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Sample records for beam injection system

  1. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  2. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  3. TFTR neutral beam injection system conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Three subsystems are described in the following chapters: (1) Neutral Beam Injection Line; (2) Power Supplies; and (3) Controls. Each chapter contains two sections: (1) Functions and Design Requirements; this is a brief listing of the requirements of components of the subsystem. (2) Design Description; this section describes the design and cost estimates. The overall performance requirements of the neutral beam injection system are summarized. (MOW)

  4. Antiproton Production beam and Reverse Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, G.

    1981-08-16

    The objectives of this project are two fold: (1) To extract high energy protons from the Main Ring (MR) and target them to produce antiprotons which are subsequently captured in the existing Booster accelerator; and (2) to provide a channel for injecting either protons or antiprotons into the MR from the booster in a direction opposite to that of the normal proton acceleration as colliding beams can be created. The present design, therefore, is in support of two separate larger projects, viz., the collisions of protons in the Tevatron (normal circulation direction) with 'reverse injected' protons in the MR, and the collision of normal direction protons with reverse injected antiprotons either in the MR or in the Tevatron. Figure 1 shows the layout of the project area. It spans the shortest distance between possible injection/ejection points in the existing accelerator structures, hence minimizing costs. The tunnel will lie underground at the level of the MR and booster.

  5. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  6. Performance of the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Cummings, J.; Glad, A.S.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Haskovec, J.S.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.; Langhorn, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the upgrade of the Doublet III tokamak, the neutral beam injection system as also modified to accommodate long pulse sources and to utilize the larger entrance apertures to the torus vessel. All four beamlines on DIII-D are now in operation with a total of eight common long pulse sources. These have exhibited easier conditioning and good reproducibility. Performance results of the beamlines and supporting systems are presented, and the observed beam properties are discussed

  7. Development of the TFTR neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Lines are designed to inject 20 MW of 120 keV neutral deuterium atoms into the plasma. This is accomplished using 12 sources, 65 amperes each, mounted in 4 beam lines. The 120 kV sources and a prototype beam line are being developed. The implementation of these beam lines has required the development of several associated pieces of hardware. 200 kV switch tubes for the power supplies are being developed for modulation and regulation of the accelerating supplies. A 90 cm metallic seal gate valve capable of sealing against atmosphere in either direction is being developed for separating the torus and beam line vacuum systems. A 70 x 80 cm fast shutter valve is also being developed to limit tritium migration from the torus into the beam line. Internal to the beam line a calorimeter, ion dump and deflection magnet have been designed to handle three beams, and optical diagnostics utilizing the doppler broadening and doppler shift of light emitted from the accelerated beam are being developed. The control and monitoring of the 12 sources will be done via the TFTR computer control system (CICADA) as will other parts of the machine, and software is being developed to condition and operate the sources automatically. The prototype beam line is scheduled to begin operation in the fall of 1978 and all four production beam lines on TFTR in 1982

  8. Development of the TFTR neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prichard, B.A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Lines are designed to inject 20 MW of 120 keV neutral deuterium atoms into the plasma. This is accomplished using 12 sources, 65 amperes each, mounted in 4 beam lines. The 120 kV sources are being developed by LBL and a prototype beam line which will be tested at Berkeley is being developed as a cooperative effort by LLL and LBL. The implementation of these beam lines has required the development of several associated pieces of hardware. The control and monitoring of the 12 sources will be done via the TFTR computer control system (CICADA) as will other parts of the machine, and software is being developed to condition and operate the sources automatically. The prototype beam line is scheduled to begin operation in the fall of 1978 and all four production beam lines on TFTR in 1982

  9. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China)

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  10. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  11. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs

  12. PLT and Doublet III neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haselton, H.H.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Schechter, D.E.; Stewart, L.D.; Stirling, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The design program is being supported by experimental work with all beam line components: gas cells, bending magnets, beam stops, magnetic shielding, and high speed-high throughput cryopumping systems. Stray toroidal fields and fields produced by external transmission or mirror magnets are under study to determine the optimum means of removing the unneutralized component from the beam. Concepts utilizing materials with high permeability are adequate to provide the source with the necessary magnetic shielding. Beam stops capable of dissipating a power density of 10 to 40 kW/cm 2 are required for ion dumps, diagnostics, and on line ion source conditioning

  13. Neutral beam injection system design for KSTAR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, B.H.; Lee, K.W.; Chung, K.S.; Oh, B.H.; Cho, Y.S.; Bae, Y.D.; Han, J.M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    The NBI system for KSTAR (Korean Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) has been designed based on conventional positive ion beam technology. One beam line consists of three ion sources, three neutralizers, one bending magnet, and one drift tube. This system will deliver 8 MW deuterium beam to KSTAR plasma in normal operation to support the advanced experiments on heating, current drive and profile control. The key technical issues in this design were high power ion source(120 kV, 65 A), long pulse operation (300 seconds; world record is 30 sec), and beam rotation from vertical to horizontal direction. The suggested important R and D points on ion source and beam line components are also included. (author). 7 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Conceptual design of a neutral-beam injection system for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlers, K.W.; Berkner, K.H.; Cooper, W.S.; Hooper, E.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stearns, J.W.

    1975-11-01

    The neutral-beam injection requirements for heating and fueling the next generation of fusion reactor experiments far exceed those of present devices; the neutral-beam systems needed to meet these requirements will be large and complex. A conceptual design of a TFTR tokamak injection system to produce 120 keV deuterium-ion beams with a total power of about 80 MW is given

  15. Initial operation and performance of the PDX neutral-beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Eubank, H.P.; Kozub, T.A.; Rossmassler, J.E.; Schilling, G.; van Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    In 1981, the joint ORNL/PPPL PDX neutral beam heating project succeeded in reliably injecting 7.2 MW of D 0 into the PDX plasma, at nearly perpendicular angles, and achieved ion temperatures up to 6.5 keV. The expeditious achievement of this result was due to the thorough conditioning and qualification of the PDX neutral beam ion sources at ORNL prior to delivery coupled with several field design changes and improvements in the injection system made at PPPL as a result of neutral beam operating experience with the PLT tokamak. It has been found that the operation of high power neutral beam injection systems in a tokamak-neutral beam environment requires procedures and performance different from those required for development operation on test stands. In this paper, we review the installatin of the PDX neutral beam injection system, and its operation and performance during the initial high power plasma heating experiments with the PDX tokamak

  16. Beam-plasma interaction in case of injection of the electron beam to the symmetrically open plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opanasenko, A.V.; Romanyuk, L.I.

    1992-01-01

    A beam-plasma interaction at the entrance of the symmetrically open plasma system with an electron beam injected through it is investigated. An ignition of the plasma-beam discharge on waves of upper hybrid dispersion branch of a magnetoactive plasma is found in the plasma penetrating into the vacuum contrary to the beam. It is shown that the beam-plasma discharge is localized in the inhomogeneous penetrating plasma in the zone where only these waves exist. Regularities of the beam-plasma discharge ignition and manifestation are described. It is determined that the electron beam crossing the discharge zone leads to the strong energy relaxation of the beam. It is shown possible to control the beam-plasma discharge ignition by changing the potential of the electron beam collector. (author)

  17. Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor neutral beam injection system vacuum chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrotti, L.R.

    1977-01-01

    Most of the components of the Neutral Beam Lines of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will be enclosed in a 50 cubic meter box-shaped vacuum chamber. The chamber will have a number of unorthodox features to accomodate both neutral beam and TFTR requirements. The design constraints, and the resulting chamber design, are presented

  18. A very sensitive nonintercepting beam average velocity monitoring system for the TRIUMF 300-keV injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Y.; Laxdal, R.E.; Zelenski, A.; Ostroumov, P.

    1997-01-01

    A nonintercepting beam velocity monitoring system has been installed in the 300-keV injection line of the TRIUMF cyclotron to reproduce the injection energy for beam from different ion sources and to monitor any beam energy fluctuations. By using a programmable beam signal leveling method the system can work with a beam current dynamic range of 50 dB. Using synchronous detection, the system can detect 0.5 eV peak-to-peak energy modulation of the beam, sensitivity is 1.7x10 -6 . The paper will describe the principle and beam measurement results. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Design features and operational characteristics of the PEP beam-transport and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.M.; Brown, K.L.; Truher, J.B.

    1981-03-01

    The PEP beam-transport system was designed to transmit 4-to-15 GeV electron and positron beams from the SLAC linac within a +- 0.8% momentum band, to have flexible tuning of the betatron and off-momentum functions for matching into the PEP storage ring, and to have convenient operating characteristics. The transport lines were brought into operation quickly and have operated well. Electron injection has been consistent and efficient and relatively easy to accomplish. Positron injection also has been satisfactory but is variable and more sensitive to ring conditions

  20. The TFTR 40 MW neutral beam injection system and DT operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, T.; O'Connor, T.; Garzotto, V.

    1995-01-01

    Since December 1993, TFTR has performed DT experiments using tritium fuel provided mainly by neutral beam injection. Significant alpha particle populations and reactor-like conditions have been achieved at the plasma core, and fusion output power has risen to a record 10.7 MW using a record 40 MW NB heating. Tritium neutral beams have injected into over 480 DT plasmas and greater than 500 kCi have been processed through the neutral beam gas, cryo, and vacuum systems. Beam tritium injections, as well as tritium feedstock delivery and disposal, have now become part of routine operations. Shot reliability with tritium is about 90% and is comparable to deuterium shot reliability. This paper describes the neutral beam DT experience including the preparations, modifications, and operating techniques that led to this high level of success, as well as the critical differences in beam operations encountered during DT operations. Also, the neutral beam maintenance and repair history during DT operations, the corrective actions taken, and procedures developed for handling tritium contaminated components are discussed in the context of supporting a continuous DT program

  1. Shielding considerations for neutral-beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Seynes, X.

    1983-03-01

    Results of a study on the geometry of an FED-A Neutral Beam Injector beamline duct shield are presented. Also included is a calculation of dose rates, as a function of time, from an activated NBI. The shielding investigations consisted of varying the parameters of the geometry and transporting particles through it using the MCNP Monte-Carlo code. The dose rates were calculated by the ACDOS3 code using realistic MCNP results. A final-to-incident flux ratio of 6.5 x 10 -7 can be achieved through the use of a 65.5 cm reentry duct. This is for a realistic source and pure water shielding material. The activated NBI produced a dose rate of 15.9 mrem/hr two and a half days after shutdown of the reactor

  2. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  3. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S

    2007-01-01

    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  4. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 800-keV neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ruby, L.; Soroka, L.; Fink, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    Recent advances and new concepts in negative ion generation, transport, acceleration, and neutrailzation make it appear likely that an efficient, radiation-hardened neutral beam injection system could be developed in time for the proposed FED-A tokamak. These new developments include the operation of steady-state H - ion sources at over 5 A per meter of source length, the concept of using strong-focussing electrostatic structures for low-gradient dc acceleration of high-current sheet beams of negative ions and the transport of these beams around corners, and the development of powerful oxygen-iodine chemical lasers which will make possible the efficient conversion of the negative ions to neutrals using a photodetachment scheme in which the ion beam passes through the laser cavity

  5. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; Chan, C.F.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H - beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H - injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H - beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  6. Sensibility Studies for the Neutral Beam Injection System in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.; Guasp, J.

    1999-01-01

    The sensibility of the Neutral Beam Injection system of TJ-II to the changes of several parameters is analysed. Transmission, absorption and power loads at the intercepting structures are evaluated. The adopted values for the ion source distance, focal length and divergence are confirmed as optimal, showing a small sensitivity to changes, except for the divergence. The operational margins for beam misalignments has been found to be small but feasible, confirming also the reference directions as optimal. Finally four possible alternatives, intended to reduce the power loads at the beam entering structures, are analysed. All of them have been discarded since lead to the appearance of new risk zones, with unacceptable load levels, and reduce the transmitted power. (Author) 13 refs

  7. Operation and Development on the Positive-Ion Based Neutral Beam Injection System for JT-60 and JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, M.; Akino, N.; Ebisawa, N.; Honda, A.; Itoh, T.; Kawai, M.; Mogaki, K.; Ohga, T.; Oohara, H.; Umeda, N.; Usui, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Matsuoka, M.

    2002-01-01

    The positive-ion based neutral beam injection (NBI) system for JT-60, which consists of 14 beamline units and has a beam energy of 70 to 100 keV, started operation in 1986 with hydrogen beams and injected a neutral beam power of 27 MW at 75 keV into the JT-60 plasma. In 1991, the NBI system was modified to be able to handle deuterium beams as part of the JT-60 upgrade modification. After executing some research and developments, deuterium beams of 40 MW at 95 keV were injected in 1996. As a result, NBI has contributed to the achievement of the highest performance plasmas, a DT-equivalent fusion power gain of 1.25 and a fusion triple product of 1.55 x 10 21 keVs/m 3 , in the world on JT-60U

  8. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  9. High power neutral beam injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Nagaoka, K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of high power injection with a neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the large helical device (LHD) are reported. The system consists of three beam-lines, and two hydrogen negative ion (H - ion) sources are installed in each beam-line. In order to improve the injection power, the new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed and applied to one of the beam-lines. Using the accelerator, the maximum powers of 5.7 MW were achieved in 2003 and 2004, and the energy of 189 keV reached at maximum. The power and energy exceeded the design values of the individual beam-line for LHD. The other beam-lines also increased their injection power up to about 4 MW, and the total injection power of 13.1 MW was achieved with three beam-lines in 2003. Although the accelerator had an advantage in high power beam injection, it involved a demerit in the beam focal condition. The disadvantage was resolved by modifying the aperture shapes of the steering grid. (author)

  10. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  11. TFTR neutral beam D-T gas injection system operational experiences of the first two years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldaker, M.E.; Lawson, J.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; Kamperschroer, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Tritium Gas Injection System (TGIS) has successfully performed tritium operations since December 1993. TGIS operation has been reliable, with no leaks to the secondary containment to date. Notable operational problems include throughput leaks on fill, exit and piezoelectric valves. Repair of a TGIS requires replacement of the assembly, involving TFTR downtime and extensive purging, since the TGIS assembly is highly contaminated with residual tritium, and is located within secondary containment. Modifications to improve reliability and operating range include adjustable reverse bias voltage to the piezoelectric valves, timing and error calculation changes to tune the PLC and hardwired timing control, and exercising piezoelectric valves without actually pulsing gas prior to use after extended inactivity. A pressure sensor failure required the development of an open loop piezoelectric valve drive control scheme, using a simple voltage ramp to partially compensate for declining plenum pressure. Replacement of TGIS's have been performed, maintaining twelve system tritium capability as part of scheduled project maintenance activity

  12. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  13. Design study of a neutral beam injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Design study has been made of a 200 kV, 45 MW D 0 neutral beam injection system for the JAERI Experimental Fusion Reactor (JXFR) covering the following: determination of the ion source specifications, design of components such as ion source with extraction electrodes, energy converter, cryopump and cooling system, and estimations of the energy conversion efficiency, overall power efficiency and total power required for operation of the NBI system, and also a hydrogen isotope separation method using cryo-sorption pumps. Optimizations and parameter studies of the neutralizing cell length, gas flow rate, operating pressure of ion sources, total pumping speed and pressure of energy converters are made in the design study based on reactor plasma requirements. Hollow cathode ion sources are proposed because of the extended operation time at low gas pressure (about 4.5 x 10 -3 Torr) and the high gas efficiency (40%). Life of the extraction electrodes is determined by blistering due to deuterium ions. Fast neutron radiation damage is relatively small. In-line direct converters with grounded recovery electrodes and neutralizing cells floated at negative potential -190 kV are used to recover residual deuterium ion energy without interrupting the neutral beam trajectories. Energy conversion efficiency of 80% and overall power efficiency of about 40% are obtained. (auth.)

  14. Beam-plasma interaction with an electron beam injecting into a symmetrically open plasma system; Electron beam relaxation. Puchkovo-plazmennoe vzaimodejstvie pri inzhektsii ehlektronnogo puchka v simmetrichno otkrytuyu plazmennuyu sistemu; Relaksatsiya ehlektronnogo puchka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opanasenko, A V; Romanyuk, L I [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij

    1989-10-01

    The relaxation of the electron beam with the electron density of 1-2 keV injected through the symmetrically open plasma system with the independent hot cathode Penning discharge is experimentally investigated. It is shown that the velocity distribution function of the electron beam changes after passing each wave generation zone induced by the beam. The contribution of different wave zones to the beam relaxation depends on the prehistory of the beam-plasma interaction and may be regulated by the selection of the plasma system parameters. By this way the complete relaxation of the electron beam can be achieved after the beam crossing the whole system.

  15. Increased power delivery from the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleraine, A.P.; Callis, R.W.; Hong, R.M.; Kellman, D.H.; Kim, J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1989-12-01

    The neutral beam system installed on the DIII-D tokamak employs eight 80 kV Long Pulse Sources (LPS) mounted on four beamlines and was originally designed to deliver a nominal 12 MW of H degree power to a plasma for pulses of up to 5 sec duration. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory designed the LPS for the US Fusion Program to fill the requirements of both the DIII-D and the TFTR machines. Essentially all source components are of a common design; the DIII-D version is therefore conservative in its rated parameters. Recently a neutron shield has been constructed around the torus hall allowing D degree injection to become routine. Because deuterium beams have a better neutralization efficiency, the nominal power delivery per source has been measured to be approximately 2 MW (for a total of 16 MW) without any modifications. However, by reoptimizing the voltage gradients in the source, the perveance can be increased without degrading the optics. A change of gradient grid voltage from 0.83 V accel to 0.79 V accel raises the perveance from 2.5 to 3.0 μPerv with a corresponding gain in beam power of about 20%. The arc power required also must be increased to the range of 100 to 120 kW but this is well within the design limits of the LPS. Further studies of our systems are now underway to assess the possibilities of raising V accel above 80 kV. An additional gain in power is possible by this technique. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. Design of arc power supply for neutral beam injection system based on super capacitor energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Puqiong; Xuan Weimin; Cao Jianyong; Li Qing; Liu Xiaolong

    2015-01-01

    The arc power supply is one of the most important equipment for neutral beam injection system. The stability of arc discharge and the quality of ion beam extraction were determined by its performance. For improving stability of the arc discharge, reducing the power network capacity and decreasing impulse on power network, the topology of the arc power supply applied the structure of DC/DC converter based on technology of super capacitor energy storage and switching power supply. Several IGBT power modules are operated in parallel, and it can improve the arc power supply's operating frequency and dynamic response. A filter circuit and a current fast transferring circuit were designed based on a detailed analysis on working process of the arc power sup- ply. According to the requirements and parameters of the arc power supply, and the current response of RL first order circuit, the minimum filter inductances were accurately calculated. Finally, using the model and Matlab, the performance of the arc power supply was simulated and verified, and it meets the design requirement. (authors)

  17. High heat flux engineering for the upgraded neutral beam injection systems of MAST-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhalla, F.; Mistry, S.; Turner, I.; Barrett, T.R.; Day, I.; McAdams, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new Residual Ion Dump (RID) and bend magnet system for the upgraded NBI systems have been designed for the 5 s MAST-U pulse requirements. • Design scoping was performed using numerical ion-tracing analysis software (MAGNET and OPERA codes). • A more powerful bending magnet will separate the residual ions into full, half and third energy components. • Three separate CuCrZr dumps spread the power loading resulting in acceptable power footprints. • FE thermo-mechanical analyses using ANSYS to validate the designs against the ITER SDC-IC code. • New bend magnet coils, yoke and CuCrZr water-cooled plates are in the procurement phase. - Abstract: For the initial phase of MAST-U operation the two existing neutral beam injection systems will be used, but must be substantially upgraded to fulfil expected operational requirements. The major elements are the design, manufacture and installation of a bespoke bending magnet and Residual Ion Dump (RID) system. The MAST-design full energy dump is being replaced with new actively-cooled full, half and third energy dumps, designed to receive 2.4 MW of ion power deflected by an iron-cored electromagnet. The main design challenge is limited space available in the vacuum vessel, requiring ion-deflection calculations to ensure acceptable heat flux distribution on the dump panels. This paper presents engineering and physics analysis of the upgraded MAST beamlines and reports the current status of manufacture.

  18. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 400- and 800-keV neutral-beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; Fink, J.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ruby, L.; Soroka, L.; Tanabe, J.

    1983-04-01

    We present designs for two negative-ion based neutral beam lines with reactor-level power output. Both beam lines make use of such technologically advanced features as high-current-density surface-conversion ion sources, transverse-field-focussing (TFF) acceleration and transport, and laser photodetachment. For the second of these designs, we also presented detailed beam and vacuum calculations, as well as a brief description of a proof-of-principle test system currently under development

  19. Thermo-mechanical analysis of an acceleration grid for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor-neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Yukio; Hanada, Masaya; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2001-01-01

    In the engineering design of a negative-ion beam source for a high-power neutral beam injection (NBI) system, one of the most important issues is thermo-mechanical design of acceleration grids for producing several tens of MW ion beams. An acceleration grid for the international thermonuclear experimental reactor-neutral beam injection (ITER-NBI) system will be subjected to the heat loading as high as 1.5 MW. In the present paper, thermo-mechanical characteristics of the acceleration grid for the ITER-NBI system were analyzed. Numerical simulation indicated that maximum aperture-axis displacement of the acceleration grid due to thermal expansion would be about 0.7 mm for the heat loading of 1.5 MW. From the thin lens theory of beam optics, beamlet deflection angle by the aperture-axis displacement was estimated to be about 2 mrad, which is within the requirement of the engineering design of the ITER-NBI system. Numerical simulation also indicated that no melting on the acceleration grid would occur for a heat loading of 1.5 MW, while local plastic deformation would happen. To avoid the plastic deformation, it is necessary to reduce the heat loading onto the acceleration grid to less than 1 MW

  20. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  1. Feasibility Study of the PS Injection for 2 GeV LIU Beams with an Upgraded KFA-45 Injection Kicker System Operating in Short Circuit Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas; Borburgh, Jan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Feliciano, Luis; Ferrero Colomo, Alvaro; Goddard, Brennan; Sermeus, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Under the scope of the LIU project the CERN PS Booster to PS beam transfer will be modified to match the requirements for the future 2 GeV beams. This paper describes the evaluation of the proposed upgrade of the PS injection kicker. Different schemes of an injection for LIU beams into the PS have been outlined in the past already under the aspect of individual transfer kicker rise and fall time performances. Homogeneous rise and fall time requirements in the whole PSB to PS transfer chain have been established which allowed to consider an upgrade option of the present injection kicker system operated in short circuit mode. The challenging pulse quality constraints require an improvement of the flat top and post pulse ripples. Both operation modes, terminated and short circuit mode are analysed and analogue circuit simulations for the present and upgraded system are outlined. Recent measurements on the installed kickers are presented and analysed together with the simulation data. First measurements verifying...

  2. Challenges and Plans for Injection and Beam Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, M.; Goddard, B.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    The injection and beam dumping systems of the LHC will need to be upgraded to comply with the requirements of operation with the HL-LHC beams. The elements of the injection system concerned are the fixed and movable absorbers which protect the LHC in case of an injection kicker error and the injection kickers themselves. The beam dumping system elements under study are the absorbers which protect the aperture in case of an asynchronous beam dump and the beam absorber block. The operational limits of these elements and the new developments in the context of the HL-LHC project are described.

  3. Design of the ESCAR injection beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, J.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1975-01-01

    The design features of the elements of the ESCAR (Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring) injection beam line are described. The junction of the proton transport system with the ESCAR injection straight section requires the design of mechanical elements compatible with the 10 -11 torr vacuum requirements of the main ring. These elements include a novel septum magnet whose salient design features include a current-carrying septum of tapered thicknesses to reduce the overall power requirements and total enclosure of the magnet coil in a metal can for vacuum compatibility. Other elements are a wire electro-static septum and several fast-rise ''bump magnets''. A transition cryopump is designed to separate the main ring vacuum from the relatively poor 10 -6 torr vacuum of the conventional beam transport line. A brief description of the conventional beam transport line from the 50 MeV proton linac, recently installed for Bevatron injection,is also included. (U.S.)

  4. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  5. Neutral beam injection on the PLT tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, G.; Ashcroft, D.L.; Eubank, H.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Knauer, R.C.; Stewart, L.D.; Stooksberry, R.W.; Ulrickson, M.; Williams, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the operation of the neutral beam injection system on the PLT tokamak. Improvements, retrofits, and conditioning have changed the injection system from an experiment in itself to a fairly reliable and useful plasma heating tool. We will present a brief overview of our physics achievements and then describe the system as it exists now. This will include injector performance, conditioning needs, maintenance needs, reliability, and daily operating sequences. We will also include hardware modifications and additions, electrical and mechanical, and point out remaining problem areas

  6. Neutral beam injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbs, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Integrated into the operation of the 2XIIB controlled fusion experiment is a 600-A, 20-keV neutral injection system: the highest neutral-beam current capacity of any existing fusion machine. This paper outlines the requirements of the injection system and the design features to which they led. Both mechanical and electrical aspects are discussed. Also included is a brief description of some operational aspects of the system and some of the things we have learned along the way, as well as a short history of the most significant developments

  7. Application of the OPTIMUS Code to the Neutral Beam Injection System of TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.; Guasp, J.

    1998-01-01

    The different losses processes affecting a neutral beam since is born into the ions source until is coming into the fusion machine, are dependent of the residual gas pressure distribution inside injector. The OPTIMUS code analyzes that losses and calculates the pressure distribution inside one injector with specific geometry. The adaptation of injector to TJ-II has not required important design changes, only the operating range of the gas flow and the pumping speed have modified. The calculations show that the required gas flows for the optimal operation of the system ned an independent pumping system for the calorimeter box with a pumping speed of 1200001/s. The system efficiency is not affected by an hypothetical beaming effect and it is found also that with a proper conditioning of the injector walls, so that the absorption coefficients do not surpass excessively the unity value, the injector operation remains optimal. (Author) 8 refs

  8. A review of JAERI R and D activities on the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Akiba, Masato; Araki, Masanori

    1990-08-01

    R and D efforts to realize a negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system have been made intensively at JAERI for the past several years. Concerning a high current negative ion source which is one of the most important R and D items, a 10 A, 50 keV negative hydrogen ion beam has been produced successfully. The negative ion beam current and the current density correspond already to the value required for the negative-ion-based NBI system. In order to increase the beam energy further, a 350 keV, 0.1 A test stand has been constructed, and the test of a high energy negative ion accelerator has started. Concerning a high energy acceleration power supply, an inverter type power supply which has a high speed AC switch was proposed and applied to the 100 kV, 5 A power supply for JAERI Electron Beam Irradiation Stand. The reliable operation indicates that the concept of this system can be applied for a MV class acceleration power supply. As one of the promising candidates for a beam dump cooling element, an externally-finned swirl tube was proposed and tested to have a high burnout heat flux of 4.1 kW/cm 2 , which is high enough for the next NBI system. The R and Ds on the negative-ion-based NBI system have made great progress at JAERI in recent years. The construction of a 500 keV class NBI system has become realistic from the engineering point of view. (author)

  9. Design of power supply system for the prototype RF-driven negative ion source for neutral beam injection application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Caichao; Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, Jianglong, E-mail: jlwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xie, Yahong; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A supporting power supply system was designed in details for a RF-driven prototype negative ion source at ASIPP. • The RF power supply for plasma generation adopts an all-solid-state power supply structure. • The extraction grid power supply adopts the pulse step modulator (PSM) technology. - Abstract: In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a prototype RF-driven negative ion source and the corresponding test bed are under construction at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The target of the negative ion source is extracting a negation ion beam of 350 A/m{sup 2} for 3600 s plasma duration and 100 s beam duration. According to the required parameters of test bed, the design of power supply system is put forward for earlier study. In this paper, the performance requirements and design schemes of RF power supply for plasma generation, impedance matching network, bias voltage power supply, and extraction voltage power supply for negative beam extraction are introduced in details. The schemes provide a reference for the construction of power supply system and lay a foundation for the next phase of experimental operation.

  10. Design of the beam profile monitor system for the RHIC injection line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A video profile monitor (VPM) system will be used in the AGS-to-RHIC (ATR) transfer line to acquire single bunches transferred at 30 Hz. An array of 12 video cameras will be connected to 4 frame grabbers through a wide-band flux. Fast VME image processing boards will analyze a 120 x 120 subset of the image, generated by a 4 x 4 convolution or an ROI computation and sent over the network during the AGS recycle time. Details of the design, results of lab tests and studies with ion and proton beams will be presented

  11. Rf beam loading in the Brookhaven AGS with booster injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Raka, E.; Weng, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    Multi-batch bunched beam loading during injection from the Booster to the AGS will be discussed. The full intensity beam injection to the upgraded AGS rf system with beam phase and radial feedbacks will be studied. It is shown that a beam phase feedback is necessary in order to guarantee a predictable hewn behavior after the first batch injection, otherwise the initial phase deviation for the following batch injections cannot be controlled. However, the effectiveness of the phase feedback control of the transient beam loading may be limited by an emittance blow up in the process. It is shown that a fast power amplifier feedback with a moderate gain can significantly reduce the transient effect of the bunched beam injection

  12. Booster gold beam injection efficiency and beam loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.Y.; Ahrens, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at the BNL requires the AGS to provide Gold beam with the intensity of 10 9 ions per bunch. Over the years, the Tandem Van de Graaff has provided steadily increasing intensity of gold ion beams to the AGS Booster. However, the gold beam injection efficiency at the Booster has been found to decrease with the rising intensity of injected beams. As the result, for Tandem beams of the highest intensity, the Booster late intensity is lower than with slightly lower intensity Tandem beam. In this article, the authors present two experiments associated with the Booster injection efficiency and beam intensity. One experiment looks at the Booster injection efficiency by adjusting the Tandem beam intensity, and another looks at the beam life time while scraping the beam in the Booster. The studies suggest that the gold beam injection efficiency at the AGS Booster is related to the beam loss in the ring, rather than the intensity of injected beam or circulating beam. A close look at the effect of the lost gold ion at the Booster injection leads to the prediction that the lost gold ion creates large number of positive ions, and even larger number of electrons. The lost gold beam is also expected to create large numbers of neutral particles. In 1998 heavy ion run, the production of positive ions and electrons due to the lost gold beam has been observed. Also the high vacuum pressure due to the beam loss, presumably because of the neutral particles it created, has been measured. These results will be reported elsewhere

  13. Mixed deuterium-tritium neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, L.; Lewis, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    An alternative mixed beam neutral beam injector (MNBI) for fusion reactors is proposed that eliminates the conventional isotope separation system (ISS) in the fuel cycle. The principal advantage of the alternative system is a capital and operating cost savings in the fuel cycle, as the ISS employs cryogenic distillation at liquid-hydrogen temperatures to effect a separation of hydrogen isotopes and to eliminate a buildup of normal hydrogen in the recycled fuel. Possible additional advantages of the alternative method involve an improvement in overall safety and a reduction of the amount of tritium in the fuel cycle. The alternative heating system uses an electromagnetic separation in the MNBI to limit the buildup of normal hydrogen. Calculations indicate that an MNBI can be reasonably optimized in the case of an upgraded injection system for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

  14. Monte-Carlo calculation of perpendicular neutral-beam injection in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanatani, K.; Wakatani, M.; Uo, K.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of a helical field ripple on the slowing-down process of the fast ions created by neutral injection is investigated numerically. For this purpose, the guiding-centre orbits are followed in a model magnetic field without plasma current, on the assumption that the slowing-down process is to be classical. Optimum injection angles in two types of helical magnetic traps are compared. One is the Heliotron-E configuration with a large rotational transform and deep helical ripple; the other one is the conventional stellarator field with a small rotational transform and shallow helical ripple. In contrast to the stellarator, the heating efficiency as calculated for Heliotron-E does not decrease monotonically when the injection angle is perpendicular to the toroidal direction; a heating efficiency of above 70% was obtained for perpendicular injection into a high-density plasma with negligible charge-exchange loss. The difference in heating efficiency versus injection angle between heliotron and conventional stellarator fields is explained by a difference in drift motion of the helically trapped fast ions. (author)

  15. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  16. The effects of electrode materials on the conversion efficiency of a direct converter used in neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Shunichi; Nagae, Hiroshi; Yano, Hidenobu; Masuda, Mitsuharu; Akazaki, Masanori

    1986-01-01

    The injection of fast neutral beams into plasmas is thought to be the most promising way for the fusion plasma heating. Fast neutral beams are obtained by injecting fast ions into a neutralizer cell, in which ions are neutralized through charge exchange collisions with the ambient gas. However, the neutralization efficiency in the neutralizer cell is so low that the net power may not be extracted from a fusion reactor unless the energy of the ions being not neutralized in the cell is recovered. The present paper describes some problems associated with the electrostatic direct energy recovery of fast ion beams for this purpose. The titanium and molybdenum were tested as the direct converter electrode materials, and it was found that the conversion efficiency and the conditioning process of the converter electrode depended strongly on the electrode material. The effect of secondary electrons emitted from the electron repeller on the conversion efficiency was also made clear in the present experiments. (author)

  17. SPS transverse beam scraping and LHC injection losses

    CERN Document Server

    Drosdal, L; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Cornelis, K; Goddard, B; Meddahi, M; Veyrunes, E

    2012-01-01

    Machine protection sets strict requirements for the quality of the injected beam, in particular in the transverse plane. Losses at aperture restrictions and protection elements have to be kept at a minimum. Particles in the beam tails are lost at the tight transfer line collimators and can trigger the LHC beam abort system. These particles have to be removed by scrapers in the vertical and horizontal plane in the SPS. Scraping has become vital for high intensity LHC operation. This paper shows the dependence of injection quality on the SPS scraping and discusses an improved scraper setting up strategy for better reproducibility with the current scraper system.

  18. Comparison of beam deposition for three neutral beam injection codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, R.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.

    1979-03-01

    The three neutral beam injection codes BEAM (Houlberg, ORNL), HOFR (Howe, ORNL), and FREYA (Post, PPPL) are compared with respect to the calculation of the fast ion deposition profile H(r). Only plasmas of circular cross section are considered, with injection confined to the mid-plane of the torus. The approximations inherent in each code are pointed out, and a series of comparisons varying several parameters (beam energy and radius, machine size, and injection angle) shows excellent agreement among all the codes. A cost comparison (execution time and memory requirements) is made which points out the relative merits of each code within the context of incorporation into a plasma transport simulation code

  19. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  20. Beam Scraping to detect and remove Halo in LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Letnes, P A; Brielmann, A; Burkhardt, H; Kramer, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Fast scrapers are installed in the SPS to detect and remove beam halo before extraction of beams to the LHC, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets in the LHC. We shortly describe the current system and then focus on our recent work, which aims at providing a system which can be used as operational tool for standard LHC injection. A new control application was written and tested with the beam. We describe the current status and results and compare these with detailed simulations.

  1. First neutral beam injection experiments on KSTAR tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S H; Chang, D H; Kim, T S; In, S R; Lee, K W; Jin, J T; Chang, D S; Oh, B H; Bae, Y S; Kim, J S; Park, H T; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Kashiwagi, M; Dairaku, M; Tobari, H; Hanada, M

    2012-02-01

    The first neutral beam (NB) injection system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1∕3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly, which is designed to deliver a 1.5 MW, NB power of deuterium at 95 keV. Before the beam injection experiments, discharge, and beam extraction characteristics of the ion source were investigated. The ion source has good beam optics in a broad range of beam perveance. The optimum perveance is 1.1-1.3 μP, and the minimum beam divergence angle measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy is 0.8°. The ion species ratio is D(+):D(2)(+):D(3)(+) = 75:20:5 at beam current density of 85 mA/cm(2). The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A∕kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, a deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. The edge pedestal formation in the T(i) and T(e) profiles was verified through CES and electron cyclotron emission diagnostics. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and plasma stored energy were found.

  2. First neutral beam injection experiments on KSTAR tokamaka)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; In, S. R.; Lee, K. W.; Jin, J. T.; Chang, D. S.; Oh, B. H.; Bae, Y. S.; Kim, J. S.; Park, H. T.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Kashiwagi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Hanada, M.

    2012-02-01

    The first neutral beam (NB) injection system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1/3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly, which is designed to deliver a 1.5 MW, NB power of deuterium at 95 keV. Before the beam injection experiments, discharge, and beam extraction characteristics of the ion source were investigated. The ion source has good beam optics in a broad range of beam perveance. The optimum perveance is 1.1-1.3 μP, and the minimum beam divergence angle measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy is 0.8°. The ion species ratio is D+:D2+:D3+ = 75:20:5 at beam current density of 85 mA/cm2. The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A/kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, a deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. The edge pedestal formation in the Ti and Te profiles was verified through CES and electron cyclotron emission diagnostics. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and plasma stored energy were found.

  3. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180{sup o} and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond.

  4. Diagnosing the PEP-II Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M.H.; Iverson, R.H.; Kulikov, A.; Pappas, G.C.; Weaver, M.; SLAC

    2005-01-01

    The injection of beam into the PEP-II B-Factory, especially into the High Energy Ring (HER) has some challenges. A high background level in the BaBar detector has for a while inhibited us from trickling charge into the HER similar to the Low Energy Ring (LER). Analyzing the injection system has revealed many issues which could be improved. The injection bump between two kickers was not closed, mainly because the phase advance wasn't exactly 180 o and the two kicker strengths were not balanced. Additionally we found reflections which kick the stored beam after the main kick and cause the average luminosity to drop about 3% for a 10 Hz injection rate. The strength of the overall kick is nearly twice as high as the design, indicating a much bigger effective septum thickness. Compared with single beam the background is worse when the HER beam is colliding with the LER beam. This hints that the beam-beam force and the observed vertical blow-up in the HER pushes the beam and especially the injected beam further out to the edge of the dynamic aperture or beyond

  5. Use of off-axis injection as an alternative to geometrically merging beams in an energy-recovering linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, David R [York County, VA

    2012-01-10

    A method of using off-axis particle beam injection in energy-recovering linear accelerators that increases operational efficiency while eliminating the need to merge the high energy re-circulating beam with an injected low energy beam. In this arrangement, the high energy re-circulating beam and the low energy beam are manipulated such that they are within a predetermined distance from one another and then the two immerged beams are injected into the linac and propagated through the system. The configuration permits injection without geometric beam merging as well as decelerated beam extraction without the use of typical beamline elements.

  6. Feasibility study of an optical resonator for applications in neutral-beam injection systems for the next generation of nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorucci, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project called SIPHORE (Single gap Photo-neutralizer energy Recovery injector), which aims to enhance the overall efficiency of one of the mechanisms through which the plasma is heated, in a nuclear fusion reactor, i.e. the Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) system. An important component of a NBI system is the neutralizer of high energetic ion beams. SIPHORE proposes to substitute the gas cell neutralizer, used in the current NBI systems, with a photo-neutralizer exploiting the photo-detachment process within Fabry Perot cavities. This mechanism should allow a relevant NBI global efficiency of η≥ 60%, significantly higher than the one currently possible (η≤25% for ITER). The present work concerns the feasibility study of an optical cavity with suitable properties for applications in NBI systems. Within this context, the issue of the determination of an appropriated optical cavity design has been firstly considered and the theoretical and experimental analysis of a particular optical resonator has been carried on. The problems associated with the high levels of intracavity optical power (∼3 MW) required for an adequate photo-neutralization rate have then been faced. In this respect, we addressed both the problem of the thermal effects on the cavity mirrors due to their absorption of intra-cavity optical power (∼1 W) and the one associated to the necessity of a high powerful input laser beam (∼1 kW) to feed the optical resonator. (author)

  7. Neutral beam current drive with balanced injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhartt, D.

    1990-01-01

    Current drive with fast ions has proved its capability to sustain a tokamak plasma free of externally induced electric fields in a stationary state. The suprathermal ion population within the toroidal plasma was created by quasi-tangential and uni-directional injection of high-energy neutral atoms, their ionisation and subsequent deceleration by collisions with the background plasma particles. In future large tokamaks of the NET/INTER-type, with reactor-relevant values of plasma density and temperature, this current drive scheme is expected to maintain the toroidal current at the plasma centre, as current drive by lower hybrid waves will be restricted to the outer plasma regions owing to strong wave damping. Adequate penetration of the neutral atoms through the dense plasma requires particle energies of several hundred kilovolts per nucleon since beam absorption scales roughly with the ratio beam energy over density. The realisation of such high-energy high-power neutral beams, based on negative ion technology, is now under study. (author) 7 refs., 2 figs

  8. Neutral beam injection optimization at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.; Wolfers, G.; Alonso, J.; Marcon, G.; Carrasco, R.; Guasp, J.; Acedo, M.; Sanchez, E.; Medrano, M.; Garcia, A.; Doncel, J.; Alejaldre, C.; Tsai, C.C.; Barber, G.; Sparks, D.

    2005-01-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) heating has been used on the TJ-II stellarator for the first time. The beam has a port-through power between 200 and 400 kW and injection energy 28 kV. Beam transmission is limited by beam interception at the injection port and the first toroidal field coil, therefore, beam steering optimization is of critical importance. The beam interaction areas inside TJ-II vacuum chamber are surveyed by infrared thermography. Beam reionization can be a problem due to the presence of residual gas in the duct region. Halpha emission is used to monitor the reionization at the duct. A careful optimization of the injected gas has been carried out

  9. The Beam Screen for the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, MJ; Ducimetière, L; Garrel, N; Kroyer, T

    2006-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker magnet systems must each produce a kick of 1.2 T.m with a flattop duration variable up to 7.86 ìs, and rise and fall times of less than 0.9 ìs and 3 ìs, respectively. Each system is composed of four 5 Ù transmission line kicker magnets with matched terminating resistors and pulse forming networks (PFN). The LHC beam has a high intensity, hence a beam screen is required in the aperture of the magnets This screen consists of a ceramic tube with conducting ?stripes? on the inner wall. The stripes provide a path for the image current of the beam and screen the magnet ferrites against Wake fields. The stripes initially used gave adequately low beam impedance however stripe discharges occured during pulsing of the magnet: hence further development of the beam screen was undertaken. This paper presents options considered to meet the often conflicting needs for low beam impedance, shielding of the ferrite, fast field rise time and good electrical and vacuum behaviour.

  10. Beam based systems and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, D

    2012-01-01

    This presentation will give a review from the operations team of the performance and issues of the beam based systems, namely RF, ADT, beam instrumentation, controls and injection systems. For each of these systems, statistics on performance and availability will be presented with the main issues encountered in 2012. The possible improvements for operational efficiency and safety will be discussed, with an attempt to answer the question "Are we ready for the new challenges brought by the 25ns beam and increased energy after LSI? ".

  11. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  12. Beam optics study of a negative ion source for neutral beam injection application at ASIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jiang-Long; Liang, Li-Zhen [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Cai-Chao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Ya-Hong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chun-Dong; Li, Jun; Gu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Qian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jing-Yong; Wu, Ming-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-04-15

    In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a negative ion source is being designed and constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Through a four electrode grids system inside the accelerator, a negative ion beam will be extracted and accelerated up to −60 kV on a reduced scale extraction area of 12 × 50 cm{sup 2} (the area of PG apertures is 185 cm{sup 2}). The beam optics is a key issue for the accelerator design, and greatly determine the source experimental performance in term of beam current, heat load on the grid, beam divergence, and so on. In this paper, the trajectories of electrons and negative ions were simulated in the electrode grids of the negative ion source. The filter capability of electron deflection magnet on the co-extracted electrons is evaluated and confirmed. The negative ion beam optics was designed according to the calculated results of beam divergence and beam radius along the beamlet in different acceleration voltages. The deflection effect of the electron deflection magnet on the negative ion beam was investigated in the single beamlet case and multi-beamlets case.

  13. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1993-05-01

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  14. Injection system of teh SSC Medium Energy Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, N.; Gerig, R.; McGill, J.; Brown, K.

    1994-04-01

    The Medium Energy Booster (MEB) is the third of the SSCL accelerators and the largest of the resistive magnet synchrotrons. It accelerates protons from an injection momentum of 12 GeV/c to a top momentum of 200 GeV/c. A beam injection system has been designed to inject the beam transferred from the Low Energy Booster onto the MEB closed orbit in the MEB injection insertion region. The beam is injected via a vertical bending Lambertson septum magnet and a horizontal kicker with appropriate matching and very little beam loss and emittance dilution. The beam optics of the injection system is described in this paper. The required parameters of the Lambertson septum magnet and the injection kicker are given

  15. Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Li Xinxia; Lu Xingqiang; Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection is investigated in a large aspect ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are figured out. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases due to electron return current, at the same time the peak of current moves towards the centre plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the neutral beam injection but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of net current is small for the neutral beam parallel injection but increases multipliedly for perpendicular injection, and increases with beam energy increasing. (authors)

  16. Refined Calculation of Beam Dynamics During UMER Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Gang; Godlove, Terry; Haber, Irving; Kishek, Rami A; Quinn, Bryan; Reiser, Martin; Thangaraj, Jayakar C T; Walter, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) is built as a low-cost testbed for intense beam physics for benefit of larger ion accelerators. The beam intensity is designed to be variable, spanning the entire range from low current operation to highly space-charge-dominated transport. The ring has recently been closed and multi-turn commissioning has begun. Although we have conducted many experiments at high space charge during UMER construction, lower-current beams have become quite useful in this commissioning stage for assisting us with beam steering, measurement of phase advance, etc. One of the biggest challenges of multi-turn operation of UMER is correctly operating the Y-shaped injection section, hence called the Y-section, which is specially designed for UMER multi-turn operation. It is a challenge because the system requires several quadrupoles and dipoles in a very stringent space, resulting in mechanical, electrical, and beam control complexities. This paper presents a simulation study of the bea...

  17. Fabrication and installment of hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection system of the KSTAR project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Oh, Byung Hun; In, Sang Ryul; Yoon, Jae Sung

    2004-01-01

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection(NBI) system for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been working from the start of the project to answer diverse requests arising from various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Some examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. They are one of those integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are introduced in this presentation

  18. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  19. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas

  20. An Improved Beam Screen for the LHC Injection Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Ducimetière, L; Garrel, N; Kroyer, T

    2007-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker magnet systems must produce a kick of 1.3 T.m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. Each system is composed of two resonant charging power supplies (RCPSs) and four 5 WW transmission line kicker magnets with matched terminating resistors and pulse forming networks (PFNs). A beam screen is placed in the aperture of the magnets: the screen consists of a ceramic tube with conductors on the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the image current of the, high intensity, LHC beam and screen the ferrite against Wake fields. The conductors initially used gave adequately low beam coupling impedance however inter-conductor discharges occurred during pulsing of the magnet: an alternative design was discharge free at the nominal operating voltage but the impedance was too high for the ultimate LHC beam. This paper presents the results of a new development undertaken to meet the often conflicting requireme...

  1. Beam-beam dynamics during the injection process at the PEP-II B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1991-10-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory based on PEP (PEP-2). For symmetric colliders, the primary source of the beam-beam effect is the head-on collision at the interaction point (IP), and this effect can be mitigated by separating the beams during the injection process. For an asymmetric collider, which intrinsically consists of two separate rings, the bunches not only collide at the IP but experience a long-range beam-beam force on the way into and out of the IP region. These collisions are called ''parasitic crossings (PC).'' The parasitic crossings emerge as a potential source of far stronger beam-beam impact during the injection process for the following reason. In the proposed injection scheme of the APIARY-6.3d design, the bunches are injected horizontally into the two rings with large horizontal offset of 8σ Ox sptm where σ Ox sptm is the nominal horizontal storage ring beam size at the end of the septum magnet. Then, the injected beam starts to travel around the ring oscillating horizontally. For the sake of discussion, let us assume that the beam in the other ring has already been fully stored. When the injected beam arrives at the 1st PC, where the two nominal orbits are separated horizontally by about 7.6 times the nominal horizontal beam size of the low energy ring, it may pass through the other beam far more closely than at the nominal separation distance, or it may even strike the other beam head-on

  2. Transverse beam emittance optimization for the injection into BESSY II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Felix [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institut Beschleunigerphysik (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For top up injection into the storage ring BESSY II an average injection efficiency of at least 90% is required. In low alpha mode the injection efficiency does not meet the requirements. Future BESSY II features will include shorter bunches in the storage ring (VSR) and user transparent injection with a non linear kicker. These will raise the demands on the quality of the injected beam even further. This work investigates the development of transverse emittance over the acceleration cycle in the synchrotron and the possibility of transverse emittance exchange by a sequence of skew quadrupoles in the transfer line. Results of emittance measurements and emittance exchange simulations will be given.

  3. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  4. An intense polarized beam by a laser ionization injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro; Hiramatsu, Shigenori; Nakamura, Takeshi.

    1990-12-01

    Accumulation of protons and polarized protons by photo-ionization injection are described. This method consists of (1)producing the neutral hydrogen beam by Lorentz stripping, (2)excitation of the neutral hydrogen beam with a laser, and (3)ionization of the hydrogen beam in the 2P excited state with another laser. When the laser for the excitation is circularly polarized, we can get a polarized proton beam. An ionization efficiency of 98% and a polarization of 80% can be expected by an intense laser beam from a FEL(Free Electron Laser). (author)

  5. The LEP injection monitors: Design and first results with beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, G.; Colchester, R.; Fischer, C.; Halvarsson, B.; Hemery, J.Y.; Jung, R.; Levitt, S.; Vouillot, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The LEP injection monitors comprise of split foil monitors, luminescent screens and beam stoppers. The monitors are described with particular emphasis on their special features. These include: their low loss factors, their protection against synchrotron radiation and the screen read-out with a CCD chip. The results obtained during the positron injection tests in LEP in July 1988 are reported. 8 figs

  6. Neutral-particle-beam production and injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.; Pyle, R.

    1982-07-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first is a discussion of the interactions of neutral beams with confined plasmas, the second is concerned with the production and diagnosis of the neutral beams. In general we are dealing with atoms, molecules, and ions of the isotopes of hydrogen, but some heavier elements (for example, oxygen) will be mentioned. The emphasis will be on single-particle collisions; selected atomic processes on surfaces will be included

  7. LHC Injection Beam Quality During LHC Run I

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079186; Kain, Verena; Stapnes, Steinar

    The LHC at CERN was designed to accelerate proton beams from 450 GeV to 7 TeV and collide them in four large experiments. The 450 GeV beam is extracted from the last pre-accelerator, the SPS, and injected into the LHC via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. The injection process is critical in terms of preservation of beam quality and machine protection. During LHC Run I (2009-2013) the LHC was filled with twelve high intensity injections per ring, in batches of up to 144 bunches of 1.7*10^11 protons per bunch. The stored beam energy of such a batch is already an order of magnitude above the damage level of accelerator equipment. Strict quality and machine protection requirements at injection have a significant impact on operational efficiency. During the first years of LHC operation, the injection phase was identified as one of the limiting factors for fast LHC turnaround time. The LHC Injection Quality Check (IQC) software framework was developed as a part of this thesis to monitor the beam quality...

  8. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-10-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  9. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  10. Bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Li Xinxia; Yu Jun

    2012-01-01

    The bootstrap current of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection (NBI) is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. The bootstrap current density distribution and the total bootstrap current are reported. In addition, the beam bootstrap current always accompanies the electron return current due to the parallel momentum transfer from fast ions. With the electron return current taken into consideration, the net current density obviously decreases; at the same time, the peak of the current moves towards the central plasma. Numerical results show that the value of the net current depends sensitively not only on the angle of the NBI but also on the ratio of the velocity of fast ions to the critical velocity: the value of the net current is small for neutral beam parallel injection, but increases severalfold for perpendicular injection, and increases with increasing beam energy. (paper)

  11. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  12. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

    1988-06-01

    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  13. Neutral beam data systems at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for neutral injection beam lines has been designed, implemented, and used with much success. Despite the problems with very high power levels this system is very successful in relieving the operators burdens of slow conditioning, data recording, and mode switching. The use of computer control with multiple beam lines now appears very promising

  14. Steel septum magnets for the LHC beam injection and extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Bidon, S; Guinand, M; Gyr, Marcel; Sassowsky, M; Weisse, E; Weterings, W; Abramov, A; Ivanenko, A I; Kolatcheva, E; Lapyguina, O; Ludmirsky, E; Mishina, N; Podlesny, P; Riabov, A; Tyurin, N

    2002-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be a superconducting accelerator and collider to be installed in the existing underground LEP ring tunnel at CERN. It will provide proton-proton collisions with a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV. The proton beams coming from the SPS will be injected into the LHC at 450 GeV by vertically deflecting kicker magnets and horizontally deflecting steel septum magnets (MSI). The proton beams will be dumped from the LHC with the help of two extraction systems comprising horizontally deflecting kicker magnets and vertically deflecting steel septum magnets (MSD). The MSI and MSD septa are laminated iron-dominated magnets using an all welded construction. The yokes are constructed from two different half cores, called coil core and septum core. The septum cores comprise circular holes for the circulating beams. This avoids the need for careful alignment of the usually wedge-shaped septum blades used in classical Lambertson magnets. The MSI and MSD septum magnets were designed and buil...

  15. Gas injection in EBT-S for assessment of particle loading effects of neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, K.H.; Glowienka, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments have begun to examine the physics of neutral beam injection on EBT-S. Preliminary experiments have been limited to a calibrated gas puffing experiment which simulates the effects of a pulsed beam with zero energy. These experiments begin to address some of the compatibility problems that exist for future beam heating experiments on EBT devices. In particular, neutral beams are to be a significant part of the planned EBT-II experiment which is designed to demonstrate steady-state, reactor-like conditions with both electron cyclotron heating and neutral beam heating

  16. Antiproton source beam position system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, T.; Holmes, S.; McCarthy, J.; Webber, R.

    1984-05-01

    The TeV I Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system is designed to provide a useful diagnostic tool during the commissioning and operational phases of the antiproton source. Simply stated the design goal is to provide single turn position information for intensities of > 1x10 9 particles, and multi-turn (clocked orbit) information for beam intensities of > 1x10 7 particles, both with sub-millimeter resolution. It is anticipated that the system will be used during commissioning for establishing the first turn through the Debuncher and Accumulator, for aligning injection orbits, for providing information necessary to correct closed orbits, and for measuring various machine parameters (e.g. tunes, dispersion, aperture, chromaticity). During normal antiproton operation the system will be used to monitor the beam position throughout the accumulation process

  17. The PEP II injection kicker system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, G.C.; Donaldson, A.R.; Williams, D.

    1997-07-01

    PEP II or the B Factory consists of two asymmetric storage rings. The injection energy for electrons is 9 GeV, while that for positrons is 3.1 GeV. The bend angle into the high energy ring (HER) is 0.35 m-rad, and the angle into the low energy ring (LER) is 0.575 m-rad. The magnetic length for the HER kicker is 0.85 m, and 0.55 m for the LER kicker. The field produced by the magnet is therefore 123.5 G for the HER, and 132 G for the LER. Each ring has a kicker magnet upstream of the injection line which is used to distort the orbit of the stored beam. An identical magnet downstream of the injection line is used to restore the orbit of the stored beam and inject the incoming beam. The two magnets are driven in parallel by the modulator. The apeture of the magnets is 3.86x3.46 cm (HxV). Therefore the current required to drive the HER is 863 A, while for the LER it is 756 A. The inductance of the magnet is approximately 1.4 uH/m. The current pulse is a critically damped sinusoid with a rise time of less than 300 ns. A kicker system has been designed which can be used for injection of both beams by varying the charge of voltage. The modulator uses a conjugate circuit to match the impedance of the magnet, and coupling to the beam chamber

  18. Evidence for neutral beam injected oxygen impurities in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, R.P.; Moos, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    A series of experiments indicates that the principal source of impurities in the 2XIIB mirror confinement plasma experiment at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is oxygen in the neutral beams. The dependence of 0 II 539 A emissions on neutral beam current, spatial scans of oxygen emissions, impurity injection experiments, spectral scans of the 0 VI 1032 A line, and other experiments all support this conclusion

  19. Operational considerations for the PSB H- Injection System

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Fowler, T; Goddard, B

    2010-01-01

    For the LINAC4 project the PS Booster (PSB) injection system will be upgraded. The 160 MeV Hbeam will be distributed to the 4 superimposed PSB synchrotron rings and horizontally injected by means of an H- charge-exchange system. Operational considerations for the injection system are presented, including expected beam losses from unwanted field stripping of H- and excited H0 and foil scattering, possible injection failure cases and expected stripping foil lifetimes. Loading assumptions for the internal beam dumps are discussed together with estimates of doses on various components.

  20. Five second helium neutral beam injection using argon-frost cryopumping techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.; Kim, J.; Laughon, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    High power helium neutral beams for the heating of tokamak discharges can now be provided for 5 s by using argon cryopumping (of the helium gas) in the beamlines. The DIII-D neutral beam system has routinely provided up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak. Operation of neutral beams with helium has historically presented a problem in that pulse lengths have been limited to 500 ms due to reliance solely on volume pumping of the helium gas. Helium is not condensed on the cryopanels. A system has now been installed to deposit a layer of argon frost on the DIII-D neutral beam cryopanels, between tokamak injection pulses. The layer serves to trap helium on the cryopanels providing sufficient pumping speed for 5 s helium beam extraction. The argon frosting hardware is now present on two of four DIII-D neutral beamlines, allowing injection of up to 6 MW of helium neutral beams per discharge, with pulse lengths of up to 5 s. The argon frosting system is described, along with experimental results demonstrating its effectiveness as a method of economically extending the capabilities of cryogenic pumping panels to allow multi-second helium neutral beam injection

  1. Injection locking method for Raman beams in atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Fei; Deng, Jianing; Zeng, Daji; Li, Tong; Sun, Mingli; Zhang, Xian; Huang, Kaikai; Lu, Xuanhui

    2018-03-01

    We present a novel method to generate two phase-locked beams with a frequency offset of 6.834 GHz. The output of the master laser is firstly modulated by an electric optical modulator (EOM), and then further injected into an Extended Cavity Diode Lasers (ECDL) which is used to filter out the unwanted mode and amplify the laser power. By locking to the first-order lower sideband of the modulated master laser, the average variance of the phase fluctuations is 5.6 x 10-3 rad2 , which implies phase coherence of 99.44% between the master laser and the slave ECDL. The line width of the beat notes is less than 1Hz. For the long term stability, with the delicate design of the electronic controller in ECDL, the phase coherence of the two laser beams can be stabilized over 200 hours without any adjustment. The Raman system is applicable for gravity detection with a preliminary sensitivity Δg/g of 4.5 x 10-7 for interrogation time of 1500 s.

  2. Effects of parasitic beam-beam interaction during the injection process at the PEP-II B Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Y.H.

    1992-06-01

    This paper is concerned with beam-beam effects during the injection process at the proposed asymmetric SLAC/LBL/LLNL B-Factory, PEP-II. It is shown that the parasitic beam-beam interaction can lead to a significant blowup in the vertical size of the injected beam. Simulation results for the horizontal and the vertical injection schemes are presented, and their performances are studied

  3. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  4. Neutral-beam-injected tokamak fusion reactors: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1976-08-01

    The theories of energetic-ion velocity distributions, stability, injection, and orbits were summarized. The many-faceted role of the energetic ions in plasma heating, fueling, and current maintenance, as well as in the direct enhancement of fusion power multiplication and power density, is discussed in detail for three reactor types. The relevant implications of recent experimental results on several beam-injected tokamaks are examined. The behavior of energetic ions is found to be in accordance with classical theory, large total ion energy densities are readily achieved, and plasma equilibrium and stability are maintained. The status of neutral-beam injectors and of conceptual design studies of beam-driven reactors are briefly reviewed. The principal plasma-engineering problems are those associated directly with achieving quasi-stationary operation

  5. The model of beam-plasma discharge in the rocket environment during an electron beam injection in the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, E.V.; Ruzhin, Yu.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    The model of beam-plasma discharge in the rocket environment during electron beam injection in the ionosphere is constructed. The discharge plasma density dependence on the neutral gas concentration and the beam parameters is found

  6. Mechanical design for modification of a neutral beam for off-axis injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, P.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)], E-mail: anderson@fusion.gat.com; Hong, R.-M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    DIII-D is planning to implement off-axis neutral beam current drive by neutral beam injection through a midplane port at angles up to 15 deg. from horizontal. To accommodate the beam-line tilting, the following modifications are planned: (1) move the beam line away from the tokamak by 0.39 m to allow for a 0.68 m inside diameter welded bellows of necessary length to provide 15 deg. of vertical motion between the vessel port and the beam line; (2) reduce the vertical height of the injected beam from 0.48 m to 0.43 m to provide clearance for the inclined beam as it passes through the length of the vessel port; (3) add a linkage system between the front of the beam line and the tokamak to restrain the NB against the vacuum loading from the bellows while maintaining zero roll about the axis of the beam line as it is moved about a virtual pivot axis; (4) add a forward and two rear vertical actuators for raising and lowering the beam line (These actuators require coordinated position control to rotate the NB about a virtual pivot axis.); (5) incorporate lateral restraint to comply with seismic requirements.

  7. Experimental investigation of molecular beam injection in HL-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Diao Guangyao; Wang Zhanhe; Deng Huichen; Luo Junlin; Duan Xuru; Cui Zhengying

    1993-07-01

    A new method of gas puffing is presented. The molecular beam, formed by high pressure deuterium gas through Larval nozzle and skimmer slit, is injected into the HL-1 vacuum vessel. The deuterium molecular current from the nozzle passing through the skimmer is about 3 x 10 20 /s. At the line average electron density of 5.2 x 10 19 m -3 , the beam velocity is about 100 m/s. As the plasma density and temperature increasing, the influxes of deuterium particles attenuate quickly. When the molecular beam injection (MBI) just returned to normal gas puffing, the D α emission rapidly decreases, meanwhile, the particles move toward plasma center, the electron density is continuously peaking. The line average electron density rising lasts 45 ms. The thermal energy of plasma and confinement time for particles and energy are also increasing. the MBI is a direct and efficient gas fuelling mode, and the injected particles can reach to inside about 8 cm of plasma and q ≅ 2 confinement region. Its efficiency of injection is about 50%. After the MBI, the particle recycling coefficient R on the wall is 0.6 which is 10% lower than that of normal gas puffing

  8. The kicker magnet system for TRISTAN Accumulation Ring injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Satoh, K.; Nakayama, H.

    1994-12-01

    The injection of electron beams to TRISTAN Accumulation Ring (AR) was started in November 1983 and the positron injection started in November 1985. For the injection of electron and positron beams to AR, the unique kicker system was developed. In the kicker power supply the charging to the main capacitor was done with the resonant charge system together with the auxiliary charging unit. The impedance matching circuit was added to the kicker magnet for getting the required current form with least reflecting oscillation. In this paper we report the performance of this kicker system. (author)

  9. An injection system for a linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.C.R.

    1978-03-01

    An injection system for the Linear Accelerator is developed using the parameters of machines at the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas and the Instituto Militar de Engenharia. The proposed system consists basically of a prebuncher and a chopper. The pre-buncher is used to improve the energy resolution and also to increase the accelerator target current. The chopper is used to remove from the beam the electrons that have no possibility of attaining the desired energy and that are usually lost in the walls and the cavity tube, thus producing undesirable background. Theoretical development of the chopper is performed in order to obtain its dimensions for future construction. The complete design the pre-buncher and its feed supply system and the experimental verication of its performance are also presented. It is intended to give the necessary information for the design and construction of the complete injection system proposed. (Author) [pt

  10. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  11. Layout considerations for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Carli, C; Chanel, M; Fowler, A; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    The layout of the PSB H- injection system is described, including the arguments for the geometry and the required equipment performance parameters. The longitudinal positions of the main elements are specified, together with the injected and circulating beam axes. The assumptions used in determining the geometry are listed.

  12. Development of the ion source for PDX neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Gardner, W.L.; Barber, G.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the ion source for neutral beam injection heating of PDX plasma. After a brief description of the plasma generator, the performance characteristics of the source, with different types of grids, are described. Based on test stand results it is concluded that at least two different versions of the source should be able to meet and even exceed the neutral power and energy requirements expected out of PDX injectors

  13. Rocket potential measurements during electron beam injection into the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Shutte, N.M.

    1981-01-01

    Electron flux measurements were made during pulsed injection of electron beams at a current of about 0.5 A and energy of 15 or 27 keV, using a retarding potential analyzer which was mounted on the lateral surface of the Eridan rocket during the ARAKS experiment of January 26, 1975. The general character of the retardation curves was found to be the same regardless of the electron injection energy, and regardless of the fact whether the plasma generator, injecting quasineutral cesium plasma with an ion current of about 10 A, was switched on. A sharp current increase in the interval between 10 to the -7th and 10 to the -6th A was observed with a decrease of the retarding potential. The rocket potential did not exceed approximately 150 V at about 130 to 190 km, and decreased to 20 V near 100 km. This was explained by the formation of a highly conducting region near the rocket, which was formed via intense plasma waves generated by the beam. Measurements of electron fluxes with energies of 1 to 3 keV agree well with estimates based on the beam plasma discharge theory

  14. Injection of a relativistic electron beam into neutral hydrogen gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Haan, P.H.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.; Hopman, H.J.; Granneman, E.H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The injection of a relativistic electron beam (0.8 MeV, 6 kA, 150 nsec) into hydrogen gas of 190 Pa pressure results in a plasma with density n/sub e/approx. =10 20 m -3 and temperature kT/sub e/< or approx. =kT/sub i/approx. =3.5 eV. The results of the measurements show good agreement with computations based on a model combining gas ionization and turbulent plasma heating. It is found that a quasistationary state exists in which the energy lost by the beam (about 6% of the total kinetic energy of the beam) is partly used to further ionize and dissociate the gas and for the other part is lost as line radiation

  15. Electron beam injection during active experiments. 1. Electromagnetic wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Kellogg, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the active injection of an electron beam, a broad spectrum of waves is generated. In this paper examples of spectra from the recent Echo 7 experiment are presented. These results show that the characteristics of the emissions can change substantially with altitude. Two-dimensional (three velocity) relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the changes in the plasma conditions required to account for the observed spectral variations. It is shown that many of these variations can be accounted for by assuming that the ratio of the electron plasma frequency ω pe to cyclotron frequency Ω e is less than unity at the lower altitudes of about 200 km and near or above unity at apogee of about 300 km. In the former case, whistlers with a cutoff at ω pe , lower hybrid and plasma waves are driven by the parallel beam energy while electromagnetic fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode and electrostatic upper hybrid waves are driven by the perpendicular beam energy through the master instability. E x B drifts driven by perpendicular electric fields associated with the beam-plasma interaction can also be important in generating maser emission, particularly for field-aligned injection where there is no intrinsic perpendicular beam energy. The power in the electrostatic waves is a few percent of the beam energy and that in the electromagnetic waves a few tenths of a percent. In the latter case, where ω pe /Ω e increases above unity, emission in the fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode become suppressed

  16. Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) injection deflector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.j.; Higgins, E.F.; Koelle, A.R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a pulsed magnetic deflector system planned for the injection system of the PSR. Two sets of magnets, appropriately placed in the optical systems of both the ring and the injection transport line, provide control of the rate at which particles are injected into a given portion of transverse phase space and limit the interaction of stored beam with the injection stripping foil. High-current modulators that produce relatively complex waveforms are required for this purpose. Solid-state drivers using direct feedback to produce the necessary waveforms are discussed as replacements for the more conventional high-voltage tube technology

  17. Empirical Scaling Laws of Neutral Beam Injection Power in HL-2A Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jian-Yong; Wei Hui-Ling; Liu He; Yang Xian-Fu; Zou Gui-Qing; Yu Li-Ming; Li Qing; Luo Cui-Wen; Pan Yu-Dong; Jiang Shao-Feng; Lei Guang-Jiu; Li Bo; Rao Jun; Duan Xu-Ru

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method to obtain neutral beam injection (NBI) power scaling laws with operating parameters of the NBI system on HL-2A, including the beam divergence angle, the beam power transmission efficiency, the neutralization efficiency and so on. With the empirical scaling laws, the estimating power can be obtained in every shot of experiment on time, therefore the important parameters such as the energy confinement time can be obtained precisely. The simulation results by the tokamak simulation code (TSC) show that the evolution of the plasma parameters is in good agreement with the experimental results by using the NBI power from the empirical scaling law. (paper)

  18. Crystal Collimation with Lead Ion Beams at Injection Energy in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Roberto; Andreassen, Arvid; Butcher, Mark; Dionisio Barreto, Cristovao Andre; Masi, Alessandro; Mirarchi, Daniele; Montesano, Simone; Lamas Garcia, Inigo; Redaelli, Stefano; Scandale, Walter; Serrano Galvez, Pablo; Rijllart, Adriaan; Valentino, Gianluca; Galluccio, Francesca; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    During this MD, performed on December 2nd 2015, bent silicon crystals were tested with ion beams for a possible usage of crystal-assisted collimation. Tests were performed at injection energy, using both horizontal and vertical crystals. Ion channeling was observed for the first time with LHC beams at the record energy of 450 GeV and the channeled beams were probed with scans performed with secondary collimators. Measurements of cleaning efficiency of a crystal-based collimation system were also performed.

  19. Selective injection locking of a multi-mode semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Mysore Srinivas; Yang, Tao; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2014-07-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is obtained on a single-mode laser injected by a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that selective injection locking of a single-frequency may also be achieved on a multi-mode semiconductor laser injected by a multi-frequency seeding beam, if the slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. This selective injection locking condition depends critically on the frequency detuning between the free-running slave emission frequency and each injected frequency component. Stable selective injection locking to a set of three seeding components separated by 1.2 GHz is obtained. This system provides an amplification up to 37 dB of each component. This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each frequency line, a set of mutually coherent high-power radiation modes can be tuned in the GHz frequency domain.

  20. Electron beam processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Electron beam Processing Systems (EPS) are used as useful and powerful tools in many industrial application fields such as the production of cross-linked wire, rubber tire, heat shrinkable film and tubing, curing, degradation of polymers, sterilization and environmental application. In this paper, the feature and application fields, the selection of machine ratings and safety measures of EPS will be described. (author)

  1. ITER neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, P.L.; Di Pietro, E.; Bayetti, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neutral Beam (NB) system for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) has reached a high degree of integration with the tokamak and with the rest of the plant. Operational requirements and maintainability have been considered in the design. The paper considers the integration with the tokamak, discusses design improvements which appear necessary and finally notes R and D progress in key areas. (author)

  2. FAFNER - a fully 3-D neutral beam injection code using Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    A computer code is described which models the injection of fast neutral particles into 3-dimensional toroidal plasmas and follows the paths of the resulting fast ions until they are either lost to the system or fully thermalised. A comprehensive model for the neutral beam injection system is included. The code is written especially for the use on the CRAY-1 computer: in particular, the modular nature of the program should enable the most time consuming sections of the program to be vectorised for each particular experiment to be modelled. The effects of plasma contamination by possible injection of impurities, such as oxygen, with the beams are also included. The code may also be readily adapted to plasmas for which a 1 or 2-dimensional description is adequate. It has also been constructed with a view to ready coupling with a transport or equilibrium code. (orig.)

  3. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  4. Study of RF system of Hefei storage ring under injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Li Yongjun; Huang Guirong; Zhang Pengfei; Li Weimin; Liu Zuping; He Duohui

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the beam loading effect of RF system and the conditions of Robinson instability are analyzed in detail. By the study of the injection beam intensity limit dependent on detune angle and visible detune angle, it is found that the storage ring can be injected to more than 300 mA current intensity to attain the design target of phase II project in the lower energy injection situation of Hefei Storage Ring if a certain power is feed in the RF cavity and a certain tuning angle of the RF cavity is set

  5. Acceleration of laser-injected electron beams in an electron-beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knetsch, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    Plasma wakefields deliver accelerating fields that are approximately a 100 times higher than those in conventional radiofrequency or even superconducting radiofrequency cavities. This opens a transformative path towards novel, compact and potentially ubiquitous accelerators. These prospects, and the increasing demand for electron accelerator beamtime for various applications in natural, material and life sciences, motivate the research and development on novel plasma-based accelerator concepts. However, these electron beam sources need to be understood and controlled. The focus of this thesis is on electron beam-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) and the controlled injection and acceleration of secondary electron bunches in the accelerating wake fields by means of a short-pulse near-infrared laser. Two laser-triggered injection methods are explored. The first one is the Trojan Horse Injection, which relies on very good alignment and timing control between electron beam and laser pulse and then promises electron bunches with hitherto unprecedented quality as regards emittance and brightness. The physics of electron injection in the Trojan Horse case is explored with a focus on the final longitudinal bunch length. Then a theoretical and numerical study is presented that examines the physics of Trojan Horse injection when performed in an expanding wake generated by a smooth density down-ramp. The benefits are radically decreased drive-electron bunch requirements and a unique bunch-length control that enables longitudinal electron-bunch shaping. The second laser-triggered injection method is the Plasma Torch Injection, which is a versatile, all-optical laser-plasma-based method capable to realize tunable density downramp injection. At the SLAC National Laboratory, the first proof-of-principle was achieved both for Trojan Horse and Plasma Torch injection. Setup details and results are reported in the experimental part of the thesis along with the commissioning

  6. A Phase Space Monitoring of Injected Beam of J-PARC MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Toyama, Takeshi

    Beam power of J-PARC MR (30 GeV Proton Synchrotron Main Ring) has been improved since 2008 and now achieved over 200 kW for the user operation. A part of beam loss is localized at the beam injection phase so it is important to monitor the beam bunch behavior in the transverse direction. In this paper it is described the method how to measure the position and momentum for each injected beam bunch using Beam Position Monitors (BPMs). It is also mentioned some implementation of an operator's interface (OPI) to display the plots of injected and circulating beam bunches in phase space coordinate.

  7. Plasma heating by injection of neutral beams into TFR 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Experimental results from quasi-perpendicular high power (up to 1.2 MW) neutral beam injection in the TFR 600 tokamak are reported. The trapped fast ions show all the characteristics of a classical feature. This allows us to study the behaviour of a dense plasma (n approximately equal to 10 14 cm -3 ) whose electron and ion temperatures are significantly changed by fast neutrals injection (ΔTsub(e,i)>300 eV). No increase of the global energy confinement time has been observed, but at low q value a large increase of internal disruptions appears. This fact permits to partly enlighten the internal disruptions mechanism and to emphasize their importance. 1-D simulation calculations are also reported; changes in the electron and ion heat conduction, necessary to explain most of the experimental results observed during the internal disruptions will be discussed

  8. Imaging instrument for positron emitting heavy ion beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llacer, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Jackson, H.C.; Lin, J.C.; Zunzunegui, M.V.

    1978-10-01

    The design and performance of an instrument for the imaging of coincidence annihilation gamma rays emitted from the end point of the trajectories of radioactive high-energy heavy ions is described. The positron-emitting heavy ions are the result of nuclear fragmentation of accelerated heavy ions used in cancer therapy or diagnostic medicine. The instrument constructed is capable of locating the ion beam trajectory end point within 1 mm for an injected activity of 200 nanoCi in a measurement time of 1 sec in some favorable conditions. Limited imaging in three dimensions is also demonstrated

  9. Laboratory Measurements of Electrostatic Solitary Structures Generated by Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, Bertrand; Chen, Li-Jen; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Vincena, Stephen; Kintner, Paul; Pickett, Jolene; Chiang, Franklin; Judy, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic solitary structures are generated by injection of a suprathermal electron beam parallel to the magnetic field in a laboratory plasma. Electric microprobes with tips smaller than the Debye length (λ De ) enabled the measurement of positive potential pulses with half-widths 4 to 25λ De and velocities 1 to 3 times the background electron thermal speed. Nonlinear wave packets of similar velocities and scales are also observed, indicating that the two descend from the same mode which is consistent with the electrostatic whistler mode and result from an instability likely to be driven by field-aligned currents.

  10. The beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The first proton beams have been transported along the transfer beamline and the diagnostic components have thus been used and tested under real operating conditions. The various electronic systems have been linked to the control system and the equipment can now be operated from the control console. The performance of the diagnostic system for the transfer beamline is satisfactory. The beam diagnostic components for the high-energy beamlines up to the isotope production and neutron therapy vaults and the first experimental target rooms have been installed. The high-energy slits have been delivered. The scanner and harp electronics have been installed and linked to their respective components in the beamlines. The pneumatic acuator control electronics has been manufactured, installed and is operational; provision has been made for special control features of the equipment in the therapy beamline. The high-voltage bias supply for the Faraday cups has been implemented. The installation of the beam current measurement system is nearing completion although part of it is already operational. A coaxial relay multiplexer for the capacitive phase probe signals has been manufactured and installed. The diagnostic equipment for the beamlines to isotope production and neutron therapy is thus ready for operation. 4 figs

  11. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; Rome, J.A.; England, A.C.; Fowler, R.H.; Aceto, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as wel established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing o near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator (91 and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large-aspect-ratio, moderate-shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970's. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energeticion distributions derived from the fastion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J* surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations

  12. Injection of an electron beam into a plasma and spacecraft charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Kan, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Injection of a nonrelativistic electron beam into a fully ionized plasma from a spacecraft including the effect of charging has been studied using a one-dimensional particle simulation model. It is found that the spacecraft charging remains negligible and the beam can propagate into a plasma, if the beam density is much smaller than the ambient density. When the injection current is increased by increasing the beam density, significant spacecraft charging takes place and the reflection of beam electrons back to the spacecraft reduces the beam current significantly. On the other hand, if the injection current is increased by increasing the beam energy, spacecraft charging remains negligible and a beam current much larger than the thermal return current can be injected. It is shown that the electric field caused by the beam--plasma instability accelerates the ambient electrons toward the spacecraft thereby enhancing the return current

  13. Beam position monitor system for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, M.; Hinkson, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Beam position monitors (BPM) for synchrotron light storage rings usually consist of beam pickup electrodes, coaxial relays and a narrowband receiver. While accurate, these systems are slow and of limited use in the commissioning of an accelerator. A beam position monitor is described which is intended to be a principal diagnostic during debug and routine running of a storage ring. It is capable of measuring the position of a single bunch on the first or nth orbit to an accuracy of a few percent. Stored beam position is more accurately measured with averaging techniques. Beam position changes can be studied in a bandwidth from DC to a few MHz. The beam monitor electronics consist of a separate amplification, detection, and sampling channel for each beam pickup electrode. Fast switches in each channel permit selection of the nth turn for measurement (single bunch mode). A calibration pulse is injected into each channel after beam measurement to permit gain offsets to be measured and removed from the final data. While initially more costly than the usual beam position monitor system, this sytem will pay for itself in reduced storage ring debug and trouble shooting time. 5 refs., 5 figs

  14. The SSRL injector beam position monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavender, W.; Baird, S.; Brennan, S.; Borland, M.; Hettel, R.; Nuhn, H.D.; Ortiz, R.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; Wermelskirchen, C.; Yang, J.

    1991-01-01

    The beam position monitoring system of the SSRL injector forms a vital component of its operation. Several different types of instrumentation are used to measure the position or intensity of the electron beam in the injector. These include current toroids, fluorescent screens, Faraday cups, the 'Q' meter, a synchrotron light monitor, and electron beam position monitors. This paper focuses on the use of the electron beam position monitors to measure electron trajectories in the injector transport lines and the booster ring. The design of the beam position monitors is described in another paper to be presented at this conference. There are three different beam position monitor systems in the injector. One system consists of a set of five BPMs located on the injection transport line from the linac to the booster (known as the LTB line). There is a second system of six BPMs located on the ejection transport line (known as the BTS line). Finally, there is an array of 40 BPMs installed on the main booster ring itself. This article describes the software and processing electronics of the systems used to measure electron beam trajectories for the new SSRL injector for SPEAR

  15. Compartmentalized safety coolant injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    A safety coolant injection system for nuclear reactors wherein a core reflood tank is provided to afford more reliable reflooding of the reactor core in the event of a break in one of the reactor coolant supply loops. Each reactor coolant supply loop is arranged in a separate compartment in the containment structure to contain and control the flow of spilled coolant so as to permit its use during emergency core cooling procedures. A spillway allows spilled coolant in the compartment to pass into the emergency water storage tank from where it can be pumped back to the reactor vessel. (author)

  16. Confinement studies during neutral beam injection in PLT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.; Davis, S.; Eubank, H.

    1980-12-01

    Neutral beam injection experiments on PLT have provided definitive information on ion energy confinement in highly collisionless plasmas. We find that ion thermal conduction is consistent, within a factor of approx. 3, with neoclassical theory, and that anomalous thermal convection of ion energy is a factor of 2-3 less than would be calculated from the INTOR D/sub e/ with a convection loss term of the form 5/2nkTv/sub r/. From our experiments with a shunted TF coil we have found that a single shallow ripple well of 2.5% has a neglible effect on ion energy confinement, even at the lowest collisionality obtainable on PLT. Scrutiny of the analytic theories of ripple induced transport motivated by these experiments, suggests that more theoretical (and perhaps numerical) work is needed in this area

  17. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Kugel; H. Neilson; W. Reiersen; M. Zarnstorff

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M[Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  18. Neutral Beam Injection Requirements and Design Issues for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Neilson, H.; Reiersen, W.; Zarnstorff, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) will require 6 MW of 50 keV neutral beam injection (NBI) with initial pulse lengths of 500 msec and upgradeable to pulse lengths of 1.5 sec. This paper discusses the NCSX NBI requirements and design issues, and shows how these are provided by the candidate PBX-M [Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification] NBI system

  19. Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched laser beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Nagami, Masayuki; Sengoku, Seio; Kumagai, Katsuaki

    1978-08-01

    Metal impurity injection into DIVA plasmas with a Q-switched ruby laser beam is described. Metal materials used are aluminium and gold. The Q-switched laser beam is incident onto a thin metal film thickness about 0.2 μm coated on pyrex glass plate surface. The metal film is vaporized by the laser beam and injected into DIVA plasma. The laser-beam injection method has advantages of sharp profile of vaporized metal, easy control of vaporized metal quantity and injection rate control of metal vapor. (author)

  20. Design study of electrostatic inflector in compact cyclotron injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianjue; Fan Mingwu

    1996-01-01

    The beam dynamics behaviour in electrostatic inflector is investigated for a vertical type injection system to a compact cyclotron. The computer aided design and matching of the inflector are based on the simulation of computed beam orbit. Modeling and simulation are done on PC-486 to form a software package. The software package can be used to develop a new type cyclotron design combining with the software package CYCCAE developed by China Institute of Atomic Energy three years ago

  1. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s 2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s 2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive

  2. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  3. Beam Induced Ferrite Heating of the LHC Injection Kickers and Proposals for Improved Cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Calatroni, S; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Garlaschè, M; Gomes Namora, V; Mertens, V; Sobiech, Z; Taborelli, M; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    The two LHC injection kicker systems produce an integrated field strength of 1.3 T·m with a flattop duration variable up to 7860 ns, and rise and fall times of less than 900 ns and 3000 ns, respectively. A beam screen is placed in the aperture of each magnet, which consists of a ceramic tube with conductors in the inner wall. The conductors provide a path for the beam image current and screen the ferrite yoke against wakefields. Recent LHC operation, with high intensity beam stable for many hours, resulted in significant heating of both the ferrite yoke and beam impedance reduction ferrites. For one kicker magnet the ferrite yoke approached its Curie temperature. As a result of a long thermal time-constant the ferrite yoke can require several hours to cool sufficiently to allow re-injection of beam, thus limiting the running efficiency of the LHC. Thermal measurement data has been analysed, a thermal model developed and emissivity measurements carried out. Various measures to improve the ferrite cooling have...

  4. Focusing and bunching of ion beam in axial injection channel of IPHC cyclotron TR24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, T.; Ivanenko, I.; Kazarinov, N.; Osswald, F.; Traykov, E.

    2017-07-01

    The CYRCe cyclotron (CYclotron pour la ReCherche et l’Enseignement) is used at IPHC (Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien) for the production of radio-isotopes for diagnostics, medical treatments and fundamental research in radiobiology. The TR24 cyclotron produced and commercialized by ACSI (Canada) delivers a 16-25 MeV proton beam with intensity from few nA up to 500 μA. The solenoidal focusing instead of existing quadrupole one is proposed in this report. The changing of the focusing elements will give the better beam matching with the acceptance of the spiral inflector of the cyclotron. The parameters of the focusing solenoid are found. Additionally, the main parameters of the bunching system are evaluated in the presence of the beam space charge. This system consists of the buncher installed in the axial injection beam line of the cyclotron. The using of the grid-less multi harmonic buncher may increase the accelerated beam current and will give the opportunity to new proton beam applications.

  5. Stripping foils for the PSB H- injection system

    CERN Document Server

    Aiba, M; Goddard, B; Weterings, W

    2009-01-01

    Beam physics considerations for the stripping foil of the PSB H- injection system are described, including the arguments for the foil type, thickness, geometry and positioning. The foil performance considerations are described, including expected stripping efficiency, emittance growth, energy straggling, temperature and lifetime. The required movement ranges and tolerances are detailed, together with the assumptions used.

  6. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  7. TRANSIENT BEAM LOADING EFFECTS IN RF SYSTEMS IN JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Guo, Jiquan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Wang, Shaoheng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The pulsed electron bunch trains generated from the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) linac to inject into the proposed Jefferson Lab Electron Ion Collider (JLEIC) e-ring will produce transient beam loading effects in the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) systems that, if not mitigated, could cause unacceptably large beam energy deviation in the injection capture, or exceed the energy acceptance of CEBAF’s recirculating arcs. In the electron storage ring, the beam abort or ion clearing gaps or uneven bucket filling can cause large beam phase transients in the (S)RF cavity control systems and even beam loss due to Robinson instability. We have first analysed the beam stability criteria in steady state and estimated the transient effect in Feedforward and Feedback RF controls. Initial analytical models for these effects are shown for the design of the JLEIC e-ring from 3GeV to 12GeV.

  8. Electron beam injection and associated phenomena as observed in a large space simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beghin, C.; Arnal, Y.; Delahaye, J.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter describes an experiment whose main purpose was to perform a simulation under conditions where the ambient neutral and ionized gas, magnetic field strength and lay-out of the different packages were as close as possible to those anticipated for the First Spacelab Flight (FSLP) mission. Phenomena Induced by Charged Particle Beams (PICPAB) are planned to be investigated during the FSLP using a Euopean payload. The PICPAB experiment consists of two accelerators of electron and ion beams and associated diagnostic instruments including wave receivers, thermal plasma probes and return current particle energy-analyzers. The main results of the test with the electron beam are reported. Topics considered include the experimental configuration; a transverse dc electric field in the absence of background plasma; a transverse dc electric field in the background plasma; ambient plasma response; a high-frequency electric field; return current characteristics; and collector vs. plasma behavior. The complexity of the beam-plasma-collector-gun system is shown where nonlinear processes are generated in several consecutive steps. It is concluded that under the peculiar conditions described (with the beam propagation distance shorter than the first node focalization length and nearly zero pitch-angle injection, neutral gas pressure ranging from less to 10 -6 up to 10 -4 torr), the beam plasma discharge was never triggered

  9. Injection and propagation of a nonrelativistic electron beam and spacecraft charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Berchem, J.

    1987-05-01

    Two-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out in order to study the injection and propagation of a nonrelativistic electron beam from a spacecraft into a fully ionized plasma in a magnetic field. Contrary to the earlier results in one-dimension, a high density electron beam whose density is comparable to the ambient density can propagate into a plasma. A strong radial electric field resulting from the net charges in the beam causes the beam electrons to spread radially reducing the beam density. When the injection current exceeds the return current, significant charging of the spacecraft is observed along with the reflection of the injected electrons back to the spacecraft. Recent data on the electron beam injection from the Spacelab 1 (SEPAC) are discussed

  10. The beam diagnosis system for ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.

    1991-10-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements. (orig.) [de

  11. A beam diagnostic system for ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillo, M.; Althoff, K.H.; Drachenfels, W.; Goetz, T.; Husmann, D.; Neckenig, M.; Picard, M.; Schittko, F.J.; Schauerte, W.; Wenzel, J.

    1991-01-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn ELectron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate (max.: 10 MHz) and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements

  12. Design of neutral beam injection power supplies for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Ono, Youichi; Tanaka, Masanobu

    2000-03-01

    Design study on a power supply system for the ITER neutral beam injector(NBI) has been performed. Circuits of converter/inverter system and other components of the acceleration power supply whose capacity is 1 MV, 45 A have been designed in detail. Performance of the negative ion production power supplies such as an arc and an extraction power supplies was investigated using the EMTDC code. It was confirmed that ripples of 0.34%p-p for the extraction power supply and 1.7%p-p for the arc power supply are small enough. It was also confirmed that an energy input to a negative ion generator from the arc power supply at an arcing can be suppressed smaller than 8 J. The extraction power supply was designed to suppress the energy input lower than 13 J at the breakdown in the extractor. These performances satisfy the required specification of the power supply system. (author)

  13. Laser fusion: an assessment of pellet injection, tracking and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsler, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    A conceptual design is presented for a target injection and final optical system which can be integrated with a lithium waterfall laser fusion reactor and operate repetitively within the presented tolerances. A high f-number focusing system using coated metal optics at 30 to 60 meters distance is suggested. An intermediate section of the differentially pumped beam tube contains flowing xenon which effectively shields the optics from debris and x rays, allowing the mirrors to operate at least a year without optical degradation. Pellets are injected with a repeating gas gun positioned horizontally just above the laser beam. No pellet trajectory correction is desired or required. Simple tracking of the target using a low power laser illuminator, a position sensing photodetector, and a trajectory prediction scheme are assumed. Two-degree of freedom x-y beam steering is preferred, without focus capability. Both the tracker and the adaptive mirror are placed in the laser building, well away from the fixed final optical mirror which faces the microexplosion

  14. Beam developments for the Harwell microprobe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, P.M.; Cookson, J.A.; Alton, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    A consequence of the rapid development of micron and submicron size electronic devices is the diminished applicability of high energy ion microprobes with their present resolution limitations to the study of such components. Although submicron beams have been reported the available beam current is barely sufficiently for PIXE and is not adequate for RBS. This lack of lateral resolution is due to low beam brightness at the microprobe object and aberrations in the focusing elements. As part of a program to address these problems the Harwell microprobe lens has been relocated on a new 5 MV Laddertron accelerator. The increased brightness and improved stability of this facility has so far led to a reduction in beam size from 3 x 3 μm 2 to about 2 x 2 μm 2 . The feasibility of using a liquid metal ion source has been examined with a view to achieving more substantial increases in brightness. While such sources have brightness approximately 10 5 times greater than conventional gaseous sources the highly divergent nature of the beam presents problems for the beam transport system. The use of a liquid metal source on the accelerator has been successfully demonstrated but it indicates the need for a special low aberration injection lens if brightness is to be maintained

  15. Beam Scraping in the SPS for LHC Injection Efficiency and Robustness Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Letnes, Paul/LPA; Myrheim, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will be the world's most powerful accelerator when it is commissioned in fall 2008. Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams. Fast transverse beam scrapers have been installed in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) injector to detect and, if necessary, remove transverse beam tails. This will help to both diagnose and prevent beam quenches in the LHC. Scraping of a high intensity beam at top energy can potentially damage the scraper jaws. This has been studied with Monte Carlo simulations to find energy deposition and limits for hardware damage. Loss maps from scraping have been generated both with machine studies and tracking simulations. Time dependent Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) measurements have shown several interesting details about the beam. An analytical model of time dependent losses is compared with beam measurements and demonstrates that beam scraping can be used to estimate the beam size. Energy deposition simulations also give the ...

  16. SPS Injection and Beam Quality for LHC Heavy Ions With 150 ns Kicker Rise Time

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, Brennan; Ducimetière, Laurent; Kotzian, Gerd; Uythoven, Jan; Velotti, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    As part of the LHC Injectors Upgrade project for LHC heavy ions, the SPS injection kicker system rise time needs reduction below its present 225 ns. One technically challenging option under consideration is the addition of fast Pulse Forming Lines in parallel to the existing Pulse Forming Networks for the 12 kicker magnets MKP-S, targeting a system field rise time of 100 ns. An alternative option is to optimise the system to approach the existing individual magnet field rise time (2-98%) of 150 ns. This would still significantly increase the number of colliding bunches in LHC while minimising the cost and effort of the system upgrade. The observed characteristics of the present system are described, compared to the expected system rise time, together with results of simulations and measurements with 175 and 150 ns injection batch spacing. The expected beam quality at injection into LHC is quantified, with the emittance growth and simulated tail population taking into account expected jitter and synchronisatio...

  17. Heat flux to the limiter during disruptions and neutral beam injection in Doublet-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; DeGrassie, J.; Taylor, T.S.; Hopkins, G.; Meyer, C.; Petrie, T.W.; Kahn, C.L.; Ejima, S.

    1984-01-01

    The heat flux to the Doublet-III primary limiter has been monitored during plasma disruptions and during neutral beam injection. The surface temperature of the movable TiC-coated graphite limiter was measured with an Inframetrics thermal imaging system and a suitably filtered silicon photodiode spot detector. In addition, the floating electric potential of the limiter with respect to the vacuum vessel was measured. The heat pulse duration to the limiter was measured by the spot detector with a time response of x approx.= 10 μs and these times were correlated with the plasma parameters. In limiter discharges, 20% of the plasma kinetic stored energy goes to the limiter during disruptions. The power balance during disruptions is also discussed. During neutral beam injection, the limiter is not heated uniformly; the ion drift side receives much more thermal flux than the electron drift side. The fraction of beam power going to the limiter is as high as approx.= 35% in normal limiter discharges. (orig.)

  18. The Booster to AGS beam transfer fast kicker systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Bunicci, J.; Soukas, A.V.; Zhang, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS Booster has a very successful commissioning period in June 1991. The third phase of that commissioning was a beam extraction test. The Booster extraction fast kicker (F3) deflected a 1.2 GeV proton beam from the Booster circulating orbit into the extraction septum aperture, partially down the extraction line to a temporary beam stop. Now, the Booster is committed to the AGS operations program for both heavy ion and proton beams. Thus, the Booster extraction and the corresponding AGS injection systems must operate routinely up to a pulse repetition frequency of 7.5 Hertz, and up to a beam energy of 1.5 Gev. The injection fast kicker is located in the A5 section of the AGS ring and is used to deflect the proton or heavy ion beam into its final AGS closed orbit. A distinctive feature of the AGS injection fast kicker modulators is the tail-bitting function required for proton beam injection. This enables the system to produce a fast current fall time to go along with the high current pulse amplitude with a fast rise time. The AGS injection fast kicker system has three pulse modulators, and each modulator consists of two thyratrons. The main PFN thyratrons switch on the current, and the tail bitting thyratrons are used to force the magnet current to decrease rapidly. Two digital pulse delay generators are used to align the main thyratrons and the tail bitting thyratrons respectively. The system has been tested and installed. The final commissioning of the Booster to AGS beam transfer line and injection is currently being undertaken. In this article, the system design, realization techniques and performance data will be presented

  19. Atmospheric Signatures and Effects of Space-based Relativistic Electron Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R. A.; Sanchez, E. R.; Kero, A.; Turunen, E. S.; Marsh, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Future relativistic electron beam injection experiments have the potential to provide groundbreaking insights into the physics of wave-particle interactions and beam-neutral interactions, relevant to space physics and to fundamental plasma physics. However, these experiments are only useful if their signatures can be detected. In this work, we use a physics-based forward modeling framework to investigate the observable signatures of a relativistic beam interacting with the upper atmosphere. The modeling framework is based around the Electron Precipitation Monte Carlo (EPMC) model, used to simulate electron precipitation in the upper atmosphere. That model is coupled to physics-based models of i) optical emission production; ii) bremsstrahlung photon production and propagation; iii) D-region ion chemistry; and iv) VLF wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide. Using these modeling tools, we predict the optical, X-ray, chemical, radar, and VLF signatures of a realistic beam injection, based on recent space-based accelerator designs. In particular, we inject a beam pulse of 10 mA for a duration of 500 μs at an energy of 1 MeV, providing a total pulse energy of 5 J. We further investigate variations in these parameters, in particular the total energy and the electron energy. Our modeling shows that for this 5 J pulse injection at 1 MeV electron energy, the optical signal is easily detectable from the ground in common emission bands, but the X-ray signal is likely too weak to be seen from either balloons or LEO orbiting spacecraft. We further predict the optical signal-to-noise ratio that would be expected in different optical systems. Chemical signatures such as changes to NOx and HOx concentrations are too short-lived to be detectable; however our modeling provides a valuable estimate of the total chemical response. Electron density perturbations should be easily measurable from ground-based high-power radars and via VLF subionospheric remote sensing

  20. A new dual injection system for AMS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Lin; Zhou Weijian; Cheng Peng; Yu Huagui; Chen Maobai

    2007-01-01

    In order to measure long-lived radioisotopes such as 10 Be with high sensitivity using an HVEE model 4130 AMS system, as well as to guarantee 14 C measurements of high precision, a new dual injection system for the AMS system is proposed. The proposal is to add a Wien filter located between the ion source system and the recombinator of the HVEE model 4130. When a pulsing voltage is optionally applied to the Wien filter, a sequential injection mode is turned on. The isotopes would alternately pass on different trajectories through the recombinator. When the pulsing voltage and magnetic field are turned off, the Wien filter acts as a field-free drift space and the standard simultaneous injection mode is on. Beam optics calculation show that the new dual injection system will increase the number of radio-nuclides which can be analyzed, keep the high precision capability for radiocarbon dating and achieve high sensitivity for 10 Be and 26 Al measurements, together with simplifying the layout as compared to existing dual-injector and dual high-energy beam line systems

  1. Electron beam injection during active experiments. 2. Collisional effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-ineuced ionization for the neutral densities considered. This ionization enhances the return current into the spacecraft with the spacecraft potential being reduced well below the beam energy whent he collison period is shorter than the spacecraft charging time. Neutral densities of about 10 11 -10 12 cm -3 are required to produce this reduction in the spacecraft potential for typical ionospheric and beam parameters. At these densities, the beam is able to propagate away from the spacecraft with little distortion except in the case of thruster firings where the beam can be subject to large space-charge oscillations near the boundaries of the neutral cloud. The ionization of neutrals in the beam region also modifies the wave emissions and spatial profile of return currents into the spacecraft, both of which tend to become localized to the beam region in high neutral densities

  2. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma

  3. Treatment of H0 and H- beams spilled at the stripper foil at full energy charge-exchange injection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Isao

    1991-01-01

    The charge-exchange injection into a synchrotron to generate high-intensity pulsed proton beams for a spallation neutron source is reviewed while focusing on the treatment of H 0 and H - beams spilled at the stripper foil. After charge-exchange injection is briefly outlined, scattering by foil atoms and causes to spill H 0 and H - beams are described. These spilled beams can amount to several μA and should be carefully treated. It is then shown that a direct H - injection system needs to be considerably long and requires a very long straight section. Because of its simplicity, two-step H 0 injection has very wide applicability to various types of rings. However, it has a problem of emittance growth due to angular divergence in the stripper magnet and an ionoptical mismatch at the stripper foil. These problems are discussed, including a new proposal for a measure to remedy this problem. The laser photoionization injection is also briefly mentioned. (author)

  4. Design of kicker magnet and power supply unit for synchrotron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ju.

    1991-03-01

    To inject beams from the positron accumulator ring (PAR) into the synchrotron, a pulsed kicker magnet is used. The specifications of this kicker magnet and the power supply unit are listed and discussed in this report

  5. Analysis of particle species evolution in neutral beam injection lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Haselton, H.H.

    1978-07-01

    Analytic solutions to the rate equations describing the species evolution of a multispecies positive ion beam of hydrogen due to charge exchange and molecular dissociation are derived as a function of the background gas (H 2 ) line density in the neutralizing gas cell and in the drift tube. Using the solutions, calculations are presented for the relative abundance of each species as a function of the gas cell thickness, the reionization loss rates in the drift tube, and the neutral beam power as a function of the beam energy and the species composition of the original ion beam

  6. Nonlinear wave-beam kinetic equilibrium in decelerating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishin, V.K.; Shaposhnikova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    The equilibrium state of the wave-beam system arising during the interaction of a particle beam and excited electromagnetic wave has been investigated on the basis of the analysis of the exact polution of a non-linear self-consistent linear equation using the complete system of conservation laws. A waveguide with a dielectric filler, into which a monoenergetic particle beam magnetized in a transverse plane is continuously injected, is used as a model of an decelerating system. A dispersion equation describing the system state and expression for the evaluation of efficiency of the beam energy conversion to the field energy have been obtained. It is concluded that larae fields and high efficiency of energy conversion are achieved during the marked beam reconstruction. States with different values of current and beam velocity but similar amplitudes of a longitudinal field are possible in the system considered [ru

  7. Neutron time behavior for deuterium neutral beam injection into a hydrogen plasma in ORMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.; Howe, H.C.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Fowler, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Neutrons were produced by D-D interactions when a 28-keV deuterium beam was coinjected into a hydrogen plasma in the Oak Ridge Tokamak (ORMAK). Fokker-Planck calculations, which correctly predict the time behavior of the neutron rate after beam turnon, show that the majority of the neutrons are from injected particles interacting with previously injected deuterons that have scattered to pitch angles of approximately 60 to 90 0 while slowing down

  8. Optimization of parameters for the inline-injection system at Brookhaven Accelerator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.; Ko, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    We present some of our parameter optimization results utilizing code PARMLEA, for the ATF Inline-Injection System. The new solenoid-Gun-Solenoid -- Drift-Linac Scheme would improve the beam quality needed for FEL and other experiments at ATF as compared to the beam quality of the original design injection system. To optimize the gain in the beam quality we have considered various parameters including the accelerating field gradient on the photoathode, the Solenoid field strengths, separation between the gun and entrance to the linac as well as the (type size) initial charge distributions. The effect of the changes in the parameters on the beam emittance is also given

  9. Beam Cleaning and Collimation Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Redaelli, S

    2016-01-01

    Collimation systems in particle accelerators are designed to dispose of unavoidable losses safely and efficiently during beam operation. Different roles are required for different types of accelerator. The present state of the art in beam collimation is exemplified in high-intensity, high-energy superconducting hadron colliders, like the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where stored beam energies reach levels up to several orders of magnitude higher than the tiny energies required to quench cold magnets. Collimation systems are essential systems for the daily operation of these modern machines. In this document, the design of a multistage collimation system is reviewed, taking the LHC as an example case study. In this case, unprecedented cleaning performance has been achieved, together with a system complexity comparable to no other accelerator. Aspects related to collimator design and operational challenges of large collimation systems are also addressed.

  10. Versatile H+ beam chopper system at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunsford, J.S.; Lawrence, G.P.; Bentley, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The H + chopper system at LAMPF provides two modes (A and B) of beam chopping. Mode A provides single micropulses separated by 1 μs or more. Mode B provides a single pulse 50-ns to 10-μs long at the LAMPF repetition rate of 12 Hz. The mode of operation is selected with coaxial relays which can switch during the dead time between LAMPF macropulses. The chopper consists of 1-m-long push-pull helical-wound slow-wave deflecting structures having an axial pulse velocity of 0.04c, which matches the velocity of the proton beam. The helix ground-planes are biased by a pulser providing push-pull 500-V pulses to deflect the H + beam from the injection channel. In chopping mode A, the helical windings are driven by push-pull, 1000-V, 5-ns pulses delivered by a circuit utilizing avalanche transistors and planar triodes. In mode B, the helical windings are driven by push-pull, 1000-V, 50-ns to 10-μs long pulses, produced by a circuit utilizing beam-power tetrodes and fast SCRs. In both modes, these pulses cancel the ground-plane bias and permit beam pulses to be delivered to the linac

  11. Heating efficiency of high-power perpendicular neutral-beam injection in PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, M.

    1982-03-01

    The heating efficiency of high power (up to 7.2 MW) near-perpendicular neutral beam injection in the PDX tokamak is comparable to that of tangential injection in PLT. Collisionless plasmas with central ion temperatures up to 6.5 keV and central electron temperatures greater than 2.5 keV have been obtained. The plasma pressure, including the contribution from the beam particles, increases with increasing beam power and does not appear to saturate, although the parametric dependence of the energy confinement time is different from that observed in ohmic discharges

  12. Electric potential structures and propagation of electron beams injected from a spacecraft into a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of electron beams injected from a spacecraft into an ambient plasma and the associated potential structures are investigated by one-dimensional Vlasov simulations. For moderate beams, for which the time average spacecraft potential (Φ sa ) lies in the range T e much-lt eΦ sa approx-lt W B , where T e is the electron temperature in energy units and W B is the average beam energy, a double layer forms near the beam head which propagates into the ambient plasma much more slowly than the initial beam velocity. The double layer formation is being reported for the first time. For weak beams, for which |eΦ sa | approx-lt T e , the beam propagates with the initial beam velocity, and no double layer formation occurs. On the other hand, for strong beams for which eΦ sa > W B , the bulk of the beam is returned to the spacecraft, and the main feature of the potential structure is a sheath formation with an intense electric field limited to distances d near the spacecraft surface. These features of the potential structures are compared with those seen in laboratory and space experiments on electron beam injections

  13. High intensity beam dump for the Tevatron beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kidd, J.; Mokhov, N.; Murphy, T.; Palmer, M.; Toohig, T.; Turkot, F.; VanGinneken, A.

    1981-01-01

    The beam abort system proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Accelerator will extract the proton beam from the ring in a single turn (approximately 20/mu/s) and direct it to an external beam dump. It is the function of the beam dump to absorb the unwanted beam and limit the escaping radiation to levels that are acceptable to the surrounding populace and apparatus. A beam dump that is expected to meet these requirements has been designed and constructed. Detailed design of the dump, including considerations leading to the choice of materials, are given. 6 refs

  14. Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, M.; Abata, D. L.

    1998-01-01

    A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates......A study of the behaviour of DME in diesel injection systems. A discussion of the effects of compressibility of DME on compression work and wave propagation.DME spray shapes and penetration rates...

  15. Dual fuel injection piggyback controller system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muji, Siti Zarina Mohd.; Hassanal, Muhammad Amirul Hafeez; Lee, Chua King; Fawzi, Mas; Zulkifli, Fathul Hakim

    2017-09-01

    Dual-fuel injection is an effort to reduce the dependency on diesel and gasoline fuel. Generally, there are two approaches to implement the dual-fuel injection in car system. The first approach is changing the whole injector of the car engine, the consequence is excessive high cost. Alternatively, it also can be achieved by manipulating the system's control signal especially the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) signal. Hence, the study focuses to develop a dual injection timing controller system that likely adopted to control injection time and quantity of compressed natural gas (CNG) and diesel fuel. In this system, Raspberry Pi 3 reacts as main controller unit to receive ECU signal, analyze it and then manipulate its duty cycle to be fed into the Electronic Driver Unit (EDU). The manipulation has changed the duty cycle to two pulses instead of single pulse. A particular pulse mainly used to control injection of diesel fuel and another pulse controls injection of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The test indicated promising results that the system can be implemented in the car as piggyback system. This article, which was originally published online on 14 September 2017, contained an error in the acknowledgment section. The corrected acknowledgment appears in the Corrigendum attached to the pdf.

  16. The Injection System of SAGA Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Okajima, Toshihiro; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yoshida, Katuhide

    2005-01-01

    Saga light Source is a 1.4-GeV electron storage ring with a circumference of 75.6m. The injector is a 250-MeV linac producing 1 ms macro-pulse with a peak current of 12mA and repetition rate of 1Hz. The output beam from the linac is transported though a transport line, and injected into the ring though a septum magnet with a bending angle of 20-degree. The transport line consists of two bending magnets, two quadrupole doublelets, and a quadrupole singlet. The bump orbit is formed by four kicker magnets, two of which are installed at both sides of septum magnet, and other two are positioned apart by one magnet cell of the ring. They are excited by sinusoidal electric currents with a half width of 0.5 ms. The beam optics for the injection trajectory is computed and shown at control room, the parameters for which are provided directly from the power supply control server PC. The operator is able to see real-time result of the beam trajectory calculation. This tool is quite effective to optimize the magnets param...

  17. Optics Measurements and Matching of TT2-TT10 Line for Injection of the LHC Beam in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Guerrero, A; Jacquet, D

    2008-01-01

    A well matched injection in the SPS is very important for preserving the emittance of the LHC beam. The paper presents the algorithms used for the analysis and the results of the optics measurements done in the transfer line TT2-TT10 and in the SPS. The dispersion is computed by varying the beam momentum and recording the offsets at the BPMs, while the Twiss parameters and emittance measurements in TT2-TT10 are performed with beam profile monitors equipped with OTR screens. These results are completed by those obtained with a matching monitor installed in the SPS as a prototype for the LHC. This device makes use of an OTR screen and a fast acquisition system, to get the turn by turn beam profiles right at injection in the ring, from which the beam mismatch is computed and compared with the results obtained in the line. Finally, on the basis of such measurements, a betatron and dispersion matching of TT2-TT10 for injection in the SPS has been performed and successfully put in operation.

  18. Development of vacuum components for neutral beam injection applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenterly, S.W.

    1977-01-01

    Neutral beam injectors and divertors for fusion devices require very high-speed pumping capabilities to remove cold gas and impurities from the beam and plasma drift regions. Cryopumping is one of the most favorable methods due to its freedom from contamination and relatively low capital cost. The theory of cryosorption pumping is summarized and contrasted with the process of cryocondensation. A variable-temperature cryostat for basic studies on small test cryosorption panels is described. Using results of these studies, a large sorption panel with an inlet area of 2 m 2 is being designed and fabricated. The design characteristics of this pump are discussed

  19. The beam diagnosis system for ELSA. Das Strahldiagnosesystem fuer ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schillo, M.

    1991-10-01

    A beam diagnostic system, which is based on capacitive beam-position monitors combined with fast electronics, has been developed for the Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA. The position signal of each monitor is digitized at an adjustable sampling rate and the most recent 8192 position and intensity values are buffered. This allows a wide range of different beam diagnostic measurements. The main purpose is the closed-orbit correction, which can be carried out on various time scales. To optimize the duty factor of the extracted beam, the system can also be used as a fast relative intensity monitor resolving the intensity distribution of the bunches or of the injected beam. It is designed to support betatron tune and phase measurements with very high accuracy, offering the choice to select any of the beam position monitors. This enables the measuring of many optical parameters. Furthermore any pair of suitable monitors can be used for experimental particle tracking or phase space measurements. (orig.).

  20. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Satake, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Adv. Tech. Dev. Dept.; Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun 319-11 (Japan)

    1995-11-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s{sup -1} using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s{sup -1} using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.).

  1. Railgun pellet injection system for fusion experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    A railgun pellet injection system has been developed for fusion experimental devices. Using a low electric energy railgun system, hydrogen pellet acceleration tests have been conducted to investigate the application of the electromagnetic railgun system for high speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. In the system, the pellet is pre-accelerated before railgun acceleration. A laser beam is used to induce plasma armature. The ignited plasma armature is accelerated by an electromagnetic force that accelerates the pellet. Under the same operational conditions, the energy conversion coefficient for the dummy pellets was around 0.4%, while that for the hydrogen pellets was around 0.12%. The highest hydrogen pellet velocity was 1.4 km s -1 using a 1 m long railgun. Based on the findings, it is estimated that the hydrogen pellet has the potential to be accelerated to 5 km s -1 using a 3 m long railgun. (orig.)

  2. An automatic injection system for rapid radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmia, M.J.; Kreek, S.A.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Gregorich, K.E.; Lee, D.M.; Hoffman, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of the Automated Injection System (AIS), a pneumatically actuated device for automated collection of nuclear reaction products from a He/KCl gas jet transport system. The AIS is used with the Automated Chemical Chromatographic Element Separation System; together these two devices facilitate completely automated separation procedures with improved speed and reproducibility

  3. Bevalac beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avery, R.; Behrsing, G.; Morgado, R.; Rondeau, D.; Salsig, W.; Selph, F.; Staples, J.; Yourd, R.

    1975-03-01

    The Bevalac consists of, in part, a 200 meter long transfer line between the SuperHILAC and the Bevatron, which are at differing elevation. Unique features in the construction of the transfer line are described. The line, located largely outside, must cope with a natural environment. Part of the line passes through a hillside, requiring some unique support and alignment techniques. The dipoles are of the tape-wound variety and the steering magnets use printed circuit conductors. The vacuum system and an inexpensive and effective destructive monitoring system are described. (U.S.)

  4. Ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.

    1983-12-01

    Radial transport of ions during co- and counter-neutral beam heating in the PLT tokamak has been studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral beam heating, were measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction were observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10 3 cm/sec superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10 4 cm 2 /sec for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the center while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element

  5. Impurity ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral-beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.

    1984-01-01

    Radial transport of medium- and high-Z ions during co- and counter-neutral-beam heating in the PLT tokamak is studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral-beam heating, is measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction are observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10 3 cm.s -1 superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10 4 cm 2 .s -1 for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the centre while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element. (author)

  6. An IGBT Driven Slotted Beam Pipe Kicker for SPEAR III Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The SPEAR III injection kicker system is composed of three kicker magnets, K1, K2, and K3. These magnets, along with the power modulators to drive them constitute an injection system which will be used to deflect an incoming electron beam with an energy of 3.3 GeV by an angle of 2.5 mrad for K1 and K3, and 1 mrad for K2. The pulse shape of the magnetic field in the three magnets must be matched in order to preserve a closed orbit. The pulse duration is required to be less than 780 ns, with rise and fall times of less than 375 ns, and a pulse repetition frequency of 10 Hz. The aperture of all three magnets is 60 x 34 mm in an 8 inch vacuum vessel. The magnetic length is 1.2 m for K1 and K3, and 0.6 m for K2 [1]. The magnet design employs a slotted beam pipe which is shorted at one end. A solid state IGBT based, induction type of modulator drives the magnets. Modulators for K1 and K3 consist of eight 4.5 kV, 600 A IGBTs, and eight Finemet magnet cores with four 22.5 Ohm output cables to drive 2381 A into the magnets. The modulator for K2 uses four IGBTs and cores, and 8 output cables to produce a 2619 A pulse. Cables of length greater than one half the pulse width must be used in order to avoid reflections from the shorted magnet. The design charge voltage for the modulators is 20 kV for K1 and K3. This paper describes the magnet and modulator design, as and presents test data from a prototype system

  7. Fast electron beam charge injection and switching in dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitting, Hans-Joachim; Schreiber, Erik [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Touzin, Matthieu [Laboratoire de Structure et Proprietes de l' Etat Solide, UMR CNRS 8008, Universite de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-04-15

    Basic investigations of secondary electrons (SE) relaxation and attenuation are made by means of Monte Carlo simulations using ballistic electron scattering and interactions with optical and acoustic phonons as well as impact ionization of valence band electrons. Then the electron beam induced selfconsistent charge transport and secondary electron emission in insulators are described by means of an electron-hole flight-drift model (FDM). Ballistic secondary electrons and holes, their attenuation and drift, as well as their recombination, trapping, and field- and temperature-dependent Poole-Frenkel detrapping are included. Whereas the initial switching-on of the secondary electron emission proceeds over milli-seconds due to long-lasting selfconsistent charging, the switching-off process occurs much faster, even over femto-seconds. Thus a rapid electron beam switching becomes possible with formation of ultra-short electron beam pulses offering an application in stroboscopic electron microscopy and spectroscopy. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. TFTR neutral beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Murray, H.; Winje, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR NB System will be composed of four beam lines, each containing three ion sources presently being developed for TFTR by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) will provide the necessary power required to operate these Ion Sources in both an experimental or operational mode as well as test mode. This paper describes the technical as well as the administrative/management aspects involved in the development and building of this system. The NBPS will combine the aspects of HV pulse (120 kV) and long pulse width (0.5 sec) together to produce a high power system that is unique in the Electrical Engineering field

  9. Pulse radiolysis based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with double-pulse injection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Kozawa, Takahiro; Yoshida, Youichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2006-01-01

    A new pulse radiolysis system based on a femtosecond electron beam and a femtosecond laser light with oblique double-pulse injection was developed for studying ultrafast chemical kinetics and primary processes of radiation chemistry. The time resolution of 5.2 ps was obtained by measuring transient absorption kinetics of hydrated electrons in water. The optical density of hydrated electrons was measured as a function of the electron charge. The data indicate that the double-laser-pulse injection technique was a powerful tool for observing the transient absorptions with a good signal to noise ratio in pulse radiolysis

  10. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.

    2016-02-19

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  11. Beam position measurement system at the Fermilab main accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1975-01-01

    The beam position system of the Fermilab Main Ring contains one horizontal and one vertical Electrostatic Beam Pickup in each of the 96 cells of the machine. A pair of 75 ohm cables transmits the induced signal from the machine tunnel to the nearest service building. In each of the 24 service buildings, there is a solid-state multiplexer and a beam position detector which processes the A-B signal pairs to produce an intensity-normalized voltage proportional to beam displacement. This voltage is digitized, read into buffer of the Lockheed MAC A, and in turn transferred to the Xerox 530. Horizontal or vertical orbits can be obtained in 50 millisec. Orbits are obtained at injection and at a Main Ring Sample time, if requested, anywhere on the acceleration cycle. Injection orbits can be flattened automatically by a program that sets dipole trim magnets. (auth)

  12. Design of the Injection and extraction system and related machine protection for the Clic Damping Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Barnes, Mike; Borburgh, Jan; Goddard, Brennan; Papaphilippou, Yannis; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Linear machines such as CLIC have relatively low rates of collision between bunches compared to their circular counterparts. In order to achieve the required luminosity, a very small spot size is envisaged at the interaction point, thus a low emittance beam is needed. Damping rings are essential for producing the low emittances needed for the CLIC main beam. It is crucial that the beams are injected and extracted from the damping rings in a stable and repeatable fashion to minimise emittance blow-up and beam jitter at the interaction point; both of these effects will deteriorate the luminosity at the interaction point. In this paper, the parameters and constraints of the injection and extraction systems are considered and the design of these systems is optimised within this parameter space. Related machine protection is considered in order to prevent damage from potential failure modes of the injection and extraction systems.

  13. Proton beam therapy control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Michael A [Riverside, CA; Beloussov, Alexandre V [Bernardino, CA; Bakir, Julide [Alta Loma, CA; Armon, Deganit [Redlands, CA; Olsen, Howard B [Colton, CA; Salem, Dana [Riverside, CA

    2008-07-08

    A tiered communications architecture for managing network traffic in a distributed system. Communication between client or control computers and a plurality of hardware devices is administered by agent and monitor devices whose activities are coordinated to reduce the number of open channels or sockets. The communications architecture also improves the transparency and scalability of the distributed system by reducing network mapping dependence. The architecture is desirably implemented in a proton beam therapy system to provide flexible security policies which improve patent safety and facilitate system maintenance and development.

  14. Buildup of electrons with hot electron beam injection into a homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashko, V.A.; Krivoruchko, A.M.; Tarasov, I.K.

    1989-01-01

    The injection of the monoenergetic beam of electrons into the vacuum drift channel under the conditions when the beam current exceeds a certain threshold value involves a virtual cathode creation. The process of virtual cathode creation leads to an exchange of one-fluid movement of beam particles to three-fluid one corresponding to incident, reflected and passed through anticathode beam particles. For the monoenergetic beam case when the velocity spread Δv dr (v dr is the beam drift velocity), the beam instability was predicted in theory and was observed in experiment. Meanwhile, the injection in the drift space of the 'hot' beam having finite spread in velocities may be accompanied not only by the reflection of particles if their velocity v 1/2 (where φ is the electrostatic potential dip value, e and m are the electron charge and mass, respectively), but also the mutual Coulomb scattering of incident and reflected electrons. The scattering process leads in its turn to appearance of viscosity forces and to trapping of a part of beam electrons into the effective potential well formed by electrostatic potential dip and the viscous force potential. The interaction of travelling and trapped particles may occur even at the stage preceding the virtual electrode formation and it may influence the process of its appearance and also the current flow through the drift space. In this report there are described the experimental results on accumulation of electrons when electron beam propagates in vacuum and has a large spread in particle velocities Δv dr in the homogeneous longitudinal magnetic field when ω pe He where ω pe is the electron Langmuir frequency of beam electrons, ω He is the electron cyclotron frequency. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs

  15. An elegant impulser developed for flat beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.J.; Goerz, D.A.; Speer, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The following report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a high-voltage (HV) impulser built for the heavy ion fusion (HIF) project [1]. The purpose of this impulser is to provide an adjustable diode voltage source of sufficient quality and level to allow the optimization of beam transport and accelerator sections of HIF [2, 3]. An elegant, low-impedance, high-energy storage capacitor circuit has been selected for this application. Circuit parameters of the retrofit to the diode region [4] have been included to provide the controlled rise time. The critical part of this circuit that is common to all candidates is the impedance matching component. The following report provides a description of the implemented circuit, the basic circuit variables for wave shaping, screening techniques revealing the weakest circuit component, and the resulting output of the injector

  16. Power and particle balance during neutral beam injection in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, C.S.; Budny, R.V.; Hill, K.W.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Ramsey, A.T.

    1991-05-01

    Detailed boundary plasma measurements on TFTR have been made during a NBI power scan in the range P tot = 1MW--20MW in the L-mode regime. The behavior of the plasma density left-angle n e right-angle, radiated power P rad , carbon and deuterium fluxes Γ C , Γ D , and Ζ eff can be summarized as, left-angle n e right-angle ∝ P tot 1/2 , P rad , Γ C , Γ D ∝ P tot , and Ζ eff ∼ constant. It is shown that central fuelling by the neutral beams plays a minor role in the particle balance of the discharge. More important is the NBI role in the power balance. The TFTR data during NBI originate primarily at the graphite limiter

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE NSLS-II INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHAFTAN,T.; ROSE, T.; PINAYEV, I.; HEESE, R.; BENGTSSON, J.; SKARITKA, J.; MENG, W.; OZAKI, S.; MEIER, R.; STELMACH, C.; LITVINENKO, V.; PJEROV, S.; SHARMA, S.; GANETIS, G.; HSEUH, H.C.; JOHNSON, E.D.; TSOUPAS, N.; GUO, W.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; LUCCIO, A.U.; YU, L.H.; RAPARIA, D.; WANG, D.

    2007-06-25

    We present the conceptual design of the NSLS-II injection system [1,2]. The injection system consists of a low-energy linac, booster and transport lines. We review two different injection system configurations; a booster located in the storage ring tunnel and a booster housed in a separate building. We briefly discuss main parameters and layout of the injection system components.

  18. Immunological Risk of Injectable Drug Delivery Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiskoot, W.; van Schie, R.M.F.; Carstens, M.G.; Schellekens, H.

    2009-01-01

    Injectable drug delivery systems (DDS) such as particulate carriers and water-soluble polymers are being used and developed for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. However, a number of immunological risks with serious clinical implications are associated with administration of DDS. These

  19. Injection of 1 GeV H- beam into the JHF I-A ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Isao; Kitagawa, Kiyoshi; Someya, Hirohiko; Yano, Yoshiharu.

    1988-11-01

    Application of the H 0 injection method to the injection system of the JHF I-A ring was studied. It turned out that the H 0 injection method is adequate when some conditions are fulfilled. The ways to fulfill those conditions are described. (author)

  20. Synchronization of RF fields of Indus 2 RF cavities for proper injection and acceleration of beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Nitesh; Bagduwal, Pritam S.; Lad, M.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    Indus-2 is a synchrotron light source with designed parameters of 2.5 GeV, 300 mA beam current. Four RF cavities fed from four RF power stations have been used for beam acceleration from 550 MeV to 2.5 GeV and synchrotron loss compensation. Particle should reach the RF cavity at the proper phase for proper acceptance of the beam in ring. At injection if the phase is not proper the acceptance efficiency reduces and the maximum stored current in the ring also gets limited. Equal contribution from four cavities at every value of current and energy level is very important. Improper phase will cause the imbalance of the power among different station hence will limit maximum stored current and reduce life time of the stored beam. Phase optimization was done in two-step, first at injection to have better injection rate and the stations were operated at the sufficient power for control loops to operate. Then at 2 GeV and 2.5 GeV energy so that beam extracts equal power from all four RF stations. Phase synchronization of all four cavities from injection to 2.5 GeV has already been done at 50 mA stored beam current. If phases of RF fields inside four RF cavities is not proper then beam will not see the total RF voltage as summation of all four cavity gap voltages, hence it is a very important parameter to be optimized and maintained during operation. (author)

  1. Assessment of the plasma start-up in Wendelstein 7-X with neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradic, D.; Dinklage, A.; Brakel, R.; McNeely, P.; Rust, N.; Wolf, R.; Osakabe, M.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma start-up by neutral beam injection was investigated for stellarators. A zero-dimensional collisional model was extended to evaluate the temporal evolution of the plasma start-up in a confining toroidal magnetic field. Inclusion of different beam energy components indicated a substantial effect due to the energy dependence of beam–gas collisions. Additional collision processes and particle equations were considered to simulate the plasma start-up in helium–hydrogen mixtures. The isotope effect between operation with hydrogen and deuterium beams was also investigated. As a major objective the conditions necessary for a plasma start-up with neutral beams in W7-X have been examined. The assessed beam configuration in W7-X was found not to allow plasma start-up by neutral beam injection alone. The model has been validated for experimental data from W7-AS and Large Helical Device. Quantitative predictions of this study show that the ratio of the beam–plasma interaction length and the plasma volume is an essential quantity for the successful plasma start-up with neutral beams. (paper)

  2. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  3. H- beam neutralization measurements in a solenoidal beam transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, J.; Pitcher, E.; Stevens, R.; Allison, P.

    1992-01-01

    H minus beam space-charge neutralization is measured for 65-mA, 35-keV beams extracted from a circular-aperture Penning surface-plasma source, the small-angle source. The H minus beam is transported to a RFQ matchpoint by a two-solenoid magnet system. Beam noise is typically ±4%. A four-grid analyzer is located in a magnetic-field-free region between the two solenoid magnets. H minus potentials are deduced from kinetic energy measurements of particles (electrons and positive ions) ejected radially from the beam channel by using a griddled energy analyzer. Background neutral gas density is increased by the introduction of additional Xe and Ar gases, enabling the H minus beam to become overneutralized

  4. The injection system of the stretcher ring ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreist, A.

    1989-07-01

    For the stretcher ring ELSA in the framwork of this thesis an injection system has been concipated and constructed which should allow all projected operational modes of this stretcher ring, the stretcher, the post-acceleration, and the accumulation mode. The proof could be performed that the realized concept allows all these operational modes. Furthermore it could be shown that the injection shifted from the equilibrium orbit has no disadvantageous effects on a uniform extraction and by this on a high touching ratio. In fact it is even possible to apply the decay of the coherent betatron oscillations around the equilibrium orbit, caused by injection of the incident beam shifted from the equilibrium orbit, to diagnosis purposes: By reproduction of this damping process in a simulation model statements on nonlinearities present in the ring and by this statements on the actual phase-space structure are possible. It has so been shown that the concept presented in this thesis and realized for this thesis represents a suited injection system for the stretcher ring ELSA. (orig.) [de

  5. Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farengo, R.; Arista, N.R.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Clemente, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of neutral beams (NB) for current drive and heating in spheromaks, the relaxed states of flux core spheromaks (FCS) sustained by helicity injection and the effect of ion dynamics on rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive in spherical tokamaks (ST) are studied. (author)

  6. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism

  7. Direct energy conversion and neutral beam injection for catalyzed D and D-3He tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, A.S.; Moir, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The calculated performance of single stage and Venetian blind direct energy converters for Catalyzed D and D- 3 He Tokamak reactors are discussed. Preliminary results on He pumping are outlined. The efficiency of D and T neutral beam injection is reviewed

  8. The Impact of Beam Deposition on Bootstrap Current of Fast Ion Produced by Neutral Beam Tangential Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qian-Hong; Gong Xue-Yu; Lu Xing-Qiang; Yu Jun; Cao Jin-Jia

    2015-01-01

    The density profile of fast ions arising from a tangentially injected diffuse neutral beam in tokamak plasma is calculated. The effects of mean free paths and beam tangency radius on the density profile are discussed under typical HL-2A plasmas parameters. The results show that the profile of fast ions is strongly peaked at the center of the plasma when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than the minor radius, while the peak value decreases when the mean free path at the maximum deuteron density is larger than twice that of the minor radius due to the beam transmission loss. Moreover, the bootstrap current of fast ions for various mean free paths at the maximum deuteron density is calculated and its density is proved to be closely related to the deposition of the neutral beam. With the electron return current considered, the net current density obviously decreases. Meanwhile, the peak central fast ion density increases when the beam tangency radius approaches the major radius, and the net bootstrap current increases rapidly with the increasing beam tangency radius. (paper)

  9. Suppression of Alfven Modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade with Outboard Beam Injection [Suppression of Alfven Modes on the NSTX-U with Outboard Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Belova, E. V.; Battaglia, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfven eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfven modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvenic ions consisting of fusion generated alpha's and beam ions injected for current profile control. We present a qualitative interpretation of these observations using an analytic model of the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron resonance drive responsible for GAE instability which has an important dependence on k(perpendicular to rho L). A quantitative analysis of this data with the HYM stability code predicts both the frequencies and instability of the GAE prior to, and suppression of the GAE after the injection of high pitch-angle beam ions.

  10. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  11. Diamagnetic measurement of JFT-2 plasma heated by neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Sengoku, Seio; Yamamoto, Shin; Suzuki, Norio; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kawashima, Hisato; Miura, Yukitoshi

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beam was injected into the plasma in the JFT-2 tokamak, and the poloidal beta value βsub(p) of the plasma was determined by a diamagnetic method in which the change in the magnetic flux due to the plasma was obtained by measuring the very small perturbation of the current in the tokamak's toroidal field coil. The ratio of the perturbed to unperturbed currents in the coil was found to be (2-3) x 10 -4 . The poloidal beta value βsub(pd) determined by this method agrees within experimental error with that obtained from magnetic and energy profile analyses. βsub(pd) increases linearly with the total power Psub(net) deposited by the neutral beam in the plasma when Psub(net)=1.5 MW. The heating efficiency of the beam injection heating was found to be lower than that of Joule heating. (author)

  12. Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.; Swann, T.; Sweatt, W.; Saxman, A.

    1980-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam-line CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experiment shot. The alignment requirements, operational constraints, and a developed prototype system are discussed. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed that uses a telescope/TV system to view point light sources appropriately located down the beamline. Auto-alignment is accomplished by means of a video centroid tracker, which determines the off-axis error of the point sources. The error is nulled by computer-driven, movable mirrors in a closed-loop system. The light sources are fiber-optic terminations located at key points in the optics path, primarily at the center of large copper mirrors, and remotely illuminated to reduce heating effects

  13. Observation of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, N.; Tanaka, M.; Shinohara, S.; Kawai, Y.

    1995-01-01

    When an electron beam is injected into a plasma, unstable waves are excited spontaneously near the electron plasma frequency f pe by the electron beam plasma instability. The experiment on subharmonics in an electron beam plasma system was performed with a glow discharge tube. The bifurcation of unstable waves with the electron plasma frequency f pe and 1/2 f pe was observed using a double-plasma device. Furthermore, the period doubling route to chaos around the ion plasma frequency in an electron beam plasma system was reported. However, the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system has not been clarified so far. We have studied nonlinear behaviors of the electron beam plasma instability. It was found that there are some cases: the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 2 period are excited by the electron beam plasma instability, the fundamental unstable waves and subharmonics of 3 period are excited. In this paper, we measured the energy distribution functions of electrons and the dispersion relation of test waves in order to examine the physical mechanism of bifurcation phenomena in an electron beam plasma system

  14. A beam-synchronous gated peak-detector for the LHC beam observation system

    CERN Document Server

    Levens, T E; Wehrle, U

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of the bunch peak amplitude using the longitudinal wideband wall-current monitor are a vital tool used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam observation system. These peak-detected measurements can be used to diagnose bunch shape oscillations, for example coherent quadrupole oscillations, that occur at injection and during beam manipulations. Peak-detected Schottky diagnostics can also be used to obtain the synchrotron frequency distribution and other parameters from a bunched beam under stable conditions. For the LHC a beam-synchronous gated peak detector has been developed to allow individual bunches to be monitored without the influence of other bunches circulating in the machine. The requirement for the observation of both low intensity pilot bunches and high intensity bunches for physics requires a detector front-end with a high bandwidth and a large dynamic range while the usage for Schottky measurements requires low noise electronics. This paper will present the design of this detector s...

  15. Beam raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Beaufait, J.; Brindza, P.; Carlini, R.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1993-01-01

    A cascade raster system will be used in Hall C at CEBAF to generate a variable rastering pattern on the polarized target, the cryogenic hydrogen target, and the beam dump with adjustable frequency up to 10 kHz and variable deflection angle from 0.05 mr to 1 mr. Each raster consists of two air-core bedstead coils providing transverse and vertical scans. The magnets are energized by individual MOS power amplifiers controlled by a scan generator which determines frequency, amplitude, and phase shift between the cascade rasters

  16. Injection system of compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Takeshi; Yano, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Yasumitsu, Naoki

    1991-01-01

    A half-integer-resonance injection method is introduced for a superconducting SR-ring of 1 m orbit diameter, which is made of a weak focussing single-body magnet. The present method makes it possible to inject an electron beam of an energy of as high as 150 MeV into the ring of a magnetic field strength of 1 T. Several new injection devices are introduced in order to guide the beam under the strong magnetic fringing field, and to excite the half-integer-resonance. The field index of 0.73 is selected for the half-integer-resonance injection. The field index of 0.35 at the maximum magnetic field strength of 4.3 T is to get a sufficiently long quantum lifetime. A new device named resonance jumper is used to pass quickly several resonances of betatron motion without beam loss. The resonances occur when the magnetic field is ramped up and the field index decreases from 0.73 to 0.35. The injection devices except the inflector are air-core magnets in order to work in the strong magnetic field. In November of 1989, the beam was successfully injected and stored. The injection devices and the half-integer-resonance injection method were established. (author)

  17. Conjugate echoes of artifically injected electron beams detected optically by means of new image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallinan, T.J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.C.; Baldridge, J.; Winckler, J.; Malcolm, P.

    1990-01-01

    Following two upward injections of energetic electrons (38 keV and 26 keV) from the Echo 4 rocket-borne electron accelerator, artificial auroral streaks were detected by ground-based low-light-level television. They were delayed relative to the injections by 2.06 s and 2.42 s, respectively. The delays are only 4-5% longer than calculated using a dynamic model of the geomagnetic field. Other field models yielded shorter bounce times. Since the delays were in the inverse ratio of the relativistic velocities calculated for the nominal beam energies, it is concluded that the potential of the payload remained below 1 kV during 45 mA injections at an altitude of 210 km. The echo streaks showed little dispersion in either time or space, indicating that the portion of the beam returning to the northen hemisphere loss cone remained collimated and nearly monoenergetic. But there was a 70% loss in the return flux. A diligent search failed to locate similar echoes from the more powerful injections employed in the Echo 5 and Echo 7 rocket experiments, suggesting flux losses of at least 98% and 92%, respectively. The losses are thought to be due to pitch angle scattering out of the loss cone as the electrons traverse the equatorial region but could also be due to collective beam plasma interactions

  18. Ultra-low emittance electron beam generation using ionization injection in a plasma beatwave accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams can be generated using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield excited by a plasma beatwave accelerator. This all-optical method of electron beam generation uses three laser pulses of different colors. Two long-wavelength laser pulses, with frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency, resonantly drive a plasma wave without fully ionizing a gas. A short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the beating long-wavelength lasers, ionizes a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wakefield. Using the beating of long-wavelength pulses to generate the wakefield enables atomically-bound electrons to remain at low ionization potentials, reducing the required amplitude of the ionization pulse, and, hence, the initial transverse momentum and emittance of the injected electrons. An example is presented using two lines of a CO2 laser to form a plasma beatwave accelerator to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. High performance experiments on high pressure supersonic molecular beam injection in the HL-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Dong Jiafu; Zhou Yan; Feng Beibing; Cao Jianyong; Li Wei; Feng Zhen; Zhang Jiquan; Hong Wenyu; Cui Zhengying; Wang Enyao; Liu Yong

    2004-01-01

    Supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) was first proposed and demonstrated on the HL-1 tokamak and was successfully developed and used on HL-1M. Recently, new results of SMBI experiments were obtained by increasing the gas pressure from 0.5 to over 1.0 MPa. A stair-shaped density increment was obtained with high-pressure multi-pulse SMBI that was similar to the density evolution behaviour during multi-pellet injection. This demonstrated the effectiveness of SMBI as a promising fuelling tool for steady-state operation. The penetration depth and injection speed of the high-pressure SMBI were roughly measured from the contour plot of the Hα emission intensity. It was shown that injected particles could penetrate into the core region of the plasma. The penetration speed of high-pressure SMBI particles in the plasma was estimated to be about 1200 m s -1 . In addition, clusters within the beam may play an important role in the deeper injection. (author)

  20. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  1. FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R. H.; Lee, D. K.; Gaffney, P. W.; Rome, J. A.

    1978-06-01

    The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented.

  2. Plasma behavior with molecular beam injection in the HL-1m tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Lianghua; Tang Nianyi; Cui Zhengying; Xu Deming; Deng Zhongchao; Ding Xuantong; Luo Junlin; Dong Jiafu; Guo Gancheng; Yang Shikun; Cui Chenghe; Xiao Zhenggui; Liu Dequan; Chen Xiaoping; Yan Longwen; Yan Donghai; Wang Enyao; Deng Xiwen

    1999-01-01

    The authors report effect of the new fueling method of high speed molecular beam injection on Tokamak confinement improvement. The present method is an improvement of conventional gas puffing, with performance comparable to the small pellet injection in HL-1M and also to the slow pellet in ASDEX. The fact that a shallower fueling can lead to similar confinement improvement as a deep one suggests that there may exist a critical position in a Tokamak plasma such that any kind of fueling will have a better confinement as long as it can give rise to density peaking at the critical position

  3. FLOC: Field Line and Orbit Code for the study of ripple beam injection into tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, R.H.; Lee, D.K.; Gaffney, P.W.; Rome, J.A.

    1978-06-01

    The computer code described is used to study ripple beam injection into a tokamak plasma. The collisionless guiding center equations of motion are integrated to find the orbits of single particles in realistic magnetic fields for ripple injection. In order to determine if the ripple is detrimental to the plasma, the magnetic flux surfaces are constructed by integration of the field line equations. The numerical techniques are described, and use of the code is outlined. A program listing is provided, and the results of sample cases are presented

  4. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost.

  5. Spiral kicker for the beam abort system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    A brief study was carried out to determine the feasibility of a special kicker to produce a damped spiral beam at the beam dump for the beam abort system. There appears to be no problem with realizing this concept at a reasonably low cost

  6. Comparison between gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in plasma density feedback experiments in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xingwei; Li, Jiangang; Hu, Jiansheng; Li, Jiahong; Ding, Rui; Cao, Bin; Wu, Jinhua

    2013-01-01

    To achieve desirable plasma density control, a supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) feedback control system has been developed recently for the EAST tokamak. The performance of the SMBI and gas puffing (GP) feedback systems were used and compared. The performance of pulse width mode is better than that of pulse amplitude mode when GP was used for density feedback control. During one-day experiments, the variation of gas input and wall retention can be clarified into two stages. In the first stage the retention ratio is as high as 80–90%, and the gas input is about an order of 10 22 D 2 . However, in the second stage, the retention ratio is at a range of 50–70%. The gas input of a single discharge is small and the net wall retention grows slowly. The results of the SMBI feedback control experiment was analyzed. The shorter delay time of SMBI makes it faster at feeding back control the plasma density. The result showed that, compared with GP, the gas input of SMBI was decreased ∼30% and the wall retention was reduced ∼40%. This shows SMBI's advantage for the long pulse high density discharges in EAST. (paper)

  7. External injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, P.V.; Vasilchenko, I.N.; Veresov, O.L.; Gavrish, Yu.N.; Grigorenko, S.V.; Zuev, Yu.V.; Kozienko, M.T.; Mudrolyubov, V.G.; Strokach, A.P.; Tsygankov, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    The main parameters and design features of the external injection systems applied in modern cyclotrons designed and manufactured in NIIEFA and intended for production of radionuclides for medicine are presented. The use of these external injection systems instead of a traditional internal source allows the current of the accelerated beam to be significantly increased and the in-leakage of the working gas to the acceleration chamber to be reduced, which results in reduced beam losses in the process of acceleration and lower equipment activation.

  8. The super collider transverse feedback system for suppression of the emittance growth and beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    A super collider transverse feedback system designed to suppress injection errors, emittance growth due to external noises, and beam instabilities is considered. It is supposed that the feedback system should consist of two circuits: an injection damper operating just after injection and a super damper. To damp the emittance growth, the superdamper has to operate with the ultimate decrement close to the revolution frequency. The physics of such a feedback system and its main limitations are discussed. 9 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Integrated control system for electron beam processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koleva, L.; Koleva, E.; Batchkova, I.; Mladenov, G.

    2018-03-01

    The ISO/IEC 62264 standard is widely used for integration of the business systems of a manufacturer with the corresponding manufacturing control systems based on hierarchical equipment models, functional data and manufacturing operations activity models. In order to achieve the integration of control systems, formal object communication models must be developed, together with manufacturing operations activity models, which coordinate the integration between different levels of control. In this article, the development of integrated control system for electron beam welding process is presented as part of a fully integrated control system of an electron beam plant, including also other additional processes: surface modification, electron beam evaporation, selective melting and electron beam diagnostics.

  10. New lens system using toroidal magnetic field for intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Akihiro; Ikuta, Kazunari; Fujita, Junji.

    1976-11-01

    The use of toroidal magnetic field as a lens system is proposed for producing intense ion beam. The characteristics of the lens system are obtained both analytically and numerically. Some examples of ray-trajectories are presented for different focal lengths. The system is applicable to neutral beam injection heating and micro-pellet implosion for nuclear fusion, and to the other fields such as ion beam X-ray lasers. (auth.)

  11. Considerations involved in the design of negative-ion-based neutral beam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, W.S.

    1983-11-01

    We consider the requirements and constraints for negative-ion-based neutral beam injection systems, and show how these are reflected in design considerations. We will attempt to develop a set of guidelines for users and developers to use to see how well (in a qualitative sense, at least) a particular neutral beam system fits a particular proposed need

  12. Mode particle resonances during near-tangential neutral beam injection in large tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; White, R.B.; Morris, A.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent magnetohydrodynamic modes have been observed during neutral beam injection in TFTR and JET. Periodic bursts of oscillations were detected with several plasma diagnostics, and Fokker-Planck calculations show that the populations of trapped particles in both tokamaks are sufficient to account for fishbone destabilization. Estimates of mode parameters are in reasonable agreement with the experiments, and they indicate that the fishbone mode may continue to affect the performance of intensely heated tokamaks. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Density peaking in the JFT-2M tokamak plasma with counter neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Itoh, S.; Itoh, K.

    1991-05-01

    A significant particle pinch and reduction of the effective thermal diffusivity are observed after switching the neutral beam direction from co- to counter- injection in the JFT-2M tokamak. A time delay in the occurrence of density peaking to that of plasma rotation is found. This shows that the particle pinch is related to the profile of the electric field as determined by the plasma rotation profile. The measured particle flux shows qualitative agreement with the theoretically-predicted inward pinch. (author)

  14. Mode and sawtooth behaviour during neutral beam injection in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, G.; Renner, H.; Sapper, J.; Wobig, H.; Dorst, D.; Cattanei, G.; Javel, P.; Rau, F.; Zippe, M.; Jaeckel, H.

    1980-02-01

    The mode behaviour during Neutral Beam Injection in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator is presented. The analysis is mainly relying on soft X-ray measurements. Two types of discharges were found during Neutral Beam Injection with plasma currents >= 20 kA. The first type is dominated by large, regular and long sawteeth, which are caused by a (m,n) = (1,1) mode. In the second type the sawteeth disappear completely. Later in the discharge a local disruption causes a transition to the first type; this disruption has a (3,2) mode precursor. A new mode (2,2) is found and phase coupled to the (3,2) mode. Even at a high external rotational transform (t 0 = 0.23) a large (2,1) mode is found after the (3,2) mode has caused the local disruption. At slightly lower external rotational transform values major current disruptions may even occur. This is mainly due to the enhanced edge heating by the Neutral Beam Injection. Results of simulations of the mode structures are also presendet. (orig./GG)

  15. INTERACTION OF NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTED FAST IONS WITH ION CYCLOTRON RESONANCE FREQUENCY WAVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOI, M.; CHAN, V.S.; CHIU, S.C.; OMELCHENKO, Y.A.; SENTOKU, Y.; STJOH, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 INTERACTION OF NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTED FAST IONS WITH CYCLOTRON RESONANCE FREQUENCY WAVES. Existing tokamaks such as DIII-D and future experiments like ITER employ both NB injection (NBI) and ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) for auxiliary heating and current drive. The presence of energetic particles produced by NBI can result in absorption of the Ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) power. ICRF can also interact with the energetic beam ions to alter the characteristics of NBI momentum deposition and resultant impact on current drive and plasma rotation. To study the synergism between NBI and ICRF, a simple physical model for the slowing-down of NB injected fast ions is implemented in a Monte-Carlo rf orbit code. This paper presents the first results. The velocity space distributions of energetic ions generated by ICRF and NBI are calculated and compared. The change in mechanical momentum of the beam and an estimate of its impact on the NB-driven current are presented and compared with ONETWO simulation results

  16. Development of pellet injection systems for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing innovative pellet injection systems for plasma fueling experiments on magnetic fusion confinement devices for about 20 years. Recently, the ORNL development has focused on meeting the complex fueling needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In this paper, we describe the ongoing research and development activities that will lead to a ITER prototype pellet injector test stand. The present effort addresses three main areas: (1) an improved pellet feed and delivery system for centrifuge injectors, (2) a long-pulse (up to steady-state) hydrogen extruder system, and (3) tritium extruder technology. The final prototype system must be fully tritium compatible and will be used to demonstrate the operating parameters and the reliability required for the ITER fueling application

  17. Calculation of beam injection and modes of acceleration for the JINR phasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Dmitrievsky, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of computer simulation of particles motion from the injection region up to the final radius of the accelerated proton beam behaviour together with different modes of the JINR high current synchrocyclotron operation is investigated. The THOUR modified computer code is used for calculations. The calculations have been performed with allowance for particle radial-phase motion and particle axial motion and although with beam collective effects. Beam dynamics during first turns of particles has been considered by integrating equations of motion. Tolerances for magnetic field structure in the region of first phase oscillation are obtained. Verifications of time dependences of accelerated voltage amplitude are performed. Time dependences of beam intensity (with and without account for space charge effect) and of mean magnetic field disturbance and the dependence of the separatrice dimension on the orbit radius of the accelerated beam are given. The conclusion is drawn on the correctness of the earlier appreciation of beam intensity equaling 40-45 mkA

  18. Beam monitoring system for intense neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tron, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Monitoring system realizing novel principle of operation and allowing to register a two-dimensional beam current distribution within entire aperture (100...200 mm) of ion pipe for a time in nanosecond range has been designed and accomplished for beam control of the INR intense neutron source, for preventing thermo-mechanical damage of its first wall. Key unit of the system is monitor of two-dimensional beam current distribution, elements of which are high resistant to heating by the beam and to radiation off the source. The description of the system and monitor are presented. Implementation of the system for the future sources with more high intensities are discussed. (author)

  19. MTBE and priority contaminant treatment with high energy electron beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, William J; Nickelsen, Michael G; Mezyk, Stephen P; Leslie, Greg; Tornatore, Paul M; Hardison, Wayne; Hajali, Paris A

    2002-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and 15 other organic compounds, as well as perchlorate ion, in waters of different quality. The 15 organic compounds consisted of halogenated solvents (chlorination), disinfection by-products, pesticides, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). These studies were conducted using a pilot scale 20 kW mobile electron beam system at Water Factory 21, Orange County, CA where wastewater is treated and re-injected into the ground as a barrier to salt water intrusion. Future applications for this treated water include water reuse. Ground water and treated wastewater, after having gone through a reverse osmosis-polishing step (RO permeate), were used to prepare mixtures of the compounds. Using fundamental radiation chemistry, it was possible to examine the factors effecting removal efficiency of all the compounds as well as MTBE destruction and reaction by-product formation and removal. All of the organic compounds were destroyed in the studies and we also observed the destruction of perchlorate ion in one of the waters.

  20. MTBE and priority contaminant treatment with high energy electron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.; Mezyk, Stephen P.; Leslie, Greg; Tornatore, Paul M.; Hardison, Wayne; Hajali, Paris A.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the removal of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and 15 other organic compounds, as well as perchlorate ion, in waters of different quality. The 15 organic compounds consisted of halogenated solvents (chlorination), disinfection by-products, pesticides, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). These studies were conducted using a pilot scale 20 kW mobile electron beam system at Water Factory 21, Orange County, CA where wastewater is treated and re-injected into the ground as a barrier to salt water intrusion. Future applications for this treated water include water reuse. Ground water and treated wastewater, after having gone through a reverse osmosis-polishing step (RO permeate), were used to prepare mixtures of the compounds. Using fundamental radiation chemistry, it was possible to examine the factors effecting removal efficiency of all the compounds as well as MTBE destruction and reaction by-product formation and removal. All of the organic compounds were destroyed in the studies and we also observed the destruction of perchlorate ion in one of the waters

  1. Performance of magnetically-injected-plasma opening switches on the particle beam fusion accelerator 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Sweeney, M.A.; Moore, W.B.S.; Mowrer, G.R.; Zagar, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been performed on the PBFA II ion beam accelerator to develop a switch which will provide voltage and power gain to an applied-B lithium ion diode. These experiments have successfully coupled power to electron and ion beam diodes using a Magnetically-Injected-Plasma (MIP) POS. Carbon plasma with electron densities of 1 x 10 12 to 2 x 10 13 /cm 3 have been injected from the anode into the 8 cm gap of the 20-ohm Magnetically-Insulated-Transmission Line (MITL) of PBFA II along a B r,z magnetic field. The MIP switch uses the inertia of the plasma to keep the switch closed and the magnetic pressure of B θ from the conduction current to open the switch. The configuration of the injecting magnetic field and the plasma source has a significant effect on the efficiency of coupling power to high impedance loads. Plasma near the center of the injecting magnetic field limits the opening impedance of the switch and subsequently the power delivered to the load. The axial location of the switch with respect to the load has also been identified as a critical parameter in increasing the coupling efficiency. A length of 10 to 20 cm of MITL between the POS and the load has increased the power delivered to the load. Data on switch performance with high impedance loads and factors which improved performance are discussed

  2. Confinement studies with neutral-beam injection on PDX and PLT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldston, R.; Kaye, S.; Davis, S.

    1982-07-01

    Neutral beam injection experiments on PLT and PDX have been conducted over a wider range in parameter space than previously. On PLT H/sup 0/ beams have been injected into well-confined high toroidal field, high density Ohmic plasmas, giving n/sub e/(0) tau/sub Ee/ products during injection of up to 5 x 10/sup 12/ sec cm/sup -3/. tau/sub Ee/ is found to rise slowly with increasing density in these experiments. Comparing these results with earlier (1979) discharges, which showed much lower heating efficiency, the importance of starting with a hot Ohmic plasma and a peaked density profile is striking. On PDX high power injection experiments over a range in plasma current have shown a significant variation with current of both ion heating and total stored plasma energy. Transport analysis of these results indicates that global confinement drops little when I/sup p/ is varied from 480 to 320 kA, but as I/sup p/ falls to 200 kA, tau/sub E/ deteriorates significantly.

  3. Improvement of Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haotong; Liu, Zejin; Jiang, Pengzhi; Xu, Xiaojun; Du, Shaojun

    2011-07-04

    We propose and demonstrate the improvement of conventional Galilean refractive beam shaping system for accurately generating near-diffraction-limited flattop beam with arbitrary beam size. Based on the detailed study of the refractive beam shaping system, we found that the conventional Galilean beam shaper can only work well for the magnifying beam shaping. Taking the transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with high order Fermi-Dirac flattop profile as an example, the shaper can only work well at the condition that the size of input and target beam meets R(0) ≥ 1.3 w(0). For the improvement, the shaper is regarded as the combination of magnifying and demagnifying beam shaping system. The surface and phase distributions of the improved Galilean beam shaping system are derived based on Geometric and Fourier Optics. By using the improved Galilean beam shaper, the accurate transformation of input beam with Gaussian irradiance distribution into target beam with flattop irradiance distribution is realized. The irradiance distribution of the output beam is coincident with that of the target beam and the corresponding phase distribution is maintained. The propagation performance of the output beam is greatly improved. Studies of the influences of beam size and beam order on the improved Galilean beam shaping system show that restriction of beam size has been greatly reduced. This improvement can also be used to redistribute the input beam with complicated irradiance distribution into output beam with complicated irradiance distribution.

  4. Reduction of Surface Flashover of the Beam Screen of the LHC Injection Kickers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M J; Calatroni, S; Caspers, F; Ducimetière, L; Gomes Namora, V; Mertens, V; Noulibos, R; Taborelli, M; Teissandier, B; Uythoven, J; Weterings, W

    2013-01-01

    The LHC injection kicker magnets include beam screens to shield the ferrite yokes against wake fields resulting from the high intensity beam. The screening is provided by conductors lodged in the inner wall of a ceramic support tube. LHC operation with increasingly higher bunch intensity and short bunch lengths, requires improved ferrite screening. This will be implemented by additional conductors; however these must not compromise the good high-voltage behaviour of the kicker magnets. Extensive studies have been carried out to better satisfy the often conflicting requirements for low beam coupling impedance, fast magnetic field rise-time, ultra-high vacuum and good high voltage behaviour. A new design is proposed which significantly reduces the electric field associated with the screen conductors. Results of high voltage tests are also presented.

  5. High Voltage Performance of the Beam Screen of the LHC Injection Kicker Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, MJ; Bregliozzi, G; Calatroni, S; Costa Pinto, P; Day, H; Ducimetière, L; Kramer, T; Namora, V; Mertens, V; Taborelli, M

    2014-01-01

    The LHC injection kicker magnets include beam screens to shield the ferrite yokes against wakefields resulting from the high intensity beam. The screening is provided by conductors lodged in the inner wall of a ceramic support tube. The design of the beam screen has been upgraded to overcome limitations and permit LHC operation with increasingly higher bunch intensity and short bunch lengths: the new design also significantly reduces the electric field associated with the screen conductors, decreasing the probability of electrical breakdown. The high voltage conditioning process for the upgraded kicker magnets is presented and discussed. In addition a test setup has been utilized to study flashover, on the inner wall of the ceramic tube, as a function of both applied voltage and vacuum pressure: results from the test setup are presented.

  6. Injection system of the minicyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yonghao; Li Deming; Chen Maobai; Lu Xiangshun

    1999-01-01

    The existing injection system of the SMCAMS (super-sensitive mini-cyclotron accelerator mass spectrometer) is described together with the discussion of its disadvantages exposed after having been operating for five years, which provides a basis for consideration of improvements to the injection system. An optimized injection system with an analytical magnet added prior to the minicyclotron has been proposed and calculated

  7. High-Energy Beam Transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melson, K.E.; Farrell, J.A.; Liska, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) system for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is to be installed at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) at Richland, Washington. The linear accelerator must transport a large emittance, high-current, high-power, continuous-duty deuteron beam with a large energy spread either to a lithium target or a beam stop. A periodic quadrupole and bending-magnet system provides the beam transport and focusing on target with small beam aberrations. A special rf cavity distributes the energy in the beam so that the Bragg Peak is distributed within the lithium target. Operation of the rf control system, the Energy Dispersion Cavity (EDC), and the beam transport magnets is tested on the beam stop during accelerator turn-on. Characterizing the beam will require extensions of beam diagnostic techniques and noninterceptive sensors. Provisions are being made in the facility for suspending the transport system from overhead supports using a cluster system to simplify maintenance and alignment techniques

  8. Numerical simulation of the processes of small-diameter high-current electron beam shaping and injection

    CERN Document Server

    Gordeev, V S; Myskov, G A

    2001-01-01

    With the aid of BEAM 25 program there was carried out the numerical simulation of the non-stationary process of shaping a small-diameter (<= 20mm) high-current hollow electron beam in a diode with magnetic insulation,as well as of the process of beam injection into the accelerating LIA track. The diode configuration for the purpose of eliminating the leakage of electron flux to the anode surface was update. Presented are the results of calculation of the injected beam characteristics (amplitude-time parameters of a current pulse, space-angle distributions of electrons etc.) depending on diode geometric parameters.

  9. Properties and parameters of the electron beam injected into the mirror magnetic trap of a plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, V. V., E-mail: temple18@mail.ru; Novitsky, A. A.; Vinnichenko, L. A.; Umnov, A. M.; Ndong, D. O. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-15

    The parameters of the injector of an axial plasma beam injected into a plasma accelerator operating on the basis of gyroresonance acceleration of electrons in the reverse magnetic field are determined. The trapping of the beam electrons into the regime of gyroresonance acceleration is numerically simulated by the particle- in-cell method. The optimal time of axial injection of the beam into a magnetic mirror trap is determined. The beam parameters satisfying the condition of efficient particle trapping into the gyromagnetic autoresonance regime are found.

  10. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber.

  11. Injectable hydrogels for central nervous system therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulska, Malgosia M; Shoichet, Molly S; Ballios, Brian G

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) including those in the brain, spinal cord and retina are devastating because the CNS has limited intrinsic regenerative capacity and currently available therapies are unable to provide significant functional recovery. Several promising therapies have been identified with the goal of restoring at least some of this lost function and include neuroprotective agents to stop or slow cellular degeneration, neurotrophic factors to stimulate cellular growth, neutralizing molecules to overcome the inhibitory environment at the site of injury, and stem cell transplant strategies to replace lost tissue. The delivery of these therapies to the CNS is a challenge because the blood–brain barrier limits the diffusion of molecules into the brain by traditional oral or intravenous routes. Injectable hydrogels have the capacity to overcome the challenges associated with drug delivery to the CNS, by providing a minimally invasive, localized, void-filling platform for therapeutic use. Small molecule or protein drugs can be distributed throughout the hydrogel which then acts as a depot for their sustained release at the injury site. For cell delivery, the hydrogel can reduce cell aggregation and provide an adhesive matrix for improved cell survival and integration. Additionally, by choosing a biodegradable or bioresorbable hydrogel material, the system will eventually be eliminated from the body. This review discusses both natural and synthetic injectable hydrogel materials that have been used for drug or cell delivery to the CNS including hyaluronan, methylcellulose, chitosan, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and Matrigel. (paper)

  12. Injection control development of the JT-60U electron cyclotron heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranai, Shinichi; Shinozaki, Shin-ichi; Yokokura, Kenji; Moriyama, Shinichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Sato, Fumiaki [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Suzuki, Yasuo [Atomic Energy General Service Co., Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The JT-60U electron cyclotron heating (ECH) System injects a millimeteric wave at 110 GHz into the JT-60 Plasma, and heats the plasma or drives a current locally to enhance the confinement performance of the JT-60 plasma. The system consists of four sets of high power gyrotrons, high voltage power supplies and transmission lines, and two antennas that launch electron cyclotron (EC) beams toward the plasma. The key features of the injection control system are streering of the direction of the EC beam by driving the movable mirror in the antenna, and capability to set any combination of polarization angle and ellipticity by rotating the two grooved mirrors in the polarizers. This report represents the design, fabrication and improvements of the injection control system. (author)

  13. High-beta experiments with neutral-beam injection on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Bell, M.; Bitter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental investigations of high-beta plasmas produced in PDX with near-perpendicular neutral-beam injection are reported. Systematic power scans have been performed over a wide range of toroidal fields (νsub(T)q.7 T< Bsub(T)<2.2 T) and plasma currents (200 kA< Isub(p)<500 kA). At high toroidal fields, the change in total stored energy due to beam injection increases linearly with input power and also increases with plasma current. At lower toroidal fields and low injection power levels, the stored energy also increases with power and plasma current. However, at high power and low toroidal fields, a saturation in heating is observed. This result suggests the onset of a νsub(T) limit for circular cross-section tokamaks with near-perpendicular injection. Scaling experiments indicate that this νsub(T) limit increases with rising 1/q. Values of νsub(T)approx.=3% at qsub(PSI)=1.8 have been achieved. At high values of νsub(T)q, short bursts of MHD activity are observed, synchronized with sharply increased fluxes of perpendicular charge-exchange neutrals and rapid decreases in the rate of beam-driven neutron production. When strong bursts occur, there is a significant depletion of the fast-ion population. Estimates of the fast-ion loss indicate that it could explain the observed decrease in heating, although an additional reduction in thermal-plasma confinement cannot be ruled out. Numerical studies using measured pressure profiles predict that the equilibria obtained become unstable to the ideal n=1 internal mode, at about the same value of 0 where the new fluctuations are observed. (author)

  14. Deflection system for charged-particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T

    1982-01-13

    A system is described for achromatically deflecting a beam of charged particles without producing net divergence of the beam comprising three successive magnetic deflection means which deflect the beam alternately in opposite directions; the first and second deflect by angles of less than 50/sup 0/ and the third by an angle of at least 90/sup 0/. Particles with different respective energies are transversely spaced as they enter the third deflection means, but emerge completely superimposed in both position and direction and may be brought to a focus in each of two mutually perpendicular planes, a short distance thereafter. Such a system may be particularly compact, especially in the direction in which the beam leaves the system. It is suitable for deflecting a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator so producing a vertical beam of electron (or with an X-ray target, of X-rays) which can be rotated about a horizontal patient for radiation therapy.

  15. Intense relativistic electron beam injector system for tokamak current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, V.L.; Creedon, J.M.; Ecker, B.M.; Helava, H.I.

    1983-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical studies of an intense relativistic electron beam (REB) injection system designed for tokamak current drive experiments. The injection system uses a standard high-voltage pulsed REB generator and a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) to drive an REB-accelerating diode in plasma. A series of preliminary experiments has been carried out to test the system by injecting REBs into a test chamber with preformed plasma and applied magnetic field. REBs were accelerated from two types of diodes: a conventional vacuum diode with foil anode, and a plasma diode, i.e., an REB cathode immersed in the plasma. REB current was in the range of 50 to 100 kA and REB particle energy ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 MeV. MITL power density exceeded 10 GW/cm 2 . Performance of the injection system and REB transport properties is documented for plasma densities from 5 x 10 12 to 2 x 10 14 cm -3 . Injection system data are compared with numerical calculations of the performance of the coupled system consisting of the generator, MITL, and diode

  16. Secondary air injection system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ko-Jen; Walter, Darrell J.

    2014-08-19

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a secondary air injection system includes a first conduit in fluid communication with at least one first exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine and a second conduit in fluid communication with at least one second exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine, wherein the at least one first and second exhaust passages are in fluid communication with a turbocharger. The system also includes an air supply in fluid communication with the first and second conduits and a flow control device that controls fluid communication between the air supply and the first conduit and the second conduit and thereby controls fluid communication to the first and second exhaust passages of the internal combustion engine.

  17. Power deposition by neutral beam injected fast ions in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kato, Takayuki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasaka, Naotaka

    2004-04-01

    Effects of Coulomb collisions on neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions into Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmas are investigated by calculating the single particle orbits, where the ions are subject to the slowing down and pitch angle collisions. The Monte-Carlo method is used for the pitch angle scattering, and the friction term is added to the equation of motion to show effects of slowing down collision such as the deposited power profile. Calculation parameters used are relevant to the NB injection on the FRC Injection Experiment (FIX) device. It is found that the dominant local power deposition occurs in the open field region between the X-point and the mirror point because of a concentration of fast ions and a longer duration travel at the mirror reflection point. In the present calculation, the maximum deposited power to the FRC plasma is about 10% of the injected power. Although the pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collision destroys the mirror confinement of NB injected fast ions, this effect is found negligible. The loss mechanism due to non-adiabatic fast ion motion, which is intrinsic in non-uniform FRC plasmas, affects much greater than the pitch angle scattering by Coulomb collision. (author)

  18. Power deposition by neutral beam injected fast ions in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kato, Takayuki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-01-01

    The effects of Coulomb collisions on neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions into field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are investigated by calculating the single particle orbits, where the ions are subject to the slowing-down and pitch-angle collisions. The Monte Carlo method is used for the pitch-angle scattering, and the friction term is added to the equation of motion to show the effects of the slowing-down collision, such as the deposited power profile. The calculation parameters used are relevant to the NB injection on the FRC injection experiment device [T. Asai, Y. Suzuki, T. Yoneda, F. Kodera, M. Okubo, and S. Goto, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. It is found that the dominant local power deposition occurs in the open field region between the X point and the mirror point because of a concentration of fast ions and a longer duration travel at the mirror reflection point. In the present calculation, the maximum deposited power to the FRC plasma is about 10% of the injected power. Although the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision destroys the mirror confinement of NB injected fast ions, this effect is found to be negligible. The loss mechanism due to nonadiabatic fast ion motion, which is intrinsic in nonuniform FRC plasmas, has a much greater effect than the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision

  19. A comparison of L-band and C-band rf guns as sources for inline-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Meyerer, T.

    1994-12-01

    We consider the beam dynamics associated with installing a BNL type 1 1/2 cell L-band or C-band rf gun before two TESLA L-band cryomodules. This system will deliver a 25 MeV electron beam with peak currents on the order of 100 A suitable for further magnetic compression. evaluate the injection systems utilizing the electron beam dynamic code PARMELA from the point of view of minimizing the transverse invariant emittance

  20. Computer-controlled data acquisition system for the ISX-B neutral injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edmonds, P.H.; Sherrill, B.; Pearce, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    A data acquisition system for the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) neutral injection system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is presented. The system is based on CAMAC standards and is controlled by a MIK-11/2 microcomputer. The system operates at the ion source high voltage on the source table, transmitting the analyzed data to a terminal at ground potential. This reduces the complexity of the communications link and also allows much flexibility in the diagnostics and eventual control of the beam line

  1. Model calibration and beam control systems for storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.J.; Lee, M.J.; Ziemann, V.

    1993-04-01

    Electron beam storage rings and linear accelerators are rapidly gaining worldwide popularity as scientific devices for the production of high-brightness synchrotron radiation. Today, everybody agrees that there is a premium on calibrating the storage ring model and determining errors in the machine as soon as possible after the beam is injected. In addition, the accurate optics model enables machine operators to predictably adjust key performance parameters, and allows reliable identification of new errors that occur during operation of the machine. Since the need for model calibration and beam control systems is common to all storage rings, software packages should be made that are portable between different machines. In this paper, we report on work directed toward achieving in-situ calibration of the optics model, detection of alignment errors, and orbit control techniques, with an emphasis on developing a portable system incorporating these tools

  2. Doppler-shift spectra of Hα lines from negative-ion-based neutral beams for large helical device neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Grisham, L.; Umeda, N.; Honda, A.; Ikeda, Y.; Yamamoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    The velocity spectra of the negative-ion-(H - ) based neutral beams are studied in high-performance large-area ion sources during injection into large helical device fusion plasmas. We are conducting systematic observations in standard neutral beam injection to correlate beam spectra with source operating conditions. Almost all of the transmitted beam power was at full acceleration energy (∼170 keV). The small stripping beam component which was produced in the extraction gap was evaluated to be about 9%-22% by amplitude of the measured spectra for the sources in beam lines 1 and 2. H - production uniformity from the spectrum profile was 86%-90% for three sources. For the longest pulse injection during 74 and 128 s, a full energy component tended to decrease with time, while the accelerator gap stripping tail tended to increase slightly with time, which is attributed to beam-induced outgassing in the accelerator. A higher conductance multislot ground grid accelerator appeared to show little growth in the accelerator gap beam stripping during long pulses compared to the conventional multiaperture ground grid. The beam uniformity appeared to vary in part with the Cs uniformity on the plasma grid

  3. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Masaaki [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University Princeton, New Jersey USA (United States)

    2016-03-25

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  4. TFTR neutral beam systems conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The functions, design requirements, and design descriptions of the injection system are described. Cost summaries are given for each system and subsystem. The costs presented are for: materials procurement; and shipping, assembly, and installation at the Princeton site

  5. Beam interaction of a pulsed, nonlinear in-vacuum injection magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, Helge

    2013-01-01

    Theme of this thesis is the study of the interaction of the injection magnet designed for BESSY II with the electron beam. The main topic of this thesis lies in the numerical and measurement-technical study of the loss factor, the wake potential, and the wake impedance of the nonlinear kicker magnet with the aim of an optimization of the magnet design, so that a stable operation of the kicker in the BESSY II storage ring is made possible. A further main topic of this thesis is a study on the matching of the injection scheme with a single kicker to the conditions of the DELTA storage ring, which is operated by the TU Dortmund.

  6. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Darrow, D.S.; Liu, D.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I p ∼ 0.5 MA) and electron density (n e ∼ 1 x 10 13 cm -3 ) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented

  7. Optimization of laser-plasma injector via beam loading effects using ionization-induced injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Simulations of ionization-induced injection in a laser driven plasma wakefield show that high-quality electron injectors in the 50-200 MeV range can be achieved in a gas cell with a tailored density profile. Using the PIC code Warp with parameters close to existing experimental conditions, we show that the concentration of N2 in a hydrogen plasma with a tailored density profile is an efficient parameter to tune electron beam properties through the control of the interplay between beam loading effects and varying accelerating field in the density profile. For a given laser plasma configuration, with moderate normalized laser amplitude, a0=1.6 and maximum electron plasma density, ne 0=4 ×1018 cm-3 , the optimum concentration results in a robust configuration to generate electrons at 150 MeV with a rms energy spread of 4% and a spectral charge density of 1.8 pC /MeV .

  8. Electron beam manipulation, injection and acceleration in plasma wakefield accelerators by optically generated plasma density spikes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, Georg; Karger, Oliver S.; Knetsch, Alexander [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Xi, Yunfeng; Deng, Aihua; Rosenzweig, James B. [Particle Beam Physics Laboratory, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bruhwiler, David L. [RadiaSoft LLC, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States); RadiaBeam Technologies LLC (United States); Smith, Jonathan [Tech-X UK Ltd, Daresbury, Cheshire WA4 4FS (United Kingdom); Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Jaroszynski, Dino A.; Manahan, Grace G. [Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Hidding, Bernhard [Institute of Experimental Physics, University of Hamburg, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Physics Department, SUPA, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2016-09-01

    We discuss considerations regarding a novel and robust scheme for optically triggered electron bunch generation in plasma wakefield accelerators [1]. In this technique, a transversely propagating focused laser pulse ignites a quasi-stationary plasma column before the arrival of the plasma wake. This localized plasma density enhancement or optical “plasma torch” distorts the blowout during the arrival of the electron drive bunch and modifies the electron trajectories, resulting in controlled injection. By changing the gas density, and the laser pulse parameters such as beam waist and intensity, and by moving the focal point of the laser pulse, the shape of the plasma torch, and therefore the generated trailing beam, can be tuned easily. The proposed method is much more flexible and faster in generating gas density transitions when compared to hydrodynamics-based methods, and it accommodates experimentalists needs as it is a purely optical process and straightforward to implement.

  9. THE RHIC BEAM ABORT KICKER SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, H.

    1999-01-01

    THE ENERGY STORED IN THE RHIC BEAM IS ABOUT 200 KJ PER RING AT DESIGN ENERGY AND INTENSITY. TO PREVENT QUENCHING OF THE SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS OR MATERIAL DAMAGE, THE BEAM WILL BE SAFELY DISPOSED OF BY AN INTERNAL BEAM ABORT SYSTEM, WHICH INCLUDES THE KICKER MAGNETS, THE PULSED POWER SUPPLIES, AND THE DUMP ABSORBER. DISPOSAL OF HEAVY IONS, SUCH AS GOLD, IMPOSES DESIGN CONSTRAINTS MORE SEVERE THAN THOSE FOR PROTON BEAMS OF EQUAL INTENSITY. IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE THERMAL SHOCK IN THE CARBON-FIBER DUMP BLOCK, THE BUNCHES MUST BE LATERALLY DISPERSED

  10. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyar, V A; Eremin, V V

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well

  11. Distribution of separated energy and injected charge at normal falling of fast electron beam on target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyar, V.A.; Eremin, A.V.; Eremin, V.V.

    2002-01-01

    In terms of a kinetic equation diffusion model for a beam of electrons falling on a target along the normal one derived analytical formulae for distributions of separated energy and injected charge. In this case, no empirical adjustable parameters are introduced to the theory. The calculated distributions of separated energy for an electron plate directed source within infinite medium for C, Al, Sn and Pb are in good consistency with the Spencer data derived on the basis of the accurate solution of the Bethe equation being the source one in assumption of a diffusion model, as well [ru

  12. The effect of plasma parameter on the bootstrap current of fast ions in neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qianhong; Gong Xueyu; Cao Jinjia; Yang Lei

    2014-01-01

    The effect of plasma parameters on the distribution of net current density of fast ions produced by neutral beam injection is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio Tokamak with circular cross-section under specific parameters. Numerical results show that the value of net current density increases with the temperature of plasma increasing and decreases with the density of plasma increasing. The value of net current density is weakly affected by the effective charge number, but the peak of net current density moves towards edge plasma with effective charge number increasing. (authors)

  13. Achieving a long-lived high-beta plasma state by energetic beam injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Tajima, T.; Milroy, R. D.; Steinhauer, L. C.; Yang, X.; Garate, E. G.; Gota, H.; Korepanov, S.; Necas, A.; Roche, T.; Smirnov, A.; Trask, E.

    2015-04-01

    Developing a stable plasma state with high-beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressures) is of critical importance for an economic magnetic fusion reactor. At the forefront of this endeavour is the field-reversed configuration. Here we demonstrate the kinetic stabilizing effect of fast ions on a disruptive magneto-hydrodynamic instability, known as a tilt mode, which poses a central obstacle to further field-reversed configuration development, by energetic beam injection. This technique, combined with the synergistic effect of active plasma boundary control, enables a fully stable ultra-high-beta (approaching 100%) plasma with a long lifetime.

  14. Advanced Light Source beam diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.

    1993-10-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third-generation synchrotron light source, has been recently commissioned. Beam diagnostics were very important to the success of the operation. Each diagnostic system is described in this paper along with detailed discussion of its performance. Some of the systems have been in operation for two years. Others, in the storage ring, have not yet been fully commissioned. These systems were, however, working well enough to provide the essential information needed to store beam. The devices described in this paper include wall current monitors, a beam charge monitor, a 50 ohm Faraday cup, DC current transformers, broad-hand striplines, fluorescence screens, beam collimators and scrapers, and beam position monitors. Also, the means by which waveforms are digitized and displayed in the control room is discussed

  15. Vibrations and stability of complex beam systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stojanović, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

     This book reports on solved problems concerning vibrations and stability of complex beam systems. The complexity of a system is considered from two points of view: the complexity originating from the nature of the structure, in the case of two or more elastically connected beams; and the complexity derived from the dynamic behavior of the system, in the case of a damaged single beam, resulting from the harm done to its simple structure. Furthermore, the book describes the analytical derivation of equations of two or more elastically connected beams, using four different theories (Euler, Rayleigh, Timoshenko and Reddy-Bickford). It also reports on a new, improved p-version of the finite element method for geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The new method provides more accurate approximations of solutions, while also allowing us to analyze geometrically nonlinear vibrations. The book describes the appearance of longitudinal vibrations of damaged clamped-clamped beams as a result of discontinuity (damage). It...

  16. Beam-scanning system for determination of beam profiles and form factors in merged-beam experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyser, C.J.; Froelich, H.R.; Mitchell, J.B.A.; McGowan, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A beam-scanning system for a merged electron-ion beam experiment is described. This system is used to determine the horizontal and vertical beam profiles and the form factors at three different locations along the axis of the beams. Design details of the wedge-shaped scanners and the electronic circuit for obtaining beam profiles and form factors are described. The form factor derivation for merged beams is given and an expression in terms of measured quantities is derived. (author)

  17. PLS beam position measurement and feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.Y.; Lee, J.; Park, M.K.; Kim, J.H.; Won, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    A real-time orbit correction system is proposed for the stabilization of beam orbit and photon beam positions in Pohang Light Source. PLS beam position monitoring system is designed to be VMEbus compatible to fit the real-time digital orbit feedback system. A VMEbus based subsystem control computer, Mil-1553B communication network and 12 BPM/PS machine interface units constitute digital part of the feedback system. With the super-stable PLS correction magnet power supply, power line frequency noise is almost filtered out and the dominant spectra of beam obtit fluctuations are expected to appear below 15 Hz. Using DSP board in SCC for the computation and using an appropriate compensation circuit for the phase delay by the vacuum chamber, PLS real-time orbit correction system is realizable without changing the basic structure of PLS computer control system. (author)

  18. Online Measurement of the Energy Spread of Multi-Turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J. [Brown U.; Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab; Hendricks, B. S. [Fermilab

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment of Fermilab accelerators to measure energy spread of the proton beam from the LINAC at an injection into the Booster. It uses a digitizing oscilloscope and provides users an ability to configure the scope settings for optimal data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, a) a one shot timeline is generated to initiate beam injection into the Booster, b) a gap of about 40 ns is produced in the injected beam using a set of fast kickers, c) collects line charge distribution data from the wall current monitor for the first 200 μs from the injection and d) performs complete data analysis to extract full beam energy spread of the beam. The program also gives the option to store the data for offline analyses. We illustrate a case with an example. We also present results on beam energy spread as a function of beam intensity from recent measurements.

  19. Detection systems for radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savajols, H.

    2002-01-01

    Two main methods are used to produce radioactive ion beams: -) the ISOL method (isotope separation on-line) in which the stable beam interacts with a thick target, the reaction products diffuse outside the target and are transferred to a source where they are ionized, a mass separator and a post-accelerator drive the selected radioactive ions to the right energy; -) the in-flight fragmentation method in which the stable beam interacts with a thin target, the reaction products are emitted from the target with a restricted angular distribution and a velocity close to that of the incident beam, the experimenter has to take advantage from the reaction kinetics to get the right particle beam. Characteristic time is far longer with the ISOL method but the beam intensity is much better because of the use of a post-accelerator. In both cases, the beam intensity is lower by several orders of magnitude than in the case of a stable beam. This article presents all the constraints imposed by radioactive beams to the detection systems of the reaction products and gives new technical solutions according to the type of nuclear reaction studied. (A.C.)

  20. Impurity Dynamics under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study the simulations of plasma transport under NBI for TJ-II, previously performed, are extended. Since than a considerable number of important modifications have been introduced in the model: change of magnetic configuration, use of experimental initial profiles, expansion of the Data base from NBI calculations and, mainly, a detailed handling of impurities with inclusion of sputtering effects. Moreover there is now a particular emphasis on the analysis of the conditions for discharge collapse and on the possible effects of single beam injection. This analysis of impurity behaviour with sputtering shows that in the expected usual cases there is no radioactive collapse and that if the recycling coefficients remain lower the unity it is always possible to find a strategy for external gas puffing leading to a stationary state, with densities below the limit and efficient NBI absorption (>50%). The radioactive collapse can appear either at high densities (central value higher than 1.4x10''20 m''3), excessive influx of impurities (i. e. with sputtering rates higher than twice the expected values) o for insufficient injected beam power (less than 45 kW). The present study analyses only the 100 4 4 6 4 configuration of TJ-II, but future works will start a systematic scan of configuration using this same model. (Author) 12 Refs

  1. Current profile redistribution driven by neutral beam injection in a reversed-field pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Anderson, J. K.; Den Hartog, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Lin, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Johnson, C. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1150 University Ave., Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, Auburn University 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Neutral beam injection in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas on the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] drives current redistribution with increased on-axis current density but negligible net current drive. Internal fluctuations correlated with tearing modes are observed on multiple diagnostics; the behavior of tearing mode correlated structures is consistent with flattening of the safety factor profile. The first application of a parametrized model for island flattening to temperature fluctuations in an RFP allows inferrence of rational surface locations for multiple tearing modes. The m = 1, n = 6 mode is observed to shift inward by 1.1 ± 0.6 cm with neutral beam injection. Tearing mode rational surface measurements provide a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction, with an estimated reduction of q{sub 0} by 5% and an increase in on-axis current density of 8% ± 5%. The inferred on-axis current drive is consistent with estimates of fast ion density using TRANSP [Goldston et al., J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)].

  2. An analysis of the SCEX 3 ionospheric electron beam injection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerke, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The SCEX 3 experiment (Several Compatible EXperiments using a rocket-borne accelerator) was carried to ionospheric altitudes (375 km) by a Black Brant 11 rocket on February 1, 1990. The experiment was launched from Poker Flat Research Range (65.1 degree N, 147.5 degree W) at 1207 UT. The payload split into two parts (hereafter forward and aft payloads) 116 seconds after launch. The aft payload carried two electron accelerators as well as several diagnostic instruments. The forward payload was ejected at an angle of 6 degree with the magnetic field in a northwesterly direction. This payload carried a multiband plasma wave receiver and various particle detectors to make in situ measurements of the Beam Plasma Interaction (BPI) region. Two Throw Away Detectors (TAD's 1 and 2) were also ejected from the aft payload in the east and west directions respectively. TAD 1 also carried a multiband plasma wave receiver. Preceding the launch an auroral arch along the southern boundary of a diffuse auroral patch suddenly brightened, split into two separate arcs and moved to a position north of the rocket's trajectory. SCEX 3 was launched into an active breakup aurora consisting of tall rays and diffuse patches. The purpose of this experiment were (1) to observe injected electrons reflected from the naturally occurring parallel electric field structures which are thought to accelerate the auroral electron, (2) to observe a variety of plasma effects caused by the artificial electron beam and the associated spacecraft charging, and (3) study the natural phenomena associated with auroral activity. This work is a summary of the interesting observations made by the SCEX 3 experiment. These observations include VHF emissions produced by the electron beam via the Beam Plasma Discharge (BPD), Diffuse resonance emissions by the hot plasma region surrounding the electron beam and auroral Z-mode emissions

  3. Injection error monitor for KEK 12 GeV PS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, Masashi; Sato, Hikaru; Toyama, Takeshi; Marutsuka, Katsumi.

    1994-01-01

    The injection error monitor is now developing for an easy tuning of the main ring beam injection at the KEK 12 GeV proton synchrotron. The beam trajectory on the horizontal phase space plane is obtained by a test bench system. The injection error monitor proved to be available for the beam injection tuning. (author)

  4. A Computer Program to Measure the Energy Spread of Multi-turn Beam in the Fermilab Booster at Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jovan; Bhat, Chandrashekhara; Hendricks, Brian

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a computer program interfaced with the ACNET environment for Fermilab accelerators in order to measure the energy spread of the injected proton beam from the LINAC, at the energy of 400 MeV. This program allows the user to configure a digitizing oscilloscope and timing devices to optimize data acquisition from a resistive wall current monitor. When the program is launched, it secures control of the oscilloscope and then generates a ``one-shot'' timeline which initiates injection into the Booster. Once this is complete, a kicker is set to create a notch in the beam and the line charge distribution data is collected by the oscilloscope. The program then analyzes this data in order to obtain notch width, beam revolution period, and beam energy spread. This allows the program to be a possible useful diagnostic tool for the beginning of the acceleration cycle for the proton beam. Thank you to the SIST program at Fermilab.

  5. Walking beam pumping unit system efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgore, J.J.; Tripp, H.A.; Hunt, C.L. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of electricity used by walking beam pumping units is a major expense in producing crude oil. However, only very limited information is available on the efficiency of beam pumping systems and less is known about the efficiency of the various components of the pumping units. This paper presents and discusses measurements that have been made on wells at several Shell locations and on a specially designed walking beam pump test stand at Lufkin Industries. These measurements were made in order to determine the overall system efficiency and efficiency of individual components. The results of this work show that the overall beam pumping system efficiency is normally between 48 and 58 percent. This is primarily dependent on the motor size, motor type, gearbox size, system's age, production, pump size, tubing size, and rod sizes

  6. Beam studies with a LNB detector system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzkopf, Joachim; Judin, Vitali; Mueller, Anke-Susanne [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At ANKA, the synchrotron of the KIT (Karlsruhe Institue of Technology), beam studies with a detector system better known for its use in the entertainment industry have been carried out. The system basically consists of a LNB (Low Noise Block), usually part of a satellite TV receiver. One possible application in accelerator physics is the monitoring of the bunch length. This presentation reports on beam experiments with this inexpensive detector.

  7. Transverse acceptance calculation for continuous ion beam injection into the electron beam ion trap charge breeder of the ReA post-accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittimanapun, K., E-mail: kritsadak@slri.or.th [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000 (Thailand); Baumann, T.M.; Lapierre, A.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Bollen, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States); Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The ReA post-accelerator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) employs an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) as a charge breeder. A Monte-Carlo simulation code was developed to calculate the transverse acceptance phase space of the EBIT for continuously injected ion beams and to determine the capture efficiency in dependence of the transverse beam emittance. For this purpose, the code records the position and time of changes in charge state of injected ions, leading either to capture or loss of ions. To benchmark and validate the code, calculated capture efficiencies were compared with results from a geometrical model and measurements. The results of the code agree with the experimental findings within a few 10%. The code predicts a maximum total capture efficiency of 50% for EBIT parameters readily achievable and an efficiency of up to 80% for an electron beam current density of 1900 A/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Low energy beam transport system developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Han, B.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 3261 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-08

    For high brightness beam production it is important to preserve the brightness in the low energy beam transport system (LEBT) used to transport and match the ion beams to the next stage of acceleration, usually an RFQ. While electrostatic focusing can be problematic for high current beam transport, reliable electrostatic LEBT operation has been demonstrated with H{sup −} beams up to 60 mA. Now, however, it is commonly accepted that an optimal LEBT for high current accelerator applications consists of focusing solenoids with space charge compensation. Two-solenoid LEBTs are successfully used for high current (>100 mA) proton beam transport. Preservation of low emittances (~0.15 π mm-mrad) requires the addition of a heavy gas (Xe, Kr), which causes ~5% of proton loss in a 1 m long LEBT. Similar Xe densities would be required to preserve low emittances of H{sup −} beams, but such gas densities cause unacceptably high H{sup −} beam losses. A short LEBT with only one short solenoid, movable for RFQ matching, can be used for reduced negative ion stripping. A strong electrostatic-focusing LEBT has been successfully adopted for transport of high current H{sup −} beams in the SNS Front End. Some modifications of such electrostatic LEBTs are expected to improve the reliable transport of intense positive and negative ion beams without greatly degrading their low emittances. We concentrate on processes that determine the beam brightness degradation and on their prevention. Proposed improvements to the SNS electrostatic LEBT are discussed.

  9. Observations of ELM stabilization during neutral beam injection in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Alessandro; Kramer, Gerrit; Diallo, Ahmed; Knolker, Matthias; Maingi, Rajesh; Nazikian, Raffi; Degrassie, John; Osborne, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are generally interpreted as peeling-ballooning instabilities, driven by the pedestal current and pressure gradient, with other subdominant effects possibly relevant close to marginal stability. We report observations of transient stabilization of type-I ELMs during neutral beam injection (NBI), emerging from a combined dataset of DIII-D ELMy H-mode plasmas with moderate heating obtained through pulsed NBI waveforms. Statistical analysis of ELM onset times indicates that, in the selected dataset, the likelihood of onset of an ELM lowers significantly during NBI modulation pulses, with the stronger correlation found with counter-current NBI. The effect is also found in rf-heated H-modes, where ELMs appear inhibited when isolated diagnostic beam pulses are applied. Coherent average analysis is used to determine how plasma density, temperature, rotation as well as beam ion quantities evolve during a NB modulation cycle, finding relatively small changes ( 3%) of pedestal Te and ne and toroidal and poloidal rotation variations up to 5 km/s. The effect of these changes on pedestal stability will be discussed. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  10. Magnetically insulated transmission line used for relativistic electron beam injection into SPAC-VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Mohri, Akihiro.

    1980-10-01

    For the purpose to inject the electron beam with energy of about 1.5 MeV and current of about 100 kA into the SPAC-6 (torus device), a magnetically insulated transmission line was designed and constructed. The motion of electrons in the line was theoretically analyzed. The requirements for the design of the transmission line were as follows-: (a) condition of magnetic insulation, (b) suppression against reverse gas flow from the beam source to the torus, (c) care to minimize the influence of strong torus magnetic field, (d) reduction of inductance and (e) safety engineering measures, e.g., separation valve in the MITL between the beam source and the SPAC-6. The transmission line of 2.4 m long was designed and constructed. The wave forms of electric potential and current were measured. The transmission efficiency of current along the axis and the efficiency as a function of current at the end of the line were also measured. The reason of the loss of current is discussed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farengo, R.

    2002-01-01

    A Monte-Carlo code is used to study neutral beam current drive in Spheromaks. The exact particle trajectories are followed in the self-consistent equilibria calculated including the beam current. Reducing Z(eff) does not increase the current drive efficiency because the reduction of the stopping cross section is compensated by an increase in the electron canceling current. Significant changes in the safety factor profile can be produced with relatively low beam currents. Minimum dissipation states of a flux core spheromak sustained by helicity injection are presented. Helicity balance is used as a constraint and the resistivity is considered to be non-uniform. Two types of relaxed states are found; one has a central core of open flux surrounded by a toroidal region of closed flux surfaces and the other has the open flux wrapped around the closed flux surfaces. Non-uniform resistivity effects can be very important due to the changes they produce in the safety factor profile. A hybrid, fluid electrons particle ions, code is employed to study ion dynamics in FRCs sustained by rotating magnetic fields. (author)

  12. Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil A.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In laser wakefield acceleration, tailoring the shape of the laser pulse is one way of influencing the laser-plasma interaction and, therefore, of improving the quality of the self-injected electron beam in the bubble regime. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution dynamics of the laser pulse and the quality of the self-injected beam, for a Gaussian pulse, a positive skew pulse (i.e., one with sharp rise and slow fall), and a negative skew pulse (i.e., one with a slow rise and sharp fall) are studied. It is observed that with a negative skew laser pulse there is a substantial improvement in the emittance (by around a factor of two), and a modest improvement in the energy-spread, compared to Gaussian as well as positive skew pulses. However, the injected charge is less in the negative skew pulse compared to the other two. It is also found that there is an optimal propagation distance that gives the best beam quality; beyond this distance, though the energy increases, the beam quality deteriorates, but this deterioration is least for the negative skew pulse. Thus, the negative skew pulse gives an improvement in terms of beam quality (emittance and energy spread) over what one can get with a Gaussian or positive skew pulse. In part, this is because of the lesser injected charge, and the strong suppression of continuous injection for the negative skew pulse.

  13. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomic fraction >90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  14. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm 2 and with atomic fraction > 90% was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D + beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. They observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  15. Innovative measurement for injection systems; Innovative Messtechnik fuer Einspritzsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetzky, Bjoern; Majer, Clemens; Doell, Reinahrd [Robert Bosch GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The treatise introduces a new measuring method to determine the injection quantity and injection rate. In this method the change in pressure within a hydraulic chamber is measured during injection. Also the momentary pressure-dependent speed of sound of the medium inside the chamber is measured. With this information the desired injection quantity can be derived with high precision. A measuring technique (HDA) based on this method is described. Measurement with HDA are performed based on actual requirements from the Diesel-Injection-System, results from these measurements are presented in example. Results are compared with those achieved by using a known measuring technique (EMI). (orig.)

  16. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  17. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  18. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  19. A machine protection beam position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedko, E.; Smith, S.; Fisher, A.

    1998-01-01

    Loss of the stored beam in an uncontrolled manner can cause damage to the PEP-II B Factory. We describe here a device which detects large beam position excursions or unexpected beam loss and triggers the beam abort system to extract the stored beam safely. The bad-orbit abort trigger beam position monitor (BOAT BPM) generates a trigger when the beam orbit is far off the center (>20 mm), or rapid beam current loss (dI/dT) is detected. The BOAT BPM averages the input signal over one turn (136 kHz). AM demodulation is used to convert input signals at 476 MHz to baseband voltages. The detected signal goes to a filter section for suppression of the revolution frequency, then on to amplifiers, dividers, and comparators for position and current measurements and triggering. The derived current signal goes to a special filter, designed to perform dI/dT monitoring at fast, medium, and slow current loss rates. The BOAT BPM prototype test results confirm the design concepts. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  20. The Injection System of the INFN-SuperB Factory Project: Preliminary Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, Roberto; /INFN, Rome; Guiducci, Susanna; /INFN, Rome; Preger, Miro; /INFN, Rome; Raimondi, Pantaleo; /INFN, Rome; Chance, Antoine; /Saclay; Dadoun, Olivier; /Orsay, LAL; Poirier, Freddy; /Orsay, LAL; Variola, Alessandro; /Orsay, LAL; Seeman, John; /SLAC

    2012-07-05

    The ultra high luminosity B-factory (SuperB) project of INFN requires a high performance and reliable injection system, providing electrons at 4 GeV and positrons at 7 GeV, to fulfil the very tight requirements of the collider. Due to the short beam lifetime, continuous injection of electron and positron bunches in both LER and HER rings is necessary to maintain an high average luminosity. Polarized electrons are required for experiments and must be delivered by the injection system, due to the beam lifetime shorter than the ring polarization build-up: they will be produced by means of a SLAC-SLC polarized gun. The emittance and the energy spread of the e{sup -}/e{sup +} beams are reduced in a 1 GeV Damping Ring (DR) before injection in the main rings. Two schemes for positron production are under study, one with e{sup -}/e{sup +} conversion at low energy (< 1 Gev) and one with conversion at 6 GeV and a recirculation line to bring the positrons back to the DR. Acceleration through the Linac is provided by a 2856 MHz RF system made of travelling wave (TW), room temperature accelerating structures.

  1. Resistive-wall Wake Effect in the Beam Delivery System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delayen, J.R.; Jefferson Lab; Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, T.O.; SLAC; Wang, Jiunn-Ming; BNL, NSLS

    2005-01-01

    General formulae for resistive-wall induced beam dilution are presented and then applied to the final beam delivery system of linear colliders. Criteria for the design of final beam delivery systems are discussed

  2. Antares beam-alignment-system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Q.D.; Bender, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The beam alignment system for the 24-beam-sector Antares CO 2 fusion laser automatically aligns more than 200 optical elements. A visible-wavelength alignment technique is employed which uses a telescope/TV system to view point-light sources appropriately located down the beamline. The centroids of the light spots are determined by a video tracker, which generates error signals used by the computer control system to move appropriate mirrors in a closed-loop system. Final touch-up alignment is accomplished by projecting a CO 2 alignment laser beam through the system and sensing its position at the target location. The techniques and control algorithms employed have resulted in alignment accuracies exceeding design requirements. By employing video processing to determine the centroids of diffraction images and by averaging over multiple TV frames, we achieve alignment accuracies better than 0.1 times system diffraction limits in the presence of air turbulence

  3. A simple electron-beam lithography system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølhave, Kristian; Madsen, Dorte Nørgaard; Bøggild, Peter

    2005-01-01

    A large number of applications of electron-beam lithography (EBL) systems in nanotechnology have been demonstrated in recent years. In this paper we present a simple and general-purpose EBL system constructed by insertion of an electrostatic deflector plate system at the electron-beam exit...... of the column of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The system can easily be mounted on most standard SEM systems. The tested setup allows an area of up to about 50 x 50 pm to be scanned, if the upper limit for acceptable reduction of the SEM resolution is set to 10 run. We demonstrate how the EBL system can...... be used to write three-dimensional nanostructures by electron-beam deposition. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, U; Krötz, G; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D

    2008-01-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature

  5. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  6. DIAGNOSTICS OF GASOLINE FUEL SYSTEMS WITH DIRECT INJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bulgakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A method of diagnosing fuel systems with direct injection by means of producing a pressure oscillation in a hydraulic accumulator is presented. Having obtained a signal from pressure sensor it is possible to register a pressure drop at the moment of injection. If the system has a malfunction, then the pressure drop will be higher.

  7. Variable volume combustor with pre-nozzle fuel injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Christopher Paul; Johnson, Thomas Edward; McConnaughhay, Johnie Franklin; Ostebee, Heath Michael

    2016-09-06

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a number of fuel nozzles, a pre-nozzle fuel injection system supporting the fuel nozzles, and a linear actuator to maneuver the fuel nozzles and the pre-nozzle fuel injection system.

  8. Construction of ion beam pulse radiolysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, Norihisa; Katsumura, Yosuke; Domae, Masafumi; Ishigure, Kenkichi; Murakami, Takeshi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24 MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3} and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals were observed. (author)

  9. Test facility for the development of 150-keV, multi-megawatt neutral beam systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haughian, W.; Baker, W.R.; Biagi, L.A.; Hopkins, D.B.

    1975-11-01

    The next generation of CTR experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), will require neutral-beam injection systems that produce multi-megawatt, 120-keV deuterium-beam pulses of 0.5-second duration. Since present injection systems are operating in the 10- to 40-keV range, an intensive development effort is in progress to meet a 150-keV requirement. The vacuum system and power supplies that make up a test facility to be used in the development of these injectors are described

  10. The new control system of the SPS injection kicker

    CERN Document Server

    Antoine, A; Marchand, A; Verhagen, H

    2002-01-01

    The SPS accelerator will be used as injector for the LHC and has to be adapted to the LHC requirements. The tight specification on beam blow-up and bunch spacing in the SPS has required an upgrade program of the SPS injection kicker in order to obtain a reduction of the magnetic field ripple to less than ± 0.5% and of the magnet current rise time to less than 145 ns. In this context, the slow control part has been entirely rebuilt on the basis of off-the-shelf industrial components. A hierarchical architecture based on a SIEMENS S7-400 master programmable logic controller interconnected through PROFIBUS-DP to S7-300 deported and decentralised I/Os has been implemented. Integration of in-house specific G-64 hardware systems inside this industrial environment has been done through a PROFIBUS-DP to G-64 intelligent interface based on an OEM fieldbus mezzanine board on one side and an FPGA implementing the required functionality on the other. Simultaneously, the fast timing system has been completely reshuffled ...

  11. A proposal of a beam injection device for the proton storage ring of JAERI neutron science project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    A new injection device (a charge-exchange device) with light and magnetic field, is proposed for a proton storage ring of JAERI Neutron Science Project. This injection device is composed of a neutralizer and an ionizer. The neutralizer strips electrons of H 0 beam into H - one with the undulator magnetic field. The ionizer which is composed of undulator magnets and an optical resonator placed along a straight part in the storage ring, can ionize effectively the H 0 beam excited to n=3 level by a laser beam into H + one. Adopting the 2nd harmonics of Nd : YAG laser, the powerful laser on the market can be used, and the required items of the technological development can be minimized. The energy of the particle beam, however, should be accelerated up to 1.587 GeV by 6% increase from 1.5 GeV. In this device, the non-charge-exchange rate and beam-spill can be minimized by decreasing the deflection angle of the beam which occurs at the charge-exchange process. This method can be realized with exiting technologies and there are not any effects on the trajectory of the ring-circulating proton beam due to scatterings by the foil as the usual charge-exchange devices. This device, therefore, will be an optimal and highly effective method of the least beam-spill as the injector of the high power proton storage ring. (author)

  12. Cesium injection system for negative ion duoplasmatrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.J.

    1978-01-01

    A design for admitting cesium vapor into a hollow hydrogen plasma discharge in a duoplasmatron ion source for the purpose of increasing the negative hydrogen ion output current is described. 60 mA beam currents for negative hydrogen ions are reported

  13. Plasma dynamics near an earth satellite and neutralization of its electric charge during electron beam injection into the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamics of the ionospheric plasma in the vicinity of an earth satellite injecting an electron beam. The time evolution of the electric charge of the satellite is determined. The electric potential of the satellite is found to be well below the beam-cutoff potential. It is shown that, under conditions typical of active experiments in space, the plasma electrons are capable of neutralizing the satellite's charge

  14. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  15. The AGS Booster Beam Position Monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciardullo, D.J.; Abola, A.; Beadle, E.R.; Smith, G.A.; Thomas, R.; Van Zwienen, W.; Warkentien, R.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    To accelerate both protons and heavy ions, the AGS Booster requires a broadband (multi-octave) beam position monitoring system with a dynamic range spanning several orders of magnitude (2 x 10 10 to 1.5 x 10 13 particles per pulse). System requirements include the ability to acquire single turn trajectory and average orbit information with ± 0.1 mm resolution. The design goal of ± 0.5 mm corrected accuracy requires that the detectors have repeatable linear performance after periodic bakeout at 300 degree C. The system design and capabilities of the Booster Beam Position Monitor will be described, and initial results presented. 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Scattered radiation in fan beam imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, P.C.; Yaffe, M.

    1982-01-01

    Scatter-to-primary energy fluence ratios (S/P) have been studied for fan x-ray beams as used in CT scanners and slit projection radiography systems. The dependence of S/P on phantom diameter, distance from phantom to image receptor, and kilovoltage is presented. An empirical equation is given that predicts S/P over a wide range of fan beam imaging configurations. For CT body scans on a 4th-generation machine, S/P is approximately 5%. Scattered radiation can produce a significant cupping artefact in CT images which is similar to that due to beam hardening. When multiple slices are used in scanned slit radiography, they can be arranged such that the increase in S/P is negligible. Calculations of scatter-to-primary ratios for first order scattering showed that for fan beams the contribution of coherent scatter is comparable to or greater than that of incoherent first scatter

  17. The elettra beam line control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignacco, M.; Abrami, A.; Dequal, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Elettra is a third generation Synchrotron Light Source located in Trieste (Italy). It consists of a full energy linac injector and a storage ring with beam energies between 1.5 and 2 GeV. The facility is scheduled to be operational by end 1993. For the whole project 22 beam lines from insertion devices are foreseen, each of them is composed of a large number of measurement and controls instruments, most of them embedded in intelligent devices; in addition each beam line can be considered unique compared to the others, having been designed to provide a different kind of synchrotron radiation. This results in a large not homogenous environment where more than 200,000 physical points have to be controlled. A joint team composed of Softeco Sismat and Digital Equipment has developed a fully automated beam line control system able to give full remote controls, with different kind of access rights, to beam line users and beam line specialists as well as a full integration with experiment control systems. ((orig.))

  18. Destabilization of counter-propagating TAEs by off-axis, co-current Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta', M.; Fredrickson, E.; Gorelenkova, M.

    2017-10-01

    Neutral Beam injection (NBI) is a common tool to heat the plasma and drive current non-inductively in fusion devices. Energetic particles (EP) resulting from NBI can drive instabilities that are detrimental for the performance and the predictability of plasma discharges. A broad NBI deposition profile, e.g. by off-axis injection aiming near the plasma mid-radius, is often assumed to limit those undesired effects by reducing the radial gradient of the EP density, thus reducing the ``universal'' drive for instabilities. However, this work presents new evidence that off-axis NBI can also lead to undesired effects such as the destabilization of Alfvénic instabilities, as observed in NSTX-U plasmas. Experimental observations indicate that counter propagating toroidal AEs are destabilized as the radial EP density profile becomes hollow as a result of off-axis NBI. Time-dependent analysis with the TRANSP code, augmented by a reduced fast ion transport model (known as kick model), indicates that instabilities are driven by a combination of radial and energy gradients in the EP distribution. Understanding the mechanisms for wave-particle interaction, revealed by the phase space resolved analysis, is the basis to identify strategies to mitigate or suppress the observed instabilities. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. Computer system for the beam line data processing at JT-60 prototype neutral beam injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiike, Hiroshi; Kawai, Mikito; Ohara, Yoshihiro

    1987-08-01

    The present report describes the hard and soft wares of the data acquisition computer system for the prototype neutral injector unit for JT-60. In order to operate the unit, more than hundreds of signals of the beam line components have to be measured. These are mainly differential thermometers for the coolant waters and thermocouples for the beam dump components but not include those for the cryo system. Since the unit operates in a series of pulses, the measurement should be conducted very quickly in order to ensure the simultaneity of large number of the measured data. The present system actualize fast data acquisition using a small computer of 128 kB and measuring instruments connected through the bus. The system is connected to the JAERI computer center since the data capacity is fairly large to completely process them by the small computer. Therefore the measured data can be transferred to the computer center to calculate there, and the results can be received. After the system was completed the computer quickly print out the power flow data, which needed much work to calculate with hands. This system was very useful. It enhanced the experiments at the unit and reduced the labor. It enables us to early demonstrate the rated operation of the unit and to accurately estimate such operation data of the JT-60 NBI as the injection power. (author)

  20. Computer-aided injection molding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K. K.; Shen, S. F.; Cohen, C.; Hieber, C. A.; Isayev, A. I.

    1982-10-01

    Achievements are reported in cavity-filling simulation, modeling viscoelastic effects, measuring and predicting frozen-in birefringence in molded parts, measuring residual stresses and associated mechanical properties of molded parts, and developing an interactive mold-assembly design program and an automatic NC maching data generation and verification program. The Cornell Injection Molding Program (CIMP) consortium is discussed as are computer user manuals that have been published by the consortium. Major tasks which should be addressed in future efforts are listed, including: (1) predict and experimentally determine the post-fillin behavior of thermoplastics; (2) simulate and experimentally investigate the injection molding of thermosets and filled materials; and (3) further investigate residual stresses, orientation and mechanical properties.

  1. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  2. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  3. Safe LHC beam commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uythoven, J.; Schmidt, R.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the large amount of energy stored in magnets and beams, safety operation of the LHC is essential. The commissioning of the LHC machine protection system will be an integral part of the general LHC commissioning program. A brief overview of the LHC Machine Protection System will be given, identifying the main components: the Beam Interlock System, the Beam Dumping System, the Collimation System, the Beam Loss Monitoring System and the Quench Protection System. An outline is given of the commissioning strategy of these systems during the different commissioning phases of the LHC: without beam, injection and the different phases with stored beam depending on beam intensity and energy. (author)

  4. Electron and ion heat transport with lower hybrid current drive and neutral beam injection heating in ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeldner, F.X.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Bartiromo, R.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Leuterer, F.; Murmann, H.D.; Staebler, A.; Steuer, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    Transport code calculations were made for experiments with the combined operation of lower hybrid current drive and heating and of neutral beam injection heating on ASDEX. Peaking or flattening of the electron temperature profile are mainly explained by modifications of the MHD induced electron heat transport. They originate from current profile changes due to lower hybrid and neutral beam current drive and to contributions from the bootstrap current. Ion heat transport cannot be described by one single model for all heating scenarios. The ion heat conductivity is reduced during lower hybrid heated phases with respect to Ohmic and neutral beam heating. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  5. Optics measurements and transfer line matching for the SPS injection of the CERN Multi-Turn Extraction beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E; Cettour Cave, S; Follin, F; Gilardoni, S; Giovannozzi, M; Roncarolo, F

    2010-01-01

    Dispersion and beam optics measurements were carried out in the transfer line between the CERN PS and SPS for the new Multi-Turn Extraction beam. Since the extraction conditions of the four islands and the core are different and strongly dependent on the non-linear effects used to split the beam in the transverse plane, a special care was taken during the measurement campaigns. Furthermore, an appropriate strategy was devised to minimize the overall optical mismatch at SPS injection. All this led to a new optical configuration that will be presented in the paper.

  6. Characteristics of a long-pulse (30-s), high-power (4-MW) ion source for neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state ion source has been developed for neutral beam injection applications. It is of the duoPIGatron type designed for delivering 50 A of hydrogen ions at 80 keV for 30-s-long pulses. Ion beams of 40 A at 75 keV were extracted for pulse lengths up to 30 s, maintaining excellent optical quality in the beam for the entire pulse duration. The design features and operational characteristics of the ion source are elaborated

  7. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu Madhav, K.; Kovačević, A.

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an investigation carried out to determine the current limitations of water injected screw compressor systems and how these could be overcome in the 15-315 kW power range and delivery pressures of 6-10 bar. Modern rotor profiles and approach to sealing and cooling allow reasonably inexpensive air end design. The prototype of the water injected screw compressor air system was built and tested for performance and reliability. The water injected compressor system was compared with the oil injected and oil free compressor systems of the equivalent size including the economic analysis based on the lifecycle costs. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that water injected screw compressor systems could be designed to deliver clean air free of oil contamination with a better user value proposition than the oil injected or oil free screw compressor systems over the considered range of operations.

  8. Single-shot measurements of low emittance beams from laser-plasma accelerators comparing two triggered injection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen

    2017-10-01

    The success of laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications, such as a compact x-ray free electron laser (FEL), relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot energy-dispersed emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock-induced density down-ramp injection. Both injection mechanisms have gained in popularity in recent years due to their demonstrated stable LPA performance. For the down-ramp injection configuration, normalized emittances a factor of two lower were recorded: less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV. For both injection mechanisms, a contributing correlation of space charge to the emittance was identified. This measurement technique in general, and these results specifically, are critical to the evaluation of LPA injection methods and development of high-quality LPA beam lines worldwide. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1415596, and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.

  9. Remote systems requirements of the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-01-01

    Remote systems will be required in the high-yield lithium injection fusion energy converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings, and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser-beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources, their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  10. Remote systems requirements of the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy (HYLIFE) converter concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.E.

    1978-10-01

    Remote systems will be required in the High Yield Lithium Injection Fusion Energy Converter power plant proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. During inspection operations, viewing of the chamber interior and certain pumps, valve fittings and welds must be done remotely. Ideas for remote maintenance of laser beam blast baffles, optics, and target material traps are described. Radioisotope sources and their distributions, and exposure rates at various points in the reactor vicinity are presented

  11. Neutral beam system for an ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasolo, J.; Fuja, R.; Jung, J.; Moenich, J.; Norem, J.; Praeg, W.; Stevens, H.

    1978-01-01

    We have attempted to make detailed designs of several neutral beam systems which would be applicable to a large machine, e.g. an ITR (Ignition Test Reactor), EPR (Experimental Power Reactor), or reactor. Detailed studies of beam transport to the reactor and neutron transport from the reactor have been made. We have also considered constraints imposed by the neutron radiation environment in the injectors, and the resulting shielding, radiation-damage, and maintenance problems. The effects of neutron heat loads on cryopanels and ZrAl getter panels have been considered. Design studies of power supplies, vacuum systems, bending magnets, and injector layouts are in progress and will be discussed

  12. RHIC Beam Loss Monitor System Initial Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R. L.; Michnoff, R. J.; Geller, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The RHIC Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent beam loss quenching of the superconducting magnets, and acquire loss data. Four hundred ion chambers are located around the rings to detect losses. The required 8-decade range in signal current is compressed using an RC pre-integrator ahead of a low current amplifier. A beam abort may be triggered if fast or slow losses exceed programmable threshold levels. A micro-controller based VME module sets references and gains and reads trip status for up to 64 channels. Results obtained with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the prototype electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line are presented along with the present status of the system

  13. Measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection and ion cyclotron heating in ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Kwon, M.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; England, A.C.; Gossett, J.M.; Horton, L.D.; Isler, R.C.; Lyon, J.F.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Rayburn, T.M.; Shepard, T.D.; Bell, G.L.; Fowler, R.H.; Morris, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    A neutral particle analyzer (NPA) with horizontal and vertical scanning capability has been used to make initial measurements of the fast ion distribution during neutral beam injection (NBI) and ion cyclotron heating (ICH) on the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF). These measurements are presented and compared with the results of modeling codes that predict the analyzer signals during these heating processes. 6 refs., 5 figs

  14. The AGS Booster beam loss monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.; Bennett, G.W.; Witkover, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    A beam loss monitor system has been developed for the Brookhaven National Laboratory Booster accelerator, and is designed for use with intensities of up to 1.5 x 10 13 protons and carbon to gold ions at 50-3 x 10 9 ions per pulse. This system is a significant advance over the present AGS system by improving the sensitivity, dynamic range, and data acquisition. In addition to the large dynamic range achievable, it is adaptively shifted when high losses are detected. The system uses up to 80 argon filled ion chambers as detectors, as well as newly designed electronics for processing and digitizing detector outputs. The hardware simultaneously integrates each detector output, interfaces to the beam interrupt systems, and digitizes all 80 channels to 21 bits at 170 KHz. This paper discuses the design, construction, and operation of the system. 4 refs., 2 figs

  15. Neutral particle beam distributed data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, R.T.; Kraimer, M.R.; Novick, A.H.

    1987-01-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been designed to support experiments at the Argonne Neutral Particle Beam Accelerator. The system uses a host VAXstation II/GPX computer acting as an experimenter's station linked via Ethernet with multiple MicroVAX IIs and rtVAXs dedicated to acquiring data and controlling hardware at remote sites. This paper describes the hardware design of the system, the applications support software on the host and target computers, and the real-time performance

  16. Fast ion confinement during high power tangential neutral beam injection into low plasma current discharges on the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnevali, A.; Scott, S.D.; Neilson, H.; Galloway, M.; Stevens, P.; Thomas, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The beam ion thermalization process during tangential neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak is investigated. The classical model is tested in co- and counter-injected discharges at low plasma current, a regime where large orbit width excursions enhance the importance of the loss regions. To test the model, experimental charge exchange spectra are compared with the predictions of an orbit following Monte Carlo code. Measurements of beam-plasma neutron emission and measured decay rates of the emission following beam turnoff provide additional information. Good agreement is found between theory and experiment. Furthermore, beam additivity experiments show that, globally, the confinement of beam ions remains classical, independently of the injected beam power. However, some experimental evidence suggests that the fast ion density in the plasma core did not increase with beam power in a way consistent with classical processes. (author). 35 refs, 17 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Evolution of High Intensity Beams in the CERN PS Booster after H⁻ Injection and Phase Space Painting

    CERN Document Server

    Cieslak-Kowalska, Magdalena; Benedetto, Elena; Bracco, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    With the LHC Injector Upgrade (LIU) project, the injection energy of PS Booster (PSB) ' first circular accelerator in the LHC injector chain ' will be raised from 50 MeV to 160 MeV and the present multiturn injection will be upgraded to H⁻ injection with transverse and longitudinal painting. In the scope of this project, it is planned to double the beam intensities, profiting from the fact that the βγ2 factor will be two times larger (0.35 at 50 MeV and 0.71 at 160 MeV), so the resulting tune spread driven by a direct space charge should remain similar. This paper describes the feasibility to double the intensity of high intensity and large emittance beams, looking into the evolution under space charge and taking into account losses constrains in the ring and in the extraction lines.

  18. Optics Measurements and Matching of TT2-TT10 Line for Injection of the LHC Beam in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, E

    2008-01-01

    A well matched injection in the SPS is very important for preserving the emittance of the LHC beam. The paper presents the algorithms used for the analysis and the results of the 2007 optics measurements campaign done in the transfer line TT2-TT10 and in the SPS. The dispersion is computed by varying the beam momentum and recording the offsets at the BPMs, while the Twiss parameters and emittance measurements in TT2-TT10 are performed with beam profile monitors equipped with OTR screens. Finally, on the basis of such measurements, a betatron and dispersion matching of TT2-TT10 for injection in the SPS has been performed and successfully put in operation since October 2007.

  19. The design of a lead-bismuth target system with a dual injection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.H.; Kim, Y.; Song, T.Y.; Park, W.S.

    2005-01-01

    A spallation target system is a key component to be developed for an accelerator driven system (ADS). It is known that a 15 ∼ 25 MW spallation target is required for a practical 1000 MWth ADS. The design of a 20 MW spallation target is very challenging because more than 60% of the beam power is deposited as heat in a small volume of the target system. In the present work, a numerical design study was performed to obtain the optimal design parameters for a 20 MW spallation target for a 1000 MW ADS. A dual injection tube was proposed for the reduction of the LBE flow rate at the target channel. The results of the present study show that a 30 cm wide proton beam with a uniform beam distribution should be adopted for the spallation target of a 20 MW power. When the dual LBE injection tube is employed, the LBE flow rate could be reduced by a factor of 4 without reducing the maximum allowable beam current. (authors)

  20. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author)

  1. CANDU 6 liquid injection shutdown system waterhammer analysis using PTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Deuk Yoon; Kim, Eun Ki; Ko, Yong Sang; Park, Byung Ho; Kim, Seok Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    An in-core LOCA could result in flooding of the helium header in the liquid injection shutdown system. Flooding of the helium header will result in severe pressure transients (waterhammer) in the liquid injection shutdown system when the shutdown signal is initiated. To evaluate the impact of the dynamic effects of this event, a pressure transient analysis has been performed. This analysis is performed using PTRAN, which is a computer program based on the method of characteristics. The results of this analysis are used in the stress analysis of the piping and pipe supports to ensure that the liquid injection shutdown system can withstand the pressure transient loadings. This analysis report documents the results of waterhammer analysis performed for the liquid injection shutdown system for the Wolsung nuclear power plant unit 2, 3 and 4. 4 tabs., 11 figs., 15 refs. (Author).

  2. Ion beam pulse radiolysis system at HIMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitose, N; Katsumura, Y; Domae, M; Ishigure, K [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Murakami, T

    1997-03-01

    An ion beam pulse radiolysis system has been constructed at HIMAC facility. Ion beam of 24MeV He{sup 2+} with the duration longer than 1 {mu}s is available for irradiation. Three kinds of aqueous solutions, (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO, NaHCO{sub 3}, and KSCN, were irradiated and the absorption signals corresponding to (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}){sub 2}CO{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup -}, and (SCN){sub 2}{sup -} respectively were observed. Ghost signals which interfere with the measurement are also discussed. (author)

  3. Manufacture of New Set of Calorimeter Panels for the Neutral Beam Injection of ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, T.; Zabernig, A.; Riedel, R.; Schedler, B.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Entcheva, A.; Weigert, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Neutral Injection of ASDEX-Upgrade employs calorimeter panels to measure the power of the neutral beam. These components are designed to safely absorb specific heat flux loads as high as 25 MW/m 2 over a period of 10 s. The currently used calorimeter panels have reached after ten years the end of their service life time and have to be replaced. The components consist of the CuCrZr which is a precipitation hardened alloy. The selection of the manufacturing process therefore determines the final thermal and mechanical properties of the alloy. In the past these components were manufactured by a two step brazing process, at about 830 o C and 730 o C, respectively. This led to an overaging of the material resulting in low mechanical properties. As predicted by finite element calculations the cyclic heat flux load leads to ratcheting at the heated surface finally limiting the life time of the components. In order to increase the service life time of the component it has therefore been decided to employ electron beam welding as the only joining technique to realise the required joints of the components. To fully characterise this manufacturing route a qualification programme has been performed, which ended in the manufacture of prototypes. These have been tested in ASEDEX Upgrade in comparison to brazed components. After successful qualification of design and processes the manufacture and testing of 100 calorimeter panels has been launched and completed recently. The used design, the results of the qualification tests, the manufacturing sequence and the applied non-destructive methods will be described in the paper. (author)

  4. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A new Beam Halo Monitor (BHM) detector system has been installed in the CMS cavern to measure the machine-induced background (MIB) from the LHC. This background originates from interactions of the LHC beam halo with the final set of collimators before the CMS experiment and from beam gas interactions. The BHM detector uses the directional nature of Cherenkov radiation and event timing to select particles coming from the direction of the beam and to suppress those originating from the interaction point. It consists of 40 quartz rods, placed on each side of the CMS detector, coupled to UV sensitive PMTs. For each bunch crossing the PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC and the arrival time of the signal is recorded. The data are processed in real time to yield a precise measurement of per-bunch-crossing background rate. This measurement is made available to CMS and the LHC, to provide real-time feedback on the beam quality and to improve the efficiency of data taking. In this talk we will describ...

  5. The Influence of runner system on production of injection molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janostik Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study describes the influence of runner system on rheological properties during the injection molding process. Economic effects on the amount of production are discussed as well. Autodesk Moldflow Synergy 2016 (Moldflow was used for the study of the injection process. Three suggestions of the runner system, cold runner system, hot runner system and the combination of cold–hot runner system have been promoted. These three variants underwent the rheological and economic analysis. As a result, recommendations for the application of the runner system for the required amount of production have been suggested

  6. Implementation of EPICS based Control System for Radioisotope Beam line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Ha; Ahn, Tae-Sung; Song, Young-Gi; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Korea Mult-purpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been operating 100 MeV proton linear accelerator . For operating 100 MeV linac, various control system has been implemented such as vacuum, power supply, RCCS and etc. KOMAC is operating two beam lines so that clients can use 100 MeV proton beam for their experiment. KOMAC sends beam to beam line and target room using two dipole magnets and several quadrupole magnets. As demand for experiments and Radius Isotope using beam is increased, another beam line is under construction and RI beam line control system is need. To synchronize with KOMAC control system, RI beam line control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial control System (EPICS) software. The beam is transported to RI beam line to control magnet power supply and vacuum. Implementation of RI beam line control system is presented and some preliminary results are reported. The base RI beam line control system is implemented. It can control beam direction and vacuum. Comparing archived data and current data, RI beam line and control system will be improved. In the future, scroll pump and gate control system will be implemented using programmable logic controller PLC. RI beam interlock sequence will be added to KOMAC interlock system to protect linac.

  7. Long pulse neutral beam system for the Tokamak Physics Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Bowen, O.N.; Dahlgren, F.; Edwards, J.W.; Kamperschroer, J.; Newman, R.; O'Connor, T.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; Halle, A. von; Wright, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) is planned as a long-pulse or steady-state machine to serve as a successor to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The neutral beam component of the heating and current drive systems will be provided by a TFTR beamline modified to allow operation for pulse lengths of 1000s. This paper presents a brief overview of the conceptual design which has been carried out to determine the changes to the beamline and power supply components that will be required to extend the pulse length from its present limitation of 1s at full power. The modified system, like the present one, will be capable of injecting about 8MW of power as neutral deuterium. The initial operation will be with a single beamline oriented co-directional to the plasma current, but the TPX system design is capable of accommodating an additional co-directional beamline and a counter-directional beamline. ((orig.))

  8. RHIC beam loss monitor system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.; Zitvogel, E.; Michnoff, R.

    1997-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) System is designed to prevent the quenching of RHIC magnets due to beam loss, provide quantitative loss data, and the loss history in the event of a beam abort. The system uses 400 ion chambers of a modified Tevatron design. To satisfy fast (single turn) and slow (100 msec) loss beam criteria and provide sensitivity for studies measurements, a range of over 8 decades is needed. An RC pre-integrator reduces the dynamic range for a low current amplifier. This is digitized for data logging. The output is also applied to an analog multiplier which compensates the energy dependence, extending the range of the abort comparators. High and low pass filters separate the signal to dual comparators with independent programmable trip levels. Up to 64 channels, on 8 VME boards, are controlled by a micro-controller based VME module, decoupling it from the front-end computer (FEC) for real-time operation. Results with the detectors in the RHIC Sextant Test and the electronics in the AGS-to-RHIC (AtR) transfer line will be presented

  9. Echo 2: a study of electron beams injected into the high-latitude ionosphere from a large sounding rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winckler, J.R.; Arnoldy, R.L.; Hendrickson, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The Black Brant V-C Echo 2 rocket was launched at Fort Churchill on September 25, 1972, and it injected 64-ms pulses of electron beams of 80-mA current and 45-keV voltage into the ionosphere. This paper studies the responses of on-board electrostatic deflection and solid state detectors to injected electrons after motion in the near ionosphere and atmosphere. It is shown that it was only through some form of scattering that the detectors could sense the injected beam electrons. By means of 'phase maps' of injection and detection pitch angles a number of distinct regions are found corresponding to a rocket scattering halo, an atmospheric scattering halo, a region of weak responses, and a source of strong scattering above the rocket. The atmospheric scattering has been compared with the theoretical and experimental results of the Echo 1 experiment, and it is found to be in reasonable agreement. The rocket halo is discussed qualitatively; but no explanation is found for the backscatter from above the rocket, which may be associated with an occasional violent beam instability. This analysis has been carried out to better understand the complexities of electron motion observed near large rockets carrying artifical electron accelerators as a guide in the planning of future experiments

  10. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  11. Vibration analysis of the Golfech 2 safety injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.

    1993-01-01

    The main function of the safety injection system in a PWR plant is to ensure cooling of fuel elements in the event of a loss of coolant accident. The multistage centrifugal pump mounted-on this system induces pressure fluctuations, resulting in dynamic loads on piping. In certain plant units, these loads have caused cracking in the nozzles connected to the safety injection system, whereas in others, no damage has been observed. In order to understand the differences in dynamic behavior observed from one site to another, tests were performed on a real safety injection system, that of Golfech-2. They enabled determination of the modal characteristics of the system and identification of the hydro-acoustic source of the low head safety injection pump. They also enabled assessment of the pressure fluctuation levels in the pump suction and discharge areas as well as the vibratory response of the system when operating under partial and nominal flow conditions. Finally, these test results were used to estimate fatigue damage in the safety injection system. The experimental results will later be used to validate the model of the system undertaken with the piping design code CIRCUS and define the boundary conditions to be taken into account. (author). 6 figs., 2 refs

  12. Pressure Fluctuations in a Common-Rail Fuel Injection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothrock, A M

    1931-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine experimentally the instantaneous pressures at the discharge orifice of a common-rail fuel injection system in which the timing valve and cut-off valve were at some distance from the automatic fuel injection valve, and also to determine the methods by which the pressure fluctuations could be controlled. The results show that pressure wave phenomena occur between the high-pressure reservoir and the discharge orifice, but that these pressure waves can be controlled so as to be advantageous to the injection of the fuel. The results also give data applicable to the design of such an injection system for a high-speed compression-ignition engine.

  13. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  14. Beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for ion beam transport line used in applied research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skuratov, V.A.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Arkhipov, A.V.; Illes, A.; Bodnar, K.; Illes, Z.; Havancsak, K.

    1999-01-01

    Ion beam transport line for applied research on U-400 cyclotron, beam diagnostics and data acquisition system for condensed matter studies are described. The main features of Windows-based real time program are considered

  15. Extracted-beam-detection system around synchrotron saturne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anne, Remy; Milleret, Gerard; Giuliani, Arlette; Lefol, Andre; Perret, Robert; Poupard, Joseph; Trogno, Andre; Van den Bossche, Maurice; N'Guyen Sieu Viet.

    1977-07-01

    The extracted-beam-detection system working around the synchrotron Saturne is presented. The whole system is composed of about forty multiwire chambers used for beam tuning and providing beams profiles. Optic beam parameters such as position, divergence, dimension, emittance can be easily measured, or calculated with a program running on a computer. They are working in large range intensity beams (10 2 to 5.10 11 p/cm 2 /s of protons, alpha particles, deutons, pions, tritons and electrons [fr

  16. Beam dynamics in the SLC final focus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambade, P.S.

    1987-06-01

    The SLC luminosity is reached by colliding beams focused to about 2 μm transverse sizes. The Final Focus System (FFS) must enable, beyond its basic optical design, the detection and correction of errors accumulated in the system. In this paper, after summarizing the design, we review the sensitivity to such errors and the ability to correct them. The overall tuning strategy involves three phases: single beam spot minimization, steering the beams in collision and luminosity optimization with beam-beam effects

  17. EXPERIMENTAL TARGET INJECTION AND TRACKING SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION AND SINGLE SHOT TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETZOLDT, R.W.; ALEXANDER, N.B.; DRAKE, T.J.; GOODIN, D.T; JONESTRACK, K; VERMILLION, B.A

    2003-01-01

    Targets must be injected into an IFE power plant at a rate of approximately 5 to 10 Hz. Targets must be tracked very accurately to allow driver beams to be aligned with defined points on the targets with accuracy ± 150 (micro)m for indirect drive and ± 20 (micro)m for direct drive. An experimental target injection and tracking system has been constructed at General Atomics. The injector system will be used as a tool for testing the survivability of various target designs and provide feedback to the target designers. Helium gas propels the targets down an 8 m gun barrel up to 400 m/s. Direct-drive targets are protected in the barrel by sabots that are spring loaded to separate into two halves after acceleration. A sabot deflector directs the sabot halves away from the target injection path. Targets will be optically tracked with laser beams and line-scan cameras. Target position and arrival time will be predicted in real time based on early target position measurements. The system installation will be described. System testing to overcome excessive projectile wear and debris in the gun barrel is presented

  18. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron

  19. Initial results from beam commissioning of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Carlier, E; Ducimetière, L; Gallet, E; Gyr, M; Jensen, L; Jones, R; Kain, V; Kramer, T; Lamont, M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Risselada, Thys; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Weterings, W

    2010-01-01

    Initial commissioning of the LHC beam dump system with beam took place in August and September 2008. The preparation, setting-up and the tests performed are described together with results of the extractions of beam into the dump lines. Analysis of the first detailed aperture measurements of the extraction channels and kicker performance derived from dilution sweep shapes are presented. The performance of the other equipment subsystems is summarised, in particular that of the dedicated dump system beam instrumentation.

  20. Methods of measuring of the ion beam transversal emittance in the injection channel of the cyclotron DC-72

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarinov, N; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I

    2002-01-01

    The methods of measuring of the transversal emittance of ion beams in the cyclotron DC-72 injection channel with the help of the 'pepper-pot' and gradient means are discussed in this work. Two ways for the reconstruction of the ion beam transversal emittance are proposed for the 'pepper-pot' method. The first one can be used for beams having the uniform distribution of particles in the phase space. At that the values of the Twiss matrix and the full beam emittance are reconstructed according to the measurement results with the help of the phase ellipse fitting by the least-squares method. The corresponding FORTRAN code was created. On simulation the beam emittance was reconstructed with accuracy of 5%. The second method of the beam emittance reconstruction can be used in the common case at the arbitrary particle distribution in the phase space. It is based on calculation of the mean-square parameters of the beam according to the measurement results in the plane of the 'pepper-pot' mask. The mean-square emitta...

  1. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  2. Helium refrigeration system for BNL colliding beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Farah, Y.; Gibbs, R.J.; Schlafke, A.P.; Schneider, W.J.; Sondericker, J.H.; Wu, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    A Helium Refrigeration System which will supply the cooling required for the Colliding Beam Accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory is under construction. Testing of the compressor system is scheduled for late 1983 and will be followed by refrigerator acceptance tests in 1984. The refrigerator has a design capacity of 24.8 kW at a temperature level near 4K while simultaneously producing 55 kW for heat shield loads at 55K. When completed, the helium refrigerator will be the world's largest. Twenty-five oil-injected screw compressors with an installed total of 23,250 horsepower will supply the gas required. One of the unique features of the cycle is the application of three centrifugal compressors used at liquid helium temperature to produce the low temperatures (2.5K) and high flow rates (4154 g/s) required for this service

  3. Colliding beam fusion reactor space propulsion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessel, Frank J.; Binderbauer, Michl W.; Rostoker, Norman; Rahman, Hafiz Ur; O'Toole, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    We describe a space propulsion system based on the Colliding Beam Fusion Reactor (CBFR). The CBFR is a high-beta, field-reversed, magnetic configuration with ion energies in the range of hundreds of keV. Repetitively-pulsed ion beams sustain the plasma distribution and provide current drive. The confinement physics is based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equation, including a Fokker Planck collision operator and all sources and sinks for energy and particle flow. The mean azimuthal velocities and temperatures of the fuel ion species are equal and the plasma current is unneutralized by the electrons. The resulting distribution functions are thermal in a moving frame of reference. The ion gyro-orbit radius is comparable to the dimensions of the confinement system, hence classical transport of the particles and energy is expected and the device is scaleable. We have analyzed the design over a range of 10 6 -10 9 Watts of output power (0.15-150 Newtons thrust) with a specific impulse of, I sp ∼10 6 sec. A 50 MW propulsion system might involve the following parameters: 4-meters diameterx10-meters length, magnetic field ∼7 Tesla, ion beam current ∼10 A, and fuels of either D-He 3 ,P-B 11 ,P-Li 6 ,D-Li 6 , etc

  4. Beam loss monitor system for machine protection

    CERN Document Server

    Dehning, B

    2005-01-01

    Most beam loss monitoring systems are based on the detection of secondary shower particles which depose their energy in the accelerator equipment and finally also in the monitoring detector. To allow an efficient protection of the equipment, the likely loss locations have to be identified by tracking simulations or by using low intensity beams. If superconducting magnets are used for the beam guiding system, not only a damage protection is required but also quench preventions. The quench levels for high field magnets are several orders of magnitude below the damage levels. To keep the operational efficiency high under such circumstances, the calibration factor between the energy deposition in the coils and the energy deposition in the detectors has to be accurately known. To allow a reliable damage protection and quench prevention, the mean time between failures should be high. If in such failsafe system the number of monitors is numerous, the false dump probability has to be kept low to keep a high operation...

  5. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  6. A description of the ITER's gas injection systems and current R and D activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.; Li, B.; Maruyama, S.; Jiang, T.; Yang, Y.; Xia, Z.W.; Zhang, Y.X.; Lu, J.

    2012-01-01

    The gas injection system (GIS) is an indispensable part of ITER fueling system. It deliveries the necessary gas species from tritium plant to vacuum vessel, pellet injection system or neutral beam for plasma operation and fusion power shutdown. In this paper, the current design status of GIS, including the previous design changes, is briefly described. As the GIS design justification and support, the experimental study on GIS response time is illustrated. The factors delayed the GIS response time are identified, and two kinds of control mode are proved to be effective for improving the GIS response time. The exploration on magnetic shield design shows the discrepancy of shielding performance occurs in the case of the paralleling external magnetic field to the sample cylinder. These R and D works prove the design feasibility in some ways, and support possible solutions for design challenges as alternative design options.

  7. Fuel injection system for internal combustion engines. Kraftstoffeinspritzsystem fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafner, U.

    1990-09-13

    A fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine is provided with a fuel supply line (13) and at least one electromagnetically actuated fuel injection valve (14) for apportioning a quantity of fuel for injection. A connection muzzle (24) coming from the valve body (23) juts into an opening (22) in the suction pipe (21) of the internal combustion engine. The end of the injection valve opposite the connecting muzzle (24) is connected with the fuel supply line via a fuel entry. The valve body (23) is enclosed by a casing (25) in order to provide the conditions required for a warm start. An annulus (31) extending over a large part of the axial length of the valve remains between the casing and the valve body (23). The annulus (31) communicates with the fuel flow through the fuel supply line (13) via an afflux and an efflux opening (32, 33) (Fig. 1).

  8. LHC beam dumping system Extraction channel layout and acceptance

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, B; Uythoven, J; Veness, R; Weterings, W

    2003-01-01

    The LHC beam dumping system must safely abort the LHC beams under all conditions, including those resulting from abnormal behaviour of machine elements or subsystems of the beam dumping system itself. The extraction channels must provide sufficient aperture both for the circulating and extracted beams, over the whole energy range and under various beam parameters. These requirements impose tight constraints on the tolerances of various extraction channel components, and also on the allowed range of beam positions in the region of these components. Operation of the beam dumping system under various fault states has been considered, and the resulting apertures calculated. After describing briefly the beam dumping system and the extraction channel geometry, the various assumptions made in the analysis are presented, before deriving tolerance limits for the relevant equipment and beam parameters.

  9. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O'Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements

  10. Contrastive Analysis and Research on Negative Pressure Beam Tube System and Positive Pressure Beam Tube System for Mine Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyi; Shen, Jialong; Liu, Xinbo

    2018-01-01

    Against the technical defects of universally applicable beam tube monitoring system at present, such as air suction in the beam tube, line clogging, long sampling time, etc., the paper analyzes the current situation of the spontaneous combustion fire disaster forecast of mine in our country and these defects one by one. On this basis, the paper proposes a research thought that improving the positive pressure beam tube so as to substitute the negative pressure beam tube. Then, the paper introduces the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology through theoretical analysis and experiment. In the comparison with negative pressure beam tube, the paper concludes the advantage of the new system and draws the conclusion that the positive pressure beam tube is superior to the negative pressure beam tube system both in test result and test time. At last, the paper proposes prospect of the beam tube monitoring system based on positive pressure technology.

  11. Neutral beam injection status and R and D needs for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becraft, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Next Step (TNS) Program, established by DOE at ORNL in early 1976, has as one of its key objectives to provide a means of focusing the R and D efforts in the National Fusion Program toward the achievement of economically viable tokamak fusion reactors. One part of a draft program plan issued in December, 1977, specifically addressed the R and D needs of each of the major subsystems of a tokamak fusion device that would be extrapolatable to a reactor. Included as a major subsystem was plasma heating. It is the purpose of the effort reported here to continue the assessment started and to update and expand its findings. The goal continues to be to define, justify and order the required R and D programs that would ensure neutral injection systems for heating tokamak plasmas to be available for a TNS-type machine operation start assumed to be in 1990. Particle injection is covered here. Wave heating is being addressed in a separate, parallel effort

  12. Beam-plasma instability in ion beam systems used in neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, E.B. Jr.

    1977-02-01

    The beam-plasma instability is analyzed for the ion beams used for neutral beam generation. Both positive and negative ion beams are considered. Stability is predicted when the beam velocity is less than the electron thermal velocity; the only exception occurs when the electron density accompanying a negative ion beam is less than the ion density by nearly the ratio of electron to ion masses. For cases in which the beam velocity is greater than the electron thermal velocity, instability is predicted near the electron plasma frequency

  13. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S.

    1993-02-01

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. ne particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turn while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  14. Simulation of the injection damping and resonance correction systems for the HEB of the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.; Zhang, P.; Machida, S. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, Dallas, Texas 75237 (United States))

    1993-12-25

    An injection damping and resonance correction system for the High Energy Booster (HEB) of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) was investigated by means of multiparticle tracking. For an injection damping study, the code Simpsons is modified to utilize two Beam Position Monitors (BPM) and two dampers. The particles of 200 Gev/c, numbered 1024 or more, with Gaussian distribution in 6-D phase space are injected into the HEB with certain injection offsets. The whole bunch of particles is then kicked in proportion to the BPM signals with some upper limit. Tracking these particles up to several hundred turns while the damping system is acting shows the turn-by-turn emittance growth, which is caused by the tune spread due to nonlinearity of the lattice and residual chromaticity with synchrotron oscillations. For a resonance correction study, the operating tune is scanned as a function of time so that a bunch goes through a resonance. The performance of the resonance correction system is demonstrated. We optimize the system parameters which satisfy the emittance budget of the HEB, taking into account the realistic hardware requirement.

  15. Electron beam producing system for very high acceleration voltages and beam powers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andelfinger, C.; Dommaschk, W.; Ott, W.; Ulrich, M.; Weber, G.

    1975-01-01

    An electron beam producing system for acceleration voltages on the order of megavolts and beam powers on the order of gigawatts is described. A tubular housing of insulating material is used, and adjacent to its one closed end, a field emission cathode with a large surface area is arranged, while at its other end, from which the electron beam emerges, an annular anode is arranged. The device for collimating the electron beam consists of annular electrodes. (auth)

  16. A novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)395725

    2015-01-01

    With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fastpulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the inco...

  17. An interactive beam position monitor system simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, W.A.; Shea, T.J.

    1993-03-01

    A system simulator has been implemented to aid the development of the RHIC position monitor system. Based on the LabVIEW software package by National Instruments, this simulator allows engineers and technicians to interactively explore the parameter space of a system during the design phase. Adjustable parameters are divided into three categories: beam, pickup, and electronics. The simulator uses these parameters in simple formulas to produce results in both time-domain and frequencydomain. During the prototyping phase, these simulated results can be compared to test data acquired with the same software package. The RHIC position monitor system is presented as an example, but the software is applicable to several other systems as well

  18. Non-Linear Beam Transport System for the LENS 7 MeV Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, William P; Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    A beam transport system has been designed to carry a high-intensity low-emittance proton beam from the exit of the RFQ-DTL acceleration system of the Indiana University Low Energy Neutron System (LENS)* to the neutron production target. The goal of the design was to provide a beam of uniform density over a 3cm by 3cm area at the target. Two octupole magnets** are employed in the beam line to provide the necessary beam phase space manipulations to achieve this goal. First order calculations were done using TRANSPORT and second order calculations have been performed using TURTLE. Second order simulations have been done using both a Gaussian beam distribution and a particle set generated by calculations of beam transport through the RFQ-DTL using PARMILA. Comparison of the design characteristics with initial measurements from the LENS commissioning process will be made.

  19. Performance with lead ions of the LHC beam dump system

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, R; Jensen, L; Lefèvre, T; Weterings, W

    2007-01-01

    The LHC beam dump system must function safely with 208Pb82+ions. The differences with respect to the LHC proton beams are briefly recalled, and the possible areas for performance concerns discussed, in particular the various beam intercepting devices and the beam instrumentation. Energy deposition simulation results for the most critical elements are presented, and the conclusions drawn for the lead ion operation. The expected performance of the beam instrumentation systems are reviewed in the context of the damage potential of the ion beam and the required functionality of the various safety and post-operational analysis requirements.

  20. Studies on the beam system for the calibration of the OPAL jet chamber with laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, G.

    1988-07-01

    UV laser beams are an important tool for the calibration of the OPAL jet chamber. A beam transport system containing about 350 mirrors in total guides the beams from the laser outside the detector into the chamber. Four of the mirrors are moveable under remote control allowing to guide the beams into each of the 24 sectors and to correct the beam path in case of deviations. A program to control these moveable mirrors has been developed. Drift velocity measurements will be performed by means of double beams which are generated by appropriate beamsplitters. Accurate knowledge of the double beam distances is essential to obtain the desired accuracy of better than 0.1% or 10 μm. Using a CCD device with a pixel size of 23x23 μm 2 the beam distance could be measured with errors below the required limit. (orig.)

  1. A beam position feedback system for beam lines at the photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, T.; Kamiya, Y.; Haga, K.; Mitsuhashi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The beam position of the synchrotron radiation produced from the Storage Ring was stabilized by a twofold position feedback system. A digital feedback system was developed to suppress the diurnal beam movement (one cycle of sin-like drifting motion per day) which became a serious problem in low-emittance operation. The feedback was applied to the closed-orbit-distortion (COD) correction system in order to cancel the position variation at all the beam lines proportionately to the variation monitored at one beam line. An analog feedback system is also used to suppress frequency components faster than the slow diurnal movement

  2. The drive beam pulse compression system for the CLIC RF power source

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, R

    1999-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) is a high energy (0.5 to 5 TeV) e ± linear collider that uses a high- current electron beam (the drive beam) for 30 GHz RF power production by the Two-Beam Acceleration (TBA) method. Recently, a new cost­effective and efficient generation scheme for the drive beam has been developed. A fully­loaded normal­conducting linac operating at lower frequency (937 MHz) generates and accelerates the drive beam bunches, and a compression system composed of a delay­line and two combiner rings produces the proper drive beam time structure for RF power generation in the drive beam decelerator. In this paper, a preliminary design of the whole compression system is presented. In particular, the fundamental issue of preserving the bunch quality along the complex is studied and its impact on the beam parameters and on the various system components is assessed. A first design of the rings and delay­line lattice, including path length tuning chicanes, injection and extraction regions is a...

  3. TFTR neutral-beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winje, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) consists of the accelerator grid power supply and the auxiliary power supplies required to operate the TFTR 120-keV ion sources. The current configuration of the NBPS including the 11-MVA accelerator grid power supply and the Arc and Filament power supplies isolated for operation at accelerator grid voltages up to 120 kV, is described. The prototype NBPS has been assembled at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has been operated. The results of the initial operation and the description and resolution of some of the technical problems encountered during the commissioning tests are presented

  4. Real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotherapy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yong; Wang Jingjin; Song Zheng; Zheng Putang; Wang Jianguo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a real-time beam profile imaging system for actinotheraphy accelerator. With the flash X-ray imager and the technique of digital image processing, a real-time 3-dimension dosage image is created from the intensity profile of the accelerator beam in real time. This system helps to obtain all the physical characters of the beam in any section plane, such as FWHM, penumbra, peak value, symmetry and homogeneity. This system has been used to acquire a 3-dimension dosage distribution of dynamic wedge modulator and the transient process of beam dosage. The system configure and the tested beam profile images are also presented

  5. AIP Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-01-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in di ff raction studies are discussed.

  6. Diffraction measurements using the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliokoski, Matti

    2017-03-01

    The Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system of the Large Hadron Collider protects the machine from beam induced damage by measuring the absorbed dose rates of beam losses, and by triggering beam dump if the rates increase above the allowed threshold limits. Although the detection time scales are optimized for multi-turn losses, information on fast losses can be recovered from the loss data. In this paper, methods in using the BLM system in diffraction studies are discussed.

  7. Electron beam accelerator energy control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Vijay; Rajan, Rehim; Acharya, S.; Mittal, K.C.

    2011-01-01

    A control system has been developed for the energy control of the electron beam accelerator using PLC. The accelerating voltage of 3 MV has been obtained by using parallel coupled voltage multiplier circuit. A autotransformer controlled variable 0-10 KV DC is fed to a tube based push pull oscillator to generate 120 Khz, 10 KV AC. Oscillator output voltage is stepped up to 0-300 KV/AC using a transformer. 0-300 KVAC is fed to the voltage multiplier column to generate the accelerating voltage at the dome 0-3 MV/DC. The control system has been designed to maintain the accelerator voltage same throughout the operation by adjusting the input voltage in close loop. Whenever there is any change in the output voltage either because of beam loading or arcing in the accelerator. The instantaneous accelerator voltage or energy is a direct proportional to 0-10 KVDC obtained from autotransformer. A PLC based control system with user settable energy level has been installed for 3 MeV, EB accelerator. The PLC takes the user defined energy value through a touch screen and compares it to the actual accelerating voltage (obtained using resistive divider). Depending upon the error the PLC generates the pulses to adjust the autotransformer to bring the actual voltage to the set value within the window of error (presently set to +/- 0.1%). (author)

  8. Beam loss reduction by injection painting in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex was commissioned in October 2007. Via the initial beam tuning and a series of underlying beam studies with low-intensity beams, since December 2009, we have intermittently been performing beam tuning experiments with higher-intensity beams including the injection painting technique. By optimizing the injection painting parameters, we have successfully achieved a 420 kW-equivalent output intensity at a low-level intensity loss of less than 1%. Also the corresponding numerical simulation well reproduced the observed painting parameter dependence on the beam loss, and captured a characteristic behavior of the high-intensity beam in the injection painting process. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained in the course of the RCS beam power ramp-up, especially on the beam loss reduction achieved by employing the injection painting, together with the numerical simulation results.

  9. Study on improvement of the lifetime of a field-reversed configuration by tangential neutron beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Hirano, Yoichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Mizuguchi, Naoki; Tomita, Yukihiro

    2006-01-01

    The numerical analysis of neutron beam injection (NBI) is carried out to keep the stationary conditions of the field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. The ionization process of neutron beam was reproduced by the Monte Carlo method. A confinement of 15 keV beam ion was investigated using the sharp of stormer region obtained by the position and velocity at a moment of ionization. The relation between the external magnetic field B ex [T] and radius of machine r w [m] was shown by B ex = 0.1 r w -3/4 . The power imparted to plasma was estimated by beam ion orbital calculation. The confinement coefficient of beam ion was lost by re-charge-exchange reaction with deuterium; this fact was discovered at first. In order to keep the configuration of plasma under the conditions of 0.2 T of the external magnetic field, 0.4 m of radius, and 100 eV ion temperature, about 17 MW/m NBI power is needed. (S.Y.)

  10. Modelling of liquid injection shutdown system (LISS) in ACR-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubcher, M.; Colton, A.; Donnelly, J.V.

    2008-01-01

    Modelling of the Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) in the ACR-1000 reactor core must account for the major phenomena that occur following its activation, namely the moderator hydraulics and core neutronics. The former requires modelling of the poison volumes, their time of entry into the reactor, and their propagation into the moderator after emission from the nozzle. The latter requires the reactivity worth of varying volumes and geometries of poisoned moderator fluid in order to simulate the reactivity effect of the injected poison. The time-dependent poison map is generated from hydraulic calculations, and then the neutronics data for standard geometries and concentrations is constructed using DRAGON. (author)

  11. The neutron beam users tape management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyall, B.; Johnson, M.W.

    1977-02-01

    Systems are described for dealing with data collected at the High Flux Reactor, Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble and brought on magnetic tape to the Neutron Beam Research Unit at the Rutherford Laboratory. The first system, named GNAT, was designed to archive the incoming 800 bpi tapes onto 6250 bpi tapes (to enable them to return to the ILL). The archiving program, besides choosing the archive tapes, keeping a record of the data sets archived, and writing the archive tape, should be able to cope with incoming tapes whose formats are somewhat different from the standard IBM format. The second system, named FONT, was designed to maintain a record of all the tapes in the NBRU's possession, their whereabouts and what data, if any, are on them. (U.K.)

  12. Beam-Forming Concentrating Solar Thermal Array Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwik, Thomas A. (Inventor); Dimotakis, Paul E. (Inventor); Hoppe, Daniel J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to concentrating solar-power systems and, more particularly, beam-forming concentrating solar thermal array power systems. A solar thermal array power system is provided, including a plurality of solar concentrators arranged in pods. Each solar concentrator includes a solar collector, one or more beam-forming elements, and one or more beam-steering elements. The solar collector is dimensioned to collect and divert incoming rays of sunlight. The beam-forming elements intercept the diverted rays of sunlight, and are shaped to concentrate the rays of sunlight into a beam. The steering elements are shaped, dimensioned, positioned, and/or oriented to deflect the beam toward a beam output path. The beams from the concentrators are converted to heat at a receiver, and the heat may be temporarily stored or directly used to generate electricity.

  13. Pneumatic hydrogen pellet injection system for the ISX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milora, S.L.; Foster, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of the solid hydrogen pellet injection system used in plasma refueling experiments on the ISX tokamak. The gun-type injector operates on the principle of gas dynamic acceleration of cold pellets confined laterally in a tube. The device is cooled by flowing liquid helium refrigerant, and pellets are formed in situ. Room temperature helium gas at moderate pressure is used as the propellant. The prototype device injected single hydrogen pellets into the tokamak discharge at a nominal 330 m/s. The tokamak plasma fuel content was observed to increase by (0.5--1.2) x 10 19 particles subsequent to pellet injection. A simple modification to the existing design has extended the performance to 1000 m/s. At higher propellant operating pressures (28 bars), the muzzle velocity is 20% less than predicted by an idealized constant area expansion process

  14. Injection of 40 kHz-modulated electron beam from the satellite: I. Beam-plasma interaction near the linear stability boundary

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baranets, N.; Ruzhin, Yu.; Dokukin, V.; Ciobanu, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Kiraga, A.; Vojta, Jaroslav; Šmilauer, Jan; Kudela, K.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 12 (2017), s. 2951-2968 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : energy waves * instability * system * beam- plasma interaction * space charge beam waves * pump wave * weak-coupling prediction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117717302181

  15. Influence of neutral-beam injection on impurity transport in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Murray, L.E.; Kasai, S.; Arnurius, D.E.; Bates, S.C.; Crume, E.C.; Dunlap, J.L.; Edmonds, P.H.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M.; Pare, V.K.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Swain, D.W.; Thomas, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of radiation from iron and from argon used as a test gas indicate that co-injection inhibits impurity accumulation in the interior of ISX-B discharges, but counter-injection enhances accumulation. These results agree qualitatively with recent theoretical calculations

  16. The Saturne beam measurement system for orbit corrections and high and low intensity beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueurce, L.; Nakach, A.; Sole, J.

    1980-07-01

    This paper summarizes the dipolar and multipolar correction system and the main beam diagnostics of Saturne II: wide-band RF electrostatic pick-up electrode for observation of bunches, beam position and tune measurement systems, special electrodes for observation of emittance blow-up when particles cross a resonance line. For low intensity beams, special electrodes and electronics have been developed. All this instrumentation is computer controlled

  17. High pressure common rail injection system modeling and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H P; Zheng, D; Tian, Y

    2016-07-01

    In this paper modeling and common-rail pressure control of high pressure common rail injection system (HPCRIS) is presented. The proposed mathematical model of high pressure common rail injection system which contains three sub-systems: high pressure pump sub-model, common rail sub-model and injector sub-model is a relative complicated nonlinear system. The mathematical model is validated by the software Matlab and a virtual detailed simulation environment. For the considered HPCRIS, an effective model free controller which is called Extended State Observer - based intelligent Proportional Integral (ESO-based iPI) controller is designed. And this proposed method is composed mainly of the referred ESO observer, and a time delay estimation based iPI controller. Finally, to demonstrate the performances of the proposed controller, the proposed ESO-based iPI controller is compared with a conventional PID controller and ADRC. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Charge exchange measurements of MHD activity during neutral beam injection in the Princeton Large Torus and the Poloidal Divertor Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gammel, G.; Herndon, D.L.; McCune, D.C.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    1987-01-01

    The horizontally scanning, multi-angle charge exchange analysers on the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) and the Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) were used to study the effects of MHD activity on the background ion distribution function and on the beam ion slowing-down process during high power neutral injection. Sawtooth oscillations were observed in the fast ion flux on PLT and PDX, and measurements with neutral beams providing local neutral density enhancement indicated that the ions were transported radially when these events occurred. With near-perpendicular injection in PDX, at the lower toroidal fields necessary to maximize the plasma beta, repetitive bursts of greatly enhanced charge exchange flux were observed. These were associated with the 'fishbone' MHD instability, and a substantial depletion of the perpendicular slowing-down spectrum below the injection energy was seen. A simple phenomenological model for this loss mechanism was developed, and its use in simulation codes has been successful in providing good agreement with the experimental data. The behaviour and characteristics of this model are well matched by direct theoretical calculations. (author)

  19. Electron energy distribution function in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak during neutral beam injection heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, E.; Dimitrova, M.; Havlicek, J.; Mitošinková, K.; Stöckel, J.; Varju, J.; Popov, Tsv K.; Komm, M.; Dejarnac, R.; Hacek, P.; Panek, R.; the COMPASS Team

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the results from swept probe measurements in the divertor region of the COMPASS tokamak in D-shaped, L-mode discharges, with toroidal magnetic field BT = 1.15 T, plasma current Ip = 180 kA and line-average electron densities varying from 2 to 8×1019 m-3. Using neutral beam injection heating, the electron energy distribution function is studied before and during the application of the beam. The current-voltage characteristics data are processed using the first-derivative probe technique. This technique allows one to evaluate the plasma potential and the real electron energy distribution function (respectively, the electron temperatures and densities). At the low average electron density of 2×1019 m-3, the electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian with a low-energy electron population with temperatures 4-6 eV and a high-energy electron group 12-25 eV. As the line-average electron density is increased, the electron temperatures decrease. At line-average electron densities above 7×1019 m-3, the electron energy distribution function is found to be Maxwellian with a temperature of 6-8.5 eV. The effect of the neutral beam injection heating power in the divertor region is also studied.

  20. Dust appearance rates during neutral beam injection and after oxygen bake in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.H.; Smirnov, R.D.; Rudakov, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    A simple model to quantify source and sink terms of dust observed in tokamaks using fast visible imaging is presented. During neutral beam injection (NBI), dust appearance rates increase in front of the neutral beam port by up to a factor of 5. The images show dust streaming from the port box as previously settled dust becomes mobilized during beam injection. Following an oxygen bake and vent, the dust observation rate is a factor of 2 lower than that after a vessel entry vent with no oxygen bake. Detected dust levels decay on a shot-to-shot basis in a roughly exponential fashion, with a decay time of approximately 20 s of plasma exposure. Appearance rates of dust mass are estimated using assumed lognormal and power law functional forms for the dust size distribution. The two dust size distributions differ significantly on the amount the dust material carried by the largest particles, highlighting the need for further dust studies in order to make accurate forecasts to ITER.

  1. The development of an expert system to tune a beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.E.; Brown, P.A.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC

    1989-01-01

    The experience of developing an Expert System to aid in the tuning of the Ion Source Injection beam line at TRIUMF is described. The challenging and complex task of introducing Expert System technology into an established accelerator operation is outlined. Success in this environment depends strongly on the choice of project, the choice of experts, the choice of tools, and the methods used to represent the expertise. All these choices are discussed

  2. Injection Bucket Jitter Compensation Using Phase Lock System at Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiya, K. [Fermilab; Drennan, C. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Chaurize, S. [Fermilab

    2017-05-12

    The extraction bucket position in the Fermilab Booster is controlled with a cogging process that involves the comparison of the Booster rf count and the Recycler Ring revolution marker. A one rf bucket jitter in the ex-traction bucket position results from the variability of the process that phase matches the Booster to the Recycler. However, the new slow phase lock process used to lock the frequency and phase of the Booster rf to the Recycler rf has been made digital and programmable and has been modified to correct the extraction notch position. The beam loss at the Recycler injection has been reduced by 20%. Beam studies and the phase lock system will be discussed in this paper.

  3. The control system for SSRF injection and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Qibing; Gu Ming; Wang Ruiping; Cheng Zhihao; Fan Xuerong; Zhu Haijun

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the injection and extraction control system design for SSRF, which is a distributed control system aimed at stability and reliability of the pulse power supplies, PPS (Personnel Protection System) and MPS (Machine Protection System). The hardware environment is mainly based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), and ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) is also applied for studying stability of the power supplies. WinCC and EPICS (Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) have been selected as the platforms of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition). For unifying the interfacing to the control computer, all front-end equipments are connected via Industrial Ethernet. (authors)

  4. High beam current shut-off systems in the APS linac and low energy transfer line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Knott, M.; Lumpkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two independent high beam current shut-off current monitoring systems (BESOCM) have been installed in the APS linac and the low energy transport line to provide personnel safety protection in the event of acceleration of excessive beam currents. Beam current is monitored by a fast current transformer (FCT) and fully redundant supervisory circuits connected to the Access Control Interlock System (ACIS) for beam intensity related shutdowns of the linac. One FCT is located at the end of the positron linac and the other in the low energy transport line, which directs beam to the positron accumulator ring (PAR). To ensure a high degree of reliability, both systems employ a continuous self-checking function, which injects a test pulse to a single-turn test winding after each ''real'' beam pulse to verify that the system is fully functional. The system is designed to be fail-safe for all possible system faults, such as loss of power, open or shorted signal or test cables, loss of external trigger, malfunction of gated integrator, etc. The system has been successfully commissioned and is now a reliable part of the total ACIS

  5. Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, N. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukumotn@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Ogawa, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Nagata, M. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uyama, T. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Shibata, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kashiwa, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Suzuki, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Kusama, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 {mu}s. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 {mu}s is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 {mu}s. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak.

  6. Compact toroid injection system for JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, N.; Ogawa, H.; Nagata, M.; Uyama, T.; Shibata, T.; Kashiwa, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Kusama, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The compact toroid (CT) injection system for JFT-2M is composed of a CT injector, a gas delivery and vacuum system, a power supply system, and a diagnostics system. In particular, the power supply system delivers high performance for CT formation and acceleration. The CT formation capacitor bank unit achieved a formation current of 350 kA with a rise time less than 10 μs. Although the CT acceleration bank units are equipped with 14 ignitron switches instead of gap switches to attenuate the discharge noise level, an acceleration current of 400 kA with a short rise time of 9 μs is controlled within a jitter of much less than 1 μs. The resulting CT velocity and mass density satisfy the requirements for CT penetration into the tokamak plasma core at a toroidal field of 1 T. This CT injection system is thus suitable for CT injection in a middle-sized tokamak plasma such as the JFT-2M tokamak

  7. Beam systems without failures - What can be done?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, M.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    The beam dumps at 3.5 TeV triggered by interlocks not related to the magnet powering are discussed. This concerns the systems like the RF, the transverse feedbacks, beam instrumentation, beam dumping system, collimators and control systems. An analysis of the reasons of these dumps is presented together with a possible strategy to mitigate the effect of these failures. It is very important to notice that no system has been identified to have any structural problem

  8. Contractile injection systems of bacteriophages and related systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Nicholas M I; van Raaij, Mark J; Leiman, Petr G

    2018-01-01

    Contractile tail bacteriophages, or myobacteriophages, use a sophisticated biomolecular structure to inject their genome into the bacterial host cell. This structure consists of a contractile sheath enveloping a rigid tube that is sharpened by a spike-shaped protein complex at its tip. The spike ...

  9. Stable, tunable, quasimonoenergetic electron beams produced in a laser wakefield near the threshold for self-injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Banerjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable operation of a laser-plasma accelerator near the threshold for electron self-injection in the blowout regime has been demonstrated with 25–60 TW, 30 fs laser pulses focused into a 3–4 millimeter length gas jet. Nearly Gaussian shape and high nanosecond contrast of the focused pulse appear to be critically important for controllable, tunable generation of 250–430 MeV electron bunches with a low-energy spread, ∼10  pC charge, a few-mrad divergence and pointing stability, and a vanishingly small low-energy background. The physical nature of the near-threshold behavior is examined using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Simulations indicate that properly locating the nonlinear focus of the laser pulse within the plasma suppresses continuous injection, thus reducing the low-energy tail of the electron beam.

  10. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  11. Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsenko, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed

  12. ITER neutral beam system US conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purgalis, P.

    1990-09-01

    In this document we present the US conceptual design of a neutral beam system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The design incorporates a barium surface conversion D - source feeding a linear array of accelerator channels. The system uses a dc accelerator with electrostatic quadrupoles for strong focusing. A high voltage power supply that is integrated with the accelerator is presented as an attractive option. A gas neutralizer is used and residual ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected to water-cooled dumps. Cryopanels are located at the accelerator exit to pump excess gas from the source and the neutralizer, and in the ion dump cavity to pump re-neutralized ions and neutralizer gas. All the above components are packaged in compact identical, independent modules which can be removed for remote maintenance. The neutral beam system delivers 75 MW of DO at 1.3 MeV, into three ports with a total of 9 modules arranged in stacks of three modules per port . To increase reliability each module is designed to deliver up to 10 MW; this allows eight modules operating at partial capacity to deliver the required power in the event one module is out of service, and provides 20% excess capacity to improve availability. Radiation protection is provided by shielding and by locating critical components in the source and accelerator 46.5 m from the torus centerline. Neutron shielding in the drift duct and neutralizer provides the added feature of limiting conductance and thus reducing gas flow to and from the torus

  13. Fast pulse beam generation systems for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The fast pulse beam generation system to supply the SLAC storage ring, SPEAR, by the two one nanosecond bunch electron beam pulses is described. Generation of these pulses is accomplished with a combination of a fast pulsed grided gun and a synchronized transverse beam chopper. Fast gun based on spherical cathode-grid assembly has output current up to 2As. Fast pulse amplifier system can handle trains of short pulses with repetition rates up to 40 MHz during the 1.6 μs normal accelerating time. Chopping deflector system consists of a resonant coaxial line with the deflecting plates. The resonator frequency is 39.667 MHz. A schematic diagram of the resonant system is shown. The fast beam pickup system has a one hundred picosecond rise time overrall. Fast beam generation and chopper systems permit to generate almost any short or single bunch beam profile needed for experiments

  14. Impurity transport during neutral beam injection in the ISX-B tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Crume, E.C.; Arnurius, D.E.; Murray, L.E.

    1980-10-01

    In ohmically heated ISX-B discharges, both the intrinsic iron impurity ions and small amounts of argon introduced as a test gas accumulate at the center of the plasma. But during certain beam-heated discharges, it appears that this accumulation does not take place. These results may reflect the conclusion of Stacey and Sigmar that momentum transferred from the beams to the plasma can inhibit inward impurity transport

  15. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200 degrees C (2,200 degrees F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed

  16. A beam sweeping system for the Fermilab antiproton production target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, F.M.

    1993-08-01

    In the Main Injector era beam intensities high enough to damage the antiproton production target will be available. In order to continue to operate with a tightly-focused primary beam spot on the target, and thus maintain yield, it will be necessary to spread the hot spot on the target by use of a beam sweeping system. This report summarizes the requirements for such a system, and addresses the issues involved in the design of a sweeping system

  17. 160 MeV $H^-$ Injection into the CERN PSB

    CERN Document Server

    Weterings, W; Borburgh, J; Fowler, T; Gerigk, F; Goddard, B; Hanke, K; Martini, M; Sermeus, L

    2007-01-01

    The H- beam from the proposed LINAC4 will be injected into the four existing rings of the PS Booster at 160 MeV. A substantial upgrade of the injection region is required, including the modification of the beam distribution system and the construction of a new H- injection system. This paper discusses beam dynamics and hardware requirements and presents the results of optimisation studies of the injection process for different beam characteristics and scenarios. The resulting conceptual design of the injection region is presented, together with the main hardware modifications and performance specifications.

  18. Reliability Analysis of the new Link between the Beam Interlock System and the LHC Beam Dumping System Zuverlässigkeitsanalyse der neuen Verbindung zwischen dem Beam Interlock System und dem LHC Beam Dumping System

    CERN Document Server

    Vatansever, Volkan

    The nominal stored energy in each LHC beam is 360 MJ, surpassing the beam energy of other accelerators by orders of magnitude. This energy threatens to damage accelerator components in case of uncontrolled beam losses To avoid damage of accelerator equipment due to impacting beam, the controlled removal of the LHC beams from the collider rings towards the dump block must be guaranteed at all times. Therefore, the LHC Beam Dumping System was built according to high reliability standards. To further reduce the risk of incapability to dump the beams in case of correlated failures in the redundant system, a new direct link from the LHC Beam Interlock System to the Re-triggering Lines of the LHC Beam Dumping System will be implemented for the startup with beam in 2015. This link represents a diverse redundancy to the current implementation, which should neither significantly increase the risk for so-called Asynchronous Beam Dumps nor compromise machine availability. Therefore, a reliability analysis down to the co...

  19. An elementary presentation of the PS ''beam control'' system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussard, D.

    1973-01-01

    The PS synchrotron control system is explained in general terms, covering the topics of frequency control, beam transfer, damping, stability, conservation of longitudinal emittance, and second order problems

  20. Economics of water injected air screw compressor systems

    OpenAIRE

    Madhav, K. V.; Kovacevic, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need for compressed air free of entrained oil to be used in industry. In many cases it can be supplied by oil flooded screw compressors with multi stage filtration systems, or by oil free screw compressors. However, if water injected screw compressors can be made to operate reliably, they could be more efficient and therefore cheaper to operate. Unfortunately, to date, such machines have proved to be insufficiently reliable and not cost effective. This paper describes an in...

  1. Fiber-Based, Injection-Molded Optofluidic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteucci, Marco; Triches, Marco; Nava, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to fabricate polymer optofluidic systems by means of injection molding that allow the insertion of standard optical fibers. The chip fabrication and assembly methods produce large numbers of robust optofluidic systems that can be easily assembled and disposed of, yet allow...... out two types of experiments that benefit from the improved optical system: optical stretching of red blood cells (RBCs) and Raman spectroscopy of a solution loaded into a hollow core fiber. The advantages offered by the presented technology are intended to encourage the use of LoC technology...

  2. Maintenance and Recovery of Water System for Injection (WFI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang; Ahmad Firdaus Jalil; Wan Mohd Firdaus Wan Ishak

    2015-01-01

    Water system for injection (WFI) is one of the main component in manufacturing pharmaceutical materials and radiopharmaceuticals. This system accredited in 2005. Water quality produced analyzed and give the unsatisfied results. The operation of WFI was stopped temporarily due to technical problems. In 2013, recovery works were implemented with budget of RM 226,500.00. Comprehensive maintenance were implemented by Rykertech (Asia) Sdn. Bhd. With duration of 24 months (October 2014 until September 2016) with cost RM 473,550.00. Now, this system operated in good condition and produced water that meet with the specifications. (author)

  3. Optimum design of the injection duct system of a stenter machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juraeva, Makhsuda; Song, Dong Joo [Yeungnam University, Geyongsan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Jin [Ajou Motor College, Boryeong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Stenter machines are used for drying fabrics in the textile industry and have a heater, injection duct system, and fans inside a chamber. The injection duct system has ducts and air-injecting holes. Plane-type injection duct systems were investigated to obtain uniform airflow at the air-injecting holes. The flow field of the injection duct systems was computed using ANSYS CFX with different heights of the duct end and different shapes for the air-injecting holes. There was a high mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes and high airflow circulation inside both plane-type and mountain-type ducts at the ends. The height of the duct end was varied between 40 mm and 160 mm. The injection duct systems were analyzed with four different shapes of air-injecting holes. The circular and elliptical holes had lower standard deviations of the mass flow rate than other shapes. Relatively uniform mass flow rates were obtained in the plane-type and mountain-type duct systems when the height of the duct end was 40 mm and the shape of the air-injecting holes was circular or elliptical. The developed injection duct systems were improved by obtaining a uniform mass flow rate at the air-injecting holes. A stenter prototype was fabricated with the developed injection duct system to confirm the numerical results. The developed injection duct system had better performance than the original system.

  4. Development of a focused ion beam micromachining system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellerin, J.G.; Griffis, D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    Focused ion beams are currently being investigated for many submicron fabrication and analytical purposes. An FIB micromachining system consisting of a UHV vacuum system, a liquid metal ion gun, and a control and data acquisition computer has been constructed. This system is being used to develop nanofabrication and nanomachining techniques involving focused ion beams and scanning tunneling microscopes.

  5. Development of focused ion beam systems with various ion species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Qing; Leung, K.-N.; King, Tsu-Jae; Jiang Ximan; Appleton, Bill R.

    2005-01-01

    Conventional focused ion beam systems employ a liquid-metal ion source (LMIS) to generate high-brightness beams, such as Ga + beams. Recently there has been an increased need for focused ion beams in areas like biological studies, advanced magnetic-film manufacturing and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In this article, status of development on focused ion beam systems with ion species such as O 2 + , P + , and B + will be reviewed. Compact columns for forming focused ion beams from low energy (∼3keV), to intermediate energy (∼35keV) are discussed. By using focused ion beams, a SOI MOSFET is fabricated entirely without any masks or resist

  6. Beam stability in synchrotrons with digital transverse feedback systems in dependence on beam tunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabitskij, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    The beam stability problem in synchrotrons with a digital transverse feedback system (TFS) is studied. The TFS damper kicker (DK) corrects the transverse momentum of a bunch in proportion to its displacement from the closed orbit measured at the location of the beam position monitor (BPM). It is shown that the area and configuration of the beam stability separatrix depend on the beam tune, the feedback gain, the phase balance between the phase advance from BPM to DK and the phase response of the feedback chain at the betatron frequency

  7. 120-keV beam direct conversion system for TFTR injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Several practical motivations exist for the development of beam direct conversion systems that are compatible with the injection systems of large experiments such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). We present a preliminary design in which we analyze the most acute problems involved in scaling up existing designs and apparatus to fulfill TFTR requirements. Some of the questions addressed are the requirements for electron suppression, gas pumping, compactness, and power densities. A new idea is presented that allows for the handling of higher beam power. The gross savings in the capital cost of injector power supplies for the TFTR will be about $7.2 million, but the net savings will be somewhat less than this. This preliminary design has not yet revealed fundamental limitations with respect to the development of beam energy-recovery systems operating at high levels of current, voltage, and power densities

  8. Design of Injection and Extraction Systems with Optimisation of Lattice and Layout for the CERN PS2 Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W

    2009-01-01

    The CERN Proton Synchrotron PS2 is one of the foreseen accelerators for the LHC injector upgrade. This upgrade aims first at increasing the instantaneous luminosity of LHC and second at providing a reliable beam for the CERN accelerator complex. From this aspect, the main characteristics of the PS2 are high reliability for high intensity beams. The goal of this thesis was the design of the machine’s lattice and injection/extraction systems meeting the constraints coming mainly from the LHC beam type but also from beam requirements of experiments at PS2 and the SPS. In the design, the given energy range together with filling schemes for different beam types and RF cogging were first used to define the circumference of the machine. Estimates on the space requirements of injection/extraction systems were made in order to divide the total machine length between arc and long straight section. Existing tunnels for transfer lines together with the minimisation of the total transfer line length favoured a race trac...

  9. High precision electron beam diagnostic system for high current long pulse beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y J; Fessenden, T; Holmes, C; Nelson, S D; Selchow, N.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the effort to develop a multi-axis electron beam transport system using stripline kicker technology for DARHT II applications, it is necessary to precisely determine the position and extent of long high energy beams (6-40 MeV, 1-4 kA, 2 microseconds) for accurate position control. The kicker positioning system utilizes shot-to-shot adjustments for reduction of relatively slow (<20 MHz) motion of the beam centroid. The electron beams passing through the diagnostic systems have the potential for large halo effects that tend to corrupt measurements performed using capacitive pick-off probes. Likewise, transmission line traveling wave probes have problems with multi-bounce effects due to these longer pulse widths. Finally, the high energy densities experienced in these applications distort typical foil beam position measurements

  10. Design of a negative ion neutral beam system for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easoz, J.R.

    1978-05-01

    A conceptual design of a neutral beam line based on the neutralization of negative deuterium ions is presented. This work is a detailed design of a complete neutral beam line based on using negative ions from a direct extraction source. Anticipating major technological advancements, beam line components have been scaled including the negative ion sources and components for the direct energy recovery of charged beams and high speed cryogenic pumping. With application to the next step in experimental fusion reactors (TNS), the neutral beam injector system that has been designed provides 10 MW of 200 keV neutral deuterium atoms. Several arms are required for plasma ignition

  11. Electron cyclotron beam measurement system in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamio, S., E-mail: kamio@nifs.ac.jp; Takahashi, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Ito, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Okada, K.; Osakabe, M.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    In order to evaluate the electron cyclotron (EC) heating power inside the Large Helical Device vacuum vessel and to investigate the physics of the interaction between the EC beam and the plasma, a direct measurement system for the EC beam transmitted through the plasma column was developed. The system consists of an EC beam target plate, which is made of isotropic graphite and faces against the EC beam through the plasma, and an IR camera for measuring the target plate temperature increase by the transmitted EC beam. This system is applicable to the high magnetic field (up to 2.75 T) and plasma density (up to 0.8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}). This system successfully evaluated the transmitted EC beam profile and the refraction.

  12. Beam-optics study of the gantry beam delivery system for light-ion cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, M.

    1995-12-01

    Ion optics considerations on the granty-like beam delivery system for light-ion cancer therapy are presented. A low-angle active beam scanning in two directions is included in the preliminary gantry design. The optical properties of several gantry modifications are discussed. (orig.)

  13. An emergency water injection system (EWIS) for future CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Andre L.F.; Todreas, Neil E.; Driscoll, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of the feasibility and effectiveness of water injection into the annulus between the calandria tubes and the pressure tubes of CANDU reactors. The purpose is to provide an efficient decay heat removal process that avoids permanent deformation of pressure tubes severe accident conditions, such as loss of coolant accident (LOCA). The water injection may present the benefit of cost reduction and better actuation of other related safety systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), in a setup that simulated, as close as possible, a CANDU bundle annular configuration, with heat fluxes on the order of 90 kW/m 2 : the inner cylinder simulates the pressure tube and the outer tube represents the calandria tube. The experimental matrix had three dimensions: power level, annulus water level and boundary conditions. The results achieved overall heat transfer coefficients (U), which are comparable to those required (for nominal accident progression) to avoid pressure tube permanent deformation, considering current CANDU reactor data. Nonetheless, future work should be carried out to investigate the fluid dynamics such as blowdown behavior, in the peak bundle, and the system lay-out inside the containment to provide fast water injection. (author)

  14. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25 0 rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm -2 ) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator

  15. Double deflection system for an electron beam device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.W.; Crewe, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    A double deflection scanning system for electron beam instruments is provided embodying a means of correcting isotropic coma, and anisotropic coma aberrations induced by the magnetic lens of such an instrument. The scanning system deflects the beam prior to entry into the magnetic lens from the normal on-axis intersection of the beam with the lens according to predetermined formulas and thereby reduces the aberrations

  16. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated

  17. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dyamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities of up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  18. Performance characterization of pneumatic single pellet injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuresko, D.D.; Milora, S.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Foster, C.A.; Combs, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory single-shot pellet injector, which has been used in plasma fueling experiments on ISX and PDX, has been upgraded and extensively instrumented in order to study the gas dynamics of pneumatic pellet injection. An improved pellet transport line was developed which utilizes a 0.3-cm-diam by 100-cm-long guide tube. Pellet gun performance was characterized by measurements of breech and muzzle dynamic pressures and by pellet velocity and mass determinations. Velocities up to 1.4 km/s were achieved for intact hydrogen pellets using hydrogen propellant at 5-MPa breech pressure. These data have been compared with new pellet acceleration calculations which include the effects of propellant friction, heat transfer, time-dependent boundary conditions, and finite gun geometry. These results provide a basis for the extrapolation of present-day pneumatic injection system performance to velocities in excess of 2 km/s

  19. Electrical spin injection into high mobility 2D systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltscher, M; Ciorga, M; Utz, M; Schuh, D; Bougeard, D; Weiss, D

    2014-12-05

    We report on spin injection into a high mobility 2D electron system confined at an (Al,Ga)As/GaAs interface, using (Ga,Mn)As Esaki diode contacts as spin aligners. We measured a clear nonlocal spin valve signal, which varies nonmonotonically with the applied bias voltage. The magnitude of the signal cannot be described by the standard spin drift-diffusion model, because at maximum this would require the spin polarization of the injected current to be much larger than 100%, which is unphysical. A strong correlation of the spin signal with contact width and electron mean free path suggests that ballistic transport in the 2D region below ferromagnetic contacts should be taken into account to fully describe the results.

  20. Power injected in dissipative systems and the fluctuation theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumaître, S.; Fauve, S.; McNamara, S.; Poggi, P.

    We consider three examples of dissipative dynamical systems involving many degrees of freedom, driven far from equilibrium by a constant or time dependent forcing. We study the statistical properties of the injected and dissipated power as well as the fluctuations of the total energy of these systems. The three systems under consideration are: a shell model of turbulence, a gas of hard spheres colliding inelastically and excited by a vibrating piston, and a Burridge-Knopoff spring-block model. Although they involve different types of forcing and dissipation, we show that the statistics of the injected power obey the ``fluctuation theorem" demonstrated in the case of time reversible dissipative systems maintained at constant total energy, or in the case of some stochastic processes. Although this may be only a consequence of the theory of large deviations, this allows a possible definition of ``temperature" for a dissipative system out of equilibrium. We consider how this ``temperature" scales with the energy and the number of degrees of freedom in the different systems under consideration.

  1. System Study: High-Pressure Safety Injection 1998-2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, John Alton [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Risk Assessment and Management Services Dept.

    2015-12-01

    This report presents an unreliability evaluation of the high-pressure safety injection system (HPSI) at 69 U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Demand, run hours, and failure data from fiscal year 1998 through 2014 for selected components were obtained from the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) Consolidated Events Database (ICES). The unreliability results are trended for the most recent 10 year period, while yearly estimates for system unreliability are provided for the entire active period. No statistically significant increasing or decreasing trends were identified in the HPSI results.

  2. The effect of low capacity injection systems on transient initiated loss of vessel water injection at Browns Ferry unit one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.T.

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) analyses have indicated the transient initiated loss of vessel water injection (TQUV sequence) to be a dominant accident scenario for BWR plants. The PRA studies assumed the low capacity injection systems to be unimportant in severe accidents. The results of a Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) Program study have shown that these systems are capable of preventing or significantly delaying core damage in a TQUV sequence

  3. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS for interventional tool guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Guo

    Full Text Available Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  4. RHIC beam permit and quench detection communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conkling, C.R. Jr.

    1997-01-01

    A beam permit module has been developed to concentrate RHIC, subsystem sensor outputs, permit beam, and initiate emergency shutdowns. The modules accept inputs from the vacuum, cryogenic, power supply, beam loss, and superconducting magnet quench detection systems. Modules are located at equipment locations around the RHIC ring. The modules are connected by three fiberoptic communications links; a beam permit link, and two magnet power supply interlock links. During operation, carrier presence allows beam. If a RHIC subsystem detects a fault, the beam permit carrier terminates - initiating a beam dump. If the fault was a superconducting magnet quench, a power supply interlock carrier terminates - initiating an emergency magnet power dump. In addition, the master module triggers an event to cause remote sensors to log and hold data at the time-of-failure

  5. Experimental study on beam for composite CES structural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Tomoya

    2017-10-01

    Development study on Concrete Encase Steel (CES) composite structure system has been continuously conducted toward the practical use. CES structure is composed of steel and fiber reinforced concrete. In previous study, it was found that CES structure has good seismic performance from experimental study of columns, beam - column joints, shear walls and a two story two span frame. However, as fundamental study on CES beam could be lacking, it is necessary to understand the structural performance of CES beam. In this study, static loading tests of CES beams were conducted with experimental valuable of steel size, the presence or absence of slab and thickness of slab. And restoring characteristics, failure behavior, deformation behavior, and strength evaluation method of CES beam were investigated. As the results, it was found that CES beam showed stable hysteresis behavior. Furthermore it was found that the flexural strength of the CES beam could be evaluated by superposition strength theory.

  6. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  7. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  8. [Systemic safety following intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillif, S; Levy, B; Girmens, J-F; Dumas, S; Tadayoni, R

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this manuscript is to assess data suggesting that intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (anti-VEGFs) could result in systemic adverse events (AEs). The class-specific systemic AEs should be similar to those encountered in cancer trials. The most frequent AE observed in oncology, hypertension and proteinuria, should thus be the most common expected in ophthalmology, but their severity should be lower because of the much lower doses of anti-VEGFs administered intravitreally. Such AEs have not been frequently reported in ophthalmology trials. In addition, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data describing systemic diffusion of anti-VEGFs should be interpreted with caution because of significant inconsistencies reported. Thus, safety data reported in ophthalmology trials and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic data provide robust evidence that systemic events after intravitreal injection are very unlikely. Additional studies are needed to explore this issue further, as much remains to be understood about local and systemic side effects of anti-VEGFs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Strontium-rich injectable hybrid system for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Nuno, E-mail: nsmneves@gmail.com [Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); INEB — Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 823, 4150-180 Porto (Portugal); FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Campos, Bruno B. [FCUP — Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Centro de Investigação em Química, Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Rua do Campo Alegre 1021/1055, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Almeida, Isabel F.; Costa, Paulo C. [FFUP — Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências do Medicamento, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Cabral, Abel Trigo [FMUP — Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Cirurgia, Serviço de Ortopedia, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); and others

    2016-02-01

    Current challenges in the development of scaffolds for bone regeneration include the engineering of materials that can withstand normal dynamic physiological mechanical stresses exerted on the bone and provide a matrix capable of supporting cell migration and tissue ingrowth. The objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a hybrid polymer–ceramic injectable system that consists of an alginate matrix crosslinked in situ in the presence of strontium (Sr), incorporating a ceramic reinforcement in the form of Sr-rich microspheres. The incorporation of Sr in the microspheres and in the vehicle relies on the growing evidence that Sr has beneficial effects in bone remodeling and in the treatment of osteopenic disorders and osteoporosis. Sr-rich porous hydroxyapatite microspheres with a uniform size and a mean diameter of 555 μm were prepared, and their compression strength and friability tested. A 3.5% (w/v) ultrapure sodium alginate solution was used as the vehicle and its in situ gelation was promoted by the addition of calcium (Ca) or Sr carbonate and Glucone-δ-lactone. Gelation times varied with temperature and crosslinking agent, being slower for Sr than for Ca, but adequate for injection in both cases. Injectability was evaluated using a device employed in vertebroplasty surgical procedures, coupled to a texture analyzer in compression mode. Compositions with 35% w of microspheres presented the best compromise between injectability and compression strength of the system, the force required to extrude it being lower than 100 N. Micro CT analysis revealed a homogeneous distribution of the microspheres inside the vehicle, and a mean inter-microspheres space of 220 μm. DMA results showed that elastic behavior of the hybrid is dominant over the viscous one and that the higher storage modulus was obtained for the 3.5%Alg–35%Sr-HAp-Sr formulation. - Highlights: • We developed a Sr rich viscoelastic hybrid system (alginate matrix crosslinked in

  10. Intensity and bunch length measurement for lepton beam in the injection lines of the SPS and LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Boccard, C; Papis, J P; Vos, L

    1995-01-01

    We describe a system which is used operationally to measure the absolute intensity of single lepton bunches in a beam transfer line. It is based on the detailed knowledge of every single item of a complex measuring chain that comprises a beam coupler on one end and an acquisition system on the other end. This knowledge can be acquired by a well tested theoretical model and careful measurement of the transfer function of each processing module. A precision better than 3 % can be obtained and no external calibration is required. A value for the bunch length can be deduced from a spectral intensity measurement at two well chosen frequencies.

  11. Electron gun design study for the IUCF beam cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesel, D.L.; Ellison, T.; Jones, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The design of a low temperature electron beam cooling system for the Indiana University electron-cooled storage ring is in progress. The storage ring, which will accept the light ion beams from the existing k=200, multi-stage cyclotron facility, requires an electron beam variable in energy from about 7 to 275 keV. The electron beam system consists of a high perveance electron gun with Pierce geometry and a flat cathode. The gun and a 28 element accelerating column are immersed in a uniform longitudinal magnetic guide field. A computer modeling study of the system was conducted to determine electron beam density and transverse temperature variations as a function of anode region and accelerator column design parameters. Transverse electron beam temperatures (E /SUB t/ = mc 2 β 2 γ(/theta/ /SUB H/ +/theta/ /SUB v/ )) of less than a few tenths of an electron volt at a maximum current density of 0.4 A/cm 2 are desired over the full energy range. This was achieved in the calculations without the use of resonant focusing for a 2 Amp, 275 keV electron beam. Some systematics of the electron beam temperature variations with system design parameters are presented. A short discussion of the mechanical design of the proposed electron beam system is also given

  12. NSRL 200 MeV linac beam energy stabilization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Guirong; Pei Yuanji; Dong Sai

    2001-01-01

    By using the computer image processing technology and RF phase auto-shifting system, the ESS (Energy Stabilization System) was applied to 200 MeV Linac. the ESS adjusts beam energy automatically in a range of +-4 MeV. After adjustment beam energy stability is improved to +-6%

  13. System for combining laser beams of diverse frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for combining laser beams of different frequencies into a number of beams each comprising laser radiation having components of each of the different frequencies. The system can be used in laser isotope separation facilities. (U.K.)

  14. A gamma beam profile imager for ELI-NP Gamma Beam System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, P.; Paternò, G.; Di Domenico, G.; Consoli, E.; Marziani, M.; Andreotti, M.; Evangelisti, F.; Squerzanti, S.; Gambaccini, M.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Tricomi, A.; Veltri, M.; Adriani, O.; Borgheresi, R.; Graziani, G.; Passaleva, G.; Serban, A.; Starodubtsev, O.; Variola, A.; Palumbo, L.

    2018-06-01

    The Gamma Beam System of ELI-Nuclear Physics is a high brilliance monochromatic gamma source based on the inverse Compton interaction between an intense high power laser and a bright electron beam with tunable energy. The source, currently being assembled in Magurele (Romania), is designed to provide a beam with tunable average energy ranging from 0.2 to 19.5 MeV, rms energy bandwidth down to 0.5% and flux of about 108 photons/s. The system includes a set of detectors for the diagnostic and complete characterization of the gamma beam. To evaluate the spatial distribution of the beam a gamma beam profile imager is required. For this purpose, a detector based on a scintillator target coupled to a CCD camera was designed and a prototype was tested at INFN-Ferrara laboratories. A set of analytical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to optimize the imager design and evaluate the performance expected with ELI-NP gamma beam. In this work the design of the imager is described in detail, as well as the simulation tools used and the results obtained. The simulation parameters were tuned and cross-checked with the experimental measurements carried out on the assembled prototype using the beam from an x-ray tube.

  15. Data acquisition system for medium power neutral beam test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.R. Jr.; Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.; Dagenhart, W.K.

    1978-06-01

    The Medium Power Neutral Beam Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed in order to develop, test, and condition powerful neutral beam lines for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors source performance, beam characteristics, and power deposition profiles to determine if the beam line is operating up to its design specifications. The speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. Analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display

  16. Data acquisition system for PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The PLT Neutral Beam Test Stand at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed to test and condition powerful neutral beam sources for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors the beam characteristics and power output to determine if the beam is operating at its design specifications. The high speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. The analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display

  17. Recent improvements to the DIII-D neutral beam instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam (NB) instrumentation and control (I and C) system provides for operational control and synchronization of the eight DIII-D neutral beam injection systems, as well as for pertinent data acquisition and safety interlocking. Recently, improvements were made to the I and C system. With the replacement of the NB control computers, new signal interfacing was required to accommodate the elimination of physical operator panels, in favor of graphical user interface control pages on computer terminal screens. The program in the mode control (MC) programmable logic controller (PLC), which serves as a logic-processing interface between the NB control computers and system hardware, was modified to improve the availability of NB heating of DIII-D plasmas in the event that one or more individual beam systems suddenly become unavailable while preparing for a tokamak experimental shot sequences. An upgraded computer platform was adopted for the NB control system operator interface and new graphical user interface pages were developed to more efficiently display system status data. A failure mode of the armor tile infrared thermometers (pyrometers), which serve to terminate beam pulsing if beam shine-through overheats wall thermal shielding inside the DIII-D tokamak, was characterized such that impending failures can be detected and repairs effected to mitigate beam system down-time. The hardware that controls gas flow to the beamline neutralizer cells was upgraded to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and interlocking was provided to terminate beam pulsing in the event of insufficient neutralizer gas flow. Motivation, implementation, and results of these improvements are presented

  18. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  19. Collected abstracts on particle beam diagnostic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    This report contains a compilation of abstracts on work related to particle beam diagnostics for high temperature plasmas. The abstracts were gathered in early 1978 and represent the status of the various programs as of that date. It is not suggested that this is a comprehensive list of all the work that is going on in the development of particle beam diagnostics, but it does provide a representative view of the work in this field. For example, no abstracts were received from the U.S.S.R. even though they have considerable activity in particle beam diagnostics

  20. Engineering aspects of particle beam fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Department of Energy is supporting research directed toward demonstration of DT fuel ignition in an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsule. As part of the ICF effort, two major Particle Beam Fusion Accelerators (PBFA I and II) are being developed at Sandia National Laboratories with the objective of providing energetic light ion beams of sufficient power density for target implosion. Supporting light ion beam research is being performed at the Naval Research Laboratory and at Cornell University. If the answers to several key physics and engineering questions are favorable, pulsed power accelerators will be able to provide an efficient and inexpensive approach to high target gain and eventual power production applications

  1. Realistic RF system and Beam Simulation in Real Time for a Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Tückmantel, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Due to heavy beam loading with gaps in the LHC beams, RF and beam are intimately linked to a complex system with fast transients where the RF loops and their limitations play a decisive role. Such a system is difficult to assess with analytical methods. To learn about overall system stability and for the definition of RF components to be built it is essential to understand the complete system long before the machine really exists. Therefore the author has written a general purpose real time simulation program and applied it to model the LHC machine with its beam pattern and complete double RF system. The latter is equipped with fast RF vector feedback loops having loop delay, transmitter power limitation and limited amplifier bandwidth as well as including one-turn-delay feedback and longitudinal batch injection damping. The development of all RF and beam quantities can be displayed graphically turn by turn. These frames can be assembled to a realistic multi-trace scope movie.

  2. Operation of the NuMI Beam Monitoring System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaska, Robert M.; Indurthy, Dharma; Keisler, Ryan; Kopp, Sacha; Mendoza, Steven; Pavlovich, Zarko; Proga, Marek; Bishai, Mary; Diwan, Milind; Viren, Brett; Harris, Debbie; Marchionni, Alberto; Morfin, Jorge; McDonald, Jeffrey; Naples, Donna; Northacker, David; Erwin, Albert; Ping, Huican; Velissaris, Cristos

    2006-01-01

    The NuMI (Neutrinos at the Main Injector) facility produces an intense neutrino beam for experiments. The NuMI Beam Monitoring system consists of four arrays of ion chambers that measure the intensity and distribution of the remnant hadron and tertiary muon beams produced in association with the neutrinos. The ion chambers operate in an environment of high particle fluxes and high radiation

  3. WGA-Alexa transsynaptic labeling in the phrenic motor system of adult rats: Intrapleural injection versus intradiaphragmatic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttry, Janelle L; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2015-02-15

    Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla. Intradiaphragmatic injection of WGA-Alexa 594 and vagal nerve injections of True blue were used to confirm the phrenic nuclei and to differentiate between the rVRG and the NA in the medulla. Following intrapleural injection, WGA-Alexa 488 was retrogradely transported to the phrenic nuclei and to the intercostal motor nuclei. Subsequently WGA-Alexa 488 was transsynaptically transported from the phrenic motoneurons to the pre-motor neurons in the rVRG that provide the descending drive to the phrenic neurons during inspiration. In addition WGA-Alexa 488 was identified in select cells of the NA confirmed by a dual label of both WGA-Alexa 488 and True blue. WGA-Alexa 488 demonstrates retrograde transsynaptic labeling following intrapleural injection whereas the previous method of injecting CTB-Alexa 488 only demonstrates retrograde labeling. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa fluor conjugates is an effective method to transsynaptically label the phrenic motor system providing an alternative for the invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injections. Furthermore, the study provides the first anatomical evidence of a direct synaptic relationship between rVRG and select NA cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Slow beam raster system at CEBAF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, C.; Beaufait, J.; Carlini, R.; Cuevas, C.; Vulcan, W.; Wines, R.

    1994-01-01

    A bedstead air-core raster magnet is being installed now, it will be used at CEBAF to scan the beam on the Hall C polarized target and the beam dump with fixed frequency 60 Hz in horizontal, 103.4 Hz in vertical. The x and y raster magnets are driven by Variac transformer and SUMIT-OMO inverter respectively. Both of them provide an approximate sine current waveform with peak current 20 A, corresponding to a maximum deflection angle 1 mr

  5. Evolution of radiation losses and importance of charge exchange between plasma impurities and injection beam neutrals in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeulders, P.

    1981-01-01

    In certain discharges during Neutral Injection (N.I.) (84 0 CO-injection) in the 1 = 2, m = 5 WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator impurity accumulation in the plasma center seems to occur as seen by bolometric, spectroscopic and ultra soft X-ray (USX) measurement. The time evolution of the radiation losses is shown. Three possible sources of the impurities which are responsible for the high central radiation losses are: - Beam injected impurities. - Plasma wall interaction. - Molybdenum protection plates. Possible mechanisms that can be responsible for the central impurity accumulations are: - An inward flow of the plasma or beam impurities. - An increased peaking of the depostion of the beam impurities. Various factors influencing the behaviour of the central radiation are mentioned. (orig./AH)

  6. Modematic: a fast laser beam analyzing system for high power CO2-laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Flemming O.; Ulrich, Dan

    2003-03-01

    The performance of an industrial laser is very much depending upon the characteristics of the laser beam. The ISO standards 11146 and 11154 describing test methods for laser beam parameters have been approved. To implement these methods in industry is difficult and especially for the infrared laser sources, such as the CO2-laser, the availabl analyzing systems are slow, difficult to apply and having limited reliability due to the nature of the detection methods. In an EUREKA-project the goal was defined to develop a laser beam analyzing system dedicated to high power CO2-lasers, which could fulfill the demands for an entire analyzing system, automating the time consuming pre-alignment and beam conditioning work required before a beam mode analyses, automating the analyzing sequences and data analysis required to determine the laser beam caustics and last but not least to deliver reliable close to real time data to the operator. The results of this project work will be described in this paper. The research project has led to the development of the Modematic laser beam analyzer, which is ready for the market.

  7. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressor by Using a Nozzle Injection System: Universality in Optimal Position of Injection Nozzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Hirano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The passive control method for surge and rotating stall in centrifugal compressors by using a nozzle injection system was proposed to extend the stable operating range to the low flow rate. A part of the flow at the scroll outlet of a compressor was recirculated to an injection nozzle installed on the inner wall of the suction pipe of the compressor through the bypass pipe and injected to the impeller inlet. Two types of compressors were tested at the rotational speeds of 50,000 rpm and 60,000 rpm with the parameter of the circumferential position of the injection nozzle. The present experimental results revealed that the optimum circumferential position, which most effectively reduced the flow rate for the surge inception, existed at the opposite side of the tongue of the scroll against the rotational axis and did not depend on the compressor system and the rotational speeds.

  8. Optimization of the beam extraction systems for the Linac4 H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, D. A.; Lettry, J.; Scrivens, R.; Steyaert, D. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Midttun, Ø. [University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048, 0316 Oslo (Norway); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Valerio-Lizarraga, C. A. [Departamento de Investigación en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-04-08

    The development of the Linac 4 and its integration into CERN’s acceleration complex is part of the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The goal is to inject a 160 MeV H{sup −} beam into the CERN PS Booster (PSB) in order to increase the beam brightness by a factor of 2 compared to the 50 MeV proton linac, Linac 2, that is currently in operation. The requirements for the ion source are a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 80 mA intensity, 2 Hz repetition rate and 0.5 ms pulse length within a normalized rms-emittance of 0.25 mm· mrad. The previously installed beam extraction system has been designed for an H{sup −} ion beam intensity of 20 mA produced by an RF-volume source with an electron to H{sup −} ratio of up to 50. For the required intensity upgrades of the Linac4 ion source, a new beam extraction system is being produced and tested; it is optimized for a cesiated surface RF-source with a nominal beam current of 40 mA and an electron to H{sup −} ratio of 4. The simulations, based on the IBSIMU code, are presented. At the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a peak beam current of more than 100 mA was demonstrated with a magnetron H{sup −} source at an energy of 35 keV and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. A new extraction system is required to operate at an energy of 45 keV; simulation of a two stage extraction system dedicated to the magnetron is presented.

  9. Spatial resolution test of a beam diagnostic system for DESIREE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Susanta; Kallberg, A.

    2010-11-01

    A diagnostic system based on the observation of low energy ( ˜ 10 eV) secondary electrons (SE) produced by a beam, striking a metallic foil has been built to monitor and to cover the wide range of beam intensities and energies for Double ElectroStatic Ion Ring ExpEriment [1,2].The system consists of a Faraday cup to measure the beam current, a collimator with circular apertures of different diameters to measure the spatial resolution of the system, a beam profile monitoring system (BPMS), and a control unit. The BPMS, in turn, consists of an aluminim (Al) foil, a grid placed in front of the Al foil to accelerate the SE, position sensitive MCP, fluorescent screen, and a CCD camera to capture the images. The collimator contains a set of circular holes of different diameters and separations (d) between them. The collimator cuts out from the beam areas equal to the holes with separation d mm between the beams centers and creates well separated (distinguishable) narrow beams of approximately same intensity close to each other. A 10 keV proton beam was used. The spatial resolution of the system was tested for different Al plate and MCP voltages and resolution of better than 2 mm was achieved. Ref.: 1. K. Kruglov {et al}., NIM A 441 (2000) 595; 701 (2002) 193c, 2. MSL and Atomic Physics, Stockholm Univ.(www.msl.se, http://www.atom.physto.se/Cederquist/desiree/web/hc.html).

  10. The injection and extraction of SSRF booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuan; Li Haohu; Liu Guimin; Li Deming

    2008-01-01

    The layout of injection and extraction system were introduced in this paper. The horizontal and vertical injection acceptance are about 23 πmm·mrad and 37 πmm·mrad, respectively, while emittance of the injected beam is 9 πmm·mrad (3σ). This ensures the high injection efficiency. Three slow kickers can form a good bump. The inside position of the entrance of septum is set to 15 mm, where the bumped beam and the extraction beam are 10 mm and 22 mm, respectively, far from the booster central orbit. (authors)

  11. MATLAB based beam orbit correction system of HLS storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shichuan; Liu Gongfa; Xuan Ke; Li Weimin; Wang Lin; Wang Jigang; Li Chuan; Bao Xun; Guo Weiqun

    2006-01-01

    The distortion of closed orbit usually causes much side effect which is harmful to synchrotron radiation source such as HLS, so it is necessary to correct the distortion of closed orbit. In this paper, the correction principle, development procedure and test of MATLAB based on beam orbit correction system of HLS storage ring are described. The correction system is consisted of the beam orbit measure system, corrector magnet system and the control system, and the beam orbit correction code based on MATLAB is working on the operation interface. The data of the beam orbit are analyzed and calculated firstly, and then the orbit is corrected by changing corrector strength via control system. The test shows that the distortion of closed orbit is from max 4.468 mm before correction to max 0.299 mm after correction as well as SDEV is from 2.986 mm to 0.087 mm. So the correction system reaches the design goal. (authors)

  12. A verification scenario of nuclear plus interference scattering effects using neutron incident angle distribution to the wall in beam-injected deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Shota; Matsuura, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Daisuke; Sawada, Daisuke; Watanabe, Tsuguhiro; Goto, Takuya; Mitarai, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    A verification scenario of knock-on tail formation in the deuteron distribution function due to nuclear plus interference scattering is presented by observing the incident angle distribution of neutrons in a vacuum vessel. Assuming a knock-on tail created in a "3He-beam-injected deuterium plasma, the incident angle distribution and energy spectra of the neutrons produced by fusion reactions between 1-MeV and thermal deuterons are evaluated. The relation between the neutron incident angle to the vacuum vessel and neutron energy is examined in the case of anisotropic neutron emission due to knock-on tail formation in neutral-beam-injected plasmas. (author)

  13. Imagescope to photodiode beam-profile imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlin, D.D.; Hollabaugh, J.S.; Stump, C.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Transverse beam-distribution measurements of high-current cw accelerators must be obtained from noninterceptive sensors. For the 100-mA H 2 or D beam of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Tst (FMIT) accelerator, these transverse properties may be obtained by detecting the visible radiation resulting from beam interactions with residual gas. A system of mirrors, intensified TV cameras, digitizers, and topographic reconstruction codes has been reported previously. This report describes a new technique for sensing and digitizing the light projected transversely from the beam of the FMIT accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  14. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  15. Impurity transport studies by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet injection in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, N; Sudo, S; Khlopenkov, K V; Kato, S; Sergeev, V Yu; Muto, S; Sato, K; Funaba, H; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, I; Narihara, K; Nakamura, Y; Kawahata, K; Ohyabu, N; Motojima, O

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative properties of impurity transport in large helical device (LHD) plasmas heated by neutral beam injection have been investigated by means of tracer-encapsulated solid pellet (TESPEL) injection. In the case of a titanium (Ti) tracer, the behaviour of the emission lines from the highly ionized Ti impurity, Ti Kα(E He-like ∼ 4.7 keV) and Ti XIX (λ = 16.959 nm), has been observed clearly by a soft x-ray pulse height analyzer and a vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer, respectively. A fairly longer decay time of the Ti Kα emission lines is obtained above the value of a line-averaged electron density, 3.0x10 19 m -3 . The dependence of the behaviour of the Ti tracer impurity on the line-averaged electron density below the value of that, 3.5x10 19 m -3 is in qualitative agreement with the characteristics obtained from the observation of the behaviour of an intrinsic metallic impurity in neutral beam heated plasmas on LHD. In order to estimate the properties of the Ti impurity transport quantitatively, the one-dimensional impurity transport code, MIST has been used. As a result of the transport analysis with the MIST code, even an small inward convection should be necessary to account for the experimental results with the value of the line-averaged electron density, 3.5x10 19 m -3 . In order to examine the experimentally obtained transport coefficients, neoclassical analysis with respect to the radial impurity flux has been performed. The inferred rise of the inward convection cannot be explained solely by neoclassical impurity transport. Therefore, in order to account for the inward convection, the effect of a radial electric field and/or some other effect must be taken into account additionally

  16. Development of integrated control system for smart factory in the injection molding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M. J.; Kim, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we proposed integrated control system for automation of injection molding process required for construction of smart factory. The injection molding process consists of heating, tool close, injection, cooling, tool open, and take-out. Take-out robot controller, image processing module, and process data acquisition interface module are developed and assembled to integrated control system. By adoption of integrated control system, the injection molding process can be simplified and the cost for construction of smart factory can be inexpensive.

  17. Magnetic Configuration Effects Under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of NBI absorption and losses, done for the Reference configuration of TJ-II, has been extended to other magnetic configurations of the flexibility diagram. The main results obtained are the following: Fast ion losses. mainly direct ones, are the determinant factor the absorption behaviour. In the absence of radial electric field, the contribution of the delayed fast ion losses in minimal, as well with CX as without, and corresponds, almost exclusively, to low energy trapped ions (1 to t KeV). There is a strong difference between the direct los behaviour corresponding to both injection directions CO and COUNTER. The first one gives always higher losses in TJ-II. For the extreme configurations the direct losses are very high and are originated by resonant effects, that can be observed even for null electric field, and are due to the 0 and-2 resonances. The intermediate configurations are equally separated from both resonances, in consequence the loss level is lower, producing absorption ratios very, acceptable, higher than 60% of the power entering torus at high density and 40 keV. This corresponds to about 1.2 MW absorbed in plasma under balanced injection. In conclusion, the possible presence of resonant effects on the direct losses is the key element to explain the absorption behaviour for the different magnetic configurations. In addition all the configurations placed inside a wide region around the Reference case in the flexibility diagram seem equally convenient for NBI in TJ-II. (Author) 18 refs

  18. Beam-driven currents in the 1/ν regime in a helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.

    1990-04-01

    Beam currents driven by a neutral particle injection in a helical system (stellarator, heliotron/torsatron) are studied in the 1/ν collisionality regime. The general expression for the beam-driven current is obtained for arbitrary magnetic field configurations by solving the drift kinetic equation for electrons. It is found that F = J(net)/J(b) (J(net) is the net current and J(b) is the fast ion beam current) increases as f(t) and Zeff where f(t) is the fraction of trapped electrons and Zeff is the effective ionic charge number. Especially, for Zeff ≅ 1 the effect of trapped electrons is large and F is roughly proportional to f(t). On the other hand, if Zeff > or approx 3 the effect of trapped electrons becomes small. (author)

  19. Conventional external beam radiotherapy for central nervous system malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, E.C.; Burger, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    Fractionated external beam photon radiotherapy is an important component of the clinical management of malignant disease of the central nervous system. The practicing neurologist or neurosurgeon frequently relies on the consultative and treatment skills of a radiotherapist. This article provides a review for the nonradiotherapist of the place of conventional external beam radiotherapy in neuro-oncology. 23 references

  20. Wave Propagation in an Ion Beam-Plasma System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T. D.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1979-01-01

    The spatial evolution of a velocity- or density-modulated ion beam is calculated for stable and unstable ion beam plasma systems, using the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations. The propagation properties are found to be strongly dependent on the form of modulation. In the case of velocity...

  1. Mechanical engineering problems in the TFTR neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, D.D.; Bryant, E.H.; Johnson, R.L.; Kim, J.; Queen, C.C.; Schilling, G.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design of a prototype beam line for the TFTR Neutral Beam System has been developed. The basic components have been defined, cost estimates prepared, and the necessary development programs identified. Four major mechanical engineering problems, potential solutions and the required development programs are discussed

  2. Some aspects of the Unilac beam diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glatz, J.; Klabunde, J.; Strehl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the Unilac beam diagnostic system is given with special reference to the operational experience collected during the running-in period. Devices for measurement and display of beam profiles, energy, rf phases and amplitudes and rf matching procedures between the different stages of the accelerator are described. Some aspects concerning future developments and improvements are discussed briefly. (author)

  3. User control of the proton beam injection trajectories into the AGS Booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ottavio, T.; Kponou, A.; Luccio, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Reece, R.K.; Skelly, J.

    1991-01-01

    The 1.5 GeV (proton) Booster Synchrotron nearing completion at the AGS will get its 200 MeV beam from the linac, via a 34.9 m long linac-to-Booster transport line, LTB. LTB branches off from the existing linac-to-AGS transport line, HEBT, approximately 18.4 m downstream from the linac. A schematic layout of LTB is shown in the bottom part of Fig. 1. The four dipoles, DH2 through DH5, which are identical and are operated in series, provide a 126 degrees bend in the line. We have employed three strategies for implementing control of the trajectory, namely: (1) a global correction (2) a local correction (3) a zeroing correction. These, as well as their implementation, will be discussed. Operating experience obtained from early commissioning runs will be given. The hardware used to implement the correction schemes are the beam position monitors, BPMxxx, orbit correctors, DHxxx and DVxxx, and multiwire profile monitors, MWxxx. The quads are QHxxx and QVxxx. 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. Development of the High Current Ion Source for Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Ju; Kim, S. H.; Jang, D. H. [Jae Ju University, Jaeju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The scope of the 1st year research is to design an 140keV deuterium ion source which has a beam current of 30-40A. According to the collected data, the model of an ion source for NBI of KSTAR was established. The negative ion source, which has good neutralization effecting in high energy, was selected. To generate a plasma, the thoriated tungsten filament was adopted. To increase the efficiency of plasma, the multi cusp type magnetic field was attached. The magnetic field was calculated by POISSON code. The extraction structure was designed with EGUN code, to extract the high quality ion beam. The design of a high current ion source for NBI was carried out. To develop the high current ion source with the high operational stability and the long lifetime, the parameters including an arc current, gas pressure and extraction voltage should be optimized. If designed ion source would be fabricated, its parameters could be optimized experimentally. Through the optimization of the ion source parameter, the core technology for NBI is established and the experiment of current drive in the fusion device can be performed. This technology also can be applied to the synthesis of new material and semiconductor industry. 18 refs., 11 tabs., 19 figs. (author)

  5. 1 nA beam position monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursic, R.; Flood, R.; Piller, C.

    1997-01-01

    A system has been developed at Jefferson Lab for measuring transverse position of very low current beams delivered to the Experimental Hall B of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). At the heart of the system is a position sensitive cavity operating at 1497 MHz. The cavity utilizes a unique design which achieves a high sensitivity to beam position at a relatively low cavity Q. The cavity output RF signal is processed using a down-converter and a commercial lock-in amplifier operating at 100 kHz. The system interfaces with a VME based EPICS control system using the IEEE, 488 bus. The main features of the system are simple and robust design, and wide dynamic range capable of handling beam currents from 1 nA to 1000 nA with an expected resolution better than 100 μm. This paper outlines the design of the system

  6. Beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the open-quotes Boosterclose quotes and open-quotes ATLASclose quotes linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates

  7. A direct plasma injection system into an RFQ for clean and safe ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Katayama, T.; Okamura, M.; Yano, K.; Sakumi, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Jameson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new injection system, direct plasma injection system, was tested and its principle was proved successfully. We found that one of advantages of this injection system was efficient consumption of source materials. Large portions of induced ions can be injected into a first stage accelerator. This feature is quite useful for ion implantation applications, because toxic exhaust gas can be eliminated. In order to utilize this system for industrial application, the feasibility of a boron injection scheme using a Nd:YAG laser system was investigated

  8. Beam Position and Phase Monitor - Wire Mapping System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Heath A.; Shurter, Robert B.; Gilpatrick, John D.; Kutac, Vincent G.; Martinez, Derwin

    2012-01-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) deploys many cylindrical beam position and phase monitors (BPPM) throughout the linac to measure the beam central position, phase and bunched-beam current. Each monitor is calibrated and qualified prior to installation to insure it meets LANSCE requirements. The BPPM wire mapping system is used to map the BPPM electrode offset, sensitivity and higher order coefficients. This system uses a three-axis motion table to position the wire antenna structure within the cavity, simulating the beam excitation of a BPPM at a fundamental frequency of 201.25 MHz. RF signal strength is measured and recorded for the four electrodes as the antenna position is updated. An effort is underway to extend the systems service to the LANSCE facility by replacing obsolete electronic hardware and taking advantage of software enhancements. This paper describes the upgraded wire positioning system's new hardware and software capabilities including its revised antenna structure, motion control interface, RF measurement equipment and Labview software upgrades. The main purpose of the wire mapping system at LANSCE is to characterize the amplitude response versus beam central position of BPPMs before they are installed in the beam line. The wire mapping system is able to simulate a beam using a thin wire and measure the signal response as the wire position is varied within the BPPM aperture.

  9. Lithium beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anda, G.; Bencze, A. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Széchenyi István University, Győr (Hungary); Dunai, D. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Hacek, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Krbec, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Réfy, D.; Krizsanóczi, T.; Bató, S.; Ilkei, T.; Kiss, I.G.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Li-beam diagnostic system on the COMPASS tokamak is an improved and compact system to allow testing of Atomic Beam Probe. • The possibility to measure background corrected density profiles on the few microseconds time scale. • First Li-beam diagnostic system with recirculating neutralizer. • The system includes the redesigned ion source with longer lifetime. - Abstract: An improved lithium beam based beam emission spectroscopy system – installed on COMPASS tokamak – is described. The beam energy enhanced up to 120 keV for Atomic Beam Probe measurement. The size of the ion source is doubled, using a newly developed thermionic heater instead of the conventionally used heating (tungsten or molybdenum) filament. The neutralizer is also improved. It produces the same sodium vapor in a cell but minimize the loss condensing the vapor on a cold surface which is led back (in fluid state) into the sodium oven. This way we call it recirculating neutralizer. The observation system consists of a CCD camera and an avalanche photodiode array.

  10. The beam loss monitoring system for HLS storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yu Xiong; Li Wei; Li Jue Xin; Liu Zu Ping; Shao Bei Bei

    2001-01-01

    A beam loss monitoring system has been established at HLS. This paper gives its principle and scientific grounds. Study on the ring's TBA structure and utilization of Monte-Carlo calculation to the shower electrons is important in its design. The system composition and performance are also introduced. The detector BLMs, data acquisition devices and host PC are linked via CAN bus. This system is helpful to analyze beam loss distribution and regulate the machine operation parameters.

  11. Measurement system with high accuracy for laser beam quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Zeng, Ciling; Xie, Peiyuan; Jiang, Qingshan; Liang, Ke; Yang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Ming

    2015-05-20

    Presently, most of the laser beam quality measurement system collimates the optical path manually with low efficiency and low repeatability. To solve these problems, this paper proposed a new collimated method to improve the reliability and accuracy of the measurement results. The system accuracy controlled the position of the mirror to change laser beam propagation direction, which can realize the beam perpendicularly incident to the photosurface of camera. The experiment results show that the proposed system has good repeatability and the measuring deviation of M2 factor is less than 0.6%.

  12. Neutral beam systems for the magnetic fusion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Staten, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The attainment of economic, safe fusion power has been described as the most sophisticated scientific problem ever attacked by mankind. The presently established goal of the magnetic fusion program is to develop and demonstrate pure fusion central electric power stations for commercial applications. Neutral beam heating systems are a basic component of the tokamak and mirror experimental fusion plasma confinement devices. The requirements placed upon neutral beam heating systems are reviewed. The neutral beam systems in use or being developed are presented. Finally, the needs of the future are discussed

  13. Beam-based calibration system of BPM offset on BEPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Chunliang

    2004-01-01

    The ever-increasing demand for better performance from circular accelerators requires improved methods to calibrate beam position monitors (BPM). A beam based calibration system has been established to locate the centers of the BPM with respect to the magnetic center of quadrupole magnets. Additional windings are applied to the quadrupole magnets to make the quadrupole magnetic strength individually adjustable and the number of the power supply of all 32 additional windings is only one. Software system has been finished to automatically measure the offsets of BPMs. The effect of the beam-based calibration system shows that the calibration of BPM has been more quickly and accurately

  14. Technique of Injection of Hyaluronic Acid as a Prostatic Spacer and Fiducials Before Hypofractionated External Beam Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Romain; Udrescu, Corina; Rebillard, Xavier; Terrier, Jean-Etienne; Faix, Antoine; Chapet, Olivier; Azria, David; Devonec, Marian; Paparel, Philippe; Ruffion, Alain

    2017-01-01

    To describe a technique combining the implantation of fiducials and a prostatic spacer (hyaluronic acid [HA]) to decrease the rectal toxicity after an image-guided external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with hypofractionation for prostate cancer and to assess the tolerance and the learning curve of the procedure. Thirty patients with prostate cancer at low or intermediate risk were included in a phase II trial: image-guided EBRT of 62 Gy in 20 fractions of 3.1 Gy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A transrectal implantation of 3 fiducials and transperineal injection of 10 cc of HA (NASHA gel spacer, Q-Med AB, Uppsala, Sweden) between the rectum and the prostate was performed by 1 operator. The thickness of HA was measured at 10 points on magnetic resonance imaging to establish a quality score of the injection (maximum score = 10) and determine the learning curve of the procedure. The quality score increased from patients 1-10, 11-20, to 21-30 with respective median scores: 7 [2-10], 5 [4-7], and 8 [3-10]. The average thicknesses of HA between the base, middle part, and apex of the prostate and the rectum were the following: 15.1 mm [6.4-29], 9.8 mm [5-21.2], and 9.9 mm [3.2-21.5]. The injection of the HA induced a median pain score of 4 [1-8] and no residual pain at mid-long term. Creating an interface between the rectum and the prostate and the implantation of fiducials were feasible under local anesthesia with a short learning curve and could become a standard procedure before a hypofractionated EBRT for prostate cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple track Doppler-shift spectroscopy system for TFTR neutral beam injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Reale, M.A.

    1986-09-01

    A Doppler-shift spectroscopy system has been installed on the TFTR neutral beam injection system to measure species composition during both conditioning and injection pulses. Two intensified vidicon detectors and two spectrometers are utilized in a system capable of resolving data from up to twelve ion sources simultaneously. By imaging the light from six ion sources onto one detector, a cost-effective system has been achieved. Fiber optics are used to locate the diagnostic in an area remote from the hazards of the tokamak test cell allowing continuous access, and eliminating the need for radiation shielding of electronic components. Automatic hardware arming and interactive data analysis allow beam composition to be computed between tokamak shots for use in analyzing plasma heating experiments. Measurements have been made using lines of sight into both the neutralizer and the drift duct. Analysis of the data from the drift duct is both simpler and more accurate since only neutral particles are present in the beam at this location. Comparison of the data taken at these two locations reveals the presence of partially accelerated particles possessing an estimated 1/e half-angle divergence of 15 0 and accounting for up to 30% of the extracted power

  16. Electron density profile determination by means of laser blow-off injected neutral beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, G.; Bakos, J.S.; Ignacz, P.N.; Kardon, B.; Koltai, L.; Veres, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the experimental and theoretical studies of the determination of the electron density profiles by means of laser blow-off neutrals. For the determination of the density profile the time and spatial distributions of the spectral line radiation intensity of the injected neutrals are used. The method is compared to other previously proposed methods and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed. The result of the comparison is that our method gives the most reliable result with the highest temporal resolution for the density profile of the edge plasma. The only disadvantage is the need of careful calibration of the sensitivity of the spatial channels. The advantage is the ability of the method as a standard diagnostic. (orig.)

  17. Magnetic configuration effects on plasma transport under Neutral Beam Injection at TJ-II (Simulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    2001-01-01

    A systematic analysis of magnetic configurations (27 in total), using a Transport model including impurity dynamics and sputtering effects has been done. For small size configurations or those close to rational t values there is radioactive collapse, independently of the external gas puffing (GP) strategy chosen. The reason is the insufficiency of observed power, either by the high shine through losses due to their low radii, or by the increase of fast ion orbit losses near the resonances. For the majority of configurations without collapse, fast ion orbit losses for CO injection (going in the same direction than the toroidal magnetic field) are higher, and in consequence the power absorption and the plasma β achieved are laser, than for the opposite direction. Nevertheless in the region placed just above the main resonances (1/3 and 1/2 per period) this situation reverses. The reasons have been analysed and explained at previous studies. A consequence of this fact is that the optima of confinement for the Counter case are shifted towards higher t values than the CO one, with higher plasma β, except near the resonances. As usual the balanced case is in between. The optima achieving stationary state are very close (and often are coincident) with those lacking that restriction. The best configuration (highest average β for balanced injection, with =1.1% and central value 3.2%, although in this region the results are rather insensitive to configuration and GP strategy. the configurations placed around the 100 4 4 would need also the lowest power entering the torus in order to avoid collapse and to achieve an acceptable NBI absorption level. (Author) 12 refs

  18. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  19. Thermal loads on the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel under Neutral Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Fuentes, C.; Liniers, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this study a numerical analysis of power loads on the complex 3D structure of the TJ-II Vacuum Vessel, moderated with reasonable accuracy, under NBI, is done. To do this it has been necessary to modify deeply the DENSB code for power loads in order to include the TJ-II VV wall parts as targets and as beam scrapers, allowing the possibility of self-shadowing. After a short description of the primitive version of the DENSB code (paragraph 2) and of the visualisation code MOVIE(paragraph 3), the DENSB upgrading are described (paragraphs 4,5) and finally the results are presented (paragraph 6). These code modifications and the improving on the visualization tools provide more realistic load evaluations, both with and without plasma, validating former results and showing clearly the VV zones that will need new protections. (Author)

  20. Injectable silver nanosensors: in vivo dosimetry for external beam radiotherapy using positron emission tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Rydhög, J. S.; Søndergaard, Rikke Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Development of safe and efficient radiotherapy routines requires quantification of the delivered absorbed dose to the cancer tissue in individual patients. In vivo dosimetry can provide accurate information about the absorbed dose delivered during treatment. In the current study, a novel silver......-nanosensor formulation based on poly(vinylpyrrolidinone)-coated silver nanoparticles formulated in a gelation matrix composed of sucrose acetate isobutyrate has been developed for use as an in vivo dosimeter for external beam radiotherapy. In situ photonuclear reactions trigger the formation of radioactive (106)Ag......, which enables post treatment verification of the delivered dose using positron emission tomography imaging. The silver-nanosensor was investigated in a tissue equivalent thorax phantom using clinical settings and workflow for both standard fractionated radiotherapy (2 Gy) and stereotactic radiotherapy...