WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam injection system

  1. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  2. ATF neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Toroidal Facility is a stellarator torsatron being built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate improved plasma confinement schemes. Plasmas heating will be carried out predominantly by means of neutral beam injection. This paper describes the basic parameters of the injection system. Numerical calculations were done to optimize the aiming of the injectors. The results of these calculations and their implications on the neutral power to the machine are elaborated. The effects of improving the beam optics and altering the focal length on the power transmitted to the plasma are discussed

  3. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  4. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  5. The fast beam interlock system for JET neutral injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JET Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system poses severe interlock problems with the possibility of unsafe conditions arising on a fast timescale. In order to cope with this the high-security Fast Beam Interlock System (FBIS) has been developed. It is used to turn off the beams in a failsafe manner when a condition arises which could damage the beam line or torus on a timescale too short to be dealt with by the JET Central Interlock and Safety System (CISS). FBIS interfaces signals from many JET safety systems and processes them to act directly on the Neutral Beam power supplies. The interfaces and the fail safety operation of FBIS are described. It is presently planned to upgrade the system to include a real-time comparison of the ion beam deflection magnet currents and the beam extraction voltage and a system which will compensate for the effects of the Tokamak stray fields on the NBI beamlines

  6. Beam injection into RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam

  7. Development of the IHEP booster beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the IHEP synchrotron booster injection system equipment is given and results of experiments on two-turn injection are presented. The circuit of kicker-magnet switching is provided. At linear accelerator current of 80 mA the two-turn injection ensured the accumulation of 1.3 x 1012 proton/booster cycle; the total (per 29 injection cycles into the main accelerator) intensity of the accelerated beam in the booster bunch exceeded 2 X 1013, which is far in excess of the needs of the U-70 accelerator presently

  8. Beam injection system into an electron ring compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for three-turn injection of the beam into the electronic ring compressor is elaborated. The electron beam is rejected from the linear accelerator at an average energy of 1.5 MeV through the screening nozzle at a radius of 26 cm into the growing magnetic field. The energy of the injected electrons and the strength of the magnetic field are varied so that injection is always performed onto the equilibrium radius. In this case, the ring will feature an electron pulse spread of +-3.5% which makes it possible to accumulate up to 1013 particles in the ring, never exceeding the threshold of the azimuthal coherent non-stability. From the point of view of its design and technology, the injection system provides for creating superhigh vacuum of about 10-9 mm Hg in the compressor chamber which ensures the life of the ring of up to 2 ms

  9. JET neutral beam injection system, construction and component tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two neutral injection systems for JET are each determined by 40 mw beam power extracted from eight sources during 10 s pulses. Under the existing spatial restrictions, this has led to a complex beam-line system design. The applied manufacturing techniques and the approach to quality assurance are discussed. The beam sources have been operated at 80 kv, 60 a, 5 s in hydrogen. Plasma source development has increased the H+ yield to approximately 84%. Beamlet steering by aperture offset has experimentally been adjusted to the values required for the restricted tokamak entrance geometry. A beam source has also been operated at 160 kv, 37 a in deuterium. At the tokamak the 7 m high injector vacuum box has been installed incorporating a fast shutter and a cryopump. This LHE cooled pump with 40 m2 entrance area and 45% pumping efficiency has successfully been tested as well as the flexible cryoliquid transfer-lines. The bakeable valve between injector box and tokamak vacuum (1.1 m x 0.5 m gate cross-section) has been operated with leak rates <10-9 mbar1/s. The sub-system commissioning is completed by short-pulse operation of the beam sources with their final power supplies in situ at the tokamak and, in parallel to this, testing of the beam-line system in the neutral injection testbed

  10. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  11. Beam shaping element for compact fiber injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichman, L.S.; Dickey, F.M.; Shagam, R.N.

    2000-01-05

    Injection of high power, multi-mode laser profiles into a fiber optic delivery system requires controlling a number of injection parameters to maximize throughput and minimize concerns for optical damage both at the entrance and exit faces of the fiber optic. A simple method for simultaneously achieving a compact fiber injection geometry and control of these injection parameters, independent of the input source characteristics, is provided by a refractive lenslet array and simple injection lens configuration. Design criteria together with analytical and experimental results for the refractive lenslet array and short focal length injection lens are presented. This arrangement provides a uniform spatial intensity distribution at the fiber injection plane to a large degree independent of the source mode structure, spatial profile, divergence, size, and/or alignment to the injection system. This technique has application to a number of laser systems where uniform illumination of a target or remote delivery of high peak power is desired.

  12. Conceptual design of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system (interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is an interim report on conceptual design of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system. Requirements for the JT-60 neutral beam injector are injection of a 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam into the plasma in the vicinity of energy 75 keV as long as 10 sec, keeping thermal gas flow rate into the torus vacuum chamber below 15% the neutral beam flux. On the basis of these requirements and recent results of research and development of ion sources and beam line components, system conceptual design is now proceeding. Scale of the JT-60 neutral beam injection system is discussed, indicating also future problems. (auth.)

  13. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port

  15. Development of laser beam injection system for the Edge Thomson Scattering (ETS) in ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuka, E.; Hatae, T.; Suitoh, S.; Ohara, M.; Hagita, K.; Inoue, K.; Bassan, M.; Walsh, M.; Itami, K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design and development of the laser injection system for the ITER Edge Thomson Scattering system (ETS). The ITER ETS achieves a temporal resolution of 100 Hz by firing two 50 Hz laser beams alternatively. The use of dual lasers enables us to perform the Thomson scattering measurements at a temporal resolution of 50 Hz in case that one of the laser systems stops functioning. A new type of beam combiner was developed to obtain a single beam that is collinear and fixed linearly polarized from two laser beams using a motor-driven rotating half-wave plate. The rotating half-wave plate method does not induce misalignment even if the rotating mechanism malfunctions. The combined beam is relayed from the diagnostic hall to the plasma using mirror optics and is absorbed at the beam dump integrated on the inner blanket. The beam alignment system was designed to direct the laser beam onto the center of the beam dump head. The beam position at the beam dump is monitored by four alignment laser beams which propagate parallel to the diagnostic Nd:YAG laser beam and imaging systems installed outside the diagnostic port.

  16. Transverse emittance blow-up from beam injection errors in synchrotrons with nonlinear feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of transverse emittance blow-up from beam injection errors in synchrotrons with nonlinear feedback systems is considered. The relative emittance growth is calculated for linear and nonlinear feedback transfer functions. Effects of an increase of the damping decrement of the beam coherent oscillations and of a decrease of the coherent transverse amplitude spread of different bunches in case of the damper with positive cubic term in the feedback transfer function are discussed

  17. The TFTR 40 MW neutral beam injection system and DT operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since December 1993, TFTR has performed DT experiments using tritium fuel provided mainly by neutral beam injection. Significant alpha particle populations and reactor-like conditions have been achieved at the plasma core, and fusion output power has risen to a record 10.7 MW using a record 40 MW NB heating. Tritium neutral beams have injected into over 480 DT plasmas and greater than 500 kCi have been processed through the neutral beam gas, cryo, and vacuum systems. Beam tritium injections, as well as tritium feedstock delivery and disposal, have now become part of routine operations. Shot reliability with tritium is about 90% and is comparable to deuterium shot reliability. This paper describes the neutral beam DT experience including the preparations, modifications, and operating techniques that led to this high level of success, as well as the critical differences in beam operations encountered during DT operations. Also, the neutral beam maintenance and repair history during DT operations, the corrective actions taken, and procedures developed for handling tritium contaminated components are discussed in the context of supporting a continuous DT program

  18. Shielding considerations for neutral-beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a study on the geometry of an FED-A Neutral Beam Injector beamline duct shield are presented. Also included is a calculation of dose rates, as a function of time, from an activated NBI. The shielding investigations consisted of varying the parameters of the geometry and transporting particles through it using the MCNP Monte-Carlo code. The dose rates were calculated by the ACDOS3 code using realistic MCNP results. A final-to-incident flux ratio of 6.5 x 10-7 can be achieved through the use of a 65.5 cm reentry duct. This is for a realistic source and pure water shielding material. The activated NBI produced a dose rate of 15.9 mrem/hr two and a half days after shutdown of the reactor

  19. Accelerator System Design, Injection, Extraction and Beam-Material Interaction: Working Group C Summary Report

    CERN Document Server

    Mokhov, N V

    2014-01-01

    The performance of high beam power accelerators is strongly dependent on appropriate injection, acceleration and extraction system designs as well as on the way interactions of the beam with machine components are handled. The experience of the previous ICFA High -Brightness Beam workshops has proven that it is quite beneficial to combine analyses and discussion of these issues in one group. A broad range of topics was presented and discussed at the Working Group C sessions at the HB2012 Workshop. Highlights from the talks, outstanding issues along with plans and proposals for future work are briefly described in this report.

  20. Computer study of an energy recovery system for the Tore-Supra neutral beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prototype of an Energy Recovery System (ERS) has been designed for the Tore-Supra neutral beam injection lines (100 kV, 40 A deuterium beams). Our study, based on computer calculations using a 2-D charged particle trajectory program, consisted mainly in the optimisation of the components of the ERS, but it has been extended in order to draw general conclusions on some problems that might be encountered and to derive scaling laws for the suppression voltage determination. In our system, the power saving can be as large as 1 MW per injection line, i.e. about 25 % of the total power that would be spent without energy recovery. The recovery on higher energy beams has also been investigated; the power gain would be even larger in this case

  1. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade

  2. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  3. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable. PMID:24593588

  4. Design of Control Server Application Software for Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the remote control of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system, a software NBIcsw is developed to work on the control server. It can meet the requirements of data transmission and operation-control between the NBI measurement and control layer (MCL) and the remote monitoring layer (RML). The NBIcsw runs on a Linux system, developed with client/server (C/S) mode and multithreading technology. It is shown through application that the software is with good efficiency.

  5. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 800-keV neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances and new concepts in negative ion generation, transport, acceleration, and neutrailzation make it appear likely that an efficient, radiation-hardened neutral beam injection system could be developed in time for the proposed FED-A tokamak. These new developments include the operation of steady-state H- ion sources at over 5 A per meter of source length, the concept of using strong-focussing electrostatic structures for low-gradient dc acceleration of high-current sheet beams of negative ions and the transport of these beams around corners, and the development of powerful oxygen-iodine chemical lasers which will make possible the efficient conversion of the negative ions to neutrals using a photodetachment scheme in which the ion beam passes through the laser cavity

  6. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An RF driven H- source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H- current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H- beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H- injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H- beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  7. Reconstruction of light and polarized ion beam injection system of JINR Nuclotron-nica accelerator complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NICA ion collider project at JINR is under development at present. As a part of the project the Nuclotron injector upgrade has been started. The work is provided in cooperation of JINR, MEPhI and ITEP. Up to now the Nuclotron injection system consist of a number of proton and ion sources, the 650 keV pulsed preinjector and DTL linac LU-20 (Alvarez type). Such system provides injection into Nuclotron of 20 MeV proton and 5 MeV/u (Z/A >0.3) ion beams. The ion beam acceleration is realized at the 2nd harmonic of bunch travelling mode. The 650 kV high-voltage platform will be replaced by new RFQ structure. The R ampersand D of this system is discussed in the report. Results of beam dynamics simulation in RFQ and MEBT between RFQ and LU-20, electrodynamics simulation, construction of RFQ resonator, RF feeding system construction will be presented. The RF power system is assembled and tested at equivalent load and RFQ resonator manufacturing is started

  8. Sensibility Studies for the Neutral Beam Injection System in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensibility of the Neutral Beam Injection system of TJ-II to the changes of several parameters is analysed. Transmission, absorption and power loads at the intercepting structures are evaluated. The adopted values for the ion source distance, focal length and divergence are confirmed as optimal, showing a small sensitivity to changes, except for the divergence. The operational margins for beam misalignments has been found to be small but feasible, confirming also the reference directions as optimal. Finally four possible alternatives, intended to reduce the power loads at the beam entering structures, are analysed. All of them have been discarded since lead to the appearance of new risk zones, with unacceptable load levels, and reduce the transmitted power. (Author) 13 refs

  9. Solid state generator for powerful radio frequency ion sources in neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio frequency ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of fusion machines are currently supplied by self-excited RF generators. These generators have both a low power efficiency and a limited frequency stability, therefore transistorized amplifiers are being considered for the power supply of the next generation of RF sources. A 75 kW generator, originally designed for broadcasting, has been tested with a negative ion source. High operational reliability and a very good matching to the plasma load has been demonstrated. These results make this generator type a very promising candidate for future NBI systems

  10. Solid state generator for powerful radio frequency ion sources in neutral beam injection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Heinemann, B.; Franzen, P.

    2015-02-15

    Radio frequency ion sources used in neutral beam injection systems (NBI) of fusion machines are currently supplied by self-excited RF generators. These generators have both a low power efficiency and a limited frequency stability, therefore transistorized amplifiers are being considered for the power supply of the next generation of RF sources. A 75 kW generator, originally designed for broadcasting, has been tested with a negative ion source. High operational reliability and a very good matching to the plasma load has been demonstrated. These results make this generator type a very promising candidate for future NBI systems.

  11. The RHIC Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. They describe their solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999

  12. Study of pulsed sextupole magnet system for beam injection at UVSOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to introduce Pulsed Sextupole Magnet (PSM) injection at UVSOR, we performed simulation of the injection beam, and design of PSM. This PSM was designed to excite a stronger magnetic field by making a gap small. And the simulation was performed using designed PSM. As a result, it revealed that beam injection was sufficiently possible using this PSM at UVSOR, but injected beam must feel magnetic field for several turns by the PSM because of short revolution period of the storage ring. We have measured a magnetic field of this PSM which was completed in this Spring and evaluated the performance of it. A magnetic field remains in a center in PSM because of manufacturing error. So it is necessary that the magnetic field of center is rectified. We considered the method of rectifying the magnetic field of center using a thin ferrite, and confirmed effect of this method. (author)

  13. ProVac3D and application to the neutral beam injection system of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed ProVac3D (3D density Profiles in Vacuum systems), a Monte Carlo simulation code, to calculate gas dynamics and the density profiles in a complex vacuum system characterized by distributed gas sources and pumps. The Neutral Beam Injection System of ITER is a good example of such a system, for which Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe is responsible to design the state-of-the-art cryogenic pump. By using ProVac3D, we can intensively study volumes of interest inside NBI and get the information about the pumping speed in order to provide the required density profile along the beamline. The advantage of ProVac3D is that it is flexible with modular structures and very fast to achieve precise statistics by large simulation numbers even with a current desktop computer. To extend ProVac3D beyond the free molecular regime, the collision of the probe molecule with the gas background has been included. We are going to present some preliminary results as well.

  14. System for measuring parameters of electron beams injected into collective heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The description of automation system for measurement of the intensive nanosecond electron beam characteristics of a collective heavy ion accelerator at JINR is presented. The system includes a set of the collector sensors for registering electronics for all sensors. The range of beam measured currents reaches 1000 A at repetition frequency of cycles up to 50 Hz

  15. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  16. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  17. Challenges and plans for injection and beam dump

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2015-01-01

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  18. High performance operation of negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system for the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a touchstone for the success of ITER and future fusion reactor whether the present high performance negative-ion-based NBI (N-NBI) heating systems work properly. The LHD and JT-60U are only two facilities where N-NBI systems are working for high power plasma heating/current drive in the world. Because handling of negative hydrogen/deuterium ions was amateur technology, it has taken a long time to improve its skill. In LHD, we succeeded in improving the performance of one of three beam lines dramatically in 2003 by adopting a multi-slot grounded grid for the accelerator of ion source. The effort on improving the performance was also done in other beam lines with conventional ion sources in parallel. The guidelines of improving are optimization of magnetic multi-cusp configuration for efficient negative ion production, and increasing the transparency of the grounded grid for reduction of heat load on it. As a result the available beam power has been increased, that is, successive injection power level more than 10 MW became possible throughout four-month long experimental campaign, although the maximum injection power has been almost the same. The averaged negative ion beam current density at the exit of ion source, which was evaluated from the port-through injected power, was achieved up to 350 A/m2 which is larger than the required value of ITER NBI in hydrogen beam operation. Pulse length at high beam power level has also been extended owing to the reduction of heat load on the grounded grid. These results (increase in available power and pulse length) have contributed to expand the operation region of LHD. By continuous R and D, we also have found the way of solving an associated problem of multi-slot grounded grid system, that is, mismatched conditions of optimum beam optics in vertical and horizontal directions. According to this result, better beam divergence can be realized, and the increase in the total injection power is expected in the next

  19. GRAVITY: beam stabilization and light injection subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Pfuhl, O; Eisenhauer, F; Penka, D; Amorim, A; Kellner, S; Gillessen, S; Ott, T; Wieprecht, E; Sturm, E; Haussmann, F; Lippa, M; 10.1117/12.925391

    2012-01-01

    We present design results of the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY beam stabilization and light injection subsystems. Designed to deliver micro-arcsecond astrometry, GRAVITY requires an unprecedented stability of the VLTI optical train. To meet the astrometric requirements, we have developed a dedicated 'laser guiding system', correcting the longitudinal and lateral pupil position as well as the image jitter. The actuators for the correction are provided by four 'fiber coupler' units located in the GRAVITY cryostat. Each fiber coupler picks the light of one telescope and stabilizes the beam. Furthermore each unit provides field de-rotation, polarization analysis as well as atmospheric piston correction. Using a novel roof prism design offers the possibility of on-axis as well as off-axis fringe tracking without changing the optical path. Finally the stabilized beam is injected with minimized losses into single-mode fibers via parabolic mirrors. We present lab results of the first guiding- as well as the ...

  20. GRAVITY: beam stabilization and light injection subsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfuhl, O.; Haug, M.; Eisenhauer, F.; Penka, D.; A. Amorim; Kellner, S.; Gillessen, S.; Ott, T; Wieprecht, E.; Sturm, E.; Haussmann, F.; Lippa, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present design results of the 2nd generation VLTI instrument GRAVITY beam stabilization and light injection subsystems. Designed to deliver micro-arcsecond astrometry, GRAVITY requires an unprecedented stability of the VLTI optical train. To meet the astrometric requirements, we have developed a dedicated 'laser guiding system', correcting the longitudinal and lateral pupil position as well as the image jitter. The actuators for the correction are provided by four 'fiber coupler' units loc...

  1. Rf beam loading in the Brookhaven AGS with booster injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-batch bunched beam loading during injection from the Booster to the AGS will be discussed. The full intensity beam injection to the upgraded AGS rf system with beam phase and radial feedbacks will be studied. It is shown that a beam phase feedback is necessary in order to guarantee a predictable hewn behavior after the first batch injection, otherwise the initial phase deviation for the following batch injections cannot be controlled. However, the effectiveness of the phase feedback control of the transient beam loading may be limited by an emittance blow up in the process. It is shown that a fast power amplifier feedback with a moderate gain can significantly reduce the transient effect of the bunched beam injection

  2. Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Boiling Inside High-Heat-Flux Component with Swirl Tube in Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to realize steady-state operation of the neutral beam injection (NBI) system with high beam energy, an accurate thermal analysis and a prediction about working conditions of heat-removal structures inside high-heat-flux (HHF) components in the system are key issues. In this paper, taking the HHF ion dump with swirl tubes in NBI system as an example, an accurate thermal dynamic simulation method based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the finite volume method is presented to predict performance of the HHF component. In this simulation method, the Eulerian multiphase method together with some empirical corrections about the inter-phase transfer model and the wall heat flux partitioning model are considered to describe the subcooled boiling. The reliability of the proposed method is validated by an experimental example with subcooled boiling inside swirl tube. The proposed method provides an important tool for the refined thermal and flow dynamic analysis of HHF components, and can be extended to study the thermal design of other complex HHF engineering structures in a straightforward way. The simulation results also verify that the swirl tube is a promising heat removing structure for the HHF components of the NBI system. (fusion engineering)

  3. TFTR neutral beam injected power measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterflow calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source on the well-instrumented test stand, 99.5±3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12 degree, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations in the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water

  4. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  5. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to 1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that meeting were asked if they were interested in rewriting and extending their contributions as a submission to Nuclear Fusion. Technology papers were accepted because of the very nature of the subject. The submissions underwent the regular double-referee peer-review process

  6. SPS transverse beam scraping and LHC injection losses

    CERN Document Server

    Drosdal, L; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Veyrunes, E

    2012-01-01

    Machine protection sets strict requirements for the quality of the injected beam, in particular in the transverse plane. Losses at aperture restrictions and protection elements have to be kept at a minimum. Particles in the beam tails are lost at the tight transfer line collimators and can trigger the LHC beam abort system. These particles have to be removed by scrapers in the vertical and horizontal plane in the SPS. Scraping has become vital for high intensity LHC operation. This paper shows the dependence of injection quality on the SPS scraping and discusses an improved scraper setting up strategy for better reproducibility with the current scraper system.

  7. ATF neutral beam injection: optimization of beam alignment and aperturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of the existing Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral beam injectors for the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is studied. It is determined that with the practical considerations of beam aperturing, ATF vacuum vessel complexity, and realistic beam modeling, the power absorbed by the plasma will be approximately 57% of the extracted neutral beam power, which corresponds to an injected power of about 1.5 MW. By reducing the beam divergence to a 10 Gaussian distribution, the absorbed power could be increased to 93%. The power delivered to the plasma is found to be a strong function of the beam divergence but only a weak function of the beam focal length. Shinethrough can be a serious problem if very low density startups are necessary. Preliminary calculations indicate that there will be no excessive fast-ion losses. 12 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab

  8. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chase, B. E. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Chaurize, S. J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Garcia, F. G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Seiya, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pellico, W. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sullivan, T. M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Triplett, A. K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  9. Grating spectrometer system for beam emission spectroscopy diagnostics using high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system was developed for density gradient and fluctuation diagnostics in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to cover the large Doppler shift of the Hα beam emission because of the high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam atom (acceleration voltage Vacc=90-170 kV) and the large motional Stark splitting due to the large vxB field (magnetic field B=3.0 T), a grating spectrometer was used instead of a conventional interference filter system. The reciprocal linear dispersion is about 2 nm/mm, which is sufficient to cover the motional Stark effect spectra using an optical fiber with a diameter of 1 mm.

  10. Operation of 15 MW negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system for the large helical device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Y.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Osakabe, M.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Akiyama, R. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) has succeeded in generating a newly first plasma of the Large Helical Device (LHD) in March of 1998. To achieve LHD-NBI requirement, two 7.5 MW NBI systems have been established in the LHD hall and it's been in a final stage to start a normal heating experiment in this September. The system is featured by negative-ion-based system with high current (40 A) H- ion sources at a medium energy (180 keV) and by a particular design/fabrication aiming at long-pulse/quasi state injection. Operation/test results are presented. (author)

  11. Fast alternate beam injection from SPring-8 linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron beam from SPring-8 linac has been distributed to the booster synchrotron (Sy) of SPring-8 and New SUBARU (NS) of University of Hyogo. The beam direction from the linac had been changed every fifteen or twenty seconds in TopUp operation by sending command messages to network devices from central control room. Because the commands are software-based and executed successively one by one, it took about ten seconds to complete them. To change the beam routes every 0.5 seconds, we modified the timing system of linac and NS. NS timing system was changed to synchronize with that of Sy and gun trigger signals were modified to get time-shared for Sy and NS. The radiation safety system was also improved to fit faster alternate injection. These modifications were completed successfully in June 2013 and realized no wait injection of SR and NS. (author)

  12. Design principles for high current beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the design principles for high current injection beam lines having a high degree of beam quality preservation. These principles are applied to designing a high current e-beam injection line delivering 10 MeV e-beams from the injector to an accelerator driving LTV FELs, as proposed at CEBAF

  13. Construction of tangential injection NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Upgrading of the JT-60, the vacuum vessel has been modified to a larger bore. This larger bore vacuum vessel yields a larger toroidal field ripple in the vicinity of a plasma surface because of closing the toroidal field coils and plasmas. A ripple loss of injected neutral beams, then, estimated to be 30-40% through ripple field in the beam injection with the present NBI system that injects the beam perpendicularly to the plasma. An effective way to decrease the ripple loss in the plasma is to inject the beam tangentially. Meanwhile, it has been determined possible with the JT-60 upgrading to use a horizontal port as a tangential beam injection, because of eliminating a group of outer horizontal poloidal coils which are used as a divertor coil in the former JT-60. The modification from perpendicular beamline to tangential one has been executed in four beamlines out of 14 units. Four tangential beamlines are installed in two beamline tanks which are newly fabricated and positioned co- and counter-injection, respectively. Most of the beamline components are reused except a couple of cancellation coils. The modification to the tangential beamline completed in 1993, and the beam injection experiments with the tangential have been conducted successfully since 1993. (author)

  14. Feasibility study of an optical resonator for applications in neutral-beam injection systems for the next generation of nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a larger project called SIPHORE (Single gap Photo-neutralizer energy Recovery injector), which aims to enhance the overall efficiency of one of the mechanisms through which the plasma is heated, in a nuclear fusion reactor, i.e. the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system. An important component of a NBI system is the neutralizer of high energetic ion beams. SIPHORE proposes to substitute the gas cell neutralizer, used in the current NBI systems, with a photo-neutralizer exploiting the photo-detachment process within Fabry Perot cavities. This mechanism should allow a relevant NBI global efficiency of η≥ 60%, significantly higher than the one currently possible (η≤25% for ITER). The present work concerns the feasibility study of an optical cavity with suitable properties for applications in NBI systems. Within this context, the issue of the determination of an appropriated optical cavity design has been firstly considered and the theoretical and experimental analysis of a particular optical resonator has been carried on. The problems associated with the high levels of intracavity optical power (∼3 MW) required for an adequate photo-neutralization rate have then been faced. In this respect, we addressed both the problem of the thermal effects on the cavity mirrors due to their absorption of intra-cavity optical power (∼1 W) and the one associated to the necessity of a high powerful input laser beam (∼1 kW) to feed the optical resonator. (author)

  15. OTR Based Monitor of Injection Beam for Top-Up Operation of the SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, S; Masuda, T; Yamashita, A

    2005-01-01

    We have developed an OTR based monitor of injection beam at the SPring-8. The monitor has been installed near the injection point of the storage ring downstream of the beam transport line from the booster synchrotron. A screen made of an aluminum coated polyimide film is used as a nondestructive OTR radiator. A CCD camera with an electric shutter is used to observe the OTR image of the injection beam. The electric shutter is synchronized with the external injection trigger signals. At every injection, the image signal from the CCD camera is captured and analyzed by a personal computer, and the position, size and intensity of the injection beam are recorded by the common database of the SPring-8 control system. The OTR injection beam monitor provides real time and continuous diagnostic tool useful for the top-up operation of the SPring-8 storage ring.

  16. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  17. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R.

    2012-01-10

    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  18. Optic diagnosis of neutral beam injection on HL-1M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑银甲; 冯震; 雷光玖; 姜韶风; 卢大伦; 罗俊林

    2002-01-01

    During the operation of a high-power neutral beam injection (NBI) system on the H L-1M tokamak, an optical diagnostic means using CCD camera was developed to characterize the NBI performance. The vacuum valve opening process and NBI period in the HL-1M experiment were displayed by a lot of photos taken with this means. Thus, the Hα emission profiles of the neutral beam (NB) and its interaction with plasma were given. Finally, the reason possible for plasma breakdown during NBI mode Ⅱ discharge was investigated. Therefore, this in-situ diagnosis can provide more information of the NBI.

  19. Laser ion source: A direct plasma injection scheme for two-beam type interdigital-H radio frequency quadrupole linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a laser ion source using a direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) as an injection system for a two-beam type radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac with an interdigital-H (IH) type cavity. The laser ion source in the DPIS is directly connected to the RFQ cavity without the low energy beam transport system. We achieved a high current C2+ beam above 60 mA per beam channel from the ion source. The beam will be injected to the two-beam type IH-RFQ linac, and the linac will generate a beam current of approximately 44 mA per beam channel.

  20. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  1. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurashima, Satoshi, E-mail: kurashima.satoshi@jaea.go.jp; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10{sup −9}–10{sup −6} ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a {sup 12}C{sup 5+} beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  2. Modular ultrahigh vacuum-compatible gas-injection system with an adjustable gas flow for focused particle beam-induced deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas-injection system (GIS) heats up a powdery substance and transports the resulting gas through a capillary into a vacuum chamber. Such a system can be used to guide a (metal)organic precursor gas very close to the focal area of an electron or ion beam, where a permanent deposit is created and adheres to the substrate. This process is known as focused particle beam-induced deposition. The authors present design principles and give construction details of a GIS suitable for ultrahigh vacuum usage. The GIS is composed of several self-contained components which can be customized rather independently. It allows for a continuously adjustable gas-flow rate. The GIS was attached to a standard scanning electron microscope (JEOL 6100) and tested with the tungsten precursor W(CO)6. The analysis of the deposits by means of atomic force microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provides clear evidence that excellent gas-flow-rate stability and ensuing growth rate and metal-content reproducibility are experienced.

  3. Beam injection with pulsed multipole magnet at UVSOR-III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, N., E-mail: naoto@nagoya-u.jp [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aich 464-8603 (Japan); Zen, H. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hosaka, M. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aich 464-8603 (Japan); Konomi, T. [UVSOR, Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Adachi, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, KEK 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Yamazaki, J. [UVSOR, Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Takashima, Y. [Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aich 464-8603 (Japan); Katoh, M. [UVSOR, Institute for Molecular Science, 38 Nishigo-Naka, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we designed and manufactured a pulsed multipole magnet for beam injection into the UVSOR-III ring. A sextupole-like magnetic field could be excited when using the multipole magnet. To compensate for the residual field at the center of the magnet caused by manufacturing imprecisions, thin ferrite sheets were used. The injection experiments at UVSOR-III demonstrated multi-turn injections with the pulsed multipole magnet. The injection efficiency was 23% and the electron beam was stored up to the normal operation current of 300 mA. Moreover, we confirmed that oscillations of stored beams caused by beam injection were drastically suppressed compared with conventional pulsed dipole injection.

  4. Hydrogen injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a BWR type reactor, a corrosion potential of materials on a bottom of the reactor is measured. A developing rate of cracks of the material is determined based on the measured value. A dose rate of a main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of a feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate of the main steam system are within predetermined ranges respectively. In addition, the concentration of oxidant in the reactor is determined based on the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system, and the corrosion potential of the materials on the bottom of the reactor is determined based on the value. The dose rate of the main steam system is measured, and the hydrogen concentration of the feedwater system is controlled so that the corrosion potential and the dose rate are within predetermined ranges respectively. The amount of hydrogen injected to the feedwater system is determined based on the previously obtained correlation, whereby the corrosion circumference on the bottom of the reactor is directly improved within a predetermined range. Accordingly, the water quality can be controlled appropriately for the equipments on the bottom of the reactor, and the developing rate of the cracks of the material can be lowered without increasing the dose rate of the main steam system thereby enabling to extend the working life. (N.H.)

  5. LIGHT SOURCE: Conceptual design of Hefei Advanced Light Source (HALS) injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shan-Cai; Wang, Lin; Feng, Guang-Yao; Wu, Cong-Feng; Li, Wei-Min; Xu, Hong-Liang; Liu, Zu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The Hefei Advanced Light Source(HALS) is a super low emittance storage ring and has a very short beam life time. In order to run the ring stablely, top-up injection will be necessary. The injection system will greatly affect the quality of beam. This article first gives a physics design of the injecting system. Then the injecting system is tracked under different errors. The responses of storage beam and injecting beam are given in the article.

  6. Reductant injection and mixing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  7. Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection is investigated in a large aspect ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are figured out. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases due to electron return current, at the same time the peak of current moves towards the centre plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the neutral beam injection but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of net current is small for the neutral beam parallel injection but increases multipliedly for perpendicular injection, and increases with beam energy increasing. (authors)

  8. TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] neutral beam injected power measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterfall calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source in the well instrumented test stand, 99.5 +- 3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12/degree/, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations on the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  9. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas

  10. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K,

    1999-06-08

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas.

  11. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency

  12. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L., E-mail: zhao@far-tech.com; Kim, J. S. [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH’s integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  13. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  14. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    OpenAIRE

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner, Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-01-01

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavy elements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams at energies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increase the overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line and the cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ion masses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including space charge ...

  15. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  16. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  17. Telemetry signal damping during rocket electron beam injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here a preliminary analysis of telemetry signal damping associated with the injection of intense energetic electron beams in the ionosphere during the Zarnitza 2 and Araks experiments. It is suggested that the damping of the signal is due to an enhancement of density fluctuations generated by the beam

  18. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  19. Electronic beam steering of semiconductor injection lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J.

    1982-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the problem of beam steering is presented. The required modifications of the dielectric constant profile of the laser structure were derived. A practical method for implementing the needed modifications is outlined.

  20. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR DE-FG02-05ER64097 Systems and Methods for Injecting Helium Beams into a Synchrotron Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, David A

    2008-09-30

    A research grant was approved to fund development of requirements and concepts for extracting a helium-ion beam at the LLUMC proton accelerator facility, thus enabling the facility to better simulate the deep space environment via beams sufficient to study biological effects of accelerated helium ions in living tissues. A biologically meaningful helium-ion beam will be accomplished by implementing enhancements to increase the accelerator's maximum proton beam energy output from 250MeV to 300MeV. Additional benefits anticipated from the increased energy include the capability to compare possible benefits from helium-beam radiation treatment with proton-beam treatment, and to provide a platform for developing a future proton computed tomography imaging system.

  1. LHC Injection Beam Quality During LHC Run I

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079186; Stapnes, Steinar

    The LHC at CERN was designed to accelerate proton beams from 450 GeV to 7 TeV and collide them in four large experiments. The 450 GeV beam is extracted from the last pre-accelerator, the SPS, and injected into the LHC via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. The injection process is critical in terms of preservation of beam quality and machine protection. During LHC Run I (2009-2013) the LHC was filled with twelve high intensity injections per ring, in batches of up to 144 bunches of 1.7*10^11 protons per bunch. The stored beam energy of such a batch is already an order of magnitude above the damage level of accelerator equipment. Strict quality and machine protection requirements at injection have a significant impact on operational efficiency. During the first years of LHC operation, the injection phase was identified as one of the limiting factors for fast LHC turnaround time. The LHC Injection Quality Check (IQC) software framework was developed as a part of this thesis to monitor the beam quality...

  2. Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are reported. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current taken into consideration, the net current density obviously decreases; at the same time, the peak of the current moves towards the central plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the NBI but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of the net current is small for neutral beam parallel injection, but increases severalfold for perpendicular injection, and increases with increasing beam energy. (paper)

  3. Thermal Transport in NCS Plasmas with Counter Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, B. W.; Casper, T. A.; Greenfield, C. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Gohil, P.; Lohr, J.; Petty, C. C.; Synakowski, E.; Austin, M. E.; McKee, G. R.; Rettig, C. L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Zeng, L.

    1999-11-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D have investigated internal transport barrier (ITB) formation with neutral beams injected in the counter-current direction, assisted by early ECH during current ramp up. For counter injection the v_torBT term for radial force balance adds to the nabla p term to determine E× B flow shear. Compared to ITB plasmas with co-current injection, characteristics with counter injection at similar beam power are: (a) broader profiles of T_I, T_e, n_e, and ω_tor within a larger barrier radius, (b) reduced profile gradients in the barrier region, and (c) about a factor of 2 higher Z_eff ( ~4) from the carbon impurity. In this paper profile evolution and results of transport analysis will be compared with co-injection plasmas.

  4. Neutral beam injection into mirror machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    Neutral injection into 2XIIB has started and sustained a hot ion plasma of n/sub h/ = 10/sup 13/ - 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and anti E/sub i/ = 9 to 14 keV. The experiment and its interpretation are discussed.

  5. Neutral beam data systems at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system for neutral injection beam lines has been designed, implemented, and used with much success. Despite the problems with very high power levels this system is very successful in relieving the operators burdens of slow conditioning, data recording, and mode switching. The use of computer control with multiple beam lines now appears very promising

  6. Development of ion source for neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a few methods for further raising (secondary heating) toroidal plasma temperature above the limit of Joule heating of 1 to 2 keV. In this paper, the ion source used for neutral beam injection heating is described, which is now considered to be the most effective means as the secondary heating. It was reported that in Oak Ridge National Laboratory, neutral particle beam was injected into the torus and the plasma temperature increased as expected. Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) planned the plasma heating by neutral beam injection in JFT-2 torus from the summer of 1976 and it was decided that the heating by neutral beam injection is also employed in the critical plasma test facility (JT-60) which is scheduled to start operation in 1980. For this purpose, JAERI decided to build some test stand for ion source development including ITS-1 already prepared. At present, the test stand ITS-2 for the development of two stage acceleration ion source is ordered as a part of the development program of neutral beam injection heating for JT-60. This stand will be available for the test of ion sources of up to 100 kV, 20 A, and pulse width 1 sec. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Analysis of fusion neutron production in EAST with neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The neutron emission rate increases rapidly with high-power deuterium beam injected into deuterium plasmas. It is necessary to calculate the neutron production in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) for the radiation safety. Purpose: We aim to provide reference for developing new detection systems of fusion neutron and neutron radiation shielding design. Methods: Neutron emission rate was calculated using the typical particle model and analysis method. The relationships were analyzed among the fusion neutron production and the ion density, ion temperature, neutral beam energy and neutral beam power respectively. Results: The results demonstrated that the total fusion neutron production was 1016 n·s-1 with 80-keV, 4-MW neutral beam injection. Conclusion: Neutron intensity in EAST will increase by a factor of ten when appropriate neutral beam injection is applied. It can be referred for further performance improvement and radiation protection of EAST. (authors)

  8. BEAM CONTAINMENT SYSTEM FOR NSLS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shielding design for the NSLS-II will provide adequate protection for the full injected beam loss in two periods of the ring around the injection point, but the remainder of the ring is shielded for lower losses of (le) 10% full beam. This will require a system to insure that beam losses don't exceed these levels for a period of time that could cause excessive radiation levels outside the shield walls. This beam containment system will measure, provide a level of control and alarm indication of the beam power losses along the beam path from the source (e-gun, linac) thru the injection system and the storage ring. This system will consist of collimators that will provide limits to (and potentially to measure) the beam miss-steering and control the loss points of the charge and monitors that will measure the average beam current losses along the beam path and alarm when this beam power loss exceeds the level set by the shielding specifications. This will require some new ideas in beam loss detection capability and collimation. The initial planning and R and D program will be presented.

  9. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x109 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x107 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  10. Design of H- injection system for FFAG accelerator at KURRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI), a neutron source based on the accelerator driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) concept has been proposed in 1996. Aiming to demonstrate the basic feasibility of ADSR, proton Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerator complex as a neutron production driver has been constructed and the ADSR experiment has been started in March 2009. In order to upgrade beam intensity, multi-turn charge exchange injection system for scaling FFAG accelerator is being studied. The injection scheme is converted from orbit shift single-turn injection to H- multi-turn injection. The method to escape the stripping foil is orbit shift by rf acceleration. The 11 MeV H- beam is injected from linac and is accelerated up to 100MeV in FFAG main ring. In this paper, the detail of injection system is described and feasibility of such a low energy H- injection system is discussed. (author)

  11. Beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A patent is claimed for the invention of a beam alignment system. The aim of the invention is the obtention of an accurate monitoring of the beam position and direction. It is of great interest in the nuclear industry. The invention can be applied in an infrared laser beam for welding operations. An auxiliar radiation source is incorporated to the device. The system's configuration allows a simultaneous and separated utilisation of two beams. The description and the design of the proposed system are provided

  12. An Introduction to the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently a new fuelling method with supersonic molecular beam injection (MBI) has been developed and used in the tokamaks experiments successfully. It is economical to develop and maintain. The advantages of supersonic MBI compared with the conventional of gas-puffing method are as follows: deep deposition of fuel, better fuelling efficiency, reduced recycling and pure plasma. Particle and energy confinement can be improved and density limit extended. This review described the Laval nozzle molecular beam and a simple collective model for the injection of a supersonic MBI into the tokamak plasma.

  13. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author)

  14. On neutral-beam injection counter to the plasma current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, P.; Akers, R. J.; Eriksson, L.-G.

    2005-11-01

    It is well known that when neutral beams inject ions into trapped orbits in a tokamak, the transfer of momentum between the beam and the plasma occurs through the torque exerted by a radial return current. It is shown that this implies that the angular momentum transferred to the plasma can be larger than the angular momentum of the beam, if the injection is in the opposite direction to the plasma current and the beam ions suffer orbit losses. On the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [R. J. Akers, J. W. Ahn, G. Y. Antar, L. C. Appel, D. Applegate, C. Brickley et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 45, A175 (2003)], this results in up to 30% larger momentum deposition with counterinjection than with co-injection, with substantially increased plasma rotation as a result. It is also shown that heating of the plasma (most probably of the ions) can occur even when the beam ions are lost before they have had time to slow down in the plasma. This is the dominant heating mechanism in the outer 40% of the MAST plasma during counterinjection.

  15. Colliding ionization injection in a beam driven plasma accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Wan, Y; Li, F; Wu, Y P; Hua, J F; Pai, C -H; Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B; Gu, Y Q

    2015-01-01

    The proposal of generating high quality electron bunches via ionization injection triggered by an counter propagating laser pulse inside a beam driven plasma wake is examined via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is shown that electron bunches obtained using this technique can have extremely small slice energy spread, because each slice is mainly composed of electrons ionized at the same time. Another remarkable advantage is that the injection distance is changeable. A bunch with normalized emittance of 3.3 nm, slice energy spread of 15 keV and brightness of 7.2 A m$^{-2}$ rad$^{-2}$ is obtained with an optimal injection length which is achieved by adjusting the launch time of the drive beam or by changing the laser focal position. This makes the scheme a promising approach to generate high quality electron bunches for the fifth generation light source.

  16. Beam-Ion Confinement for Different Injection Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Petty, C. C.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Yu, J. H.

    2008-11-01

    DIII-D is equipped with neutral beam sources that inject in four different directions; in addition, the plasma can be shifted up or down to compare off-axis with on-axis injection. Fast-ion data for eight different conditions have been obtained: co/counter, near-tangential/near-perpendicular, on-axis/off-axis. Neutron measurements during short beam pulses assess prompt and delayed losses under low-power conditions. As expected, co-injection has fewer prompt losses than counter, tangential than perpendicular, and on-axis than off-axis; the differences are greater at low current than at higher current. Fast-ion Dα (FIDA) measurements diagnose the confinement at higher power. The inferred fast-ion density is higher during co-injection than during counter-injection, although the spatial profile is similar. Comparisons of two-dimensional FIDA images with simulations based upon classical fast-ion behavior show excellent agreement in the on-axis case. The inferred fast-ion diffusion during off-axis injection will be presented.

  17. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  18. Beam Coupling Impedance of the New Beam Screen of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Day, H; Caspers, F; Métral, E; Salvant, B; Uythoven, J

    2014-01-01

    The LHC injection kicker magnets experienced significant beam induced heating of the ferrite yoke, with high beam currents circulating for many hours, during operation of the LHC in 2011 and 2012. The causes of this beam induced heating were studied in depth and an improved beam screen implemented to reduce the impedance. Results of measurements and simulations of the new beam screen design are presented in this paper: these are used to predict power loss for operation after long shutdown 1 and for proposed HL-LHC operational parameters.

  19. Experimental investigation of molecular beam injection in HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of gas puffing is presented. The molecular beam, formed by high pressure deuterium gas through Larval nozzle and skimmer slit, is injected into the HL-1 vacuum vessel. The deuterium molecular current from the nozzle passing through the skimmer is about 3 x 1020/s. At the line average electron density of 5.2 x 1019 m-3, the beam velocity is about 100 m/s. As the plasma density and temperature increasing, the influxes of deuterium particles attenuate quickly. When the molecular beam injection (MBI) just returned to normal gas puffing, the Dα emission rapidly decreases, meanwhile, the particles move toward plasma center, the electron density is continuously peaking. The line average electron density rising lasts 45 ms. The thermal energy of plasma and confinement time for particles and energy are also increasing. the MBI is a direct and efficient gas fuelling mode, and the injected particles can reach to inside about 8 cm of plasma and q ≅ 2 confinement region. Its efficiency of injection is about 50%. After the MBI, the particle recycling coefficient R on the wall is 0.6 which is 10% lower than that of normal gas puffing

  20. Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) injection deflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a pulsed magnetic deflector system planned for the injection system of the PSR. Two sets of magnets, appropriately placed in the optical systems of both the ring and the injection transport line, provide control of the rate at which particles are injected into a given portion of transverse phase space and limit the interaction of stored beam with the injection stripping foil. High-current modulators that produce relatively complex waveforms are required for this purpose. Solid-state drivers using direct feedback to produce the necessary waveforms are discussed as replacements for the more conventional high-voltage tube technology

  1. Injection line of 1+ ion beam for electron beam ion-charge breeding source and related beam elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main purpose of the electron beam ion-charge breeding source (EBIBS) is to produce highly pure and highly charged ion beam from single charge ion of stable or radioactive species. It can accept low emittance ion beam from either online or offline ECR ion sources (ECRIS). The emittance of the extracted beam is low at lower RF frequencies and magnetic field of the ECRIS. The beam at the position of extraction is approximately reproduced at the entrance of the electron collector of the EBIBS. The beam moves forward under the influence of the negative potential deep of the electron beam and enters the ionization region in solenoid field of the EBIBS. The injection line starts at the extraction region of the ECRIS. The assumed parameters of the extracted beam of 20 keV energy and 0.0732 GeV/c momentum for injection are 10 mm diameter and 30 mrad beam divergence cone. As mass number of the ions decreases the energy decreases for constant momentum of the ion beam. The value of the momentum or the beam rigidity is judiciously chosen to encompass the most of the isotopes of various elements. The beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet and passes the beam through a 90° bending magnet. The beam is analyzed also by the dipole magnet to remove the contaminants and the selected ion beam is focused by a quadrupole doublet magnet to pass through an electrostatic 90° bending elements. The beam approaches the opening of 16 mm diameter of the electron collector. A round beam of 12 mm diameter is achieved here with the help of a quadrupole triplet through point-to-point imaging from start to the end. The transport matrices for the electrostatic bending elements were calculated and incorporated into the TRANSPORT code. (author)

  2. Computer simulation of high current uranium beams for the injection beam line of the UNILAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an attempt to generate an ion beam with high current and high brightness for the design ion, the computer code KOBRA3-INP has been used to evaluate the extraction system, the DC post-acceleration system as well as the quadrupole transport beam line, and to study the behavior of the ion beam in the combined system. (orig.)

  3. Beam-ion confinement for different injection geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Petty, C. C.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Yu, J. H.; McKee, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    The DIII-D tokamak is equipped with neutral beam sources that inject in four different directions; in addition, the plasma can be moved up or down to compare off-axis with on-axis injection. Fast-ion data for eight different conditions have been obtained: co/counter, near-tangential/near-perpendicular and on-axis/off-axis. Neutron measurements during short beam pulses assess prompt and delayed losses under low-power conditions. As expected, co-injection has fewer losses than counter, tangential fewer than perpendicular and on-axis fewer than off-axis; the differences are greater at low current than at higher current. The helicity of the magnetic field has a weak effect on the overall confinement. Fast-ion Dα (FIDA) and neutron measurements diagnose the confinement at higher power. The basic trends are the same as in low-power plasmas but, even in plasmas without long wavelength Alfvén modes or other MHD, discrepancies with theory are observed, especially in higher temperature plasmas. At modest temperature, two-dimensional images of the FIDA light are in good agreement with the simulations for both on-axis and off-axis injection. Discrepancies with theory are more pronounced at low fast-ion energy and at high plasma temperature, suggesting that fast-ion transport by microturbulence is responsible for the anomalies.

  4. Spheromak Energy Transport Studies via Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, H S; Hill, D N; Wood, R D; Jayakumar, J; Pearlstein, L D

    2008-02-11

    Results from the SSPX spheromak experiment provide strong motivation to add neutral beam injection (NBI) heating. Such auxiliary heating would significantly advance the capability to study the physics of energy transport and pressure limits for the spheromak. This LDRD project develops the physics basis for using NBI to heat spheromak plasmas in SSPX. The work encompasses three activities: (1) numerical simulation to make quantitative predictions of the effect of adding beams to SSPX, (2) using the SSPX spheromak and theory/modeling to develop potential target plasmas suitable for future application of neutral beam heating, and (3) developing diagnostics to provide the measurements needed for transport calculations. These activities are reported in several publications.

  5. Comparison of Heating Efficiency Between Co and Counter Neutral Beam injection in Large Helical Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Katsunori; Kaneko, Osamu; Osakabe, Masaki; Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Oka, Yoshihide; Murakami, Sadayoshi; Narihara, Kazumichi; Asano, Eiji E.; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; LHD Experiment Groups Team

    2001-10-01

    In the Large Helical Device, tangential neutral beam injection (NBI) is adopted in order to avoid that the fast ions are directly trapped in helical ripples. Then effective heating is realized by negative ion based high energy tangential NBI systems in Large Helical Device, two beam lines ware arranged counter -injection and the other one was arranged co-injection. However, it is predicted that the absorption efficiency of a NBI heating is also influenced by troidal drift motion of injected beam particle in weak magnetic field (Bt < 1T) operations such as high beta experiment. And also plasmas must be build up by using tangential NBI heating alone from the magnetic field strength Bt 0.5T to 1.5T, since heating by electron cyclotron heating can not be performed. So, the efficiency of co and counter NBI heating is an important issue for generating high beta plasma. According to experiment results, either of co and counter NBI was able to heat plasma efficiently in Bt=0.75T. Enhancement factors of energy confinement time without considering direct drift loss is almost the same in these plasmas. However, there is a difference in build up time of plasma by co and counter. There are no big difference in an electron temperature profile of co and counter heating as low as Bt=0.75 although the beam absorption profile may be different between co and counter injection.

  6. Mechanical Design of the Injection Beam Line of Small Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The injection beam line is a key device for beam transport of the small medical cyclotron, giving direct influence to the beam quality of the cyclotron. According to the medical needs of the cyclotron, the overall length of the injection beam line is as short as possible,

  7. Measurement of H- beam emittance in axial injection channel of DC-72 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of measuring the ion beam transversal emittance in the axial injection channel of DC-72 cyclotron is given. It is based on the gradient method using the standard rotating wire scanner for measurement of the transversal ion beam dimensions. This method was worked out for ion beam currents up to 1000 μA and allows one to reconstruct emittance with an accuracy about 30%. The method takes into account the ion beam self-charge, which is essential. It is not always a success to obtain an axial-symmetric ion beam in experiments. Therefore, a new experimental data processing method of measuring the transversal emittance for a non-axial-symmetric ion beam was suggested. The formulae for determination of the RMS dispersions of the ion beam dimensions in the rotation coordinate system by signals from the scanner wire are given. The measurements of the RMS emittances εx,y were carried out in the test stand of the injection channel of DC-72 cyclotron with the H- ion beam current of 180 μA and kinetic energy of ions of 16.82 keV. The results of the experimental data processing are adduced

  8. Excitation of HF and ULF-VLF waves during charged particle beams injection in active space experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of active space experiment with simultaneous injection of electron and xenon ion beams from the Interkosmos-25 (IK-25) satellite are presented. A specific feature of this experiment was that charged particles were injected in the same direction along the magnetic field lines and the particle beams simultaneously injected into the ionospheric plasma were therefore nested in one another. Results of the beam-plasma interaction for this configuration were registered by the double satellite system consisting of IK-25 station and Magion-3 subsatellite. (author)

  9. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  10. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  11. Development of beam flattening system using non-linear beam optics at J-PARC/JSNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As increasing in the beam power, the damage of the target becomes serious. Especially for a target for high power short pulse spallation neutron source, the damage due to the proton beam on the target vessel for liquid metal target such as mercury is reported to be proportional of 4th power of the peak intensity of the proton beam. Reduction of the peak intensity is important for the beam injection system. At the JSNS, beam profile can be described by the clear Gaussian functions. To reduce peak intensity, we have developed a beam transport system by non-linear beam optics using octupole magnets. (author)

  12. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse

  13. Studies of beam injection with a compensated bump and uncompensated bump in a synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar Fakhri, Ali; Prajapati, S. K.; Ghodke, A. D.; Singh, Gurnam [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-08-15

    Synchrotron radiation sources Indus-1 and Indus-2 have a synchrotron as the common injector. A three kicker compensated bump injection scheme was employed for beam injection into this synchrotron. The stored beam current in the synchrotron is higher, when all the three kickers are operated at the same current than when kickers are operated at currents required to generate compensated bump. Beam dynamics studies have been done to understand why this happens. Theoretical studies indicate that higher stored current in the later case is attributed to smaller residual oscillations of injected beam. These studies also reveal that if the angle of the injected beam during beam injection is kept varying, the performance could be further improved. This is experimentally confirmed by injecting the beam on rising part of the injection septum magnet current pulse.

  14. The Injection Laser System on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, M; Burkhart, S; Cohen, S; Erbert, G; Heebner, J; Hermann, M; Jedlovec, D

    2006-12-13

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is currently the largest and most energetic laser system in the world. The main amplifiers are driven by the Injection Laser System comprised of the master oscillators, optical preamplifiers, temporal pulse shaping and spatial beam formatting elements and injection diagnostics. Starting with two fiber oscillators separated by up to a few angstroms, the pulse is phase modulated to suppress SBS and enhance spatial smoothing, amplified, split into 48 individual fibers, and then temporally shaped by an arbitrary waveform generator. Residual amplitude modulation induced in the preamplifiers from the phase modulation is also precompensated in the fiber portion of the system before it is injected into the 48 pre-amplifier modules (PAMs). Each of the PAMs amplifies the light from the 1 nJ fiber injection up to the multi-joule level in two stages. Between the two stages the pre-pulse is suppressed by 60 dB and the beam is spatially formatted to a square aperture with precompensation for the nonuniform gain profile of the main laser. The input sensor package is used to align the output of each PAM to the main laser and acquire energy, power, and spatial profiles for all shots. The beam transport sections split the beam from each PAM into four main laser beams (with optical isolation) forming the 192 beams of the NIF. Optical, electrical, and mechanical design considerations for long term reliability and availability will be discussed.

  15. Fault injection system for automatic testing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜文; 洪炳熔

    2003-01-01

    Considering the deficiency of the means for confirming the attribution of fault redundancy in the re-search of Automatic Testing System(ATS) , a fault-injection system has been proposed to study fault redundancyof automatic testing system through compurison. By means of a fault-imbeded environmental simulation, thefaults injected at the input level of the software are under test. These faults may induce inherent failure mode,thus bringing about unexpected output, and the anticipated goal of the test is attained. The fault injection con-sists of voltage signal generator, current signal generator and rear drive circuit which are specially developed,and the ATS can work regularly by means of software simulation. The experimental results indicate that the faultinjection system can find the deficiency of the automatic testing software, and identify the preference of fault re-dundancy. On the other hand, some soft deficiency never exposed before can be identified by analyzing the tes-ting results.

  16. Injection of intense ion beam into a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an experiment to investigate the direct injection of an intense ion beam into a tokamak by means of the polarization drift. Confinement of 100 keV ions in the UCI tokamak (r = 15 cm, R = 60 cm, B/sub T/ = 6 kG) requires operation with a plasma current of 56 kA corresponding to q (limiter) = 2. Trapped ions are to be detected by a charge-exchange analyzer. The present status of the experiment will be discussed

  17. Numerical Simulation of Non-Inductive Current Driven Scenario in EAST Using Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Wang, Ji; Hu, Chundong

    2015-01-01

    For achieving the scientific mission of long pulse and high performance operation, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) applies fully superconducting magnet technology and is equiped with high power auxiliary heating system. Besides RF (Radio Frequency) wave heating, neutral beam injection (NBI) is an effective heating and current drive method in fusion research. NBCD (Neutral Beam Current Drive) as a viable non-inductive current drive source plays an important role in quasi-steady state operating scenario for tokamak. The non-inductive current driven scenario in EAST only by NBI is predicted using the TSC/NUBEAM code. At the condition of low plasma current and moderate plasma density, neutral beam injection heats the plasma effectively and NBCD plus bootstrap current accounts for a large proportion among the total plasma current for the flattop time.

  18. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact α-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  19. Injection and acceleration system of pulsed racetrack microtron

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakov, A N; Ishkhanov, B S

    2002-01-01

    Paper describes a pulsed racetrack microtron (RM) with 70 MeV beam maximal power. For this project one designed rare-earth permanent magnet base bending magnets, pattern to inject a bunched electron bean through a compact alpha-magnet and prismatic biperiodic accelerating structure (PBAS) characterized by compact transverse dimensions ensuring bar-free passing of electron beam through the first orbit. Besides, the PBAS has a high-frequency quadrupole focusing. These features facilitate essentially RM design and adjustment. Paper describes tests, technique of adjustment and of measuring of systems to inject and to accelerate a pulsed racetrack microtron

  20. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y. J., E-mail: yjxu@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  1. Neutralization of ion beam by means of transverse injection of electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baitin, A. V.; Serebrennikov, K. S.; Sionov, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam transverse injection into a region of a positive ion beam propagating between two conducting plates is considered. This problem is important for ion beam propagation in the implanter tracts and for construction of ion beam focusing elements. After the transition stage the formation of different stationary ion-beam plasma states is possible, with electrons being accelerated or decelerated while moving from the wall up to the center of the ion beam. The dependence of the final state on the parameters of the system is obtained. The regime with deceleration is characterized by negative total space charge and can be used for focusing of the ion beam. Temporary evolution of the neutralization process and realization of these stationary states is studied by means of one-dimensional particle-in-cell code simulation. The dynamics of the process in the case of absence of the stationary state and such non-stationary phenomena like sheath and virtual cathode are studied, too. This process comes to a high degree of neutralization due to the electrons being captured by the ion beam space charge potential.

  2. Suppression of stored beam oscillation at injection in the SPring-8 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the SPring-8 storage ring, when the injection bump orbit is not closed perfectly at the beam injection, the horizontal stored beam oscillation of the amplitude more than 0.5 mm (r.m.s.) is excited. Now, the averaged oscillation amplitude has successfully been suppressed to the level of less than 0.15 mm (r.m.s.) by applying a counter kick to the residual oscillation with a pulse width of 500 ns. To confirm the suppression effect, we observed the turn-by-turn photon beam profile at the diagnostics beamline with the insertion device. The light axis oscillation was significantly suppressed down to less than 4 μrad from more than 30μrad by applying a counter kick at 3rd turn after injection. Without the kicker correction, it took about 80 turns to reduce the oscillation, which was determined by the damping time with the bunch by bunch feedback system. In the SPring-8 user operation, in addition to the effect of providing stable photon beam, we succeeded in not only shortening the effective damping time but also filling a single high current bunch up to 5 mA to any bucket address. (author)

  3. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  4. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive

  5. Experiments with electron beam injection in ionosphere plasma and rare gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The active experiment 'Electron' is intended for the electron beam injection from a meteorological rocket in the ionosphere plasma. The beam is injected in the ionosphere plasma at a current of 0.5 A and an energy of 6.5 - 8 keV. The energy spectra are given for the plasma electrons and ions. The radio-wave spectrum is measured in a RF frequency range of 100-500 MHz. The radio wave traversing through the electron beam injection region is discussed. The laboratory experiments are performed with the electron beam injection in a rare gas to model the active outer-space experiments

  6. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  7. Reduction in TFTR [Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor] fusion reaction rate by unbalanced beam injection and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In TFTR plasmas at low to moderate density, the highest fusion energy gain Q/sub dd/ (D-D fusion power/injected power P/sub b/) is obtained with nearly balanced co- and counter-injection of neutral beams. For a given beam power, significantly unbalanced injection reduces Q/sub dd/ because the accompanying plasma rotation reduces the beam-target fusion reactivity, the fast-ion slowing-down time, and the beam-beam reaction rate, while and decrease from their maximum values. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Calculation of the system for ion axial injection into the U-200 isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An axial injection system is calculated for injection of ion beams (A/Z=2.8-5) into the U-200 isochronous cyclotron, its basic performance characteristics are discussed. Transport channel consisting of solenoids, magnetic lenses and electrostatic mirror are calculated by TRANSPORT program. Acceptance of the system is in good agreement with the beam emittance of 313π mmxmrad. Numerical optimization of mirror parameters is presented. The calculated beam envelope in the central region agrees well the measurements

  9. Beam imaging in the injection line of the INFN-LNS superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolosi, Dario, E-mail: dario.nicolosi@lns.infn.it; Cosentino, Luigi; Mascali, David; Pappalardo, Alfio; Castro, Maurizio; Celona, Luigi; Marchetta, Carmelo; Marletta, Salvatore; Maugeri, Antonio; Rifuggiato, Danilo; Seminara, Angelo; Gammino, Santo [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A cheap and efficient diagnostic system for beam monitoring has been recently developed at INFN-LNS in Catania. It consists of a high sensitivity CCD camera detecting the light produced by an ion beam hitting the surface of a scintillating screen and a frame grabber for image acquisition. A scintillating screen, developed at INFN-LNS and consisting of a 2 μm BaF{sub 2} layer evaporated on an aluminium plate, has been tested by using {sup 20}Ne and {sup 40}Ar beams in the keV energy range. The CAESAR ECR ion source has been used for investigating the influence of the frequency and magnetic field tuning effects, the impact of the microwave injected power, and of the focusing solenoids along the low energy beam transport on the beam shape and current. These tests will allow to better understand the interplay between the plasma and beam dynamics and, moreover, to improve the transport efficiency along the low energy beam line and the matching with the superconducting cyclotron, particularly relevant in view of the expected upgrade of the machine.

  10. Texas Experimental Tokamak impurity injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary investigation of impurity transport and measurements of ion temperature are facilitated by injecting controlled quantities of selected impurities into tokamaks as diagnostic probes. The impurity injector now in use on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) was designed for reliable, automatic operation. In this system, a thin film of the desired impurity is placed near the edge of the plasma. The light pulse from a Q-switched ruby laser is directed to a preselected point on the target. A small part of the impurity film evaporates and drifts into the plasma. The laser beam may be scanned to many points on the target so that enough impurity pulses can be obtained from a single target to allow a full day's operation. The scanning assembly and associated electronics are designed to operate with minimum intervention and to facilitate rapid repair and modification. The system is fully automatic but also incorporates both remote and local manual control capabilities to permit system calibration and troubleshooting. In the event of component failure, its self-diagnostic capability can indicate the area for repair. The system is demonstrating its effectiveness and reliability in the support of three different experimental programs. Engineering aspects of the system are discussed in this paper

  11. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator massspectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitiveminicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described togetherwith the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having beenoperating for fiveyears, which provides a basis for consideration ofimprovements to the injectionsystem. An optimized injection system with an analyticalmagnet added prior to theminicyclotron has been proposed and calculated.

  12. Beam-Based Measurement of the Waveform of the LHC Injection Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Goddard, B; Hessler, C; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2010-01-01

    Proton and ion beams are injected into LHC at 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of up to 7.8 ms flat top duration with rise and fall times of not more than 900 ns and 3 ms, respectively. Both systems are composed of four travelling wave kicker magnets, powered by pulse forming networks. One of the stringent design requirements of these systems is a field flat top and postpulse ripple of less than ±0.5 %. A carefully matched high bandwidth system is required to obtain the required pulse response. Screen conductors are placed in the aperture of the kicker magnet to provide a path for the image current of the, high intensity, LHC beam and screen the ferrite against wake fields. However, these conductors affect the field pulse response. Recent injection tests provided the opportunity to directly measure the shape of the kick field pulse, with high accuracy, using a pilot beam. This paper details the measurements and compares the results with predictions and laboratory measurem...

  13. Ionization, stopping, and thermalization of hydrogen and boron beams injected in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, Agustín F.; Farengo, Ricardo; Arista, Nestor R.

    2000-07-01

    The ionization, stopping, and thermalization of hydrogen and boron beams, injected, respectively, in boron and hydrogen plasmas, is studied. The evolution of the charge state populations of the neutral beams is described considering the various ionization, excitation, and charge exchange channels. The interaction of the beam with the plasma is described in terms of the Fokker-Planck equation, which is numerically solved to show in detail the evolution of the beam until final thermalization is reached. Beam energies of 640 keV/u (maximum of the cross section for the p-B11 fusion reaction) and 200 keV/u, and various plasma temperatures are considered. It is seen that, due to an important perpendicular-diffusion effect, high energy beams reach effective peak temperatures which are much higher than the plasma temperature, before equilibrium is established. The fraction of fusioned particles is also calculated. Some implications of interest for recently proposed p-B11 fusion reactor systems are drawn out.

  14. Turn-by-Turn Analysis of Proton and Gold Beams at Injection in the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe the latest version of a program they have used for several years to acquire and analyze turn-by-turn data from pick-up electrodes in the AGS Booster during injection. The program determines several parameters of the injected beam including the tunes and the position and angle of the incoming beam. Examples are given for both proton and gold injection

  15. Beam alignment system for laser welding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patent describes a beam alignment system for laser welding work pieces, such as fuel rod grids for nuclear fuel assemblies. The apparatus for performing various laser-machining comprises a beam alignment system including alignment target means, as well as means for emitting, directing and focusing the laser beam. (U.K.)

  16. The Injection Bumper System for LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Fowler, A

    2004-01-01

    To satisfy the ion beam luminosity requirements for CERN's future Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a small accumulator, the Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR), is being built in the injector chain of accelerators. LEIR will use a combined longitudinal and transverse multi-turn injection scheme which requires a bumper system comprising four individually pulsed dipole magnets. The paper discusses the bumper system, in particular the power supplies which will produce a pulsed current linearly decreasing from 1.2kA to zero in a time variable between 120µs and 300µs. Each power supply employs a primary discharge circuit, comprising a storage capacitor, an IGBT switch and the magnet load inductance, to establish the peak current, and a free-wheel circuit in parallel with the magnet, comprising a diode and capacitor, to produce the linear current slope. A novel feature of the circuit is the use of a variable bias voltage on the free-wheel capacitor, allowing continuous variation of the slope duration.

  17. Transient beam losses in the LHC injection kickers from micron scale dust particles

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Baer, T; Barnes, M J; Cerutti, F; Ferrari, A; Garrel, N; Gerardin, A; Guinchard, M; Lechner, A; Masi, A; Mertens, V; Morón Ballester, R; Redaelli, S; Uythoven, J; Vlachoudis, V; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    Transient beam losses on a time scale of a few ms have been observed in the LHC injection kickers, occurring mainly shortly after beam injection with a strong correlation in time to the kicker pulsing. The beam losses, which have at times affected LHC availability, are attributed to micron scale ceramic dust particles detached from the alumina beam pipe and accelerated into the beam. The beam related observations are described, together with laboratory measurements of beam pipe contamination and kicker vibration, simulations of electric field in the beam pipe and the basic dynamic model. Energy deposition simulations modelling the beam losses are presented and compared to measurement. Extrapolations to future LHC operation at higher intensities and energies are made, and prospects for mitigation are discussed.

  18. Design of neutral beam injection power supplies for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Higa, Osamu; Kawashima, Syuichi [Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ono, Youichi; Tanaka, Masanobu [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Design study on a power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector(NBI) has been performed. Circuits of converter/inverter system and other components of the acceleration power supply whose capacity is 1 MV, 45 A have been designed in detail. Performance of the negative ion production power supplies such as an arc and an extraction power supplies was investigated using the EMTDC code. It was confirmed that ripples of 0.34%p-p for the extraction power supply and 1.7%p-p for the arc power supply are small enough. It was also confirmed that an energy input to a negative ion generator from the arc power supply at an arcing can be suppressed smaller than 8 J. The extraction power supply was designed to suppress the energy input lower than 13 J at the breakdown in the extractor. These performances satisfy the required specification of the power supply system. (author)

  19. Optimized bunching in the spiral inflector of the CYCLONE 44 injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The University at Louvain-la-Neuve is building a compact cyclotron as a post-accelerator/separator for radioactive ion beams called CYCLONE-44. To achieve a high overall injection efficiency it is necessary to ensure proper 6D beam matching of the injected beam to the cyclotron central region. The key component in the cyclotron injection system is a spiral inflector that will place the beam at correct position in the median plane. This paper deals with the optimized beam bunching in the inflector. Using transfer matrix techniques the conditions for obtaining minimized bunch lengths at the inflector exit were derived. Consistent will some previous publications, the time spread of the beam at the inflector exit for the large injected emittances required in this applications is significant. It will be shown that these large pulse lengths are a direct consequence of the inflector optics. (authors)

  20. Beam kicker control system for CSR project in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam kicker system is a key part for beam extraction and injection in ring-like accelerator, which works under high voltage and huge current. This paper introduces the kicker control system based on ARM+DSP+FPGA for CSR project in Lanzhou, which has nanosecond timing precision. ARM mainly completes the control signals with the network communication, and the time control precision for the beam kicker system is performed mainly by FPGA and DSP. The sequence control signals through the optic fiber transmission, synchronous to kicker power supply the voltage to assign uses the signal isolators and ferrites to suppress the disturbance pulses. Scene test has proved that this system can meet beam kicker control's request and work safely and stably. The control system has extracted and injected the CSR beam successfully in October 2007. (authors)

  1. Enhancement of neutral beam deposition in hydrogen discharge using carbon pellet injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The central ion temperature in the large helical device (LHD), as measured by charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy, has been improved to a record 5.6 keV by combining 21 MW of neutral beam heating with the injection of a carbon pellet. The intensity of the neutral beam emission of the hydrogen Balmer line (Hα: n=3 → 2) was observed to weaken along the beam injection axis following the carbon pellet injection due to the increased beam attenuation. The beam-emission intensity was reconstructed by calculating the density distribution, and the beam-stopping coefficients, along a beam injection axis and was found to fit well to the measured beam-emission for a mixed hydrogen and carbon target plasma. The dynamics of the neutral beam deposition power and the carbon fraction were estimated from the beam-emission measurements using data from ADAS. We conclude that the beam deposition power in a carbon pellet discharge is enhanced over that of a pure hydrogen discharge. (author)

  2. Preliminary experiment of neutral beam injection heating in JIPP T-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam injection experiments are carried out in JIPP T-II, which is a hybrid device of stellarator and tokamak. Two neutral beam injectors are equipped tangentially in the direction of co- and counter-injections. Hydrogen neutral beams of 22 keV, 60 kW (co-injection) and 30 kW (counter-injection) are applied to the ohmically heated stellarator plasma and also to the tokamak plasma. The bulk ion heating efficiency for co-injection is around 1.6 eV/kW in the case of stellarator and 1.9 eV/kW in the case of tokamak, while the heating efficiencies for counter-injection are about 1.6 eV/kW in both cases. The difference between the tokamak and stellarator is considered to be caused by the enhanced orbit loss due to the helical ripples in the stellarator. (author)

  3. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  4. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  5. Beam developments for the Harwell microprobe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of the rapid development of micron and submicron size electronic devices is the diminished applicability of high energy ion microprobes with their present resolution limitations to the study of such components. Although submicron beams have been reported the available beam current is barely sufficiently for PIXE and is not adequate for RBS. This lack of lateral resolution is due to low beam brightness at the microprobe object and aberrations in the focussing elements. As part of a program to address these problems the Harwell microprobe lens has been relocated on a new 5 MV Laddertron accelerator. The increased brightness and improved stability of this facility has so far led to a reduction in beam size from 3x3 μm2 to about 2x2 μm2. The feasibility of using a liquid metal ion source has been examined with a view to achieving more substantial increases in brightness. While such sources have brightness approximately 105 times greater than conventional gaseous sources the highly divergent nature of the beam presents problems for the beam transport system. The use of a liquid metal source on the accelerator has been successfully demonstrated but it indicates the need for a special low aberration injection lens if brightness is to be maintained. (orig.)

  6. Beam developments for the Harwell microprobe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consequence of the rapid development of micron and submicron size electronic devices is the diminished applicability of high energy ion microprobes with their present resolution limitations to the study of such components. Although submicron beams have been reported the available beam current is barely sufficiently for PIXE and is not adequate for RBS. This lack of lateral resolution is due to low beam brightness at the microprobe object and aberrations in the focusing elements. As part of a program to address these problems the Harwell microprobe lens has been relocated on a new 5 MV Laddertron accelerator. The increased brightness and improved stability of this facility has so far led to a reduction in beam size from 3 x 3 μm2 to about 2 x 2 μm2. The feasibility of using a liquid metal ion source has been examined with a view to achieving more substantial increases in brightness. While such sources have brightness approximately 105 times greater than conventional gaseous sources the highly divergent nature of the beam presents problems for the beam transport system. The use of a liquid metal source on the accelerator has been successfully demonstrated but it indicates the need for a special low aberration injection lens if brightness is to be maintained

  7. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsa, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Ko, S.K. [Ulsan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-10-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given.

  8. Calorimeter design-aspects for neutral beam injection on W7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtum, D., E-mail: holtum@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Liebe, T. [Fa. Xenos GmbH, Jugendstr. 2, D-81667 Muenchen (Germany); Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Rong, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany); Schubert, W. [Fa. Xenos GmbH, Jugendstr. 2, D-81667 Muenchen (Germany); Staebler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Postfach 1533, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the heating systems for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The beam power of the NBI is measured calorimetrically. Using the knowledge gained from ASDEX-Upgrade operation, the complete calorimeter was re-designed. The design-aspects and the necessary improvements for operation on W7-X are described in this paper. The main aspects improved concern: (i) the adapted slope of the winding drum at the lift, (ii) the adjustable acceleration/deceleration ramp and integrated position sensors, (iii) the improvements of panels in the body, (iv) the accessibility for mounting panels, (v) the water-distribution, and (vi) the centering of the body on the support to fix and reproduce the measuring position. The manufacturing is in progress, installation will start in 2011 and the commissioning is scheduled for the end of 2014.

  9. Calorimeter design-aspects for neutral beam injection on W7-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the heating systems for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). The beam power of the NBI is measured calorimetrically. Using the knowledge gained from ASDEX-Upgrade operation, the complete calorimeter was re-designed. The design-aspects and the necessary improvements for operation on W7-X are described in this paper. The main aspects improved concern: (i) the adapted slope of the winding drum at the lift, (ii) the adjustable acceleration/deceleration ramp and integrated position sensors, (iii) the improvements of panels in the body, (iv) the accessibility for mounting panels, (v) the water-distribution, and (vi) the centering of the body on the support to fix and reproduce the measuring position. The manufacturing is in progress, installation will start in 2011 and the commissioning is scheduled for the end of 2014.

  10. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-08-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma.

  11. Injection control at SuperKEKB with event timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SuperKEKB is the next generation project of KEKB and is started its operation in early 2015. Linac plays important roles in this luminosity upgrade project. The stored beam current in the main ring is doubled from that of KEKB. The top-up injection is performed to keep the maximum beam current during the operation. The injection control becomes complicated because of newly constructed Damping Ring. We designed the new Main Trigger Station. The performance tests of Event Timing System are implemented since it becomes more essential in this new design. The accuracy of delivering timing is determined to be 10ps. The long term stability of operation is confirmed. We conclude the new Main Trigger Station is satisfactory for SuperKEKB. (author)

  12. SQL Injection Test System for Students

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatkovski, Dragi; Suteva, Natasa; Mileva, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    We present a new web application as a vulnerable testing system for SQL injection attacks. Its purpose is to give opportunity to students of Computer security courses, to explore the nature of these modern attacks, to see how hackers exploit them and to learn how to protect their databases from them. Deployment of SQL injection attack on real web applications is illegal and it is subject to prosecution by law. With this software, we protect our students, and in the same time...

  13. Preliminary test experiment for electron beam injection to JSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary test experiment has been carried out to investigate the property of electron beam from the JAERI linac which will be used as an injector for the JSR(JAERI Storage Ring). The electron beam was obtained within the energy resolution of 1.55 % and the peak current of 38 mA at 150 MeV. (author)

  14. Simulations of LEIR Injection Line Beam Position Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Maltseva, Mariya

    2016-01-01

    In this paper sensitivity characteristics of a beam position monitor are described. Characteristics are obtained during the simulations in CST Studio, the results are compared with the calculated values. The results for a low-beta beam and with a wire are compared.

  15. Bunch-to-bucket injection of linac beam into the Brookhaven AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new fast beam chopper has been used to study injection and capture in the AGS. The chopper is a fast beam switch with 10 ns rise and fall times that can be programmed on a bunch-by-bunch basis and is synchronized to the net accelerating voltage of the synchrotron, thus allowing bunch-to-bucket injection of the 200 MeV H- linac beam. The studies so far have concentrated on simple injection scenarios, at reduced intensity, where longitudinal effects are well separated from transverse. The evolution of the pre-bunched beam during the transition from injection to acceleration has been examined. Results have shown the importance of the detailed linac beam energy distribution. The ability to control the longitudinal emittance of the beam with the fast chopper has been used in other machine studies. This report includes a description of a measurement of the longitudinal coupling impedance of the AGS by the beam transfer function technique which utilized the control of longitudinal emittance provided by bunch-to-bucket injection. Plans for improvements to the chopper equipment are also describe. 6 refs., 4 figs

  16. Modeling of plasma heating with neutral beam injection in T-11 machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computations of energy balance are presented for a tokamak with hot atom beam injection. Atom ionization, trapping of generated ions and energy transfer to plasma are examined. Energy loss in charge exchange is considered. Relationships are presented between the temperature and the injection power, the plasma density and other parameters. Possibilities are discussed for obtaining a collisionless ion regime

  17. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  18. Numerical simulation of high-current ion linear induction accelerator with additional electron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2d3v particle-in-cell simulations of the transportation and acceleration of a high-current tubular ion beam through six magnetoinsulated accelerating gaps are presented. Charge and current compensations are carried out by an accompanying electron beam, and also by additionally injected electron beams. The accelerating electric field is enclosed to the first, third and fifth cusps. Its magnitudes are those, that initial kinetic energy of compensating electron beams is little bit higher than a potential barrier of an accelerating field in each cusp, that allows an electron beam to overcome accelerating potential in one cusp. The second, fourth and sixth cusps in which the accelerating field is absent, are used for injection of additional compensating electron beams which replace the electron beam which has 'worked-out' on the previous accelerating gap. The simulations involve solving a complete set of Maxwell's equations with charge-conserving scheme for calculating the current density on a mesh, and relativistic motion equations for charged particles. The possibility of transporting and acceleration of a high-current tubular ion beam in six cusps is shown. It is shown, that distribution function of a high-current ion beam on an output of the accelerator essentially improves due to optimization of parameters of additionally injected electron beams.

  19. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  20. Beam steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowhill, S. A.; Merewether, K. O.

    1986-01-01

    A simple technique for steering the beam of a multimodule phased array MST (mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere) radar antenna is described. It is desirable to be able to point the antenna in multiple directions, so as to derive all components of the horizontal velocity. This was done on an experimental basis by adding parallel wire line to the feed and achieving a southward tilt of the antenna. It is proved possible to steer the beam through most of the available range without adversely affecting the VSWR seen from the transmitter. Calibrating the antenna direction can be accomplished by observing radio sources, though there are an inadequate number to cover all directions. For various assumed values of the aspect sensitivity in dB/deg, and the calculated antenna pattern, it is possible to calculate the effective pointing angle of the antenna, defined as that angle which would give an identical location for the centroid of the power spectrum if aspect sensitivity were absent. Using averaged apparent steering directions, eastward and northward winds were calculated for special radar runs simultaneous with 14 balloon launches at Peoria and results are presented.

  1. Testing Distributed ABS System with Fault Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawczyński, Dawid; Sosnowski, Janusz; Gawkowski, Piotr

    The paper deals with the problem of adapting software implemented fault injection technique (SWIFI) to evaluate dependability of reactive microcontroller systems. We present an original methodology of disturbing controller operation and analyzing fault effects taking into account reactions of the controlled object and the impact of the system environment. Faults can be injected randomly (in space and time) or targeted at the most sensitive elements of the controller to check it at high stresses. This approach allows identifying rarely encountered problems, usually missed in classical approaches. The developed methodology has been used successfully to verify dependability of ABS system. Experimental results are commented in the paper.

  2. Six-dimensional beam matching for axial injection into a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general optical structure of a beam line for axial injection into a cyclotron is proposed. It provides the beam matching in the six-dimensional phase space at the entrance of the cyclotron. As an illustration, the hyperboloid and the spiral inflectors are considered

  3. Anomalous slowing of a perpendicularly-injected ion beam in both quasilinear and trapping regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anomalous slowing of an ion beam injected perpendicularly to the confining magnetic field of a low β plasma is experimentally verified in the nonlinear stages of the excited lower-hybrid instability. Furthermore, a transition of the main nonlinear mechanism from the quasilinear to the particle trapping regime is demonstrated by varying beam parameters

  4. Development of beam-plasma instability during the injection a low-energy electron beam into the ionospheric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from an active experiment on the injection of charged particle beams into the ionospheric plasma. The experiment was carried out in 1992 onboard the Intercosmos-25 satellite and the Magion-3 daughter satellite (APEX). A specific feature of this experiment was that both the ion and electron beams were injected upward, in the same direction along the magnetic field. The most interesting results are the excitation of HF and VLF-LF waves and the generation of fast charged particle flows, which were recorded on both satellites

  5. The MINOS light-injection calibration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the light-injection calibration system that has been developed for the MINOS long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. The system is based upon pulsed blue LEDs monitored by PIN photodiodes. It is designed to measure non-linearities in the PMT gain curves, as well as monitoring any drifts in PMT gain, at the 1% level

  6. The SSC beam scraper system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, M.A.; Mokhov, N.V.; Yazynin (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States) Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (USSR))

    1991-06-01

    In this paper we present the results of a full-scale study of a beam scraping system that is designed to guarantee reliable operation of the SSC throughout the whole cycle and for minimum background for experiments at the interaction regions. The machine aperture limits and beam loss formation are analyzed. Simulation programs and a calculational model are described. The physics of beam scraping is explored, and measures to increase significantly the system efficiency are determined. A tolerable scraping rate, taking into account scraper material integrity, quench limits in downstream superconducting magnets, radiation shielding requirements, and minimal beam halo levels at the IPs are also determined. Finally, a complete multi-component scraper system in the SSC East Cluster is proposed. Throughout the paper we define a scraper as a primary absorber consisting of precise movable jaws that have a flat inner edge along the circulation beam and which may be forced to touch the beam halo in horizontal or vertical planes. Secondary absorbers -- collimators -- are destined to intercept outscattered protons and other particles produced in scraper material. All these are surrounded with a radiation shielding. 15 refs., 50 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Charge exchange momentum transfer due to ion beam injection in partially ionized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time responses of a helium plasma to helium gas puffing without and with helium beam injection in a linear plasma device are experimentally investigated. Increase in the neutral density due to gas puffing is suppressed by ion beam injection. The experimental results show that a momentum transport from the ion beam to the puffed neutral particles occurs due to the charge exchange interaction, suggesting that charge exchange momentum transport is one of the processes responsible for the spatial redistribution of neutral atoms in partially ionized plasmas. (author)

  8. Amplitude dependent orbit shift and its effect on the beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The betatron oscillation amplitude dependent orbit shift was measured at the electron storage ring, NewSUBARU. The result roughly agreed with the theoretical calculation. The effect of this shift on the beam injection is discussed using parameters of NewSUBARU and SPring-8 SR. Generally there exists a better side for the injection, the inner side or the outer side of the ring, which depends on the sign of the shift at the injection septum. In case of the NewSUBARU, the beam is injected from the outer side and the shift is positive. The effective thickness of the septum is reduced by the large oscillation amplitude of the injected beam. However, this effect becomes almost negligible with the running parameter at NewSUBARU, because of the deformation of the phase space contour. On the other hand at SPring-8, the beam is injected from the inner side of the ring while the orbit shift is negative. The injection from the inner side is better. (author)

  9. The injection beam lines of the cryogenic storage ring (CSR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Max-Planck-Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg an electrostatic cryogenic storage ring (CSR) is under construction. The ions for the CSR will be provided by two ion sources with up to 60kV and 300 kV potential, respectively. The layout of the beamlines connecting the ion sources with the CSR is presented. They will be merged using an electrostatic deflector with an opening in the outer electrode, thereby allowing quick switching between the two ion sources. In order to determine the influence of the opening on the beam optics the deflector has been modeled and a modified transport matrix has been derived. An additional beamline element is a detachment region for the neutralization of a negative ion beam by photodetachment. The potential of the detachment region defines the precise energy of the neutral particles. Calculations of the ion beam optics using the MAD X code are described.

  10. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  11. Ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radial transport of ions during co- and counter-neutral beam heating in the PLT tokamak has been studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral beam heating, were measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction were observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 103 cm/sec superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 104 cm2/sec for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the center while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element

  12. An IGBT Driven Slotted Beam Pipe Kicker for SPEAR III Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SPEAR III injection kicker system is composed of three kicker magnets, K1, K2, and K3. These magnets, along with the power modulators to drive them constitute an injection system which will be used to deflect an incoming electron beam with an energy of 3.3 GeV by an angle of 2.5 mrad for K1 and K3, and 1 mrad for K2. The pulse shape of the magnetic field in the three magnets must be matched in order to preserve a closed orbit. The pulse duration is required to be less than 780 ns, with rise and fall times of less than 375 ns, and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The aperture of all three magnets is 60 x 34 mm in an 8 inch vacuum vessel. The magnetic length is 1.2 m for K1 and K3, and 0.6 m for K2 [1]. The magnet design employs a slotted beam pipe which is shorted at one end. A solid state IGBT based, induction type of modulator drives the magnets. Modulators for K1 and K3 consist of eight 4.5 kV, 600 A IGBTs, and eight Finemet magnet cores with four 22.5 Ohm output cables to drive 2381 A into the magnets. The modulator for K2 uses four IGBTs and cores, and 8 output cables to produce a 2619 A pulse. Cables of length greater than one half the pulse width must be used in order to avoid reflections from the shorted magnet. The design charge voltage for the modulators is 20 kV for K1 and K3. This paper describes the magnet and modulator design, as and presents test data from a prototype system

  13. Injection System To Damping Ring Of An Electron-positron Injection Complex Vepp5

    CERN Document Server

    Butakov, A I; Podgorny, F V

    2004-01-01

    In this paper elements of an injection system to a damping ring of an injection complex VEPP-5, and a status of work for today also are briefly described. For last year the large work on assembly of the injection system has been done: trial switching on and tests of the system element wise, and work of all elements in common also are made.

  14. The injection system of the stretcher ring ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the stretcher ring ELSA in the framwork of this thesis an injection system has been concipated and constructed which should allow all projected operational modes of this stretcher ring, the stretcher, the post-acceleration, and the accumulation mode. The proof could be performed that the realized concept allows all these operational modes. Furthermore it could be shown that the injection shifted from the equilibrium orbit has no disadvantageous effects on a uniform extraction and by this on a high touching ratio. In fact it is even possible to apply the decay of the coherent betatron oscillations around the equilibrium orbit, caused by injection of the incident beam shifted from the equilibrium orbit, to diagnosis purposes: By reproduction of this damping process in a simulation model statements on nonlinearities present in the ring and by this statements on the actual phase-space structure are possible. It has so been shown that the concept presented in this thesis and realized for this thesis represents a suited injection system for the stretcher ring ELSA. (orig.)

  15. Enhancements of Machine Reliability and Beam Quality in SPring-8 Linac for Top-Up Injection into Two Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Hanaki, Hirofumi; Dewa, Hideki; Kobayashi, Toshiaki; Mizuno, Akihiko; Suzuki, Shinsuke; Taniuchi, Tsutomu; Tomizawa, Hiromitsu; Yanagida, Kenichi

    2005-01-01

    SPring-8 has started its top-up operation from May 2004 in order to feed constant photon fluxes to users. The SPring-8 linac has been improved to realize stable and uninterrupted top-up injection into the SPring-8 storage ring and the NewSUBARU storage ring. The beam energy instability of 0.01% rms had been achieved by the following stabilization: RF amplitude and phase stabilization, synchronization of beam timing and linac's 2856 MHz RF and introduction of an energy compensation system (ECS). Feedback controls of steering magnets compensate long-term variation of beam trajectories at ends of beam transport lines. The presentation will include also recent improvements.

  16. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.

    2016-02-19

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  17. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Kolemen, E.; Taira, K.

    2016-03-01

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  18. Injection locking of a semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, T; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2013-01-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is done with a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that injection locking may also be achieved in the case of multi-frequency seeding beam when slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. One relevant parameter turns out to be the frequency detuning between the free running slave laser and each injected frequency component. Stable selective locking to a set of three components separated of $1.2\\,$GHz is obtained for (positive) detuning values between zero and $1.5\\,$GHz depending on seeding power (ranging from 10 to 150 microwatt). This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each line, a set of mutually coherent narrow-linewidth high-power radiation modes can be obtained.

  19. Direct injection of intense heavy ion beams from a high performance ECR ion source into an RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam intensities achievable from high performance ECR sources for highly charged ions are limited by the high space charge. For high performance ECR sources, the stray magnetic field of the source can provide focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam when used with the Direct Plasma Injection Scheme (DPIS) developed for laser ion sources. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for direct injection into a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, allowing a total beam current of 12 mA for the production of highly charged 238U40 +(0.49 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ionsource extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of the ion beam. The RFQ has been designed to suppress most of the charge states extracted from the ECR, acting as a filter for the desired 238U40+. This reduces the transport problem for the beam line as well as reduces the emittance for the transmitted charge states. Such an rfq-channel might be very effective and less q/m sensitive for the extraction system of all high performing ECR ion sources. This technique has promising applications for injecting and transporting very intense beams into RFQ accelerators for research, ADSS and more efficient, compact neutron generators. The accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADSS) being developed at various laboratories around the world to create nuclear energy may also benefit from this technique, both in terms of transporting intense beams of protons and making the low energy segment more compact. This RFQ is essentially a buncher configured as a charge filter, so RIB facilities can take advantage of this technique. The charge breeding concept can be utilised with a powerful ECR ion source directly coupled to this

  20. Injection Control System of HLS Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, G; Li, W; Li Chuan; Li, K; Shang, L; Liu, Gongfa; Li, Jingyi; Li, Weimin; Li, Chuan; Li, Kaihong; Shang, Lei

    2001-01-01

    The injection control system of Hefei Light Source (HLS) storage ring is a subsystem of the upgraded HLS control system, which is based upon EPICS. Three programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are used as device controllers, which control one septum modulator and four kicker modulators of HLS storage ring. An Industrial PC is used as Input/Output Controller (IOC) and it connects the PLCs with serial communication (RS232 mode) over fibre. A PC with Linux is used as operator interface (OPI), operator application are running on it. The control system was completed in July 2000. The commissioning shows that the control system is reliable and easy operational.

  1. Dispersion Matching of a Space Charge dominated Beam at Injection into the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Klaus; Scrivens, Richard

    2005-01-01

    In order to match the dispersion at injection into the CERN PS Booster, the optics of the injection line was simulated using two different codes (MAD and TRACE). The simulations were benchmarked versus experimental results. The model of the line was then used to re-match the dispersion. Experimental results are presented for different optics of the line. Measurements with varying beam current show the independence of the measured quantity of space-charge effects.

  2. Plasma heating simulation in the T-11 device on the neutral atom beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calculations of the energy balance in the tokamak with injection of hot atom beams are carried out. Considered are atom ionization and capture of the produced ones as well as the transmission of energy to plasma. Energy losses on recharging are taken into account. Given are temperature dependencies on injection power, plasma density and other parameters. A possibility to obtain collisionless regime by ions is described

  3. Beam emittance growth in a proton storage ring employing charge exchange injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, it has been shown that very large currents can be accumulated in medium energy proton storage rings by multiturn injection of an H- beam through a charge stripping medium. Since the particles are injected continuously into the same phase space, it is possible to increase the circulating beam brightness with respect to that of the incoming beam by a large factor. The stored protons pass repeatedly through the stripper, however, so that this phase space is gradually enlarged by scattering. The dependence of the circulating beam phase space (emittance) growth rate on the nature of the scattering process and on where it occurs in the storage ring matrix is considered. Since the motivation for this work arose in connection with the design of the proposed high-current storage ring at LAMPF, the results are focused on the specific parameters of that device. (U.S.)

  4. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A.; Beloussov, Alexandre V.; Bakir, Julide; Armon, Deganit; Olsen, Howard B.; Salem, Dana

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  5. Power and particle balance during neutral beam injection in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed boundary plasma measurements on TFTR have been made during a NBI power scan in the range Ptot = 1MW--20MW in the L-mode regime. The behavior of the plasma density left-angle ne right-angle, radiated power Prad, carbon and deuterium fluxes ΓC, ΓD, and Ζeff can be summarized as, left-angle ne right-angle ∝ Ptot1/2, Prad, ΓC, ΓD ∝ Ptot, and Ζeff ∼ constant. It is shown that central fuelling by the neutral beams plays a minor role in the particle balance of the discharge. More important is the NBI role in the power balance. The TFTR data during NBI originate primarily at the graphite limiter

  6. An elegant impulser developed for flat beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a high-voltage (HV) impulser built for the heavy ion fusion (HIF) project [1]. The purpose of this impulser is to provide an adjustable diode voltage source of sufficient quality and level to allow the optimization of beam transport and accelerator sections of HIF [2, 3]. An elegant, low-impedance, high-energy storage capacitor circuit has been selected for this application. Circuit parameters of the retrofit to the diode region [4] have been included to provide the controlled rise time. The critical part of this circuit that is common to all candidates is the impedance matching component. The following report provides a description of the implemented circuit, the basic circuit variables for wave shaping, screening techniques revealing the weakest circuit component, and the resulting output of the injector

  7. Automated Detection System for SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr K.V.N.Sunitha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many software systems have evolved to include a Web-based component that makes them available to the public via the Internet and can expose them to a variety of Web-based attacks. One of these attacks is SQL Injection vulnerability (SQLIV, which can give attackers unrestricted access to the databases that underlie Web applications and has become increasingly frequent and serious. The intent is that Web applications will limit the kinds of queries that can be generated to a safe subset of all possible queries, regardless of what input users provide. SQL Injection attacks are possible due to the design drawbacks of the web sites, which interact with back-end databases. Successful attacks may damage more. We introduce a system that deals with new automated technique for preventing SQLIA based on the novel concept of regular expressions is to detect SQL Injection attacks. The proposed system can detect the attacks that are from Internet and Insider Attacks, by analyzing the packets of the network servers.

  8. Buildup of electrons with hot electron beam injection into a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection of the monoenergetic beam of electrons into the vacuum drift channel under the conditions when the beam current exceeds a certain threshold value involves a virtual cathode creation. The process of virtual cathode creation leads to an exchange of one-fluid movement of beam particles to three-fluid one corresponding to incident, reflected and passed through anticathode beam particles. For the monoenergetic beam case when the velocity spread Δvdr (vdr is the beam drift velocity), the beam instability was predicted in theory and was observed in experiment. Meanwhile, the injection in the drift space of the 'hot' beam having finite spread in velocities may be accompanied not only by the reflection of particles if their velocity v1/2 (where φ is the electrostatic potential dip value, e and m are the electron charge and mass, respectively), but also the mutual Coulomb scattering of incident and reflected electrons. The scattering process leads in its turn to appearance of viscosity forces and to trapping of a part of beam electrons into the effective potential well formed by electrostatic potential dip and the viscous force potential. The interaction of travelling and trapped particles may occur even at the stage preceding the virtual electrode formation and it may influence the process of its appearance and also the current flow through the drift space. In this report there are described the experimental results on accumulation of electrons when electron beam propagates in vacuum and has a large spread in particle velocities Δvdr in the homogeneous longitudinal magnetic field when ωpeHe where ωpe is the electron Langmuir frequency of beam electrons, ωHe is the electron cyclotron frequency. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Behavior of high-pressure gasses injected to vacuum through a fast solenoid valve for supersonic cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supersonic cluster beam (SSCB) injection method is being developed as a new fueling method for the Large Helical Devise (LHD) experiment. As a first step, cluster formation at a room temperature has been investigated for various gasses using a fast solenoid valve for SSCB. Rayleigh scattering of laser light by the cluster is measured by a fast charge coupled device (CCD) camera. In the case of methane, nitrogen, and argon, clear scattering signals are observed at the high backing pressure of more than 3 - 4 MPa. In the case of hydrogen, helium, and neon, on the other hand, no scattering signal is detected at 7 MPa. (author)

  10. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Andrea; Giovannozzi, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  11. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998

  12. KTeV beam systems design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocean, V.; Childress, S.; Coleman, R. [and others

    1997-09-01

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented.

  13. KTeV beam systems design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E799-II and E832 are discussed. The specifications are presented and justified. The technical details of the implementation of the primary beam transport and stability are detailed. The target, beam dump, and radiation safety issues are discussed. The details of the collimation system for the pair of secondary beams are presented

  14. Assessment of the plasma start-up in Wendelstein 7-X with neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma start-up by neutral beam injection was investigated for stellarators. A zero-dimensional collisional model was extended to evaluate the temporal evolution of the plasma start-up in a confining toroidal magnetic field. Inclusion of different beam energy components indicated a substantial effect due to the energy dependence of beam–gas collisions. Additional collision processes and particle equations were considered to simulate the plasma start-up in helium–hydrogen mixtures. The isotope effect between operation with hydrogen and deuterium beams was also investigated. As a major objective the conditions necessary for a plasma start-up with neutral beams in W7-X have been examined. The assessed beam configuration in W7-X was found not to allow plasma start-up by neutral beam injection alone. The model has been validated for experimental data from W7-AS and Large Helical Device. Quantitative predictions of this study show that the ratio of the beam–plasma interaction length and the plasma volume is an essential quantity for the successful plasma start-up with neutral beams. (paper)

  15. Acceleration of energetic particles by whistler waves in active space experiment with charged particle beams injection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baranets, N.; Ruzhin, Y.; Erokhin, N.; Afonin, V.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan; Kudela, K.; Matišin, J.; Ciobanu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 5 (2012), s. 859-871. ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Electron beam injection * Whistler waves * Wave-particle interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.183, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117711007976

  16. Direct energy conversion and neutral beam injection for catalyzed D and D-3He tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculated performance of single stage and Venetian blind direct energy converters for Catalyzed D and D-3He Tokamak reactors are discussed. Preliminary results on He pumping are outlined. The efficiency of D and T neutral beam injection is reviewed

  17. Drift distance survey in direct plasma injection scheme for high current beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a laser ion source, plasma drift distance is one of the most important design parameters. Ion current density and beam pulse width are defined by plasma drift distance between a laser target and beam extraction position. In direct plasma injection scheme, which uses a laser ion source and a radio frequency quadrupole linac, we can apply relatively higher electric field at beam extraction due to the unique shape of a positively biased electrode. However, when we aim at very high current acceleration such as several tens of milliamperes, we observed mismatched beam extraction conditions. We tested three different ion current at ion extraction region by changing plasma drift distance to study better extraction condition. In this experiment, C6+ beam was accelerated. We confirmed that matching condition can be improved by controlling plasma drift distance.

  18. Beam injection and accumulation method in storage rings for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combination of multiturn injection and rf stacking is proposed as an efficient beam injection method in storage rings for heavy ion fusion. Five turn injection in each transverse phase space and four rf stackings give a total of 100 stacking turns. This represents a compromise between the tolerable emittances and momentum spread in the ring. Space charge limitations and coherent beam instabilities are investigated. The most severe limit is found to be the transverse coherent instability, but this can be controlled by the use of sextupole and octupole magnetic fields. Assuming a charge exchange cross section of 1 x 10-15 cm2, the e-folding life time is estimated at 180 ms, while the stacking time is 40 ms

  19. Diffraction effect of the injected beam in axisymmetrical structural CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggen; Wang, Shijian; Fan, Qunchao

    2012-07-01

    Diffraction effect of the injected beam in axisymmetrical structural CO2 laser is studied based on the injection-locking principle. The light intensity of the injected beam at the plane where the holophotes lie is derived according to the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral equation. And then the main parameters which influence the diffraction light intensity are given. The calculated results indicate that the first-order diffraction signal will play an important role in the phase-locking when the zero-order diffraction cannot reach the folded cavities. The numerical examples are given to confirm the correctness of the results, and the comparisons between the theoretical and the experimental results are illustrated.

  20. High power neutral beam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurred by the requirement to supply megawatts of power to heat magnetically confined plasmas to temperatures of interest for fusion research, a new class of low energy, high power accelerators termed neutral beam injectors has been developed. Industry has played an important role in building upon technology advances at the national laboratories to engineer neutral beam injectors to meet the needs of specific users. A brief retrospective of the field is presented, with emphasis upon one particular application, that of DIII-D, a large tokamak at General Atomics. In this instance, the role of industry has been especially extensive because the user/system integrator is itself an industrial concern. 4 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Requirements of CLIC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Sapinski, M; Holzer, EB; Jonker, M; Mallows, S; Otto, T; Welsch, C

    2010-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) [1] is a proposed multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider being designed by a world-wide collaboration. It is based on a novel twobeam acceleration scheme in which two beams (drive and main beam) are placed in parallel to each other and energy is transferred from the drive beam to the main one. Beam losses on either of them can have catastrophic consequences for the machine, because of high intensity (drive beam) or high energy and small emittance (main beam). In the framework of machine protection, a Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system has to be put in place. This paper discusses the requirements for the beam loss system in terms of detector sensitivity, resolution, dynamic range and ability to distinguish losses originating from various sources. The two-beam module where the protection from beam losses is particularly challenging and important, is studied.

  2. Injection accelerator for proton therapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed the magnet-free alternating phase focusing (APF) linac for proton cancer therapy facilities. This new linac enhances the reliability and serviceability of such facilities. The newly developed linac uses radio-frequency electric field to accelerate as well as focus a beam of protons (hydrogen nuclei). The electric field is designed with 'sawtooth-shaped phase modulation technology', which can generate high-quality beam. The elimination of magnets has resulted in a simplified linac structure that requires very few adjustments, resulting in improved reliability and serviceability. The system uses a resonant coupler to distribute radio-frequency power, the first such commercial application in the world. The ratio-frequency power supply has been integrated into a single unit, simplifying the structure of the facility. There is no need to adjust the ratio-frequency power phase, for easy servicing. (author)

  3. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BEEBE-WANG,J.; TANG,J.

    2001-06-18

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed.

  4. INJECTION PAINTING OPTIMIZATION WITH FUZZY LOGIC EXPERT SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Optimizing transverse particle distributions in the accumulator ring is one of most important factors to the future performance of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) [l]. This can only be achieved by optimizing the injection bumps that paint the beam in phase space. The process is complex due to the vague distribution inputs and the multiple optimization goals. Furthermore, the priority of the optimization criteria could change at different operational stages. We propose optimizing transverse phase space painting with fuzzy logic and present our initial studies toward that end. The focus of this paper is on how the problem can be solved with a Fuzzy Logic (FL) expert system through the creation of a set of rules that can be applied by the system. Various particle distributions, from computer simulations, are analyzed with FL and the results are compared and discussed. Finally, a run-time optimization control system is proposed

  5. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  6. Comparison of ELM-Filament Mitigation Between Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection and Pellet Injection on HL-2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Lin; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Hongbing; Huang, Yuan; Yan, Longwen; Ding, Xuantong; Xu, Min; Xu, Yuhong; Yao, Lianghua; Feng, Beibin; Zhu, Genliang; Liu, Wandong; Dong, Jiaqi; Yu, Deliang; Zhong, Wulv; Gao, Jinming; Chen, Chengyuan; Yang, Qingwei; Duan, Xuru

    2016-02-01

    On HL-2A, two different injections (supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and pellet injection (PI)) are used to mitigate edge localized mode (ELM)-filament convective transport. The changes of their characteristics are studied in this paper. A high spatiotemporal resolution probe shows there are many similar phenomena, and the filament density amplitude and radial velocity are both suppressed. Our statistical results indicate that: the velocity suppression comes from the decrease of filament density and temperature; the transient particle and heat fluxes drop strongly; and long-range correlation along a magnetic flux surface also decreases, when the electron-ion collisionality increases significantly, which may have a role on the filament parallel current during ELM mitigation. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11075046, 10975049, 11375054, 11275060), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB112008, 2013GB107000, 2013GB104002, 2014GB107000, 2014GB108000), and the China-Korean Joint Research Program (No. 2012DFG02230)

  7. A transverse emittance and acceptance measurement system in a low-energy beam transport line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashiwagi, H., E-mail: kashiwagi.hirotsugu@jaea.go.jp; Miyawaki, N.; Kurashima, S.; Okumura, S. [Department of Advanced Radiation Technology, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A transverse beam emittance and acceptance measurement system has been developed to visualize the relationship between the injected beam emittance and the acceptance of a cyclotron. The system is composed of a steering magnet, two pairs of slits to limit the horizontal and vertical phase-space, a beam intensity detector just behind the slits for the emittance measurement, and a beam intensity detector in the cyclotron for the acceptance measurement. The emittance is obtained by scanning the slits and measuring the beam intensity distribution. The acceptance is obtained by measuring the distribution of relative beam transmission by injecting small emittance beams at various positions in a transverse phase-space using the slits. In the acceptance measurement, the beam from an ion source is deflected to the defined region by the slits using the steering magnet so that measurable acceptance area covers a region outside the injection beam emittance. Measurement tests were carried out under the condition of accelerating a beam of {sup 16}O{sup 6+} from 50.2 keV to 160 MeV. The emittance of the injected beam and the acceptance for accelerating and transporting the beam to the entrance of the extraction deflector were successfully measured. The relationship between the emittance and acceptance is visualized by displaying the results in the same phase-plane.

  8. Injection System design for a hadron therapy Synchrotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Quan; SONG Ming-Tao; WEI Bao-Wen

    2008-01-01

    A synchrotron is designed for tumour therapy with C6+ ions or proton.Its injector is a cyclotron, which delivers C5+or H+2 ions to the synchrotron.After comparing the methods of the single-turn injection, the multi-turn injection and the stripping injection,this paper chooses the stripping injection method.In addition,the concept design of the injection system is presented,in which the synchrotron lattice is optimized.

  9. A beam-synchronous gated peak-detector for the LHC beam observation system

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, T E; Wehrle, U

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch peak amplitude using the longitudinal wideband wall-current monitor are a vital tool used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam observation system. These peak-detected measurements can be used to diagnose bunch shape oscillations, for example coherent quadrupole oscillations, that occur at injection and during beam manipulations. Peak-detected Schottky diagnostics can also be used to obtain the synchrotron frequency distribution and other parameters from a bunched beam under stable conditions. For the LHC a beam-synchronous gated peak detector has been developed to allow individual bunches to be monitored without the influence of other bunches circulating in the machine. The requirement for the observation of both low intensity pilot bunches and high intensity bunches for physics requires a detector front-end with a high bandwidth and a large dynamic range while the usage for Schottky measurements requires low noise electronics. This paper will present the design of this detector s...

  10. LHC beam instrumentation detectors and acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of some of the detectors and acquisition systems being developed for measuring and controlling beam parameters in the LHC. The two largest systems concern the measurement of beam position, with over 1000 monitors, and beam loss, with over 3000 monitors. For the beam position system a novel wide band time normaliser has been developed to allow bunch-by-bunch 40MHz acquisitions with a dynamic range greater than 30dB and an overall linearity of better than 1%. Also mentioned will be the acquisition system for the fast beam current transformers and the development of CdTe detectors for luminosity monitoring. [author

  11. Estimates of HE-LHC beam parameters at different injection energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Tanaji; /Fermilab

    2010-11-01

    A future upgrade to the LHC envisions increasing the top energy to 16.5 TeV and upgrading the injectors. There are two proposals to replace the SPS as the injector to the LHC. One calls for a superconducting ring in the SPS tunnel while the other calls for an injector (LER) in the LHC tunnel. In both scenarios, the injection energy to the LHC will increase. In this note we look at some of the consequences of increased injection energy to the beam dynamics in the LHC.

  12. Instrumentation architecture for ITER diagnostic neutral beam power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Neutral Beam (NB) Injection system is used for heating or diagnostics of the plasma in a Tokamak. The Diagnostics Neutral Beam (DNB) system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) based on acceleration of negative ions; injects a neutral (H0) beam at 100 KeV with specified modulation into the plasma for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. DNB Power Supply (DNBPS) system consists of various high voltage power supplies, high current power supplies and RF Generators. The system operates in a given operating sequence; very high electromagnetic transients are intrinsically generated during frequent short circuit at the accelerator grid (breakdowns) and sudden loss of load (Beam off). Instrumentation is to be provided to operate the DNBPS system remotely with required control and protection in synchronisation with ITER operation as directed by CODAC (COntrol Data Access and Communication); the central control system for ITER. Instrumentation functionality includes 1. Operation and control of DNBPS subsystems and associated auxiliaries 2. Protection of DNB components and power supplies using interlock system, 3. To ensure safe operation of high voltage hazardous systems 4. Acquisition of injector performance parameters and 5. To facilitate test and maintenance of individual subsystem. This paper discusses about proposed DNBPS instrumentation architecture. The design generally follows the protocols from the ITER- Plant Control Design Handbook (PCDH). (author)

  13. Secondary air injection system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  14. Early Beam Injection Scheme for the Fermilab Booster: A Path for Intensity Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab

    2015-10-28

    Over the past decade, Fermilab has focused efforts on the intensity frontier physics and is committed to increase the average beam power delivered to the neutrino and muon programs substantially. Many upgrades to the existing injector accelerators, namely, the current 400 MeV LINAC and the Booster, are in progress under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) proposes to replace the existing 400 MeV LINAC by a new 800 MeV LINAC, as an injector to the Booster which will increase Booster output power by nearly a factor of two from the PIP design value by the end of its completion. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for nearly next two decades. In this context, I have developed and investigated a new beam injection scheme called "early injection scheme" (EIS) for the Booster with the goal to significantly increase the beam intensity output from the Booster thereby increasing the beam power to the HEP experiments even before PIP-II era. The scheme, if implemented, will also help improve the slip-stacking efficiency in the MI/RR. Here I present results from recent simulations, beam studies, current status and future plans for the new scheme.

  15. R & D on Beam Injection and Bunching Schemes in the Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Fermilab is committed to upgrade its accelerator complex to support HEP experiments at the intensity frontier. The ongoing Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) enables us to reach 700 kW beam power on the NuMI neutrino targets. By the end of the next decade, the current 400 MeV normal conducting LINAC will be replaced by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC (PIP-II) with an increased beam power >50% of the PIP design goal. Both in PIP and PIP-II era, the existing Booster is going to play a very significant role, at least for next two decades. In the meanwhile, we have recently developed an innovative beam injection and bunching scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme" that continues to use the existing 400 MeV LINAC and implemented into operation. This scheme has the potential to increase the Booster beam intensity by >40% from the PIP design goal. Some benefits from the scheme have already been seen. In this paper, I will describe the basic principle of the scheme, results from recent beam experiments, our experience with the new scheme in operation, current status, issues and future plans. This scheme fits well with the current and future intensity upgrade programs at Fermilab.

  16. Characteristics of the injected ion beam in the ECR charge breeder 1+ -> n+

    CERN Document Server

    Lamy, T; Chauvin, N; Curdy, Jean Claude; Geller, R; Sortais, P; Leroy, R; Lieuvin, M; Villari, A C C

    1999-01-01

    Different ion species (rare gases, alkali, metallic) have been injected on the axis of the MINIMAFIOS - 10 GHz - Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source which is the basics of the 1+ -> n+ method, special attention have been paid to the optics of the incoming beam for the validation of the 1+ -> n+ method for the SPIRAL project (Radioactive Ion Beam facility). The capture of the incoming ion beam by the ECR plasma depends, first, on the relative energy of the incoming ions with respect to the average ion energy in the plasma, and secondly, on the optics of the injection line. The efficiency of the process when varying the potential V n+ of the MINIMAFIOS source with respect to the potential V 1+ applied to the 1+ source (DV=V n+ -V 1+ ) is an image of the energy dispersion of the 1+ beam. 1+ -> n+ spectra efficiencies, DV efficiency dependence for the most efficient charge state obtained, and measured primary beam emittances are given for the Ar, Rb, Pb, Cr. Highest efficiencies obtained are respectively Ar1+...

  17. Monitoring system of ECCS injection system upon periodical inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ECCS reactor injection system is automatically monitored upon periodical inspection. That is, a memory device stores information of the stand-by state of the ECCS reactor injection system upon periodical inspection. A data input means inputs monitoring item data in the present state. A required monitoring target is designated by the input means. A judging means compares the data of the monitoring target with the stand-by state information successively, to judge whether or not the monitoring target is in a predetermined stand-by state. A display means displays the result of the judgment. In the present system thus constituted, since it can be automatically judged whether or not the ECCS reactor injection system, as a monitoring target, is in the predetermined stand-by state, it is possible to reduce the operator's burden and improve the safety. (I.S.)

  18. The super collider transverse feedback system for suppression of the emittance growth and beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A super collider transverse feedback system designed to suppress injection errors, emittance growth due to external noises, and beam instabilities is considered. It is supposed that the feedback system should consist of two circuits: an injection damper operating just after injection and a super damper. To damp the emittance growth, the superdamper has to operate with the ultimate decrement close to the revolution frequency. The physics of such a feedback system and its main limitations are discussed. 9 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  19. Upgrade of the beam transport lines and the beam-abort system and development of a tune compensator in KEKB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Naoko; Kikuchi, Mitsuo; Mimashi, Toshihiro; Nakayama, Hisayoshi; Sakamoto, Yutaka; Satoh, Kotaro; Takasaki, Seiji; Tawada, Masafumi

    2013-03-01

    The KEKB collider achieved a maximum peak luminosity of 2.1×1034 cm-2 s-1 and an integrated luminosity of 1 ab-1 in its ten-year operation. Behind these glorious records there have been uncountable improvements in every subsystem. This paper describes the improvements in the beam transport line, injection kickers, septum magnets, the beam-abort system, and a newly developed pulsed-quadrupole system in detail.

  20. Neutral beam injection heating on field-reversed configuration plasma decompressed through axial translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power deposition of neutral beam injection (NBI) on translated field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma has been investigated. A certain level of electron heating effect was observed in the slowly decaying phase of the decompressed FRC, leading to a hollow electron temperature profile. Numerical calculation of beam trajectories has shown that about 50% of the injected NB power is absorbed by the plasma electron inside the separatrix with a hollow deposition profile similar to the observed electron temperature profile. The estimated absorbed NB power of 120 kW will be enough to bring the change in electron temperature, since the electron conduction and radiation loss was estimated to be ∼100 kW

  1. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  2. Density peaking in the JFT-2M tokamak plasma with counter neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant particle pinch and reduction of the effective thermal diffusivity are observed after switching the neutral beam direction from co- to counter- injection in the JFT-2M tokamak. A time delay in the occurrence of density peaking to that of plasma rotation is found. This shows that the particle pinch is related to the profile of the electric field as determined by the plasma rotation profile. The measured particle flux shows qualitative agreement with the theoretically-predicted inward pinch. (author)

  3. Neutral beam heating for jet, construction and test of a quasi-stationary plasma heating system at the 10 MW level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam injection is one of the two heating methods for JET. During the first stage of operation hydrogen beams will be injected at 80 keV with a beam pulse length of 10 s. The total beam power into the Torus is 18 MW with 10 MW in the full energy beam component. The power will be provided from 16 beam sources with an extracted ion beam current of 60 A each, arranged in two systems of 8 sources. For the second stage of operation the system will be modified to 160 keV deuterium beams, with 30 A extracted beam current per source. (orig.)

  4. Toroidal plasma rotation in the PLT tokamak with neutral-beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toroidal plasma rotation in the Princeton Large Torus, PLT, has been measured for various plasma and neutral beam injection conditions. Measurements of the plasma rotational velocities were made from Doppler shifts of appropriate spectral lines and include data from both hydrogen and deuterium beams and co- and counter-injection at several electron densities. Without injection, a small but consistent toroidal rotation exists in a direction opposite to the plasma current (counter-direction) in the plasma center but parallel to the current (co-direction) in the plasma periphery. Using these measured velocities and the plasma density and temperature gradients, radial electron fields can be determined from theory, giving E/sub r / approx. = 40 V/cm near the plasma center and E/sub r/ approx. = 10 V/cm near the plasma edge. Insertion of a local, 2.5 percent magnetic well produced no observable effect on the beam driven rotation. Modeling of the time evolution and radial distribution of the rotation allows one to deduce an effective viscosity of the order of (1 to 5) x 104 cm2/sec

  5. Obtaining of hot electron plasma in two-stage beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space region of plasma formation and heating one are separated by pressure gradient in two-stage beam-plasma system. It is shown, that the temperature of plasma electron most part can reach some hundreds electronvolt when beam of some unit kiloelectronvolt energy is injected in system. The range of basic macroscopic parameters of system (current and energy of beam, operating gas pressure, plasma column length, magnetic field strength) corresponding to electron maximum heating is determined

  6. ELM mitigation by means of supersonic molecular beam and pellet injection on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, J.S., E-mail: hujs@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Sun, Z.; Li, C.Z.; Zhen, X.W.; Li, J.G.; Guo, H.Y.; Li, J.H.; Wang, L.; Gan, K.F.; Chen, Y.; Ren, J.; Zuo, G.Z.; Yao, X.J.; Hu, L.Q.; Gong, X.Z.; Wan, B.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Liang, Y.F. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZ Jülich (Germany); Vinyar, I. [PELIN LLC, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, we will present experimental results from EAST on the mitigation of edge localized modes (ELMs) using recently developed deuterium/lithium pellet injections as well as supersonic molecular beam injections (SMBI). Using a Laval nozzle, ELM mitigation with SMBI has been demonstrated in EAST in quasi-steady state. Using a D{sub 2} pellet injector, a giant ELM appears followed by a burst of high frequency ELMs at ∼300 Hz with duration of a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, for the first time, a novel technology using a simple rotating impeller to inject sub-millimeter size lithium (Li) granules at speeds of a few tens of meters per second was successfully used to pace ELMs. These experiments indicate that, on EAST, several technologies can contribute to the database supporting ELMs control in future fusion devices, such as ITER.

  7. ELM mitigation by means of supersonic molecular beam and pellet injection on the EAST superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we will present experimental results from EAST on the mitigation of edge localized modes (ELMs) using recently developed deuterium/lithium pellet injections as well as supersonic molecular beam injections (SMBI). Using a Laval nozzle, ELM mitigation with SMBI has been demonstrated in EAST in quasi-steady state. Using a D2 pellet injector, a giant ELM appears followed by a burst of high frequency ELMs at ∼300 Hz with duration of a few tens of milliseconds. Furthermore, for the first time, a novel technology using a simple rotating impeller to inject sub-millimeter size lithium (Li) granules at speeds of a few tens of meters per second was successfully used to pace ELMs. These experiments indicate that, on EAST, several technologies can contribute to the database supporting ELMs control in future fusion devices, such as ITER

  8. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun, E-mail: Kychen@ipp.cas.cn, E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun, E-mail: Kychen@ipp.cas.cn, E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu, Yubao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  9. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well

  10. Performance of magnetically-injected-plasma opening switches on the particle beam fusion accelerator 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been performed on the PBFA II ion beam accelerator to develop a switch which will provide voltage and power gain to an applied-B lithium ion diode. These experiments have successfully coupled power to electron and ion beam diodes using a Magnetically-Injected-Plasma (MIP) POS. Carbon plasma with electron densities of 1 x 1012 to 2 x 1013 /cm3 have been injected from the anode into the 8 cm gap of the 20-ohm Magnetically-Insulated-Transmission Line (MITL) of PBFA II along a Br,z magnetic field. The MIP switch uses the inertia of the plasma to keep the switch closed and the magnetic pressure of Bθ from the conduction current to open the switch. The configuration of the injecting magnetic field and the plasma source has a significant effect on the efficiency of coupling power to high impedance loads. Plasma near the center of the injecting magnetic field limits the opening impedance of the switch and subsequently the power delivered to the load. The axial location of the switch with respect to the load has also been identified as a critical parameter in increasing the coupling efficiency. A length of 10 to 20 cm of MITL between the POS and the load has increased the power delivered to the load. Data on switch performance with high impedance loads and factors which improved performance are discussed

  11. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Early Beam Injection Scheme for the Fermilab Booster: A Path for Intensity Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Bhat, C M

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, Fermilab has focused efforts on the intensity frontier physics and is committed to increase the average beam power delivered to the neutrino and muon programs substantially. Many upgrades to the existing injector accelerators, namely, the current 400 MeV LINAC and the Booster, are in progress under the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) proposes to replace the existing 400 MeV LINAC by a new 800 MeV LINAC, as an injector to the Booster which will increase Booster output power by nearly a factor of two from the PIP design value by the end of its completion. In any case, the Fermilab Booster is going to play a very significant role for nearly next two decades. In this context, I have developed and investigated a new beam injection scheme called "early injection scheme" (EIS) for the Booster with the goal to significantly increase the beam intensity output from the Booster thereby increasing the beam power to the HEP experiments even before PIP-II era. The sc...

  13. Postoperative Systemic Dissemination of Injected Elemental Mercury

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Suk-Hyung; Park, Seung Won; Moon, Kyung-Yoon

    2011-01-01

    There were only a few reports of mercury on pulmonary artery. However, there is no data on surgery related mercury dissemination. The objective of the present article is to describe one case of postoperative injected mercury dissemination. A 19-year-old man presented severe neck pain including meningeal irritation sign and abdominal pain after injection of mercury for the purpose of suicide. Radiologic study showed injected mercury in the neck involving high cervical epidural space and subcut...

  14. Evolution of ring current formed by relativistic electron beam injection into a charge but not current neutralizing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time evolutions of the azimuthal momentum distribution of the axisymmetrically injected electrons and the resulting ring current are self-consistently analyzed under the assumption that no return current is induced in the background plasma. It is shown that the ring current grows linearly with time for a characteristic time from the start of beam injection, and afterthere it tends to saturate at some level. The dependence of the time evolution of the ring current on the beam energy at injection and on the injection current is also obtained. (author)

  15. Laser photoionization of H0 beams for charge-changing injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-step charge-changing injection used in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) requires stripping of H- to H0 by high magnetic fields and subsequent stripping of H0 to H+ by a carbon foil. The authors consider single- and multiphoton laser ionization as alternatives to using a fragile foil. The multiphoton case is of possible interest for selection of practical lasers, which tend to have increased power output at higher wavelengths. The formulas derived express the necessary laser powers for ionization of monoenergetic H0 beams; they also hold for beams of particles other than atomic hydrogen. The numerical examples given are for the 800-MeV PSR beam with momentum spread taken into account. Additionally, they discuss selective stripping as an implication of the inherent energy selectivity of the photoionization process

  16. Laser photoionization of H0 beams for charge-changing injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-step charge-changing injection used in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) requires stripping of H- to H0 by high magnetic fields and subsequent stripping of H0 to H+ by a carbon foil. We consider single- and multiphoton laser ionization as alternatives to using a fragile foil. The multiphoton case is of possible interest for selection of practical lasers, which tend to have increased power output at higher wavelengths. The formulas derived express the necessary laser powers for ionization of monoenergetic H0 beams; they also hold for beams of particles other than atomic hydrogen. The numerical examples given are for the 800-MeV PSR beam with momentum spread taken into account. Additionally, we discuss selective stripping as an implication of the inherent energy selectivity of the photoionization process

  17. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Myskov, G A

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (<= 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters.

  18. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, V. V.; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O.

    2016-03-01

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  19. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (≤ 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters

  20. Intense relativistic electron beam injector system for tokamak current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) injection system designed for tokamak current drive experiments. The injection system uses a standard high-voltage pulsed REB generator and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) to drive an REB-accelerating diode in plasma. A series of preliminary experiments has been carried out to test the system by injecting REBs into a test chamber with preformed plasma and applied magnetic field. REBs were accelerated from two types of diodes: a conventional vacuum diode with foil anode, and a plasma diode, i.e., an REB cathode immersed in the plasma. REB current was in the range of 50 to 100 kA and REB particle energy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. MITL power density exceeded 10 GW/cm2. Performance of the injection system and REB transport properties is documented for plasma densities from 5 x 1012 to 2 x 1014 cm-3. Injection system data are compared with numerical calculations of the performance of the coupled system consisting of the generator, MITL, and diode

  1. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Sabbagh, Steven; Gates, David; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    A model-based system to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device is developed to maintain plasma stability for long pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed to control plasma rotation by using momentum from injected neutral beams and viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields as actuators. Based on the data driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed to theoretically sustain the toroidal momentum of the plasma in a stable fashion and to achieve desired plasma rotation profiles. On going work includes extending this method to NSTX Upgrade which has more complete radial coverage of the neutral beams momentum sources which enable simultaneous control of plasma stored energy (Beta control).

  2. High-beta experiments with neutral-beam injection on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations of high-beta plasmas produced in PDX with near-perpendicular neutral-beam injection are reported. Systematic power scans have been performed over a wide range of toroidal fields (νsub(T)q.7 T< Bsub(T)<2.2 T) and plasma currents (200 kA< Isub(p)<500 kA). At high toroidal fields, the change in total stored energy due to beam injection increases linearly with input power and also increases with plasma current. At lower toroidal fields and low injection power levels, the stored energy also increases with power and plasma current. However, at high power and low toroidal fields, a saturation in heating is observed. This result suggests the onset of a νsub(T) limit for circular cross-section tokamaks with near-perpendicular injection. Scaling experiments indicate that this νsub(T) limit increases with rising 1/q. Values of νsub(T)approx.=3% at qsub(PSI)=1.8 have been achieved. At high values of νsub(T)q, short bursts of MHD activity are observed, synchronized with sharply increased fluxes of perpendicular charge-exchange neutrals and rapid decreases in the rate of beam-driven neutron production. When strong bursts occur, there is a significant depletion of the fast-ion population. Estimates of the fast-ion loss indicate that it could explain the observed decrease in heating, although an additional reduction in thermal-plasma confinement cannot be ruled out. Numerical studies using measured pressure profiles predict that the equilibria obtained become unstable to the ideal n=1 internal mode, at about the same value of 0 where the new fluctuations are observed. (author)

  3. Control and operation of the gas injection systems for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ok, E-mail: yokim@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jae In; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Chu, Yong; Park, Kap Rai; Kim, Hong Tack; Kim, Hak Kun; Lee, Kun Su [National Fusion Research Institute, 113 Gwahangno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang Mo [Chungnam National Univ., Gung-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Three different types of gas injection systems were manufactured for KSTAR. ► They were prepared and tested for the KSTAR plasma operation. ► The test results show that they satisfied the design requirement. ► The calibration for all gas injection systems was successfully completed. -- Abstract: Several gas injection systems such as fueling, massive gas injection (MGI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) have been installed for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). Piezoelectric valves with a built-in piezoelectric plate of disc-bender type were used for the precise feedback control of gas flow. The relationship between the displacement and blocking force of the piezoelectric plates is taken into account in designing and fabricating piezoelectric valves. The MGI system was installed for the mitigation of plasma disruption. The MGI valve is composed of two-volume chamber. The valve is equipped with an aluminum piston and an actuator coil of inductance 0.1 mH. The power supply unit using a capacitor discharge method has been developed in order to drive the MGI valve. The SMBI system consisting of LN{sub 2} cooling line, pulse valve, and its controller was operated for the mitigation of edge localized mode (ELM). The LN{sub 2} cooling line is used to increase the density of the injected gas. The status and specification of each gas injection system is presented and the operational characteristics are analyzed.

  4. Control and operation of the gas injection systems for KSTAR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Three different types of gas injection systems were manufactured for KSTAR. ► They were prepared and tested for the KSTAR plasma operation. ► The test results show that they satisfied the design requirement. ► The calibration for all gas injection systems was successfully completed. -- Abstract: Several gas injection systems such as fueling, massive gas injection (MGI), supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) have been installed for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). Piezoelectric valves with a built-in piezoelectric plate of disc-bender type were used for the precise feedback control of gas flow. The relationship between the displacement and blocking force of the piezoelectric plates is taken into account in designing and fabricating piezoelectric valves. The MGI system was installed for the mitigation of plasma disruption. The MGI valve is composed of two-volume chamber. The valve is equipped with an aluminum piston and an actuator coil of inductance 0.1 mH. The power supply unit using a capacitor discharge method has been developed in order to drive the MGI valve. The SMBI system consisting of LN2 cooling line, pulse valve, and its controller was operated for the mitigation of edge localized mode (ELM). The LN2 cooling line is used to increase the density of the injected gas. The status and specification of each gas injection system is presented and the operational characteristics are analyzed

  5. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  6. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  7. Low emittance pre-injection system for Iranian Light Source Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipanah, A.; Feghhi, A. H.; Rahighi, J.; Ghasem, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF) pre-injection system. The optimized parameters of its components, the related beam dynamics issues and the expected performance of the designed system have been described with detail. This paper explains fabrication procedures of some main components and gives the low power microwave measurement results of the constructed RF electron gun. The outcome bunches at the end of the ILSF pre-injection system will have the normalized emittance of 6 mm mrad, length of 1.55 ps and energy spread of 0.06%.

  8. Study of the fast neutral atom beam injection on TFR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During neutral beam injection experiments on TFR, the increase of the plasma temperature appears to be weak and is saturating at high power. This observation leads to question the classical scheme of power coupling to the thermal plasma and to check experimentally its successive steps. First of all, the neutral beam transmission and capture in the plasma, measured by calorimetric methods, are in agreement with the classical calculations. Next the confinement and thermalization of the fast ions is reviewed by means of three different measurements: charge exchange analysis of fast neutrals leaving the plasma (an auxiliary modulated neutral beam gives a spatially resolved measurement); neutron flux analysis during injection of deuterium ions into a deuterium plasma; measurement of the fast ions trapped in the toroidal magnetic field ripples. These experiments show that a non-classical mechanism transports the most energetic ions towards the plasma periphery. This phenomenon then limits the overall power that can be effectively absorbed in the plasma centre and contributes to deteriorate the energy confinement. Finally the respective role of thermal and non-thermal populations in the power balance is addressed

  9. Injection and extraction computer control system HIRFL-SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection and extraction computer control system of HIRFL-SSC (Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou-Separated Sector Cyclotron) have been introduced. Software is described briefly. Hardware structure is mainly presented. The computer control system realize that the adjustment of injection and extraction can done by PC and operate interface is Windows style. The system can make the adjustment convenient and veracious

  10. Simulation studies for ion beam extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.; Zakhary, S.G. [Atomic Energy, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Center. Accelerators and Ion Sources Dept.], e-mail: moustafa82003@yahoo.com

    2009-06-15

    The characteristics of the ion beam extracted from an ion sources were investigated using computer code SIMION 3 D Version 7.0. It has been used to evaluate the extraction system in order to produce an ion beam with high current and low beam emittance. The results show that the shape of the extraction electrode plays an important role in ion beam formation. Comparison has been made between two extraction systems, Pierce extraction electrode and spherical extraction electrode. The results show that the spherical extraction system yields ion extraction beam with lower emittance and radius than that the Pierce system. The simulation can provide the basis for optimizing the extraction system and the acceleration gap for ion source. (author)

  11. Beam focusing by aperture displacement in two-stage acceleration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of beam focusing and the influence of total beam deflection on injection efficiency are estimated numerically for the neutral beam injectors of large tokamaks such as the JT-60. It is shown that beam focusing is important in improving injection efficiency in such a large device. As one method of focusing, beam focusing by aperture displacement was investigated in the two-stage acceleration system on the basis of a thin lens approximation. The simultaneous displacement of apertures in the plasma and gradient grids (or suppressor and exit grids) was found to be adequate for beam focusing, because the focal point hardly depends on the field intensity ratio which determines the two-stage ion beam optics. (author)

  12. Automation of the vacuum system of 14.45 GHZ ECR ion source and injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source generates and injects the ion beam of different species and different charge states in super conducting cyclotron (SCC). The vacuum plays a major role in ECR beam generation and transportation. Large number vacuum pumps, gate valves, vacuum gauges have been used in the entire system which is quite complex. In order to enhance the operational convenience, efficiency and fail safe operation, the complete vacuum system is divided into three regions. Ion source, horizontal and vertical injection line. A new control system has been designed and developed for systematic start up and shutdown of the complete vacuum system with a single button operation from the PC. In this paper the complete automation system and its operation is described. (author)

  13. Low energy beam transport system developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H− beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H− beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H− beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H− beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed

  14. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V.; Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-01

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H- beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H- beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H- beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H- beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  15. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Senguttuvan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were analyzed separately and aluminum is found the best material among the steel, brass and ABS material for common rail injection tube. Keywords: Common Rail Injection System, Alternate Material.

  16. An optimization of injecting system in die casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After many years of development, die casting technology of metallic materials has been matured. In this paper,the lower-support and its injecting system were created with commercial software. And then the simulation software FLOW3D was applied to study the flow behavior of the melt during injection filling process. Both temperature field and defect distribution were simulated. Based on these results, the better injecting system with two additional overflows was adopted.

  17. Gamma beam system at ELI-NP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur, Calin Alexandru, E-mail: calin.ur@eli-np.ro [Extreme Light Infrastructure, IFIN-HH, Magurele-Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-NP will produce brilliant, quasi-monochromatic gamma-ray beams via Inverse Compton Scattering of short laser pulses on relativistic electron beam pulses. The scattered radiation is Doppler upshifted by more than 1,000,000 times and is forward focused in a narrow, polarized, tunable, laser-like beam. The gamma-ray beam at ELI-NP will be characterized by large spectral density of about 10{sup 4} photons/s/eV, narrow bandwidth (< 0.5%) and tunable energy from 200 keV up to about 20 MeV. The Gamma Beam System is a state-of-the-art equipment employing techniques and technologies at the limits of the present-day's knowledge.

  18. Development of the charge exchange type beam scraper system at the J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.

    2016-03-01

    Improvement in injection beam quality at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3-GeV rapid cycle synchrotron is to mitigate beam loss at the injection section. We developed a charge-exchange type scraper system with a thin carbon foil to collimate the beam halo in the injection beam line of the synchrotron. The key issue to realize the scraper is a reduction of the beam loss induced by the multiple-scattering effect of charge-exchange foil placed at the scraper head. In order to determine the adequate foil thickness, a charge-exchange efficiency of a carbon foil and particle-tracking simulation study of the collimated beam have been performed assuming a realistic halo at the scraper section. Using the results of this study, we chose the thickness of a 520 μg /cm2 as the scraper foils to mitigate radiation dose around the L3BT scraper section. A charge-exchange scraper system that prevents the emission of radioactive fragments of the carbon foil was build. The system was put into operation to prove its effectiveness in eliminating the beam halo. From the result of a preliminary beam experiments, we confirmed that the installed scrapers eliminate a transverse beam tail or halo. After two days of operation with beam collimation, the radiation dose level around the scraper section was a tolerable one for the hands-on maintenance.

  19. ? modification by means of counter-neutral beam injection in a low-? plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Hinton, F. L.; Sager, G. T.; Staebler, G. M.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    1996-08-01

    The idea of controlling the radial electric field 0741-3335/38/8/059/img3 by means of a radial current resulting from ion orbit loss caused by counter neutral beam injection has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. A large fraction (0741-3335/38/8/059/img4%) of the 75 keV deuterium ions counter-injected into a low-0741-3335/38/8/059/img5 plasma (0741-3335/38/8/059/img6 MA) suffers prompt orbit loss, which forces an inward ion current to maintain charge neutrality. Monte Carlo guiding-centre orbit calculations predict a radial current of 80 A at the last closed flux surface. In these discharges, 0741-3335/38/8/059/img7 is negative everywhere, owing to the counter-going toroidal rotation, and exhibits a double-bump shape, in contrast to the usual positive parabolic shape for the co-injection case. The measured carbon impurity ion toroidal rotation profile shows a pedestal over the outer region where fast ions are lost, possibly due to the effect of 0741-3335/38/8/059/img8 torque. The momentum diffusion process tends to slow down and to spatially spread the 0741-3335/38/8/059/img8 torque effect. The L - H transition did not occur more quickly in these discharges than in similar co-injected discharges.

  20. Internal Transport Barrier in Edge Plasma of Small Size Divertor Tokamak Using Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekheit, A. H.

    2013-08-01

    We model the internal transport barrier "ITB" in edge plasma of small size divertor tokamak with B2SOLPS0.5.2D fluid transport code. The simulation results demonstrated the following: (1) we control the internal transport barrier by altering the edge particle transport through changes the edge toroidal rotation which agree with the result of Burrell et al. (Edge Pedestal control in quiescent H-mode discharges in DIII-D using co-plus counter-neutral beam injection, Nucl Fusion, 49, 085024 (9pp) in 2009). (2) The radial electric field has neoclassical nature near separatrix with discharge by co-injection NBI. (3) The toroidal plasma viscosity has strong influence on the toroidal velocity.

  1. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (Ip ∼ 0.5 MA) and electron density (ne ∼ 1 x 1013 cm-3) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented

  2. Programmable extraction of different energy proton beam to an experimental facility in the process of injection into the IHEP synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programmable different energy proton beam extraction to an experimental facility of the IHEP under injection to the IHEP proton synchrotron is realized in the following way; after inquiry from the IHEP EF transfer to a lower extraction energy and beam extraction to EF are performed. 1 ref.; 1 fig

  3. An RFQ injection system for the HRIBF

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Mueller, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    At the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), molecular ions extracted from a positive ion source and subsequently broken up in a charge exchange cell produce Radioactive Ion Beams (RIBs) with several hundred eV energy spread, preventing effective magnetic isobar separation. In order to perform magnetic isobar separation prior to charge exchange, a multi-harmonic buncher and a 12 MHz RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) is proposed to supplement t...

  4. Field reversed configuration confinement enhancement through edge biasing and neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M; Smirnov, A; Thompson, M C; Korepanov, S; Akhmetov, T; Ivanov, A; Voskoboynikov, R; Schmitz, L; Barnes, D; Binderbauer, M W; Brown, R; Bui, D Q; Clary, R; Conroy, K D; Deng, B H; Dettrick, S A; Douglass, J D; Garate, E; Glass, F J; Gota, H; Guo, H Y; Gupta, D; Gupta, S; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Longman, A; Hollins, M; Li, X L; Luo, Y; Mendoza, R; Mok, Y; Necas, A; Primavera, S; Ruskov, E; Schroeder, J H; Sevier, L; Sibley, A; Song, Y; Sun, X; Trask, E; Van Drie, A D; Walters, J K; Wyman, M D

    2012-06-22

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) with high confinement are obtained in the C-2 device by combining plasma gun edge biasing and neutral beam injection. The plasma gun creates an inward radial electric field that counters the usual FRC spin-up. The n = 2 rotational instability is stabilized without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. The FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The plasma gun also produces E × B shear in the FRC edge layer, which may explain the observed improved particle transport. The FRC confinement times are improved by factors 2 to 4, and the plasma lifetimes are extended from 1 to up to 4 ms. PMID:23004613

  5. High frequency cascaded resonant transformer rectifier power supply for neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutral beam injection for fusion requires DC megavolt power sources at several amperes. The conventional methods of using series or shunt fed multipliers cannot provide the current while the 60 Hz coupled transformer method is difficult to modularize because of size and stores excessive amounts of energy. A technique which borrows from several technologies has been investigated and shows promise for a satisfactory solution. This technique uses resonant multistage high frequency (100 kHz) series coupled ferrite transformer with rectifiers to produce megavolts at several amperes of current. Modularity, high efficiency and low energy storage are desirable features of this power source

  6. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander; Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Smith, Jonathan; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G.; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical "plasma torch" distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  7. Time- and spatial-behaviours of metal impurity during neutral-beam injection on the JFT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed time- and spatial-behaviours of emissions from iron impurities with the different ionic charge were obtained in the JFT-2 deutrium discharges with co- or counter-injections. In co-injection, the iron impurity is driven out from the central region of the plasma, and in counter-injection, they appear to accumulate and the plasma is not disrupted. These enhanced diffusion of the iron impurity can well be explained by the neutral-beam induced effect (direct beam-impurity interaction and toroidal rotation of the plasma), predicted by the neoclassical theory. (author)

  8. Hydrogen cluster-like behaviour during supersonic molecular beam injection on the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) has been developed successfully and used in the HL-1M tokamak. It is an attempt to enhance the penetration depth and fuelling efficiency. With a penetration depth of hydrogen particles beyond 8 cm, the rising rate of electron density, dn-bare/dt, was up to 7.6x1020m-3·s-1 without disruption, and reached the highest plasma density n-bare=8.2x1019m-3 on HL-1M. With SMBI the plasma energy confinement time, τE, measured by diamagnetism is 10-30 % longer than that with gas puffing when other discharge conditions are kept the same. The fuelling method of SMBI has recently been improved to make a survey of the cluster effects within the beam. A series of new phenomena show the interaction of the beam (including clusters) with the toroidal plasma. Hydrogen clusters may be produced in the beam according to the Hagena empirical scaling law of clustering onset, Γ*=(kd0.85P0)/T02.29). If Γ*>100, clusters will form. In the present experiment Γ* is about 127. (author)

  9. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  10. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  11. Peculiarities of heat transfer in the experiments of beam injection heating of a plasma at the GOL-3 device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics is discussed of the heat redistribution in plasma, heated by microsecond relativistic electron beam in the GOL-3 facility. The electron temperature dependence on time and distance up to beam injection point are compared with heat transfer calculations. At the stage of plasma cooling the time dependence of the plasma temperature is well described by the classical electron heat conduction on the facility buttends. At the same time the dynamics of the observed electron temperature increase and its distribution in the facility length during beam injection time can not be explained by the classical electron heat conduction. 15 refs.; 9 figs

  12. Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutser, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Wimmer, C. [Lst. f. Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Lst. f. Experimentelle Plasmaphysik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

  13. Study on the magnetic measurement results of the injection system for CSNS/RCS

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Huang, Nan; Huo, Li-Hua; Ji, Hong-Fei; Kang, Wen; Liu, Yi-Qin; Peng, Jun; Qiu, Jing; Shen, Li; Wang, Sheng; Wu, Xi; Xu, Shou-Yan; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Guo-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A combination of the H- stripping and phase space painting method is used to accumulate a high intensity beam in the Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). The injection system for CSNS/RCS consists of three kinds of magnets: four direct current magnets (BC1-BC4), eight alternating current magnets (BH1-BH4 and BV1-BV4), two septum magnets (ISEP1 and ISEP2). In this paper, the magnetic measurements of the injection system were introduced and the data analysis was processed. The field uniformity and magnetizing curves of these magnets were given, and then the magnetizing fitting equations were obtained.

  14. Active steering system for the neutral beam injector for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER requires an additional power injection of 33 MW from neutral beams, which can be provided by two injectors, delivering 16.5 MW each, having an ion current of 40 A and an accelerating voltage of 1 MV. The requirement of on-axis and off-axis injection into ITER is presently accomplished by mechanical tilting of the injector source. To preserve the integrity of the beam line components, on the horizontal plane, very tight misalignment is tolerable (±3 mrad); such accuracy requires precise installation of the components. Breaking the vacuum and executing a long series of operations is required to provide proper beam alignment. It would be helpful if such alignments could be performed remotely. A study has been conducted on the possibility of steering the negative ions by suitable magnetic fields, generated by dedicated coils located at the exit of the accelerator. It results that the magnetic system can meet the requirements in terms of beam alignment. The steering system will heavily affect the trajectory of the electrons extracted from the accelerator and can be used to deflect the electrons onto suitable dump plates. The system can steer the ions and dump the electrons in a controlled way, even in case of modulation of the acceleration voltage; a flexible beam aiming system can be used to adapt the power deposition profile in ITER to the plasma characteristics; active steering can provide a suitable way to control the power deposition with respect to the possibility of exciting Alfven eigenmodes, which can reduce the performances of ITER plasmas. The present contribution reviews the preliminary design of the active steering system and provides an analysis of advantages and disadvantages. (author)

  15. Fast beam mode switching system at KEK E-/E+ linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEK 8-GeV Linac provides electrons and positrons to Photon Factory (PF) and B-Factory (KEKB). Because of the nature of those factory machines, both quantity and quality of the beams are required. In order to improve the injections, quasi top-up injections of electrons to PF and KEKB rings have been planned and a new beam transport line was built. Fast beam switching mechanisms are being developed and installed. Among those mechanisms the fast switching of linac parameters of timing signals, low-level rf devices, beam instrumentation and beam feedback systems need to be developed. In order to realize them the event distribution system is installed, and other sub-systems will follow the event notification. The rf synchronization scheme is also upgraded. The system is under testing part by part, and will be used in 2007. (author)

  16. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  17. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  18. Optimization of refrigeration system with gas-injected scroll compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Han, Linjun; Li, Xianting [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Gas refrigerant injection has been proven as an effective method to improve the performance of the scroll compressor and its refrigeration system under high compression ratio working conditions. Much research on the injected scroll compressor and its system has been conducted, but the universal control and design method is still lacking. A model of the refrigeration system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is developed in this paper. With this model, the effects of gas injection on the system and component parameters are investigated. Based on the identified evaporator characteristics and thermodynamic analysis, a set of general principles for the design and operation of the refrigeration or heat pump system with a gas-injected scroll compressor is proposed. (author)

  19. Impurity Dynamics under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the simulations of plasma transport under NBI for TJ-II, previously performed, are extended. Since than a considerable number of important modifications have been introduced in the model: change of magnetic configuration, use of experimental initial profiles, expansion of the Data base from NBI calculations and, mainly, a detailed handling of impurities with inclusion of sputtering effects. Moreover there is now a particular emphasis on the analysis of the conditions for discharge collapse and on the possible effects of single beam injection. This analysis of impurity behaviour with sputtering shows that in the expected usual cases there is no radioactive collapse and that if the recycling coefficients remain lower the unity it is always possible to find a strategy for external gas puffing leading to a stationary state, with densities below the limit and efficient NBI absorption (>50%). The radioactive collapse can appear either at high densities (central value higher than 1.4x10''20 m''3), excessive influx of impurities (i. e. with sputtering rates higher than twice the expected values) o for insufficient injected beam power (less than 45 kW). The present study analyses only the 1004464 configuration of TJ-II, but future works will start a systematic scan of configuration using this same model. (Author) 12 Refs

  20. Wakefield-Induced Ionization injection in beam-driven plasma accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    de la Ossa, A Martinez; Streeter, M J V; Osterhoff, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the features and capabilities of Wakefield-Induced Ionization (WII) injection in the blowout regime of beam driven plasma accelerators. This mechanism exploits the electric wakefields to ionize electrons from a dopant gas and trap them in a well-defined region of the accelerating and focusing wake phase, leading to the formation of high-quality witness-bunches. The electron-beam drivers must feature high-peak currents ($I_b^0\\gtrsim 8.5~\\mathrm{kA}$) and a duration comparable to the plasma wavelength to excite plasma waves in the blowout regime and enable WII injection. In this regime, the disparity of the magnitude of the electric field in the driver region and the electric field in the rear of the ion cavity allows for the selective ionization and subsequent trapping from a narrow phase interval. The witness bunches generated in this manner feature a short duration and small values of the normalized transverse emittance ($k_p\\sigma_z \\sim k_p\\epsilon_n \\sim 0.1$). In additi...

  1. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  2. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, M.R., E-mail: mblom@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beker, M.G., E-mail: mbeker@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bertolini, A., E-mail: alberto@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brand, J.F.J. van den, E-mail: jo@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bulten, H.J., E-mail: henkjan@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1081, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hennes, E., E-mail: ehennes@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mul, F.A., E-mail: fmul@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rabeling, D.S., E-mail: davidr@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schimmel, A., E-mail: freds@nikhef.nl [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Nikhef Amsterdam, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 10{sup 3} compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom.

  3. Seismic attenuation system for the external injection bench of the Advanced Virgo gravitational wave detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 2011 a major upgrade of the Virgo gravitational wave detector was started. After these improvements the detector's sensitivity will have increased by an order of magnitude, increasing the expected event rate by 103 compared to its predecessor. Extensive noise studies showed that this improvement can only be accomplished if a number of optical benches, hosting ancillary optics and optical sensors for the alignment of the interferometer, are isolated from seismic ground motion to reduce the amount of beam jitter and control noise they introduce. Here we present the first of these systems: the External Injection Bench Seismic Attenuation System, or EIB-SAS, which is able to reduce seismically induced motion of the external injection bench (last bench before laser beam enters the vacuum system) by more than 40 dB above 10 Hz in 6 degrees of freedom

  4. Study on Software Fault Injection Based on Onboard System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENGJunjie; HONGBingrong; YUANChengjun; LIAiguo; WEIZhenhua; QIAOYongqiang

    2005-01-01

    Fault injection techniques are the effective methods to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of computer systems. Among the different fault injection techniques, software implemented fault injection technique is regarded as one of the most promising technique for evaluation of the dependability of computer systems. In this paper, combined the advantages of software fault injection and the particularity of onboard system, a new software fault injection model, which can be used to evaluate the dependability and validate the fault tolerance mechanisms of the onboard system, is put forward. To evaluate the dependability of on boardsystem effectively, the application algorithm on how to use the model is presented. The experimental results show that using the fault injection model and algorithm put forward in this paper, not only most of low-level faults such as processor register faults, memory faults and so on can be injected, but also some high-level faults such as code faults, branch faults etc. can be injected, which can be used to evaluate the dependability of the onboard systems.

  5. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  6. Walking beam pumping unit system efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes

  7. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  8. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam

  9. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam. PMID:24593474

  10. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  11. Research on machine vision system of monitoring injection molding processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fan; Zheng, Huifeng; Wang, Yuebing; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Si'an

    2016-01-01

    With the wide development of injection molding process, the embedded monitoring system based on machine vision has been developed to automatically monitoring abnormality of injection molding processing. First, the construction of hardware system and embedded software system were designed. Then camera calibration was carried on to establish the accurate model of the camera to correct distortion. Next the segmentation algorithm was applied to extract the monitored objects of the injection molding process system. The realization procedure of system included the initialization, process monitoring and product detail detection. Finally the experiment results were analyzed including the detection rate of kinds of the abnormality. The system could realize the multi-zone monitoring and product detail detection of injection molding process with high accuracy and good stability.

  12. Design of the injection kicker magnet system for CERN's 14 TeV proton collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two counter-rotating proton beams will be injected into LHC at an energy of 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producting magnetic field pulses of approximately 750 ns rise time and 6.6 μs flat top duration. To avoid dilution of the beam emittance during injection, a stringent design requirement of the system is a flat top ripple of the magnetic field of less than ±0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.17 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's) and matched to their characteristic impedance. To achieve the high required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, for a compact and cost efficient design, a comparably low characteristic impedance of 5 Ω has been chosen. The electrical circuit of the system is being designed with the help of PSpice computer modelling. Most known parasite elements are included in the model to obtain a realistic pulse response prediction. The present paper reports on design and modeling results of the LHC injection kicker magnet system that has several novel and demanding design requirements. (author)

  13. Design of the injection kicker magnet system for CERN's 14 TeV proton collider LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two counter-rotating proton beams will be injected into the LHC at an energy of 450 GeV by two kicker magnet systems, producing magnetic field pulses of approximately 750 ns rise time and 6.6 micros flat top duration. To avoid dilution of the beam emittance during injection, a stringent design requirement of the system is a flat top ripple of the magnetic field of less than ±0.5%. Both injection systems are composed of 4 travelling wave kicker magnets of 2.17 m length each, powered by pulse forming networks (PFN's) and matched to their characteristic impedance. To achieve the high required kick strength of 1.2 Tm, for a compact and cost efficient design, a comparably low characteristic impedance of 5 Ω has been chosen. The electrical circuit of the system is being designed with the help of PSpice computer modeling. Most known parasitic elements are included in the model to obtain a realistic pulse response prediction. The present paper reports on design and modeling results of the LHC injection kicker magnet system that has several novel and demanding design requirements

  14. Beam loading effects during injection processes in an electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the current in an electron storage ring increases through the injection process, the RF properties such as the accelerating field, cavity tuning and reflecting power undergo some changes. They must be cancelled out by tuning the RF system in order to get a stable operation. In this report these changes are given in the first order approximation. For the RF storage ring an increment of the current of 25 mA in one injection process brings about no serious effect and a stored current of 500 mA would be obtained in less than 10 minutes. (auth.)

  15. Generation of Low Absolute Energy Spread Electron Beams in Laser Wakefield Acceleration Using Tightly Focused Laser through Near-Ionization-Threshold Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F; Wan, Y; Wu, Y P; Hua, J F; Pai, C H; Lu, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2015-01-01

    An enhanced ionization injection scheme using a tightly focused laser pulse with intensity near the ionization potential to trigger the injection process in a mismatched pre-plasma channel has been proposed and examined via multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The core idea of the proposed scheme is to lower the energy spread of trapped beams by shortening the injection distance. We have established theory to precisely predict the injection distance, as well as the ionization degree of injection atoms/ions, electron yield and ionized charge. We have found relation between injection distance and laser and plasma parameters, giving a strategy to control injection distance hence optimizing beam's energy spread. In the presented simulation example, we have investigated the whole injection and acceleration in detail and found some unique features of the injection scheme, like multi-bunch injection, unique longitudinal phase-space distribution, etc. Ultimate electron beam has a relative energy spread (rm...

  16. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  17. Detailed magnetic model simulations of the H- injection chicane magnets for the CERN PS Booster Upgrade, including eddy currents and influence on beam dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Martini, M; Forte, V

    2014-01-01

    The CERN PS Booster will be upgraded with an H- injection system. The chicanemagnets for the injection bump ramp-down in 5 ms and generate eddy currents in the inconel vacuum chamber which perturb the homogeneity of the magnetic field. The multipolar field components are extracted from 3D OPERA simulations and are included in the lattice model. The -beating correction is computed all along the ramp and complete tracking simulations including space-charge are performed to evaluate the impact of these perturbations and correction on beam dynamics.

  18. Chemical species injection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sample preparation device is disposed to injection pipelines of each system of a BWR type power plant, and a control device is connected to an electrolysis device and the sample preparation device respectively. An injection water analyzing device is connected to the exit of the sample preparation device, a sampling pipeline is connected to a reactor coolant cleanup system or a reactor recycling system, and a reactor water analyzing rack is connected to the sampling pipeline. The reactor water analyzing rack is connected to a signal processing system from a radiation concentration measuring device in reactor water, and the output of the signal processing system is connected to the control device. Chemical species for controlling water quality are formed from metal or metal compounds in a water solution by electrolysis. The concentration of each of the products is controlled and injected from a primary system or accompanied sampling systems of a reactor to the reactor. Parameters such as injection system concentration, reactor primary system concentration, radiation concentration in reactor water and corrosion potential are measured, to control injection, an amount of electrolysis or an injection concentration for the species. (N.H.)

  19. Beam position monitoring electronics system for LEHIPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary function of beam position monitoring system (BPM) is to determine the position of the beam with respect to the centre of beam pipe. The present system is VME based and mainly consists of two VME boards one Analog and one Digital. The system has been developed for 352.21 MHz Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA). The electronic system processes the signals coming from the sensor which incorporates four button pick-ups placed orthogonally around the beam pipe. The fundamental component of the beam signal is extracted from the signals from the sensor and amplified with gain stabilized amplifiers on the analog board. Offset tone based technique has been used for the stabilization of the gain of the amplifiers against changes in temperature, power supply, etc. The filtered and amplified signals are given to the digital board for digitization and further processing. The signal processing consists of demodulation in I-Q domain followed by CORDIC which gives the signal information in the form of amplitude and phase. The stabilization of the gain is also carried out in the digital domain. The phase information can be utilized for energy gain measurements. The amplitudes give the position of the beam which is calculated online in FPGA using difference over sum method. The EPICS system has been chosen as the basic framework for command control. The hardware architecture is as per standard VME crate. (author)

  20. Screw Extruder for Pellet Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar K. Chhantbar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Solid hydrogenic pellets are used as fuel for fusion energy reactor. A technique for continuous production of solid hydrogen and its isotopes by a screw extruder is suggested for the production of an unlimited number of pellets. The idea was developed and patented by PELIN laboratories, Inc. (Canada. A Gifford McMahon cryocooler is used for the generation of solid hydrogenic fluid pellets. Requirements of the pellets is depends upon the energy to be produced by tokamak. This review paper focuses on the model for the screw extruder for solidification of hydrogen ice having high injection reliability.

  1. Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Ion cyclotron instabilities driven by the nearly perpendicular neutral beam injection in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of ion cyclotron instabilities driven by the high power neutral beam injection is investigated for the conditions of the W VII-A stellarator by means of linear stability analysis. On the basis of only collisional (classical) slowing down, beam ion distribution functions are calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulation. In this report, various cases are considered: Transient beam ion distributions (i) immediately after switch on the neutral beam injection and (ii) after half of an average slowing down time; stationary beam ion distributions (iii) for confinement properties strongly improved by radial electric fields, transport and fast orbit losses are neglected for these situations, and (iv) for worse confinement properties for which the average beam ion confinement time is of the order of the average slowing down time. Furthermore, the distribution functions of the ions originating from the neutral beam injection are estimated for the early phase of the discharges with low temperatures and for the later phase with maximum ion temperatures. (orig.)

  3. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit of the...... column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence

  5. Self-Injection and Acceleration of Monoenergetic Electron Beams from Laser Wakefield Accelerators in a Highly Relativistic Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-injection and acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators are first investigated in the highly relativistic regime, using 100 TW class, 27fs laser pulses. Quasi-monoenergetic multi-bunched beams with energies as high as multi-hundred MeV are observed with simultaneous measurements of side-scattering emissions that indicate the formation of self-channelling and self-injection of electrons into a plasma wake, referred to as a 'bubble'. The three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirmed multiple self-injection of electron bunches into the bubble and their beam acceleration with gradient of 1.5GeV/cm. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  6. Self-Injection and Acceleration of Monoenergetic Electron Beams from Laser Wakefield Accelerators in a Highly Relativistic Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H. Yoshitama; WEN Xian-Lun; WEN Tian-Shu; WU Yu-Chi; ZHANG Bao-San; ZHU Qi-Hua; HUANG Xiao-Jun; AN Wei-Min; HUNG Wen-Hui; TANG Chuan-Xiang; LIN Yu-Zheng; T. Kameshima; WANG Xiao-Dong; CHEN Li-Ming; H. Kotaki; M. Kando; K. Nakajima; GU Yu-Qiu; GUO Yi; JIAO Chun-Ye; LIU Hong-Jie; PENG Han-Sheng; TANG Chuan-Ming; WANG Xiao-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Self-injection and acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators are first in-vestigated in the highly relativistic regime, using 100 TW class, 27 fs laser pulses. Quasi-monoenergetic multi-bunched beams with energies as high as multi-hundredMeV are observed with simultaneous measurements of side-scattering emissions that indicate the formation of self-channelling and self-injection of electrons into a plasma wake, referred to as a 'bubble'. The three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations confirmed multiple self-injection of electron bunches into the bubble and their beam acceleration with gradient of 1.5 GeV/cm.

  7. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  8. Development of Integrated Simulation System for Plastic Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENGXue-wen; LIDe-qun; ZHOUHua-min

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of injection molding have had success in predicting the behavior of polymer melt in extremely complicated geometries. Most of the current numerical solutions are based on finite-element/finite-difference/boundary-element/volume-control methods and the surface model. This paper discusses the development of an integrated CAE system for injection molding in detail, and presents the mathematics for numerical simulation of filling, packing,cooling, stress and warpage in injection molding. The developed system named as HsCAE3D is introduced at the end.

  9. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input–output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy.

  10. Closed-Loop Control of Chemical Injection Rate for a Direct Nozzle Injection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiang; Walgenbach, Martin; Doerpmond, Malte; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Sun, Yurui

    2016-01-01

    To realize site-specific and variable-rate application of agricultural pesticides, accurately metering and controlling the chemical injection rate is necessary. This study presents a prototype of a direct nozzle injection system (DNIS) by which chemical concentration transport lag was greatly reduced. In this system, a rapid-reacting solenoid valve (RRV) was utilized for injecting chemicals, driven by a pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal at 100 Hz, so with varying pulse width the chemical injection rate could be adjusted. Meanwhile, a closed-loop control strategy, proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method, was applied for metering and stabilizing the chemical injection rate. In order to measure chemical flow rates and input them into the controller as a feedback in real-time, a thermodynamic flowmeter that was independent of chemical viscosity was used. Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the performance of DNIS and PID control strategy. Due to the nonlinear input-output characteristics of the RRV, a two-phase PID control process obtained better effects as compared with single PID control strategy. Test results also indicated that the set-point chemical flow rate could be achieved within less than 4 s, and the output stability was improved compared to the case without control strategy. PMID:26805833

  11. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  12. Selection of alternative material for common rail direct injection system

    OpenAIRE

    Senguttuvan, N.; Raja, S; R. Sasidharan

    2014-01-01

    Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct fuel injection system for petrol and diesel engines. The common rail system prototype was developed in the late 1960s by Robert Huber of Switzerland and the technology further developed by Dr. Marco. In petrol engine MPFI technology was developed and implemented in earlier days. Basically common rail tube was fabricated by steel for petrol engines. In the current study Steel, Brass, Aluminum alloy a356 and ABS materials were anal...

  13. Explanation of Turbulent Suppression of Electron Heat Transfer in GOL-3 Facility at the Stage of Relativistic Electron Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the electron heat transfer suppression during the stage of relativistic electron beam injection into a plasma was discovered experimentally more than a decade ago. It is now widely adopted that the suppression is a side sequel of Langmuir turbulence excited by the beam, however neither quantitative theory nor even rough estimates of the phenomena were available so far. We argue that the coefficient of turbulent thermal conductivity can be evaluated from a robust judgement based on the energy balance consideration

  14. Excitation of HF and ULF-VLF waves during charged particle beams injection in active space experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baranets, N. V.; Sobolev, Y. P.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Rothkaehl, H.; Erokhin, N. S.; Afonin, V. V.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2009), s. 251-256. ISSN 1883-9630. [International Congress on Plasma Physics 2008/14st./. Fukuoka, 08.09.2008-12.09.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : beam-into-beam injection * waves excitation * dipole antenna Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.jspf.or.jp/JPFRS/PDF/Vol8/jpfrs2009_08-0251.pdf

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of neutral beam injection into the TJ-II helical-axis stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) efficiency for the TJ-II helical-axis stellarator was studied by Monte Carlo simulations for the case of tangential injection. For benchmark purposes, two different NBI codes are applied which take into account the peculiar geometries of the NBI, vacuum vessel, and helical-indented magnetic surfaces in TJ-II. The results obtained for various plasma parameters are discussed, emphasis being placed on comparing the co- and counter-heating efficiencies and considering loss mechanisms. The results from the two codes are in good agreement if differences in the magnetic field configurations used are borne in mind. The Monte Carlo code, which treats the guiding center part in magnetic coordinates, was used to investigate the influence of an assumed radial electric field on the heating efficiency. An interesting type of resonance which enhances fast orbit losses has been found for ωpol/ωtor ∼ 2 (with ωpol and ωtor being the poloidal and toroidal frequencies of the fast ions, respectively). This critical ratio can be reached during slowing-down owing to the vector E x vector B-drift. (orig.)

  16. Low energy spread electron beams from ionization injection in a weakly relativistic laser wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that low energy spread, relativistic electron beams (>120 MeV, <15%) can be produced in the weakly non-linear regime of a plasma wakefield, driven by a moderate power laser pulse (initial a0 < 1). Higher ionization states of a high-Z trace species, mixed in a background H plasma, provide the source of injected electrons. Injection occurs even though the laser intensity is initially well below the trapping threshold, as it is found that the laser pulse evolves until it fulfils the trapping requirements through self-compression. By careful control of intensity and density, the amount of evolution and hence of trapping can be controlled. Acceleration is terminated by depletion due to the extended evolution time, leading to narrow energy spread features even for long interaction lengths. Particle tracking shows that electrons ‘born’ at the periphery of the laser pulse are more likely to follow smoother trajectories inside the wakefield and subsequently to be trapped and accelerated. (paper)

  17. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP

  18. STRATEGY FOR DIESEL ROTARY ENGINE WITH COMMON RAIL INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jinjun; HAI Jingtao; SHI Jianzhong; LI Xuesong; YANG Qing; WANG Shangyong

    2006-01-01

    A direct injection low compression ratios diesel rotary engine is designed and studied to find the appropriate application of the electronic controlled high pressure common rail injection system. Current development focuses on the applied fuel injection and ignition strategies, especially concerning the combustion configurations of injectors, ignition source, and combustion chamber. The prototype engine, equipped with Bosch common rail system and high performance electronic control unit (ECU), is designed correspondingly. Studies show that the integration of a common rail injection system and the main and pilot duel injectors configurations, assisted with glow plug ignition device and flexible ECU, represents a promising approach to improve the potential of the low compression ratios diesel rotary engine. Currently the engine can run at 6 kr · min-1 steadily and the power is about 68 kW/(4 kr · min-1).

  19. Experiments of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H- beam extracted from surface-plasma-type negative hydrogen ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H- beam extracted from a surface-plasma-type H- ion source has been successfully achieved. The injection phase of the fast chopped beam from linac into the booster synchrotron is adjustable against the center of rf bucket by using this beam. It was obtained that the longitudinal emittance was controlled at the extraction of the booster synchrotron, and that the beam loss during the injection into main ring of the KEK-PS was reduced by this fast chopped beam. (author)

  20. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 1010 to 1.5 x 1013 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  1. The elettra beam line control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elettra is a third generation Synchrotron Light Source located in Trieste (Italy). It consists of a full energy linac injector and a storage ring with beam energies between 1.5 and 2 GeV. The facility is scheduled to be operational by end 1993. For the whole project 22 beam lines from insertion devices are foreseen, each of them is composed of a large number of measurement and controls instruments, most of them embedded in intelligent devices; in addition each beam line can be considered unique compared to the others, having been designed to provide a different kind of synchrotron radiation. This results in a large not homogenous environment where more than 200,000 physical points have to be controlled. A joint team composed of Softeco Sismat and Digital Equipment has developed a fully automated beam line control system able to give full remote controls, with different kind of access rights, to beam line users and beam line specialists as well as a full integration with experiment control systems. ((orig.))

  2. ACTIVE LONGITUDINAL PAINTING FOR THE H-CHARGE EXCHANGE INJECTION OF THE LINAC4 BEAM INTO THE PS BOOSTER

    CERN Document Server

    CARLI, C; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    Linac4 will provide 160 MeV H- to the PS Booster synchrotron. The H-beam will be injected by charge exchange injection allowing injecting several times into the same volumes of phase space. Thus, a large number of turns can be injected with high efficiencies and â€ワpainting” in order to shape the initial particle distribution for optimum performance becomes possible. In particular, a chopper makes longitudinal painting possible in addition to painting in transverse phase spaces. The slow synchrotron motion in the PS Booster implies an active longitudinal painting scheme, where the Linac4 output energy is modulated. Several active longitudinal painting schemes are presented. One scheme, based on a triangular Linac energy modulation, is proposed for the PS Booster H- injection with Linac4.

  3. Development of a transverse beam emittance and Twiss parameters measurement system for transport line-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Transport Line-1 (TL-1) in Indus Accelerator Complex at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore is being used to transport 20 MeV, 30 mA beam from the injector Microton exit point to the Booster Synchrotron where energy of electron beam is raised from 20 MeV to 450 MeV for injection into Indus-1 storage ring and 550 MeV to Indus-2 storage ring. It is important to measure the transverse beam emittance and Twiss parameters at Microton beam exit point for beam optics optimization in the transport line and to judge the beam quality. A transverse emittance and Twiss parameters measurement system using quadrupole scan method has been developed and tested. The system uses the electron beam images from the existing scintillator based beam profile monitor installed in TL-1 for beam size measurement. We have developed MATLAB codes that can extract transverse beam size and estimate transverse beam emittance. This paper describes the measurement method, software and some initial results obtained using this system. (author)

  4. Upgrading of the beam diagnostic system of U-70 beam transfer lines

    CERN Document Server

    Kovaltsov, V I; Matyushin, A T; Milyutkin, V; Romanov, I; Seleznev, V; Sytin, A N; Clausen, M

    2001-01-01

    The beam diagnostic system of U-70 beam transfer lines (beam profiles, intensity and beam losses measurements) was designed in the beginning of 80-th on the base of 8-bit microprocessor, SUMMA hardware and home made serial communication link. Because of the maintenance problems the decision was taken to upgrade the hardware and software parts of the system.

  5. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulev Assen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF, offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  6. Optomechatronic System For Automated Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulev, Assen; Tiankov, Tihomir; Ignatova, Detelina; Kostadinov, Kostadin; Roussev, Ilia; Trifonov, Dimitar; Penchev, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a complex optomechatronic system for In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF), offering almost complete automation of the Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) procedure. The compound parts and sub-systems, as well as some of the computer vision algorithms, are described below. System capabilities for ICSI have been demonstrated on infertile oocyte cells.

  7. Heating of electron plasma in two-stage beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regions of plasma production in two-stage beam-plasma system is separated from that of plasma heating by a density gradient. The temperature of bulk plasma electrons in this system is shown to reach several hundred electron volts under the injection of electron beam with the energy in the units of kiloelectronvolt. The range of optimal plasma electron heating is determined with respect to basic macroscopic parameters of the system (beam energy and current, pressure of neutral gas, length of a plasma column, strength of a magnetic field)

  8. Development of multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a two-beam type IH-RFQ (Interdigital H type Radio Frequency Quadrupole) linac system to prove the principle of a multi-beam type IH-RFQ linac in Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors of Tokyo Institute of Technology. The multi-beam type RFQ linac has several beam channels in a cavity for accelerating high intensity and low energy heavy ion beams. The developed system consists of a two-beam type IH-RFQ cavity as a prototype of the multi-beam type cavity, a two-beam type laser ion source with DPIS (Direct Plasma Injection Scheme) and beam analyzers mainly. As a result of the beam acceleration test, the linac system accelerates carbon ions from 5 keV/u to 60 keV/u and generates about 108 mA (2x54 mA/channel) in the total output current. In this paper, we describe the development of the linac system and some results of the beam acceleration test. (author)

  9. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 1013 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 109 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  10. Evolution of High Intensity Beams in the CERN PS Booster after H⁻ Injection and Phase Space Painting

    CERN Document Server

    Cieslak-Kowalska, Magdalena; Benedetto, Elena; Bracco, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, the injection energy of PS Booster (PSB) ' first circular accelerator in the LHC injector chain ' will be raised from 50 MeV to 160 MeV and the present multiturn injection will be upgraded to H⁻ injection with transverse and longitudinal painting. In the scope of this project, it is planned to double the beam intensities, profiting from the fact that the βγ2 factor will be two times larger (0.35 at 50 MeV and 0.71 at 160 MeV), so the resulting tune spread driven by a direct space charge should remain similar. This paper describes the feasibility to double the intensity of high intensity and large emittance beams, looking into the evolution under space charge and taking into account losses constrains in the ring and in the extraction lines.

  11. High quality electron beam acceleration by ionization injection in laser wakefields with mid-infrared dual-color lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Ming; Chen, Min; Mori, Warren B; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    For the laser wakefield acceleration, suppression of beam energy spread while keeping sufficient charge is one of the key challenges. In order to achieve this, we propose bichromatic laser ionization injection with combined laser wavelengths of $2.4\\rm \\mu m$ and $0.8\\rm \\mu m$ for wakefield excitation and for triggering electron injection via field ionization, respectively. A laser pulse at $2.4\\rm \\mu m$ wavelength enables one to drive an intense acceleration structure with relatively low laser power. To further reduce the requirement of laser power, we also propose to use carbon dioxide as the working gas medium, where carbon acts as the injection element. Our full three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that electron beams at the GeV energy level with both low energy spreads (around one percent) and high charges (several tens of picocoulomb) can be obtained by this scheme with laser parameters achievable in the near future.

  12. High quality electron beam acceleration by ionization injection in laser wakefields with mid-infrared dual-color lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Luo, Ji; Chen, Min; Mori, Warren B.; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Hidding, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    For the laser wakefield acceleration, suppression of beam energy spread while keeping sufficient charge is one of the key challenges. In order to achieve this, we propose bichromatic laser ionization injection with combined laser wavelengths of 2.4 μ m and 0.8 μ m for wakefield excitation and triggering electron injection via field ionization, respectively. A laser pulse at 2.4 μ m wavelength enables one to drive an intense acceleration structure with a relatively low laser power. To further reduce the requirement of laser power, we also propose to use carbon dioxide as the working gas medium, where carbon acts as the injection element. Our three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that electron beams at the GeV energy level with both low energy spreads (around 1%) and high charges (several tens of picocoulomb) can be obtained by the use of this scheme with laser peak power totaling sub-100 TW.

  13. Beam loss monitor system for the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At full intensity the energy contained in each beam of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is 400 MJ. The loss of a small fraction of that beam has the potential to cause magnet quenches or even severe damage to Collider components. To help protect the machine a sensitive and reliable beam loss monitor (BLM) system must be designed and built. In fact, BLM systems will be needed for all the accelerators of the SSC. The BLM system requirements for each of these accelerators will be discussed, but emphasis will be placed on the Collider. The discussion will include the preliminary design of BLM systems, the considerations that led to these designs, the calculations that were performed in development of the designs, and the problems that remain to be solved. A major tool in the design process has been a series of Monte Carlo calculations that were used to estimate beam loss distributions for the Collider arcs, the interaction regions, and the west utility region. These calculations were also used to study the fluence as a function of energy, the particle content, and the dose rate at selected positions. Detailed considerations such as detector spacing and sensitivity, loss fluctuations, reliability, and maintainability will be discussed. The proposed preliminary BLM system design for the Collider uses a radiation-hard, solid-state ionization detector and fast analog-to-digital conversion. Details of this design and relevant options will be discussed

  14. THE COUPLING IMPEDANCE OF THE RHIC INJECTION KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IN THIS PAPER, RESULTS FROM IMPEDANCE MEASUREMENTS ON THE RHIC INJECTION KICKERS ARE REPORTED. THE KICKER IS CONFIGURED AS A ''C'' CROSS SECTION MAGNET WITH INTERLEAVED FERRITE AND HIGH-PERMITTIVITY DIELECTRIC SECTIONS TO ACHIEVE A TRAVELLING WAVE STRUCTURE. THE IMPEDANCE WAS MEASURED USING THE WIRE METHOD, AND ACCURATE RESULTS ARE OBTAINED BY INTERPRETING THE FORWARD SCATTERING COEFFICIENT VIA THE LONG-FORMULA. THE FOUR KICKERS WITH THEIR CERAMIC BEAM TUBES CONTRIBUE AT Z/N-0.22 OMEGA/RING IN THE INTERESTING FREQUENCY RANGE FROM 0.1 TO 1 BHZ, AND LESS ABOVE

  15. FPGA-Based Multiprocessor System for Injection Molding Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque A. Osornio-Rios

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The plastic industry is a very important manufacturing sector and injection molding is a widely used forming method in that industry. The contribution of this work is the development of a strategy to retrofit control of an injection molding machine based on an embedded system microprocessors sensor network on a field programmable gate array (FPGA device. Six types of embedded processors are included in the system: a smart-sensor processor, a micro fuzzy logic controller, a programmable logic controller, a system manager, an IO processor and a communication processor. Temperature, pressure and position are controlled by the proposed system and experimentation results show its feasibility and robustness. As validation of the present work, a particular sample was successfully injected.

  16. Computer aided engineering for injection mould cooling system design

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Niall

    1998-01-01

    The time taken in the cooling stage, of a typical injection moulding cycle, is a large factor in the productivity and efficiency of a plastic manufacturing process, and for this reason, must be minimised. In order to do this a cooling system is employed throughout the mould core. This thesis describes the development and implementation of a PC based analysis system that can be used to optimise the size and position of injection mould cooling systems. The software is fully ‘32-Bit’, operat...

  17. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  18. Effect of supersonic molecular-beam injection on edge fluctuation and particle transport in Heliotron J

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zang, L., E-mail: l-zang@center.iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kasajima, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Kenmochi, N. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Ohshima, S.; Mizuuchi, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Sha, M.; Nagasaki, K.; Kado, S.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Shi, N.; Konoshima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Sano, F. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Nishino, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Takeuchi, M. [Naka Fusion Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); and others

    2014-04-15

    Edge fluctuation in a supersonic molecular-beam injection (SMBI) fueled plasma has been measured using an electrostatic probe array. After SMBI, the plasma stored energy (W{sub p}) temporarily decreased then started to increase. The local plasma fluctuation and fluctuation induced particle transport before and after SMBI have been analyzed. In a short duration (∼4 ms) just after SMBI, the density fluctuation of broad-band low frequency increased, and the probability density function (PDF) changed from a nearly Gaussian to a positively skewed non-Gaussian one. This suggests that intermittent structures were produced due to SMBI. Also the fluctuation induced particle transport was greatly enhanced during this short duration. About 4 ms after SMBI, the low frequency broad-band density fluctuation decreased, and the PDF returned to a nearly Gaussian shape. Also the fluctuation induced particle transport was reduced. Compared with conventional gas puff, W{sub p} degradation window is very short due to the short injection period of SMBI. After this short degradation window, fluctuation induced particle transport was reduced and W{sub p} started the climbing phase. Therefore, the short period of the influence to the edge fluctuation might be an advantage of this novel fueling technique. On the other hand, although their roles are not identified at present, coherent MHD modes are also suppressed as well by the application of SMBI. These MHD modes are thought to be de-exited due to a sudden change of the edge density and/or excitation conditions.

  19. ISR internal beam-dumping system

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Parts of the internal beam-dumping system. In the ring on the right are shown the four tanks containing the vertically deflecting magnets and in the ring on the left is the absorber block. Identical parts are on opposite sides in the other half of this intersection region.

  20. Systems analysis on laser beamed power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA SELENE power beaming program is intended to supply cost-effective power to space assets via Earth-based lasers and active optics systems. Key elements of the program are analyzed, the overall effort is reviewed, and recommendations are presented.

  1. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  2. Study of fault injection system based on software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A software fault injection system SFIS is designed, which consists of the target system plus a fault injector, fault library, workload, data collector, and data analyzer. A serial communication mechanism is adopted to simulate the factual work environment. Then a fault model is built for single particle event, which can be denoted as FM = (FL, FT). FL stands for fault location, and FT stands for fault type. The fault model supports three temporal faults: transient, intermittent, and permanent. During the experiments implemented by SFIS,the software interruption method is adopted to inject transient faults, and step trace method is adopted to inject permanent faults into the target system. The experiment results indicate that for the injected transient code segment faults, 2.8% of them do not affect the program output, 80.1% of them are detected by the built-in error detection in the system, and 17.1% of them are not detected by fault detection mechanism. The experiment results verify the validity of the fault injection method.

  3. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T.

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  4. Safety Injection System Filling Using Dynamic Venting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Je; Kim, Wong Bae; Huh, Jin; Lee, Joo Hee; Im, In Young; Kim, Eun kee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    In the APR+, the water-level elevation of the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) is lower than the highest piping of the SIS. Since the gravity filling of water from IRWST cannot fill all SIS piping, an SIP or an SCP test line is newly provided in order to allow the dynamic venting of the SIS. NEI 09-10 Revision 1a-A has concluded that use of dynamic venting is an effective means to remove gas from local high points and traps in piping when correctly based on the dynamic flow rate, void volume, Floude number, and the system water volume. In this study, feasibility of the dynamic vent is investigated. The work presented in this study evaluates the SIS and the SCS filling using the dynamic venting which is supposed to be applied to the APR+. The main ideas are as follows; 1. Dynamic venting using SIPs for the APR+ is not appropriate on the basis of 12 inches in diameter and with the flow rate, 1,460 gpm. 2. Because the high point of the SIS and the SCS is located at the piping that the two systems are sharing, the accumulated gas at the highest point can be removed by using the SCPs, and the dimension of the new piping will be determined by its length of them and the number of elbows. The calculated results are shown in Table 2. 3. The applicability of the dynamic venting methods using the SCPs that are mentioned above should be evaluated in the aspect of the system operation after the piping arrangements are settled in the APR+. The assessments to determine the pump operation time are also required.

  5. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  6. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly Marie

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to supress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will descri...

  7. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Stifter, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. Here, I present the detector...

  8. Ion beam injected point defects in crystalline silicon: Migration, interaction, and trapping phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent work on the room temperature migration and trapping phenomena of ion beam generated point defects in crystalline Si is reviewed. It is shown that a small fraction (∼10-6) of the defects generated at the surface by a shallow implant is injected into the bulk. These defects undergo a long range trap-limited diffusion and interact with both impurities, dopants and preexisting defects along their path. In particular, these interactions result in dopant deactivation and/or partial annihilation of pre-existing vacancy-type defect markers. It is found that in highly pure, epitaxial Si layers, these effects extend to several microns from the surface, demonstrating a long range migration of point defects at room temperature. By a detailed analysis of the experimental evidences the authors have identified the Si self-interstitials as the major responsible for the observed phenomena. This allowed them to give a lower limit of 6 x 10-11 cm2/s for the room temperature diffusion coefficient of the Si self-interstitials. Room temperature trap-limited migration of vacancies is also detected as a broadening in the divacancy profile of as implanted samples. In this case the room temperature diffusion coefficient of vacancies has been found to be ≥3 x 10-12 cm2/s. These data are presented and their implications discussed

  9. Influence of Off-axis Neutral Beam Injection on Resistive Wall Mode Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) is an essential issue for future magnetic fusion reactors (e.g., ITER) aiming at long-duration steady discharges over the no-wall beta limit. The RWM has been extensively investigated during recent years, both theoretically and experimentally. However, so far the physical mechanism of the passive control of the RWM has not been investigated fully, particularly the mechanism for the interaction between the RWM and energetic particles (EPs). Recent experiments in DIII-D indicate that the increase of the off-axis neutral beam injection (NBI) power can lead to the enhancement of RWM stability, which is opposite to expectation from consideration of the trapped particles fraction reduced by off-axis NBI. In this work, we apply our previous theory model to investigate the deposition effect of trapped EPs from off-axis NBI on the RWM instability. The results show that the spatial deposition effect of trapped EPs indeed significantly affects the RWM stability, and, compared with the on-axis case, off-axis deposition of EPs can contribute more stabilization to the RWM. (author)

  10. Characteristics of the SF6/H2 laser initiated by an axially injected electron-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental and analytical studies on the characteristics of SF6/H2 laser were performed. The experimental apparatus consisted of a low-impedance Marx generator, an electric field emission diode, a laser tube, and an axial field coil. The electron beam of 320 KeV and 2.5 kA was injected into SF6/H2 gas. A simulation model to derive laser parameters is the rate equation model which includes ignition reaction, excitation reaction and relaxation reaction. The laser energy, the wave form of laser pulses, photon production rate and the number of produced molecules of HF were derived from the model. The maximum laser power was 450 mJ with the FWHM of 160 ns, when the gas mixing ratio of SF6/H2 was 11 to 1 and the gas pressure was 120 Torr. The optimum length of a laser tube was about 500 mm. The generation efficiency of laser was 4.9 percent. The values of laser parameters obtained from the simulation were 2.0 x 10-3 of the F atom dissociation of SF6 and 15.7 eV/F of the production energy of one F atom. (Kato, T.)

  11. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni;

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... optical fibers in a quick and precise manner, with a lateral alignment accuracy of 2.7 ± 1.8 μm. We report the production, assembly methods, and the characterization of the resulting injection-molded chips for Lab-on-Chip (LoC) applications. We demonstrate the versatility of this technology by carrying...

  12. Construction of the beam profile monitor system with CameraLink in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We had measured the beam position and size in the SPring-8 booster ring and beam transport line by the monitor system that consists of analog video camera and fluorescent plate. It was difficult to estimate the seasonal change of the beam position and beam size between user operation cycles. In order to keep the high injection efficiency to SPring-8 storage ring, we need to achieve the tuning reproducibility of the accelerator parameter in the booster ring and beam transport line by using the quantitative data. The newly constructed beam profile monitor system consists of the digital CCD camera with external trigger synchronous capturing function, camera selectors, and server computers. Each camera system placed on the booster ring and beam transport line are managed by the UNIX server computer setup for each area. This system is connected by the cameralink configuration devices with cameralink cables or optical fiber cables. It became possible to capture image of beam profile synchronous with a beam trigger with a high resolution and a fast capturing time as same as it by using the analog video system. We will report the detail of beam profile monitor system with cameralink and the system operation. (author)

  13. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  14. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  15. INJECTION VOLUME CONTROL BY THERMAL WAY IN TRANSGENIC DNA MICRO-INJECTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ling; Zhang Yun; Yang Yimin; Chen Jinghua

    2004-01-01

    Nowdays there are several manual or half-automatic methods developed to drive the DNA micro-fluid of transgenic micro-injection and they often fail to control precisely the injection volume at picolitres level.Micro-size of the injector tip and viscosity of the DNA liquid also lead to dead area of volume control.An adequate way is presented utilizing temperature gradients to direct liquid flow in the pipette from the warmer to the cooler.Compared with the previous ones, this way is helpful in decreasing the dead area of controlling through decreasing the viscous rate of DNA liquid, which changes as the temperature varies.The DNA liquid is pushed by a sheer stress at the liquid-pipette interface, which emerges when viscous rate of the liquid changes.Preliminary experimenting results show the efficiency and convenience of this way in improving the system's characteristics.

  16. Design aspects of a test stand for axial injection system of 20-100 MeV compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To increase the injection intensity and efficiency, a test stand is designed for the axial injection system of 20-100 MeV compact cyclotron so as to implement the experimental study. The design aspects of test stand, including the optics of the beam line, the elements design etc., are described. Mostly the elements selection for the beam transportation from the Hsource to the central region of the cyclotron, the matching calculation and the elements design are considered. To investigate the injection system of 22 MeV and 70 MeV cyclotrons experimentally by the test stand, the design goal is to keep the layout of injection line, the dimensions of elements, the operation parameters as close as possible so that the setup of the stand is more easily. The designed system can meet the need of the H- beam injection for the cyclotron from 20 MeV to 100 MeV though the dimension of the solenoid, which is installed in the main magnet of the machine, should be changed due to the different size of the magnets

  17. RHIC beam loss monitor system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized for data logging. The output is also applied to an analog multiplier which compensates the energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. High and low pass filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent programmable trip levels. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer (FEC) for real-time operation. Results with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line will be presented

  18. Plasma behavior with hydrogen supersonic molecular beam and cluster jet injection in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of low pressure supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) into the HL-2A plasma indicated that during the period of SMB pulse injection the power density convected at the divertor target plate surfaces was 0.4 times of that before or after the beam injection. The clusters are produced at nitrogen temperature in a supersonic adiabatic expansion of moderate pressure hydrogen gases into vacuum through a Laval nozzle. The averaged cluster size was measured by Rayleigh scattering as large as hundreds atoms. Multifold diagnostics for the cluster jet injection (CJI) experiments have given a coincident evidence that there was a terminal area where a great deal particles from the clusters deposited at, rather than the clusters uniformly ablating along the injection path. A SMB with large clusters, which are like micro-pellets, was of benefit for deeper fuelling and the fuelling efficiency is distinctly better than that of the room temperature SMBI. Another important effect of the CJI or the high pressure SMBI was that the runaway electrons were cooled down to thermal velocity due to a combination of collision and radiative stopping in such a massive fuelling. So the new fuelling technique may become a good treatment to mitigate fast plasma shutdowns and disruptions. (author)

  19. Condition monitoring for a neutral beam injector cryopumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, N., E-mail: n.wright@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Dixon, R., E-mail: r.dixon@lboro.ac.uk [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Verhoeven, R., E-mail: roel.verhoeven@ccfe.ac.uk [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The development of a cryopumping condition monitoring scheme is presented. ► A residual generation scheme is used to detect two faults. ► Kalman filtering is used to generate the residuals. ► A filtering and voting arrangement is used to evaluate the residuals. ► A non-linear simulation model is used to verify the scheme. -- Abstract: For neutral beam injection systems, the maintenance of a vacuum inside the injector box is essential for normal operation. Cryogenic pumping systems are often used to create and maintain this vacuum. Cryogenic pumping systems have been deployed on the neutral beam heating systems supporting the Joint European Torus. With these as a target application, the development of a condition monitoring scheme is presented. The scheme uses a residual generation approach. A bank of Kalman filters is used to estimate measured process variables. A residual evaluator is used to map residual signals onto a set of faults. Two example faults are simulated to demonstrate the response of the scheme. This paper contributes to the wider fusion development programme by demonstrating how a contemporary condition monitoring technique can be applied to a fusion support system, in order to improve its availability.

  20. The LHC Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Aberle, O; Aiba, M; Albert, M; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Arduini, Gianluigi; Assmann, Ralph Wolfgang; Bailey, R; Billen, R; Bottura, L; Brüning, Oliver Sim; Butterworth, A; Calaga, R; Carlier, E; Collier, P; Dehning, B; Deniau, L; Fartoukh, S; Follin, F; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuchsberger, K; Giachino, R; Giovannozzi, M; Goddard, B; Gras, J J; Hatziangeli, E; Hagen, P; Jacquet, D; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kozsar, I; Kramer, T; Kruk, G; Lamont, M; Lewis, J; Losito, R; MacPherson, A; Masi, A; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Misiowiec, M; Page, S; Ponce, L; Puccio, B; Redaelli, S; Roderick, C; Roesler, S; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, R; Sliwinski, W; Steinhagen, R; Strzelczyk, M; Sun, Y; Todd, B; Todesco, E; Tomas Garcia, R; Uythoven, J; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Vincke, H; Vincke, H; Veyrunes, E; Wenninger, J; Wolf, R; Zamantzas, C; Zimmermann, F

    2008-01-01

    A series of LHC injection tests was performed in August and September 2008. The first saw beam injected into sector 23; the second into sectors 78 and 23; the third into sectors 78-67 and sectors 23-34-45. The fourth, into sectors 23-34-45, was performed the evening before the extended injection test on the 10th September which saw both beams brought around the full circumference of the LHC. The tests enabled the testing and debugging of a number of critical control and hardware systems; testing and validation of instrumentation with beam for the first time; deployment, and validation of a number of measurement procedures. Beam based measurements revealed a number of machine configuration issues that were rapidly resolved. The tests were undoubtedly an essential precursor to the successful start of LHC beam commissioning. This paper provides an outline of preparation for the tests, the machine configuration and summarizes the measurements made and individual system performance.

  1. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron

  2. Radiation analysis of the ITER pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of neutronics calculations for the pellet injection system of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are described. Hands-on maintenance of components in the pellet injection room results in a considerable simplification of maintenance support equipment and in greater system availability. The basic configuration of the pellet injection system includes small-diameter guide tubes with which the pellet may have several small-angle collisions before reaching the plasma. The pellet injector port through which the guide tubes pass will be shared with ITER plasma diagnostics, so the calculation takes into account penetrations to accommodate numerous channels for a neutron spectrometer and neutron and gamma-ray cameras. The conservative assumption of steady-state operation of ITER for 1000 days was taken as the baseline for calculating the activation of components in the pellet injection room. The plasma configuration is based on the current ITER guidelines, the first wall configuration is based on the most recently updated configuration, and the blanket configuration is based on the US proposal for the blanket. The plasma, coils, and blanket regions were analyzed with the Monte Carlo code MCNP. The transport of neutrons through the penetrations was also performed with MCNP. The pellet injection room was modeled with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, which was also used for the transport of neutrons during operation and of gamma rays caused by activation. The activation calculations were carried out with the REBATE code. Results from this study indicate that restricted personnel access to the pellet injection room is possible, so limited hands-on maintenance can be performed on the majority of the components in the room

  3. Convection and diffusion in a micro-flow injection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, van E.B.; Bos, M.; Linden, van der W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Five micro-structures were used to study the effect of the convection and diffusion behavior (dispersion) of a dye in a micro-flow system. Besides a straight manifold, manifolds with curved bends and manifolds with rectangular bends were constructed. The dispersion resulting from hydrodynamic inject

  4. Liquid metal alloy ion source based metal ion injection into a room-temperature electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, A; Ritter, E; Ullmann, F; Pilz, W; Bischoff, L; Zschornack, G

    2012-02-01

    We have carried out a series of measurements demonstrating the feasibility of using the Dresden electron beam ion source (EBIS)-A, a table-top sized, permanent magnet technology based electron beam ion source, as a charge breeder. Low charged gold ions from an AuGe liquid metal alloy ion source were injected into the EBIS and re-extracted as highly charged ions, thereby producing charge states as high as Au(60 +). The setup, the charge breeding technique, breeding efficiencies as well as acceptance and emittance studies are presented. PMID:22380207

  5. Gravity injection experiments and direct-contact condensation regime map for passive high-pressure injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravity injection experiment in a passive high-pressure injection system with a pressurizer pressure balance line is conducted by using a small-scale test facility to identify the parameters having the effects on the gravity injection and the major condensation modes. It turns out that the larger the water subcooling is, the more the initiation of injection is delayed, and the sparger and the natural circulation of the hot water from the steam generator accelerate the gravity injection. The condensation modes identified through the experiments are divided into three modes: sonic jet, subsonic jet, steam cavity. The steam cavity is the unique mode of downward injection with the present geometry not previously observed in other experiments. The condensation regime map associated with the injection of steam into water through the steam pipe is constructed using Froude number and Jacob number

  6. Indexing system for optical beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark T.; Cannon, David M.; Debra, Daniel B.; Young, Jeffrey A.; Mansfield, Joseph A.; Carmichael, Roger E.; Lissol, Peter S.; Pryor, G. M.; Miklosy, Les G.; Lee, Jeffrey H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an indexing system for optical-beam steering. The cryogenic beam-steering mechanism is a 360-degree rotation device capable of discrete, high-precision alignment positions. It uses low-precision components for its rough alignment and kinematic design to meet its stringent repeatability and stability requirements (of about 5 arcsec). The principal advantages of this design include a decoupling of the low-precision, large angular motion from the high-precision alignment, and a power-off alignment position that potentially extends the life or hold time of cryogenic systems. An alternate design, which takes advantage of these attributes while reducing overall motion, is also presented. Preliminary test results show the kinematic mount capable of sub-arc second repeatability.

  7. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  8. Neutral particle beam distributed data acquisition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, R.T.; Kraimer, M.R.; Novick, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been designed to support experiments at the Argonne Neutral Particle Beam Accelerator. The system uses a host VAXstation II/GPX computer acting as an experimenter's station linked via Ethernet with multiple MicroVAX IIs and rtVAXs dedicated to acquiring data and controlling hardware at remote sites. This paper describes the hardware design of the system, the applications support software on the host and target computers, and the real-time performance.

  9. Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 μm transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects

  10. Resonantly excited betatron hard X-Rays from Ionization Injected Electron Beam in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, K; Li, Y F; Li, D Z; Tao, M Z; Mirzaie, M; Ma, Y; Zhao, J R; Li, M H; Chen, M; Hafz, N; Sokollik, T; Sheng, Z M; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme for bright hard x-ray emission from laser wakefield electron accelerator is reported, where pure nitrogen gas is adopted. Intense Betatron x-ray beams are generated from ionization injected K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating wave bucket. The x-ray radiation shows synchrotron-like spectrum with total photon yield 8$\\times$10$^8$/shot and $10^8$ over 110keV. In particular, the betatron hard x-ray photon yield is 10 times higher compared to the case of helium gas under the same laser parameters. Particle-in-cell simulation suggests that the enhancement of the x-ray yield results from ionization injection, which enables the electrons to be quickly accelerated to the driving laser region for subsequent betatron resonance. Employing the present scheme,the single stage nitrogen gas target could be used to generate stable high brightness betatron hard x-ray beams.

  11. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  12. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 106-109 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, Isp~106 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameter×10-meters length, magnetic field ~7 Tesla, ion beam current ~10 A, and fuels of either D-He3,P-B11,P-Li6,D-Li6, etc. .

  13. Internally shielded beam transport and support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to environmental concerns, the Advanced Photon Source has a policy that disallows any exposed lead within the facility. This creates a real problem for the beam transport system, not so much for the pipe but for the flexible coupling (bellows) sections. A complete internally shielded x-ray transport system, consisting of long transport lines joined by flexible coupling sections, has been designed for CARS sector 14 to operate either at high vacuum or as a helium flight tube. It can effectively shield against air scattering of wiggler or undulator white beam with proper placement of apertures, collimators, and masks for direct beam control. The system makes use of male- and female-style fittings that create a labyrinth allowing for continuous shielding through the flexible coupling sections. These parts are precision machined from a ternary hypereutectic lead alloy (cast under 15 inches of head pressure to assure a pinhole-free casting) then pressed into either end (rotatable vacuum flanges) of the bellows assembly. The transport pipe itself consists of a four part construction using a stepped transition ring (Z-ring) to connect an inner tube to the vacuum flange and also to a protective and supportive outer tube. The inner tube is wrapped with 1/16 double-prime pure lead sheet to a predetermined thickness following the shape of the stepped transition ring for continuous shielding. This design has been prototyped and radiation tested. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  14. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  15. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements

  16. Design of CMS Beam Halo Monitor system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078842

    2015-01-01

    A fast and directional monitoring system for the CMS experiment is designed to provide an online, bunch-by-bunch measurement of beam background induced by beam halo interactions, separately for each beam. The background detection is based on Cherenkov radiation produced in synthetic fused silica read out by a fast, UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. Twenty detector units per end will be azimuthally distributed around the rotating shielding of CMS, covering ~408 cm2 at 20.6m from the interaction point, at a radius of ~180 cm. The directional and fast response of the system allows the discrimination of the background particles from the dominant flux in the cavern induced by pp collision debris, produced within the 25 ns bunch spacing. A robust multi-layered shielding will enclose each detector unit to protect the photomultiplier tube from the magnetic field and to eliminate the occupancy from low energy particles. The design of the front-end units is validated by experimental results. An overview of the new sy...

  17. Plasma behaviour with hydrogen supersonic molecular beam and cluster jet injection in the HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of low pressure supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) fuelling on the HL-2A closed divertor indicate that during the period of pulsed SMBI the power density convected at the target plate surfaces was 0.4 times of that before or after the beam injection. An empirical scaling law used for the SMBI penetration depth for the HL-2A plasma was obtained. The cluster jet injection (CJI) is a new fuelling method which is based on and developed from the experiments of SMBI in the HL-1M tokamak. The hydrogen clusters are produced at liquid nitrogen temperature in a supersonic adiabatic expansion of moderate backing pressure gases into vacuum through a Laval nozzle and are measured by Rayleigh scattering. The measurement results have shown that the averaged cluster size of as large as hundreds of atoms was found at the backing pressures of more than 0.1 MPa. Multifold diagnostics gave coincidental evidence that when there was hydrogen CJI in the HL-2A plasma, a great deal of particles from the jet were deposited at a terminal area rather than uniformly ablated along the injecting path. SMB with clusters, which are like micro-pellets, will be of benefit for deeper fuelling, and its injection behaviour was somewhat similar to that of pellet injection. Both the particle penetration depth and the fuelling efficiency of the CJI were distinctly better than that of the normal SMBI under similar discharge operation. During hydrogen CJI or high-pressure SMBI, a combination of collision and radiative stopping forced the runaway electrons to cool down to thermal velocity due to such a massive fuelling

  18. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  19. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Richard S.

    1988-09-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  20. Modeling and control of plasma rotation and βn for NSTX-U using Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity and Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Sabbagh, Steven; Gates, David; Gerhardt, Stefan; Boyer, Mark

    2015-11-01

    A model-based system is presented allowing control of the plasma rotation profile in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device to maintain plasma stability for long pulse operation. The analysis, using NSTX data and NSTX-U TRANSP simulations, is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using momentum from six injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields as actuators. Based on the momentum diffusion and torque balance model obtained, a feedback controller is designed and predictive simulations using TRANSP will be presented. Robustness of the model and the rotation controller will be discussed.

  1. Psa study of ETRR-2 Gadolinium injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    one of the main safety feature of ETRR-2, egypt test and reactor 3 2 (new reactor), is the use of a redundant and diverse shutdown systems, called second shutdown system SSS. This system operates through injection of a high absorbing material, gadolinium Gd solution, into four rectangular chambers surrounding the reactor core. In view of the fact that the core is super-moderated, the injected neutron poison between the core and the reflector will cause an immediate reactor shutdown. The SSS triggers due to: manual, seismic, fails of actuation of the first shutdown system FSS, or high power neutron flux signal. Because of safety importance of this new system design, the present probabilistic safety assessment PDA study is initiated. The study carried ou in view of the system acceptable unavailability together with the effects of failure probabilities of relevant parameters and basic events. The effect of system design modifications (remove of high power signal and addition of nitrogen filtering line) on reactor safety and system unavailability is analyzed. A new proposed PSA model which take into consideration all possible failure modes of the system components is developed. The results show that the modification done on the system improves its unavailability while increases the minimal cut sets. The proposed model unavailability is greater (bad) than the designer model (That contains many hypothesis). human error contribution on system unavailability is reflected on failure type of gadolinium concentration. The IAEA psa pack IV code is utilized for calculation purposes

  2. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called “Magnetic Cogging” was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called “RF Cogging” as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP).[1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. The flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts it to the Main Injector (MI) or Recycler Ring (RR). Cogging controls the beam extraction gap position which is created early in the Booster cycle and synchronizes the gap to the rising edge of the Booster extraction kicker and the MI/RR injection kicker. The RF Cogging system controls the gap position by changing only the radial position of the beam thus limiting the beam aperture and creating beam loss due to beam scraping. The Magnetic Cogging system controls the gap position with the magnetic field of the dipole correctors while the radial position feedback keeps the beam on a central orbit. Also with Magnetic Cogging the gap creation can occur earlier in the Booster cycle when the removed particles are at a lower energy. Thus Magnetic Cogging reduces the deposited energy of the lost particles (beam energy loss) and results in less beam loss activation. Energy loss was reduced by 40% by moving the gap creation energy from 700 MeV to 400 MeV when the Booster Cogging system was switched from RF Cogging to Magnetic Cogging in March 2015

  3. Development of the beam extraction synchronization system at the Fermilab Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiya, K.; Chaurize, S.; Drennan, C. C.; Pellico, W.; Sullivan, T.; Triplett, A. K.; Waller, A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new beam extraction synchronization control system called "Magnetic Cogging" was developed at the Fermilab Booster and it replaces a system called "RF Cogging" as part of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP).[1] The flux throughput goal for the PIP is 2.2×1017 protons per hour, which is double the present flux. The flux increase will be accomplished by doubling the number of beam cycles which, in turn, will double the beam loss in the Booster accelerator if nothing else is done. The Booster accelerates beam from 400 MeV to 8 GeV and extracts it to the Main Injector (MI) or Recycler Ring (RR). Cogging controls the beam extraction gap position which is created early in the Booster cycle and synchronizes the gap to the rising edge of the Booster extraction kicker and the MI/RR injection kicker. The RF Cogging system controls the gap position by changing only the radial position of the beam thus limiting the beam aperture and creating beam loss due to beam scraping. The Magnetic Cogging system controls the gap position with the magnetic field of the dipole correctors while the radial position feedback keeps the beam on a central orbit. Also with Magnetic Cogging the gap creation can occur earlier in the Booster cycle when the removed particles are at a lower energy. Thus Magnetic Cogging reduces the deposited energy of the lost particles (beam energy loss) and results in less beam loss activation. Energy loss was reduced by 40% by moving the gap creation energy from 700 MeV to 400 MeV when the Booster Cogging system was switched from RF Cogging to Magnetic Cogging in March 2015.

  4. An interactive beam position monitor system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system simulator has been implemented to aid the development of the RHIC position monitor system. Based on the LabVIEW software package by National Instruments, this simulator allows engineers and technicians to interactively explore the parameter space of a system during the design phase. Adjustable parameters are divided into three categories: beam, pickup, and electronics. The simulator uses these parameters in simple formulas to produce results in both time-domain and frequencydomain. During the prototyping phase, these simulated results can be compared to test data acquired with the same software package. The RHIC position monitor system is presented as an example, but the software is applicable to several other systems as well

  5. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  6. Multiplexed broadband beam steering system utilizing high speed MEMS mirrors

    OpenAIRE

    Knoernschild, Caleb; Kim, Changsoon; Lu, Felix P.; Kim, Jungsang

    2009-01-01

    We present a beam steering system based on micro-electromechanical systems technology that features high speed steering of multiple laser beams over a broad wavelength range. By utilizing high speed micromirrors with a broadband metallic coating, our system has the flexibility to simultaneously incorporate a wide range of wavelengths and multiple beams. We demonstrate reconfiguration of two independent beams at different wavelengths (780 and 635 nm) across a common 5x5 array with 4 us settlin...

  7. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  8. Beam test of multi-bunch energy compensation system in the accelerator test facility at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam test of the multi-bunch energy compensation system (ECS) was performed using the ΔF method with the 2856±4.327 HMz accelerating structures in the accelerator test facility (ATF) at KEK. The 1.54 GeV S-band linac of the ATF was designed to accelerate a multi-bunch beam the consists of 20 bunches with 2.8 ns spacing. The multi-bunch beam with 2.0 x 1010 electrons/bunch has an energy deviation of about 8.5% at the end of the linac due to transient beam loading without ECS. The ATF linac is the injector of the ATF damping ring (DR), whose energy acceptance is ±0.5%. The beam loading compensation system is necessary in the ATF linac for the successful injection of multi-bunch into DR. The rf system of the linac consists of 8 regular rf units with the SLED system and 2 ECS rf units without the SLED system. The accelerating structures of the regular units are driven at 2856 MHz and the 2 ECS structures are operated with slightly different rf frequencies of 2856±4.327 MHz. In the beam test, we have succeeded in compressing the multi-bunch energy spread within the energy acceptance of the DR using ΔF ECS. The principle of the beam loading compensation system of KEK-ATF and the experimental results are described in this paper. (author)

  9. Water injection system for turbine driven BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a water injection system of a turbine driven nuclear reactor for maintaining the function thereof even upon occurrence of a severe accident in a BWR type nuclear reactor. That is, the system comprises a differential pressure detection means for measuring a pressure difference between the downstream of a the turbine and a reactor container and an interrupting means for stopping the supply of steams to the turbine when the differential pressure exceeds a predetermined value. With such a constitution, when the pressure in the turbine driven water injection system is locally increased, the differential pressure detection means detects the differential pressure, to interrupt the supply of the steams to the turbine. Further, upon occurrence of a severe accident that a pressure in the reactor container is abnormally elevated, differential pressure is not caused between the downstream of the turbine and the reactor container. Accordingly, a protection function is not operated by the differential pressure detection means. Accordingly, injection of coolants to the reactor can be continued even upon loss of AC power source. (I.S.)

  10. Controlling Beamloss at Injection into the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Appleby, R B; Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cornelis, K; Dehning, B; del Busto, E; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Höfle, W; Holzer, E B; Jacobsson, R; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Nordt, A; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Weisz, S

    2011-01-01

    Losses at injection into the superconducting LHC can adversely affect the machine performance in several important ways. The high injected beam intensity and energy mean that precautions must be taken against damage and quenches, including collimators placed close to the beam in the injection regions. Clean injection is essential, to avoid spurious signals on the sensitive beam loss monitoring system which will trigger beam dumps. In addition, the use of the two injection insertions to house downstream high energy physics experiments brings constraints on permitted beam loss levels. In this paper the sources of injection beam loss are discussed together with the contributing factors and various issues experienced in the first full year of LHC operation. Simulations are compared with measurement, and the implemented and planned mitigation measures and diagnostic improvements are described. An outlook for future LHC operation is given.

  11. Numerical simulation of collective ion acceleration in an intense electron beam--localized gas cloud system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In experiments in which an intense relativistic electron beam is injected into an evacuated drift tube with a localized gas cloud located near the anode, ions with energies several times the electron beam energy have been observed. These experiments have been simulated using a particle-in-cell code which realistically models ionization of the gas. It was found that when the injected electron beam current exceeds the space-charge limiting current, ions are accelerated to energies several times the electron beam energy by coherent motion of the ions and the intense virtual cathode electric fields. The dependence of the peak ion energy on the system parameters as observed in the simulations is also discussed. For the parameter regimes investigated with beam energies up to 3 MV, beam currents up to 35 kA, gas pressures up to 600 mTorr, and gas cloud widths up to 6 cm, peak ion energies of 5--6 times the electron beam energy have been observed

  12. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum). Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3%) between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary) measurements. The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems

  13. Dosimetric precision of an ion beam tracking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraft Gerhard

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scanned ion beam therapy of intra-fractionally moving tumors requires motion mitigation. GSI proposed beam tracking and performed several experimental studies to analyse the dosimetric precision of the system for scanned carbon beams. Methods A beam tracking system has been developed and integrated in the scanned carbon ion beam therapy unit at GSI. The system adapts pencil beam positions and beam energy according to target motion. Motion compensation performance of the beam tracking system was assessed by measurements with radiographic films, a range telescope, a 3D array of 24 ionization chambers, and cell samples for biological dosimetry. Measurements were performed for stationary detectors and moving detectors using the beam tracking system. Results All detector systems showed comparable data for a moving setup when using beam tracking and the corresponding stationary setup. Within the target volume the mean relative differences of ionization chamber measurements were 0.3% (1.5% standard deviation, 3.7% maximum. Film responses demonstrated preserved lateral dose gradients. Measurements with the range telescope showed agreement of Bragg peak depth under motion induced range variations. Cell survival experiments showed a mean relative difference of -5% (-3% between measurements and calculations within the target volume for beam tracking (stationary measurements. Conclusions The beam tracking system has been successfully integrated. Full functionality has been validated dosimetrically in experiments with several detector types including biological cell systems.

  14. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  15. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  16. Beam Dynamics Studies of ECR Injections for the Coupled Cyclotron Facility at NSCL%NSCL从ECR离子源向CCF注入的离子束流动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    X.Wu; Q.Zhao; D.Cole; M.Doleans; G.Machicoane; F.Marti; P.Miller; J.Stetson; M.Steiner; P.Zavodszky

    2007-01-01

    The Coupled Cyclotron Facility(CCF)has been operating at the NSCL since 2001,providing up to 160MeV/u heavy ion beams for nuclear physics experiments.Recent steps,particularly the improvement of the ECR-to-K500 injection line,were taken to improve the CCF performance.For that purpose an off-line ECR source.ARTEMIS-B,was built and used to investigate the impact on beam brightness under various source operating conditions,different initial focusing systems and current analysis dipole.Beam dynamics simulations including space-charge and 3D electrostatic field effects were performed and beam diagnostics including emittance scanner were used,leading to a better understanding of the CCF beam injection process New initial electrostatic focusing elements such as a large-bore quadrupole triplet and a quadrupole doubledoublet with compensating octupole were tested,and a new beam tuning procedure was established to improve the beam brightness for the CCF.Following these efforts,a significant increase of primary beam power out of the CCF has been achieved.

  17. The effects of neutral beam injection on momentum transport and rotation resulting from reconnection events in a Reversed Field Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbins, T.; Nornberg, M. D.; Anderson, J. K.; den Hartog, D. J.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, John; Eilerman, Scott; Craig, Darren

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection events are characterized by rapid transport that flattens both the plasma current and parallel flow profiles in a RFP. The tangential neutral beam on the MST is a source of momentum injection into the MST that has also been observed to suppress the core-most mode of the plasma. Ensembles of multiple sawtooth events with and without the NBI were performed over a variety of plasma conditions to observe any effects of the NBI on sawtooth crashes. Observations of both mode rotation and impurity emission Doppler shifts show an increase in toroidal rotation associated with the neutral beam. The suppression of the core-most mode was verified for a broader variety of plasmas then before. The mode data also shows that for some plasma parameters the NBI brings a mode into resonance that is not resonant without the NBI. This is the first evidence of the NBI's effect on the plasma current profile. In addition, Co-injection greatly reduces the mode locking, while counter-injection has been shown to slightly increase mode locking.

  18. Biodegradation of VOCs: a unique oxygen-injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In light of increased interest in methyl tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) remediation, a biodegradation test was carried out by Orchard Park, New York-based Matrix Environmental Technologies Inc. While a pilot project by others had shown MTBE remediation, this site was the first full-scale remediation process that successfully removed MTBE from groundwater. Matrix Technologies has remediated VOC-contaminated groundwater at a variety of petroleum release sites through the use of its novel biodegradation-enhancing oxygen injection system. The system features an AirSep Pressure Swing oxygen generator. At a site contaminated with less than one ppm enzene/toluene/ethlybenzene/xylene (BTEX) and 0.5-2.8 ppm MTBE, oxygen was injected at 80 standard cubic feet per hour at seven points directly down-gradient of the former source area. After approximately one year of oxygen injection, MTBE decreased to below 50 ppb state drinking water standard in groundwater from monitoring wells that did not contain BTEX. In another monitoring well, MTBE decreased by two orders of magnitude in groundwater, after BTEX was biodegraded to low levels

  19. Upgrading of the SPS injection kicker system for LHC requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Ducimetière, L; Uythoven, J; Vossenberg, Eugène B; Han, Q

    1998-01-01

    The present SPS injection kicker system is composed of 12 travelling wave magnets connected in pairs to six pulse generators. The eight most upstream magnets ('S'-type) have a kick rise time (2-98%) o f 145 ns and the remaining four ('L'-type) of 215 ns. The flat top ripple of the kick is ±1%. In the future, this system will also inject protons and ions for the LHC, with a bunch spacing of respect ively 220 ns and 125 ns, and a flat top ripple requirement of at most ±0.5%. Important modifications, concerning both magnets and generators, are then required to meet these goals. For ion injection only 'S'-type magnets will be used. The reduction of the kick rise time will be achieved by shortening the magnet length and increasing the characteristic impedance. To compensate for the loss in tota l kick strength, four new magnets and two new pulse generators will be added. At the moment it is not intended to modify the 'L'-type magnets. Most of the pulse forming networks (PFN's) must be adapt ed to the higher char...

  20. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Andre L.F. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). E-mail: momarques@uol.com.br; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J. [Massachusetts Inst.of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m{sup 2}: the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  1. Indian single pellet injection system for plasma fuelling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single barrel hydrogen pellet injection system is developed at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India. The injector is able to produce 1.6 mm length × 1.8 mm diameter pellets. The achieved velocity of pellet is in the range of 700 to 900 m/s and is controlled by regulating the propellant pressure. The size and speed of pellet are decided by considering the neutral gas shielding model (NGS) based calculations. The injector is an in-situ pipe gun type injector, in which, a solid hydrogen pellet is formed at the freezing zone maintained at a temperature < 10 K and is accelerated to high speed using high pressure propellant gas. A GM cycle based cryocooler is used to maintain temperature at freezing zone. Proper care has been taken to minimize heat load on freezing zon using MLI. Pellet formed at the freezing zone is dislodged and accelerated to higher speed by using high pressure helium propellant gas through a fast opening valve of (opening duration < 2 millisecond). A three-stage differential pumping system is employed to remove propellant gas from injection line. Appropriate diagnostics is used to measure pellet parameters. Speed of pellet is measured by time of flight measurement using light gate diagnostic system. Pellet quality and its size, and also speed are measured using fast camera based imaging system. A Labview based GUI is used to communicate between control system and Pellet injector. The reliability of pellet formation and injection in present experimental system is greater than 95 %. (author)

  2. The development of an expert system to tune a beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of developing an Expert System to aid in the tuning of the Ion Source Injection beam line at TRIUMF is described. The challenging and complex task of introducing Expert System technology into an established accelerator operation is outlined. Success in this environment depends strongly on the choice of project, the choice of experts, the choice of tools, and the methods used to represent the expertise. All these choices are discussed

  3. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  4. System Study: High-Pressure Coolant Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-01-31

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) at 25 U.S. commercial boiling water reactors. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPCI results.

  5. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-02-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2013 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10-year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  6. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  7. Direct steam generation using a water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One way to reduce plant price is by an increase in efficiency. About 3/4 of the energy in the Rankine cycle is used to evaporate water. By allowing the evaporation to take place directly in the collector tube, most of the tube temperature would be around the saturation temperature. Another advantage is the high amount of energy that can be store in the water-to-steam phase change. This reduces the required mass flow (tubing cost, (parasitics) in the solar field. At the moment there are two Direct Steam Generator systems which show promise. Luz developed the once-through boiler, BII developed the injection system

  8. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. E. Wierman

    2013-10-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2012 for selected components were obtained from the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  9. Charge-stripping system for 238U ion beam with recirculating He gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in a charge-stripping system employing high-flow rate He gas circulation (∼200 L/min) for 238U35+ beams injected at 10.8 MeV/u are reported. He gas is confined in a target section and is separated from a vacuum duct using five-stage differentially-pumped sections. To minimize the gas leakage rate via beam apertures, a high-performance differential pumping was required. To avoid huge gas consumption, a clean gas recycling with high-flow rate was simultaneously required. To realize these, we developed multi-stage mechanical booster pump array. The recycling rate of He gas was achieved as more than 99 %. The system performance has been checked with the present maximum beam current up to 13 eμA (∼1 kW beam power). (author)

  10. Beam Tests of a Prototype Stripline Beam Position Monitoring System for the Drive Beam of the CLIC Two-beam Module at CTF3

    CERN Document Server

    Benot-Morell, Alfonso; Nappa, Jean-Marc; Vilalte, Sebastien; Wendt, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    In collaboration with LAPP and IFIC, two units of a prototype stripline Beam Position Monitor (BPM) for the CLIC Drive Beam (DB), and its associated readout electronics have been successfully installed and tested in the Two-Beam-Module (TBM) at the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) at CERN. This paper gives a short overview of the BPM system and presents the performance measured under different Drive Beam configurations.

  11. Implementation of visualization system for beam service time in RIBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam availability is one important factor affecting research productivity of accelerator facilities. In RI Beam Factory (RIBF), the beam availability is defined simply as the ratio of actual beam service time to scheduled beam service time. The availability was previously estimated based on the down time of beam service recorded in our log-books of the paper medium. However, manual estimation of actual beam service time has limitation in its accuracy especially in case of hardware trouble. Hence, in order to realize labor-saving and accurate recording of down time, we have developed a visualization system that automatically records down time by using insertion status of Faraday cups. Implementation of the system has been completed and the system has been successfully operated in recent beam services performed in RIBF. (author)

  12. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL-CSR

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan-Yu; Luo, Jin-Fu; Zhang, Jian-Chuan; Zhou, Wen-Xiong; Ni, Fa-Fu; Yin, Jun; Yin, Jia; Yuan, You-Jin; Shang-Guan, Jin-Bin

    2015-01-01

    The kicker control system was used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller was upgraded. The new controller was designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of "missed kick" and "inefficient kick" were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signals' delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The ...

  13. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  14. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  15. Development of fast beam-stop system using RF chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To avoid heat damage and radioactivation by beam loss of the J-PARC accelerator, Machine Protection System (MPS) has been developed. Actually, high responsibility and high reliability have been achieved in J-PARC. Beam-stop method in addition to a way of RFQ OFF has been requested in order to avoid damage to the RFQ. Therefore, we have been developing a fast beam-stop system by using a RF chopper. The fast beam-stop system, including beam test, is described in this paper. (author)

  16. Beam Instrumentation Using BPM System of the SPring-8 Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Yanagida, K; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Tomizawa, H

    2004-01-01

    A beam position monitor (BPM) system of the SPring-8 linac has been operated since 2002. The following upgrade programs have been carried out during this period: The BPMs were installed in the linac's dispersive sections. A synchronized accumulation of beam position data into the database system started. A feedback control of steering magnets for beam position stabilization has been under development. In this conference the authors report a performance of the BPM system, and discuss its usefulness for beam diagnostics, machine diagnostics and beam stabilization.

  17. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ''real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS

  18. The Saturne beam measurement system for orbit corrections and high and low intensity beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the dipolar and multipolar correction system and the main beam diagnostics of Saturne II: wide-band RF electrostatic pick-up electrode for observation of bunches, beam position and tune measurement systems, special electrodes for observation of emittance blow-up when particles cross a resonance line. For low intensity beams, special electrodes and electronics have been developed. All this instrumentation is computer controlled

  19. Improved beam spot measurements in the 2nd generation proton beam writing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanosized ion beams (especially proton and helium) play a pivotal role in the field of ion beam lithography and ion beam analysis. Proton beam writing has shown lithographic details down to the 20 nm level, limited by the proton beam spot size. Introducing a smaller spot size will allow smaller lithographic features. Smaller probe sizes, will also drastically improve the spatial resolution for ion beam analysis techniques. Among many other requirements, having an ideal resolution standard, used for beam focusing and a reliable focusing method, is an important pre-requisite for sub-10 nm beam spot focusing. In this paper we present the fabrication processes of a free-standing resolution standard with reduced side-wall projection and high side-wall verticality. The resulting grid is orthogonal (90.0° ± 0.1), has smooth edges with better than 6 nm side-wall projection. The new resolution standard has been used in focusing a 2 MeV H2+ beam in the 2nd generation PBW system at Center for Ion Beam Applications, NUS. The beam size has been characterized using on- and off-axis scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) and ion induced secondary electron detection, carried out with a newly installed micro channel plate electron detector. The latter has been shown to be a realistic alternative to STIM measurements, as the drawback of PIN diode detector damage is alleviated. With these improvements we show reproducible beam focusing down to 14 nm

  20. Beam systems without failures - What can be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beam dumps at 3.5 TeV triggered by interlocks not related to the magnet powering are discussed. This concerns the systems like the RF, the transverse feedbacks, beam instrumentation, beam dumping system, collimators and control systems. An analysis of the reasons of these dumps is presented together with a possible strategy to mitigate the effect of these failures. It is very important to notice that no system has been identified to have any structural problem

  1. Design of Injection and Extraction Systems with Optimisation of Lattice and Layout for the CERN PS2 Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron PS2 is one of the foreseen accelerators for the LHC injector upgrade. This upgrade aims first at increasing the instantaneous luminosity of LHC and second at providing a reliable beam for the CERN accelerator complex. From this aspect, the main characteristics of the PS2 are high reliability for high intensity beams. The goal of this thesis was the design of the machine’s lattice and injection/extraction systems meeting the constraints coming mainly from the LHC beam type but also from beam requirements of experiments at PS2 and the SPS. In the design, the given energy range together with filling schemes for different beam types and RF cogging were first used to define the circumference of the machine. Estimates on the space requirements of injection/extraction systems were made in order to divide the total machine length between arc and long straight section. Existing tunnels for transfer lines together with the minimisation of the total transfer line length favoured a race trac...

  2. Resonantly excited betatron hard X-Rays from Ionization Injected Electron Beam in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    OpenAIRE

    K. Huang; Chen, L. M.; Y. F. Li; D.Z. Li; M. Z. Tao; M. Mirzaie; Y. Ma; J. R. Zhao; M. H. Li; M. Chen; Hafz, N.; Sokollik, T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2015-01-01

    A new scheme for bright hard x-ray emission from laser wakefield electron accelerator is reported, where pure nitrogen gas is adopted. Intense Betatron x-ray beams are generated from ionization injected K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating wave bucket. The x-ray radiation shows synchrotron-like spectrum with total photon yield 8$\\times$10$^8$/shot and $10^8$ over 110keV. In particular, the betatron hard x-ray photon yield is 10 times higher compared to the case of helium gas un...

  3. Investigation of the clustering condition for various gasses ejected from a fast solenoid valve for supersonic cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supersonic cluster beam (SSCB) injection method is being developed as a new fueling method for the Large Helical Device (LHD) experiment. As a first step, cluster formation at a room temperature has been investigated for various gasses using a fast solenoid valve for SSCB. Rayleigh scattering of laser light by the cluster is measured by a fast charge coupled device camera. In the case of methane, nitrogen, and argon, clear scattering signals are observed at high valve backing pressure of more than 3-4 MPa. In the case of hydrogen, helium, and neon, on the other hand, no scattering signal is detected at 7 MPa. (author)

  4. MHD Instabilities and Their Effects on Plasma Confinement in Large Helical Device Plasmas with Intense Neutral Beam Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Toi; K. Narihara; K. Tanaka; T. Tokuzawa; H. Yamada; Q. Yang; LHD experimental group; S. Ohdachi; S. Yamamoto; S. Sakakibara; K. Y. Watanabe; N. Nakajima; X. Ding; J. Li; S. Morita

    2004-01-01

    MHD stability of the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas produced with intense neutral beam injection is experimentally studied. When the steep pressure gradient near the edge is produced through L-H transition or linear density ramp experiment, interchange-like MHD modes whose rational surface is located very close to the last closed flux surface are strongly excited in a certain discharge condition and affect the plasma transport appreciably. In NBI-heated energetic ion loss, but also trigger the formation of internal and edge transport barriers.

  5. Heavy Inertial Confinement Energy: Interactions Involoving Low charge State Heavy Ion Injection Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, Robert D

    2006-04-14

    During the contract period, absolute cross sections for projectile ionization, and in some cases for target ionization, were measured for energetic (MeV/u) low-charge-state heavy ions interacting with gases typically found in high and ultra-high vacuum environments. This information is of interest to high-energy-density research projects as inelastic interactions with background gases can lead to serious detrimental effects when intense ion beams are accelerated to high energies, transported and possibly confined in storage rings. Thus this research impacts research and design parameters associated with projects such as the Heavy Ion Fusion Project, the High Current and Integrated Beam Experiments in the USA and the accelerator upgrade at GSI-Darmstadt, Germany. Via collaborative studies performed at GSI-Darmstadt, at the University of East Carolina, and Texas A&M University, absolute cross sections were measured for a series of collision systems using MeV/u heavy ions possessing most, or nearly all, of their bound electrons, e.g., 1.4 MeV/u Ar{sup +}, Xe{sup 3+}, and U{sup 4,6,10+}. Interactions involving such low-charge-state heavy ions at such high energies had never been previously explored. Using these, and data taken from the literature, an empirical model was developed for extrapolation to much higher energies. In order to extend our measurements to much higher energies, the gas target at the Experimental Storage Ring in GSI-Darmstadt was used. Cross sections were measured between 20 and 50 MeV/u for U{sup 28+}- H{sub 2} and - N{sub 2}, the primary components found in high and ultra-high vacuum systems. Storage lifetime measurements, information inversely proportional to the cross section, were performed up to 180 MeV/u. The lifetime and cross section data test various theoretical approaches used to calculate cross sections for many-electron systems. Various high energy density research projects directly benefit by this information. As a result, the general

  6. Beam extraction system in AIC-144 automatic isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Project of beam extraction system in Cracow AIC-144 cyclotron is described. The problems of increase of beam emittance, and change of the magnetic field in the cyclotron chamber are discussed. Expected extraction coefficient of the beam is about 0.7. (S.B.)

  7. Beam characterisation of the KIRAMS electron microbeam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electron microbeam system has been installed at the Korea Inst. of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) for use in radiation biology studies. The electron beam is produced from a commercial electron gun, and the beam size is defined by a 5 μm diameter pinhole. Beam energy can be varied in the range of 1-100 keV, covering a range of linear energy transfer from 0.4 to 12.1 keV μm-1. The micrometer-sized electron beam selectively irradiates cells cultured in a Mylar-bottomed dish. The positioning of target cells one by one onto the beam exit is automated, as is beam shooting. The electron beam entering the target cells has been calibrated using a Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector. This paper describes the KIRAMS microbeam cell irradiation system and its beam characteristics. (authors)

  8. Impurity transport during neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ohmically heated ISX-B discharges, both the intrinsic iron impurity ions and small amounts of argon introduced as a test gas accumulate at the center of the plasma. But during certain beam-heated discharges, it appears that this accumulation does not take place. These results may reflect the conclusion of Stacey and Sigmar that momentum transferred from the beams to the plasma can inhibit inward impurity transport

  9. The beam delivery modeling and error sources analysis of beam stabilization system for lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Lihua; Hou, Liying; He, Guojun; Ren, Bingqiang; Zeng, Aijun; Huang, Huijie

    2013-12-01

    Beam stabilization system is one of the most important units for lithography, which can accomplish displacement and pointing detection and control and includes beam measurement unit(BMU) and beam steering unit(BSU). Our group has set up a beam stabilization system and verified preliminarily beam stabilization algorithm of precise control beam position and angle. In the article, we establish beam delivery mathematic model and analyze the system inherent error. This shows that the reason why image rotation effect arises at the output plane of beam stabilization is the fast steering mirror (FSM) rotation of BSU in the process of beam stabilization. Two FSMs rotation around 45o axis of FSM make the most contribution to image rotation which rotates 1.414 mrad as two FSMs rotation angle difference changes 1 mrad. It is found that error sources include three key points: FSM accuracy; measurement noise and beam translation by passing through of beam splitters changing as the ambient temperature changing. FSM accuracy leads to the maximum 13.2μm displacement error and 24.49μrad angle error. Measurement inaccuracy as a result of 5μm measurement noise results in the maximum 0.126mm displacement error and 57.2μrad angle error. Beam translation errors can be negligible if temperature is unchanged. We have achieved beam stability of about 15.5μrad for angle and 28μm for displacement (both 1σ) after correcting 2mm initial displacement deviation and 5mrad initial angle deviation with regard to the system rebuilt due to practical requirements.

  10. An electrostatic beam rocking system on the Surrey nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of two sets of magnetic dipoles, producing opposite fields, to rock a focused MeV ion beam over the surface of a crystalline sample is now well established in several nuclear microprobe laboratories. Such a 'beam rocking' system allows ion channeling analysis from micron-size regions of the sample to be measured, with a beam displacement over the sample surface as small as a few microns, and no requirements for an automated goniometer. While magnetic beam rocking systems are ideal for many applications, they are limited in the speed at which the beam can be rocked in angle owing to hysteresis effects. This may also cause problems of non-reproducibility of the beam displacement on a micron scale. Also, heavier ions are more difficult to rock through a given angle using a magnetic beam rocking system, whereas an electrostatic beam rocking system gives a rocking angle which is independent of the ion mass. This paper describes the construction and uses of a fast electrostatic beam rocking system, which uses two sets of high voltage plates driven in opposition at high frequencies. Ion optics simulations are used to model the performance of the system. The optics of this beam rocking system, in which both sets of deflection plates are located before the quadruplet lens formation are discussed. The uses of this system to rapidly image the location of crystal planes and axes, and to carry out rapid channeling analysis are presented

  11. Injection transition analysis of PLGS MP/LP ECC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyze the transition from MP ECC to LP ECC injection, a RELAP5 model has been developed for the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) MP/LP ECC system. By using this model, some transition analyses have been performed with emphasis on stroke times of the dousing tank suction test isolating valves and the recovery sump isolating valves. The results indicate that if either in-line valve pair of the dousing tank isolation valves fails to close, air could be ingested by the ECC pumps shortly after the dousing tank is empty. (author)

  12. Particle beam injector system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guethlein, Gary

    2013-06-18

    Methods and devices enable coupling of a charged particle beam to a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling of the charged particle beam is accomplished, at least in-part, by relying on of sensitivity of the input phase space acceptance of the radio frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. By momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field, a narrow portion of the charged particle beam is deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. In another configuration, beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and is deflected beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole due to the second electric field.

  13. The coupling impedance of the RHIC injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results from impedance measurements on the RHIC injection kickers are reported. The kicker is configured as a ''C'' cross section magnet with interleaved ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections to achieve a travelling wave structure. The impedance was measured using the wire method in which a resistive match provides a smooth transition from the network analyzer to the reference line in the set-up. Accurate results are obtained by interpreting the forward scattering coefficient via the log-formula. The four kickers with their ceramic beam tubes contribute a Z/n=0.22 Ω/ring in the interesting frequency range from 0.1 to 1 GHz, and less above. At frequencies above ∼ 100 MHz, the impedance is ferrite dominated and not affected by the kicker terminations. Below 100 MHz, the Blumlein pulser with the ∼75 m feeding cables is visible in the impedance but makes no significant contribution to the results. The measurements show that the kicker coupling impedance is tolerable without the need for impedance reducing measures

  14. The coupling impedance of the RHIC injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, results from impedance measurements on the RHIC injection kickers are reported. The kicker is configured as a open-quotes Cclose quotes cross section magnet with interleaved ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections to achieve a travelling wave structure. The impedance was measured using the wire method in which a resistive match provides a smooth transition from the network analyzer to the reference line in the set-up. Accurate results are obtained by interpreting the forward scattering coefficient via the log-formula. The four kickers with their ceramic beam tubes contribute a Z/n = 0.22 Ω/ring in the interesting frequency range from 0.1 to 1 GHz, and less above. At frequencies above ∼100 MHZ, the impedance is ferrite dominated and not affected by the kicker terminations. Below 100 MHz, the Blumlein pulser with the ∼75 m feeding cables is visible in the impedance but makes no significant contribution to the results. The measurements show that the kicker coupling impedance is tolerable without the need for impedance reducing measures

  15. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    Toshiyuki Hirano; Takanori Uchida; Hoshio Tsujita

    2012-01-01

    The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,0...

  16. Improving pulverized coal injection systems for operating with higher injection rates; Amelioration des performances d'installations d'injection de charbon en vue d'une augmentation du taux d'injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, K. [Thyssen Krupp Stahl (Germany); Kroemmer, Y.; Goedert, P.; Schmit, L. [Arcelor Paul Wurth (Luxembourg)

    2004-10-01

    Complete text of publication follows: The latest developments in injection technology allow reaching injection rates of 200 kg/t{sub HM} and more. The new technology can be applied directly to green field plants but also to existing injection plants. Two innovative solutions for upgrading simple distributor systems with respect to flow control and distribution accuracy are presented. The installation of oxy-coal lances and of a preheating system for pulverized coal upstream of the injection improves the combustion conditions at the lance tip.

  17. Characterization of formation damage system from well injectivity decline data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Silva, Marcos J. da [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao do Petroleo (LENEP); Silva, Maylton F. da [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio da Bacia de Campos; Siqueira, Alexandre G.; Souza, Antonio L.S. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    The problem of characterization of formation damage system from well injectivity history have been discussed in the literature with regards to well behavior prediction and decision making on possible well stimulation. The formation damage system is characterized by four parameters: filtration ({lambda}) and formation damage ({beta}) coefficients, critical porosity ratio ({proportional_to}) and filter cake permeability (K{sub c}). Nevertheless, just three constants can be extracted from well injectivity decline curve: impedance slope during deep bed filtration, transition time and impedance slope during external cake formation. So, one equation is missing. A correlation between the formation damage coefficient and the critical porosity ratio has been derived by da Silva, M.F. et alii (2003) based on the analysis of several laboratory tests on core flood by poor quality water. In the current paper, we assume this correlation to be valid for reservoir conditions also, and use it as an additional equation for characterizing the formation damage system. Seven well data have been treated, and values for four parameters of formation damage have been calculated. (author)

  18. Numerical study for beam loss occurring for wide-ranging transverse injection painting and its mitigation scenario in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), transverse injection painting is utilized to manipulate the transverse beam profile according to the requirements from the downstream facilities as well as to mitigate the space-charge induced beam loss in RCS. Therefore, a flexible control is required for the transverse painting area. But now the available range of transverse painting is limited to small area due to beta function beating caused by the edge focus of injection bump magnets which operate during the beam injection period. This beta function beating additionally excites various random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice super-periodicity, causing a shrinkage of the dynamic aperture during the injection period. This decrease of the dynamic aperture leads to extra beam loss at present when applying large transverse painting. For beta function beating caused by the edge focus, we proposed a correction scheme with additional pulse-type quadrupole correctors. In this paper, we will discuss the feasibility and effectiveness of this correction scheme for expanding the transverse injection painting area with no extra beam loss, while considering the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms, based on numerical simulations

  19. Numerical study for beam loss occurring for wide-ranging transverse injection painting and its mitigation scenario in the J-PARC 3-GeV RCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchi, Hideaki; Tani, Norio; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    In the J-PARC 3-GeV Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS), transverse injection painting is utilized to manipulate the transverse beam profile according to the requirements from the downstream facilities as well as to mitigate the space-charge induced beam loss in RCS. Therefore, a flexible control is required for the transverse painting area. But now the available range of transverse painting is limited to small area due to beta function beating caused by the edge focus of injection bump magnets which operate during the beam injection period. This beta function beating additionally excites various random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice super-periodicity, causing a shrinkage of the dynamic aperture during the injection period. This decrease of the dynamic aperture leads to extra beam loss at present when applying large transverse painting. For beta function beating caused by the edge focus, we proposed a correction scheme with additional pulse-type quadrupole correctors. In this paper, we will discuss the feasibility and effectiveness of this correction scheme for expanding the transverse injection painting area with no extra beam loss, while considering the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms, based on numerical simulations.

  20. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  1. ELF oscillations associated with electron beam injections from the space shuttle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELF oscillations (f < 500 Hz) were observed during the electron beam emissions of the space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) flown on the Spacelab 1 shuttle mission. The beams had energies up to 5 keV and currents up to 300 mA, and the oscillations were present in the data from a Langmuir probe, a floating probe, an electron energy analyzer, and a photometer. The VLF (1 kHz < f < 10 kHz) wave stimulation monitored by a wave receiver during one particular beam sequence has already been reported by Neubert et al. (1986). The amplitudes of the ELF and VLF oscillations observed during this sequence have almost identical variations with beam pitch angle, the strongest emissions begin observed for parallel beams; the ELF power spectra for the strongest emissions have peaks about 10 dB above the broadband ELF noise at frequencies aroudn 50-60 Hz. In another beam sequence the power spectra had a harmonic structure with the fundamental frequency around 200 Hz. The power density and frequency of the fundamental increased with the shuttle charge-up potential. The emission level observed during the beam sequences increased with the charge-up potential of the orbiter, which largely depended on the wake structure. The authors find it most likely that the ELF oscillations are expressions of fluctuations in the return current and the shuttle potential and that these fluctuations are caused by processes involving charge imbalances in the near environment of the shuttle, possibly in a comoving plasma cloud. The observations suggest that the plasma cloud has a particle lifetime at least of the order of 100 ms

  2. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  3. Toward design of the Collider Beam Collimation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-component beam collimation system for the Superconducting Super Collider is described. System choice justification and design requirements are presented. System consists of targets, scrapers, and collimators with appropriate cooling and radiation shielding. Each component has an independent control for positioning and aligning with respect to the beam. Results of beam loss distribution, energy deposition calculations, and thermal analyses, as well as cost estimate, are presented

  4. Linearisation via input-output injection of time delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramírez, Eduardo; Moog, Claude H.; Califano, Claudia; Alejandro Márquez-Martínez, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of linearisation of systems with constant commensurable delays by input-output injection using algebraic control tools based on the theory of non-commutative rings. Solutions for the problem of linearisation free of delays, and with delays of an observable nonlinear time-delay systems are presented based on the analysis of the input-output equation. These results are achieved by means of constructive algorithms that use the nth derivative of the output expressed in terms of the state-space variables instead of the explicit computation of the input-output representation of the system. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established in both cases by means of an invertible change of coordinates.

  5. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  6. The N8 channel beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High intensity 70 GeV proton beam loss monitor system architecture in the area of single beam pass is described. The main system components choosing as detectors recording and controlling electronics are grounded on. There are list of the main system monitoring tasks and some experimental results. 12 refs.; 6 figs

  7. Mixed-DT neutral-beam injection: An alternative heating method for tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the authors propose an alternative method for the heating, and perhaps also refueling, of tokamak fusion devices. The alternative method replaces the deuterium neutral-beam injectors (NBIs) such as those now used, for example, on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) device. Instead they make use of a mixed (deuterium-tritium) NBI (MNBI) and thereby vastly reduce the cost and complexity of the fuel-recovery cycle. Another like consequence is the reduction of the total amount of tritium in the on-site inventory. The authors suspect that the alternative plant design would have a positive effect on safety, although they have not done an accident analysis based on the mixed-beam injectors. They have, however, studied the requirements of the new fuel cycle and have looked at the question of optimizing some of the parameters associated with a mixed-beam injector. 3 refs

  8. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Moeller, J.A.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schecter, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25/sup 0/ rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm/sup -2/) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator.

  9. Cluster effects during high pressure supersonic molecular beam injection into plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of SMBI has experienced for two phases, the first is with low gas pressure source (p0≤0.6 MPa) and the second is with high gas pressure source (p0≥1.0 MPa). In the first phase of SMBI experiment, it is found that SMBI may be a best way for refuelling the HL-1M plasma. In the second phase, the futures of the beam are more evident, especially in the clustering onset, the particles of the beam can penetrate into the center of plasma. The density increase rate of HP-SMB is comparable with small ice PI in the HL-1M tokamak

  10. BeamOptics : a Symbolic Platform for Modeling and the Solution of Beam Optics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BeamOptics [1] is a Mathematica-based computing platform devoted to the following objectives: (1) Structured representation and manipulation of particle beam optics systems with symbolic capabilities, (2) Analytical and numerical modeling of beam optics system behaviors, (3) Solution to specific beam optical or general accelerator system problems, in algebraic form in certain cases, through customized algorithms. Taking advantage of and conforming to the highly formal and self-contained structure of Mathematica, BeamOptics provides a unique platform for developing accelerator design and analysis programs. The feature of symbolic computation and the ability to manipulate the beam optics system at the programming language level enable the user to solve or optimize his system with considerably more efficiency, rigour and insight than can be easily achieved with passive modeling or numerical simulation methods. BeamOptics is developed with continuous evolution in mind. New features and algorithms from diverse sources can be incorporated without major modification, due to its formal and generic structure. In this report, a survey is given of the basic structure and methodology of BeamOptics, as well as a demonstration of some of its more specialized applications, and possible direction of evolution

  11. Development of a Computer Control System for Heavy Ion Beam Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J. K.; Roberts, S. L.; Westervelt, E. R.; Schoch, P. M.; Schatz, J. G.

    1996-11-01

    Enhanced computer control of heavy ion beam probes would increase the reproducability of experimental conditions by automation and feedback control of some system parameters. Also, operation from a remote site would then be feasible. Computer control has been implemented on a variety of Rensselaer heavy ion beam probe systems. However, no system to date has allowed complete remote operation. This has been primarily due to the limitations of the user interface. The next generation of HIBP control systems software is being created with National Instruments' graphical language, LabVIEW. The virtual instruments allow detailed monitoring and control of the injected beam conditions. The control and monitoring of the ion beam, including filament current and Pierce, focusing, quadrupole lens, and sweep electrodes' voltages has been tested on RPI's vertical test stand. A feedback routine to focus the beam using the quadrupole lens is currently being developed. When this capability is available, it will be implemented on a heavy ion beam probe diagnostic operating on a magnetic confinement device.

  12. High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II applications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pick-off probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements

  13. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360 000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  14. Performance of magnetically injected plasma opening switches for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator 2 (PBFA 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma opening switch experiments using a magnetically injected plasma have been in progress since October 1988. Plasma densities of 1 x 1012 to 2 x 1013 e/cm3 have been injected from the anode side into the 8 cm gap of the 20 ohm magnetically insulated transmission line of PBFA II using a slowly rising Br,z magnetic field. This field confines the azimuthally-uniform plasma to produce switches up to 30 cm in length. Four MIP geometries have been investigated to find a higher electrical impedance when the switch opens. These studies have shown that a separation of 10 to 20 cm from the load is important to keep the POS from affecting the load performance. With such a separation, 20 to 30 TW of power at 7 to 11 MV has been delivered to electron and ion diode loads. Data on switch performance with various loads and factors that improve performance are discussed. 4 refs., 6 figs

  15. Beam shaping in high-power laser systems with using refractive beam shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Vadim

    2012-06-01

    Beam Shaping of the spatial (transverse) profile of laser beams is highly desirable by building optical systems of high-power lasers as well in various applications with these lasers. Pumping of the crystals of Ti:Sapphire lasers by the laser radiation with uniform (flattop) intensity profile improves performance of these ultrashort pulse high-power lasers in terms of achievable efficiency, peak-power and stability, output beam profile. Specifications of the solid-state lasers built according to MOPA configuration can be also improved when radiation of the master oscillator is homogenized and then is amplified by the power amplifier. Features of building these high power lasers require that a beam shaping solution should be capable to work with single mode and multimode beams, provide flattop and super-Gauss intensity distributions, the consistency and divergence of a beam after the intensity re-distribution should be conserved and low absorption provided. These specific conditions are perfectly fulfilled by the refractive field mapping beam shapers due to their unique features: almost lossless intensity profile transformation, low output divergence, high transmittance and flatness of output beam profile, extended depth of field, adaptability to real intensity profiles of TEM00 and multimode laser sources. Combining of the refractive field mapping beam shapers with other optical components, like beam-expanders, relay imaging lenses, anamorphic optics makes it possible to generate the laser spots of necessary shape, size and intensity distribution. There are plenty of applications of high-power lasers where beam shaping bring benefits: irradiating photocathode of Free Electron Lasers (FEL), material ablation, micromachining, annealing in display making techniques, cladding, heat treating and others. This paper will describe some design basics of refractive beam shapers of the field mapping type, with emphasis on the features important for building and applications

  16. Generation of High Brightness Electron Beams via Ionization Induced Injection by Transverse Colliding Lasers in a Beam-Driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Li, F; Xu, X L; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Cheng, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Joshi, C; Mori, W B; Gu, Y Q

    2013-01-01

    The production of ultra-bright electron bunches using ionization injection triggered by two transversely colliding laser pulses inside a beam-driven plasma wake is examined via three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The relatively low intensity lasers are polarized along the wake axis and overlap with the wake for a very short time. The result is that the residual momentum of the ionized electrons in the transverse plane of the wake is much reduced and the injection is localized along the propagation axis of the wake. This minimizes both the initial 'thermal' emittance and the emittance growth due to transverse phase mixing. 3D PIC simulations show that ultra-short (around 8 fs) high-current (0.4 kA) electron bunches with a normalized emittance of 8.5 and 6 nm in the two planes respectively and a brightness greater than 1.7*10e19 A rad-2 m-2 can be obtained for realistic parameters.

  17. The influence of Laval nozzle throat size on supersonic molecular beam injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinkui He; Xianfu Feng; Mingmin Zhong; Fujun Gou; Shuiquan Deng; Yong Zhao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, finite element analysis (FEA) has been used to investigate the effects of different Laval nozzle throat sizes on supersonic molecular beam. The simulations indicate the Mach numbers of the molecular stream peak at different positions along the center axis of the beam, which correspond to local minimums of the molecular densities. With the increase of the throat diam-eter, the first peak of the Mach number increases first and then decreases, while that of the molecular number density increases gradually. Moreover, both first peaks shift pro-gressively away from the throat. At the last part, we discuss the possible applications of our FEA approach to solve some crucial problems met in modern transportations.

  18. Gravity-driven injection experiments and direct-contact condensation regime map for passive high-pressure injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gravity-driven injection experiment of a passive high-pressure injection system with a pressurizer pressure balance line (PRZ PBL) is conducted by using a small-scale test facility to identify the parameters affecting the gravity-driven injection and the major condensation regimes. It turns out that the larger the water subcooling is, the more the injection initiation is delayed. A sparger and natural circulation of the hot water from the steam generator accelerate the gravity-driven injection. The condensation regimes identified through the experiments are divided into three distinct ones: sonic jet, subsonic jet, and steam cavity. The steam cavity regime is a unique regime of downward injection with the present geometry not previously observed in other experiments. The condensation regime map is constructed using Froude number and Jacob number. It turns out that the buoyancy force has a larger influence on the regime map transition because the regime map using the Froude number better fits data with different geometries than other dimensionless parameters. Simple correlations for the regime boundaries are proposed using the Froude number and the Jacob number. (orig.)

  19. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure

  20. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  1. Clinical Application of the Sapphire Unfolder Lens Injection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiai Guo; Danying Zheng; Zhenyu Li; Yiyong Qian; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the clinical experience of 300 cases using the Sapphire unfloder intraocular lens (IOL) injection system.Methods: After the standard phacoemulsification, an AR40e IOL was implanted using the Sapphire Unfolder. The involved problems during and after the operation were observed and analyzed.Results:The complications occurred during the operation including the crack at the haptic-optic junction in 2 cases, slight kink in the haptic in 5 cases, IOL clamp into the cartridge in 2 cases, posterior capsular rupture in 2 cases and endothelium damage in the central small area in 4 cases. All the patients recovered successfully with IOLs in good position.Conclusion: IOL implantation with the Sapphire Unfolder led to no serious complications and got the satisfactory results.

  2. Low level RF systems for synchrotrons part II: High Intensity. Compensation of the beam induced effects

    CERN Document Server

    Baudrenghien, P

    2005-01-01

    The high intensity regime is reached when the voltage induced by the beam in the RF cavities is of an amplitude comparable to the desired accelerating voltage. In steady state this beam loading can be compensated by providing extra RF power. Transient beam loading occurs at injection or in the presence of a beam intensity that is not uniform around the ring. The transients are periodic at the revolution frequency. Without correction transient beam loading can be very harmful: The stable phase and bucket area will not be equal for all bunches. Strong beam loading often goes in pair with longitudinal instabilities because the RF cavities are a large contributor to the total ring impedance. The low level systems that reduce the effect of the transient beam loading will also increase the threshold intensity of the longitudinal instability caused by the cavity impedance at the fundamental RF frequency. Four classic methods are presented here: Feedforward, RF feedback, long delay feedback and bunch by bunch feedbac...

  3. Four orbit bump and injection software for Indus-2 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The injection into Indus-2 takes place in horizontal plane with two injection septa and four kicker magnets in the injection straight. The symmetric and asymmetric orbit bumps generation is required to accept the injected beam. The bump simulation has been done using accelerator toolbox and a graphical user interface has been developed in MATLAB environment. We describe the injection system and software with graphical user interface (GUI) to generate an orbit bump to inject the beam into Indus-2. (author)

  4. Beam transport experiment with a new kicker control system on the HIRFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan-Yu, Wang; De-Tai, Zhou; Jin-Fu, Luo; Jian-Chuan, Zhang; Wen-Xiong, Zhou; Fa-Fu, Ni; Jun, Yin; Jia, Yin; You-Jin, Yuan; Jing-Bin, Shang-Guan

    2016-04-01

    A kicker control system is used for beam extraction and injection between two cooling storage rings (CSRs) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). To meet the requirements of special physics experiments, the kicker controller has been upgraded, with a new controller designed based on ARM+DSP+FPGA technology and monolithic circuit architecture, which can achieve a precision time delay of 2.5 ns. In September 2014, the new kicker control system was installed in the kicker field, and the test experiment using the system was completed. In addition, a pre-trigger signal was provided by the controller, which was designed to synchronize the beam diagnostic system and physics experiments. Experimental results indicate that the phenomena of “missed kick” and “inefficient kick” were not observed, and the multichannel trigger signal delay could be adjusted individually for kick power supplies in digitization; thus, the beam transport efficiency was improved compared with that of the original system. The fast extraction and injection experiment was successfully completed based on the new kicker control systems for HIRFL. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (U1232123)

  5. Specific features of measuring the isotopic composition of hydrogen ions in ITER plasma by using neutral particle diagnostics under neutral beam injection conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasyev, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Goncharov, P. R., E-mail: p.goncharov@spbstu.ru [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Mironov, M. I.; Nesenevich, V. G., E-mail: vnesenevich@npd.ioffe.ru; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, S. Ya. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Sergeev, V. Yu. [Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Results of numerical simulation of signals from neutral particle analyzers under injection of the heating and diagnostic neutral beams in different operating modes of the ITER tokamak are presented. The distribution functions of fast ions in plasma are simulated, and the corresponding neutral particle fluxes escaping from the plasma along the line of sight of the analyzers are calculated. It is shown that the injection of heating deuterium (D{sup 0}) beams results in the appearance of an intense background signal hampering measurements of the ratio between the densities of deuterium and tritium fuel ions in plasma in the thermal energy range. The injection of a diagnostic hydrogen (H{sup 0}) beam does not affect measurements owing to the high mass resolution of the analyzers.

  6. Realistic RF system and Beam Simulation in Real Time for a Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Due to heavy beam loading with gaps in the LHC beams, RF and beam are intimately linked to a complex system with fast transients where the RF loops and their limitations play a decisive role. Such a system is difficult to assess with analytical methods. To learn about overall system stability and for the definition of RF components to be built it is essential to understand the complete system long before the machine really exists. Therefore the author has written a general purpose real time simulation program and applied it to model the LHC machine with its beam pattern and complete double RF system. The latter is equipped with fast RF vector feedback loops having loop delay, transmitter power limitation and limited amplifier bandwidth as well as including one-turn-delay feedback and longitudinal batch injection damping. The development of all RF and beam quantities can be displayed graphically turn by turn. These frames can be assembled to a realistic multi-trace scope movie.

  7. Photoelectric schlieren method used to study the properties of diesel engine injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time dependence of the fuel flow rate issuing from the injector nozzle represents very important information concerning the properties of Diesel engine injection systems. By analysing the delivery rate, it is possible to judge a new design, and the modifications and adjustments of Diesel engine injection systems. A number of devices for measuring the delivery rate, frequently founded on mechanical principles, have also been constructed. Mechanical methods are laborious, require complicated measuring instruments, and the analysis of the results is quite tedious. For investigating the delivery rate, one can also use the intensity of the luminous flux of the light ray which is intersected, and consequently its intensity decreased, by the flow of the delivered fuel. The schlieren method can be used for this purpose, employing a thin beam of parallel light rays and a photoelectric sensor placed immediately beyond the cut-off slit. After adjustment and calibration, the variations of the original electric signal represent the time variation of the delivery rate by the nozzle

  8. Electron gun with off-axis beam injection for a race-track microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A miniature 12 MeV race-track microtron for medical applications is under construction at the Technical University of Catalonia in collaboration with several Spanish centers and companies and the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University. As a source of electrons a compact 3D on-axis electron gun with an off-axis cathode has been designed to allow a direct and efficient injection into the accelerating structure. Its prototype has been built and successfully tested. Results of the electron gun design simulations and of the prototype performance are herein described.

  9. Experimental investigations of a single cylinder genset engine with common rail fuel injection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Paras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance and emissions characteristics of compression ignition (CI engines are strongly dependent on quality of fuel injection. In an attempt to improve engine combustion, engine performance and reduce the exhaust emissions from a single cylinder constant speed genset engine, a common rail direct injection (CRDI fuel injection system was deployed and its injection timings were optimized. Results showed that 34°CA BTDC start of injection (SOI timings result in lowest brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC and smoke opacity. Advanced injection timings showed higher cylinder peak pressure, pressure rise rate, and heat release rate due to relatively longer ignition delay experienced.

  10. Different types of cryogenics Pellet injection systems (PIS for fusion reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarshi Patel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Fusion reactor is the one of the most capable option for generating the large amount of energy in future. Fusion means joining smaller nuclei (the plural of nucleus to make a larger nucleus and release energy in the form of neutrons.The sun uses nuclear fusion of hydrogen atoms into helium atoms. This gives off heat and light and other radiation. Hydrogen is used as the fuel in the fusion reactor. We have to inject the solid hydrogen pellet into the tokamak as per the requirement. For injecting the pellet we use the pellet injection system. Pellet injection system (PIS is the fuel injection system of the fusion reactor.

  11. DIII-D Quiescent H-Mode Experiments With Co Plus Counter Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, K. H.; West, W. P.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Solomon, W. M.

    2006-10-01

    In many ways, quiescent H-modes are the ideal H-mode plasma. They exhibit H-mode confinement for long duration (>4 s or 30 τE) with constant density and radiated power. The absence of edge localized modes (ELMs) means no pulsed divertor heat loads. The quiescent edge is also quite compatible with core transport barriers. To utilize QH-mode in future devices, the goals of our recent QH-mode experiments are to develop an improved physics understanding of the QH-mode, especially the ELM stabilization, and to broaden the QH-mode operating space. During the 2006 campaign, we utilized DIII-D's new co plus counter NBI capability to determine how much counter injection is necessary for QH-mode operation. As plasma triangularity is increased, increasing amounts of co-injection can be used while still maintaining the quiescent state. This is consistent with expectations based on peeling-ballooning mode theory. Further experiments are planned to explore the co-counter boundary more thoroughly.

  12. Magnetic Configuration Effects Under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical analysis of NBI absorption and losses, done for the Reference configuration of TJ-II, has been extended to other magnetic configurations of the flexibility diagram. The main results obtained are the following: Fast ion losses. mainly direct ones, are the determinant factor the absorption behaviour. In the absence of radial electric field, the contribution of the delayed fast ion losses in minimal, as well with CX as without, and corresponds, almost exclusively, to low energy trapped ions (1 to t KeV). There is a strong difference between the direct los behaviour corresponding to both injection directions CO and COUNTER. The first one gives always higher losses in TJ-II. For the extreme configurations the direct losses are very high and are originated by resonant effects, that can be observed even for null electric field, and are due to the 0 and-2 resonances. The intermediate configurations are equally separated from both resonances, in consequence the loss level is lower, producing absorption ratios very, acceptable, higher than 60% of the power entering torus at high density and 40 keV. This corresponds to about 1.2 MW absorbed in plasma under balanced injection. In conclusion, the possible presence of resonant effects on the direct losses is the key element to explain the absorption behaviour for the different magnetic configurations. In addition all the configurations placed inside a wide region around the Reference case in the flexibility diagram seem equally convenient for NBI in TJ-II. (Author) 18 refs

  13. Edge localized mode characteristics during edge localized mode mitigation by supersonic molecular beam injection in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) is an effective means of edge localized mode (ELM) mitigation. This paper newly reports the changes in the ELM, plasma profiles, and fluctuation characteristics during ELM mitigation by SMBI in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research. During the mitigated ELM phase, the ELM frequency increased by a factor of 2–3 and the ELM size, which was estimated from the Dα amplitude, the fractional changes in the plasma-stored energy and the line-averaged electron density, and divertor heat flux during an ELM burst, decreased by a factor of 0.34–0.43. Reductions in the electron and ion temperatures rather than in the electron density were observed during the mitigated ELM phase. In the natural ELM phase, frequency chirping of the plasma fluctuations was observed before the ELM bursts; however, the ELM bursts occurred without changes in the plasma fluctuation frequency in the mitigated ELM phase

  14. Observation of edge filamentary structure motion during supersonic molecular-beam injection using a fast camera in Heliotron J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A perpendicular-view fast video camera has been installed in Heliotron J to observe the behavior of filamentary structures of edge plasma turbulence across the last closed flux surface (LCFS). Supersonic molecular-beam injection (SMBI) can greatly increase the edge Hα emission; hence, we used the high imaging rate and shutter speed of the camera to capture the behavior of the fast propagating filamentary structures. A high-pass fast Fourier transform filter on the time dimension was adopted to extract the fluctuation component from the raw data for each pixel. The motion of the filamentary structures was clearly visible when we applied an amplitude threshold to identify the intense structures. In addition, a time-resolved 2D cross-correlation technique was adopted to estimate the poloidal phase velocity of turbulence. The motion direction was found to be reversed dramatically just after an SMBI pulse. (author)

  15. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A. N.; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, R. V.; Andresen, T. L.; Holm, S.; Munck Af Rosenschöld, P.; Conradsen, K.; Jølck, R. I.

    2016-05-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy (10- and 22 Gy) in a high-energy beam setting (18 MV). The developed silver-nanosensor provided high radiopacity on the planning CT-scans sufficient for patient positioning in image-guided radiotherapy and provided dosimetric information about the absorbed dose with a 10% and 8% standard deviation for the stereotactic regimens, 10 and 22 Gy, respectively.Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive 106Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The

  16. A scriptable DSP-based system for dynamic conductance injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh P C

    2008-04-30

    A variety of software and hardware systems have been developed to inject controlled electrical conductances into excitable cells, to investigate the physiological mechanisms of action potential generation. These systems face several challenges: the need to model complex conductances, including voltage-gated ion channels, synaptic conductances controlled by electrical models of entire cells or even networks of cells, to do so rapidly and stably, with precisely controlled update intervals of 20micros or less, and to present an easy and flexible interface to the user, allowing new experiments to be designed and executed easily. In this paper I describe a new software system (SM-2) which is designed to meet these requirements, and which runs on the current generation of digital-signal-processing (DSP) analog input-output I/O boards, hosted in Windows PCs. Its key innovation is its configurability by simple user-written text scripts, or "scriptability", which gives it a high flexibility of purpose, and allows non-programmers the capacity to rapidly design and use new Hodgkin-Huxley-type active conductances, conductances with arbitrary current-voltage relationships, Markov process conductance mechanisms with user-specified rate matrices, and hybrid networks of virtual cells. At the same time, the hardware platform allows this to be achieved with a fast and accurately timed input-computation-output cycle. PMID:18076997

  17. Beam monitor system for high-energy beam transportation at HIMAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) provides ion beams for radiotherapy of cancers and for other basic researches. High-energy beam transport lines deliver the beams to three treatment rooms and two experiment rooms with the aid of 41 beam monitor units. Each monitor unit consists of a wire grid as a profile monitor, or a combined unit in which the wire grid and a parallel plate ionization chamber are united for an additional measurement of a beam intensity. They are operated in a mixed gas of 80% Ar and 20% CO2. The gas gain of the wire grid achieves about 8000 at an applied voltage of -2700 V. Dynamic ranges of the wire gird and the parallel plate ionization chamber were measured to be 8x105 and 1x106 in test using ion beams, respectively. A control system of these monitor units offers easy operation, so that operators are almost free from miss-operations. The monitor units are interlocked with a system which protects patients from the undesired irradiation. Five wire grids are used for continuously monitoring the beam during treatments, which play a role in keeping qualities of the treatments. The monitor system has been designed to meet requirements for medical uses, and works in a stable and reliable manner and satisfies the requirements. (author)

  18. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, A N; Rydhög, J S; Søndergaard, R V; Andresen, T L; Holm, S; Munck Af Rosenschöld, P; Conradsen, K; Jølck, R I

    2016-06-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive (106)Ag, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy (10- and 22 Gy) in a high-energy beam setting (18 MV). The developed silver-nanosensor provided high radiopacity on the planning CT-scans sufficient for patient positioning in image-guided radiotherapy and provided dosimetric information about the absorbed dose with a 10% and 8% standard deviation for the stereotactic regimens, 10 and 22 Gy, respectively. PMID:27174233

  19. Flow Injection/Sequential Injection Analysis Systems: Potential Use as Tools for Rapid Liver Diseases Biomarker Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Kradtap Hartwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow injection/sequential injection analysis (FIA/SIA systems are suitable for carrying out automatic wet chemical/biochemical reactions with reduced volume and time consumption. Various parts of the system such as pump, valve, and reactor may be built or adapted from available materials. Therefore the systems can be at lower cost as compared to other instrumentation-based analysis systems. Their applications for determination of biomarkers for liver diseases have been demonstrated in various formats of operation but only a few and limited types of biomarkers have been used as model analytes. This paper summarizes these applications for different types of reactions as a guide for using flow-based systems in more biomarker and/or multibiomarker studies.

  20. Data acquisition system for KOMAC beam monitoring using EPICS middleware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Gi

    2015-10-01

    The beam diagnostics instrument used to measure the beam properties is one of the important devices for the 100-MeV proton linear accelerator of the KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC). A data acquisition system (DAQ) is required to collect the output beam signals conditioned in the analog front-end circuitry of a beam loss monitor (BLM) and a beam position monitor (BPM). The electrical beam signal must be digitized, and the sampling has to be synchronized to a global timing system that produces a pulse signal for the pulsed beam operation. The digitized data must be accessible by the experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS)-based control system, which manages all accelerator control. An input output controller (IOC), which runs Linux on a central process unit (CPU) module with a peripheral component interconnect (PCI) express-based Analog-to-digital converter (ADC) card, has been adopted to satisfy the requirements. An associated Linux driver and EPICS device support module have also been developed. The IOC meets the requirements, and the development and maintenance of software for the IOC is very efficient. In this paper, the details of the DAQ system for the BLM and the BPM with the introduction of the KOMAC beam-diagnostics devices, along with the performance, are described.

  1. Beam transfer functions and beam stabilisation in a double RF system

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, Elena; Linnecar, Trevor Paul R

    2005-01-01

    The high intensity proton beam for LHC accelerated in the CERN SPS is stabilised against coupled-bunch instabilities by a 4th harmonic RF system in bunch-shortening mode. Bunch-lengthening mode, which could also be useful to reduce peak line density and alleviate problems from e-cloud and kicker heating, does not give desirable results for beam stability. In this paper an analysis of the limitations of these two different modes of operation is presented together with measurements of the Beam Transfer Function for the double RF system. As predicted by theory, for sufficiently long bunches with the same noise excitation, the measured amplitude of the beam response in bunchlengthening mode is an order of magnitude higher than that for bunch-shortening mode or for a single RF system.

  2. A method of particle transport study using supersonic molecular beam injection and microwave reflectometry on HL-2A tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of the particle transport study using supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) and microwave reflectometry is reported in this paper. Experimental results confirm that pulsed SMBI is a good perturbation source with deeper penetration and better localization than the standard gas puffing. The local density modulation is induced using the pulsed SMBI and the perturbation density is measured by the microwave reflectometry. Using Fourier transform analysis for the local density perturbation, radial profiles of the amplitude and phase of the density modulation can be obtained. The experimental results in HL-2A show that the particle injected by SMBI is located at about r/a=0.65-0.75. The position of the main particle source can be determined through three aspects: the minimum of the phase of the first harmonic of the Fourier transform of the modulated density measured by microwave reflectometry; the Ha intensity profile and the local density increase ratio. The maximum of the amplitude of the first harmonic shifts often inward relative to the particle source location, which indicates clearly there is an inward particle pinch in this area. Good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the simulation using analytical transport model. The particle diffusivity D and the particle convection velocity V have been obtained by doing this simulation. The sensitivity in the transport coefficients of the amplitude and the phase of the density modulation has been discussed.

  3. Magnetic configuration effects on plasma transport under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (Simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic analysis of magnetic configurations (27 in total), using a Transport model including impurity dynamics and sputtering effects has been done. For small size configurations or those close to rational t values there is radioactive collapse, independently of the external gas puffing (GP) strategy chosen. The reason is the insufficiency of observed power, either by the high shine through losses due to their low radii, or by the increase of fast ion orbit losses near the resonances. For the majority of configurations without collapse, fast ion orbit losses for CO injection (going in the same direction than the toroidal magnetic field) are higher, and in consequence the power absorption and the plasma β achieved are laser, than for the opposite direction. Nevertheless in the region placed just above the main resonances (1/3 and 1/2 per period) this situation reverses. The reasons have been analysed and explained at previous studies. A consequence of this fact is that the optima of confinement for the Counter case are shifted towards higher t values than the CO one, with higher plasma β, except near the resonances. As usual the balanced case is in between. The optima achieving stationary state are very close (and often are coincident) with those lacking that restriction. The best configuration (highest average β for balanced injection, with =1.1% and central value 3.2%, although in this region the results are rather insensitive to configuration and GP strategy. the configurations placed around the 10044 would need also the lowest power entering the torus in order to avoid collapse and to achieve an acceptable NBI absorption level. (Author) 12 refs

  4. Electron-beam manipulation techniques in the SINBAD Linac for external injection in plasma wake-field acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, B.; Assmann, R.; Behrens, C.; Brinkmann, R.; Dorda, U.; Floettmann, K.; Hartl, I.; Huening, M.; Nie, Y.; Schlarb, H.; Zhu, J.

    2016-09-01

    The SINBAD facility (Short and INnovative Bunches and Accelerators at Desy) is foreseen to host various experiments in the field of production of ultra-short electron bunches and novel high gradient acceleration techniques. Besides studying novel acceleration techniques aiming to produce high brightness short electron bunches, the ARD group at DESY is working on the design of a conventional RF accelerator that will allow the production of low charge (0.5 pC - few pC) ultra-short electron bunches (having full width half maximum, FWHM, length ≤ 1 fs - few fs). The setup will allow the direct experimental comparison of the performance achievable by using different compression techniques (velocity bunching, magnetic compression, hybrid compression schemes). At a later stage the SINBAD linac will be used to inject such electron bunches into a laser driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerator, which imposes strong requirements on parameters such as the arrival time jitter and the pointing stability of the beam. In this paper we review the compression techniques that are foreseen at SINBAD and we underline the differences in terms of peak current, beam quality and arrival time stability.

  5. Experiments on Plasma Injection into a Centrifugally Confined System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, S.; Bomgardner, R.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Uzun-Kaymak, I.; Elton, R.; Young, W.; Teodorescu, C.; Morales, C. H.; Ellis, R. F.

    2009-11-01

    We describe the cross-field injection of plasma into a centrifugally-confined system. Two different types of plasma railgun have been installed on the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) in an attempt to drive that plasma's rotation. The initial gun was a coaxial device designed to mitigate the blowby instability. The second one was a MiniRailgun with a rectangular bore oriented so that the MCX magnetic field augments the railgun's internal magnetic field. Tests at HyperV indicate this MiniRailgun reaches much higher densities than the original gun, although muzzle velocity is slightly reduced. We discuss the impact of these guns on MCX for various conditions. Initial results show that even for a 2 kG field, firing the MiniRailgun modifies oscillations of the MCX diamagnetic loops and can impact the core current and voltage. The gun also has a noticeable impact on MCX microwave emissions. These observations suggest plasma enters the MCX system. We also compare diagnostic data collected separately from MCX for these and other guns, focussing primarily on magnetic measurements.

  6. Transverse oscillations of an underwater beam-cable system

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Max; Wilson, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    An Autonomous Underwater Vehicle refuel station is proposed. The power source is located on board a surface vessel, while the AUV is serviced at depth. The structure which connects the two craft is modelled as a cable-beam. Transverse oscillations of this cable-beam system are investigated through a fourth-order differential equation.

  7. Mechanical engineering problems in the TFTR neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design of a prototype beam line for the TFTR Neutral Beam System has been developed. The basic components have been defined, cost estimates prepared, and the necessary development programs identified. Four major mechanical engineering problems, potential solutions and the required development programs are discussed

  8. Thermal loads on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel under Neutral Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study a numerical analysis of power loads on the complex 3D structure of the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel, moderated with reasonable accuracy, under NBI, is done. To do this it has been necessary to modify deeply the DENSB code for power loads in order to include the TJ-II VV wall parts as targets and as beam scrapers, allowing the possibility of self-shadowing. After a short description of the primitive version of the DENSB code (paragraph 2) and of the visualisation code MOVIE(paragraph 3), the DENSB upgrading are described (paragraphs 4,5) and finally the results are presented (paragraph 6). These code modifications and the improving on the visualization tools provide more realistic load evaluations, both with and without plasma, validating former results and showing clearly the VV zones that will need new protections. (Author)

  9. VLF wave stimulation by pulsed electron beams injected from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, G. D.; Banks, P. M.; Frazer-Smith, A. C.; Neubert, T.; Bush, R. I.

    1988-01-01

    Among the investigations conducted on the Space Shuttle flight STS-3 of March 1982 was an experiment in which a 1-keV, 100-mA electron gun was pulsed at 3.25 and 4.87 kHz. The resultant waves were measured with a broadband plasma wave receiver. At the time of flight the experimental setup was unique in that the electron beam was square wave modulated and that the Shuttle offered relatively long times for in situ measurements of the ionospheric plasma response to the VLF pulsing sequences. In addition to electromagnetic response at the pulsing frequencies the wave exhibited various spectral harmonics as well as the unexpected occurrence of 'satellite lines' around those harmonics. Both phenomena occurred with a variety of different characteristics for different pulsing sequences.

  10. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Heath A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shurter, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gilpatrick, John D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kutac, Vincent G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Derwin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-10

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  11. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  12. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source

  13. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahng, Jungbae [Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566 (Korea, Republic of); Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob, E-mail: bslee@kbsi.re.kr [Busan Center, Korea Basic Science Institute, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-San, E-mail: eskim1@korea.ac.kr [Department of Accelerator Science, Korea University Sejong Campus, Sejong 339-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  14. Neutral beam system for the C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Clary, Ryan; Dunaevsky, Alexandr; Isakov, Ivan; Magee, Richard; Matvienko, Vasily; van Drie, Alan; Deichuli, Petr; Ivanov, Alexandr; Pirogov, Konstantin; Sorokin, Aleksey; Stupishin, Nickolay; Vakhrushev, Roman; TAE Team; Budker Team

    2015-11-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (NBI), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable, hot FRCs with a significant fast-ion population, total plasma temperature of ~ 1 keV and record lifetimes were achieved. To further improve the FRC sustainment and provide a better coupling with beams, the C-2 device has been upgraded with a new NBI system, which can deliver up to a total of 10 MW of hydrogen beam power (15 keV, 8 ms pulse), by far the largest ever used in compact toroid plasma experiments. The NBI system consists of six positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. This presentation will provide an overview of the C-2U NBI system, including: 1) NBI test facility, beam characterization, and acceptance tests, 2) integration with the machine and operating experience, 3) improvements in plasma performance with increased beam power.

  15. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%. PMID:26192526

  16. A beam waveguide linearly polarized KU band feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, J. B.

    The linearly polarized KU band beam waveguide feed system considered was designed for use with large Cassegrain antennas typical of those associated with satellite comunications earth stations. The beam waveguide technique permits fixed ground installations of the transmitters and low noise receivers and eliminates the large equipment room usually mounted behind the reflector vertex. The feed system consists of a tapered corrugated wall horn, a matching network, a TE21 mode coupler, three differential phase shifters, a choke coupled rotatable, orthogonal mode transducer, and a servo amplifier system. Attention is given to TE21 mode coupler operation, TE21 mode coupling and directivity, a horn description, a beam wave description, and polarization control.

  17. System for programmable micromachining by means of submicron ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system with submicron ion beam is described. Very bright ion beams are generated by electrohydrodynamic source and are focused in electrostatic ion-optical column. An octupole deflector is used for astigmatism correction and beam deviation. Stabilized power supply of all elements is ensured. Lines of 0.1 μm minimum width are obtained. The micromachining process is controlled by an automated system in CAMAC standard on line with Odrenok computer. Specific features of programmable micromachining and operation of the system in the mode of scanning ion microscope are considered

  18. Development of microwave ion source and low energy beam transport system for high current cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, V.S., E-mail: pandit@vecc.gov.in; Sing Babu, P.; Goswami, A.; Srivastava, S.; Misra, A.; Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P.Y.; Yadav, R.C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Roy, S.; Nandi, C.; Pal, G.; Thakur, S.K.

    2013-12-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source and a low energy beam transport system have been developed to study the high intensity proton beam injection into a 10 MeV, 5 mA compact cyclotron. We have extracted proton beam more than 10 mA at 80 kV as measured by the DCCT after the extraction and a well collimated beam of 7 mA (through 1 cm × 1 cm slit) at the faraday cup 1.5 m away from the source. The transport of protons from the ion source in the presence of H{sub 2}{sup +}, H{sub 3}{sup +} species has been studied using PIC simulations through our transport line which consists of two solenoids. We have also installed a small dipole magnet with similar field as that of the cyclotron along with vacuum chamber, spiral inflector and few diagnostic elements at the end of the beam line. In the preliminary testing of inflection, we achieved 1 mA beam on the faraday cup at the exit of inflector with ∼60% transmission efficiency.

  19. Development of compact quantum beam generation system and the application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the approval of the project as the 'High-Tech Research Center Project' conducted by MEXT at Waseda University, the laser driven photo-cathode RF-Gun (RF-Gun) has been developed very extensively. The system was developed to obtain the stable and high quality (i.e. very low emittance) electron beam in conjunction with the system stabilization such as RF power source and laser system for the electron emission. The high quality electron beams have been applied for the development of novel beam diagnostic system. At the same time, the beams (electron and laser) are applied for the inverse Compton scattering experiment for the generation of soft-X-ray with quasi-monochromatic energy and short time structure, and for the pump probe experiment (the pico-second pulse radiolysis) as the very compact system. (author)

  20. Scanning system for charged and neutral particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention aims at providing a simple and reliable method and a reliable device for irradiating a confined volume of matter, preferably at great depth, with a beam of high energy charged or neutral particles. The basic feature of the invention is that the particle beam coming from a radiation source of charged particles is scanned electrically in two orthogonal directions, and that the beam scanned in one plane is deflected in space. For most practical purposes it is important that the radiation source is of small extension. Such a radiation source is realized by means of a beam optical system that includes two scanning magnets each of which admits scanning of the particle beam in one of two orthogonal planes. The beam scanned in one of the planes leaves the associated scanning magnet from an effective scanning centre. The optical system also includes a deflection magnet disposed between the scanning magnets for deflecting the path of the beam in space. By utilizing the optical properties of the deflection magnet in such a way that the deflection magnet produces an image of the effective scanning centre of the first scanning magnet which coincides with the effective scanning centre of the second scanning magnet, the beam scanned in two orthogonal planes will radiate isotropically from the scanning centre of the second scanning magnet. By using the deflection magnet a compact scanning system with a small distance between the scanning centres of the scanning magnets is obtained