test of the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, J; Mahout, G; Moye, T H; Staley, R J; Thomas, J P; Typaldos, D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Achenbach, R; Föhlisch, F; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Kluge, E E; Mahboubi, K; Meier, K; Meshkov, P; Rühr, F; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Belkin, A; Rieke, S; Schäfer, U; Tapprogge, T; Trefzger, T; Weber, GA; Eisenhandler, E F; Landon, M; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Mirea, A; Perera, V J O; Qian, W; Sankey, D P C; Bohm, C; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Silverstein, S

    2005-01-01

    The Level-1 Calorimter Trigger consists of a Preprocessor (PP), a Cluster Processor (CP), and a Jet/Energy-sum Processor (JEP). The CP and JEP receive digitised trigger-tower data from the Preprocessor and produce Region-of-Interest (RoIs) and trigger multiplicities. The latter are sent in real time to the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) where the Level-1 decision is made. On receipt of a Level-1 Accept, Readout Driver Modules (RODs), provide intermediate results to the data acquisition (DAQ) system for monitoring and diagnostic purpose. RoI information is sent to the RoI builder (RoIB) to help reduce the amount of data required for the Level-2 Trigger The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger System at the test beam consisted of 1 Preprocessor module, 1 Cluster Processor Module, 1 Jet/Energy Module and 2 Common Merger Modules. Calorimeter energies were sucessfully handled thourghout the chain and trigger object sent to the CTP. Level-1 Accepts were sucessfully produced and used to drive the readout path. Online diagno...

  14. Modelling and Testing of the Piezoelectric Beam as Energy Harvesting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koszewnik Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes modelling and testing of the piezoelectric beam as energy harvesting system. The cantilever beam with two piezo-elements glued onto its surface is considered in the paper. As result of carried out modal analysis of the beam the natural frequencies and modes shapes are determined. The obtained results in the way mentioned above allow to estimate such location of the piezo-actuator on the beam where the piezo generates maximal values of modal control forces. Experimental investigations carried out in the laboratory allow to verify results of natural frequencies obtained during simulation and also testing of the beam in order to obtain voltage from vibration with help of the piezo-harvester. The obtained values of voltage stored on the capacitor C0 shown that the best results are achieved for the beam excited to vibration with third natural frequency, but the worst results for the beam oscillating with the first natural frequency.

  15. Rare isotope beams at ISAC—target & ion source systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricault, Pierre G.; Ames, Friedhelm; Dombsky, Marik; Kunz, Peter; Lassen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    The present status of the ISAC facility for rare isotopes beams after its first 10 years of operation is presented. Planning for the ISAC facility started in 1985 with the Parksville workshop on radioactive ion beams (Buchmann and D'Auria 1985). It was put on halt by the KAON proposal and planning was only resumed in 1993 after the cancellation of KAON. The ISAC facility was built to satisfy the scientific need for accelerated beams of rare isotopes for use in applications such as nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics, atomic and condensed matter physics as well as medicine. At the time of the ISAC proposal submission, a number of facilities were either planned or under construction. In order to have an impact in the field, the requirements and specifications for the driver beam intensity on target was set to 100 μA, 500 MeV protons, which for ISAC results in a driver beam power of 50 kW.

  16. Development of the charge exchange type beam scraper system at the J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in injection beam quality at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycle synchrotron is to mitigate beam loss at the injection section. We developed a charge-exchange type scraper system with a thin carbon foil to collimate the beam halo in the injection beam line of the synchrotron. The key issue to realize the scraper is a reduction of the beam loss induced by the multiple-scattering effect of charge-exchange foil placed at the scraper head. In order to determine the adequate foil thickness, a charge-exchange efficiency of a carbon foil and particle-tracking simulation study of the collimated beam have been performed assuming a realistic halo at the scraper section. Using the results of this study, we chose the thickness of a 520 μg /cm2 as the scraper foils to mitigate radiation dose around the L3BT scraper section. A charge-exchange scraper system that prevents the emission of radioactive fragments of the carbon foil was build. The system was put into operation to prove its effectiveness in eliminating the beam halo. From the result of a preliminary beam experiments, we confirmed that the installed scrapers eliminate a transverse beam tail or halo. After two days of operation with beam collimation, the radiation dose level around the scraper section was a tolerable one for the hands-on maintenance.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF ACCELERATOR DATA REPORTING SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION TO TREND ANALYSIS OF BEAM CURRENT DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, M.J.; Blokland, W.

    2009-01-01

    Detailed ongoing information about the ion beam quality is crucial to the successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In order to provide the highest possible neutron production time, ion beam quality is monitored to isolate possible problems or performance-related issues throughout the accelerator and accumulator ring. For example, beam current monitor (BCM) data is used to determine the quality of the beam transport through the accelerator. In this study, a reporting system infrastructure was implemented and used to generate a trend analysis report of the BCM data. The BCM data was analyzed to facilitate the identifi cation of monitor calibration issues, beam trends, beam abnormalities, beam deviations and overall beam quality. A comparison between transformed BCM report data and accelerator log entries shows promising results which represent correlations between the data and changes made within the accelerator. The BCM analysis report is one of many reports within a system that assist in providing overall beam quality information to facilitate successful beam operation. In future reports, additional data manipulation functions and analysis can be implemented and applied. Built-in and user-defi ned analytic functions are available throughout the reporting system and can be reused with new data.

  18. Towards a sub 15-dBA optical micromachined microphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghwan; Hall, Neal A

    2014-05-01

    Micromachined microphones with grating-based optical-interferometric readout have been demonstrated previously. These microphones are similar in construction to bottom-inlet capacitive microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) microphones, with the exception that optoelectronic emitters and detectors are placed inside the microphone's front or back cavity. A potential advantage of optical microphones in designing for low noise level is the use of highly-perforated microphone backplates to enable low-damping and low thermal-mechanical noise levels. This work presents an experimental study of a microphone diaphragm and backplate designed for optical readout and low thermal-mechanical noise. The backplate is 1 mm × 1 mm and is fabricated in a 2-μm-thick epitaxial silicon layer of a silicon-on-insulator wafer and contains a diffraction grating with 4-μm pitch etched at the center. The presented system has a measured thermal-mechanical noise level equal to 22.6 dBA. Through measurement of the electrostatic frequency response and measured noise spectra, a device model for the microphone system is verified. The model is in-turn used to identify design paths towards MEMS microphones with sub 15-dBA noise floors.

  19. Radiation protection systems for the final focus test beam at SLAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, S H; Benson, E C; Burke, D L; Jenkins, T M; Liu, J C; Nelson, G; Nelson, W R; Smith, H E; Tenenbaum, P; Vylet, V; Walz, D R

    1996-11-01

    The Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) is a new beam line at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center designed to test new beam optics concepts, hardware, and techniques necessary to achieve and measure the small spot sizes required for future generations of high-energy e+e- linear colliders. The FFTB takes a 47 GeVc-1, 1 kW electron beam at the end of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center linear accelerator and transports it to the FFTB beam dump. A radiation protection system was designed and installed for the FFTB with the primary goal that the integrated dose equivalent outside the shielding resulting from beam loss would not exceed 10 mSv y-1. This system is comprised of shielding, a beam containment system and a personnel protection system. This paper presents various aspects of radiation safety at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center that were considered in the design of the FFTB radiation protection system. Beam tests were conducted in which the performance of various beam containment devices and the shielding effectiveness were evaluated. Preliminary results from these tests are presented.

  20. Modelling and calibration of the laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Guoyu; Zheng, Bing; Li, Xin; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, P.P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present an approach of modelling and calibration of an active laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system. The system works with the pattern of two-dimensional beam-scanning illumination and one-dimensional slit-scanning detection with a photo-multiplier tube instead of a CCD camera. By

  1. A fast beam loss monitor system for the KEK proton synchrotron complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, J. A.; Kishiro, J.; Arakawa, D.; Hiramatsu, S.

    1991-06-01

    Efforts to increase the intensity of the KEK proton synchrotron have led to the need for a new fast response beam loss monitor system. The design and some prelimitary test results of a new beam loss monitor system are presented.(AIP)

  2. Modelling and calibration of the laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.Y.; Zheng, Bing; Li, Xin; Houkes, Z.; Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present an approach of modelling and calibration of an active laser beam-scanning triangulation measurement system. The system works with the pattern of two-dimensional beam-scanning illumination and one-dimensional slit-scanning detection with a photo-multiplier tube instead of a CCD camera. By

  3. The 40 kA dumping system for the ISR beams

    CERN Document Server

    Schnuriger, J C

    1975-01-01

    It has been necessary to build a fast and reliable system which can dump the beam whenever safety monitors indicate a hardware fault or a beam loss. The beam in each ISR is dumped by means of four fast pulsed magnets deflecting the particles vertically onto an absorber block situated in the same long straight section. The 0.75 Omega , 40 kA pulse generator now energizing the four fast pulsed magnets is described with special attention to the principles and technological solutions which were adopted in order to achieve the necessary reliability of the system for each type of operation, and particularly during long colliding beam experiments. (7 refs).

  4. Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiuxiang

    2007-12-24

    The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.

  5. Boundary control of a Timoshenko beam system with input dead-zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Meng, Tingting; Liu, Jin-Kun; Qin, Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, boundary control is designed for a Timoshenko beam system with the input dead-zone. By the Hamilton's principle, the dynamics of the Timoshenko beam system is represented by a distributed parameter model with two partial differential equations and four ordinary differential equations. The bounded part is separated from the input dead-zone and then forms the disturbance-like term together with the boundary disturbance, which finally acts on the Timoshenko beam system. Boundary control, based on the Lyapunov's direct method, is proposed to ensure the Timoshenko beam converge into a small neighbourhood of zero, where stability of the system is also analysed. Besides, the existence and uniqueness of the solution of the Timoshenko beam system are proved. Simulations are provided to reveal the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  6. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C.C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A.K.; Waller, A.M.

    2015-11-01

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP).[1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×10{sup 17} protons per hour, which is double the present flux. The flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts it to the Main Injector (MI) or Recycler Ring (RR). Cogging controls the beam extraction gap position which is created early in the Booster cycle and synchronizes the gap to the rising edge of the Booster extraction kicker and the MI/RR injection kicker. The RF Cogging system controls the gap position by changing only the radial position of the beam thus limiting the beam aperture and creating beam loss due to beam scraping. The Magnetic Cogging system controls the gap position with the magnetic field of the dipole correctors while the radial position feedback keeps the beam on a central orbit. Also with Magnetic Cogging the gap creation can occur earlier in the Booster cycle when the removed particles are at a lower energy. Thus Magnetic Cogging reduces the deposited energy of the lost particles (beam energy loss) and results in less beam loss activation. Energy loss was reduced by 40% by moving the gap creation energy from 700 MeV to 400 MeV when the Booster Cogging system was switched from RF Cogging to Magnetic Cogging in March 2015.

  7. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piliero, M.A., E-mail: piliero@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Bisogni, M.G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Cerello, P. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Fiorina, E. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Pennazio, F. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino (Italy); Pirrone, G. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, sezione di Pisa (Italy); Wheadon, R. [INFN, sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2015-12-21

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β{sup +} annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β{sup +} isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the {sup 11}C and {sup 15}O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  8. Performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring tested with clinical proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliero, M. A.; Bisogni, M. G.; Cerello, P.; Del Guerra, A.; Fiorina, E.; Liu, B.; Morrocchi, M.; Pennazio, F.; Pirrone, G.; Wheadon, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the performance of a fast acquisition system for in-beam PET monitoring during the irradiation of a PMMA phantom with a clinical proton beam. The experimental set-up was based on 4 independent detection modules. Two detection modules were placed at one side of a PMMA phantom and the other two modules were placed at the opposite side of the phantom. One detection module was composed of a Silicon Photon Multiplier produced by AdvanSiD coupled to a single scintillating LYSO crystal. The read-out system was based on the TOFPET ASIC managed by a Xilinx ML605 FPGA Evaluation Board (Virtex 6). The irradiation of the PMMA phantom was performed at the CNAO hadrontherapy facility (Pavia, Italy) with a 95 MeV pulsed proton beam. The pulsed time structure of the proton beam was reconstructed by each detection module. The β+ annihilation peak was successfully measured and the production of β+ isotopes emitters was observed as increasing number of 511 keV events detected during irradiation. Finally, after the irradiation, the half lives of the 11C and 15O radioactive isotopes were estimated.

  9. EMBEDDED CONTROLLER BUILDING FOR BALL AND BEAM SYSTEM USING OPTIMAL CONTROL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. HUNG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The controller design for the Ball and Beam system is particularly crucial in the aviation fields due to its likeness to the aircraft control during the flight and landing under turbulent. Since the actual tests on the aircrafts are not possible, the Ball and Beam system could be necessary as an alternative to these manoeuvring. In addition, the ball and beam system is a nonlinear dynamical model intended to test various control algorithms. The complete system includes a ball, a beam, a motor and several sensors. The input torque is generated from the motor to control the position of the ball on the beam, where the ball rolls on the beam freely. The concise mathematical model has been obtained by linearized around the horizontal region. The presented control strategies are based on the optimal control synthesis including LQR and H2 optimization to manipulate the complete ball-beam system. These control algorithms have been successfully tested to figure out the control performance for specific applications. Finally, the control systems are implemented in the real ball and beam system with a data acquisition card of DSP F28335.

  10. Advanced rapid prototyping by laser beam sintering of metal prototypes: design and development of an optimized laser beam delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Manfred; Coremans, A.; Neubauer, Norbert; Niebling, F.

    1996-08-01

    Fast technological advances and steadily increasing severe worldwide competition force industry to respond all the time faster to new and chanced customer wishes. Some of the recently emerged processes, commonly referred to as 'rapid prototyping' (RP), have proved to be powerful tools for accelerating product and process development. Early approaches aimed at the automated production of plastic models. These techniques achieved industrial maturity extremely fast and are meanwhile established as standard utilities in the field of development/design processes. So far, their applicability to metal working industry was limited to design studies because the mechanical properties of the prototypes, e.g. modulus of elasticity and mechanical strength were not comparable to the final products they represented. Therefore, RP-processes aimed at the direct production of metallic prototypes gained more and more importance during recent years. A technique belonging to this group is manufacturing of prototypes by using a laser beam sintering machine capable of directly processing metal powders. This so called laser beam sintering process showed a great potential for direct manufacturing of functional tools and prototypes in early feasibility studies. Detailed examinations were performed at several research centers to determine the attainable quality of the parts concerning roughness, dimensional accuracy and mechanical strength. These examinations showed, that there still is a considerable demand for quality improvements of the previously mentioned parameters. The practical application and the potential for improvement of the geometrical accuracy of laser beam sintered parts by using a dual beam concept was proven. An innovative beam guiding and forming concept, similar to the previously mentioned patented beam guiding system, was developed and built with the goal to improve the process parameters governing mechanical properties as well as geometrical accuracy. Further reaching

  11. Design of Main Control Console Software in EAST Neutral Beam Injector's Control System for the First Beam Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, De-Yun; Hu, Chun-Dong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuan-Zhe; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Cui, Qing-Long

    2013-10-01

    Neutral beam injector is one of the main plasma heating and plasma current driving methods for experimental advanced superconducting tokomaks (EAST). In order to realize visual operation of EAST neutral beam injector's control system (NBICS), main control console (MCC) is developed to work as the human-machine interface between the NBICS and physical operator. It can meet the requirements of visual control of NBICS by providing a user graphic interface. With the specific algorithms, the setup of power supply sequence is relatively independent and simple. Displaying the real-time feedback of the subsystems provides a reference for operators to monitor the status of the system. The MCC software runs on a Windows system and uses C++ language code while using client/server (C/S) mode, multithreading and cyclic redundancy check technology. The experimental results have proved that MCC provides a stability and reliability operation of NBICS and works as an effective man-machine interface at the same time.

  12. Beam interlock system and safe machine parameters system 2010 and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, B

    2010-01-01

    The Beam Interlock System (BIS) and Safe Machine Parameters (SMP) system are central to the protection of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) machine. The BIS has been critical for the safe operation of LHC from the first day of operation. It has been installed and commissioned, only minor enhancements are required in order to accommodate all future LHC machine protection requirements. At reduced intensity, the SMP system is less critical for LHC operation. As such, the current system satisfies the 2010 operational requirements. Further developments are required, both at the SMP Controller level, and at the system level, in order to accommodate the requirements of the LHC beyond 2010.

  13. The beam diagnostic system, serving the Serpukhov fast ejection

    CERN Document Server

    Cupérus, J; Kamber, I; Nuttall, J

    1973-01-01

    A set of beam transformers measures the intensity of each bunch, circulating or ejected. Five electrostatic pick-ups measure the radial position of one selected bunch. Secondary emission grids and luminescent screens give the profile and position of the beam at relevant points. Gated radiation detectors monitor beam loss in the ejection area. All signals are digitalized and fed to a minicomputer on line. Readout is via nixies, CRT analogue displays, pen recorders and a teletype. Statistics can be made over a chosen number of acceleration cycles. (5 refs).

  14. Ion beam system for implanting industrial products of various shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, A. S.; Wittkower, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Implantation of metals and ceramics with ions of nitrogen and other species has improved surface properties such as friction, wear and corrosion in numerous industrial applications. Zymet has built a production machine to take advantage of this process which can implant a 2 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 dose of nitrogen ions into a 20 cm × 20 cm area in about 30 min using a 100 keV beam. Treatment is accomplished by mounting the product on a cooled, tiltable, turntable which rotates continuously, or is indexed in 15° steps to expose different surfaces in fixed position. Product cooling is accomplished by using a chilled eutectic metal to mount and grip the variously shaped objects. A high voltage supply capable of 10 mA at 100 kV is used, and the equipment is microcomputer controlled via serial light links. All important machine parameters are presented in sequenced displays on a CRT. Uniformity of treatment and accumulated dose are monitored by a Faraday cup system which provides the microprocessor with data for display of time to completion on the process screen. For routine implants the operator requires only two buttons; one for chamber vacuum control, and the other for process start and stop.

  15. Setup of a beam control system for high power laser system at DLR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buske, Ivo; Walther, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Different types of high power or high energy lasers in the multi kW class are currently available or are under development with promising progress reports. A major challenge is to deliver as much as possible of the available power onto a small and fast moving target over a long distance through a disturbing atmosphere. High resolution imaging is a common way to identify the category of targets dedication and to determine the spatial position relative to the observer. By illuminating the target with a laser the imaging system becomes more resilient towards ambient light and the exposure time can be reduced drastically. Fast and deterministic control loops are demanding for the moving parts in order to maintain a high accuracy for the pointing of the turret and aiming of the laser countermeasure system. Here, we report on the progress of such a beam control system developed at the Institute of Technical Physics of DLR. In an overview we present the beam control system and explain different sub-systems. Performance tests were taken at our test. At a distance we simulated various scenarios for probing the limits of the tracking and pointing accuracy with a target on a fast moving linear stage. We present first results of the beam control system performance.

  16. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesprías, F. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Debray, M.E., E-mail: debray@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Davidson, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kreiner, A.J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral Paz 1499 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad Nacional de Gral. San Martín, M. De Irigoyen 3100 (1650), San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917 (C1033AAJ), Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2013-04-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach–Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach–Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift {sup 35}Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO{sub 3}, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

  17. Commissioning and Initial Performance of the LHC Beam-Based Feedback Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccardi, A; Calvo Giraldo, E; Denz, R; Gasior, M; Gonzalez, JL; Jackson, S; Jensen, LK; Jones, OR; King, Q; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Page, S; Steinhagen, RJ; Wenninger, J

    2010-01-01

    The LHC deploys a comprehensive suite of beam-based feedbacks for safe and reliable machine operation. This contribution summarises the commissioning and early results of the LHC feedback control systems on orbit, tune, chromaticity, and energy. Their performance – strongly linked to the associated beam instrumentation, external beam perturbation sources and optics uncertainties – is evaluated and compared with the initial feedback design assumptions

  18. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 400- and 800-keV neutral-beam injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; Fink, J.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ruby, L.; Soroka, L.; Tanabe, J.

    1983-04-01

    We present designs for two negative-ion based neutral beam lines with reactor-level power output. Both beam lines make use of such technologically advanced features as high-current-density surface-conversion ion sources, transverse-field-focussing (TFF) acceleration and transport, and laser photodetachment. For the second of these designs, we also presented detailed beam and vacuum calculations, as well as a brief description of a proof-of-principle test system currently under development.

  19. Micromachined capacitive transducer arrays for intravascular ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degertekin, F. Levent; Guldiken, R. Oytun; Karaman, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging has become an essential imaging modality for the effective diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases during the past decade enabled by innovative applications of piezoelectric transducer technology. The limitations in the manufacture and performance of the same piezoelectric transducers have also impeded the improvement of IVUS for emerging clinically important applications such as forward viewing arrays for guiding interventions and high resolution imaging of arterial structure such as vulnerable plaque and fibrous cap, and also implementation of techniques such as harmonic imaging of the tissue and of the contrast agents. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) technology shows great potential for transforming IVUS not only to satisfy these clinical needs but also to open up possibilities for low-cost imaging devices integrated to therapeutic tools. We have developed manufacturing processes with a maximum process temperature of 250°C to build CMUTs on the same silicon chip with integrated electronics. Using these processes we fabricated CMUT arrays suitable for forward viewing IVUS in the 10-20MHz range. We characterized these array elements in terms of pulse-echo response, radiation pattern measurements and demonstrated its volumetric imaging capabilities on various imaging targets.

  20. Functionalised polyurethane for efficient laser micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, G. W. J.; Kang, H.; MacMillan, F. J.; Jin, J.; Simpson, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Pulsed laser ablation is a valuable tool that offers a much cleaner and more flexible etching process than conventional lithographic techniques. Although much research has been undertaken on commercially available polymers, many challenges still remain, including contamination by debris on the surface, a rough etched appearance and high ablation thresholds. Functionalizing polymers with a photosensitive group is a novel way and effective way to improve the efficiency of laser micromachining. In this study, several polyurethane films grafted with different concentrations of the chromophore anthracene have been synthesized which are specifically designed for 248 nm KrF excimer laser ablation. A series of lines etched with a changing number of pulses and fluences by the nanosecond laser were applied to each polyurethane film. The resultant ablation behaviours were studied through optical interference tomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The anthracene grafted polyurethanes showed a vast improvement in both edge quality and the presence of debris compared with the unmodified polyurethane. Under the same laser fluence and number of pulses the spots etched in the anthracene contained polyurethane show sharp depth profiles and smooth surfaces, whereas the spots etched in polyurethane without anthracene group grafted present rough cavities with debris according to the SEM images. The addition of a small amount of anthracene (1.47%) shows a reduction in ablation threshold from unmodified polyurethane showing that the desired effect can be achieved with very little modification to the polymer.

  1. Vibration of micromachined circular piezoelectric diaphragms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunki; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Smith, Robert; Krishnaswamy, Silai V; Freidhoff, Carl B

    2006-04-01

    Electrically and mechanically excited resonances in micromachined circular piezoelectric diaphragms have been investigated. The diaphragm structures were piezoelectric unimorphs consisting of Pb(Zr0.52,Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films and thermally grown silicon oxide (SiO2) layers. For electrical excitation, ring-shaped interdigitated (IDT) electrodes formed on the top of the PZT layer were used to induce strain in the diaphragms. The diaphragm structures behaved much like circular membranes in which the membrane tension was approximately 206 N/m, at the fundamental modes. For higher modes, the resonance frequencies deviated from the theoretical values due to the finite stiffness of the diaphragms. Under mechanical drive, both symmetric and asymmetric modes were excited. However, for electrical excitation, the symmetric modes were dominant due to the symmetry of the driving IDT electrodes. At a pressure of 727 Torr, the quality factor was approximately 250, and this rose to 2000 at pressures below 1 Torr. When a forward bias was applied to the diaphragm, the membrane tension decreased, but under reverse biases the tension increased. However, because of repoling under reverse biases greater than the coercive field of the PZT film, the achievable increase in the membrane tension was limited. In the diaphragm structure, the nonlinear vibration was governed by geometric nonlinearity rather than material nonlinearity. In addition, evidence of non-180 degrees domain wall motion of the PZT layer in released diaphragms was observed.

  2. High-intensity fibre laser design for micro-machining applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Neria, D. I.; Martinez-Piñón, F.; Hernandez-Escamilla, H.; Alvarez-Chavez, J. A.

    2010-11-01

    This work is focused on the design of a 250W high-intensity continuous-wave fibre optic laser with a 15μm spot size beam and a beam parameter product (BPP) of 1.8 for its use on Laser-assisted Cold Spray process (LCS) in the micro-machining areas. The metal-powder deposition process LCS, is a novel method based on Cold Spray technique (CS) assisted by laser technology. The LCS accelerates metal powders by the use of a high-pressure gas in order to achieve flash welding of particles over substrate. In LCS, the critical velocity of impact is lower with respect with CS while the powder particle is heated before the deposition by a laser beam. Furthermore, LCS does not heat the powder to achieve high temperatures as it happens in plasma processes. This property puts aside cooling problems which normally happen in sintered processes with high oxygen/nitrogen concentration levels. LCS will be used not only in deposition of thin layers. After careful design, proof of concept, experimental data, and prototype development, it should be feasible to perform micro-machining precise work with the use of the highintensity fibre laser presented in this work, and selective deposition of particles, in a similar way to the well-known Direct Metal Laser Sintering process (DMLS). The fibre laser consists on a large-mode area, Yb3+-doped, semi-diffraction limited, 25-m fibre laser cavity, operating in continuous wave regime. The fibre shows an arguably high slope-efficiency with no signs of roll-over. The measured M2 value is 1.8 and doping concentration of 15000ppm. It was made with a slight modification of the traditional MCVD technique. A full optical characterization will be presented.

  3. Development of High Power Electron Beam Measuring and Analyzing System for Microwave Vacuum Electron Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, C. J.; Wu, X. L.; Li, Q. S.; Li, C. S.

    The measurement and analysis of high power electron beam during its formation and transmission are the basic scientific problems and key techniques for the development of high performance microwave vacuum electron devices, which are widely used in the fields of military weapon, microwave system and scientific instruments. In this paper, the dynamic parameters measurement and analysis system being built in Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IECAS) recently are introduced. The instrument are designed to determine the cross-section, the current density, and the energy resolution of the high power electron beam during its formation and transmission process, which are available both for the electron gun and the electron optics system respectively. Then the three dimension trajectory images of the electron beam can be rebuilt and display with computer controlled data acquisition and processing system easily. Thus, much more complicated structures are considered and solved completely to achieve its detection and analysis, such as big chamber with 10-6 Pa high vacuum system, the controlled detector movement system in axis direction with distance of 600 mm inside the vacuum chamber, the electron beam energy analysis system with high resolution of 0.5%, and the electron beam cross-section and density detector using the YAG: Ce crystal and CCD imaging system et al. At present, the key parts of the instrument have been finished, the cross-section experiment of the electron beam have been performed successfully. Hereafter, the instrument will be used to measure and analyze the electron beam with the electron gun and electron optics system for the single beam and multiple beam klystron, gyrotron, sheet beam device, and traveling wave tube etc. thoroughly.

  4. Beam loss detection system in the arcs of the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arauzo, A.; Bovet, C.

    2000-11-01

    Over the whole circumference of the LHC, Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) will be needed for a continuous surveillance of fast and slow beam losses. In this paper, the location of the BLMs set outside the magnet cryostats in the arcs is proposed. In order to know the number of protons lost on the beam screen, the sensitivity of each BLM has been computed using the program GEANT 3.21, which generates the shower inside the cryostat. The material and the magnetic fields have been described thoroughly in 3-D and the simulation results show the best locations for 6 BLMs needed around each quadrupole. The number of minimum ionizing particles received for each lost proton serves to define local thresholds to dump the beam when the losses are menacing to quench a magnet.

  5. Beam Loss Detection System in the Arcs of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Arauzo-Garcia, A

    2000-01-01

    Over the whole circumference of the LHC, Beam Loss Monitors (BLM) will be needed for a continuous surveillance of fast and slow beam losses. In this paper, the location of the BLMs set outside the magnet cryostats in the arcs is proposed. In order to know the number of protons lost on the beam screen, the sensitivity of each BLM has been computed using the program GEANT 3.21, which generates the shower inside the cryostat. The material and the magnetic fields have been described thoroughly in 3-D and the simulation results show the best locations for 6 BLMs needed around each quadrupole. The number of minimum ionizing particles received for each lost proton serves to define local thresholds to dump the beam when the losses are menacing to quench a magnet

  6. Electron Optic Design of Arrayed E-Beam Microcolumns Based Systems for Wafer Defects Inspection

    CERN Document Server

    Kazmiruk, V V

    2008-01-01

    In this paper is considered a matter of the system for wafer defect inspection (WDIS) practical realization. Such systems are on the agenda as the next generation and substitution for light optics and single $e$-beam based WDISs.

  7. Development of a robotic patient positioning system with a wide beam-angle range for fixed-beam particle therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongseok; Park, Jong-Oh; Ko, Seong Young; Park, Sukho; Cho, Sungho; Jung, Won-Gyun; Park, Yong Kyun; Kang, Jung Suk

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes a robotic patient positioning system (PPS) for a fixed-beam heavy-ion therapy system. In order to extend the limited irradiation angle range of the fixed beam, we developed a 6-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) serial-link robotic arm and used it as the robotic PPS for the fixed-beam heavy-ion therapy system. This research aims to develop a robotic PPS for use in the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) system, which is under development at the Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). In particular, we select constraints and criteria that will be used for designing and evaluating the robotic PPS through full consultation with KIRAMS. In accordance with the constraints and criteria, we develop a 6-DOF serial-link robotic arm that consists of six revolute joints for the robotic PPS, where the robotic arm covers the upper body of a patient as a treatment area and achieves a 15 ° roll and pitch angle in the treatment area without any collision. Various preliminary experiments confirm that the robotic PPS can meet all criteria for extension of the limited irradiation angle range in the treatment area and has a positioning repeatability of 0.275 mm.

  8. Upgrades to the LHC Injection and Beam Dumping Systems for the HL-LHC Project

    CERN Document Server

    Uythoven, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Hrivnak, Jan; Lechner, Anton; Maciariello, Fausto; Mereghetti, Alessio; Perillo Marcone, Antonio; Vittal Shetty, N; Shetty, Nikhil Vittal; Steele, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    The HL-LHC project will push the performance of the LHC injection and beam dumping systems towards new limits. This paper describes the systems affected and presents the new beam parameters for these systems. It also describes the studies to be performed to determine which sub-components of these systems need to be upgraded to fulfil the new HL-LHC requirements. The results from the preliminary upgrade studies for the injection absorbers TDI are presented.

  9. Fabrication of micro-prominences on PTFE surface using proton beam writing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Akane, E-mail: ogawa.akane@jaea.go.jp [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Satoh, Takahiro; Koka, Masashi [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kobayashi, Tomohiro [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 350-0198 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-Machi, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a typical fluoropolymer and it has several desirable technological properties such as electrical insulation, solid lubrication etc. However, the conventional microstructuring methods have not been well applied to PTFE due to its chemical inertness. Some effective micromachining using synchrotron radiation or ion beam irradiation has been reported. In this study, we create micro-prominences by raising the original surface using proton beam writing (PBW) without chemical etching. A conical prominence was formed by spiral drawing from the center with a 3 MeV proton beam. The body was porous, and the bulk PTFE below the prominence changed to fragmented structures. With decreasing writing speed, the prominence became taller but the height peaked. The prominence gradually reduced in size after the speed reached the optimum value. We expect that these porous projections with high aspect ratio will be versatile in medical fields and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology.

  10. An Innovative Beam Halo Monitor system for the CMS experiment at the LHC: Design, Commissioning and First Beam Results

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00344917; Dabrowski, Anne

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a multi-purpose experiment situated at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The CMS has the mandate of searching new physics and making precise measurements of the already known mechanisms by using data produced by collisions of high-energy particles. To ensure high quality physics data taking, it is important to monitor and ensure the quality of the colliding particle beams. This thesis presents the research and design, the integration and the first commissioning results of a novel Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) that was designed and built for the CMS experiment. The BHM provides an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of background particles created by interactions of the proton beam with residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber or with collimator material upstream of the CMS, separately for each beam. The system consists of two arrays of twenty direction-sensitive detectors that are distributed azimuthally around the outer forward shielding of the CMS experiment. Each detector is ...

  11. System Architecture for measuring and monitoring Beam Losses in the Injector Complex at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Dehning, B; Jackson, S; Kwiatkowski, M; Vigano, W

    2012-01-01

    The strategy for beam setup and machine protection of the accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on its Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) systems. For their upgrade to higher beam energies and intensities, a new BLM system is under development with the aim of providing faster measurement updates with higher dynamic range and the ability to accept more types of detectors as input compared to its predecessors. In this paper, the architecture of the complete system is explored giving an insight to the design choices made to provide a highly reconfigurable system that is able to fulfil the different requirements of each accelerator using reprogrammable devices.

  12. Thermoelectric Device Fabrication Using Thermal Spray and Laser Micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder; Fu, Gaosheng; Hwang, David J.; Zuo, Lei; Sampath, Sanjay; Longtin, Jon P.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are used in many engineering applications such as vehicle and industrial waste-heat recovery systems to provide electrical power, improve operating efficiency and reduce costs. State-of-art TEG manufacturing is based on prefabricated materials and a labor-intensive process involving soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping for assembly. This reduces their durability and raises costs. Additive manufacturing technologies, such as thermal spray, present opportunities to overcome these challenges. In this work, TEGs have been fabricated for the first time using thermal spray technology and laser micromachining. The TEGs are fabricated directly onto engineering component surfaces. First, current fabrication techniques of TEGs are presented. Next, the steps required to fabricate a thermal spray-based TEG module, including the formation of the metallic interconnect layers and the thermoelectric legs are presented. A technique for bridging the air gap between two adjacent thermoelectric elements for the top layer using a sacrificial filler material is also demonstrated. A flat 50.8 mm × 50.8 mm TEG module is fabricated using this method and its performance is experimentally characterized and found to be in agreement with expected values of open-circuit voltage based on the materials used.

  13. Terahertz imaging system based on bessel beams via 3D printed axicons at 100GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changming; Wei, Xuli; Zhang, Zhongqi; Wang, Kejia; Yang, Zhenggang; Liu, Jinsong

    2014-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging technology shows great advantage in nondestructive detection (NDT), since many optical opaque materials are transparent to THz waves. In this paper, we design and fabricate dielectric axicons to generate zeroth order-Bessel beams by 3D printing technology. We further present an all-electric THz imaging system using the generated Bessel beams in 100GHz. Resolution targets made of printed circuit board are imaged, and the results clearly show the extended depth of focus of Bessel beam, indicating the promise of Bessel beam for the THz NDT.

  14. Requirements and guidelines for NSLS experimental beam line vacuum systems: Revision A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, C.; Halama, H.; Thomlinson, W.

    1986-10-01

    Requirements are provided for NSLS beam line front ends and vacuum interlocks. Guidelines are provided for UHV beam line vacuum systems, including materials, vacuum hardware (pumps, valves, and flanges), acoustic delay lines and beam line fast valves, instrumentation, fabrication and testing, and the NSLS cleaning facility. Also discussed are the design review for experimenters' equipment that would be connected to the NSLS and acceptance tests for any beam line to be connected with the ring vacuum. Also appended are a description of the acoustic delay line as well as the NSLS vacuum standards and NSLS procedures. (LEW)

  15. Development of a photothermal double beam laser scanning system in biopharmaceutical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubel, W; Heissler, St; Schlegel, M [Institute of Functional Interfaces, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Herrmann- von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Gotter, B; Neubert, R H H, E-mail: werner.faubel@kit.ed [Institute of Pharmacy, Martin-Luther-University, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2010-03-01

    Photothermal beam deflection (PDS) has been applied to obtain information regarding the penetration of methylorange (MO) and ditranol (DI) into artificial membranes. The measurable depth range is 56 {mu}m. Photothermal beam deflection allows on the one hand depth resolved investigations by the use of a frequency modulation of the excitation beam to reach deeper regions even in opaque sample, and on the other hand lateral imaging. To explore the potential use of a novel photothermal double beam laser scanning system, measurements in drug delivery analysis have been used for depth profiling and imaging into an artificial membrane, which represents stratum corneum or bovine hoof, appropriately.

  16. Design of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdong; Peng, Xiaocan; Ma, Li; Sun, Mei

    2016-11-01

    In order to enlarge the communication capability, a model of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams is established. One detector for measurement the signal of the vortex beam with topological charge of 0, which is a Gaussian beam, is located in the center of the cross sectional plane of vortex beam. The other three detectors are set around the first detector in the same plane to receive the power of the vortex beam with topological charge of 1. The principle of determining the emitting power of vortex beams, the radii and the positions of the detectors are suggested to increase the signals and reduce the interchannel crosstalk noise at the detectors. The signal powers as well as the interchannel crosstalk noise in a receiver channel are identical to that in another channel, respectively. This research may have applications in free space optical communications.

  17. Development of the Beam Diagnostics System for the J-PARC Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Naoki; Hiroki, Seiji; Kishiro, Junichi; Lee, Seishu; Miura, Takako; Teruyama, Yuzou; Toyama, Takeshi; Toyokawa, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Development of the beam diagnostics system for the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron is described. The system consists of Beam Position Monitor (BPM), Beam Loss Monitor (BLM), Current monitors (DCCT, SCT, MCT, FCT, WCM), Tune meter system, 324MHz-BPM, Profile monitor, and Halo monitor. BPM electrode is electro-static type and its electronics is designed for both COD and turn-by-turn measurements. Five current monitors have different time constants in order to cover wide frequency range. The tune meter is consisted of RFKO and the beam pick-up electrode. For the continuous injected beam monitoring, 324MHz-BPM detects Linac frequency. Two types of profile monitor are multi-wire for low intensity tuning and the residual gas monitor for non-destructive measurement.

  18. Design and performance of a high resolution, low latency stripline beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsimon, R. J.; Bett, D. R.; Blaskovic Kraljevic, N.; Burrows, P. N.; Christian, G. B.; Clarke, C. I.; Constance, B. D.; Dabiri Khah, H.; Davis, M. R.; Perry, C.; Resta López, J.; Swinson, C. J.

    2015-03-01

    A high-resolution, low-latency beam position monitor (BPM) system has been developed for use in particle accelerators and beam lines that operate with trains of particle bunches with bunch separations as low as several tens of nanoseconds, such as future linear electron-positron colliders and free-electron lasers. The system was tested with electron beams in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) in Japan. It consists of three stripline BPMs instrumented with analogue signal-processing electronics and a custom digitizer for logging the data. The design of the analogue processor units is presented in detail, along with measurements of the system performance. The processor latency is 15.6 ±0.1 ns . A single-pass beam position resolution of 291 ±10 nm has been achieved, using a beam with a bunch charge of approximately 1 nC.

  19. A MATLAB-based interface for the beam-transport system of an AMS facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J. M.; Gómez-Morilla, I.; Enamorado-Báez, S. M.; Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Pinto-Gómez, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) facility located at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA, Seville, Spain). We determine the beam transport through the optical system using the transfer matrix formalism in two different approaches (ray tracing and the beam-envelope approach) and describe it in terms of cross section size and emittance. The beam size results given by MATLAB are compared with the measured beam size in three of the four image points that the system has, obtaining a good agreement between them. This suggests that the first-order transfer matrix formalism is enough to simulate the optical behavior of the system.

  20. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  1. Dual axis operation of a micromachined rate gyroscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, T. [BSAC, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pisano, A.P. [Univ. California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Smith, J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Since micromachining technology has raised the prospect of fabricating high performance sensors without the associated high cost and large size, many researchers have investigated micromachined rate gyroscopes. The vast majority of research has focused on single input axis rate gyroscopes, but this paper presents work on a dual input axis micromachined rate gyroscope. The key to successful simultaneous dual axis operation is the quad symmetry of the circular oscillating rotor design. Untuned gyroscopes with mismatched modes yielded random walk as low as 10{degrees}/{radical}hour with cross sensitivity ranging from 6% to 16%. Mode frequency matching via electrostatic tuning allowed performance better than 2{degrees}/{radical}hour, but at the expense of excessive cross sensitivity.

  2. High-performance micromachined gyroscope with a slanted suspension cantilever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Dingbang; Wu Xuezhong; Hou Zhanqiang; Chen Zhihua; Dong Peitao; Li Shengyi, E-mail: Dingbangxiao@yahoo.com.c [Microsystem Laboratory, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents a novel structure for improving the stability and the mechanical noise of micromachined gyroscopes. Only one slanted cantilever is used for suspension in this gyroscope, so the asymmetry spring and the thermal stress, which most micromachined gyroscopes suffer from, are reduced. In order to reduce the mechanical noise, the proof masses are designed to be much larger than in most micromachined gyroscopes. The gyroscope chip is sealed at 0.001 Pa vacuum. A gyroscope sample and its read-out circuit are fabricated. The scale factor of this gyroscope is measured as 57.6 mV/(deg/sec) with a nonlinearity better than 0.12% in a measurement range of +-100 deg/sec. The short-term bias stability in 20 min is 60 deg/h.

  3. High-performance micromachined gyroscope with a slanted suspension cantilever

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Dingbang; Wu Xuezhong; Hou Zhanqiang; Chen Zhihua; Dong Peitao; Li Shengyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel structure for improving the stability and the mechanical noise of micromachined gyroscopes.Only one slanted cantilever is used for suspension in this gyroscope,so the asymmetry spring and the thermal stress,which most micromachined gyroscopes suffer from,are reduced.In order to reduce the mechanical noise,the proof masses are designed to be much larger than in most micromachined gyroscopes.The gyroscope chip is sealed at 0.00 1 Pa vacuum.A gyroscope sample and its read-out circuit are fabricated.The scale factor of this gyroscope is measured as 57.6 mV/(deg/sec) with a nonlinearity better than 0.12%in a measurement range of ±100 deg/sec.The short-term bias stability in 20 min is 60 deg/h.

  4. Neutral Beam Injection System for the C-2W Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaevsky, Alexander; Ivanov, Alexander; Kolmogorov, Vyacheslav; Smirnov, Artem; Korepanov, Sergey; Binderbauer, Michl; TAE Team; BINP Team

    2016-10-01

    C-2U Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) experiment proved substantial reduction in turbulence-driven losses via tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) coupled with electrically biased plasma guns at the plasma ends. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, advanced beam-driven FRCs were produced and sustained for times significantly longer (more than 5 ms) than all characteristic plasma decay times without beams. To further improve FRC sustainment and demonstrate the FRC ramp-up, the C-2U experimental device is undergoing a major upgrade. The upgrade, C-2W, will have a new NBI system producing a record total hydrogen beam power of 20 + MW in a 30ms pulse. The NBI system consists of eight positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. Four out of eight NBI injectors have a capability to switch the beam energy during a shot from the initial 15 keV to 40 keV at a constant beam current. This feature allows to increase the beam energy and thereby optimize the beam-plasma coupling during the magnetic field ramp up. This presentation provides an overview of the C-2W NBI system, including the design of the switchable energy injectors, layout of the power supply system, and results of the prototype testing.

  5. Periodic solutions of a multi-DOF beam system with impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, E.L.B. van de; Campen, D.H. van; Kraker, A. de; Fey, R.H.B

    1996-01-01

    The steady state behaviour is analyzed of a periodically driven multi-DOF beam system which has an elastic stop at its middle. The elastic stop is modelled in a continuous way by using the contact law of Hertz. The beam is modelled by using finite elements and subsequently reduced by using a compone

  6. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitor Systems for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2005-01-01

    The increase of beam energy and beam intensity, together with the use of super conducting magnets, opens new failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole accelerator protection system. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system, and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses at 7 TeV and assisted by the Fast Beam Current Decay Monitors at 450 GeV. At medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data...

  7. Performance requirements of the MedAustron beam delivery system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2073034

    The Austrian hadron therapy center MedAustron is currently under construction with patient treatment planned to commence in 2015. Tumors will be irradiated using proton and carbon ions, for which the steeply rising Bragg curve and finite range offer a better conformity of the dose to the geometrical shape of the tumor compared to conventional photon irradiation. The current trend is to move from passive scattering toward active scanning using a narrow pencil beam in order to reach an even better dose conformation and limit the need of patient specific hardware. The quality of the deposited dose will ultimately depend on the performance of the beam delivery chain: beam profile and extraction stability of the extracted beam, accuracy and ramp rate of the scanning magnet power supplies, and precision of the beam monitors used for verifying the delivered dose. With a sharp lateral penumbra, the transverse dose fall-off can be minimized. This is of particular importance in situations where the lesion is adjace...

  8. REQUIREMENTS AND GUIDELINES FOR NSLS EXPERIMENTAL BEAM LINE VACUUM SYSTEMS-REVISION B.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOERSTER,C.

    1999-05-01

    Typical beam lines are comprised of an assembly of vacuum valves and shutters referred to as a ''front end'', optical elements to monochromatize, focus and split the photon beam, and an experimental area where a target sample is placed into the photon beam and data from the interaction is detected and recorded. Windows are used to separate sections of beam lines that are not compatible with storage ring ultra high vacuum. Some experimental beam lines share a common vacuum with storage rings. Sections of beam lines are only allowed to vent up to atmospheric pressure using pure nitrogen gas after a vacuum barrier is established to protect ring vacuum. The front end may only be bled up when there is no current in the machine. This is especially true on the VUV storage ring where for most experiments, windows are not used. For the shorter wavelength, more energetic photons of the x-ray ring, beryllium windows are used at various beam line locations so that the monochromator, mirror box or sample chamber may be used in a helium atmosphere or rough vacuum. The window separates ring vacuum from the environment of the downstream beam line components. The stored beam lifetime in the storage rings and the maintenance of desirable reflection properties of optical surfaces depend upon hydrocarbon-free, ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage ring vacuum systems will operate at pressures of {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}10} Torr without beam and {approximately} 1 x 10{sup {minus}9} Torr with beam. Systems are free of hydrocarbons in the sense that no pumps, valves, etc. containing organics are used. Components are all-metal, chemically cleaned and bakeable. To the extent that beam lines share a common vacuum with the storage ring, the same criteria will hold for beam line components. The design philosophy for NSLS beam lines is to use all-metal, hydrocarbon-free front end components and recommend that experimenters use this approach for common vacuum hardware

  9. Real-Time System Supervision for the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Zamantzas, C; Effinger, E; Emery, J; Jackson, S

    2014-01-01

    The strategy for machine protection and quench prevention of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN) is mainly based on the Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system. The LHC BLM system is one of the most complex and large instrumentation systems deployed in the LHC. In addition to protecting the collider, the system also needs to provide a means of diagnosing machine faults and deliver feedback of the losses to the control room as well as to several systems for their setup and analysis. In order to augment the dependability of the system several layers of supervision has been implemented internally and externally to the system. This paper describes the different methods employed to achieve the expected availability and system fault detection.

  10. The upgraded data acquisition system for beam loss monitoring at the Fermilab Tevatron and Main Injector

    CERN Document Server

    Baumbaugh, A; Brown, B C; Capista, D; Drennan, C; Fellenz, B; Knickerbocker, K; Lewis, J D; Marchionni, A; Needles, C; Olson, M; Pordes, S; Shi, Z; Still, D; Thurman-Keup, R; Utes, M; Wu, J

    2011-01-01

    A VME-based data acquisition system for beam-loss monitors has been developed and is in use in the Tevatron and Main Injector accelerators at the Fermilab complex. The need for enhanced beam-loss protection when the Tevatron is operating in collider-mode was the main driving force for the new design. Prior to the implementation of the present system, the beam-loss monitor system was disabled during collider operation and protection of the Tevatron magnets relied on the quench protection system. The new Beam-Loss Monitor system allows appropriate abort logic and thresholds to be set over the full set of collider operating conditions. The system also records a history of beam-loss data prior to a beam-abort event for post-abort analysis. Installation of the Main Injector system occurred in the fall of 2006 and the Tevatron system in the summer of 2007. Both systems were fully operation by the summer of 2008. In this paper we report on the overall system design, provide a description of its normal operation, and...

  11. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitors System for the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2004-01-01

    The employment of superconducting magnets, in the high energies colliders, opens challenging failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole system protection. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses, while at medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standar...

  12. Performance of a high resolution cavity beam position monitor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walston, Sean; Boogert, Stewart; Chung, Carl; Fitsos, Pete; Frisch, Joe; Gronberg, Jeff; Hayano, Hitoshi; Honda, Yosuke; Kolomensky, Yury; Lyapin, Alexey; Malton, Stephen; May, Justin; McCormick, Douglas; Meller, Robert; Miller, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Ross, Marc; Slater, Mark; Smith, Steve; Smith, Tonee; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Thomson, Mark; Urakawa, Junji; Vogel, Vladimir; Ward, David; White, Glen

    2007-07-01

    It has been estimated that an RF cavity Beam Position Monitor (BPM) could provide a position measurement resolution of less than 1 nm. We have developed a high resolution cavity BPM and associated electronics. A triplet comprised of these BPMs was installed in the extraction line of the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK) for testing with its ultra-low emittance beam. The three BPMs were each rigidly mounted inside an alignment frame on six variable-length struts which could be used to move the BPMs in position and angle. We have developed novel methods for extracting the position and tilt information from the BPM signals including a robust calibration algorithm which is immune to beam jitter. To date, we have demonstrated a position resolution of 15.6 nm and a tilt resolution of 2.1 μrad over a dynamic range of approximately ±20 μm.

  13. HOT SPOT RELIEF WITH EMBEDDED BEAM FOR CDMA SYSTEMS IN HAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel micro/macro beam coverage scheme used in High Altitude Platform System (HAPS) Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) systems. A relief of traffic burden in hot spot areas is achieved by embedding micro-beams into the macro-beams at the hot spot locations, together with appropriate power ratio control and user ratio control. The simulation results show that the hot spot problem can be relieved efficiently with the presented configuration, and a higher and more stable system capacity is expectable despite the variation of user distribution.

  14. A data acquisition system for longitudinal beam properties in a rapid cycling synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Steimel, J

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal beam properties, data acquisition system has been commissioned to operate in the Fermilab booster ring. This system captures real time information including beam synchronous phase, bunch length, and coupled bunch instability amplitudes as the beam is accelerated from 400 MeV to 8 GeV in 33 ms. The system uses an off-the-shelf Tektronix oscilloscope running Labview software and a synchronous pulse generator. This paper describes the hardware configuration and the software configuration used to optimize the data processing rate.

  15. Deep ultraviolet laser micromachining of novel fibre optic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Dou, J.; Herman, P. R.; Fricke-Begemann, T.; Ihlemann, J.; Marowsky, G.

    2007-04-01

    A deep ultraviolet F2 laser, with output at 157-nm wavelength, has been adopted for micro-shaping the end facets of single and multi-mode silica optical fibres. The high energy 7.9-eV photons drive strong interactions in the wide-bandgap silica fibres to enable the fabrication of surface-relief microstructures with high spatial resolution and smooth surface morphology. Diffraction gratings, focusing lenses, and Mach-Zehnder interferometric structures have been micromachined onto the cleaved-fibre facets and optically characterized. F2-laser micromachining is shown to be a rapid and facile means for direct-writing of novel infibre photonic components.

  16. Design aspects related to the reliability of the control architecture of the LHC beam dump kicker systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Bobbio, P; Gräwer, G; Marchand, A; Uythoven, J; Verhagen, H

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dump extraction kicker system consists per ring of 15 magnets and their pulse generators. Their task is to extract the beams on request, over the whole operational beam energy range and synchronously with the beam abort gap. This operation must be fail-safe to avoid damage to accelerator equipment by undesired beam losses. The control system of the LHC beam dump kickers will be based on a modular architecture composed of different subsystems, each with a specific function like slow control, beam energy tracking, beam abort gap synchronisation, fast pulse signal monitoring and post-mortem data acquisition. Depending on the required functionality, the subsystems will be based either on passive fault-tolerant redundant hardware solutions or on active fail-safe hardware and software solutions. In addition, for the most critical subsystems like the beam energy tracking and the beam abort gap synchronisation, two redundant solutions based on different technologies will be implemented in order to preven...

  17. The drive beam pulse compression system for the CLIC RF power source

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    1999-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) is a high energy (0.5 to 5 TeV) e ± linear collider that uses a high- current electron beam (the drive beam) for 30 GHz RF power production by the Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) method. Recently, a new cost­effective and efficient generation scheme for the drive beam has been developed. A fully­loaded normal­conducting linac operating at lower frequency (937 MHz) generates and accelerates the drive beam bunches, and a compression system composed of a delay­line and two combiner rings produces the proper drive beam time structure for RF power generation in the drive beam decelerator. In this paper, a preliminary design of the whole compression system is presented. In particular, the fundamental issue of preserving the bunch quality along the complex is studied and its impact on the beam parameters and on the various system components is assessed. A first design of the rings and delay­line lattice, including path length tuning chicanes, injection and extraction regions is a...

  18. Failure Studies at the Compact Linear Collider: Main Linac and Beam Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Maidana, C O; Jonker, M

    2012-01-01

    The proposed Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is based on a two-beam acceleration scheme. The energy of two high-intensity, low-energy drive beams is extracted and transferred to two low-intensity, high-energy main beams. The CERN Technology Department - Machine protection and electrical integrity group has the mission to develop and maintain the systems to protect machine components from damage caused by ill controlled conditions. Various failure scenarios were studied and the potential damage these failures could cause to the machine structures was estimated. In this paper, first results of the beam response to kick induced failures in the main LINAC and in the beam delivery system (BDS) sections are presented together with possible collimator damage scenarios.

  19. A DSP-Based Beam Current Monitoring System for Machine Protection Using Adaptive Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Musson; H. Dong; R. Flood; C. Hovater; J. Hereford

    2001-06-01

    The CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab is currently using an analog beam current monitoring (BCM) system for its machine protection system (MPS), which has a loss accuracy of 2 micro-amps. Recent burn-through simulations predict catastrophic beam line component failures below 1 micro-amp of loss, resulting in a blind spot for the MPS. Revised MPS requirements target an ultimate beam loss accuracy of 250 nA. A new beam current monitoring system has been developed which utilizes modern digital receiver technology and digital signal processing concepts. The receiver employs a direct-digital down converter integrated circuit, mated with a Jefferson Lab digital signal processor VME card. Adaptive filtering is used to take advantage of current-dependent burn-through rates. Benefits of such a system include elimination of DC offsets, generic algorithm development, extensive filter options, and interfaces to UNIX-based control systems.

  20. E-beam exposure system using multi column cell (MCC) with CP for mask writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akio; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Yamabe, Masaki

    2008-10-01

    In the Mask D2I project at ASET, the authors designed a novel electron beam exposure system using the concepts of MCC (multi column cell), CP (character projection), and VSB (variable shaped beam) to improve the throughput of electron beam exposure systems. They presented outlines of a proof-of-concept system of MCC, and have shown the performances of VSB and CP in the system. They evaluated the impacts on beam position in one column cell caused by deflections in another column cell. The impacts were found to be less than 0.1nm in presence of major deflections in the neighboring column cell. Hence it was concluded that there was no noticeable impact on deflections cause by the neighboring column cells in the MCC system.

  1. Design of an EBIS charge breeder system for rare-isotope beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Ho; Son, Hyock-Jun; Kim, Jongwon

    2016-09-01

    Rare-isotope beams will be produced by using the isotope separation on-line (ISOL) system at the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP). A proton cyclotron is the driver accelerator for ISOL targets, and uranium carbide (UCx) will be a major target material. An isotope beam of interest extracted from the target will be ionized and selected by using a mass separator. The beam emittance will then be reduced by using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) cooler before the beam is injected into the electron-beam ion-source (EBIS) charge breeder (CB). The maximum electron beam current of the EBIS is 3 A from a cathode made of IrCe in an applied magnetic field of 0.2 T. The size of the electron beam is compressed by magnetic fields of up to 6 T caused in the charge-breeding region by a superconducting solenoid. The design of EBIS-CB was performed by using mechanics as well as beam optics. A test stand for the electron gun and its collector, which can take an electron-beam power of 20 kW, are under construction. The gun assembly was first tested by using a high-voltage pulse so as to measure its perveance. The design of the EBIS, along with its test stand, is described.

  2. Simulation of ion beam extraction and focusing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B. A. Soliman; M. M. Abdelrahman; A. G. Helal; F. W. Abdelsalam

    2011-01-01

    The characteristics of ion beam extraction and focused to a volume as small as possible were investigated with the aid of computer code SIMION 3D version 7. This has been used to evaluate the extraction characteristics (accel-decel system) to generate an

  3. Evaluation of neon focused ion beam milling for TEM sample preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekin, T C; Allen, F I; Minor, A M

    2016-10-01

    Gallium-based focused ion beams generated from liquid-metal sources are widely used in micromachining and sample preparation for transmission electron microscopy, with well-known drawbacks such as sample damage and contamination. In this work, an alternative (neon) focused ion beam generated by a gas field-ionization source is evaluated for the preparation of electron-transparent specimens. To do so, electron-transparent sections of Si and an Al alloy are prepared with both Ga and Ne ion beams for direct comparison. Diffraction-contrast imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy are used to evaluate the relative damage induced by the two beams, and cross-sections of milled trenches are examined to compare the implantation depth with theoretical predictions from Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that for the beam voltages and materials systems investigated, Ne ion beam milling does not significantly reduce the focused ion beam induced artefacts. However, the Ne ion beam does enable more precise milling and may be of interest in cases where Ga contamination cannot be tolerated.

  4. A collimation system for ELI-NP Gamma Beam System - design and simulation of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternò, G.; Cardarelli, P.; Marziani, M.; Bagli, E.; Evangelisti, F.; Andreotti, M.; Gambaccini, M.; Petrillo, V.; Drebot, I.; Bacci, A.; Vaccarezza, C.; Palumbo, L.; Variola, A.

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance and refine the design of the collimation system for the gamma radiation source (GBS) currently being realised at ELI-NP facility. The gamma beam, produced by inverse Compton scattering, will provide a tunable average energy in the range between 0.2 and 20 MeV, an energy bandwidth 0.5% and a flux of about 108 photons/s. As a result of the inverse Compton interaction, the energy of the emitted radiation is related to the emission angle, it is maximum in the backscattering direction and decreases as the angle increase [1,2]. Therefore, the required energy bandwidth can be obtained only by developing a specific collimation system of the gamma beam, i.e. filtering out the radiation emitted at larger angles. The angular acceptance of the collimation for ELI-NP-GBS must be continuously adjustable in a range from about 700 to 60 μrad, to obtain the required parameters in the entire energy range. The solution identified is a stack of adjustable slits, arranged with a relative rotation around the beam axis to obtain an hole with an approximately circular shape. In this contribution, the final collimation design and its performance evaluated by carrying out a series of detailed Geant4 simulations both of the high-energy and the low-energy beamline are presented.

  5. Sub-nanoradiant beam pointing monitoring and stabilization system for controlling input beam jitter in gravitational wave interferometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B; Genin, E; Mantovani, M; Marque, J; Ruggi, P; Tacca, M

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a simple and effective control system to monitor and suppress the beam jitter noise at the input of an optical system, called a beam pointing control (BPC) system, will be described, showing the theoretical principle and an experimental demonstration for the application of large-scale gravitational wave (GW) interferometers (ITFs), in particular for the Advanced Virgo detector. For this purpose, the requirements for the control accuracy and the sensing noise will be computed by taking into account the Advanced Virgo optical configuration, and the outcomes will be compared with the experimental measurement obtained in the laboratory. The system has shown unprecedented performance in terms of control accuracy and sensing noise. The BPC system has achieved a control accuracy of ~10⁻⁸ rad for the tilt and ~10⁻⁷ m for the shift and a sensing noise of less than 1 n  rad/√Hz, which is compliant with the Advanced Virgo GW ITF requirements.

  6. Active Stabilization of the Beam Pointing of a High- Power KrF Laser System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna1 A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An active beam-pointing stabilization system has been developed for a high-power KrF laser system to eliminate the long-term drift of the directional change of the beam in order to have a stable focusing to a high intensity. The control of the beam direction was achieved by a motor-driven mirror activated by an electric signal obtained by monitoring the position of the focus of the output beam. Instead of large sized UV-sensitive position sensitive detectors a simple arrangement with scatter plates and photodiodes are used to measure the directionality of the beam. After the beam stabilization the long-term residual deviation of the laser shots is ~14 μrad, which is comparable to the shot-to-shot variation of the beam (~12 μrad. This deviation is small enough to keep the focal spot size in a micrometer range when tightly focusing the beam using off-axis parabolic mirrors.

  7. A tracking system for a secondary pion beam at the HADES spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Joana; Fabbietti, Laura; Lalik, Rafal [Physik Deparment of the TUM (E12), Garching (Germany); Exellence Cluster Universe, TUM, Garching (Germany); Maier, Ludwig [Physik Deparment of the TUM (E12), Garching (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    For the secondary pion beam campaign with the HADES spectrometer at GSI, Darmstadt, a beam tracking system has been developed, in order to achieve the momentum measurement of each individual pion with a momentum resolution below 0.5%. A primary Nitrogen beam impacting on a Beryllium production target produces a secondary pion beam strongly defocused in position and momentum, which is transported along the chicane to the experimental area. The overall spread in momentum is only limited by the beamline acceptance, leading to momentum offsets up to 8% of the central beam momentum. The system is based on two tracking stations consisting each of a double-sided silicon strip detector read out by the self-triggered n-XYTER ASCI chip, completed by the TRB3 board on which the trigger logic is implemented. In this talk we are showing the performance of our beam detectors during the proton test beam of 1.9 GeV in the terms of the momentum reconstruction of known momentum, set by the accelerator, as well as the recent result accomplished throughout the pion beam campaign.

  8. Vacuum system of the 3MeV industrial electron beam accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, D; Mishra, R L; Ghodke, S R; Kumar, M; Kumar, M; Nanu, K; Mittal, Dr K C [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400 085 (India)], E-mail: jaypee@barc.gov.in

    2008-05-01

    One DC Accelerator, for electron beam of 3 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current, to derive 30 KW beam power for Industrial applications is nearing completion at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Beam-line of the accelerator is six meters long, consists of electron gun at top, followed by the accelerating column and finally the scan horn. Electron gun and the accelerating column is exposed to SF{sub 6} gas at six atmospheres. Area exposed to the vacuum is 65,000 sq: cm, and includes a volume of 200 litres. Vacuum of the order of 1x10{sup -7}mbar is desired. To ensure a good vacuum gradient, distributive pumping is implemented. Electron beam is scanned to a size of 5cm x 120cm, to get a useful beam coverage, for industrial radiation applications. The beam is extracted through a window of Titanium foil of 50{mu}m thickness. A safety interlock, to protect the electron gun, accelerating column and sputter ion pumps, in case of a foil rupture, is incorporated. Foil change can be done without disturbing the vacuum in the other zones. System will be integrated to a master control system to take care of the various safety aspects, and to make it operator friendly.

  9. Vacuum system of the 3MeV industrial electron beam accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, D.; Mishra, R. L.; Ghodke, S. R.; kumar, M.; kumar, M.; Nanu, K.; Mittal, K. C., Dr

    2008-05-01

    One DC Accelerator, for electron beam of 3 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current, to derive 30 KW beam power for Industrial applications is nearing completion at Electron Beam Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. Beam-line of the accelerator is six meters long, consists of electron gun at top, followed by the accelerating column and finally the scan horn. Electron gun and the accelerating column is exposed to SF6 gas at six atmospheres. Area exposed to the vacuum is 65,000 sq: cm, and includes a volume of 200 litres. Vacuum of the order of 1×10-7mbar is desired. To ensure a good vacuum gradient, distributive pumping is implemented. Electron beam is scanned to a size of 5cm × 120cm, to get a useful beam coverage, for industrial radiation applications. The beam is extracted through a window of Titanium foil of 50μm thickness. A safety interlock, to protect the electron gun, accelerating column and sputter ion pumps, in case of a foil rupture, is incorporated. Foil change can be done without disturbing the vacuum in the other zones. System will be integrated to a master control system to take care of the various safety aspects, and to make it operator friendly.

  10. CT based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy for ocular melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Takashi E-mail: tnakano@med.gunma-u.ac.jp; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Furukawa, Shigeo; Shibayama, Kouichi; Sato, Sinichiro; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Morita, Shinroku; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2003-09-01

    A computed tomography (CT) based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy was established specially for ocular melanoma treatment. A technique of collimated proton beams with maximum energy of 70 MeV are applied for treatment for ocular melanoma. The vertical proton beam line has a range modulator for spreading beams out, a multi-leaf collimator, an aperture, light beam localizer, field light, and X-ray verification system. The treatment planning program includes; eye model, selecting the best direction of gaze, designing the shape of aperture, determining the proton range and range modulation necessary to encompass the target volume, and indicating the relative positions of the eyes, beam center and creation of beam aperture. Tumor contours are extracted from CT/MRI images of 1 mm thickness by assistant by various information of fundus photography and ultrasonography. The CT image-based treatment system for ocular melanoma is useful for Japanese patients as having thick choroid membrane in terms of dose sparing to skin and normal organs in the eye. The characteristics of the system and merits/demerits were reported.

  11. CT based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy for ocular melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Furukawa, Shigeo; Shibayama, Kouichi; Sato, Sinichiro; Hiraoka, Takeshi; Morita, Shinroku; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2003-09-01

    A computed tomography (CT) based treatment planning system of proton beam therapy was established specially for ocular melanoma treatment. A technique of collimated proton beams with maximum energy of 70 MeV are applied for treatment for ocular melanoma. The vertical proton beam line has a range modulator for spreading beams out, a multi-leaf collimator, an aperture, light beam localizer, field light, and X-ray verification system. The treatment planning program includes; eye model, selecting the best direction of gaze, designing the shape of aperture, determining the proton range and range modulation necessary to encompass the target volume, and indicating the relative positions of the eyes, beam center and creation of beam aperture. Tumor contours are extracted from CT/MRI images of 1 mm thickness by assistant by various information of fundus photography and ultrasonography. The CT image-based treatment system for ocular melanoma is useful for Japanese patients as having thick choroid membrane in terms of dose sparing to skin and normal organs in the eye. The characteristics of the system and merits/demerits were reported.

  12. Test and control computer user's guide for a digital beam former test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexovich, Robert E.; Mallasch, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    A Digital Beam Former Test System was developed to determine the effects of noise, interferers and distortions, and digital implementations of beam forming as applied to the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite 2 (TDRS 2) architectures. The investigation of digital beam forming with application to TDRS 2 architectures, as described in TDRS 2 advanced concept design studies, was conducted by the NASA/Lewis Research Center for NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. A Test and Control Computer (TCC) was used as the main controlling element of the digital Beam Former Test System. The Test and Control Computer User's Guide for a Digital Beam Former Test System provides an organized description of the Digital Beam Former Test System commands. It is written for users who wish to conduct tests of the Digital Beam forming Test processor using the TCC. The document describes the function, use, and syntax of the TCC commands available to the user while summarizing and demonstrating the use of the commands wtihin DOS batch files.

  13. Micro-tensile tests on micromachined metal on polymer specimens: elasticity, plasticity and rupture

    CERN Document Server

    Seguineau, C; Malhaire, C; Brida, S; Lafontan, X; Desmarres, J -M; Josserond, C; Debove, L

    2008-01-01

    This study is focused on the mechanical characterization of materials used in microelectronic and micro- electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. In order to determine their mechanical parameters, a new deformation bench test with suitable micromachined specimens have been developed. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on "low cost" specimens, consisting in electroplated thin copper films and structures, deposited on a polimide type substrate. Moreover, a cyclic mechanical actuation via piezoelectric actuators was tested on the same deformation bench. These experiments validate the device for performing dynamic characterization of materials, and reliability studies of different microstructures.

  14. Mask synthesis and verification based on geometric model for surface micro-machined MEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-hua; LIU Yu-sheng; GAO Shu-ming

    2005-01-01

    Traditional MEMS (microelectromechanical system) design methodology is not a structured method and has become an obstacle for MEMS creative design. In this paper, a novel method of mask synthesis and verification for surface micro-machined MEMS is proposed, which is based on the geometric model of a MEMS device. The emphasis is focused on synthesizing the masks at the basis of the layer model generated from the geometric model of the MEMS device. The method is comprised of several steps: the correction of the layer model, the generation of initial masks and final masks including multi-layer etch masks, and mask simulation. Finally some test results are given.

  15. Development of a raster electronics system for expanding the APT proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapelle, S.; Hubbard, E.L.; Smith, T.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Schulze, M.E.; Shafer, R.E. [General Atomics, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A 1700 MeV, 100 mA proton linear accelerator is being designed for Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT). A beam expansion system is required to uniformly irradiate a 19 x 190 cm tritium production target. This paper describes a beam expansion system consisting of eight ferrite dipole magnets to raster the beam in the x- and y-planes and also describes the salient features of the design of the electronics that are unique to the expander. Eight Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT)-based modulators drive the raster magnets with triangular current waveforms that are synchronized using phase-locked loops (PLLs) and voltage controlled crystal oscillators (VCXOs). Fault detection circuitry shuts down the beam before the target can be damaged by a failure of the raster system. Test data are presented for the prototype system.

  16. Propagation of Coherent Gaussian Schell-Model Beam Array in a Misaligned Optical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pu; WANG Xiao-Lin; MA Yan-Xing; MA Hao-Tong; XU Xiao-Jun; LIU Ze-Jin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Based on a generalized Collins formula,the analytical formula for the propagation property of coherent Gaussian Schell-rnodel(GSM) beam array through a misaligned optical system is derived.As numerical examples,the propagation of a coherent GSM beam array in a typical misaligned optical system with a thin lens is evaluated.The influence of different misalignment parameters is calculated and the normalized-intensity distribution is graphically illustrated.%Based on a generalized Collins formula, the analytical formula for the propagation property of coherent Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam array through a misaligned optical system is derived. As numerical examples, the propagation of a coherent GSM beam array in a typical misaligned optical system with a thin lens is evaluated.The influence of different misalignment parameters is calculated and the normalized-intensity distribution is graphically illustrated.

  17. Real time management of the AD Schottky/BTF beam measurement system

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, M

    2003-01-01

    The AD Schottky and BTF system relies on rapid acquisition and analysis of beam quantisation noise during the AD cycle which is based on an embedded receiver and digital signal processing board hosted in a VME system. The software running in the VME sets up the embedded system and amplifiers, interfaces to the RF and control system, manages the execution speed and sequence constraints with respect to the various operating modes, schedules measurements during the AD cycle and performs post processing taking into account the beam conditions in an autonomous way. The operating modes of the instrument dynamically depend on a detailed configuration, the beam parameters during the AD cycle and optional user interaction. Various subsets of the processed data are available on line and in quasi real time for beam intensity, momentum spread and several spectrum types, which form an important part of AD operation today.

  18. Speckle reference beam holographic and speckle photographic interferometry in non-destructive test systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. K.

    1976-01-01

    The techniques of speckle beam holographic interferometry and speckle photographic interferometry are described. In particular, their practical limitations and their applications to the existing holographic nondestructive test system are discussed.

  19. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH BEAM ABORT SYSTEM FOR SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATOR QUENCH MITIGATION*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkay, Katherine C.; Dooling, Jeffrey C.; Sajaev, Vadim; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-25

    A beam abort system has been implemented in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring. The abort system works in tandem with the existing machine protection system (MPS), and its purpose is to control the beam loss location and, thereby, minimize beam loss-induced quenches at the two superconducting undulators (SCUs). The abort system consists of a dedicated horizontal kicker designed to kick out all the bunches in a few turns after being triggered by MPS. The abort system concept was developed on the basis of single- and multi-particle tracking simulations using elegant and bench measurements of the kicker pulse. Performance of the abort system—kick amplitudes and loss distributions of all bunches—was analyzed using beam position monitor (BPM) turn histories, and agrees reasonably well with the model. Beam loss locations indicated by the BPMs are consistent with the fast fiber-optic beam loss monitor (BLM) diagnostics described elsewhere [1,2]. Operational experience with the abort system, various issues that were encountered, limitations of the system, and quench statistics are described.

  20. An Ion Beam Tracking System based on a Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter I. P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A pair of twin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counters have been developed at the Australian National University as a tracking system to aid in the further rejection of unwanted beam particles from a 6.5 T super conducting solenoid separator named SOLEROO. Their function is to track and identify each beam particle passing through the detectors on an event-by-event basis. In-beam studies have been completed and the detectors are in successful operation, demonstrating the tracking capability. A high efficiency 512-pixelwide-angle silicon detector array will then be integrated with the tracking system for nuclear reactions studies of radioactive ions.