WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam fusion research

  1. NRL Light Ion Beam Research for Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-20

    S. A. Goldstein, in Proceedings of the International Topical Conference on Electron Beam Research and Technology, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1975), p...Research and Technology, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1975), p. 247. 14. S. J. Stephanakis, D. Mosher, G. Cooperstein, J. R. Boller, J. Golden, and Shyke A...Tech Info Center/S-1930 1 copy CEA, Centre de Etudes de Valduc P. B. 14 21120 Is-sur-Tille France Attn: J. Barbaro 1 copy C. Bruno 1 copy N. Camarcat

  2. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  3. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  4. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  5. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  6. Research on modeling of heat source for electron beam welding fusion-solidification zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yajun; Fu Pengfei; Guan Yongjun; Lu Zhijun; Wei Yintao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the common heat source model of point and linear heat source in the numerical simulation of electron beam welding (EBW) were summarized and introduced.The combined point-linear heat source model was brought forward and to simulate the welding temperature fields of EBW and predicting the weld shape.The model parameters were put forward and regulated in the combined model,which included the ratio of point heat source to linear heat source Qpr and the distribution of linear heat source Lr.Based on the combined model,the welding temperature fields of EBW were investigated.The results show that the predicted weld shapes are conformable to those of the actual,the temperature fields are reasonable and correct by simulating with combined point-linear heat source model and the typical weld shapes are gained.

  7. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  8. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  9. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  10. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  11. Fusion using radioactive ion beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Vinodkumar

    2010-07-01

    The capture-fission cross-section is measured for the collision of the massive nucleus 132Sn with 96Zr at near-barrier energies and compared with the collision of 124Sn with 96Zr. This study gives insight into fusion enhancement and hindrance in systems involving neutron-rich nuclei. The dinuclear system model (DNS) calculations describe the excitation function reasonably well and if we use the barrier heights predicted by this model we can conclude that fusion hindrance (represented by extra push energy) is greater for the more neutron-rich systems. The fusion excitation function for 9Li+70Zn and 9Li+208Pb systems are measured for near-barrier energies using ISAC1 and ISAC2 Facilities at TRIUMF. The -emitting evaporation residues (211−214At) are stopped in the 208Pb target and their decay is measured. The measured excitation function shows evidence for large enhancements in the sub-barrier energies, which is not accounted by current theoretical models. Suppression of the above-barrier cross-section with respect to these theoretical models are also seen.

  12. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  13. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  14. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  15. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  16. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  17. Fusion ignition research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  18. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  19. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  20. Fuel Target Implosion in Ion beam Inertial Confinement Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kawata, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    The numerical results for the fuel target implosion are presented in order to clarify the target physics in ion beam inertial fusion. The numerical analyses are performed for a direct-driven ion beam target. In the paper the following issues are studied: the beam obliquely incidence on the target surface, the plasma effect on the beam-stopping power, the beam particle energy, the beam time duration, the target radius, the beam input energy and the non-uniformity effect on the fuel target performance. In this paper the beam ions are protons.

  1. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Pulsed Power Sciences Center

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  2. Nuclear fusion research in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheetham, A.D. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the recently formed National Plasma Fusion Research Facility centred around the H-1NF Heliac, located at the Australian National University, the Institute of Advanced Studies is described in the context of the international Stellarator program and the national collaboration with the Australian Fusion Research Group. The objectives of the facility and the planned physics research program over the next five years are discussed and some recent results will be presented. The facility will support investigations in the following research areas: finite pressure equilibrium and stability, transport in high temperature plasmas, plasma heating and formation, instabilities and turbulence, edge plasma physics and advanced diagnostic development. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-19

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  4. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    OpenAIRE

    Kurosaki, T; Kawata, S.; Noguchi, K.; Koseki, S; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.; Barnard, J. J.; Logan, B. G.

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and s...

  5. History of Nuclear Fusion Research in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Harukazu; Matsuoka, Keisuke; Kimura, Kazue; Namba, Chusei; Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    In the late 1950s just after the atomic energy research was opened worldwide, there was a lively discussion among scientists on the strategy of nuclear fusion research in Japan. Finally, decision was made that fusion research should be started from the basic, namely, research on plasma physics and from cultivation of human resources at universities under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MOE). However, an endorsement was given that construction of an experimental device for fusion research would be approved sooner or later. Studies on toroidal plasma confinement started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) under the Science and Technology Agency (STA) in the mid-1960s. Dualistic fusion research framework in Japan was established. This structure has lasted until now. Fusion research activities over the last 50 years are described by the use of a flowchart, which is convenient to glance the historical development of fusion research in Japan.

  6. Fusion at the barrier with light radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Signorini, C

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results recently obtained for fusion reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier with light radioactive (loosely bound) beams are reviewed and critically discussed. There have been two conflicting views on the effect of the loose binding of the projectile on the fusion cross section. On the one hand one expects an enhancement of the fusion cross section due to the loose binding while, on the other hand, the easy breakup of the projectile is expected to inhibit the fusion cross section. We critically discuss these two aspects of loose binding by comparing the experimental results for a number of radioactive beams. The data for sup 1 sup 7 F (where the last neutron binding energy S sub n =0.601 MeV), neither show breakup effects nor enhancement when compared with the fusion of the nucleus sup 1 sup 9 F. The data for a sup 6 He beam (S sub 2 sub n =0.975 MeV) show enhancement, very strong in one case, and the strong breakup (BU)+transfer cross section may be related to this. The fusion da...

  7. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Nigel Oswald [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of ~17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, ~200 g/cm3 and ~20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases ~350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  8. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, N.O.

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of {approximately}17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, {approximately}200 g/cm{sup 3} and {approximately}20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases {approximately}350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  9. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Joe W.

    2002-05-31

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs.

  10. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants.

  11. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  12. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  13. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  14. Fusion research: the past is prologue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R F

    1998-10-14

    At this juncture fusion research can be viewed as being at a turning point, a time to review its past and to imagine its future. Today, almost 50 years since the first serious attempts to address the daunting problem of achieving controlled fusion, we have both an opportunity and a challenge. Some predictions place fusion research today at a point midway between its first inception and its eventual maturation - in the middle of the 21st century - when fusion would become a major source of energy. Our opportunity therefore is to assess what we have learned from 50 years of hard work and use that knowledge as a starting point for new and better approaches to solving the fusion problem. Our challenge is to prove the "50 more years" prophesy wrong, by finding ways to shorten the time when fusion power becomes a reality. The thesis will be advanced that in the magnetic confinement approach to fusion open-ended magnetic confinement geometries offer much in responding to the challenge. A major advantage of open systems is that, owing to their theoretically and experimentally demonstrated ability to suppress plasma instabilities of both the MHD and the high-frequency wave-particle variety, the confinement becomes predictable from "classical," i.e., Fokker-Planck-type analysis. In a time of straitened budgetary circumstances for magnetic fusion research now being faced in the United States, the theoretical tractability of mirror-based systems is a substantial asset. In pursuing this avenue it is also necessary to keep an open mind as to the forms that mirror-based fusion power plants might take. For example, one can look to the high-energy physics community for a possible model: This community has shown the feasibility of constructing large and complex particle accelerators using superconducting magnets, vacuum chambers and complicated particle-handling technology, housed in underground tunnels that are 20 or more kilometers long. In the paper examples of mirror

  15. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  16. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    A major milestone on the path to fusion energy was reached in June 2005 on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of all parties to the ITER negotiations, agreeing on future arrangements and on the construction site at Cadarache in France. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting fusion activities since the late 1950s; it took over the auspices of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities in 1988, and of the ITER Engineering and Design Activities in 1992. The Agency continues its support to Member States through the organization of consultancies, workshops and technical meetings, the most prominent being the series of International Fusion Energy Conferences (formerly called the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research). The meetings serve as a platform for experts from all Member States to have open discussions on their latest accomplishments as well as on their problems and eventual solutions. The papers presented at the meetings and conferences are routinely published, many being sent to the journal it Nuclear Fusion, co-published monthly by Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. The journal's reputation is reflected in the fact that it is a world-renowned publication, and the International Fusion Research Council has used it for the publication of a Status Report on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in 1978 and 1990. This present report marks the conclusion of the preparatory phases of ITER activities. It provides background information on the progress of fusion research within the last 15 years. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), which initiated the report, was fully aware of the complexities of including all scientific results in just one paper, and so decided to provide an overview and extensive references for the interested reader who need not necessarily be a fusion specialist. Professor Predhiman K. Kaw, Chairman, prepared the report on behalf of the IFRC, reflecting

  17. Particle-beam-fusion progress report, July 1979 through December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The following chapters are included in this semi-annual progress report: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle-beam source developments, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power, (6) pulsed power applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project. (MOW)

  18. Particle beam fusion. Progress report, April 1978-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    During this period substantial improvements in the theoretical basis for particle beam fusion as well as the execution of critical experiments were instrumental in further definition of the optimum route to our goals of demonstrating scientific and practical feasibility. The major emphasis in the program continues to be focused primarily on issues of power concentration and energy deposition of intense particle beams in solid targets. This utilization of program resources is directed toward conducting significant target implosion and thermonuclear burn experiments using EBFA-I (1 MJ) in the 1981-1983 time period. This step, using EBFA-I, will then set the stage for net energy gain experiments to follow on EBFA-II (> 2 MJ) after 1985. Current program emphasis and activities differ substantially from those stressed in the laser approaches to inertial confinement fusion. Here the critical issues relate to delivering the needed power densities and energies to appropriate targets and to insure that the coupling of energy is efficient and matches target requirements.

  19. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, H

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10/sup 8/ degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface.

  20. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  1. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  2. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  3. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsui, H.; Abe, K. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Osch, E. van [NERF, Petten (Netherlands); Kazakov, V.A. [RIAR, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  4. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  5. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  6. Academic Training: New Trends in Fusion Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    11, 12 and 13 October 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 11 October from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs, 12 and 13 October from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - 11 and 12 October in the Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 13 October in the TH Amphitheatre New Trends in Fusion Research A. FASOLI / EPFL, Lausanne, CH The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to su...

  7. Academic Training: New Trends in Fusion Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    11, 12 and 13 October 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 11 October from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs, 12 and 13 October from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - 11 and 12 October in the Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 13 October in the Theory Conference Room, bldg. 4 New Trends in Fusion Research A. FASOLI / EPFL, Lausanne, CH The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to i...

  8. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  9. Beyond ITER: Neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdams, R., E-mail: roy.mcadams@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  10. Beyond ITER: neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, R

    2014-02-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  12. Heavy ion beam transport and focusing with an insulator guide in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, T.; Nakamura, T.; Sasaki, J.; Kawata, S. [Utsunomiya Univ., Dept. of Energy and Environment Sciences, Utsunomiya, Tochigi (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    One of the key issues on the heavy ion beam inertial confinement fusion is an efficient transport and beam focusing. To get a fine focusing on the fuel pellet, neutralization of the space change of an incident beam is required. The space charge of beam has to be neutralized for the fine focusing. In this paper, we propose to employ an insulator tube guide, through which a heavy ion beam is transported and focused. We confirm that the beam space charge is effectively neutralized by electrons emitted from the insulator beam guide and the ion beam fine focusing is realized. This result shows a possibility of a good beam focusing by the insulator beam guide. (author)

  13. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  14. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  15. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  16. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  17. Customizable scientific web portal for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G., E-mail: abla@fusion.gat.co [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Kim, E.N.; Schissel, D.P.; Flanagan, S.M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Web browsers have become a major application interface for participating in scientific experiments such as those in magnetic fusion. The recent advances in web technologies motivated the deployment of interactive web applications with rich features. In the scientific world, web applications have been deployed in portal environments. When used in a scientific research environment, such as fusion experiments, web portals can present diverse sources of information in a unified interface. However, the design and development of a scientific web portal has its own challenges. One such challenge is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite the high volume of information and number of tools it presents. Another challenge is that the visual output of the web portal must not be overwhelming to the end users, despite the high volume of data generated by fusion experiments. Therefore, the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of end users. In order to meet these challenges, the design and implementation of a web portal needs to support high interactivity and user customization. A web portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide by providing multiple services, such as real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access and interactive data visualization. The web portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing a collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant messaging services. The portal's design utilizes the multi-tier software architecture and has been implemented utilizing web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services, which allows users to create a unique, personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. This paper describes the software

  18. Effects of sawtooth crashes on beam ions and fusion product tritons in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, F.B.; Hone, M.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Loughlin, M.J.; Sadler, G. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Watkins, N. [UKAEA Harwell Lab. (United Kingdom). Energy Technology Div.; Howarth, P.J.A. [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1994-07-01

    The effect of a sawtooth crash on the radial distribution of the slowing down fusion product tritons and on beams ions, is examined with measurements of the 2.5 MeV and 14 MeV neutron emission line-integrals before and after sawtooth crashes. In deuterium discharges, the 14 MeV neutron production was wholly attributable to burnup of the 1 MeV fusion product tritons from d-d fusion. The local emissivity of 14 MeV neutrons, and hence of the profile of thermalizing tritons, is shown to be only weakly affected by crashes in the discharges studied. This is in contradiction with the apparent behaviour of injected beam ions as deduced from a study of the considerable changes in local emissivity of the 2.5 MeV neutrons. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the fusion product tritons is consistent with the scaling of the beam injected deuterium. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  19. The Role of the JET Project in Global Fusion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1983-01-01

    The aim of nuclear fusion research is to make fusion energy available as a new energy source. Fusion processes occur naturally in the sun, where hydrogen nuclei release energy by combining to form helium. A fusion reactor on earth will require even higher temperatures than in the interior...... of the sun, and it will be based on deuterium and tritium reactions. JET (Joint European Torus) is a major fusion experiment now under construction near Abingdon in the UK It is aimed at producing conditions approximating those necessary in a fusion reactor. The results expected from JET should permit...... a realistic evaluation of the prospects for fusion power and serve as a basis for the design of the next major fusion experiment....

  20. Research on an Agricultural Knowledge Fusion Method for Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengfu Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The object of our research is to develop an ontology-based agricultural knowledge fusion method that can be used as a comprehensive basis on which to solve agricultural information inconsistencies, analyze data, and discover new knowledge. A recent survey has provided a detailed comparison of various fusion methods used with Deep Web data (Li, 2013. In this paper, we propose an effective agricultural ontology-based knowledge fusion method by leveraging recent advances in data fusion, such as the semantic web and big data technologies, that will enhance the identification and fusion of new and existing data sets to make big data analytics more possible. We provide a detailed fusion method that includes agricultural ontology building, fusion rule construction, an evaluation module, etc. Empirical results show that this knowledge fusion method is useful for knowledge discovery.

  1. Several atomic-physics issues connected with the use of neutral beams in fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, D.E.; Grisham, L.R.; Fonck, R.J.

    1982-08-01

    Energetic neutral beams are used for heating and diagnostics in present magnetic fusion experiments. They are also being considered for use in future large experiments. Atomic physics issues are important for both the production of the neutral beams and the interaction of the beams and the plasma. Interest in neutral beams based on negative hydrogen ions is growing, largely based on advances in producing high current ion sources. An extension of the negative ion approach has been the suggestion to use negative ions of Z > 1 elements, such as carbon and oxygen, to form high power neutral beams for plasma heating.

  2. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  3. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  4. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  5. Socio-Economic research on fusion SERF 3(2001-2003) External Costs of Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Saez, R.; Cabal, H.

    2003-07-01

    Based on SEAFP project (Raeder et al, 1995) findings a preliminary assessment of environmental external costs associated to fusion power was performed under the framework of the first phase of the SERF (Socioeconomic Research on Fusion) project (Saez et al, 1999). This study showed very low external costs of fusion power compared with other traditional and new energy generating technologies. In order to update the assessment of externalities of fusion power, SERF2 project a new plant was included and an analysis of the key variables influencing the external cost was carried out. In the new phase of the SERF project, SERF3, three new additional plant models have been introduced with the aim of assessing the possibilities of silicon carbide to be used as structural material for fusion power plants. Furthermore, comparison of fusion external costs with those of other generation technologies in the state of technology development expected for 2050 has been also performed. (Author)

  6. Nuclear Fusion Research Understanding Plasma-Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Robert E.H

    2005-01-01

    It became clear in the early days of fusion research that the effects of the containment vessel (erosion of "impurities") degrade the overall fusion plasma performance. Progress in controlled nuclear fusion research over the last decade has led to magnetically confined plasmas that, in turn, are sufficiently powerful to damage the vessel structures over its lifetime. This book reviews current understanding and concepts to deal with this remaining critical design issue for fusion reactors. It reviews both progress and open questions, largely in terms of available and sought-after plasma-surface interaction data and atomic/molecular data related to these "plasma edge" issues.

  7. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  8. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    CERN Document Server

    Honrubia, J J

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects such as ion beam divergence not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point have been analysed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  9. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  10. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Sunaga, Yoshitaka; Hotta, Eiki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  11. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernández Niello, J.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-11-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the 10,13,15C+12C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  12. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnelli, P.F.F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Almaraz-Calderon, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E., E-mail: rehm@anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P.F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fernández Niello, J. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lai, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Marley, S.T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Ugalde, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the {sup 10,13,15}C+{sup 12}C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  13. Pre-formed plasma channels for ion beam fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. R.; Olson, C. L.

    1997-04-01

    The transport of driver ions to the target in an IFE power plant is an important consideration in IFE target chamber design. Pre-formed laser-guided plasma discharge channels have been considered for light ions because they reduce the beam microdivergence constraints, allow long transport lengths, and require a target chamber fill gas that can help protect the target chamber from the target explosion. Here, pre-formed plasma discharge channels are considered for heavy ion transport. The channel formation parameters are similar to those for light ions. The allowable ion power per channel is limited by the onset of plasma instabilities and energy loss due to a reverse emf from the rapid channel expansion driven by the ion beam.

  14. Measuring the fusion cross-section of light nuclei with low-intensity beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, T.K.; Rudolph, M.J.; Gosser, Z.Q.; Brown, K.; Floyd, B.; Hudan, S. [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Souza, R.T. de, E-mail: desouza@indiana.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Liang, J.F.; Shapira, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Physics Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Famiano, M. [Department of Physics, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 (United States)

    2014-04-11

    We demonstrate an approach to measure the total fusion cross-section for beams of low-intensity light nuclei. Fusion residues resulting from the fusion of {sup 20,16}O+{sup 12}C are directly measured and distinguished from unreacted beam particles on the basis of their energy and time-of-flight. The time-of-flight is measured between a microchannel plate (MCP) detector, which serves as a start, and a segmented silicon detector, which provides a stop. The two main difficulties associated with the initial implementation of this approach are charge trapping in the silicon detector and slit scattering in the MCP detector. Both these obstacles have been characterized and overcome. To reduce atomic slit scattering in the measurement we have eliminated wires from the beam path by developing a gridless MCP detector. The total fusion cross-section for {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C in the energy range E{sub CM}=8.0–12.0 MeV has been measured in agreement with established literature values (down to the 100 mb level)

  15. Research on Kalman-filter based multisensor data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion has played a significant role in diverse areas ranging from local robot guidance to global military theatre defense etc.Various multisensor data fusion methods have been extensively investigated by researchers,of which Klaman filtering is one of the most important.Kalman filtering is the best-known recursive least mean-square algorithm to optimally estimate the unknown.states of a dynamic system,which has found widespread application in many areas.The scope of the work is restricted to investigate the various data fusion and track fusion techniques based on the Kalman Filter methods.then a new method of state fusion is proposed.Finally the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced method.

  16. New era for fusion research centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    The former director general of CERN, Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, takes over as director of the Culham fusion laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK. Plans for the laboratory include continuing the success of the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) (1 page)

  17. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  19. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5-1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  20. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector.

  1. Demonstration of low-loss electron beam transport and mm-wave experiments of the fusion-FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Bongers, W. A.; van Dijk, G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; de Kruif, R.; Manintveld, P.; Pluygers, J.; Poelman, A. J.; Schüller, F. C.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Valentini, M.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Fusion-FEM electrostatic Free Electron Maser, an electron beam loss current of less than 0.2% is essential for long-pulse operation. At reduced beam current, 3 A instead of the nominal 12 A, we have demonstrated electron beam acceleration and transport through the undulator at current losses

  2. Spin-off produced by the fusion research and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Koichi; Konishi, Satoshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    Nuclear fusion devices are constructed by the integration of many frontier technologies and fusion science based on a wide area of science such as physics, electromagnetics, thermodynamics, mechanics, electrical engineering, electronics, material engineering, heat transfer and heat flow, thermal engineering, neutronics, cryogenics, chemical engineering, control engineering, instrumentation engineering, vacuum engineering. For this, the research and development of elementary technology for fusion devices contributes to advance the technology level of each basic field. In addition, the mutual stimulus among various research fields contributes to increase the potential level of whole 'science and technology'. The spin-offs produced by the fusion technology development give much contribution not only to the general industrial technologies such as semiconductor technology, precision machining of large component, but also contribute to the progress of the accelerator technology, application technology of superconductivity, instrumentation and diagnostics, plasma application technology, heat-resistant and heavy radiation-resistant material technology, vacuum technology, and computer simulation technology. The spin-off produced by the fusion technology development expedite the development of frontier technology of other field and give much contribution to the progress of basic science on physics, space science, material science, medical science, communication, and environment. This report describes the current status of the spin-off effects of fusion research and development by focusing on the contribution of technology development for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) to industrial technology. The possibilities of future application in the future are also included in this report from the view point of researchers working for nuclear fusion development. Although the nuclear fusion research has a characteristic to integrate the frontier

  3. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  4. Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iury Oliveira Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits.

  5. The integrated beam experiment - A next step experiment for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, D.P. Grote; Molvik, A.W.; Sharp, W.M.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Davidson, R.C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is proposing as its next experiment the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). All experiments in the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program up to this time have been of modest scale and have studied the physics of selected parts of a heavy ion driver. The mission of the IBX, a proof-of-principle experiment, is to demonstrate in one integrated experiment the transport from source to focus of a single heavy ion beam with driver-relevant parameters--i.e., the production, acceleration, compression, neutralization, and final focus of such a beam. Present preconceptual designs for the IBX envision a 5-10 MeV induction linac accelerating one K{sup +} beam. At injection (1.7 MeV) the beam current is approximately 500 mA, with pulse length of 300 ns. Design flexibility allows for several different acceleration and compression schedules, including the possibility of longitudinal (unneutralized) drift compression by a factor of up to ten in pulse length after acceleration, and neutralized drift compression. Physics requirements for the IBX, and preliminary physics and engineering design work are discussed in this paper.

  6. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  7. Reviewers Comments on the 5th Symposium and the Status of Fusion Research 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R F

    2005-02-03

    Better to understand the status of fusion research in the year 2003 we will first put the research in its historical context. Fusion power research, now beginning its sixth decade of continuous effort, is unique in the field of scientific research. Unique in its mixture of pure and applied research, unique in its long-term goal and its promise for the future, and unique in the degree that it has been guided and constrained by national and international governmental policy. Though fusion research's goal has from the start been precisely defined, namely, to obtain a net release of energy from controlled nuclear fusion reactions between light isotopes (in particular those of hydrogen and helium) the difficulty of the problem has spawned in the past a very wide variety of approaches to the problem. Some of these approaches have had massive international support for decades, some have been pursued only at a ''shoestring'' level by dedicated groups in small research laboratories or universities. In discussing the historical and present status of fusion research the implications of there being two distinctly different approaches to achieving net fusion power should be pointed out. The first, and oldest, approach is the use of strong magnetic fields to confine the heated fuel, in the form of a plasma and at a density typically four or five orders of magnitude smaller than the density of the atmosphere. In steady state this fusion fuel density is still sufficient to release fusion energy at the rate of many megawatts per cubic meter. The plasma confinement times required for net energy release in this regime are long--typically a second or more, representing an extremely difficult scientific challenge --witness the five decades of research in magnetic fusion, still without having reaching that goal. The second, more recently initiated approach, is of course the ''inertial'' approach. As its name implies, the &apos

  8. National facility for neutron beam research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Rao

    2004-07-01

    In this talk, the growth of neutron beam research (NBR) in India over the past five decades is traced beginning with research at Apsara. A range of problems in condensed matter physics could be studied at CIRUS, followed by sophisticated indegenous instrumentation and research at Dhruva. The talk ends with an overview of current scenario of NBR world-wide and future of Indian activities.

  9. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  10. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  11. Dynamical Dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions by using stable and radioactive beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molini P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the dynamical dipole mode in the 192Pb composite system was investigated through the study of its prompt γ decay employing the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at Elab =11 and 10.1 MeV/u, respectively. The γ-rays and light charged particles were detected in coincidence with evaporation residues and fission fragments. First results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole γ radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through ”hot” fusion reactions. Furthermore, by using radioactive beams and the prompt γ radiation as a probe we could get information on the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities.

  12. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  13. Joint research center activity in thermonuclear fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rocco, P. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1984-04-01

    A review of the activities in progress in the field of thermonuclear fusion technology at the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities is presented. The research areas are: (I) reactor studies, including conceptual design studies of experimental Tokamak reactors (INTOR/NET) and safety analyses; (II) experimental investigation on first wall and blanket materials and components. Emphasis has been given to those topics which are not reported in detail in the following articles of the issue.

  14. Research on Brightness Measurement of Intense Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Huang; Yang, GuoJun; Li, YiDing; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The mostly research fasten on high emission density of injector to study electron beam's brightness in LIA. Using the injector(2MeV) was built to research brightness of multi-pulsed high current(KA) electron beam, and researchs three measurement method (the pepper-pot method, beam collimator without magnetic field, beam collimator with magnetic field method) to detect beam's brightness with time-resolved measurement system.

  15. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  16. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  17. MR cone-beam CT fusion image overlay for fluoroscopically guided percutaneous biopsies in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Patel, Premal A; Gu, Richard; Rea, Vanessa; Amaral, Joao; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-03-01

    Lesions only visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cannot easily be targeted for image-guided biopsy using ultrasound or X-rays but instead require MR guidance with MR-compatible needles and long procedure times (acquisition of multiple MR sequences). We developed an alternative method for performing these difficult biopsies in a standard interventional suite, by fusing MR with cone-beam CT images. The MR cone-beam CT fusion image is then used as an overlay to guide a biopsy needle to the target area under live fluoroscopic guidance. Advantages of this technique include (i) the ability for it to be performed in a conventional interventional suite, (ii) three-dimensional planning of the needle trajectory using cross-sectional imaging, (iii) real-time fluoroscopic guidance for needle trajectory correction and (iv) targeting within heterogeneous lesions based on MR signal characteristics to maximize the potential biopsy yield.

  18. Electromagnetic waves for thermonuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The science of magnetically confined plasmas covers the entire spectrum of physics from classical and relativistic electrodynamics to quantum mechanics. During the last sixty years of research, our initial primitive understanding of plasma physics has made impressive progress thanks to a variety of experiments - from tabletop devices with plasma temperatures of a few thousands of degrees and confinement times of less than 100 microseconds, to large tokamaks with plasma temperatures of up to five hundred million degrees and confinement times approaching one second. We discovered that plasma con

  19. Negative ion source development for a photoneutralization based neutral beam system for future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonin, A.; Agnello, R.; Bechu, S.; Bernard, J. M.; Blondel, C.; Boeuf, J. P.; Bresteau, D.; Cartry, G.; Chaibi, W.; Drag, C.; Duval, B. P.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Fubiani, G.; Furno, I.; Grand, C.; Guittienne, Ph; Howling, A.; Jacquier, R.; Marini, C.; Morgal, I.

    2016-12-01

    In parallel to the developments dedicated to the ITER neutral beam (NB) system, CEA-IRFM with laboratories in France and Switzerland are studying the feasibility of a new generation of NB system able to provide heating and current drive for the future DEMOnstration fusion reactor. For the steady-state scenario, the NB system will have to provide a high NB power level with a high wall-plug efficiency (η ˜ 60%). Neutralization of the energetic negative ions by photodetachment (so called photoneutralization), if feasible, appears to be the ideal solution to meet these performances, in the sense that it could offer a high beam neutralization rate (>80%) and a wall-plug efficiency higher than 60%. The main challenge of this new injector concept is the achievement of a very high power photon flux which could be provided by 3 MW Fabry-Perot optical cavities implanted along the 1 MeV D- beam in the neutralizer stage. The beamline topology is tall and narrow to provide laminar ion beam sheets, which will be entirely illuminated by the intra-cavity photon beams propagating along the vertical axis. The paper describes the present R&D (experiments and modelling) addressing the development of a new ion source concept (Cybele source) which is based on a magnetized plasma column. Parametric studies of the source are performed using Langmuir probes in order to characterize and compare the plasma parameters in the source column with different plasma generators, such as filamented cathodes, radio-frequency driver and a helicon antenna specifically developed at SPC-EPFL satisfying the requirements for the Cybele (axial magnetic field of 10 mT, source operating pressure: 0.3 Pa in hydrogen or deuterium). The paper compares the performances of the three plasma generators. It is shown that the helicon plasma generator is a very promising candidate to provide an intense and uniform negative ion beam sheet.

  20. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  1. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  2. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size

  3. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  4. Radioactive ion beams for solid state research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive isotopes are widely used in many research fields. In some applications they are used as tracers after diffusion or after activation in the material itself through nuclear reactions. For research in solid state physics, the ion implantation technique is the most flexible and convenient method to introduce the radioactive isotopes in the materials to be studied, since it allows the control of the ion dose, the implantation depth and the isotopic purity. The on-line coupling of isotope separators to particle accelerators, as is the case of the ISOLDE facility at CERN, allows the obtention of a wide range of high purity short lived isotopes. Currently, the most stringent limitation for some applications is the low acceleration energy of 60 keV of the ISOLDE beam. In this communication a short review of the current applications of the radioactive beams for research in solid state physics at ISOLDE is done. The development of a post-accelerator facility for MeV radioactive ions is introduced and the adv...

  5. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  6. Estimating cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, L. D.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-07-01

    A three-dimensional, semi-stationary, simplified thermal numerical model was developed. The average cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting of 90MnCrV8 was estimated by computing the conductive power loss. Basing on heat affected zone extension experimentally measured and using an inverse methodology approach, the unknown thermal load on the cutting front during laser cutting was calculated. The accuracy of the numerical power loss estimation was evaluated comparing the results from simulation with the ones from analytical models. A good agreement was found for all the test cases considered in this study. The conduction losses estimation was used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts due to the lower average cut front temperature. This results in the increase of viscosity of molten material and in the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  7. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolata, J.J., E-mail: jkolata@nd.edu [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Howard, A.M. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Mittig, W. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ahn, T. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Becchetti, F.D. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Febbrarro, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W.G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Roberts, A. [Physics Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shore, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Torres-Isea, R.O. [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2016-09-11

    The total fusion excitation function for {sup 10}Be+{sup 40}Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) {sup 10}Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  8. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  9. Design optimization and performances of New Sorgentina Fusion Source (NSFS) supporting materials research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camprini, Patrizio Console, E-mail: patrizio.consolecamprini@enea.it [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Bernardi, Davide [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy); Pillon, Mario; Angelone, Maurizio [Frascati Research Center, Via Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Frisoni, Manuela [Bologna Research Center, Via Martiri di Monte Sole 4, 40129 Bologna, BO (Italy); Pietropaolo, Antonino; Pizzuto, Aldo [Frascati Research Center, Via Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Agostini, Pietro [Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, BO (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    In the framework of fusion materials research, a neutron source has been considered a key installation to support EU plan toward DEMO reactor design. IFMIF facility being the present proposal, a pragmatic approach to EU fusion roadmap timeline considers complementary solutions mandatory, within a shared strategy. New Sorgentina Fusion Source (NSFS) has been recently proposed in order to populate an engineering database through materials irradiation tests. Proven technology of D–T neutron generators is implemented together with ion source and accelerator devices currently used in neutral injection systems at experimental tokamaks. Deuterium and tritium enriched hydride is on-line reloaded by impinging D–T beams via ion implantation onto a high-speed rotating target – D–T retention is allowed through temperature control. Hydride metal layer is re-deposited increasing plant availability factor. Target design is proposed to cope with thermal transients and mechanical loads. Solutions to thermal fatigue concerns are presented. Irradiation capability is then enhanced attaining relevant materials exposure. Main facility characteristics are provided as well as thermal and mechanical issues.

  10. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  11. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Takashi; Naito, Osamu; Ogiwara, Norio; Saigusa, Mikio; Seki, Masahiro; Murasawa, Michihiko; Uehara, Yusuke [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    Research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. The main objectives of the JT-60 experiments are: confinement improvement, impurity control and divertor studies, steady-state studies, and energetic particle physics. JFT-2M experiments progressed in the momentum transport study by applying an external helical field and toroidal momentum input with NBI, and also, the boundary plasma study through the introduction of an electric field in the scrape-off layer (SOL) by the divertor biasing. Progress in the DIII-D experiments was obtained in the studies of divertor radiation, advanced tokamak and VH-mode plasma. As for the fusion technology research, activities are focused on the Research and Development (R and D) for ITER EDA: superconducting magnets, neutral beam heating, radio frequency heating, plasma facing components, reactor structure, remote maintenance, shielding blanket, tritium processing, tritium safety and fusion safety. Based on the Outline Design approved in March 1994 by the ITER Council a sensitivity study was conducted by the new director and JCT in close collaboration with four Home Teams in order to determine the optimum way to achieve a reduction in the cost of ITER while minimizing the impacts regarding its performance margins. Japanese Home Team carried out a part of the ITER design based on task agreements, mainly in the field of vacuum vessel, first wall and blanket, initial assembly, etc. The DREAM tokamak reactor concept was improved focusing on the reactor internals and safety. (J.P.N.).

  12. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Michiya; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Seki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high-temperature plasma research in JT-60U and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. (author)

  13. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. (J.P.N.)

  14. A Multi-Disciplinary University Research Initiative in Hard and Soft Information Fusion: Overview, Research Strategies and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process; these include: 1. Source Characterization of Soft...Level 2 data fusion environment. The primary Research Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process

  15. Socioeconomic Research on Fusion. SERF 1997-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, R.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Lomba, L.; Palomino, I.; Recreo, F.; Robles, B.; Suanez, A.; Cancio, D. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    In this study the environmental externalities produced in some stages of a hypothetical fusion power plant have been studied. The results are the CIEMAT contribution in the macro task named External costs and benefits of the Socioeconomic Research on Fusion (SERF 1997-98) European project. For the externalities economical assessment the Externe methodology has been applied. Lauffen, sited in the SW of Germany has been selected as the hypothetical location of the power plant. The technology, for two different models, was described by Max Planck Institute and the externalities of the materials manufacturing, power plant construction and operation as well as accidents have been monetarily evaluated. The obtained results revealed that for the plant model which uses cooling water, the prevalent cause of external costs were collective doses produced by the global dispersion of 14C emissions. External costs produced by radiological accidents represent low values, however the preliminary assessment performed for the external impacts caused by the ingestion of contaminated foodstuff and water, point out that a more detailed analysis for this stage, is needed. It should be noted that the results presented in this study, are partial values since other potentially important stages such as disposal of radiological waste and decommissioning of the power plant, have not been included. (Author)

  16. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, G.; Gloede, F. E-mail: fritz.gloede@itas.fzk.de; Lessmann, E

    2001-11-01

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology.

  17. A proposed method for accurate 3D analysis of cochlear implant migration using fusion of cone beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eDees

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe goal of this investigation was to compare fusion of sequential cone beam CT volumes to the gold standard (fiducial registration in order to be able to analyze clinical CI migration with high accuracy in three dimensions. Materials and MethodsPaired time-lapsed cone beam CT volumes were performed on five human cadaver temporal bones and one human subject. These volumes were fused using 3D Slicer 4 and BRAINSFit software. Using a gold standard fiducial technique, the accuracy, robustness and performance time of the fusion process were assessed.Results This proposed fusion protocol achieves a sub voxel mean Euclidean distance of 0.05 millimeter in human cadaver temporal bones and 0.16 millimeter when applied to the described in vivo human synthetic data set in over 95% of all fusions. Performance times are less than two minutes.ConclusionHere a new and validated method based on existing techniques is described which could be used to accurately quantify migration of cochlear implant electrodes.

  18. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  19. Modifications of the laser beam coherence inertial confinement fusion plasmas; Modifications des proprietes de coherence des faisceaux laser dans les plasmas de fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grech, M

    2007-06-15

    Inertial confinement fusion by laser requires smoothed laser beam with well-controlled coherence properties. Such beams are made of many randomly distributed intensity maxima: the so-called speckles. As the laser beam propagates through plasma its temporal and spatial coherence can be reduced. This phenomenon is called plasma induced smoothing. For high laser intensities, instabilities developing independently inside the speckles are responsible for the coherence loss. At lower intensities, only collective effects, involving many speckles, can lead to induced smoothing. This thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of these mechanisms. Accounting for the partially incoherent behavior of the laser beams requires the use of statistical description of the laser-plasma interaction. A model is developed for the multiple scattering of the laser light on the self-induced density perturbations that is responsible for a spreading of the temporal and spatial spectra of the transmitted light. It also serves as a strong seed for the instability of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering that induces both, angular spreading and red-shift of the transmitted light. A statistical model is developed for this instability. A criterion is obtained that gives a laser power (below the critical power for filamentation) above which the instability growth is important. Numerical simulations with the interaction code PARAX and an experiment performed on the ALISE laser facility confirm the importance of these forward scattering mechanisms in the modification of the laser coherence properties. (author)

  20. Fusion zone microstructure and porosity in electron beam welds of an α+β titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, T.; Banerjee, D.; Kutumba Rao, V. V.

    1999-03-01

    The effect of electron beam welding parameters on fusion zone (FZ) microstructure and porosity in a Ti -6.8 Al -3.42 Mo -1.9 Zr -0.21 Si alloy (Russian designation VT 9) has been investigated. It has been observed that the FZ grain width increased continuously with increase in heat input when the base metal was in the β heat-treated condition, while in the α+β heat-treated base metal welds, the FZ grain width increased only after a threshold energy input. The difference is attributed to both the weld thermal cycle and the pinning effect of equiaxed primary alpha on grain growth in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of α+β heat-treated base metal. Postweld heat treatment (PWHT) in the subtransus and supertransus regions did not alter the columnar grain morphology in the FZ, possibly due to the lack of enough driving force for the formation of new grains by the breaking up of the columnar grains and grain boundary movement for grain growth. As the PWHTs were conducted in a furnace, the role of thermal gradients can be ruled out. Intragranular microstructure in the aswelded condition consisted of hexagonal martensite. The scale of the martensite laths depended on welding speed. The highest porosity was observed at intermediate welding speeds. At low speeds, a majority of pores formed at the fusion boundary, while at high speeds, occurrence of porosity was maximum at the weld center. The trends on porosity can be explained on the basis of solubility of hydrogen in titanium as a function of temperature and the influence of weld thermal cycle on nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles. The porosity at slow welding speeds is low because sufficient time exists for the nucleation, growth, and escape of hydrogen gas bubbles, while insufficient time exists for the nucleation of gas bubbles at high welding speeds. The effect of pickling of joint surface, vacuum annealing of the base metal, and successive remelting of the weld metal has also been investigated.

  1. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Fumiya; Tuda, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and completion of ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) in July 2001, including technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  2. Design of a Fast Neutral He Beam System for Feasibility Study of Charge-Exchange Alpha-Particle Diagnostics in a Thermonuclear Fusion Reactor

    CERN Document Server

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Kitajima, Sumio; Kiyama, Satoru; Nishiura, Masaki; Sasao, Mamiko; Sugawara, Hiroshi; Takenaga, Mahoko; Takeuchi, Shu; Wada, Motoi

    2005-01-01

    For alpha-particle diagnostics in a thermonuclear fusion reactor, neutralization using a fast (~2 MeV) neutral He beam produced by the spontaneous electron detachment of a He- is considered most promising. However, the beam transport of produced fast neutral He has not been studied, because of difficulty for producing high-brightness He- beam. Double-charge-exchange He- sources and simple beam transport systems were developed and their results were reported in the PAC99* and other papers.** To accelerate an intense He- beam and verify the production of the fast neutral He beam, a new test stand has been designed. It consists of a multi-cusp He+

  3. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    1999-05-14

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  4. Interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedjalil, N.; Mehrangiz, M.; Jafari, S.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme has been presented. We propose here to merge a plasma-loaded cone with the precompressed DT target in order to strongly focus the incident laser beam on the core to improve the fusion gain. The WKB approximation is used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of beamwidth of the incident laser beam with the distance of propagation in the plasma medium. The effects of initial plasma and laser parameters, such as initial plasma electron temperature, initial radius of the laser beam, initial laser beam intensity and plasma density, on self-focusing and defocusing of the Gaussian laser beam have been studied. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the plasma frequency (or plasma density) in the cone, the laser beam will be self-focused noticeably, while for a thinner laser beam (with small radius), it will diverge as propagate in the cone. By evaluating the energy deposition of the relativistic electron ignitors in the fuel, the importance of electron transportation in the cone-attached shell was demonstrated. Moreover, by lessening the least energy needed for ignition, the electrons coupling with the pellet enhances. Therefore, it increases the fusion efficiency. In this scheme, with employing a plasma-loaded cone, the fusion process improves without needing an ultrahigh-intensity laser beam in a conventional ICF.

  5. Additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel by electron beam melting for nuclear fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Liu, Leifeng; Koptyug, Andrey; Wikman, Stefan; Olsen, Jon; Cui, Daqing; Shen, Zhijian

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study was performed to fabricate ITER In-Vessel components by one of the metal additive manufacturing methods, Electron Beam Melting® (EBM®). Solid specimens of SS316L with 99.8% relative density were prepared from gas atomized precursor powder granules. After the EBM® process the phase remains as austenite and the composition has practically not been changed. The RCC-MR code used for nuclear pressure vessels provides guidelines for this study and tensile tests and Charpy-V tests were carried out at 22 °C (RT) and 250 °C (ET). This work provides the first set of mechanical and microstructure data of EBM® SS316L for nuclear fusion applications. The mechanical testing shows that the yield strength, ductility and toughness are well above the acceptance criteria and only the ultimate tensile strength of EBM® SS316L is below the RCC-MR code. Microstructure characterizations reveal the presence of hierarchical structures consisting of solidified melt pools, columnar grains and irregular shaped sub-grains. Lots of precipitates enriched in Cr and Mo are observed at columnar grain boundaries while no sign of element segregation is shown at the sub-grain boundaries. Such a unique microstructure forms during a non-equilibrium process, comprising rapid solidification and a gradient 'annealing' process due to anisotropic thermal flow of accumulated heat inside the powder granule matrix. Relations between process parameters, specimen geometry (total building time) and sub-grain structure are discussed. Defects are formed mainly due to the large layer thickness (100 μm) which generates insufficient bonding between a few of the adjacently formed melt pools during the process. Further studies should focus on adjusting layer thickness to improve the strength of EBM® SS316L and optimizing total building time.

  6. Proceedings of 1995 the first Taedok international fusion symposium on advanced tokamak researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, C. K.; Hong, B. G.; Hong, G. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    This proceeding is from the First Taeduk International Fusion Symposium on advanced tokamak research, which was held at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taeduk Science Town, Korea on March 28-29, 1995. (Author) .new.

  7. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at the Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M as well as DIII-D (US-Japan collaboration), and progress in ITER EDA, including ITER technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  8. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios. (MOW)

  9. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard H-mode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  10. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard Hmode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  11. Measurements of ion micro-beams in RPI-type discharges and fusion protons in PF-1000 experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, A.; Malinowski, K.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Sadowski, M. J.; Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A.; Czaus, K.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Schmidt, H.

    2006-04-01

    The paper reports on experimental investigation of micro-beams of fast ions emitted from high-current pulse discharges within the RPI-IBIS (Rod Plasma Injector) device in Swierk and the PF-1000 (Plasma-Focus) facility in Warsaw. Time-integrated ion measurements were performed with pinhole cameras equipped with solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Before expositions the SSNTDs were calibrated by means of mono-energetic ion beams and/or Thomson-type parabolas recorded on the detector samples. The ion-pinhole cameras were placed at different angles to the symmetry axes of the investigated facilities. In order to record fast (>3 MeV) protons, which originated from D D nuclear fusion reactions in the PF-1000 facility, the SSNTDs were covered with appropriate Al filters. Time-integrated measurements of the fusion protons were performed for chosen series of PF discharges. The paper presents for the first time detailed maps of the fast proton fluxes, which makes it possible to draw conclusions regarding the spatial distribution of the fusion-proton sources.

  12. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  13. Assessment of contemporary mathematical methods for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treve, Y. M.

    1978-03-01

    The mathematical techniques reviewed have been selected on the basis of their relevance to at least four outstanding theoretical problems of magnetic fusion research, namely: (a) ion heating; (b) particle-wave interactions; (c) stability of magnetic surfaces in real tokamaks; and (d) strong plasma turbulence. These problems have a common feature: they all involve chaotic motions in spite of the perfectly deterministic nature of the mathematical models used for their description. In the first section devoted to Hamiltonian systems we briefly review the essentials of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and discuss the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and its implications. In section 2 we review the difficulties of the problem of turbulence and present the Ruelle-Takens picture. An example of a dynamical system with a strange attractor is constructed and the Hopf bifurcation theory is discussed. Finally we review the properties of the Lorenz model for the convective instability of an atmospheric layer which is known to have a strange attractor for sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers.

  14. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1,2000 to March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Kizu, Kaname; Kusakawa, Fumio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sengoku, Seio (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are outstanding at high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and development in ITER EDA including technological R and Ds. The JT-60 project aims at contributing to the physics R and D for ITER and establishing the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. For the achievement of those objectives, both physical and engineering researches have been done. The JT-60 have continued to be productive in many areas covering performance improvements of high {beta}{sub p} ELMy H-mode regime and reversed shear plasma, non-inductive current drive, physics study relevant to improved modes, stabilization of MHD modes, feedback control, disruption study, understandings on energetic particles, and scrape off layer and divertor studies with increased pumping capability. On JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being promoted, including application of the low activation ferritic steel, with the flexibility of a medium-sized device. The pre-testing on compatibility of ferritic steel plates (FPs), covering {approx}20% of the inside wall of the vacuum vessel, with plasma was performed, demonstrating no adverse effects on plasmas. Boronization was introduced for the first time in JFT-2M after installation of inside FPs. High-{beta}{sub N} discharges ({beta}{sub N} up to {approx}2.8) were obtained with inside FPs and boronization. Formation of negative electric field at the H-mode transition during ECH was clarified by the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The MSE polarimeter system, which is capable of simultaneous measurement of a radial electric field, has been newly developed. In RF experiments, fast wave electric field profile was directly measured for the first time using the beat wave and HIBP. The

  15. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1,2000 to March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Kizu, Kaname; Kusakawa, Fumio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sengoku, Seio (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are outstanding at high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and development in ITER EDA including technological R and Ds. The JT-60 project aims at contributing to the physics R and D for ITER and establishing the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. For the achievement of those objectives, both physical and engineering researches have been done. The JT-60 have continued to be productive in many areas covering performance improvements of high {beta}{sub p} ELMy H-mode regime and reversed shear plasma, non-inductive current drive, physics study relevant to improved modes, stabilization of MHD modes, feedback control, disruption study, understandings on energetic particles, and scrape off layer and divertor studies with increased pumping capability. On JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being promoted, including application of the low activation ferritic steel, with the flexibility of a medium-sized device. The pre-testing on compatibility of ferritic steel plates (FPs), covering {approx}20% of the inside wall of the vacuum vessel, with plasma was performed, demonstrating no adverse effects on plasmas. Boronization was introduced for the first time in JFT-2M after installation of inside FPs. High-{beta}{sub N} discharges ({beta}{sub N} up to {approx}2.8) were obtained with inside FPs and boronization. Formation of negative electric field at the H-mode transition during ECH was clarified by the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The MSE polarimeter system, which is capable of simultaneous measurement of a radial electric field, has been newly developed. In RF experiments, fast wave electric field profile was directly measured for the first time using the beat wave and HIBP. The

  16. Configuration of the Virtual Laboratory for Fusion Researches in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ishiguro, S.; Takami, S.; Tsuda, K.; Okamura, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    SNET is a virtual laboratory system for nuclear fusion research in Japan, it has been developed since 2001 with SINET3, which is a national academic network backbone operated by National Institute of Computer sciences. Twenty one sites including major Japanese universities, JAEA and NIFS are mutually connected on SNET with the speed of 1 Gbps in 2008 fiscal year. The SNET is a closed network system based on L2 and L3 VPN and is connected to the web through the firewall at NIFS for security maintenance. Collaboration categories in SNET are as follows: the LHD remote participation; the remote use of supercomputer system; the all Japan ST (Spherical Tokamak) research program. For example, the collaborators of the first category in a remote station can control their diagnostic devices at LHD and analyze the LHD data as if they were at the LHD control room. The detail of the network policy is different from each other because each category has its own particular purpose. In October 2008, the Kyushu University and NIFS were connected by L2 VPN. The site was already connected by L3 VPN, but the data transfer rate was rather low. L2 VPN supports the bulk data transfer which is produced by QUEST, the spherical tokamak device at Kyushu University. The wide-area broadcast test began to distribute to remote stations the video which is presented at the front panel of the LHD control room. ITER activity started in 2007 and 'The ITER Remote Experimentation Centre' will be constructed at the Rokkasho village in Japan under ITER-BA agreement. SNET would be useful for distributing the data of ITER to Japanese universities and institutions. (authors)

  17. Resonant Formation of $d\\mu t$ Molecules in Deuterium An Atomic Beam Measurement of Muon Catalyzed dt Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Bailey, J M; Beer, G A; Beveridge, J L; Faifman, M P; Huber, T M; Kammel, P; Kim, S K; Knowles, P E; Kunselman, A R; Maier, M; Markushin, V E; Marshall, G M; Martoff, C J; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Wozniak, J; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    Resonant formation of $d\\mu t$ molecules in collisions of muonic tritium ($\\mu t$) on D$_2$ was investigated using a beam of $\\mu t$ atoms, demonstrating a new direct approach in muon catalyzed fusion studies. Strong epithermal resonances in $d\\mu t$ formation were directly revealed for the first time. From the time-of-flight analysis of $2036\\pm 116$ $dt$ fusion events, a formation rate consistent with $0.73\\pm (0.16)_{meas} \\pm (0.09)_{model}$ times the theoretical prediction was obtained. For the largest peak at a resonance energy of $0.423 \\pm 0.037$ eV, this corresponds to a rate of $(7.1 \\pm 1.8) \\times 10^9$ s$^{-1}$, more than an order of magnitude larger than those at low energies.

  18. Soft Fusion Energy Path: Isotope Production in Energy Subcritical/Economy Hypercritical D +D Colliding-Beam Mini Fusion Reactor `Exyder'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Tim; Maglich, Bogdan; Calsec Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Bethe1 and Sakharov2 argued for soft fusion energy path via isotope production, substantiated by Manheimer3. - Copious T and 3He production4 , 5 from D(d, p) T and D(d, n) 3He reactions in 725 KeV D +D colliding beams was measured in weak-focusing Self-Collider6 , 7 radius 0.15 m, in B = 3.12 T, non-linearly stabilized by electron cloud oscillations8 to confinement time = 24 s. Simulations6 predict that by switching to strong focusing9, 10 deuterons 0.75 MeV each, generate 1 3He +1T +1p + 1n at total input energy cost 10.72 MeV. Economic value of T and 3He is 65 and 120 MeV/atom, respectively. We obtain economic gain 205MeV/10.72 MeV ~ 2,000% i.e. 3He production funds cost of T. If first wall is made of Thorium n's will breed 233U releasing 200 MeV/fission, at neutron cost 5.36 MeV versus 160 MeV in beam on target, resulting in no cost 3He production, valued 75K/g. 1. Physics Today, May 1979, p.44; 2. Memoirs, Vintage Books, (1992); 3. Phys. Today, May 2012 p. 12; 4. Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 796 (1985); 5. Bull. APS, 57, No. 3 (2012); 6. Part. Acc.1, (1970); 7. ANEUTRONIC FUSION NIM A 271 1-167 (1988); 8. Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1818 (1993); 9. Part. Acc. 34, 13 (1990).

  19. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This document summarizes FY2016 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for MFE carried out by ORNL. The organization of the report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities.

  20. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  1. Research on compressive fusion for remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Senlin; Wan, Guobin; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Chong, Xin

    2014-02-01

    A compressive fusion of remote sensing images is presented based on the block compressed sensing (BCS) and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). Since the BCS requires small memory space and enables fast computation, firstly, the images with large amounts of data can be compressively sampled into block images with structured random matrix. Further, the compressive measurements are decomposed with NSCT and their coefficients are fused by a rule of linear weighting. And finally, the fused image is reconstructed by the gradient projection sparse reconstruction algorithm, together with consideration of blocking artifacts. The field test of remote sensing images fusion shows the validity of the proposed method.

  2. Thermal and mechanical properties of e-beam irradiated butt-fusion joint in high-density polyethylene pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vipin; Pokharel, Pashupati; Kang, Min Kwan; Choi, Sunwoong

    2016-05-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of a butt-fusion joint in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of welded samples revealed the changes of crystallinity due to the cross linking effect of electron beam irradiation. The suppression of the degree of crystallinity with increasing the irradiation dose from 0 kGy to 500 kGy indicated that the e-beam radiation induced cross-links among the polymer chains at the weld zone. The cross-link junction at the joint of HDPE pipe prevented chain folding and reorganization leading to the formation of imperfect crystallites with smaller size and also less in content. Tensile test of the welded samples with different dose of e-beam irradiation showed the increased values of the yield stress and Young's modulus as a function of irradiation dose. On the other hand, the elongation at break diminished clearly with increasing the irradiation doses.

  3. Research and Realization of Medical Image Fusion Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new medical image fusion technique is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstruction. After reconstruction, the three-dimensional volume data is normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way and intercepted through setting up cutting plane including anatomical structure, as a result two images in entire registration on space and geometry are obtained and the images are fused at last.Compared with traditional two-dimensional fusion technique, three-dimensional fusion technique can not only resolve the different problems existed in the two kinds of images, but also avoid the registration error of the two kinds of images when they have different scan and imaging parameter. The research proves this fusion technique is more exact and has no registration, so it is more adapt to arbitrary medical image fusion with different equipments.

  4. Optical design of a laser system for nuclear fusion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Metz, J

    1971-07-01

    High power laser improvements, high quality aspheric lenses, and sharp focusing on a solid deuterium target enable us to get numerous nuclear fusion reactions inside the deuterium plasma. Since Maiman successfully built the first light amplifier in 1960 [Nature 187, 493 (1960)] and Terhune performed air breakdown experiments in 1962 ["Optical Third Harmonic Generation," Comptes rendus de la 3ème Conférence Internationale d'Electronique Quantique, Paris, 11-15 février 1963, P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Dunod, Paris, 1964), pp. 1559-15761, the laser has been thought of as a valuable energy source for fusion devices. Now a kind of race has started toward high temperature plasmas created by powerful lasers. However, the peak power of solid state laser is limited by glass damage, pump efficiences, and unwanted effects such as superradiance. So it is necessary to improve all the optical properties of the laser and the focusing of the lens on the target. In this paper, requirements for fusion implying a very high flux will be stated. Successive optical designs will be described together with measurement methods, and the contribution of optical improvements to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction in deuterium targets will be evaluated.

  5. Remote-handling challenges in fusion research and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Rob; Loving, Antony

    2016-05-01

    Energy-producing nuclear fusion reactions taking place in tokamaks cause radiation damage and radioactivity. Remote-handling technology for repairing and replacing in-vessel components has evolved enormously over the past two decades -- and is now being deployed elsewhere too.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of H 2 and D 2 helicon plasmas generated by a resonant antenna for neutral beam applications in fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, C.; Agnello, R.; Duval, B. P.; Furno, I.; Howling, A. A.; Jacquier, R.; Karpushov, A. N.; Plyushchev, G.; Verhaegh, K.; Guittienne, Ph.; Fantz, U.; Wünderlich, D.; Béchu, S.; Simonin, A.

    2017-03-01

    A new generation of neutral beam systems will be required in future fusion reactors, such as DEMO, able to deliver high power (up to 50 MW) with high (800 keV or higher) neutral energy. Only negative ion beams may be able to attain this performance, which has encouraged a strong research focus on negative ion production from both surface and volumetric plasma sources. A novel helicon plasma source, based on the resonant birdcage network antenna configuration, is currently under study at the Swiss Plasma Centre before installation on the Cybele negative ion source at the Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research, CEA, Cadarache, France. This source is driven by up to 10 kW at 13.56 MHz, and is being tested on a linear resonant antenna ion device. Passive spectroscopic measurements of the first three Balmer lines α, β and γ and of the Fulcher-α bands were performed with an f/2 spectrometer, for both hydrogen and deuterium. Multiple viewing lines and an absolute intensity calibration were used to determine the plasma radiance profile, with a spatial resolution  <3 mm. A minimum Fisher regularization algorithm was applied to obtain the absolute emissivity profile for each emission line for cylindrical symmetry, which was experimentally confirmed. An uncertainty estimate of the inverted profiles was performed using a Monte Carlo approach. Finally, a radiofrequency-compensated Langmuir probe was inserted to measured the electron temperature and density profiles. The absolute line emissivities are interpreted using the collisional–radiative code YACORA which estimates the degree of dissociation and the distribution of the atomic and molecular species, including the negative ion density. This paper reports the results of a power scan up to 5 kW in conditions satisfying Cybele requirements for the plasma source, namely a low neutral pressure, p≤slant 0.3 Pa and magnetic field B≤slant 150 G.

  7. Upgrade of the IGN-14 neutron generator for research on detection of fusion-plasma products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igielski, Andrzej; Kurowski, Arkadiusz; Janik, Władysław; Gabańska, Barbara; Woźnicka, Urszula, E-mail: Urszula.Woznicka@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-10-11

    The fast neutron generator (IGN-14) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków (Poland) is a laboratory multi-purpose experimental device. Neutrons are produced in a beam-target D–D or D–T reactions. A new vacuum chamber installed directly to the end of the ion guide of IGN-14 makes it possible to measure not only neutrons but also alpha particles in the presence of a mixed radiation field of other accompanying reaction products. The new experimental setup allows test detectors dedicated to spectrometric measurements of thermonuclear fusion reaction products. - Highlights: • Nuclear reactions at the target correspond to the fusion reaction in hot plasma. • Measuring vacuum chamber has been built and installed. • Spatial distribution of the particle mixed fields in chamber was calculated. • New experimental setup for tests of detectors dedicated to measure of fusion reaction products.

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-01

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C{sup +} source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2{theta} quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis.

  9. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  10. Materials research and beam line operation utilizing NSLS. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liedl, G.L.

    1993-06-01

    MATRIX, a participating research team of Midwest x-ray scattering specialists, continues to operate beam line X-18A at NSLS. Operations of this line now provides state-of-the-art capabilities to a wide range of people in the Materials Science and Engineering research community. Improvements of the beam line continue to be a focus of MATRIX. Throughout this past year the emphasis has been shifting towards improvement in ``user friendly`` aspects. Simplified control operations and a shift to single-user personal computer has been a major part of the effort. Over the past year all 232 operational days were fully utilized. Beam line tests coupled with MATRIX members combined to use 284 days. General user demand for use of the beam line continues to be strong and four groups were provided 48 operating days. Research production has been growing as NSLS and the beam line become a more stable type of operation. For 1992 the MATRIX group published six articles. To date, for 1993 the same group has published, submitted, or has in preparation nine articles. Recent research milestones include: the first quantitative structural information on the as-quenched and early stages of decomposition of supersaturated Al-Li alloys; the first quantitative diffuse scattering measurements on a complex system (Co substitute for Cu YBCO superconductor); demonstration of capabilities of a new UHV surface diffraction chamber with in-situ characterization and temperature control (30-1300K); feasibility of phasing structure factors in a quasicrystal using multiple Bragg scattering.

  11. Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    SLL 80 676 copy 1 SAN D78-2306 Unlimited Release UC-21 aM* m ml 8 H Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications Research Progress...Printed Copy $6.00; Microfiche $3.00 Accession Number: 3885 Publication Date: Dec 01,1978 Title: Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications...Document: Archive, RRI, DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Laser Development Fusion Application Oscillator Amplifier Geometry Electron Beam Iodine Hydrogen

  12. Validation in Fusion Research: Towards Guidelines and Best Practices

    CERN Document Server

    Terry, P W; Leboeuf, J -N; McKee, G R; Mikkelsen, D R; Nevins, W M; Newman, D E; Stotler, D P

    2008-01-01

    Because experiment/model comparisons in magnetic confinement fusion have not yet satisfied the requirements for validation as understood broadly, a set of approaches to validating mathematical models and numerical algorithms are recommended as good practices. Previously identified procedures, such as verification, qualification, and analysis of error and uncertainty, remain important. However, particular challenges intrinsic to fusion plasmas and physical measurement therein lead to identification of new or less familiar concepts that are also critical in validation. These include the primacy hierarchy, which tracks the integration of measurable quantities, and sensitivity analysis, which assesses how model output is apportioned to different sources of variation. The use of validation metrics for individual measurements is extended to multiple measurements, with provisions for the primacy hierarchy and sensitivity. This composite validation metric is essential for quantitatively evaluating comparisons with ex...

  13. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  14. Constructing Dual Beam Optical Tweezers for Undergraduate Biophysics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Brian; West-Coates, Devon; Del'Etoile, Jon; Grotzke, Eric; Paramanathan, Thayaparan

    Optical tweezing, or trapping, is a modern physics technique which allows us to use the radiation pressure from laser beams to trap micron sized particles. Optical tweezers are commonly used in graduate level biophysics research but seldom used at the undergraduate level. Our goal is to construct a dual beam optical tweezers for future undergraduate biophysical research. Dual beam optical tweezers use two counter propagating laser beams to provide a stronger trap. In this study we discuss how the assembly of the dual beam optical tweezers is done through three main phases. The first phase was to construct a custom compressed air system to isolate the optical table from the vibrations from its surroundings so that we can measure pico-newton scale forces that are observed in biological systems. In addition, the biomaterial flow system was designed with a flow cell to trap biomolecules by combining several undergraduate semester projects. During the second phase we set up the optics to image and display the inside of the flow cell. Currently we are in the process of aligning the laser to create an effective trap and developing the software to control the data collection. This optical tweezers set up will enable us to study potential cancer drug interactions with DNA at the single molecule level and will be a powerful tool in promoting interdisciplinary research at the undergraduate level.

  15. Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.

  16. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  17. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion. Synthesis report 2011; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET), which started operation again in 2011. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is the last step before DEMO, a prototype fusion reactor able to deliver electricity and demonstrate the economic viability of fusion energy. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL went on with its participation to the scientific and technological programme of EURATOM. Researches are carried out essentially on 2 sites: (i) at EPFL, where topics dealt with include the physics of magnetic confinement studied using the Variable Configuration Tokamak (TCV), the basic experiment TORPEX, theory and numerical modelling, and the technology of plasma heating and current generation by hyper-frequency waves; (ii) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), where activities are devoted to superconductivity and structure materials. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. In the TCV it could be demonstrated for the first time that the injection of Electronic Cyclotronic Heating (ECH) waves is able to double the frequency of so-called 'Edge Localized Modes' (ELM), reducing by a factor of 2 the energy expelled by each ELM. In particular, it was possible to considerably reduce the statistical dispersion of the repetition frequency of ELM, and to avoid the appearance of gigantic ELM that are particularly harmful for reactor operation. The effect of plasma

  18. A Wave-Based Model for Cross-Beam Energy Transfer in Direct-Drive Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, J. F.

    2016-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) is thought to be responsible for an 30 % reduction in hydrodynamic coupling efficiency on OMEGA and up to 50% at the ignition scale for direct-drive (DD) implosions. These numbers are determined by ray-based models that have been developed and integrated within the radiation-hydrodynamics codes LILAC (1-D) and DRACO (2-D). However, ray-based modeling of CBET in an inhomogeneous plasma assumes a steady-state plasma response, does not include the effects of beam speckle, and ray caustics are treated in an ad hoc manner. Nevertheless, simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with implosion experiments on OMEGA (when combined with a model for nonlocal heat transport). The validity of the modeling for ignition-scale implosions has not yet been determined. To address the physics shortcomings, which have important implications for DD inertial confinement fusion, a new wave-based model has been constructed. It solves the time-enveloped Maxwell equations in three-dimensions, including polarization effects, plasma inhomogeneity, and open-boundary conditions with the ability to prescribe beams incident at arbitrary angles. Beams can be made realistic with respect to laser speckle, polarization smoothing, and laser bandwidth. This, coupled to a linearized low-frequency plasma response that does not assume a steady state, represents the most-complete model of CBET to date. New results will be presented and the implications for CBET modeling and mitigation will be described. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DENA0001944, in collaboration with J. G. Shaw, R. K. Follett, and D. H. Edgell (LLE).

  19. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Zakharov, J. Li and Y. Wu

    2010-11-18

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  20. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process.

  1. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the laboratory for laser energetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, J.; Skupsky, S.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Collins, T.J.B.; Craxton, R.S.; Delettrez, J.A.; Edgell, D.H.; Epstein, R.; Glebov, V.Y.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Igumenshchev, I.V.; Keck, R.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Marciante, J.; Marozas, J.A.; Marshall, F.J.; Maximov, A.V.; McKenty, P.W.; Morse, S.F.B.; Myatt, J.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D. [Rochester Univ., Lab. for Laser Energetics, NY (United States); McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Betti, S.R.; Goncharov, V.N. [Rochester Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Physics and Astronomy, NY (United States); Fletcher, A.; Freeman, C.; Padalino, S. [SUNY Geneseo, Geneseo, NY (United States); Frenje, J.A.; Li, C.K.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kilkenny, J.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-08-15

    Direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is expected to demonstrate high gain on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in the next decade and is a leading candidate for inertial fusion energy production. The demonstration of high areal densities in hydro-dynamically scaled cryogenic DT or D{sub 2} implosions with neutron yields that are a significant fraction of the 'clean' 1-D predictions will validate the ignition-equivalent direct-drive target performance on the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). This paper highlights the recent experimental and theoretical progress leading toward achieving this validation in the next few years. The NIF will initially be configured for X-ray drive and with no beams placed at the target equator to provide a symmetric irradiation of a direct-drive capsule. LLE is developing the 'polar-direct-drive' (PDD) approach that directs beams toward the target equator. Initial 2-dimensional simulations have shown ignition. A unique 'Saturn-like' plastic ring around the equator refracts the laser light incident near the equator toward the target, improving the drive uniformity. LLE is currently constructing the multibeam, 2.6-kJ/beam, peta-watt laser system OMEGA-EP (Extended Performance). Integrated fast-ignition experiments, combining the OMEGA-EP and OMEGA Laser Systems, will begin in 2008. (authors)

  2. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion - Synthesis report 2010; Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucleaire controlee. Rapport de synthese 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secretariat d' Etat a l' education et a la recherche, Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Since 1978, research on thermonuclear fusion in Switzerland is closely related to the research programme of the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). The Swiss projects tackle aspects of plasma physics and fusion technology. Switzerland participates to the construction and operation of the Joint European Torus (JET). The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is being built; the first plasma is expected in 2019. The 'Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas' (CRPP) of the EPFL participates to EURATOM scientific and technological projects in magnetic confinement physics, through an experimental contribution (the Variable Configuration Tokamak, TCV) and theoretical studies. Thanks to the large flexibility of the TCV design and operation modus, plasmas of different shapes can be created and controlled, what is a very useful option to verify numerical simulation results. Besides, the injection of millimetre waves allows directing the injected power according to specific profiles. A configuration of type 'snowflakes' could be created, reducing the power deposition at the edge of the plasma. Theoretical studies on turbulence have improved the plasma stability in the TCV. For the first time in the world, TCV could reach a stable plasma, the plasma current being generated using the so-called 'bootstrap' phenomenon. Besides turbulence, studies were focused on heat and particle transport in tokamaks, on an analysis of the equilibrium and magneto-hydrodynamic stability of tokamaks and stellarators, on the application of radiofrequency waves and on the optimization of new confinement configurations. Experiments in the JET facility confirmed the numerical results of theoretical simulations. The TORPEX facility, which is simpler than TCV, allows high space-temporal resolution measurements for the study of turbulences and plasma threads ('blobs'). At the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), research topics include

  3. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ide, Shunsuke; Matsukawa, Makoto; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Koichi; Takahashi, Ichiro [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. The objectives of the JT-60 project are to contribute to the ITER physics R and D and to establish the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. Objectives of the JFT-2M program are (1) advanced and basic researches for the development of high-performance plasmas for nuclear fusion and (2) contribution to the physics R and D for ITER, with a merit of flexibility of a medium-size device. The Detailed Design Report (DDR) of ITER was issued by the Director in November 1996, as the basis of the Final Design Report (FDR). After the formal review by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), the DDR was officially accepted by the ITER Council at its 11th Meeting held in December 1996. The DDR is composed of various technical documents on the detailed design of plasma parameters, tokamak components, plant system and tokamak building. The major results of safety analyses described in the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR)-1 was also included in the DDR. The FDR will be prepared by the end of 1997 for presentation at the ITER Council. (J.P.N.)

  4. Magnetized Inertial Fusion (MIF) Research at the Shiva Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, C.; Domonkos, M.; Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; White, W. M.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.

    2015-11-01

    The AFRL Shiva Star capacitor bank (1300 μF, up to 120 kV) used typically at 4 to 5 MJ stored energy, 10 to 15 MA current, 10 μs current rise time, has been used to drive metal shell (solid liner) implosions for compression of axial magnetic fields to multi-megagauss levels, suitable for compressing magnetized plasmas to MIF conditions. MIF approaches use magnetic field to reduce thermal conduction relative to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF substantially reduces required implosion speed and convergence. Using profiled thickness liner enables large electrode apertures and field-reversed configuration (FRC) injection. Using a longer capture region, FRC trapped flux lifetime was made comparable to implosion time and an integrated compression test was conducted. The FRC was radially compressed a factor of ten, to 100x density >1018 cm-3 (a world FRC record), but temperatures were only 300-400 eV, compared to intended several keV. Compression to megabar pressures was inferred by the observed liner rebound, but the heating rate during the first half of the compression was less than the normal FRC decay rate. Principal diagnostics were soft x-ray imaging, soft x-ray diodes, and neutron measurements. This work has been supported by DOE-OFES.

  5. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device; Caracterizacion del Borde del Plasma del Dispositivo de Fusion TJ-II del CIEMAT mediante el Diagnostico del Haz Supersonico de Helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author ) 36 refs.

  6. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research…

  7. Research on beam splitting prism in laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-hua; Xiong, Shi-fu; Kou, Yang; Pan, Yong-gang; Chen, Heng; Li, Zeng-yu; Zhang, Chuan-xin

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid development of optical testing technology, laser heterodyne interferometer has been used more and more widely. As the testing precision requirements continue to increase, the technical prism is an important component of heterodyne interference. The research utilizing thin film technology to improve optical performance of interferometer has been a new focus. In the article, based on the use requirements of interferometer beam splitting prism, select Ta2O5 and SiO2 as high and low refractive index materials respectively, deposit on substrate K9. With the help of TFCalc design software and Needle method, adopting electron gun evaporation and ion assisted deposition, the beam splitting prism is prepared successfully and the ratio of transmittance and reflectance for this beam splitting prism in 500~850 nm band, incident angle 45 degree is 8:2. After repeated tests, solved the difference problem of film deposition process parameters ,controlled thickness monitoring precision effectively and finally prepared the ideal beam splitting prism which is high adhesion and stable optics properties. The film the laser induced damage threshold and it meet the requirements of heterodyne interferometer for use.

  8. Conceptual design of 100 J cryogenically-cooled multi-slab laser for fusion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divoky M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of two alternative laser layouts for HiLASE and ELI Beamlines projects. The cryogenically cooled laser is 100 J class with 2 ns pulse length and operates at 10 Hz repetition rate. The laser beam is intended for industrial applications in HiLASE, for OPCPA pumping in ELI Beamlines and can serve as a test bed for large scale high repetition rate fusion lasers. First layout utilizes classical scheme with preamplifier and main amplifier, while the second layout utilizes single amplifier scheme with two amplifier heads. The comparison is based on the results obtained from homemade MATLAB code for evaluation of amplified spontaneous emission and stored energy and on a beam propagation simulated in MIRÓ code.

  9. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  10. Spin-off from Euratom-CEA association in fusion magnetic research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Guy E-mail: guy.rey@cea.fr; Magaud, P.; Libeyre, P.; Garin, P.; Agarici, G.; Beaumont, B.; Berger-by, G.; Bibet, P.; Chappuis, P.; Cordier, J.J.; Couturier, B.; Duchateau, J.L.; Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Gravil, B.; Kazarian, F.; Lipa, M.; Magne, R.; Portafaix, C.; Schlosser, J

    2003-09-01

    Significant spin-off from magnetic fusion research in Euratom-CEA association, over the last 40 years, has been induced and developed through a continuous process of exchange of scientific, technology and managerial expertise between the fusion scientists and manufacturing engineers. The growth in shared expertise, associated innovative applications and cooperative efforts with industry can be clearly identified (i) in the frame of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) and underlying technology programme, (ii) by the industrial applications induced from Tore Supra programme and the associated joint development of large test bed facilities for control and acceptance test, (iii) by the appreciation of the expected impacts of ITER from the companies involved in the Tore Supra construction.

  11. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Inabe, Teruo; Kaneko, Tadao; Konoshima, Sigeru; Miura, M. Yushi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In JT-60, some mechanical improvements of the centrifugal pellet injector have been done for stable production and successive ejection of pellet. In addition, a guide tube for an injection from top of high-field side was installed as well as the low-field side in February 2000. The injection power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system of the frequency of 110 GHz installed last year was increased up to {approx}0.75 MW for 2 seconds in this year using the control of RF beam angle. Two gyrotrons were newly installed with total power increased from 1 MW to 3 MW. Highlights of the JT-60 experiments in FY (Fiscal Year) 2000 may be summarized as follows: (1) A reversed shear discharge with an equivalent fusion multiplication factor Q{sub DT}{sup eq} of {approx}0.5 was achieved successfully at plasma current of 2.4 MA for 0.8 seconds. (2) Quasi-steady operation of low current reversed shear plasma with a large fraction ({approx}80%) of bootstrap current was realized under full non-inductive current drive condition. H-factor of 3.3-3.8 at electron density as high as 73% of the Greenwald limit was sustained for 6 times of the energy confinement time. (3) Normalized beta exceeding the ideal no-wall stability limit was obtained in reversed shear plasmas with a ratio of an outer-wall radius to a plasma minor radius less than 1.3. (4) L-H transition power was reduced by {approx}30% in the W-shaped divertor with pumping from both inside and outside slots compared with that in the open divertor. Helium exhaust rate in ELMy H-mode plasmas was improved up to 50% higher than the inside slot pumping. (5) Current drive efficiency of 1.3x10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}/W was attained with the central electron temperature of 8.6 keV. The efficiency is about 2.6 times higher than that of 100 keV. On the JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being produced including the application of the low activation ferritic steel. A dramatic reduction of trapped ion loss due to the

  12. Research on MR-SVD based visual and infrared image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yajun; Xiao, Junbo; Yang, Jinbao; Chai, Zhi; Wu, Yuanliang

    2016-10-01

    Transform domain based visual and infrared image fusion method is an important research direction. All kinds of natural images could not be expressed effectively by wavelet transform with only one kind of wavelet basis functions due to the high redundancies of its linear and curve singularity expression. Multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MR-SVD) computed the transformation matrix from the original image. With the computed transformation matrix, the original image is decomposed to unrelated "smooth" and the "detail" components. On each layer of the smooth components, the singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to replace the wavelet filter, realizing the multi-level decomposition. A novel visual and infrared image fusion algorithm is presented because of the better sparsity and adaptability of multi-resolution singular value decomposition (MR-SVD), which could resolve the difficult problem of wavelet function basis selection for different kind of visual and infrared images. The same transformation matrixes computed from original visual or infrared imagery used to decompose the original images with MR-SVD, which could reduce the blurring problem of fusion image got by the average transformation matrixes. Then, cycle spinning is employed to remove the artifacts in the fusion image. experimental results according to both the subjective and objective criteria, including the average, standard deviation and average MI, indicate that the proposed method could get better fusion results compared to methods like wavelet transform.

  13. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  14. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  15. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  16. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  17. How accurate are the fusion of cone-beam CT and 3-D stereophotographic images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2 to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3 to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration. METHODOLOGY: CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS error. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were -0.018 (±0.129 mm and 0.739 (±0.239 mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  18. 核聚变研究50年%FUSION RESEARCH IN THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱励俭

    2001-01-01

    The present status and future prospect of fusion research and thepredicted energy demand in the world have been reviewed.A proposal on development of fusion-fission hybrid reactors,including outlined schedule and predicted achievements,has been presented based on the discussion on the strategy and chance of development of fusion energy forward to the future and the advantages of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.%分析了国内外核聚变研究成果现状和发展的趋势,对国民经济发展过程中的能源需求作了预测,对中国的聚变能源战略和历史机遇(经济、技术体系、地位)作了讨论,介绍了聚变-裂变混合堆并提出了发展聚变-裂变混合堆的总体设想、研究内容和预期目标。

  19. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-08

    Nuclear fusion - the process that powers the sun - offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITE R fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world's population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES ) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW's task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.) This Report presents a portfolio of research activities for US research in magnetic fusion for the next two decades. It is intended to provide

  20. A Schrdinger formulation research for light beam propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承宜; 郭弘; 胡巍; 邓锡铭

    2000-01-01

    The wave equation of light beam propagation was written in the form of an axial-coordinate-dependent Schrodinger equation, and the expectation value of a dynamical variable, the trial function of variational approach and the ABCD law were discussed by use of quantum mechanics approach. In view of the evolution equations of expectation values of dynamical variables in the framework of quantum mechanics, the definition of a potential function representing the beam propagation stability and its universal formula with the quality factor, the universal formula of beam width and curvature radius for a paraxial beam and cylindrically symmetric non-paraxial beam, the general formula of second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of beam for a paraxial beam, and the general criteria of the conservation of beam quality factor and the existence of a potential well of a potential function for a paraxial beam, were given or derived, respectively. Starting with the same trial function, the co

  1. Radioactive ion beams for biomedical research and nuclear medical application

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Gerd-Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN is the world leading on On-Line Isotope Separator installation. The main aspects which makes ISOLDE produced radio-isotopes such valuable for use in biomedical research are: the availability of exotic or uncommon radioisotopes, the high purity and the ion beam quality. A short overview on research strategies, on experimental work and application of ISOLDE produced radionuclides used in the field of biomedicine over a period of more than 2 decades will be given. Special attention will be directed to the radio- lanthanides, because they can be seen as one single element providing the unique possibility to study systematically relationships between molecule parameters and a biological response without changes in the basic tracer molecule. Among those radionuclides we find any radiation properties we wish (single photon emission) suitable for SPECT, positron emission suitable for positron emission tomography (PET), alpha -, beta /sup -/- and Auger electron emission. (21 refs).

  2. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008: Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak. At present, the tokamak is regarded worldwide as the most viable candidate to demonstrate fusion energy generation. Numerous power plant studies (>50, extensive R&D programs, more than 100 operating experiments, and an impressive international collaboration led to the current wealth of fusion information and understanding. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century. The fusion roadmaps developed to date take different approaches, depending on the anticipated power plant concept and the degree of extrapolation beyond ITER. Several Demos with differing approaches will be built in the US, EU, Japan, China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries to cover the wide range of near-term and advanced fusion systems.

  3. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braccini, Saverio

    2013-04-01

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few μA for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  4. The new bern PET cyclotron, its research beam line, and the development of an innovative beam monitor detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, Saverio [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-04-19

    The new Bern cyclotron laboratory aims at industrial radioisotope production for PET diagnostics and multidisciplinary research by means of a specifically conceived beam transfer line, terminated in a separate bunker. In this framework, an innovative beam monitor detector based on doped silica and optical fibres has been designed, constructed, and tested. Scintillation light produced by Ce and Sb doped silica fibres moving across the beam is measured, giving information on beam position, shape, and intensity. The doped fibres are coupled to commercial optical fibres, allowing the read-out of the signal far away from the radiation source. This general-purpose device can be easily adapted for any accelerator used in medical applications and is suitable either for low currents used in hadrontherapy or for currents up to a few {mu}A for radioisotope production, as well as for both pulsed and continuous beams.

  5. Applied research with cyclotron beams at FLNR JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Apel, P.Yu.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Gulbekian, G.G. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions

    1997-03-01

    The Center of Applied Physics at the Flerov Laboratory carries out an R and D program comprising development of track membrane technology, materials research with heavy ion beams and production of radioisotopes. Experiments are performed on three cyclotrons: U-400, U-200 and IC-100 providing a wide variety of ion beams with the energies of 1 to 10 MeV/u. The activity on track membranes (TMs) includes studies of track formation in polymers and latent track structure, track sensitization and etching, methods of membrane testing, development of track membranes on the basis of new materials, surface modification of TMs, design and construction of facilities for track membrane production. Recent experiments on heavy ion-induced radiation damage in non-polymeric substances have been devoted to defect creation in semiconductor and dielectric single crystals. TEM, SEM, STM and `in situ` luminescent spectroscopy are used to investigate heavy ion effects. Methods for producing several isotopes of high radiochemical and isotopic purity for medical, biomedical and environmental protection applications have been developed. (author)

  6. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  7. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Inabe, Teruo; Kaneko, Tadao; Konoshima, Sigeru; Miura, M. Yushi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In JT-60, some mechanical improvements of the centrifugal pellet injector have been done for stable production and successive ejection of pellet. In addition, a guide tube for an injection from top of high-field side was installed as well as the low-field side in February 2000. The injection power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system of the frequency of 110 GHz installed last year was increased up to {approx}0.75 MW for 2 seconds in this year using the control of RF beam angle. Two gyrotrons were newly installed with total power increased from 1 MW to 3 MW. Highlights of the JT-60 experiments in FY (Fiscal Year) 2000 may be summarized as follows: (1) A reversed shear discharge with an equivalent fusion multiplication factor Q{sub DT}{sup eq} of {approx}0.5 was achieved successfully at plasma current of 2.4 MA for 0.8 seconds. (2) Quasi-steady operation of low current reversed shear plasma with a large fraction ({approx}80%) of bootstrap current was realized under full non-inductive current drive condition. H-factor of 3.3-3.8 at electron density as high as 73% of the Greenwald limit was sustained for 6 times of the energy confinement time. (3) Normalized beta exceeding the ideal no-wall stability limit was obtained in reversed shear plasmas with a ratio of an outer-wall radius to a plasma minor radius less than 1.3. (4) L-H transition power was reduced by {approx}30% in the W-shaped divertor with pumping from both inside and outside slots compared with that in the open divertor. Helium exhaust rate in ELMy H-mode plasmas was improved up to 50% higher than the inside slot pumping. (5) Current drive efficiency of 1.3x10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}/W was attained with the central electron temperature of 8.6 keV. The efficiency is about 2.6 times higher than that of 100 keV. On the JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being produced including the application of the low activation ferritic steel. A dramatic reduction of trapped ion loss due to the

  8. High power electron and ion beam research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.A.; Sudan, R.N. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered in volume II include: collective accelerators; microwaves and unneutralized E-beams; technology of high-current E-beam accelerators and laser applications of charged-particle beams. Abstracts of twenty-nine papers from the conference were prepared for the data base in addition to six which appeared previously. (GHT)

  9. Research of beam conditioning technologies using continuous phase plate, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Jia, Huaiting; Tian, Xiaocheng; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhu, Na; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-10-01

    In the research of inertial confinement fusion, laser plasma interaction (LPI) is becoming a key problem that affects ignition. Here, multi-frequency modulation (Multi-FM) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS) were experimentally studied and implemented on the SG-III laser facility. After using these techniques, the far field distribution of SG-Ⅲ laser facility can be adjusted, controlled and repeated accurately. The output spectrums of the cascade phase modulators used for Multi-FM SSD were stable and the FM-to-AM effect can be restrained. Experiments on SG-III laser facility indicate that when the number of color cycles adopts 1, imposing SSD with 3.3 times diffraction limit (TDL) did not lead to pinhole closure in the spatial filters of preamplifier and main amplifiers with 30-TDL pinhole size. The nonuniformity of the focal spots using Multi-FM SSD, CPP and PS drops to 0.18, comparing to 0.26 with CPP+SSD, 0.57 with CPP+PS and 0.84 with only CPP and wedged lens. Polarization smoothing using flat birefringent plate in the convergent beam of final optics assembly (FOA) was studied. The PS plates were manufactured and equipped on SG-III laser facility for LPI research. Combined beam smoothing and polarization manipulation were also studied to solve the LPI problem. Results indicate that through adjusting dispersion directions of SSD beams in a quad, two dimensional SSD can be obtained. Using polarization control plate (PCP), polarization on the near field and far field can be manipulated, providing new method to solve LPI problem in indirect drive laser fusion.

  10. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.

    2014-08-01

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  11. Fusion of smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies research, systems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

      This monograph book is focused on the recent advances in smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies. The Contributions include:   ·         Smart Gamification and Smart Serious Games. ·         Fusion of secure IPsec-based Virtual Private Network, mobile computing and rich multimedia technology. ·         Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-game Approach. ·         Evaluation of Student Knowledge using an e-Learning Framework. ·         The iTEC Eduteka. ·         3D Virtual Worlds as a Fusion of Immersing, Visualizing, Recording, and Replaying Technologies. ·         Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull. The book is directed to researchers, students and software developers working in the areas of education and information technologies.  

  12. Research on Method of Multisensor Distributed Track Fusion Based on Feedback Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGGuosheng; WENChenglin; TANMin

    2003-01-01

    Multisensor distributed track fusion based on feedback integration is studied in this paper. Firstly,the tracking algorithms of each sensor in local (processor)and the track fusion algorithm on the basis of global in-formation in center (processor) are given after the general structure of multisensor distributed track fusion based on feedback integration is put forward. Secondly, one step tar-get state predictions along with covariance matrixes are fed back to the interrelated sensors to form new tracking gates for the corresponding targets, and then the intersection of the new tracking gate and the original gate formed before feedback for a certain target is taken as the effective track-ing gate for the next estimation, to decrease the computing load of PDA (probability data association). In addition,target instantiation is given to the sensor that has not ob-tained the target track, while other sensors have obtained.At last, take IR and radar as an example, simulation re-searches are performed both on the original algorithm and the one presented by this paper.

  13. Application of the high-spin isomer beams to the secondary fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Asahi, K. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kishida, T. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ueno, H. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sato, W. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshimi, A. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kobayashi, Y. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kameda, D. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Miyoshi, H. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Oh-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Fukuchi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Sasaki, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kibe, M. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Hokoiwa, N. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Odahara, A. [Nishinippon Institute of Technology, Kanda, Fukuoka 800-03 (Japan); Cederwall, B. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativ gen 24, Stockholm 10405 (Sweden); Lagergren, K. [Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, Frescativ gen 24, Stockholm 10405 (Sweden); Podolyak, Zs. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Ishihara, M. [RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)] [and others

    2004-12-27

    A technique for providing high-spin isomers as probes of the fusion reaction and the measurement of g-factor has been worked out at RIKEN. In the study of the fusion reaction {sup 12}C({sup 145m}Sm,xn){sup 157-x}Er, the {gamma} rays emitted from the fusion-evaporation residue {sup 154}Er have been successfully observed. The nuclear g-factor of the T{sub 1/2} = 28 ns high-spin isomer in {sup 149}Dy has been measured with the {gamma}-ray TDPAD method.

  14. A Schr(o)idinger formulation research for light beam propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The wave equation of light beam propagation was written in the form of an axial-coordinate-dependent Schrdinger equation, and the expectation value of a dynamical variable, the trial function of variational approach and the ABCD law were discussed by use of quantum mechanics approach. In view of the evolution equations of expectation values of dynamical variables in the framework of quantum mechanics, the definition of a potential function representing the beam propagation stability and its universal formula with the quality factor, the universal formula of beam width and curvature radius for a paraxial beam and cylindrically symmetric non-paraxial beam, the general formula of second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of beam for a paraxial beam, and the general criteria of the conservation of beam quality factor and the existence of a potential well of a potential function for a paraxial beam, were given or derived, respectively. Starting with the same trial function, the comparative research of our formulation with variational approach was done, which gave some further insight into the physical nature of a beam propagation parameters. The ABCD law of non-paraxial beam was discussed in terms of the definition of the non-paraxial expectation value of a dynamical variable for the first time. The applications to the media of constant second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of a beam, square law media and the media of constant refractive index in the momentum representation were discussed, respectively.

  15. Development of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Wittmayer, F.J.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1976-08-17

    A program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors suitable for use in constructing fusion research magnets has resulted in the commercial production of conductors having cross-sectional areas in the range 0.06 cm/sup 2/ to 0.84 cm/sup 2/. Critical current densities near the goal of 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 12 T and 4.2 K have been obtained in conductors produced by two different techniques. The latest results of this program are presented and discussed.

  16. Balanced biomedical program plan. Volume X. Fusion analysis for and environmental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In this draft planning document for health and environmental research needs relevant to the development of fusion technology, an attempt is made to integrate input from the participating laboratories on the basis of the King-Muir study categories. The general description covers only those concepts and features that are considered important to an understanding of possible and probable effects of thermonuclear reactors on health and the environment. Appendixes are included which reflect an understanding of three areas of special interest: materials requirements, effects from magnetic fields, and tritium effects.

  17. An archival study on the fusion researches in Japan from 1965 to 1986. An interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Science and Technology; Obayashi, Haruo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2001-12-01

    We here report an archival study undertaken by the method of an interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo. The theme covers the circumstances of the fusion research during the period (1965-1976) when fusion project was launched in Japan, and during the period (1970-1986) when JT-60 was initiated and subsequently developed. This interview was arranged as a part of the collaborative works organized with the Data and Planning Center of NIFS since 1999. (author)

  18. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  19. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at the Washington State University TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R. [Washington State University, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)

  20. Multipurpose epithermal neutron beam on new research station at MARIA research reactor in Swierk-Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryzinski, M.A.; Maciak, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Andrzeja Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2015-07-01

    MARIA reactor is an open-pool research reactor what gives the chance to install uranium fission converter on the periphery of the core. It could be installed far enough not to induce reactivity of the core but close enough to produce high flux of fast neutrons. Special design of the converter is now under construction. It is planned to set the research stand based on such uranium converter in the near future: in 2015 MARIA reactor infrastructure should be ready (preparation started in 2013), in 2016 the neutron beam starts and in 2017 opening the stand for material and biological research or for medical training concerning BNCT. Unused for many years, horizontal channel number H2 at MARIA research rector in Poland, is going to be prepared as a part of unique stand. The characteristics of the neutron beam will be significant advantage of the facility. High flux of neutrons at the level of 2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} will be obtainable by uranium neutron converter located 90 cm far from the reactor core fuel elements (still inside reactor core basket between so called core reflectors). Due to reaction of core neutrons with converter U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} material it will produce high flux of fast neutrons. After conversion neutrons will be collimated and moderated in the channel by special set of filters and moderators. At the end of H2 channel i.e. at the entrance to the research room neutron energy will be in the epithermal energy range with neutron intensity at least at the level required for BNCT (2x10{sup 9} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}). For other purposes density of the neutron flux could be smaller. The possibility to change type and amount of installed filters/moderators which enables getting different properties of the beam (neutron energy spectrum, neutron-gamma ratio and beam profile and shape) is taken into account. H2 channel is located in separate room which is adjacent to two other empty rooms under the preparation for research laboratories (200 m2). It is

  1. Use of Polycarbonate Vacuum Vessels in High-Temperature Fusion-Plasma Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Berlinger, A. Brooks, H. Feder, J. Gumbas, T. Franckowiak and S.A. Cohen

    2012-09-27

    Magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research requires ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions, primarily to reduce plasma contamination by impurities. For radiofrequency (RF)-heated plasmas, a great benefit may accrue from a non-conducting vacuum vessel, allowing external RF antennas which avoids the complications and cost of internal antennas and high-voltage high-current feedthroughs. In this paper we describe these and other criteria, e.g., safety, availability, design flexibility, structural integrity, access, outgassing, transparency, and fabrication techniques that led to the selection and use of 25.4-cm OD, 1.6-cm wall polycarbonate pipe as the main vacuum vessel for an MFE research device whose plasmas are expected to reach keV energies for durations exceeding 0.1 s

  2. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Noe, Susan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  3. Predicted Performance of a Dc Beam Driven Fem Oscillator Designed for Fusion Applications at 200-250 Ghz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caplan, M.; Best, R. W. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Urbanus, W. H.; Bratman, V. L.; Denisov, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    At the FOM Institute (The Netherlands) a free electron laser using a dc beam with depressed collector is being developed for plasma heating, which will be capable of producing 1 MW cw output over an adjustable tuning range of 200-250 GHz. The basic design parameters for the electron beam, undulator

  4. Web-based (HTML5) interactive graphics for fusion research and collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.N., E-mail: kimny@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.; Lee, X. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactive data visualization is supported via the Web without a browser plugin and provides users easy, real-time access to data of different types from various locations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosshair, zoom, pan as well as toggling dimensionality and a slice bar for multi-dimensional data are available. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data with PHP API can be applied: MDSplus and SQL have been tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modular in design, this has been deployed to support both the experimental and the simulation research arenas. - Abstract: With the continuing development of web technologies, it is becoming feasible for websites to operate a lot like a scientific desktop application. This has opened up more possibilities for utilizing the web browser for interactive scientific research and providing new means of on-line communication and collaboration. This paper describes the research and deployment for utilizing these enhanced web graphics capabilities on the fusion research tools which has led to a general toolkit that can be deployed as required. It allows users to dynamically create, interact with and share with others, the large sets of data generated by the fusion experiments and simulations. Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), a general-purpose scripting language for the Web, is used to process a series of inputs, and determine the data source types and locations to fetch and organize the data. Protovis, a Javascript and SVG based web graphics package, then quickly draws the interactive graphs and makes it available to the worldwide audience. This toolkit has been deployed to both the simulation and experimental arenas. The deployed applications will be presented as well as the architecture and technologies used in producing the general graphics toolkit.

  5. Accelerators for Fusion Materials Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, Juan; Okumura, Yoshikazu

    Fusion materials research is a worldwide endeavor as old as the parallel one working toward the long term stable confinement of ignited plasma. In a fusion reactor, the preservation of the required minimum thermomechanical properties of the in-vessel components exposed to the severe irradiation and heat flux conditions is an indispensable factor for safe operation; it is also an essential goal for the economic viability of fusion. Energy from fusion power will be extracted from the 14 MeV neutron freed as a product of the deuterium-tritium fusion reactions; thus, this kinetic energy must be absorbed and efficiently evacuated and electricity eventually generated by the conventional methods of a thermal power plant. Worldwide technological efforts to understand the degradation of materials exposed to 14 MeV neutron fluxes >1018 m-2s-1, as expected in future fusion power plants, have been intense over the last four decades. Existing neutron sources can reach suitable dpa (“displacement-per-atom”, the figure of merit to assess materials degradation from being exposed to neutron irradiation), but the differences in the neutron spectrum of fission reactors and spallation sources do not allow one to unravel the physics and to anticipate the degradation of materials exposed to fusion neutrons. Fusion irradiation conditions can be achieved through Li (d, xn) nuclear reactions with suitable deuteron beam current and energy, and an adequate flowing lithium screen. This idea triggered in the late 1970s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) a campaign working toward the feasibility of continuous wave (CW) high current linacs framed by the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) project. These efforts continued with the Low Energy Demonstrating Accelerator (LEDA) (a validating prototype of the canceled Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project), which was proposed in 2002 to the fusion community as a 6.7MeV, 100mA CW beam injector for a Li (d, xn) source to bridge

  6. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  7. Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.D. (ed.)

    1989-03-10

    This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.

  8. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  9. Research on taper zone coupling from single-core fiber to annular-core hollow beam fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Chengguo; Zhang, Tao; Li, Jianqi; Wang, Pengfei; Kang, Chong; Yuan, Libo

    2016-11-01

    We designed and manufactured a novel annular-core hollow beam fiber which could directly yield ring light with a central dark spot inside the beam employing MCVD technique and a custom-made fiber drawing tower. The tapered fiber zone geometric shapes at varied stretching speed between the single-core fiber and the annular-core hollow beam fiber were studied theoretically. According to the beam propagation method, the bi-tapered coupling energy transmission between these two fibers was simulated and analyzed. Moreover, by adopting a fusion splicing and stretching technique at the fiber-linked point, an effective coupling approach had been fulfilled.

  10. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  11. Nuclear fusion systems analysis research. FY 1975 annual report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherwax, R.K. (ed.)

    1975-12-31

    This report summarizes research conducted during FY 1975 on the parametric systems analysis of fusion central power stations. As described in the report the methodology being pursued provides for a phased analysis starting with simple ''nominal'' parameters and associated computer codes and progressing to more complex functional models and then to physically based mathematical models for the systems of major significance in future power station viability. The nominal parameter analysis for preliminary screening only derives from consideration of extant reactor point designs and defines a nominal 5000 MWt reactor with either a 900 or 1250 K peak blanket coolant temperature. Functionalized performance and cost models are described for helium Brayton cycle, steam Rankine cycle and binary cycle electric power generation systems.

  12. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  13. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Keith [PPPL

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  14. Neutron fluence depth profiles in water phantom on epithermal beam of LVR-15 research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L; Klupak, V; Lahodova, Z; Marek, M; Burian, J

    2010-01-01

    Horizontal channel with epithermal neutron beam at the LVR-15 research reactor is used mainly for boron neutron capture therapy. Neutron fluence depth profiles in a water phantom characterise beam properties. The neutron fluence (approximated by reaction rates) depth profiles were measured with six different types of activation detectors. The profiles were determined for thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons.

  15. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Reports on Review of the Fusion Materials Research Program, Review of the Proposed Proof-of-Principle Programs, Review of the Possible Pathways for Pursuing Burning Plasma Physics, and Comments on the ER Facilities Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1998-07-01

    The Fusion Energy Science Advisory Committee was asked to conduct a review of Fusion Materials Research Program (the Structural Materials portion of the Fusion Program) by Dr. Martha Krebs, Director of Energy Research for the Department of Energy. This request was motivated by the fact that significant changes have been made in the overall direction of the Fusion Program from one primarily focused on the milestones necessary to the construction of successively larger machines to one where the necessary scientific basis for an attractive fusion energy system is. better understood. It was in this context that the review of current scientific excellence and recommendations for future goals and balance within the Program was requested.

  16. Research into the sampling methods of digital beam position measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬维浩; 赵雷; 陈二雷; 刘树彬; 安琪

    2015-01-01

    A fully digital beam position monitoring system (DBPM) has been designed for SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility). As analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is a crucial part in the DBPM system, the sampling methods should be studied to achieve optimum performance. Different sampling modes were used and com-pared through tests. Long term variation among four sampling channels, which would introduce errors in beam position measurement, is investigated. An interleaved distribution scheme was designed to address this issue. To evaluate the sampling methods, in-beam tests were conducted in SSRF. Test results indicate that with proper sampling methods, a turn-by-turn (TBT) position resolution better than 1 µm is achieved, and the slow-acquisition (SA) position resolution is improved from 4.28 µm to 0.17 µm.

  17. Negative hydrogen ion source research and beam parameters for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolkin, Timofey V.; /Fermilab

    2006-09-01

    H{sup -} beams are useful for multi-turn charge-exchange stripping injection into circular accelerators. Studies on a modified ion source for this purpose are presented. This paper includes some theory about a H{sup -} magnetron discharge, ion-electron emission, emittance and problems linked with emittance measurement and calculations. Investigated parameters of the emittance probe for optimal performance give a screen voltage of 150 V and a probe step of about 5 mil. Normalized 90% emittance obtained for this H{sup -} source is 0.22 {pi} mm-mr, for an extraction voltage of 18 kV at a beam energy of 30 keV and a beam current of 11 mA.

  18. Filtered epithermal quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams at research reactor facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansy, M S; Bashter, I I; El-Mesiry, M S; Habib, N; Adib, M

    2015-03-01

    Filtered neutron techniques were applied to produce quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range of 1.5-133keV at research reactors. A simulation study was performed to characterize the filter components and transmitted beam lines. The filtered beams were characterized in terms of the optimal thickness of the main and additive components. The filtered neutron beams had high purity and intensity, with low contamination from the accompanying thermal emission, fast neutrons and γ-rays. A computer code named "QMNB" was developed in the "MATLAB" programming language to perform the required calculations.

  19. Classical physics impossibility of magnetic fusion reactor with neutral beam injection at thermonuclear energies below 200 KeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglich, Bogdan; Hester, Timothy; Vaucher, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Lawson criterion was specifically derived for inertial fusion and DT gas of stable lifetime without ions and magnetic fields. It was revised with realistic parametrers. To account for the losses of unstable ions against neutralization with lifetime τ, n (t) = nτ [ 1 - exp (- t / - tτ τ) ] -> nτ for τ CT resonance regime below critical energy To, τ 10-5 , and Lawson requirement ntL 1021 i.e. not realistic. Luminosity (reaction rate for σ = 1) is that of two unstable particles each with lifetime τ: L =n2(t)v12 =n2t2v12 . In subcritical regime, L =10-10n2 forn =1014cm-3 , v 109 cms-1 = L =1027 . Which is negligible and implies a negative power flow reactor. But above T0 , atTD = 725 KeV , τ = 20 s was observed implying L =1039 i.e. massive fusion energy production.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion. Quarterly report, July--September 1993: Volume 3, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, R.A.; Murphy, P.W.; Schleich, D.P. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses the following research: Diode-pumped solid- state-laser driver for inertial fusion energy power plants; Longitudinal beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion accelerators; Design of the ion sources for heavy ion fusion; Measurement of electron density in laser-produced plasma with a soft x-ray moire deflectometer; and Analysis of weakly nonlinear three-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth.

  1. Beam simulations for IRE and driver--status and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex E-mail: af@llnl.gov; Grote, David P.; Lee, Edward P.; Sonnendrucker, Eric

    2001-05-21

    The methods and codes employed in the US Heavy Ion Fusion program to simulate the beams in an Integrated Research Experiments (IRE) facility and a fusion driver are presented in overview. A new family of models incorporating accelerating module impedance, multi-beam, and self-magnetic effects is described, and initial WARP3D particle simulations of beams using these models are presented. Finally, plans for streamlining the machine-design simulation sequence, and for simulating beam dynamics from the source to the target in a consistent and comprehensive manner, are described.

  2. Physics with polarized beams. Report of the ANL Technical Advisory Panel. [Research with polarized proton beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    Experimental directions which will be the most useful in developing underlying theories of hadronic collisions are outlined. As a pedagogical device to accomplish this, approximate percentages of a total program which could be devoted to different areas have been quoted. Findings are presented in the form of a short basic report with several long detailed appendices. In the basic report our opinion as to the amount of polarized beam experimental effort that should be applied to the following areas is stated: nucleon-nucleon scattering, quasi-two-body processes, inclusive production, and new or unexplored areas (such as large p/sub T/ and invariance principles). Our reasoning is discussed briefly, however, the details are left for the appendices. Members of the panel present certain aspects of the above areas, which should be useful for planning and/or performing polarized beam experiments. The seven presentations are abstracted separately in ERA.

  3. Summary of informal workshop on state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.W.; Cocke, C.L.; Datz, S.; Kostroun, V.

    1984-11-13

    The present state of ion beam facilities for atomic physics research in the United States is assessed by means of a questionnaire and informal workshop. Recommendations for future facilities are given. 3 refs.

  4. Glucocorticoid induced osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep: validation of large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Cheng, Liming; Bollen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Glucocorticoid with low calcium and phosphorus intake induces osteopenia in cancellous bone of sheep. OBJECTIVE: To validate a large animal model for spine fusion and biomaterial research. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: A variety of ovariectomized animals has been used to study...

  5. New ion beam materials laboratory for materials modification and irradiation effects research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: Zhangy1@ornl.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Crespillo, M.L.; Xue, H.; Jin, K.; Chen, C.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Fontana, C.L. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Graham, J.T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Weber, W.J., E-mail: wjweber@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion–solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  6. New Ion Beam Materials Laboratory for Materials Modification and Irradiation Effects Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Crespillo, Miguel L [University of Tennessee (UT); Xue, Haizhou [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Jin, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chen, Chien-Hung [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fontana, Cristiano L [ORNL; Graham, Dr. Joseph T. [The University of Tennessee; Weber, William J [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    A new multifunctional ion beam materials laboratory (IBML) has been established at the University of Tennessee, in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The IBML is currently equipped with two ion sources, a 3 MV tandem accelerator, three beamlines and three endstations. The IBML is primarily dedicated to fundamental research on ion-solid interaction, ion beam analysis, ion beam modification, and other basic and applied research on irradiation effects in a wide range of materials. An overview of the IBML facility is provided, and experimental results are reported to demonstrate the specific capabilities.

  7. Proposal for FY86 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particle beam research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. C.

    1990-03-01

    This document represents a combination FY 85 annual report plus the FY 96 proposal for Charged Particle Beam (CPB) research by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Beam Research Program. Our report on FY 85 activities focuses on a set of experiments in which the ATA electron beam was propagated through a 1-foot-diameter, 8.5-m-long tank at pressures ranging from the ion-focused regime up to 500 Torr of dry, synthetic air. Based on the optimistic results from this first set of experiments, we propose in FY 86 to extend the tank length to 20 m. We will operate ATA at higher beam current to improve our understanding of intra-accelerator transport physics and to resolve, to our satisfaction, lead pulse stability issues centering around the beam's robustness against the hose instability as a function of beam conditioning. We expect these experiments to yield a wealth of detailed experimental propagation data which will help us prepare for propagating the ATA beam into the open air, an event planned for the end of FY 86. The principal elements are ATA operating time, constructing a flexible lead pulse/conductivity channel tracking facility, and preparing the atmospheric air line for the open air propagation tests. We believe our plans reflect and intelligent and practical symbiotic relationship with SDIO-sponsored Free Electron Laser experiments, also planned on ATA for FY 86, but with very different electron beam current and emittance requirements.

  8. Improving the Mechanical Properties of the Fusion Zone in Electron-Beam Welded Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Christopher J.; Sabol, Joseph C.; Pasang, Timotius; Watanabe, Masashi; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-04-01

    It is well-known that ω-phase precipitates embrittle Ti-5553 alloys and that ω-phase embrittlement can be overcome with appropriate heat treatments. However, the microstructural evolution of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 is not as understood as compared to the cast or wrought material. This study compared the microstructures of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated specimens by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and similarly compared the localized mechanical behavior of the fusion zones with microhardness testing and digital image correlation coupled tensile testing. The primary observations were that the embrittling ω-phase precipitates formed upon cooling, and could not be fully solutionized in a single-step treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour. It was also discovered that nanoscale α-phase precipitates nucleated after the single-step treatment, although they were small in number and sparsely distributed. However, a two-step heat treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour and 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours completely solutionized the ω-phase and produced a dense network of 2- μm-wide α-phase plates, which significantly improved the mechanical properties. Overall, this study has shown that post-weld heat treatments improve the strength and ductility of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 alloys by controlling ω- and α-phase evolution.

  9. Improving the Mechanical Properties of the Fusion Zone in Electron-Beam Welded Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Christopher J.; Sabol, Joseph C.; Pasang, Timotius; Watanabe, Masashi; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that ω-phase precipitates embrittle Ti-5553 alloys and that ω-phase embrittlement can be overcome with appropriate heat treatments. However, the microstructural evolution of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 is not as understood as compared to the cast or wrought material. This study compared the microstructures of as-welded and post-weld heat-treated specimens by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and similarly compared the localized mechanical behavior of the fusion zones with microhardness testing and digital image correlation coupled tensile testing. The primary observations were that the embrittling ω-phase precipitates formed upon cooling, and could not be fully solutionized in a single-step treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour. It was also discovered that nanoscale α-phase precipitates nucleated after the single-step treatment, although they were small in number and sparsely distributed. However, a two-step heat treatment of 1077 K (804 °C) for 1 hour and 873 K (600 °C) for 4 hours completely solutionized the ω-phase and produced a dense network of 2-μm-wide α-phase plates, which significantly improved the mechanical properties. Overall, this study has shown that post-weld heat treatments improve the strength and ductility of electron-beam welded Ti-5553 alloys by controlling ω- and α-phase evolution.

  10. Plasma-Facing Materials Research For Fusion Reactors At FOM Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G. J.; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Kleyn, A. W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  11. Plasma-facing materials research for fusion reactors at Fom Rijnhuizen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, J.; De Temmerman, G.; van Rooij, G.J.; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A.; Kleijn, A.W.

    2011-01-01

    In next generation magnetic fusion devices such as ITER, plasma-facing materials are exposed to unprecedented high ion, power and neutron fluxes. Those extreme conditions cannot be recreated in current fusion devices from the tokamak type. The plasma-surface interaction is still an area of great unc

  12. Status of neutron beam utilization at the Dalat nuclear research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, Nguyen Nhi; Hai, Nguyen Canh [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    2003-03-01

    The 500-kW Dalat nuclear research reactor was reconstructed from the USA-made 250-kW TRIGA Mark II reactor. After completion of renovation and upgrading, the reactor has been operating at its nominal power since 1984. The reactor is used mainly for radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam researches and reactor physics study. In the framework of the reconstruction and renovation project of the 1982-1984 period, the reactor core, the control and instrumentation system, the primary and secondary cooling systems, as well as other associated systems were newly designed and installed by the former Soviet Union. Some structures of the reactor, such as the reactor aluminum tank, the graphite reflector, the thermal column, horizontal beam tubes and the radiation concrete shielding have been remained from the previous TRIGA reactor. As a typical configuration of the TRIGA reactor, there are four neutron beam ports, including three radial and one tangential. Besides, there is a large thermal column. Until now only two-neutron beam ports and the thermal column have been utilized. Effective utilization of horizontal experimental channels is one of the important research objectives at the Dalat reactor. The research program on effective utilization of these experimental channels was conducted from 1984. For this purpose, investigations on physical characteristics of the reactor, neutron spectra and fluxes at these channels, safety conditions in their exploitation, etc. have been carried out. The neutron beams, however, have been used only since 1988. The filtered thermal neutron beams at the tangential channel have been extracted using a single crystal silicon filter and mainly used for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron radiography (NR) and transmission experiments (TE). The filtered quasi-monoenergetic keV neutron beams using neutron filters at the piercing channel have been used for nuclear data measurements, study on

  13. Plasma Profile Measurements for Laser Fusion Research with the Nike KrF Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    The grid image refractometer of the Nike laser facility (Nike-GIR) has demonstrated the capability of simultaneously measuring electron density (ne) and temperature (Te) profiles of coronal plasma. For laser plasma instability (LPI) research, the first Nike-GIR experiment successfully measured the plasma profiles in density regions up to ne ~ 4 ×1021 cm-3 (22% of the critical density for 248 nm light of Nike) using an ultraviolet probe laser (λp = 263 nm). The probe laser has been recently replaced with a shorter wavelength laser (λp = 213 nm, a 5th harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser) to diagnose a higher density region. The Nike-GIR system is being further extended to measure plasma profiles in the on-going experiment using 135°-separated Nike beam arrays for the cross-beam energy transfer (CBET) studies. We present an overview of the extended Nike-GIR arrangements and a new numerical algorithm to extract self-consistant plasma profiles with the measured quantities. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.

  14. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.T. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, D. [CMAM, UAM, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [IFN, ETSII, UPM, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  15. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  16. THE RESEARCH OF GRADATION FUSION ALGORITHM BASED ON MULTISENSOR ASYNCHRONOUS SAMPLING SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This letter explores the distributed multisensor dynamic system, which has uniform sampling velocity and asynchronous sampling data for different sensors, and puts forward a new gradation fusion algorithm of multisensor dynamic system. As the total forecasted increment value between the two adjacent moments is the forecasted estimate value of the corresponding state increment in the fusion center, the new algorithm models the state and the forecasted estimate value of every moment. Kalman filter and all measurements arriving sequentially in the fusion period are employed to update the evaluation of target state step by step, on the condition that the system has obtained the target state evaluation that is based on the overall information in the previous fusion period. Accordingly, in the present period, the fusion evaluation of the target state at each sampling point on the basis of the overall information can be obtained. This letter elaborates the form of this new algorithm. Computer simulation demonstrates that this new algorithm owns greater precision in estimating target state than the present asynchronous fusion algorithm calibrated in time does.

  17. Fusion related research with laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy on metallic samples at the ENEA-Frascati laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaviva, S.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Maddaluno, G.

    2016-04-01

    The study of plasma-wall interactions is of paramount importance for continuous and fault free operations in thermonuclear fusion research to monitor the damages of plasma facing components (PFCs), plasma pollution from impurities and wall retention of hydrogen isotopes, like tritium. These needs make laser-induced-breakdown-spectroscopy (LIBS) a suitable candidate for a real time monitoring of PFCs in the current and next generation fusion devices, like ITER. It is also worthwhile for the quantitative analysis of surfaces, with micro-destructivity of the sample and depth profiling capabilities with sub-micrometric sensitivity. In this paper LIBS spectroscopy is exploited as a valid diagnostic tool for PFCs at the ENEA Research Center in Frascati (Italy) and at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) of Warsaw (Poland). The activities have been focused on LIBS characterization of samples simulating PFCs surfaces eroded/redeposited or contaminated from nuclear fuel after or during the normal operation of the reactor.

  18. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  19. Fusion of cone-beam CT and 3D photographic images for soft tissue simulation in maxillofacial surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soyoung; Kim, Joojin; Hong, Helen

    2016-03-01

    During maxillofacial surgery, prediction of the facial outcome after surgery is main concern for both surgeons and patients. However, registration of the facial CBCT images and 3D photographic images has some difficulties that regions around the eyes and mouth are affected by facial expressions or the registration speed is low due to their dense clouds of points on surfaces. Therefore, we propose a framework for the fusion of facial CBCT images and 3D photos with skin segmentation and two-stage surface registration. Our method is composed of three major steps. First, to obtain a CBCT skin surface for the registration with 3D photographic surface, skin is automatically segmented from CBCT images and the skin surface is generated by surface modeling. Second, to roughly align the scale and the orientation of the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, point-based registration with four corresponding landmarks which are located around the mouth is performed. Finally, to merge the CBCT skin surface and 3D photographic surface, Gaussian-weight-based surface registration is performed within narrow-band of 3D photographic surface.

  20. Combined hydrogen and lithium beam emission spectroscopy observation system for Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Anda, G.; Réfy, D.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Euratom Association-HAS, Budapest (Hungary); Czopf, A.; Erdei, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, BME IOP, Budapest (Hungary); Guszejnov, D.; Kovácsik, Á.; Pokol, G. I. [BME NTI, Budapest (Hungary); Nam, Y. U. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    A novel beam emission spectroscopy observation system was designed, built, and installed onto the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research tokamak. The system is designed in a way to be capable of measuring beam emission either from a heating deuterium or from a diagnostic lithium beam. The two beams have somewhat complementary capabilities: edge density profile and turbulence measurement with the lithium beam and two dimensional turbulence measurement with the heating beam. Two detectors can be used in parallel: a CMOS camera provides overview of the scene and lithium beam light intensity distribution at maximum few hundred Hz frame rate, while a 4 × 16 pixel avalanche photo-diode (APD) camera gives 500 kHz bandwidth data from a 4 cm × 16 cm region. The optics use direct imaging through lenses and mirrors from the observation window to the detectors, thus avoid the use of costly and inflexible fiber guides. Remotely controlled mechanisms allow adjustment of the APD camera’s measurement location on a shot-to-shot basis, while temperature stabilized filter holders provide selection of either the Doppler shifted deuterium alpha or lithium resonance line. The capabilities of the system are illustrated by measurements of basic plasma turbulence properties.

  1. Clinical and research validity of hadrontherapy with ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orecchia, Roberto; Krengli, Marco; Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara A; Franzetti, Silvia; Gerard, Jean Pierre

    2004-08-01

    Clinical results obtained with hadrontherapy have been extremely positive for various tumours, with percentages of local control and survival higher than those ascribed to conventional radiotherapy. Most clinical data obtained with charged particles are related to protontherapy but the implementation of carbon ion therapy has demonstrated to be of great interest in the last decade. These results, accompanied by the new performances in accelerator technology and calculation systems of the delivered doses, have determined over the past years an increased interest for the development of hadrontherapy, with the construction of new centres provided with equipment entirely dedicated to clinical activity (LLUMC, Loma Linda and NPTC, Boston in USA, HIMAC-NIRS, Chiba, PROBEAT, Tsukuba, and Hyogo Beam Medical Centres in Japan). A revision of the clinical indications specifically focused on ion therapy is presented as well as the results obtained in the different centres. With hadrontherapy, it is finally possible to increase the spectrum of treatments allowing preserving the organ and its functionality, with positive impacts from a social and economic point of view.

  2. SOVIET AND POLISH RESEARCH ON THE SELF-TRAPPING OF OPTICAL BEAMS IN NONLINEAR MEDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Review Letters in October 1964, was preceded in the Soviet literature by the works of G. A. Askar’yan of the Lebedev Institute and V. I. Talanov of the Scientific-Research Radiophysics Institute at Gor’kiy State University, which were published in June 1962 and 1964, respectively. Since that time Soviet researchers have contributed some 15 papers on various aspects of the self-focusing of optical beams. Significant research on the self-trapping of optical

  3. Research and development of a compact discharge-driven D-D fusion neutron source for explosive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kiyoshi [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)]. E-mail: kiyoshi@iae.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Masuda, Kai [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Takamatsu, Teruhisa [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan); Shiroya, Seiji [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Misawa, Tsuyoshi [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan); Hotta, Eiki [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Ohnishi, Masami [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Yamauchi, Kunihito [Department of Energy Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Osawa, Hodaka [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Kansai University, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshiyuki [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    Current results are described on the research and development of the advanced humanitarian landmine detection system by using a compact discharge-type fusion neutron source called IECF (Inertial-Electrostatic Confinement fusion) devices. With a 50 mm-thick water-jacketed IEC device (IEC20C) of a 200 mm inner diameter, it can produce 10{sup 7} neutrons/s stably in CW mode for 80 kV and 80 mA. Ample 10.8 MeV {gamma}-rays produced through (n, {gamma}) reaction with nitrogen atoms in the melamine (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}N{sub 6}) powder (explosive simulant) are clearly measured by a BGO-NaI-combined scintillation sensor with distinct difference in cases with and without melamine. This proves feasibility of the identification of the buried landmines.

  4. A Schrodinger formulation research for light beam propagation through the media of complex refractive index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承宜; 郭弘; 胡巍

    2002-01-01

    The Helmhotz equation of light beam propagating through a medium of complex refractive index is reduced to the axial-coordinate-dependent Schr?dinger equation of complex potential. The new bra vector, the new expectation value of a dynamical variable and the extended Heisenberg picture are defined by the inverse of the evolution operator instead of its Hermitian adjoint, and the complex beam propagation parameters defined in terms of the new expectation value, the complex ABCD law and the ABCD formulation of the Huygens' integral are discussed in terms of quantum mechanics. It is shown that the evolution equations of the complex beam propagation parameters are the same as those of the beam propagation parameters of beam propagating through a medium of real refractive index. The research on an optical system of the conservative complex beam quality factor shows that the complex ABCD law holds, the evolution of its coordinate operator and the momentum operator is linear, and the Huygens' integral is of the ABCD formulation.

  5. Elastic, excitation, ionization and charge transfer cross sections of current interest in fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, D.R.; Krstic, P.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. TN (United States). Physics Div.

    1997-01-01

    Due to the present interest in modeling and diagnosing the edge and divertor plasma regions in magnetically confined fusion devices, we have sought to provide new calculations regarding the elastic, excitation, ionization, and charge transfer cross sections in collisions among relevant ions, neutrals, and isotopes in the low-to intermediate-energy regime. We summarize here some of our recent work. (author)

  6. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

  7. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  8. Use of Radioactive Beams for Bio-Medical Research

    CERN Multimedia

    Miederer, M; Allen, B

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\With this Proposal we wish to replace the two previous proposals P42 and P48 (corresponding to the ISOLDE Experiments IS330 and IS331, respectively, including the Addendum 1 dated 04.05.94). Based on experimental results obtained during the last four year's research in the framework of the two proposals and considering modern trends in radiopharmaceutical developments we propose as a first main direction to study systematically relationships between physico-chemical parameters, the concentration and specific activity of tracer molecules and the corresponding biological response. This kind of studies requires highest achievable quality and a universality of radio-tracers, available at ISOLDE. Special attention in this concern is paid to bio-specific tracers (receptor-binding ligands, bio-conjugates etc.) aiming to search for new and more efficient radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The second direction is to support clinical radionuclide therapy by a quantitative follow up of the radionu...

  9. Research on EBEP (Electron Beam Excited Plasma) applications; EBEP (denshi beam reiki plasma) no tekiyo gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanase, E.; Ryoji, M.; Mori, Y.; Tokai, M. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., Kobe (Japan)

    1996-04-20

    Research and development is actively conducted on machining technologies using plasma in various fields, with studies energetically pursued on etching techniques or those of forming a thin film by the use of high frequency and microwave plasma. The EBEP system jointly developed by Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. and Institute of Physical and Chemical Research is a plasma source for forming a high density plasma by implanting into a plasma chamber from the outside a high-current electron beam accelerated to an energy of approximately 60 to 100eV where the collision cross-section of gas ionization is maximized. The characteristics of the system are such as (1) it enables electron energy distribution to be controlled from outside by varying acceleration voltage, (2) it excels in the controllability of ion energy and (3) it allows to form a steady high-density plasma in a nonmagnetic field. This paper presents the generating principle of EBEP, its plasma characteristics, etching technique using EBEP, thin film forming technique by EBEP-CVD method, and multipurpose apparatus for research and development. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-15

    {center_dot} Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. {center_dot} Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances {center_dot} Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  11. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Issues chapter contains a comprehensive list of engineering issues for fusion reactor nuclear components. The list explicitly defines the uncertainties associated with the engineering option of a fusion reactor and addresses the potential consequences resulting from each issue. The next chapter identifies the fusion nuclear technology testing needs up to the engineering demonstration stage. (MOW)

  12. Role of Fusion in the Future Energy Market with CO{sub 2} constraints. SERF 4 Socio-Economic Research on Fusion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Lago, C.; Saez, R.

    2005-07-01

    Electricity supply technologies considered in global long term technology scenarios. Technological and economic parameters. Calculation of the cost of electricity of the different technologies. Role of fusion in future climate change mitigation scenarios.

  13. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  14. Unenhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Fusion Imaging in Direct Percutaneous Sac Injection for Treatment of Type II Endoleak: Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo, E-mail: gcarraf@gmail.com; Ierardi, Anna Maria [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Radaelli, Alessandro [Philips Healthcare (Netherlands); Marchi, Giuseppe De; Floridi, Chiara [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy); Piffaretti, Gabriele [University of Insubria, Vascular Surgery Department (Italy); Federico, Fontana [Insubria University, Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    AimTo evaluate safety, feasibility, technical success, and clinical success of direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) for the treatment of type II endoleaks (T2EL) using anatomical landmarks on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fusion imaging (FI).Materials and MethodsEight patients with T2EL were treated with DPSI using CBCT as imaging guidance. Anatomical landmarks on unenhanced CBCT were used for referencing T2EL location in the first five patients, while FI between unenhanced CBCT and pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used in the remaining three patients. Embolization was performed with thrombin, glue, and ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer. Technical and clinical success, iodinated contrast utilization, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and mean radiation dose were registered.ResultsDPSI was technically successful in all patients: the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in six patients, while in two of the first five patients the needle was repositioned once. Neither minor nor major complications were registered. Average procedural time was 45 min and the average administered iodinated contrast was 13 ml. Mean radiation dose of the procedure was 60.43 Gy cm{sup 2} and mean fluoroscopy time was 18 min. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (mean follow-up of 36 months): no sign of T2EL was reported in seven patients until last CT follow-up, while it persisted in one patient with stability of sac diameter.ConclusionsDPSI using unenhanced CBCT and FI is feasible and provides the interventional radiologist with an accurate and safe alternative to endovascular treatment with limited iodinated contrast utilization.

  15. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Xu, Q., E-mail: xu@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori-cho, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T. [The Oarai Branch, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Shirai, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 10{sup 6}/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  16. Development of a mono-energetic positron beam line at the Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Positron beam facilities are widely used for solid state physics and material science studies. A positron beam facility has been constructed at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) in order to expand its application range. The KUR is a light-water-moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A positron beam has been transported successfully from the reactor to the irradiation chamber. The total moderated positron rate was greater than 1.4 × 106/s while the reactor operated at a reduced power of 1 MW. Special attention was paid for the design of the in-pile position source to prevent possible damage of the reactor in case of severe earthquakes.

  17. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research: discount rate determination and the fossil fuel price effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-25

    In current and previous efforts, ECON has provided a preliminary economic assessment of a fusion research program. Part of this effort was the demonstration of a methodology for the estimation of reactor system costs and risk and for the treatment of program alternatives as a series of steps (tests) to buy information, thereby controlling program risk and providing a sound economic rationale for properly constructed research programs. The first phase of work also identified two areas which greatly affect the overall economic evaluation of fusion research and which warranted further study in the second phase. This led to the two tasks of the second phase reported herein: (1) discount rate determination and (2) evaluation of the effect of the expectation of the introduction of fusion power on current fossil fuel prices. In the first task, various conceptual measures of the social rate of discount were reviewed and critiqued. In the second task, a benefit area that had been called out by ECON was further examined. Long-range R and D yields short-term benefits in the form of lower nonrenewable energy resource prices because the R and D provides an expectation of future competition for the remaining reserves at the time of technology availability. ECON developed a model of optimal OPEC petroleum pricing as a function of the expectation of future competing technologies. It was shown that the existence of this expectation lowers the optimal OPEC export price and that accelerated technology R and D programs should provide further price decreases. These price reductions translate into benefits to the U.S. of at least a billion dollars.

  18. Unified Research on Network-Based Hard/Soft Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    smart energy [I.1.13], heterogeneous sensor network processing [I.1.12], radio frequency identification (RFID) middleware [I.1.14], and data fusion...M.S. (2010) Unsupervised flow-level clustering in network anomaly detection, M. S. thesis in Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University...University, University Park, PA [I.5.3] Xu M.S. (2010) Unsupervised flow-level clustering in network anomaly detection, M. S. thesis in Electrical

  19. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.; Luckhardt, R.; Terry, N.; Drake, D.; Gaines, J. (eds.)

    1990-04-27

    This KMS Fusion Semi-Annual Technical Report covers the period October 1989 through March 1990. It contains a review of work performed by KMS Fusion, Inc. (KMSF), in support of the national program to achieve inertially confined fusion (ICF). A major section of the report is devoted to target technology, a field which is expected to play an increasingly important role in the overall KMSF fusion effort. Among the highlights of our efforts in this area covered in this report are: improvements and new developments in target fabrication techniques, including a discussion of techniques for introducing gaussian bumps and bands on target surfaces. Development of a single automated system for the interferometric characterization of transparent shells. Residual gas analysis of the blowing gases contained in glass shells made from xerogels. These usually include CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and N{sub 2}, and are objectionable because they dilute the fuel. Efforts to observe the ice layers formed in the {beta}-layering process in cryogenic targets, and to simulate the formation of these layers. In addition to our work on target technology, we conducted experiments with the Chroma laser and supported the ICF effort at other labs with theoretical and computational support as well as diagnostic development. Included in the work covered in this report are: experiments on Chroma to study interpenetration of and ionization balance in laser generated plasmas. Diagnostic development, including an optical probe for the Aurora laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and a high energy x-ray continuum spectrograph for Aurora. Investigation of the radiation cooling instability as a possible mechanism for the generation of relatively cold, dense jets observed in ICF experiments.

  20. Research of the Fault Diagnosis Method for the Thruster of AUV Based on Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Jia; Zhang, Ming-Jun; Wu, Juan

    Aiming at the problem of thruster fault diagnosis of AUV, the motion condition model of AUV based on the improved dynamic recursive Elman neural network, and the performance model of thruster based on the Radial Basis Function network were established. And the fault fusion diagnosis method was proposed according to the overall and local fault detection. Through comparing the output value of motion condition model with the measured value of actual speed and angle, it obtained the overall fault information. Also, it obtained the direct fault information through analyzing the residual which was produced by comparing the output of the performance model with the measured value of the actual voltage and current of the each thruster. According to the decision level information fusion of two kinds of information, it realized the fault diagnosis of thrusters and analyzed the fault degree and reliability. The results of the fault-simulation experiment show that the proposed fault fusion diagnosis method for the thruster of AUV is feasible and effective.

  1. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  2. In vitro biological effectiveness of JRR-4 epithermal neutron beam. Experiment under free air beam and in water phantom. Cooperative research

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T; Horiguchi, Y; Kishi, T; Kumada, H; Matsumura, A; Nose, T; Torii, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2002-01-01

    The surviving curve and the biological effectiveness factor of dose components generated in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) were separately determined in neutron beams at Japan Research Reactor No.4. Surviving fraction of V79 Chinese hamster cell with or without sup 1 sup 0 B was obtained using an epithermal neutron beam (ENB), a mixed thermal-epithermal neutron beam (TNB-1), and a thermal neutron beam (TNB-2), which were used or planned to use for BNCT clinical trial. The cell killing effect of these neutron beams with or without the presence of sup 1 sup 0 B depended highly on the neutron beam used, according to the epithermal and fast neutron content in the beam. The biological effectiveness factor values of the boron capture reaction for ENB, TNB-1 and TNB-2 were 3.99+-0.24, 3.04+-0.19 and 1.43+-0.08, respectively. The biological effectiveness factor values of the high-LET dose components based on the hydrogen recoils and the nitrogen capture reaction were 2.50+-0.32, 2.34+-0.30 and 2.17+-0.28 for EN...

  3. Modeling Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W M; Niller, D A C; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Welch, D R; Rose, D V; Olson, C L

    2002-08-02

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  4. Modeling chamber transport for heavy-ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W.M.; Callahan, D.A.; Tabak, M.; Yu, S.S.; Peterson, P.F.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Olson, C.L.

    2002-10-01

    In a typical thick-liquid-wall scenario for heavy-ion fusion (HIF), between seventy and two hundred high-current beams enter the target chamber through ports and propagate about three meters to the target. Since molten-salt jets are planned to protect the chamber wall, the beams move through vapor from the jets, and collisions between beam ions and this background gas both strip the ions and ionize the gas molecules. Radiation from the preheated target causes further beam stripping and gas ionization. Due to this stripping, beams for heavy-ion fusion are expected to require substantial neutralization in a target chamber. Much recent research has, therefore, focused on beam neutralization by electron sources that were neglected in earlier simulations, including emission from walls and the target, photoionization by the target radiation, and pre-neutralization by a plasma generated along the beam path. When these effects are included in simulations with practicable beam and chamber parameters, the resulting focal spot is approximately the size required by a distributed radiator target.

  5. Annual report 2011. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Fassbender, J.; Heera, V.; Helm, M. (eds.)

    2012-08-22

    The first year of membership of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers (HGF) was a year of many changes also for the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research (IIM). The transition period, however, is not yet over, since the full integration of the Center into the HGF will only be completed in the next period of the so-called program-oriented funding (POF). This funding scheme addresses the six core research fields identified by the Helmholtz Association (Energy; Earth and Environment; Health; Key Technologies; Structure of Matter; Aeronautics, Space and Transport) to deal with the grand challenges faced by society, science and industry. Since the Institute has strong contributions to both core fields ''Key Technologies'' and ''Structure of Matter'', intense discussions were held amongst the leading scientists of the Institute, across the Institutes of the HZDR, and finally with leading scientists of other Helmholtz centers, to determine the most appropriate classification of the Institute's research. At the end we decided to establish ourselves in Structure of Matter, the core field in which most of the large-scale photon, neutron and ion facilities in Germany are located. As a consequence, the Ion Beam Center (IBC) of the Institute submitted an application to become a HGF recognized large-scale facility, providing more than 50% of its available beam time to external users. This application perfectly reflects the development of the IBC over more than a decade as a European Union funded infrastructure in the framework of the projects ''Center for Application of Ion Beams in Materials Research (AIM)'' (1998-2000, 2000-2003, 2006-2010) and subsequently as the coordinator of the integrated infrastructure initiative (I3) ''Support of Public and Industrial Research using Ion Beam Technology (SPIRIT)'' (2009

  6. Role of cone-beam computed tomography in the evaluation of a paradental cyst related to the fusion of a wisdom tooth with a paramolar: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Soylu, Emrah; Nazlim, Sinan; Amuk, Mehmet; Avci, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    Fusion is an abnormality of tooth development defined as the union of two developing dental germs, resulting in a single large dental structure. This irregular tooth morphology is associated with a high predisposition to dental caries and periodontal diseases. As a result of recurring inflammatory periodontal processes, disorders such as periodontal pocket, pericoronitis, and paradental cysts may develop. A rare mandibular anatomic variation is the retromolar canal, which is very significant for surgical procedures. The fusion of a paramolar and mandibular third molar associated with a paradental cyst co-occurring with the presence of a retromolar canal is rare, and the aim of the present study is to describe the evaluation of this anatomical configuration using cone-beam computed tomography. PMID:27051641

  7. Role of cone-beam computed tomography in the evaluation of a paradental cyst related to the fusion of a wisdom tooth with a paramolar: A rare case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozcan, Gozde; Sekerci, Ahmet Ercan; Amuk, Mehmet; Avci, Fatma [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkmenistan); Soylu, Emrah [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat (Turkmenistan); Nazlim, Sinan [Dept. of Pathology, Yozgat State Hospital, Yozgat (Turkmenistan)

    2016-03-15

    Fusion is an abnormality of tooth development defined as the union of two developing dental germs, resulting in a single large dental structure. This irregular tooth morphology is associated with a high predisposition to dental caries and periodontal diseases. As a result of recurring inflammatory periodontal processes, disorders such as periodontal pocket, pericoronitis, and paradental cysts may develop. A rare mandibular anatomic variation is the retromolar canal, which is very significant for surgical procedures. The fusion of a paramolar and mandibular third molar associated with a paradental cyst co-occurring with the presence of a retromolar canal is rare, and the aim of the present study is to describe the evaluation of this anatomical configuration using cone-beam computed tomography.

  8. Inertial fusion program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R.B.

    1980-11-01

    Progress at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements to LASL's two-beam system, Gemini, are outlined and experimental results are discussed. Our eight-beam system, Helios, was fired successfully on target for the first time, and became the world's most powerful gas laser for laser fusion studies. Work on Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is summarized, indicating that design work and building construction are 70 and 48% complete, respectively. A baseline design for automatic centering of laser beams onto the various relay mirrors and the optical design of the Antares front end are discussed. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, as well as investigations of synthetic-fuel production through application of fusion energy to hydrogen production by thermochemical water splitting. Studies on increased efficiency of energy extraction in CO/sub 2/ lasers and on lifetimes of cryogenic pellets in a reactor environment are summarized, as well as the results of studies on pellet injection, tracking, and beam synchronization.

  9. Research on fusion method of intelligent multi-source image%多源图像智能化融合方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪启国; 许会芳

    2014-01-01

    多源图像的智能化融合技术是在目前多尺度特征融合作为图像融合研究中一种新的研究方向,通过对图像的多尺度特征处理与人工智能中统计学习相结合,提出初步的模型以及技术方案,有效地改善图像融合的性能。%Intelligent image fusion technology is in the present multi-scale feature fusion as a new research direction of the fusion image, through the combination of multiscale features of image processing and statistical learning of artificial intelligence in this phase, to propose the preliminary model and technology solutions, effectively improve the performance of image fusion.

  10. An archival study on the nuclear fusion research in Japan later half of 1980's. An interview with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui [Nihon Univ., College of Science and Technology, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan); Obayashi, Haruo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    An interview record with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at The University of Tokyo, on the nuclear fusion researches in Japan later half of 1980's is given. The major topics concerned are: activities of Science Council of Japan, the establishment of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research, the history of establishing National Institute for Fusion Science, and effects of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, and others. (author)

  11. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  12. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  13. Laser-plasma interactions relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, K.B.

    1998-11-02

    Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain the fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and

  14. Monte Carlo methods of neutron beam design for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor (MITR-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, S D; Choi, J R; Zamenhof, R G; Yanch, J C; Harling, O K

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods of coupled neutron/photon transport are being used in the design of filtered beams for Neutron Capture Therapy (NCT). This method of beam analysis provides segregation of each individual dose component, and thereby facilitates beam optimization. The Monte Carlo method is discussed in some detail in relation to NCT epithermal beam design. Ideal neutron beams (i.e., plane-wave monoenergetic neutron beams with no primary gamma-ray contamination) have been modeled both for comparison and to establish target conditions for a practical NCT epithermal beam design. Detailed models of the 5 MWt Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor (MITR-II) together with a polyethylene head phantom have been used to characterize approximately 100 beam filter and moderator configurations. Using the Monte Carlo methodology of beam design and benchmarking/calibrating our computations with measurements, has resulted in an epithermal beam design which is useful for therapy of deep-seated brain tumors. This beam is predicted to be capable of delivering a dose of 2000 RBE-cGy (cJ/kg) to a therapeutic advantage depth of 5.7 cm in polyethylene assuming 30 micrograms/g 10B in tumor with a ten-to-one tumor-to-blood ratio, and a beam diameter of 18.4 cm. The advantage ratio (AR) is predicted to be 2.2 with a total irradiation time of approximately 80 minutes. Further optimization work on the MITR-II epithermal beams is expected to improve the available beams.

  15. Annual report 2012. Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, A.L.; Fassbender, J.; Heera, V.; Helm, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    In 2012 the HZDR, and in consequence also the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research (IIM) including its Ion Beam Center (IBC), has undergone a scientific evaluation. The evaluation committee composed of the Scientific Advisory Board and numerous external experts in our field of research concluded that ''the overall quality of the scientific work is excellent'', that ''there are an impressive number of young scientists working enthusiastically on a variety of high-level projects'' and that ''the choice of these projects represents a clear underlying strategy and vision''. We feel honored and are proud that the external view on our scientific achievements is that extraordinary. In view of this outstanding result we would like to express our gratitude to all our staff members for their commitment and efforts. In the past year, we continued our integration into the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers (HGF) with our Institute mostly active in the research area ''Matter'', but also involved in a number of activities in the research area ''Energy''. In this respect, many consultations were held with the Helmholtz centers contributing to common research areas to precisely define the role we will play in the newly established HGF program ''From Matter to Materials and Life''. Our IBC has been recognized as a large-scale user facility for ion beam analysis and modification of materials, i.e., specializing on materials science. In particular, the IBC plays a prominent role in the recently approved Helmholtz Energy Materials Characterization Platform (HEMCP), which mainly concentrates on the development of dedicated analytical tools for the characterization of materials required for future energy technologies. The successes achieved by the IBC allows us to invest 7200 kEuro to further improve and strengthen the ion beam

  16. Comparison of neutron spectrum measurement methods used for the epithermal beam of the LVR-15 research reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viererbl, L; Klupák, V; Lahodová, Z; Marek, M

    2012-07-01

    The LVR-15 research reactor's horizontal channel with its epithermal neutron beam is used mainly for boron neutron capture therapy. Neutrons from the reactor core pass through a special filter before the collimator and the beam outlet. Neutron fluence and spectrum are the basic characteristics of an epithermal neutron beam. Three methods used to measure the beam's neutron spectrum are described: the activation method, a Bonner sphere spectrometer with gold activation detectors and a Bonner sphere spectrometer with LiI(Eu) scintillation detector. Examples of results are compared and discussed.

  17. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  18. Research on Key Technologies of Network Centric System Distributed Target Track Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Mao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To realize common tactical picture in network-centered system, this paper proposes a layered architecture for distributed information processing and a method for distributed track fusion on the basis of analyzing the characteristics of network-centered systems. Basing on the noncorrelation of three-dimensional measurement of surveillance and reconnaissance sensors under polar coordinates, it also puts forward an algorithm for evaluating track quality (TQ using statistical decision theory. According to simulation results, the TQ value is associated with the measurement accuracy of sensors and the motion state of targets, which is well matched with the convergence process of tracking filters. Besides, the proposed algorithm has good reliability and timeliness in track quality evaluation.

  19. Multicharged ion-induced emission from metal- and insulator surfaces related to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H.P. [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1997-01-01

    The edge region of magnetically confined plasmas in thermonuclear fusion experiments couples the hot plasma core with the cold first wall. We consider the dependence of plasma-wall interaction processes on edge plasma properties, with particular emphasis on the role of slow multicharged ions (MCI). After a short survey on the physics of slow MCI-surface interaction we discuss recent extensive studies on MCI-induced electron emission from clean metal surfaces conducted at impact velocities << 1 a.u., from which generally reliable total electron yields can be obtained. We then demonstrate the essentially different role of the MCI charge for electron emission from metallic and insulator surfaces, respectively. Furthermore, we present recent results on slow MCI-induced `potential sputtering` of insulators which, in contrast to the well established kinetic sputtering, already occurs at very low ion impact energy and strongly increases with the MCI charge state. (J.P.N.). 55 refs.

  20. SUPERCONDUCTING QUADRUPOLE ARRAYS FOR MULTIPLE BEAM TRANSPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainer Meinke

    2003-10-01

    The goal of this research was to develop concepts for affordable, fully functional arrays of superconducting quadrupoles for multi-beam transport and focusing in heavy ion fusion (HIF)accelerators. Previous studies by the Virtual National Laboratory (VNL) collaboration have shown that the multi-beam transport system (consisting of alternating gradient quadrupole magnets, a beam vacuum system, and the beam monitor and control system) will likely be one of the most expensive and critical parts of such an accelerator. This statement is true for near-term fusion research accelerators as well as accelerators for the ultimate goal of power production via inertial fusion. For this reason, research on superconducting quadrupole arrays is both timely and important for the inertial fusion energy (IFE) research program. This research will also benefit near-term heavy ion fusion facilities such as the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)and/or the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). We considered a 2-prong approach that addresses the needs of both the nearer and longer term requirements of the inertial fusion program. First, we studied the flat coil quadrupole design that was developed by LLNL; this magnet is 150 mm long with a 50 mm aperture and thus is suitable for near term experiments that require magnets of a small length to aperture ratio. Secondly, we studied the novel double-helix quadrupole (DHQ) design in a small (3 x 3) array configuration; this design can provide an important step to the longer term solution of low-cost, easy to manufacture array constructions. Our Phase I studies were performed using the AMPERES magnetostatic analysis software. Consideration of these results led to plans for future magnet R&D construction projects. The first objective of Phase I was to develop the concept of a superconducting focusing array that meets the specific requirements of a heavy ion fusion accelerator. Detailed parameter studies for such quadrupole arrays were performed

  1. Experimental research on the longitudinal field generated by a tightly focused beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Ming-Qian; Wang Jia; Tian Qian

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal optical field is a peculiar physical phenomenon that is always involved with the domain of near-field optics.Due to its extraordinary properties,it has recently attracted increasing attention in research and application.In this1 work,the longitudinal fields generated by the evanescent illumination of tightly focused,different polarized hollow beams are investigated.The focused light fields are numerically simulated according to vector diffraction theory,and their vector analysis is also carried out.The longitudinal fields on the focal plane are demonstrated experimentally using tip-enhanced scanning near-field microscopy.The simulation and experimental results show that the tightly focused radially polarized beam is suited to generating a stronger and purer longitudinal optical field at the focus.

  2. Beam losses in heavy ion drivers

    CERN Document Server

    Mustafin, E R; Hofmann, I; Spiller, P J

    2002-01-01

    While beam loss issues have hardly been considered in detail for heavy ion fusion scenarios, recent heavy ion machine developments in different labs (European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)) have shown the great importance of beam current limitations due to ion losses. Two aspects of beam losses in heavy ion accelerators are theoretically considered: (1) secondary neutron production due to lost ions, and (2) vacuum pressure instability due to charge exchange losses. Calculations are compared and found to be in good agreement with measured data. The application to a Heavy-Ion Driven Inertial Fusion (HIDIF) scenario is discussed. 12 Refs.

  3. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  4. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE).The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development. The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  5. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  6. A Simple Apparatus for the Injection of Lithium Aerosol into the Scrape-Off Layer of Fusion Research Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. Mansfield, A.L Roquemore, H. Schneider, J. Timberlake, H. Kugel, M.G. Bell and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-10-11

    A simple device has been developed to deposit elemental lithium onto plasma facing components in the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Deposition is accomplished by dropping lithium powder into the plasma column. Once introduced, lithium particles quickly become entrained in scrape-off layer flow as an evaporating aerosol. Particles are delivered through a small central aperture in a computer-controlled resonating piezoelectric disk on which the powder is supported. The device has been used to deposit lithium both during discharges as well as prior to plasma breakdown. Clear improvements to plasma performance have been demonstrated. The use of this apparatus provides flexibility in the amount and timing of lithium deposition and, therefore, may benefit future fusion research devices.

  7. Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Lund, L.D.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Marshall, F.J.; Morse, S.F.B.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thorp, K.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2010-04-16

    This paper reviews the status of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). LLE's goal is to demonstrate direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2014. Baseline "all-DT" NIF direct-drive ignition target designs have been developed that have a predicted gain of 45 (1-D) at a NIF drive energy of ~1.6 MJ. Significantly higher gains are calculated for targets that include a DT-wicked foam ablator. This paper also reviews the results of both warm fuel and initial cryogenic-fuel spherical target implosion experiments carried out on the OMEGA UV laser. The results of these experiments and design calculations increase confidence that the NIF direct-drive ICF ignition goal will be achieved.

  8. Research on Sonar Image Registration and Fusion Based on SURF Algorithm%基于SURF的声纳图像配准与融合方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭军

    2013-01-01

    针对侧扫声纳图像分辨率高测深精度低而多波束声纳图像分辨率低测深精度高的特点,提出了一种基于SUFR的声纳图像自动配准与融合方法.该算法检测同一区域内侧扫声纳图像和多波束图像的特征点,通过最近邻匹配获得匹配点后,计算图像间的变换矩阵,利用空间变换完成配准,采用加权融合法实现两者的融合.实验结果表明该算法具有很好的鲁棒性,配准精度达到像素级,可实现两者的高精度自动配准与融合,取得了理想的效果.%According to multi - beam sonar system, the high - resolution backscatter but poor horizontal position accuracy, and side -scan sonar system, the accurate bathymetry and horizontal position but low resolution, the study is concerned with an automatic registration and fusion method of sonar image based on SURF. To achieve the integration of multi - beam sonar system and side - scan sonar system with the weighted fusion method, it extracts feature points by using SURF, computes transformation matrix by using match points, and performs registration and fusion with a spatial transform. The results indicate that this method is robust and stable with registration accuracy up to pixel level realizing the quite precise automatic registration and fusion, and is more suitable for sonar image.

  9. Research on the image fusion and target extraction based on bionic compound eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaowei; Hao, Qun; Song, Yong; Wang, Zihan; Zhang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Shiyu

    2015-08-01

    People attach more and more importance to bionic compound eye due to its advantages such as small volume, large field of view and sensitivity to high-speed moving objects. Small field of view and large volume are the disadvantages of traditional image sensor and in order to avoid these defects, this paper intends to build a set of compound eye system based on insect compound eye structure and visual processing mechanism. In the center of this system is the primary sensor which has high resolution ratio. The primary sensor is surrounded by the other six sensors which have low resolution ratio. Based on this system, this paper will study the target image fusion and extraction method by using plane compound eye structure. This paper designs a control module which can combine the distinguishing features of high resolution image with local features of low resolution image so as to conduct target detection, recognition and location. Compared with traditional ways, the way of high resolution in the center and low resolution around makes this system own the advantages of high resolution and large field of view and enables the system to detect the object quickly and recognize the object accurately.

  10. Design and construction of a thermal neutron beam for BNCT at Tehran Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Khalafi, Hossein; Rahmani, Faezeh; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Hossnirokh, Ashkan; Shamami, Mehrdad Azizi; Amini, Sepideh

    2014-12-01

    An irradiation facility has been designed and constructed at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) for the treatment of shallow tumors using Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). TRR has a thermal column which is about 3m in length with a wide square cross section of 1.2×1.2m(2). This facility is filled with removable graphite blocks. The aim of this work is to perform the necessary modifications in the thermal column structure to meet thermal BNCT beam criteria recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency. The main modifications consist of rearranging graphite blocks and reducing the gamma dose rate at the beam exit. Activation foils and TLD700 dosimeter have been used to measure in-air characteristics of the neutron beam. According to the measurements, a thermal flux is 5.6×10(8) (ncm(-2)s(-1)), a cadmium ratio is 186 for gold foils and a gamma dose rate is 0.57Gy h(-1).

  11. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  12. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  13. RADIATION DOSIMETRY AT THE BNL HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR AND MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN,N.E.

    1999-09-10

    RADIATION DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED OVER A PERIOD OF MANY YEARS AT THE HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR (HFBR) AND THE MEDICAL RESEARCH REACTOR (BMRR) AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY TO PROVIDE INFORMATION ON THE ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEUTRON FLUX, NEUTRON DOSE RATES, GAMMA-RAY FLUXES AND GAMMA-RAY DOSE RATES. THE MCNP PARTICLE TRANSPORT CODE PROVIDED MONTE CARLO RESULTS TO COMPARE WITH VARIOUS DOSIMETRY MEASUREMENTS PERFORMED AT THE EXPERIMENTAL PORTS, AT THE TREATMENT ROOMS AND IN THE THIMBLES AT BOTH HFBR AND BMRR.

  14. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  15. (Experimental development, testing and research work in support of the inertial confinement fusion program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, D.J.; Luckhardt, R.; Moyer, S.; Armentrout, C.J.; Downs, R.L.; Moncur, K. (eds.)

    1990-02-28

    This report discusses: Cryogenic technology; polymer shell fabrication; glass shell fabrication and characterization; coating technology; development of characterization techniques; laser technology; and plasma research and instrumentation.

  16. Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams - Proceedings of the Riken International Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaji, S.; Ishihara, M.; Takigawa, N.

    1993-11-01

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * Opening Address * Fusion I * Heavy Ion Fusion at Subbarrier Energies: Progress and Questions * Angular Momentum in Heavy Ion Subbarrier Interaction * Fusion II * High Precision Fusion Excitation Function Measurements: What Can We Learn from Them? * Transfer Reactions for 16O + 144,152Sm near the Coulomb Barrier * Fusion III * Recent Theoretical Developments in the Study of Subbarrier Fusion * Direct Reaction Approach to Heavy Ion Scattering and Fusion at Energies near Coulomb Barrier * Fusion IV * Roles of Multi-Step Transfer in Fusion Process Induced by Heavy Ion Reactions * Special Session * RIKEN Accelerator Research Facility (RARF) * Fission I * Bimodal Nature of Nuclear Fission * Systematics of Isotope Production Rates: Mass Excess Dependence of Fission Products * Semiclassical Methods for the Multi-Dimensional Quantum Decay * Dynamics of Di-Nucleus Systems: Molecular Resonances * Fission II * The Competition Between Fusion-Fission and Deeply Inelastic Reactions in the Medium Mass Systems * Unstable Nuclei I * Coulomb Dissociation and Momentum Distributions for 11Li → 9Li+n+n Breakup Reactions * Unstable Nuclei II * Elastic Scattering and Fragmentation of Halo Nuclei * Secondary Reactions of Neutron-Rich Nuclei at Intermediate Energies * Life Time of Soft Dipole Excitation * Unstable Nuclei III * Shell Structure of Exotic Unstable Nuclei * Properties of Unstable Nuclei Within the Relativistic Many-Body Theory * Fusion with Unstable Nuclei * Barrier Distributions for Heavy Ion Fusion * Heavy Ion Reactions with Neutron-Rich Beams * Heavy Ion Fusion with Neutron-Rich Beams * Superheavy Elements * Study of α Decays Following 40Ar Bombardment on 238U * Production of Superheavy Elements via Fusion: What is Limiting Us? * Panel Session * Comments * List of Participants

  17. The interaction of the near-field plasma with antennas used in magnetic fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, John

    2015-09-01

    Plasma heating and current drive using antennas in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are important elements for the success of magnetic fusion. The antennas must operate in a harsh environment, where local plasma densities can be >1018/m3, magnetic fields can range from 0.2-5 Tesla, and antenna operating voltages can be >40 kV. This environment creates operational issues due to the interaction of the near-field of the antenna with the local plasma. In addition to parasitic losses in this plasma region, voltage and current distributions on the antenna structure lead to the formation of high electric fields and RF plasma sheaths, which can lead to enhanced particle and energy fluxes on the antenna and on surfaces intersected by magnetic field lines connected to or passing near the antenna. These issues are being studied using a simple electrode structure and a single-strap antenna on the Prototype Materials Plasma EXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at ORNL, which is a linear plasma device that uses an electron Bernstein wave heated helicon plasma source to create a high-density plasma suitable for use in a plasma-material interaction test stand. Several diagnostics are being used to characterize the near-field interactions, including double-Langmuir probes, a retarding field energy analyzer, and optical emission spectroscopy. The RF electric field is being studied utilizing Dynamic Stark Effect spectroscopy and Doppler-Free Saturation Spectroscopy. Recent experimental results and future plans will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  18. 多源遥感图像融合方法研究%Research on Multi -source Remote Sensing Image Fusion Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑影

    2011-01-01

    研究多源遥感图像的融合技术,针对不同传感器获取的遥感图像像素信息有很大差异.当所要融合的图像是多源遥感图像时,应提取多图像的有效信息,组合出高质量的图像.传统IHS图像融合方法无法避免多源图像像素不匹配带来的有效像素丢失,造成融合图像模糊,清晰度不高的问题.提出一种基于Contourlet变换的遥感图像融合方法,通过对图像进行Contourlet变换后提取各源图像的特征信息,并计算提取特征所包含的信息量,选取高信息景的特征进行融合,最后通过进行Contourlet逆变换即得到多源融合图像,利用信息量融合配准的方法就避免了直接对不匹配像素运算而造成的有效像素丢失.实验证明,改进的优化融合方法能够保留图像的有效信息,得到高清晰度的融合图像.%Research multi - source remote sensing image fusion methods. The remote sensing pixels spectrum information from different sensors has very big differences. When the fusion images were multi - source remote sensing images, traditional HIS image fusion method cannot avoid the effective pixels lost because multiple source pixels do not match, causing the problem of fuzzy fusion images. This paper presented a contourlet algorithm based on the remote sensing image fusion method. The characteristics information of source images were extracted after the image contourlet transformation. Then the information content contained in the extracted features was calculated, and the characteristics with high information content were selected for fusion. Finally, through the inverse contourlet transformation , the multi - source fusion image was produced. This information fusion registration method can avoid the pixel lost when the unmatched pixels are operated. Experiments show that the optimal fusion method effective information can keep images, get high quality fusion image.

  19. Teaching and Research in Mid-Career Management Education: Function and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Bríd C.

    2016-01-01

    The apparent disconnect between teaching and research has implications for both curricular content and pedagogic practice and has particular salience in the field of mid-career education. To overcome this disconnect, faculty endeavour to integrate teaching and research. Pressure to do so stems from many sources. Benchmarks of professional…

  20. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  1. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  2. Center for Beam Physics, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The Center for Beam Physics is a multi-disciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. At the heart of the Center`s mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation and focusing of energy. Dedicated to exploring the frontiers of the physics of (and with) particle and photon beams, its primary mission is to promote the science and technology of the production, manipulation, storage and control systems of charged particles and photons. The Center serves this mission via conceptual studies, theoretical and experimental research, design and development, institutional project involvement, external collaborations, association with industry and technology transfer. This roster provides a glimpse at the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up this team and a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1993.

  3. Utilization of BEAM and NEST open source toolboxes in education and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Potůčková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available European Space Agency (ESA provides several open source toolboxes for visualization, processing and analyzing satellite images acquired both in optical and microwave domains. Basic ERS & Envisat (AATSR and MERIS Toolbox (BEAM was originally developed for easier handling ENVISAT optical data. Today this toolbox supports several raster data formats and datasets collected with other EO instruments such as MODIS, AVHRR, CHRIS/Proba. The NEXT ESA SAR Toolbox (NEST has been created for processing radar data acquired from different satellites such as ERS 1&2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT or TerraSAR X. Both toolboxes are suitable for the education of the basic principles of data processing (geometric and radiometric corrections, classification, filtering of radar data but also for research. Possibilities for utilization of these toolboxes in remote sensing courses based on two examples of practical exercises are described. Use of the NEST toolbox is demonstrated on a research project dealing with snow cover detection from SAR imagery.

  4. Development of a dedicated beam forming system for material and bioscience research with high intensity, small field electron beam of LILLYPUT 3 accelerator at Wroclaw Technology Park

    CERN Document Server

    Adrich, Przemysław; Wilk, Piotr; Chorowski, Maciej; Poliński, Jarosław; Bogdan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The primary use of the LILLYPUT 3 accelerator at the Nondestructive Testing Laboratory at Wroclaw Technology Park is X-ray radiography for nondestructive testing, including R&D of novel techniques for industrial and medical imaging. The scope of possible applications could be greatly extended by providing a system for irradiation with electron beam. The purpose of this work was to design such a system, especially for high dose rate, small field irradiations under cryogenic conditions for material and bioscience research. In this work, two possible solutions, based either on beam scanning or scattering and collimation, were studied and compared. It was found that under existing conditions efficiency of both systems would be comparable. The latter one was adopted due to its simplicity and much lower cost. The system design was optimized by means of detailed Monte Carlo modeling. The system is being currently fabricated at National Centre for Nuclear Research in \\'Swierk.

  5. Inertial Fusion Program. Progress report, July 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1981-10-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements in the Los Alamos National Laboratory eight-beam Helios system are described. These improvements increased the reliability of the laser and permitted the firing of 290 shots, most of which delivered energies of approximately 8 kJ to the target. Modifications to Gemini are outlined, including the installation of a new target-insertion mechanism. The redirection of the Antares program is discussed in detail, which will achieve a total energy of approximatey 40 kJ with two beams. This redirection will bring Antares on-line almost two years earlier than was possible with the full six-beam system, although at a lower energy. Experiments with isentropically imploded Sirius-B targets are discussed, and x-ray radiation-loss data from gold microballoons are presented, which show that these results are essentially identical with those obtained at glass-laser wavelengths. Significant progress in characterizing laser fusion targets is reported. New processes for fabricating glass miroballoon x-ray diagnostic targets, the application of high-quality metallic coatings, and the deposition of thick plastic coatings are described. Results in the development of x-ray diagnostics are reported, and research in the Los Alamos heavy-ion fusion program is summarized. Results of investigations of phase-conjugation research of gaseous saturable absorbers and of the use of alkali-halide crystals in a new class of saturable absorbers are summarized. New containment-vessel concepts for Inertial Confinement Fusion reactors are discussed, and results of a scoping study of four fusion-fission hybrid concepts are presented.

  6. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  7. Development of radiation fusion biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-04-15

    Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready to eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Selection of 20 kinds of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling (fractionated irradiation of total 5Gy, a lapse of 4 months or more - Selection of effective aging modulating substances by screening of 800 natural substances - Development of 1 multi-functional and high-efficacy aging modulator by combination of effective substances and evaluation by in vivo models Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 100 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing. - Establishment of multi-channel type Lab on a chip (LOC) using

  8. Use of cone beam computed tomography in implant dentistry: current concepts, indications and limitations for clinical practice and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Horner, Keith; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-02-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential component of treatment planning in the field of implant dentistry. This narrative review will present current concepts for the use of cone beam computed tomography imaging, before and after implant placement, in daily clinical practice and research. Guidelines for the selection of three-dimensional imaging will be discussed, and limitations will be highlighted. Current concepts of radiation dose optimization, including novel imaging modalities using low-dose protocols, will be presented. For preoperative cross-sectional imaging, data are still not available which demonstrate that cone beam computed tomography results in fewer intraoperative complications such as nerve damage or bleeding incidents, or that implants inserted using preoperative cone beam computed tomography data sets for planning purposes will exhibit higher survival or success rates. The use of cone beam computed tomography following the insertion of dental implants should be restricted to specific postoperative complications, such as damage of neurovascular structures or postoperative infections in relation to the maxillary sinus. Regarding peri-implantitis, the diagnosis and severity of the disease should be evaluated primarily based on clinical parameters and on radiological findings based on periapical radiographs (two dimensional). The use of cone beam computed tomography scans in clinical research might not yield any evident beneficial effect for the patient included. As many of the cone beam computed tomography scans performed for research have no direct therapeutic consequence, dose optimization measures should be implemented by using appropriate exposure parameters and by reducing the field of view to the actual region of interest.

  9. Data fusion and data compression research in the space sciences - An overview of selected NASA investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucklow, Glenn; Tilton, James C.; Manohar, M.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of selected research tasks representative of work being conducted in universities, industry and at NASA centers under NASA sponsorship is given. A summary is given of the papers presented at the Space and Earth Science Data Compression Workshop held in Snowbird, Utah on March 27, 1992.

  10. Overview of the Heavy Ion Fusion Program

    CERN Document Server

    Celata, C M

    2000-01-01

    The world Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program for inertial fusion energy is looking toward the development and commissioning of several new experiments. Recent and planned upgrades of the facilities at GSI, in Russia, and in Japan greatly enhance the ability to study energy deposition in hot dense matter. Worldwide target design developments have focused on non-ignition targets for nearterm experiments and designs which, while lowering the energy required for ignition, tighten accelerator requirements. The U.S program is transitioning between scaled beam dynamics experiments and high current experiments with power-plant-driver-scale beams. Current effort is aimed at preparation for the next-step large facility, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE)-- an induction linac accelerating multiple beams to a few hundred MeV, then focusing to deliver tens of kilojoules to a target. The goal is to study heavy ion energy deposition, and to test all of the components and physics needed for an engineering test of a power p...

  11. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  12. Robust Rapid Change-Point Detection in Multi-Sensor Data Fusion and Behavior Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.4 The 2- CUSUM Model for Two-Choice Reaction Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3 Publications 15 4 Appendix...Manuscript C: The 2- CUSUM Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 1 Introduction The overall goal of our AFOSR sponsored research program is to... CUSUM 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1

  13. Non-classical neutron beams for fundamental and solid state research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Rauch

    2008-10-01

    The curious dual nature of the neutron, sometimes a particle, sometimes a wave, is wonderfully manifested in the various non-local interference and quantum contextuality effects observed in neutron interferometry. Non-classical states may become useful for novel fundamental and solid state research. Here we discuss unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments and we show how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality. In all cases of interactions, parasitic beams are produced which cannot be recombined completely with the original beam. This means that a complete reconstruction of the original state would, in principle, be impossible which causes a kind of intrinsic irreversibility. Even small interaction potentials can have huge effects when they are applied in quantum Zeno-like experiments. Recently, it has been shown that an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom exists even in single particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be discussed.

  14. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  15. Diagnostic systems for the nuclear fusion and plasma research in the PF-24 plasma focus laboratory at the IFJ PAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciniak Łukasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a set of diagnostics dedicated to PF-24 - new medium size - plasma focus (PF device built and operated at the Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN. The PF-24 can operate at energy level up to 93 kJ and charging voltage up to 40 kV. Each condenser is connected with a specially designed spark gap with a very small jitter, which ensures a high effi ciency and a low current rise time. The working parameters of PF-24 generator make it a suitable tool for testing new detection systems to be used in fusion research. Four types of such detection systems are presented in this article: three diagnostic systems used to measure electric quantities (Rogowski coil, magnetic probe, capacitance probe, neutron counter based on beryllium activation, fast neutron pinhole camera based on small-area BCF-12 plastic scintillation detectors and high-speed four-frame soft X-ray camera with microchannel plate.

  16. European research projects for metrology in Brachytherapy and External Beam Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerhold, Ulrike; Toni, Maria Pia

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), two projects were launched with the central objective of providing reliable measuring techniques for the methods of modern cancer therapy using ionizing radiation—such as brachytherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and hadron therapy—and using high intensity therapeutic ultrasound. The two three-year projects are ‘Increasing cancer treatment efficacy using 3D brachytherapy’ (Brachytherapy) and ‘External Beam Cancer Therapy’ (EBCT). For these modern treatment methods there is an urgent requirement for establishing a sound metrological basis with regard to the radiation dose delivered and its spatial distribution. This paper gives a brief overview about the two projects' work, their goals and findings. The details of the projects' work and their outcomes are presented within these conference proceedings or in the cited publications.

  17. $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

    CERN Document Server

    Fornal, B; Bednarczyk, P; Cieplicka, N; Krolas, W; Maj, A; Leoni, S; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Bottoni, S; Bracco, A; Camera, F; Crespi, F; Million, B; Morales, A; Wieland, O; Rusek, K; Lunardi, S; Mengoni, D; Recchia, F; Ur, CA; Valiente-Dobon, J; de France, G; Clement, E; Elseviers, J; Flavigny, F; Huyse, M; Raabe, R; Sambi, S; Van Duppen, P; Sferrazza, M; Simpson, G; Georgiev, G; Sotty, C; Blazhev, A; German, R; Siebeck, B; Seidlitz, M; Reiter, P; Warr, N; Boenig, S; Ilieva, S; Kroell, T; Scheck, M; Thurauf, M; Gernhaeuser, R; Mucher, D; Janssens, R; Carpenter, MP; Zhu, S; Marginean, NM; Balabanski, D; Kowalska, M

    2012-01-01

    $\\gamma$- spectroscopy of n-rich $^{95,96}$Rb nuclei by the incomplete fusion reaction of $^{94}$Kr on $^{7}$Li: Introduction to HIE-ISOLDE studies of n-rich Sb and Tl isotopes with Sn and Hg radioactive beams.

  18. Synthetic report 2012. Research programme on controlled thermonuclear fusion; Rapport de synthèse 2012. Programme de recherche Fusion thermonucléaire contrôlée

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaucher, C. [Secrétariat à l’éducation et à la recherche (SER), Berne (Switzerland); Tran, M. Q.; Villard, L. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Marot, L. [University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Since 1961, Switzerland participates in the research on thermonuclear fusion thanks to the creation of the Research Centre in Plasma Physics. In 1979 it entered into partnership with the European programme on fusion through its adhesion to EURATOM. The thermonuclear fusion is an interesting energy source because the basic fuel is practically inexhaustible and its use does not release any significant CO{sub 2} quantity and very little radioactive residues. But its working up faces enormous physical and technological difficulties. The International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), presently in construction, has to demonstrate the technological feasibility of the controlled fusion. Il will be followed by DEMO, foreseen for 2040-2050, which must guarantee the economical rentability. At CRPP the research projects are partitioned onto several sites: at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne, they concern the physics of the magnetic confinement with the Variable Geometry Tokamak (TCV), the development of theoretical models and the numerical simulation, the plasma heating and the generation of hyper frequency waves; the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) studies the superconductivity and the materials; the interactions between the plasma and the Tokamak walls are studied at the Basel University for the structures of ITER. Thanks to its large flexibility, TCV allows the creation and the control of plasmas of very different forms. The injection system of millimetric waves allows orienting the injected power according to specific profiles. By using the asymmetry of the flow in the toroidal sense, the plasma rotation could be measured with a much better accuracy than before. In TCV, by playing on the form of the plasma, it was possible to strongly reduce the energy quantity which is expelled by the Edge Localized Modes (ELM) onto the wall of the vacuum chamber. The ‘snowflake’ configuration created in TCV allows distributing the ELM energy onto several impact

  19. Proceedings of the heavy ion fusion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, R C [ed.

    1978-01-01

    These proceedings contain reviews of current laboratory programs dealing with inertial fusion driven by beams of heavy ions, as well as several individually abstracted invited talks, workshop reports and contributed papers.

  20. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  1. Design of a high-flux epithermal neutron beam using 235U fission plates at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H B; Brugger, R M; Rorer, D C; Tichler, P R; Hu, J P

    1994-10-01

    Beams of epithermal neutrons are being used in the development of boron neutron capture therapy for cancer. This report describes a design study in which 235U fission plates and moderators are used to produce an epithermal neutron beam with higher intensity and better quality than the beam currently in use at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). Monte Carlo calculations are used to predict the neutron and gamma fluxes and absorbed doses produced by the proposed design. Neutron flux measurements at the present epithermal treatment facility (ETF) were made to verify and compare with the computed results where feasible. The calculations indicate that an epithermal neutron beam produced by a fission-plate converter could have an epithermal neutron intensity of 1.2 x 10(10) n/cm2.s and a fast neutron dose per epithermal neutron of 2.8 x 10(-11) cGy.cm2/nepi plus being forward directed. This beam would be built into the beam shutter of the ETF at the BMRR. The feasibility of remodeling the facility is discussed.

  2. Design, construction and characterization of a new neutron beam for neutron radiography at the Tehran Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan Dastjerdi, M. H.; Khalafi, H.; Kasesaz, Y.; Mirvakili, S. M.; Emami, J.; Ghods, H.; Ezzati, A.

    2016-05-01

    To obtain a thermal neutron beam for neutron radiography applications, a neutron collimator has been designed and implemented at the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). TRR is a 5 MW open pool light water moderated reactor with seven beam tubes. The neutron collimator is implemented in the E beam tube of the TRR. The design of the neutron collimator was performed using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. In this work, polycrystalline bismuth and graphite have been used as a gamma filter and an illuminator, respectively. The L/D parameter of the facility was chosen in the range of 150-250. The thermal neutron flux at the image plane can be varied from 2.26×106 to 6.5×106 n cm-2 s-1. Characterization of the beam was performed by ASTM standard IQI and foil activation technique to determine the quality of neutron beam. The results show that the obtained neutron beam has a good quality for neutron radiography applications.

  3. Technology choices for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, M.A.; Celata, C.M.; Lee, E.P.; Sabbi, G.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2002-10-31

    Over the next three years the research program of the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL), a collaboration among LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL, is focused on separate scientific experiments in the injection, transport and focusing of intense heavy ion beams at currents from 100 mA to 1 A. As a next major step in the HIF-VNL program, we aim for a complete ''source-to-target'' experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). By combining the experience gained in the current separate beam experiments IBX would allow the integrated scientific study of the evolution of a single heavy ion beam at high current ({approx}1 A) through all sections of a possible heavy ion fusion accelerator: the injection, acceleration, compression, and beam focusing. This paper describes the main parameters and technology choices of the planned IBX experiment. IBX will accelerate singly charged potassium or argon ion beams up to 10 MeV final energy and a longitudinal beam compression ratio of 10, resulting in a beam current at target of more than 10 Amperes. Different accelerator cell design options are described in detail: Induction cores incorporating either room temperature pulsed focusing-magnets or superconducting magnets.

  4. 舰艇编队多声纳数据融合%The Research of Multi-Sonar Data Fusion in Naval Fleet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雄; 康凤举; 张林芳

    2007-01-01

    分析了标准kalman滤波(KF)和自适应kalman滤波(AKF)的原理,通过仿真实验,对两种滤波算法的性能进行比较.结合各种声纳的探测特性和水下目标的特点,建立了舰艇编队的数据融合方案.选用简单凸组合融合算法作为舰艇编队协同反潜的航迹融合算法,将多声纳融合系统的融合结果和简单交叉定位算法进行了比较研究.仿真实验结果表明:自适应kalman滤波比标准kalman滤波具有更好的目标跟踪性能,多声纳融合结果较简单交叉定位结果的性能有大幅度提高,所选用的融合算法航迹能够较好的与真实航迹吻合.%With analysis of Kalman Filter (KF) and Adaptive Kalman Filter (AKF),the capability between them is compared by simulation experiments.Considering the measurement properties of different sonar and the underwater targets' characteristics,the data fusion method of naval fleet is proposed.Choose the simple convex-combination algorithm as the track fusion algorithm in naval fleet cooperative anti-submarine,comparing and researching the fusion result of multi-sonar and the simple cross-orientation.The simulation result presents that AKF is better at targets tracking than KF,meanwhile,multi-sonar data fusion is better than simple cross-orientation,and the track of data fusion is fit well for the real.

  5. The research of propagation characteristic and formation of double half-Gaussian hollow beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of hollow beams, double half-Gaussian hollow beams,was put forward. With the help of the Collins formula, the analytical equation of propagation and transformation of the hollow laser beams in free space was deduced. The simulation shows that the intensity exhibits the three-dimensional trap distribution in the near-field, while the double half-Gaussian hollow beams turn into solid laser beams when propagating a certain distance, which shows the characteristics of self-focus. The double half-Gaussian hollow beams were obtained by means of the dual-reflecting splitting optical system. The intensity of the vertical loop in different distances was tested, which shows that the analytical equation of propagation and transformation is in agreement with the result.

  6. The research of propagation characteristic and formation of double half-Gaussian hollow beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuan; ZHANG XiHe; NING GuoBin; JIN GuangYong; LIANG Wei; L(U) YanFei; ZHANG Kai

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of hollow beams, double half-Gaussian hollow beams, was put forward. With the help of the Collins formula, the analytical equation of propagation and transformation of the hollow laser beams in free space was deduced. The simulation shows that the intensity exhibits the three-dimensional trap distribution in the near-field, while the double half-Gaussian hollow beams turn into solid laser beams when propagating a certain distance, which shows the characteristics of self-focus. The double half-Gaussian hollow beams were obtained by means of the dual-reflecting splitting optical system. The intensity of the vertical loop in different distances was tested, which shows that the analytical equation of propagation and transformation is in agreement with the result.

  7. Recent developments and research projects at the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H., E-mail: yamag@cns.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kahl, D.; Nakao, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubono, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-Shirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502,Japan (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Y.K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Binh, D.N.; Khiem, L.H.; Duy, N.N. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hong Quoc Viet, Nghia do, HaNoi (Viet Nam)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • CRIB is a unique low-energy RI beam separator of the University of Tokyo. • CRIB has been produced various RI beams mainly on the proton-rich side. • The major topics studied at CRIB are resonant scatterings and (alpha, p) reactions. • Strong alpha resonances were observed with {sup 7}Be + alpha resonant scattering. -- Abstract: CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) is a low-energy RI beam separator at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. An overview of the recent developments and status of CRIB, including a detailed summary of beam parameters, is presented. Studies on proton and α resonant scatterings, direct measurements of (α,p) reactions, and other types of measurements (β-decay lifetimes, etc.) have been performed using RI beams at CRIB, motivated by interests in astrophysical reactions and exotic nuclear structure. Among the studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be + α resonant scattering is discussed.

  8. Medical research and multidisciplinary applications with laser-accelerated beams: the ELIMED netwotk at ELI-Beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontana, A.; Anzalone, A.; Candiano, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Korn, G.; Licciardello, T.; Maggiore, M.; Manti, L.; Margarone, D.; Musumarra, A.; Perozziello, F.; Pisciotta, P.; Raffaele, L.; Romano, F.; Romano, F. P.; Stancampiano, C.; Schillaci, F.; Scuderi, V.; Torrisi, L.; Tudisco, S.

    2014-04-01

    Laser accelerated proton beams represent nowadays an attractive alternative to the conventional ones and they have been proposed in different research fields. In particular, the interest has been focused in the possibility of replacing conventional accelerating machines with laser-based accelerators in order to develop a new concept of hadrontherapy facilities, which could result more compact and less expensive. With this background the ELIMED (ELIMED: ELI-Beamlines MEDical applications) research project has been launched by LNS-INFN researchers (Laboratori Nazionali del Sud-Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania, IT) and ASCR-FZU researchers (Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic-Fyzikální ústar, Prague, Cz), within the pan-European ELI-Beamlines facility framework. Its main purposes are the demonstration of future applications in hadrontherapy of optically accelerated protons and the realization of a laser-accelerated ion transport beamline for multidisciplinary applications. Several challenges, starting from laser-target interaction and beam transport development, up to dosimetric and radiobiological issues, need to be overcome in order to reach the final goals. The design and the realization of a preliminary beam handling and dosimetric system and of an advanced spectrometer for high energy (multi-MeV) laser-accelerated ion beams will be shortly presented in this work.

  9. Conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO Neutral Beam Injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonato, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Fantz, U.; Franke, T.; Furno, I.; Simonin, A.; Tran, M. Q.

    2016-12-01

    DEMO (DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant) is a proposed nuclear fusion power plant that is intended to follow the ITER experimental reactor. The main goal of DEMO will be to demonstrate the possibility to produce electric energy from the fusion reaction. The injection of high energy neutral beams is one of the main tools to heat the plasma up to fusion conditions. A conceptual design of the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) for the DEMO fusion reactor, is currently being developed by Consorzio RFX in collaboration with other European research institutes. High efficiency and low recirculating power, which are fundamental requirements for the success of DEMO, have been taken into special consideration for the DEMO NBI. Moreover, particular attention has been paid to the issues related to reliability, availability, maintainability and inspectability. A conceptual design of the beam source for the DEMO NBI is here presented featuring 20 sub-sources (two adjacent columns of 10 sub-sources each), following a modular design concept, with each sub-source featuring its radio frequency driver, capable of increasing the reliability and availability of the DEMO NBI. Copper grids with increasing size of the apertures have been adopted in the accelerator, with three main layouts of the apertures (circular apertures, slotted apertures and frame-like apertures for each sub-source). This design, permitting to significantly decrease the stripping losses in the accelerator without spoiling the beam optics, has been investigated with a self-consistent model able to study at the same time the magnetic field, the electrostatic field and the trajectory of the negative ions. Moreover, the status on the R&D carried out in Europe on the ion sources is presented.

  10. Modelling the neutralisation process in neutral beam injectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Niall J.

    2009-01-01

    High power neutral beams currently play an important role in heating, fuelling and diagnosing magnetically confined thermonuclear fusion plasmas. At the Joint European Torus (JET) in Oxfordshire, England, the formation of such a beam involves passing a positive ion beam through a neutral gas target wherein beam electron-capture collisions result in a neutral beam component. The subsequent beam injection into the fusion plasma requires the sole use of this neutral component, since the charged ...

  11. Research on anisotropy of fusion-produced protons and neutrons emission from high-current plasma-focus discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, K., E-mail: karol.malinowski@ncbj.gov.pl; Sadowski, M. J.; Szydlowski, A. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Czaus, K.; Kwiatkowski, R.; Zaloga, D. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Paduch, M.; Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IFPiLM), 01-497 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-01-15

    The paper concerns fast protons and neutrons from D-D fusion reactions in a Plasma-Focus-1000U facility. Measurements were performed with nuclear-track detectors arranged in “sandwiches” of an Al-foil and two PM-355 detectors separated by a polyethylene-plate. The Al-foil eliminated all primary deuterons, but was penetrable for fast fusion protons. The foil and first PM-355 detector were penetrable for fast neutrons, which were converted into recoil-protons in the polyethylene and recorded in the second PM-355 detector. The “sandwiches” were irradiated by discharges of comparable neutron-yields. Analyses of etched tracks and computer simulations of the fusion-products behavior in the detectors were performed.

  12. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-30

    of deep surface depresion due to vortex formation is being studied through a mathematical model. I Welding direction (a)e S (b) Figure 27: Schematic...each weldment. Specimens were cleaned in acetone and alcohol to remove grease and * dirt. They were finally cleaned ultrasonically in a detergent

  13. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Foundations of Vacuum Technique, John Wiley, Hew York, 1962, pp. 691-737 and pp. 15-21. 7. 0. H. Nestor, J. APPI . Phys.. 1962 Vol. 33, pp. 1638-1648...Hook and A. E. F. Gick, J^ Lii , .. >A^A^::X^ .i^:^L^ Mi«».»’.•-•• T^T^’y^yy .• .•i j ^^w^^yr1.’ • .’ f >».*•’ • ••••" i Phv».. D- APPI . Phys

  14. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  15. Research on Application of Data Fusion in Smart Grid%数据融合在智能电网中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向阳; 李玲娟; 陈建新; 徐小龙

    2012-01-01

    数据融合是一种自动化信息综合处理技术.智能电网是物联网的一项重大应用,它具有海量的终端设备和海量的采集数据,为数据融合技术提供了很好的研究点和应用点.为了明确数据融合在智能电网中的应用方向和方法,文中首先介绍了数据融合技术的原理,分析了智能电网的特点;接着分别从数据的采集、传输、处理三个方面探讨了数据融合在智能电网中的应用;最后给出了数据融合在线路监测、设备监测和用户信息采集方面的应用意义和具体方法.为进一步展开研究提供了可选方向和技术参考.%Data fusion is a comprehensive automatic information processing technology. Smart grid is one of the major applications of Internet of Things,it has large numbers of terminals and mass collected data,so it provides good chance for data fusion research and application. In order to nail down the application directions and methods of data fusion in smart grid, the principle of data fusion and the characteristics of the smart grid are introduced;The applications of data fusion in different phases of the smart grid,such as data collection phase,data transmission phase and data processing phase are analyzed,and the meanings and methods of applying data fusion to detect and monitor lines and equipment and to collect the users' data are given. Thus,the feasible research points and the technical reference can be gotten from this paper.

  16. Outline of application plans of accelerator beams in JAERI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has various application plans of accelerators such as; Neutron Science Research Complex (NSRC), Positron Factory, International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), and Spring-8 Project. Each application plan has its own research program and its own core accelerator. The NSRC is a multi-purpose research complex composed of seven research facilities: slow neutron scattering facility for material science, the nuclear energy research facility like nuclear transmutation and so on. The Positron Factory will be applied to the research of precise analysis of material structure by novel method of positron probing. The IFMIF aims at simulating the wall loading of a demo fusion reactor by producing high intense neutron flux. The SPring-8 is the largest synchrotron radiation source in the world. More than 60 X-ray beam lines will be equipped for the various researches. (author)

  17. Research on the wetted first wall concept for future laser fusion reactors. Final report No. 1, October 1, 1974--January 31, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.; Munir, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Research is in progress to determine the feasibility of the wetted first wall concept for a future laser fusion reactor. The basic idea involves the use of a thin coating of lithium on the inner wall of the laser fusion containment vessel to protect it from the micro-explosion blast debris. This report contains a review of the available information on contact angles and wettability of alkali metals on various metal substrates as well as a review of literature on thin falling liquid films. A proposed experiment to measure the contact angles of lithium on stainless steel and niobium is described. The requirements for a second experiment to measure certain key characteristics of thin falling films are also included.

  18. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  19. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  20. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research. Annual report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borany, J. von; Heera, V.; Helm, M.; Jaeger, H.U.; Moeller, W. (eds.)

    2005-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Silicon based electrically driven microcavity LED, ultraviolet electroluminescence from a Gd-implanted Si-metal-oxide-semiconductor device, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers, ion beam synthesis and morphology of semiconductor memories, ion implantation, films, sputtering, ion-beam induced destabilization of nanoparticles. (HSI)

  1. An electrostatic deflector for a fusion reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Huan-Qiao; LIN Cheng-Jian; YANG Feng; JIA Hui-Ming; ZHOU Ping; AN Guang-Peng; ZHANG Chun-Lei; XU Xin-Xing

    2010-01-01

    An electrostatic deflector for separating the fusion evaporation residues from the beam-like products in heavy ion reactions was installed.The evaporation residue separation and identification with the electrostatic deflector setup was tested with the reaction 32S+96Zr at several energies.The fusion evaporation residues and the beam-like particles were well separated after the electrical separation and the experimental fusion cross section obtained from the angular distribution is in good agreement with the calculated value well above the Coulomb barrier.This confirms the reliability of the setup.

  2. Present status of neutron beam facilities at the research reactor, HANARO, and its future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Kang, Young-Hwan; Kuk, Il-Hiun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    Korea has been operating its new research reactor, HANARO, since its first criticality in 1995. It is an open-tank-in-pool type reactor using LEU fuel with thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10{sup 14} nominally at the nose in the D{sub 2}O reflector having 7 horizontal beam ports and a provision of vertical hole for cold neutron source installation. KAERI has pursued an extensive instrument development program since 1992 by the support of the nuclear long-term development program of the government and there are now 4 working instruments. A high resolution powder diffractometer and a neutron radiography facility has been operational since late 1997 and 1996, respectively. A four-circle diffractometer has been fully working since mid 1999 and a small angle neutron spectrometer is just under commissioning phase. With the development of linear position sensitive detector with delay-line readout electronics, we have developed a residual stress instrument as an optional machine to the HRPD for last two years. Around early 1998 informal users program started with friendly users and it became a formal users support program by the ministry of science and technology. Short description for peer group formation and users activities is given. (author)

  3. Intense ion beam generation, plasma radiation source and plasma opening switch research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. A.; Coleman, M. D.; Qi, N.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes research on intense ion beam diodes, plasma opening switches and dense z-pinch plasma radiators. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to map the electrostatic potential profile in a plasma-prefilled magnetically insulated ion diode. In a simple planar diode, the measured profile is inconsistent with the electrons being confined in a sheath near the cathode by the magnetic field. Rather, the profile implies the presence of electrons throughout the accelerating gap. A theoretical model of the penetration of current and magnetic field into a plasma, and of the current-driven effective collision frequency has been developed. The snowplow action of the rising magnetic field causes a steep rise in the plasma density at the leading edge. The subsequent multistreaming of the ions caused by ion reflection at the current layer could lead to ion heating through collective effects. The two-dimensional electron flow in the plasma cathode vacuum gap is also treated. Dense z-pinch plasma radiation source experiments have been initiated on the LION accelerator using gas puff and fine wire loads. The x-pinch was found to be a more effective way to generate soft x-rays than a single wire pinch or a gas puff implosion. Plasma opening switch experiments being initiated, and plasma anode ion diode development work being terminated are also briefly described.

  4. Australian Air Breathing Propulsion Research for Hypersonic, Beamed Energy-Propelled Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froning, David

    2010-05-01

    A three year laser-propelled vehicle analysis and design investigation has been begun in June, 2009 by Faculty and graduate students at the University of Adelaide under a Grant/Cooperative Agreement Award to the University of Adelaide by the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development (AOARD). The major objectives of thsis investigation are: (a) development of hypersonic, air breathing "lightcraft" with innovative air inlets that enable acceptable airflow capture and combustion, and acceptable cowl-lip heating rates during hot, high-speed, high angle-of-attack hypersonic flight; (b) yest of the most promising lightcraft and inlet design in the high power laser beam that is part of the shock tunnel facility at CTO Instituto in Brazil; and (c) plan a series of laser guided and propelled flights that achieve supersonic or higher speed at the Woomera Test Facility (WTF) in South Australia—using the existing WTF launching and tracking facilities and sponsor-provided laser pointing and tracking and illumination systems.

  5. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  6. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  7. Optimization of Neutron Spectrum in Northwest Beam Tube of Tehran Research Reactor for BNCT, by MCNP Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, M. [National Radiation Protection Department - NRPD, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran - AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); End of North Kargar st, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box: 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Y.; Khalafi, H.; Shayesteh, M. [Radiation Application School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    In order to gain the neutron spectrum with proper components specification for BNCT, it is necessary to design a Beam Shape Assembling (BSA), include of moderator, collimator, reflector, gamma filter and thermal neutrons filter, in front of the initial radiation beam from the source. According to the result of MCNP4C simulation, the Northwest beam tube has the most optimized neuron flux between three north beam tubes of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR). So, it has been chosen for this purpose. Simulation of the BSA has been done in four above mentioned phases. In each stage, ten best configurations of materials with different length and width were selected as the candidates for the next stage. The last BSA configuration includes of: 78 centimeters of air as an empty space, 40 centimeters of Iron plus 52 centimeters of heavy-water as moderator, 30 centimeters of water or 90 centimeters of Aluminum-Oxide as a reflector, 1 millimeters of lithium (Li) as thermal neutrons filter and finally 3 millimeters of Bismuth (Bi) as a filter of gamma radiation. The result of Calculations shows that if we use this BSA configuration for TRR Northwest beam tube, then the best neutron flux and spectrum will be achieved for BNCT. (authors)

  8. Research of Effective Width of FRP U-shaped Hoop Reinforcement Properties of Concrete Beams by Shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Baokun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paste fiber reinforced composite material (hereinafter referred to as FRP U-shaped hoop of reinforced concrete beams interfacial debonding is an important reinforcement technology research. For the effective width of the CFRP U-shaped hoop reinforcement, it is still a lack of in-depth research, only relying on the test research huge workload, this article (ANSYS and the numerical simulation in the whole process of the shear load release properties of finite element calculation software. According to the results of finite element analysis, the author studied the CFRP U-shaped hoop to increase the width of the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams by the impact.

  9. Ion beam transport: modelling and experimental measurements on a large negative ion source in view of the ITER heating neutral beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Brombin, M.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Nakano, H.; Pimazzoni, A.; Tsumori, K.; Serianni, G.

    2017-01-01

    Neutral beam injectors are among the most important methods of plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. The propagation of the negative ions, prior to their conversion into neutrals, is of fundamental importance in determining the properties of the beam, such as its aiming and focusing at long-distances, so as to deposit the beam power in the proper position inside the confined plasma, as well as to avoid interaction with the material surfaces along the beam path. The final design of the ITER Heating Neutral Beam prototype has been completed at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy), in the framework of a close collaboration with European, Japanese and Indian fusion research institutes. The physical and technical rationales on which the design is based were essentially driven by numerical modelling of the relevant physical processes, and the same models and codes will be useful to design the DEMO neutral beam injector in the near future. This contribution presents a benchmark study of the codes used for this purpose, by comparing their results against the measures performed in an existing large-power device, hosted at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. In particular, the negative ion formation and acceleration are investigated. A satisfactory agreement was found between codes and experiments, leading to an improved understanding of beam transport dynamics. The interpretation of the discrepancies identified in previous works, possibly related to the non-uniformity of the extracted negative ion current, is also presented.

  10. Progress in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCrory R.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been made in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion research at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics since the 2009 IFSA Conference [R.L. McCrory et al., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 244, 012004 (2010]. Areal densities of 300mg/cm2 have been measured in cryogenic target implosions with neutron yields 15% of 1-D predictions. A model of crossed-beam energy transfer has been developed to explain the observed scattered-light spectrum and laser–target coupling. Experiments show that its impact can be mitigated by changing the ratio of the laser beam to target diameter. Progress continues in the development of the polar-drive concept that will allow direct-drive–ignition experiments to be conducted on the National Ignition Facility using the indirect-drive-beam layout.

  11. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vo-Phuoc, K; Simpson, E C

    2016-01-01

    [Background] Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated a strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. [Purpose] To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. [Method] Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in $^{40-54}$Ca+$^{116}$Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. [Results] The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium iso...

  12. Nuclear physics with simple and multi-element detectors and with stable and radioactive beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neil Rowley

    2001-07-01

    The phenomenon of fusion barrier distributions is discussed in the context of a problem already investigated in some detail with simple detection systems, but possessing avenues to studies with multi-detector arrays. The complementarity of research with simple and complex detectors, as well as with stable and radioactive beams, will be highlighted.

  13. 高分辨率遥感图像融合技术的研究%Research on high resolution remote sensing image fusion technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘钢; 郭晗

    2016-01-01

    图像融合已成为图像理解和计算机视觉领域中的一项重要而有用的新技术,多源遥感图像数据融合也成为遥感领域的研究热点,其目的是将来自多信息源的图像数据加以智能化合成,产生比单一传感器数据更精确、更可靠的描述和判决,使融合图像更符合人和机器的视觉特性,更有利于诸如目标检测与识别等进一步的图像理解与分析。%Image fusion has become in the field of image understanding and computer vision a important and useful new technology,multi-source remote sensing image fusion has become research hotspot in the field of remote sensing and its purpose is the future image data from multiple sources of information to be intelligent synthesis,than that of single sensor data more accurate and more reliable description and decision. The fusion image more in line with the visual characteristics of human and machine, more conducive to such as target detection and recognition of further image analysis and understanding.

  14. Chamber transport for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Craig L., E-mail: clolson66@msn.com

    2014-01-01

    A brief review is given of research on chamber transport for HIF (heavy ion fusion) dating from the first HIF Workshop in 1976 to the present. Chamber transport modes are categorized into ballistic transport modes and channel-like modes. Four major HIF reactor studies are summarized (HIBALL-II, HYLIFE-II, Prometheus-H, OSIRIS), with emphasis on the chamber transport environment. In general, many beams are used to provide the required symmetry and to permit focusing to the required small spots. Target parameters are then discussed, with a summary of the individual heavy ion beam parameters required for HIF. The beam parameters are then classified as to their line charge density and perveance, with special emphasis on the perveance limits for radial space charge spreading, for the space charge limiting current, and for the magnetic (Alfven) limiting current. The major experiments on ballistic transport (SFFE, Sabre beamlets, GAMBLE II, NTX, NDCX) are summarized, with specific reference to the axial electron trapping limit for charge neutralization. The major experiments on channel-like transport (GAMBLE II channel, GAMBLE II self-pinch, LBNL channels, GSI channels) are discussed. The status of current research on HIF chamber transport is summarized, and the value of future NDCX-II transport experiments for the future of HIF is noted.

  15. On-line beam monitoring for neutron capture therapy at the MIT Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Otto K.; Moulin, Damien J.; Chabeuf, Jean-Michel; Solares, Guido R.

    1995-08-01

    Neutron capture therapy sets new requirements on the measurement and monitoring of the radiation fields used in this new form of therapy. Beams used for neutron capture therapy are comprised of mixed radiation fields which include slow, epithermal, and fast neutrons, as well as gamma rays. A computer-based beam monitoring system for epithermal or thermal neutron capture therapy is described. This system provides accurate, sensitive, and rapid on-line readout and recording of the various beam components. Readout of fluxes, fluences, and corresponding doses in the target are provided in color coded graphic analog as well as numerical form on the computer monitors. Variations in neutron spectrum or spatial distribution of the beam can be rapidly diagnosed with the aid of the monitor readout. Redundancy of fluence measurement is provided by an independent system using scalers and timers and by utilizing reactor power measuring instruments.

  16. Dense Plasma Focus as Collimated Source of D-D Fusion Neutron Beams for Irradiation Experiences and Study of Emitted Radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.; Niedbalski, J.; Moroso, R.; Guichón, S.; Supán, J.

    2008-04-01

    A "table-top" 2 kJ, 250 kA plasma focus, the PACO (Plasma AutoConfinado), designed by the Dense Plasma Group of IFAS is used in its optimum regime for neutron yield for obtaining collimated pulsed neutron beams (100 ns). A simple and low-cost shielding arrangement was developed in order to fully eliminate the 2.45 MeV neutrons generated in the PACO device (108 per shot at 31 kV, 1-2 mbar). Conventional neutron diagnostics: scintillator-photomultiplier (S-PMT), silver activation counters (SAC), etc., are used to determine the minimum width of the shielding walls. Emission of very hard electromagnetic pulses is also studied. Collimation using lead and copper plates is made to determine the localization of the very hard X-ray source. The maximum energy of the continuum photon distribution is estimated in 0,6 MeV using a system of filters.

  17. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  18. Experimental research on the creep behavior and bearing capacity of repeatedly prestressed concrete beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xudong; LI Lifeng; YANG Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    In the prestress tensioning process of medium or short span prestressed concrete beam bridges,there are always many serious problems,such as the camber of straight beam being too large,curved beam going crosswise,and columns of rigid beam bridge cracking,that can be commonly seen because of its greater additional stress in prestressing.To solve the above problems,a new concept of repeatedly prestressed bridge structure was innovatively proposed in this work.It was proved,through theoretical and experimental comparison between this new structure and the traditional prestressed structure,that the application of repeated prestressing technology can greatly improve the mechanical and deformational performance of the low height beam during construction and long-term use.Furthermore,a kind of computational formula to calculate creep strain and deformation due to repeated prestressing in terms of time t was derived in this paper and the bearing capacity of this new structure has been tested.Finally,the work concludes that there is a bright application prospect for this new structure for medium and short span prestressed beam bridges to control deformations.

  19. Experimental research on mechanical properties of prestressed truss concrete composite beam encased with circular steel tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo-yi; ZHENG Wen-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Tests of 4 simply supported unbonded prestressed truss concrete composite beams encased with circu-lar steel tube were carried out.It is found that the ratio of the stress increment of the unbonded tendon to that of the tensile steel tube is 0.252 during the using stage,and the average crack space of beams depends on the rati-o of the sum of the bottom chord steel tube's outside diameter and the secondary bottom chord steel tube's sec-area to the effective tensile concrete area.The coefficient of uneven crack distribution is 1.68 and the for-mula for the calculation of crack width is established.Test results indicate that the ultimate stress increment of unbonded tendon in the beams decreases in linearity with the increase of the composite reinforcement index βo.The pure bending region of beams accords with the plane section assumption from loading to failure.The calcu-lation formula of ultimate stress increment of the unbonded tendon and the method to caleulate the bearing ca-pacity ot normal section of beams have been presented.Besides,the method to calculate the stiffness of this sort of beams is brought forward as well.

  20. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.

    1984-10-01

    This chapter deals with the analysis and engineering scaling of solid breeded blankets. The limits under which full component behavior can be achieved under changed test conditions are explored. The characterization of these test requirements for integrated testing contributes to the overall test matrix and test plan for the understanding and development of fusion nuclear technology. The second chapter covers the analysis and engineering scaling of liquid metal blankets. The testing goals for a complete blanket program are described. (MOW)

  1. Measurement of in-phantom neutron flux and gamma dose in Tehran research reactor boron neutron capture therapy beam line

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Bavarnegin; Alireza Sadremomtaz; Hossein Khalafi; Yaser Kasesaz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Determination of in-phantom quality factors of Tehran research reactor (TRR) boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beam. Materials and Methods: The doses from thermal neutron reactions with 14N and 10B are calculated by kinetic energy released per unit mass approach, after measuring thermal neutron flux using neutron activation technique. Gamma dose is measured using TLD-700 dosimeter. Results: Different dose components have been measured in a head phantom which has been designed an...

  2. 高功率激光装置光束匀滑技术研究进展%Research on Beam Smoothing Technology for High-Power Laser System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周煜梁; 隋展; 刘兰琴; 粟敬钦; 李平; 张锐; 许立新; 王文义; 莫磊

    2011-01-01

    在高功率激光驱动的惯性约束聚变(ICF)系统中,为了提高束靶耦合效率,抑制激光与等离子体相互作用时产生的瑞利-泰勒流体不稳定性与等离子体不稳定性,需要对光束进行匀滑处理.对各国研究的匀滑技术进行了调研,并对国外大型激光装置的匀滑技术进行了总结分析,分析了我国光束匀滑技术方面的进展情况.%One of the key requirements in high-power laser drivers used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF)research that will minimize Rayleigh-Taylor instability and plasma instability is that laser irradiation on a fuel targetshould be highly uniform. The research of beam smoothing technology of china is described and the beam smoothingprojects of high-power laser drivers are analysed.

  3. Research on the Application of the Light-Energy Spectrum Fusion Technique to Land and Resources Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper introduces how to use remote sensing images including Landsat (MSS and TM) and airborne radioactivity images to identify the type of rocks in the areas covered by vegetation. The relationship between light spectrum (Landsat MSS and TM) and energy spectrum (U, Th and K) is discussed on the basis of correlation analysis, and it is proven that there are correlations between the Landsat MSS or TM data and the U, Th and K data. By using the fusion technique, new images were generated, which contain both the light spectrum and the energy spectrum information.Taking the Lucong basin as the study area, the present paper demonstrates the successful identification of various types of rocks using the fusion technique. Different types of rocks are represented by different colours on the new light-energy spectrum images, so that volcanic rocks of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods can be discriminated. Another example, in the Lingquan basin in Northeast China, not only the different types of rocks are successfully distinguished, but corrections and modifications are also made on the original geological map after some field investigation. Practice has proven that the light-energy spectrum fusion technique is a good way in lithologic identification.

  4. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  5. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  6. Cold nuclear fusion reactor and nuclear fusion rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available "Nuclear restraint inertial guidance directly hit the cold nuclear fusion reactor and ion speed dc transformer" [1], referred to as "cold fusion reactor" invention patents, Chinese Patent Application No. CN: 200910129632.7 [2]. The invention is characterized in that: at room temperature under vacuum conditions, specific combinations of the installation space of the electromagnetic field, based on light nuclei intrinsic magnetic moment and the electric field, the first two strings of the nuclei to be bound fusion on the same line (track of. Re-use nuclear spin angular momentum vector inherent nearly the speed of light to form a super strong spin rotation gyro inertial guidance features, to overcome the Coulomb repulsion strong bias barrier to achieve fusion directly hit. Similar constraints apply nuclear inertial guidance mode for different speeds and energy ion beam mixing speed, the design of ion speed dc transformer is cold fusion reactors, nuclear fusion engines and such nuclear power plants and power delivery systems start important supporting equipment, so apply for a patent merger

  7. Metallurgical and Mechanical Research on Dissimilar Electron Beam Welding of AISI 316L and AISI 4340

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Sufizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissimilar electron beam welding of 316L austenitic stainless steel and AISI 4340 low alloy high strength steel has been studied. Studies are focused on effect of beam current on weld geometry, optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction of the weld microstructures, and heat affected zone. The results showed that the increase of beam current led to increasing depths and widths of the welds. The optimum beam current was 2.8 mA which shows full penetration with minimum width. The cooling rates were calculated for optimum sample by measuring secondary dendrite arm space and the results show that high cooling rates lead to austenitic microstructure. Moreover, the metallography result shows the columnar and equiaxed austenitic microstructures in weld zone. A comparison of HAZ widths depicts the wider HAZ in the 316L side. The tensile tests results showed that the optimum sample fractured from base metal in AISI 316L side with the UTS values is much greater than the other samples. Moreover, the fractography study presents the weld cross sections with dimples resembling ductile fracture. The hardness results showed that the increase of the beam current led to the formation of a wide softening zone as HAZ in AISI 4340 side.

  8. Center for beam physics 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The Center for Beam Physics (CBP) is a multidisciplinary research and development unit in the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory of the University of California. At the heart of the Center`s mission is the fundamental quest for mechanisms of acceleration, radiation, transport, and focusing of energy and information. Special features of the Center`s program include addressing R&D issues needing long development time and providing a platform for conception, initiation, and support of institutional projects based on beams. The Center brings to bear a significant amount of diverse, complementary, and self-sufficient expertise in accelerator physics, synchrotron radiation, advanced microwave techniques, plasma physics, optics, and lasers on the forefront R&D issues in particle and photon beam research. In addition to functioning as a clearinghouse for novel ideas and concepts and related R&D (e.g., various theoretical and experimental studies in beam physics such as nonlinear dynamics, phase space control, laser-beam-plasma interaction, free-electron lasers, optics, and instrumentation), the Center provides significant support to Laboratory facilities and initiatives. This roster and annual report provides a glimpse of the scientists, engineers, technical support, students, and administrative staff that make up the CBP`s outstanding team and gives a flavor of their multifaceted activities during 1996 and 1997.

  9. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  10. Design of epithermal neutron beam for clinical BNCT treatment at Slovenian TRIGA research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maucec, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Reactor Physics Division, Lubljana (Slovenia). E-mail: marko.mauce@ijs.si

    1999-07-01

    The Monte Carlo feasibility study of development of epithermal neutron beam for BNCT clinical trials on Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI) TRIGA reactor is presented. The investigation of the possible use of fission converter for the purpose of enhancement of neutron beam, as well as the set-up of TRIGA reactor core is performed. The optimization of the irradiation facility components is carried out and the configuration with the most favorable cost/performance ratio is proposed. The simulation results prove that a BNCT irradiation facility with performances, comparable to existing beams throughout the world, could be installed in the thermalizing column of the TRIGA reactor, quite suitable for the clinical treatments of human patients. (author)

  11. A high energy, heavy ion microprobe for ion beam research on the tandem accelerator at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, D.D.; Siegele, R.; Dytlewski, N.

    1996-04-01

    A comprehensive review is given on the production and use of heavy ion beams with spot sizes of a few {mu}m. The development of a high energy, heavy ion microprobe at ANSTO and its possible applications are discussed. The microprobe is designed to focus a wide range of ion beam types, from light ions such as protons up to ions as heavy as iodine. Details of the ion beam optics, optical calculations and a description of the proposed microbeam design are given. The unique combination of high energy, heavy ions and improved detection systems will provide high sensitivity elemental composition and depth profiling information, allowing surface topography and 3D surface reconstruction to be performed on a broad range of materials. 86 refs., 5 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Research on the elastic wave band gaps of curved beam of phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaogang, Liu; Shidan, Li; Haisheng, Shu, E-mail: shuhaisheng@hrbeu.edu.cn; Weiyuan, Wang; Dongyan, Shi; Liqiang, Dong; Hang, Lin; Wei, Liu

    2015-01-15

    Based on wave equations of Timoshenko curved beam, the theoretical derivation and numerical calculation of the behavior of in-plane and out-of-plane wave propagating in curved beam of phononic crystals (CBPC) are carried out using transfer matrix method combined with the Bloch theorem. Finite CBPC is also simulated by FEM method. It is shown that both in-plane and out-of-plane elastic waves band gaps exist in CBPC. Compared with equivalent straight beam of phononic crystals (SBPC), CBPC has some unique characteristics, such as the first complete in-plane band gap, special in-plane coupling band gap, and out-of-plane coupling band gap. In those band gaps, CBPC has a better property of vibration reduction than the equivalent SBPC in some ways. Furthermore, effects of curvature of CBPC on the in-plane and out-of-plane band gaps are discussed.

  13. Overview of recent tritium target filling, layering, and material testing at Los Alamos national laboratory in support of inertial fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebey, P. S.; Dole, J. M.; Geller, D. A.; Hoffer, J. K.; Morris, J.; Nobile, A.; Schoonover, J. R.; Wilson, D. [MS-C927, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Bonino, M.; Harding, D.; Sangster, C.; Shmayda, W. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics LLE, Univ. of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Nikroo, A.; Sheliak, J. D. [General Atomics GA (United States); Burmann, J.; Cook, B.; Letts, S.; Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLNL (United States)

    2008-07-15

    The Tritium Science and Engineering (AET-3) Group at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performs a variety of activities to support Inertial Fusion (IF) research - both to further fundamental fusion science and to develop technologies in support of Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) power generation. Inertial fusion ignition target designs have a smooth spherical shell of cryogenic Deuterium-Tritium (DT) solid contained within a metal or plastic shell that is a few mm in diameter. Fusion is attained by imploding these shells under the symmetric application of energy beams. For IFE targets the DT solid must also survive the process of injecting it into the power plant reactor. Non-ignition IF targets often require a non-cryogenic DT gas fill of a glass or polymeric shell. In this paper an overview will be given of recent LANL activities to study cryogenic DT layering, observe tritium exposure effects on IF relevant materials, and fill targets in support of IF implosion experiments. (authors)

  14. MCNP Calculations for the Shielding Design of a Beam Tube to Be Installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, I. F.; Ramalho, A. G.; Gonçalves, I. C.; Salgado, J.

    The work presented concerns the calculation of the external biological shielding for a neutron beam tube that will be installed at the Portuguese Research Reactor, RPI. This tube will have enough versatility to be used in fields so different as the analysis of the composition of samples or research work in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, BNCT. The calculation was made by using the MCNP code. This code is a well validated and widely used code, and has therefore become an important tool in the design and optimisation work of experiences related to neutrons and gamma radiation.

  15. Inertial Confinement Fusion Annual Report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D

    1998-06-01

    applications. We also provide a short summary of the quarterly activities within Nova laser operations, Beamlet laser operations, and National Ignition Facility laser design. LLNL's ICF Program falls within DOE's national ICF program, which includes the Nova and Beamlet (LLNL), OMEGA (University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics), Nike (Naval Research Laboratory), and Trident (Los Alamos National Laboratory) laser facilities. The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator (Z) and Saturn pulsed-power facilities are at Sandia National Laboratories. General Atomics, Inc., develops and provides many of the targets for the above experimental facilities. Many of the ICF Annual Report articles are co-authored with our colleagues from these other ICF institutions.

  16. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang;

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  17. An Overview of the Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and High-Energy-Density Physics Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Physics Division

    2016-07-15

    The Los Alamos Inertial Confinement Fusion and Science Programs engage in a vigorous array of experiments, theory, and modeling. We use the three major High Energy Density facilities, NIF, Omega, and Z to perform experiments. These include opacity, radiation transport, hydrodynamics, ignition science, and burn experiments to aid the ICF and Science campaigns in reaching their stewardship goals. The ICF program operates two nuclear diagnostics at NIF, the neutron imaging system and the gamma reaction history instruments. Both systems are being expanded with significant capability enhancements.

  18. XK2430横梁结构分析与研究%Analysis and research of XK2430 beam structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙栋; 张萍; 杨旭东

    2015-01-01

    According to the actual working condition and performance requirements of XK2430 beam-fixed CNC plano-boring and milling machine,the static and dynamic characteristics of the beam are worked out,and then the weak links are determined.Moreover,the rail deformation curves in all directions are drawn.The study would provide a credible theoreti-cal basis for further research on deformation compensation.%针对XK2430定梁式数控龙门镗铣床实际工况以及性能要求,就其关键支承件横梁进行分析研究,分别研究横梁的静态和动态特性,并绘制导轨变形曲线,为变形补偿提供理论依据。

  19. Preliminary Research of Neutron Energy Spectrum of Thermal Neutron Beam Port for IHNI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    IHNI with 30 kW is specially designed for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), it is the pool-tank reactor, UO2 with enrichment of 12.5% 235U as fuel, beryllium as reflector, light water as moderator and coolant. There are two neutron beams in the opposite side

  20. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  1. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  2. Research on the HYLIFE liquid-first-wall concept for future laser-fusion reactors. Final report No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1980-09-01

    It has been proposed to protect the structural walls of a future laser fusion reactor with a curtain or fluid-wall of liquid lithium jets. As part of the investigation of this concept, experiments have been performed on planar sheet water jets issuing vertically downward from slit nozzles. The nozzles were subjected to transverse forced harmonic excitation to simulate the vibrational environment of the laser fusion reactor, and experiments were run at both 1 atm and at lower ambient pressures. Linear temporal stability theory is shown to predict the onset of the unstable regime and the initial spatial growth rates quite well for the cases where the amplitudes of the nozzle vibration are not too large and the waveform is nearly sinusoidal. In addition, both the linear theory and a simplified trajectory theory are shown to predict the initial wave envelope amplitudes very well. For larger amplitude nozzle excitation, the waveform becomes highly nonlinear and non-sinusoidal and can resemble a sawtooth waveform in some cases; these latter experimental results can only be partially explained by existing theories at the present time.

  3. Research and development of the tritium recovery system for the blanket of the fusion reactor in JAEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Y.; Isobe, K.; Iwai, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, H.; Hayashi, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    2009-05-01

    A water-cooling solid breeder blanket is a prime candidate for the blanket of the fusion reactor in Japan. In this case, the blanket tritium recovery system will be composed of three processes: tritium recovery from helium sweep gas as hydrogen, that as water vapour and tritium recovery from coolant water. The authors have proposed a set of advanced systems. For tritium recovery as hydrogen, an electrochemical hydrogen pump with a ceramic proton conductor has been proposed. The correlation between the proton concentration in the ceramic and the hydrogen gas pressure has been investigated to describe the pumping performance specifically. A ceramic electrolysis cell has been proposed to process the tritiated water vapour. The authors have developed a new electrode containing cerium oxide, and it has shown fairly good electrolysis efficiency. For tritium recovery from coolant water, reduction in the processing water by tritium concentration is necessary. The authors have proposed to apply the fixed-bed adsorption process of synthetic zeolite, and have developed new zeolite. It showed unique characteristics for water adsorption and desorption. The authors have determined the potential of these systems for the blanket of the fusion DEMO reactor.

  4. Laser fusion of mouse embryonic cells and intra-embryonic fusion of blastomeres without affecting the embryo integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krivokharchenko

    Full Text Available Manipulation with early mammalian embryos is the one of the most important approach to study preimplantation development. Artificial cell fusion is a research tool for various biotechnological experiments. However, the existing methods have various disadvantages, first of them impossibility to fuse selected cells within multicellular structures like mammalian preimplantation embryos. In our experiments we have successfully used high repetition rate picosecond near infrared laser beam for fusion of pairs of oocytes and oocytes with blastomeres. Fused cells looked morphologically normal and keep their ability for further divisions in vitro. We also fused two or three blastomeres inside four-cell mouse embryos. The presence of one, two or three nuclei in different blastomeres of the same early preimplantation mouse embryo was confirmed under UV-light after staining of DNA with the vital dye Hoechst-33342. The most of established embryos demonstrated high viability and developed in vitro to the blastocyst stage. We demonstrated for the first time the use of laser beam for the fusion of various embryonic cells of different size and of two or three blastomeres inside of four-cell mouse embryos without affecting the embryo's integrity and viability. These embryos with blastomeres of various ploidy maybe unique model for numerous purposes. Thus, we propose laser optical manipulation as a new tool for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of mammalian development.

  5. Laser fusion of mouse embryonic cells and intra-embryonic fusion of blastomeres without affecting the embryo integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivokharchenko, Alexander; Karmenyan, Artashes; Sarkisov, Oleg; Bader, Michael; Chiou, Arthur; Shakhbazyan, Avetik

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation with early mammalian embryos is the one of the most important approach to study preimplantation development. Artificial cell fusion is a research tool for various biotechnological experiments. However, the existing methods have various disadvantages, first of them impossibility to fuse selected cells within multicellular structures like mammalian preimplantation embryos. In our experiments we have successfully used high repetition rate picosecond near infrared laser beam for fusion of pairs of oocytes and oocytes with blastomeres. Fused cells looked morphologically normal and keep their ability for further divisions in vitro. We also fused two or three blastomeres inside four-cell mouse embryos. The presence of one, two or three nuclei in different blastomeres of the same early preimplantation mouse embryo was confirmed under UV-light after staining of DNA with the vital dye Hoechst-33342. The most of established embryos demonstrated high viability and developed in vitro to the blastocyst stage. We demonstrated for the first time the use of laser beam for the fusion of various embryonic cells of different size and of two or three blastomeres inside of four-cell mouse embryos without affecting the embryo's integrity and viability. These embryos with blastomeres of various ploidy maybe unique model for numerous purposes. Thus, we propose laser optical manipulation as a new tool for investigation of fundamental mechanisms of mammalian development.

  6. 多传感器融合定位技术研究进展分析%Analysis of Research Progress in Multiple Sensor Fusion Positioning Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光明

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous development of GNSS and computer technology, people demand for indoor and outdoor location service continues to add. Schools, hospitals, exhibition halls, office buildings and so on all need to use accurate indoor and outdoor positioning information, and especially when dealing with the emergen-cies, indoor location information is particularly important. This paper analyzes the research progress of indoor and outdoor positioning technology. The paper proposes a multi-sensor fusion positioning platform based on data fu-sion, which is dominated by GPS technology, by combining with WIFI, navigation positioning technology such as calculation method, through certain data fusion algorithm, to enhance the completeness. The paper provides a ref-erence for further realizing the seamless positioning, and smart earth.%随着GNSS及计算机技术的不断发展,人们对室内外位置服务的需求不断增加。学校、医院、展厅、写字楼等都需要使用准确的室内外定位信息,特别是在应对紧急情况时,室内定位信息显得尤为重要。本文分析了多传感器融合的室内外定位技术研究进展,提出了基于数据融合的多传感器融合定位平台,以GPS技术为主导,结合WIFI、航位推算等定位技术的方法,通过一定的数据融合算法,增强室内外定位的完备性,为进一步实现室内外无缝定位、智慧地球等提供了参考。

  7. Inertial fusion program, January 1-June 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F. (comp.)

    1981-06-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse carbon dioxide laser systems for fusion research is reported. Improvements are outlined for the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Gemini System, which permitted over 500 shots in support of 10 different target experiments; the transformation of our eight-beam system, Helios, from a developmental to an operational facility that is capable of irradiating targets on a routine basis is described; and progress made toward completion of Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is detailed. Investigations of phenomena such as phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing and its applicability to laser fusion systems, and frequency multiplexing as a means toward multipulse energy extraction are summarized. Also discussed are experiments with targets designed for adiabatic compression. Progress is reported in the development of accurate diagnostics, especially for the detection of expanding ions, of neutron yield, and of x-ray emission. Significant advances in our theoretical efforts are summarized, such as the adaptation of our target design codes for use with the CRAY-1 computer, and new results leading to a better understanding of implosion phenomena are reported. The results of various fusion reactor studies are summarized, including the development of an ICF reactor blanket that offers a promising alternative to the usual lithium blanket, and the formulation of a capital-cost data base for laser fusion reactors to permit meaningful comparisons with other technologies.

  8. Negative Halogen Ions for Fusion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.; Hahto, S.K.; Hahto, S.T.; Leung, K.N.; Westenskow, G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, advances in hydrogen negative ion sources have extended the usable range of hydrogen isotope neutral beams to energies suitable for large magnetically confined fusion devices. Recently, drawing upon this experience, negative halogen ions have been proposed as an alternative to positive ions for heavy ion fusion drivers in inertial confinement fusion, because electron accumulation would be prevented in negative ion beams, and if desired, the beams could be photo-detached to neutrals. This paper reports the results of an experiment comparing the current density and beam emittance of Cl+ and Cl- extracted from substantially ion-ion plasmas with that of Ar+ extracted from an ordinary electron-ion plasma, all using the same source, extractor, and emittance scanner. At similar discharge conditions, the Cl- current was typically 85 – 90% of the positive chlorine current, with an e-/ Cl- ratio as low as seven without grid magnets. The Cl- was as much as 76% of the Ar+ current from a discharge with the same RF drive. The minimum normalized beam emittance and inferred ion temperatures of Cl+, Cl-, and Ar+ were all similar, so the current density and optical quality of Cl- appear as suitable for heavy ion fusion driver applications as a positive noble gas ion of similar mass. Since F, I, and Br should all behave similarly in an ion source, they should also be suitable as driver beams.

  9. Tame Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The first section of this paper covers preliminaries. Essentially, the next four cover units. It is shown that a compatible nearring with DCCR is Nnilpotent if and only if every maximal right N-subgroup is a right ideal. The last five sections relate to fusion (I.e., N-groups minimal for being generated by Nsubgroups, where each is N-isomorphic to a given N-group). Right N-subgroups of a tame nearring N with DCCR, minimal for not annihilating a minimal ideal from the left, are self monogenic and N-isomorphic. That this holds for any collection of minimal ideals is significant. Here, the right N-subgroup involved is a 'fusion product' of the 'components'.

  10. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  11. 国内外知识融合研究现状比较分析%Comparison Analysis on Knowledge Fusion Research Status at Home and Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞仙; 朱甜甜

    2016-01-01

    在知识服务的实现进程中,大数据拓宽了知识服务的宽度和广度,但与此同时也给知识服务带来了新的难题。知识融合作为大数据环境下对知识进行收集、分析、处理的有效途径已然成为国内外学者关注的焦点。为了更好地服务于国内在该领域的研究,本文将从关键技术、体系结构和应用三个方面深入分析和比较国内外在知识融合方面的研究现状,并在此基础上对我国知识融合研究进行述评,且提出针对性的建议,以期为我国在该领域的深入研究提供借鉴和参考。%During the process of the realization of knowledge service, Big Data has broaden the width and breadth, while also brought new problems to knowledge service at the same time . Knowledge fusion, as an effective approach of knowledge collecting, analyzing, and handling, has become the focus of scholars both at home and abroad. In order to better serve the domestic research in this field, the article analyzes corresponding research from the aspects of key technology, system structure and application at home and abroad. Based on above research, it reviews knowledge fusion research status of our country to provide reference and reference for in-depth study.

  12. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  13. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  14. The research of auto-focusing method for the image mosaic and fusion system with multi-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Ke; Yao, Suying; Shi, Zaifeng; Xu, Jiangtao; Liu, Jiangming

    2013-09-01

    In modern image processing, due to the development of digital image processing, the focus of the sensor can be automatically set by the digital processing system through computation. In the other hand, the auto-focusing synchronously and consistently is one of the most important factors for image mosaic and fusion processing, especially for the system with multi-sensor which are put on one line in order to gain the wide angle video information. Different images sampled by the sensors with different focal length values will always increase the complexity of the affine matrix of the image mosaic and fusion in next, which potentially reducing the efficiency of the system and consuming more power. Here, a new fast evaluation method based on the gray value variance of the image pixel is proposed to find the common focal length value for all sensors to achieve the better image sharpness. For the multi-frame pictures that are sampled from different sensors that have been adjusted and been regarded as time synchronization, the gray value variances of the adjacent pixels are determined to generate one curve. This curve is the focus measure function which describes the relationship between the image sharpness and the focal length value of the sensor. On the basis of all focus measure functions of all sensors in the image processing system, this paper uses least square method to carry out the data fitting to imitate the disperse curves and give one objective function for the multi-sensor system, and then find the optimal solution corresponding to the extreme value of the image sharpness according to the evaluation of the objective function. This optimal focal length value is the common parameter for all sensors in this system. By setting the common focal length value, in the premise of ensuring the image sharpness, the computing of the affine matrix which is the core processing of the image mosaic and fusion which stitching all those pictures into one wide angle image will be

  15. Ion beam treatment of potential space materials at the NASA Lewis Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussmaul, Michael; Mirtich, Michael J.; Curren, Arthur

    1992-01-01

    Ion source systems in different configurations, have been used to generate unique morphologies for several NASA space applications. The discharge chamber of a 30 cm ion source was successfully used to texture potential space radiator materials for the purpose of obtaining values of thermal emittance greater than 0.85 at 700 and 900 K. High absorptance surfaces were obtained using ion beam seed texturing, for space radiator materials that were flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for 5.8 years in space. An ion source discharge chamber was also used to develop electrode surfaces with suppressed secondary electron emission characteristics for use in collectors in microwave amplifier traveling wave tubes. This was accomplished by sputtering textured carbon onto copper as well as texturing copper using tantalum and molybdenum as sacrificial texture inducing seeding materials. In a third configuration, a dual ion beam system was used to generate high transmittance diamondlike carbon (DLC) films.

  16. Research on Flange Spread of H-Beam on Universal Mill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xu-Dong; BAI Jin-lan; WANG Bing-xin; LIU Xiang-hua; WU Di

    2006-01-01

    The deformation process of H-beams was simulated by explicit dynamic FEM, and the influence of deformation parameters on the spread of rolling piece was obtained. The results show that the flange width, elongation ratio between flange and web and flange thickness are the major influencing factors on the spread of rolling piece, and the inclination and diameter of vertical roll together with web inner width can also influence to some extent on the spread of rolling piece.

  17. Fusion Implosion Fluid after Indirectly Driven by Laser Beam Instability%聚变内爆流体受激光间接驱动后的不稳定性表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红利; 杨永和

    2015-01-01

    Fluid dynamics that occur multilayer target ball each interface instability related to the indirect drive inertial confinement fu-sion ignition success,that burst medium radiation related shooting in fluid mechanics local 3D application program of LARED -S through the analysis of the process.We find the system summary and feedback,and draw a conclusion that the instability of linear and weakly nonlinear results through the presentation of the results obtained,which are consistent with the nonlinear test,analysis of the construction by the corresponding numerical simulation test and the bronze drum aluminum wheel model,obtain the ICf detonation physics significance of observation ignition research significance and draw the conclusion as the nature of fluid,the fusion after the out-break in the in life,the fluid and the corresponding laser have the indirect effect of unstable drive,the emergence of a feedback insta-bility makes the fusion implosion fluid numerical increase and pressure expansion phenomenon.%多层靶球每个界面所发生的流体力学的不稳定关系到激光间接驱动惯性约束聚变的点火成功,通过对过程的分析得出爆多介质辐射相关射流体力学中的局部三维应用 LARED -S 程序。得出系统的总结和反馈,并通过结果得出不稳定性线性和弱非线性结果的表述,进而非线性试验都符合,通过相应的模拟数值试验并铜鼓铝轮模型构建分析,得出 ICf 爆点火研究意义并得出自然界流体的物理学观察意义,其结论为其聚变后内爆发生中,相应的流体和激光产生不稳定的间接影响驱动,出现一种不稳定的反馈使得聚变后内爆流体出现数值增加和压力膨胀现象。

  18. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  19. Operation and commissioning of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) LIPAc injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, Y., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Knaster, J.; Ayala, J.-M.; Marqueta, A.; Perez, M.; Pruneri, G.; Scantamburlo, F. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Gobin, R., E-mail: okumura.yoshikazu@jaea.go.jp, E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bolzon, B.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Harrault, F.; Senée, F.; Valette, M. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France); Heidinger, R.; Cara, P.; Gex, D.; Phillips, G. [F4E, Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ichimiya, R.; Ihara, A. [JAEA, Division of Rokkasho BA Project, Obuchi-Omotedate, 039-3212 Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); and others

    2016-02-15

    The objective of linear IFMIF prototype accelerator is to demonstrate 125 mA/CW deuterium ion beam acceleration up to 9 MeV. The injector has been developed in CEA Saclay and already demonstrated 140 mA/100 keV deuterium beam [R. Gobin et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85, 02A918 (2014)]. The injector was disassembled and delivered to the International Fusion Energy Research Center in Rokkasho, Japan. After reassembling the injector, commissioning has started in 2014. Up to now, 100 keV/120 mA/CW hydrogen and 100 keV/90 mA/CW deuterium ion beams have been produced stably from a 10 mm diameter extraction aperture with a low beam emittance of 0.21 π mm mrad (rms, normalized). Neutron production by D-D reaction up to 2.4 × 10{sup 9} n/s has been observed in the deuterium operation.

  20. Role of IUC-DAEF in promoting neutron beam research in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P S Goyal

    2004-07-01

    Inter University Consortium for Department of Atomic Energy Facilities (IUC-DAEF) is an autonomous institute of the University Grants Commission and provides an interface between the university fraternity and the institutions of Department of Atomic Energy. Mumbai Centre of IUC-DAEF promotes and supports the use of neutron facilities at Dhruva reactor by the university scientists. To augment the existing neutron scattering facilities, IUC-DAEF has developed a neutron beam line at Dhruva reactor. The present paper gives a brief survey of the activities and achievements of Mumbai Centre of IUC-DAEF.

  1. FUSION WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline; 黄颖(翻译)

    2009-01-01

    Fusion World”科技展示体验中心是英国设计公司MET Studio为新加坡科技研究局(A*Star)的科学工程委员会(SERC)所设计的,位于启汇城的办公地点,用于展示该委员会的精选技术作品,以吸引潜在的客户和启汇城内的学生购买群体。

  2. PREFACE: 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iván Vargas-Blanco, V.; Herrera-Velázquez, J. Julio E.

    2015-03-01

    Written contributions from participants of the Joint 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) - 21st IAEA Technical Meeting on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (21st IAEA TM RUSFD). The International Advisory Committees of the 15th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2014) and the 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices (RUSFD), agreed to carry out together this Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD in San José, Costa Rica, on 27-31 January 2014. The Joint LAWPP 2014 - 21st RUSFD meeting, organized by the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica, and Ad Astra Rocket Company in collaboration with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP) is a series of events which has been held periodically since 1982, with the purpose of providing a forum in which the research of the Latin American plasma physics community can be displayed, as well as fostering collaborations among plasma scientists within the region and with researchers from the rest of the world. Recognized plasma scientists from developed countries are specially invited to the meeting to present the state of the art on several "hot" topics related to plasma physics. It is an open meeting, with an International Advisory Committee, in which the working language is English. It was firstly held in 1982 in Cambuquira, Brazil, followed by workshops in Medellín, Colombia (1985), Santiago de Chile, Chile (1988), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1990), Mexico City, Mexico (1992), Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil (1994, combined with the International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP)), Caracas, Venezuela (1997), Tandil, Argentina (1998), La Serena, Chile (2000), Sao Pedro, Brazil (2003), Mexico City, Mexico (2005), Caracas, Venezuela (2007), Santiago de Chile, Chile (2010, combined with the ICPP) and Mar de Plata, Argentina (2011). The 21st IAEA TM on Research Using Small Fusion Devices is an ideal forum for

  3. Heavy ions offer a new approach to fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Celata, C M

    2002-01-01

    Three US laboratories have teamed up to form the Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory to investigate a novel approach to fusion energy. The IBX is envisioned as a single-beam experiment, possibly upgradable to more beams, with final energy in the 10-20 MeV range. It will incorporate almost all of the physics of the driver (and much engineering at full scale), the exceptions being in the areas of beam-target physics, multiple-beam interactions and high-energy effects such as self-magnetic and inductive effects. In particular, the experiment will be able to study longitudinal beam dynamics, including wave motion on the beam, halo formation and beam heating over intermediate transport lengths, the bending of space-charge- dominated beams, and self-consistent final drift compression, final focus and neutralization.

  4. Research on pixel level fusion algorithm for multi-source remote sensing image fusion%多源遥感图像像素级融合相关技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈则西

    2012-01-01

    As one of the important aspect of image fusion,multi-sensor remote sensing image fusion has attracted many attentions in remote sensing field,firstly,intraduced the development status of the multi-source remote sensing image fusion and the basic theory of image fusion.lt also analyzed the pretreatment work which before image fusion,in present commonly used image fusion technology,the image fusion algorithm based on multi-resolution analysis is widely used and it is an extremely important algorithm.By investigated the subjective and objective evaluation standard,and analyzed the image across-the-aboard in the experiment by adopting the evaluation criteria combining qualitative analysis with quahtitativeanalysis.%多源遥感图像融合作为图像融合领域的一个重要分支,已成为遥感技术领域的研究热点.介绍了多源遥感图像融合技术的发展现状以及图像融合技术的基本理论,并分析了图像融合前的预处理工作.基于多分辨率分析的图像融合方法在现有的普遍的图像融合方法中应用极为广泛,是非常重要的一类算法.通过对融合图像的主观和客观评价标准的详细介绍,并采用定性定量相结合的评价标准对融合效果进行系统的评价.

  5. Focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in tissue structural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leser, Vladka; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco; Tkalec, Ziva Pipan; Strus, Jasna; Drobne, Damjana

    2010-10-01

    The focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) are commonly used in material sciences for imaging and analysis of materials. Over the last decade, the combined FIB/SEM system has proven to be also applicable in the life sciences. We have examined the potential of the focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope system for the investigation of biological tissues of the model organism Porcellio scaber (Crustacea: Isopoda). Tissue from digestive glands was prepared as for conventional SEM or as for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were transferred into FIB/SEM for FIB milling and an imaging operation. FIB-milled regions were secondary electron imaged, back-scattered electron imaged, or energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzed. Our results demonstrated that FIB/SEM enables simultaneous investigation of sample gross morphology, cell surface characteristics, and subsurface structures. The same FIB-exposed regions were analyzed by EDX to provide basic compositional data. When samples were prepared as for TEM, the information obtained with FIB/SEM is comparable, though at limited magnification, to that obtained from TEM. A combination of imaging, micro-manipulation, and compositional analysis appears of particular interest in the investigation of epithelial tissues, which are subjected to various endogenous and exogenous conditions affecting their structure and function. The FIB/SEM is a promising tool for an overall examination of epithelial tissue under normal, stressed, or pathological conditions.

  6. Highly charged ion research at the Livermore electron beam ion traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiersdorfer, P

    2004-01-04

    Spectroscopy performed with the three Livermore electron beam ion traps is reviewed, which is continuing and complementing the innumerable contributions to atomic physics provided over the years by heavy-ion accelerators. Numerous spectrometers were developed that cover the spectral bands from the visible to the hard x ray region. These enabled exhaustive line surveys useful for x-ray astrophysics and for systematic studies along iso-electronic sequences, such as the 4s-4p, 3s-3p, and 2s-2p transitions in ions of the Cu-I, Na-I, and Li-I sequences useful for studying QED and correlation effects as well as for precise determinations of atomic-nuclear interactions. They also enabled measurements of radiative transition probabilities of very long-lived (milli- and microseconds) and very short-live (femtosecond) levels. Because line excitation processes can be controlled by choice of the electron beam energy, the observed line intensities are used to infer cross sections for electron-impact excitation, dielectronic recombination, resonance excitation, and innershell ionization. These capabilities have recently been expanded to simulate x-ray emission from comets by charge exchange. Specific contributions to basic atomic physics, nuclear physics, and high-temperature diagnostics are illustrated.

  7. Control And Transport Of Intense Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Li, H

    2004-01-01

    The transport of intense beams for advanced accelerator applications with high-intensity beams such as heavy-ion inertial fusion, spallation neutron sources, and intense light sources requires tight control of beam characteristics over long distances. The University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER), which uses low energy, high current electron beams to model the transport physics of intense space-charge-dominated beams, employs real-time beam characterization and control in order to optimize beam quality throughout the strong focusing lattice. We describe in this dissertation the main beam control techniques used in UMER, which include optimal beam steering by quadrupole scans, beam rotation correction using a skew corrector, rms envelope matching and optimization, empirical envelope matching, beam injection, and phase space reconstruction using a tomographic method. Using these control techniques, we achieved the design goals for UMER. The procedure is not only indispensable for optimum beam transport over l...

  8. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  9. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  10. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  11. Research and Design of a Sample Heater for Beam Line 6-2c Transmission X-ray Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Policht, Veronica; /Loyola U., Chicago /SLAC

    2012-08-27

    There exists a need for environmental control of samples to be imaged by the Transmission X-Ray Microscope (TXM) at the SSRLs Beam Line 6-2c. In order to observe heat-driven chemical or morphological changes that normally occur in situ, microscopes require an additional component that effectively heats a given sample without heating any of the microscope elements. The confinement of the heat and other concerns about the heaters integrity limit which type of heater is appropriate for the TXM. The bulk of this research project entails researching different heating methods used previously in microscopes, but also in other industrial applications, with the goal of determining the best-fitting method, and finally in designing a preliminary sample heater.

  12. Development of a polarized neutron beam line at Algerian research reactors using McStas software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, M.; Salah, H.

    2017-02-01

    Unpolarized instrumentation has long been studied and designed using McStas simulation tool. But, only recently new models were developed for McStas to simulate polarized neutron scattering instruments. In the present contribution, we used McStas software to design a polarized neutron beam line, taking advantage of the available spectrometers reflectometer and diffractometer in Algeria. Both thermal and cold neutron was considered. The polarization was made by two types of supermirrors polarizers FeSi and CoCu provided by the HZB institute. For sake of performance and comparison, the polarizers were characterized and their characteristics reproduced. The simulated instruments are reported. Flipper and electromagnets for guide field are developed. Further developments including analyzers and upgrading of the existing spectrometers are underway.

  13. Inertial-confinement fusion with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The quest for controlled fusion energy has been ongoing for over a half century. The demonstration of ignition and energy gain from thermonuclear fuels in the laboratory has been a major goal of fusion research for decades. Thermonuclear ignition is widely considered a milestone in the development of fusion energy, as well as a major scientific achievement with important applications in national security and basic sciences. The US is arguably the world leader in the inertial confinement approach to fusion and has invested in large facilities to pursue it, with the objective of establishing the science related to the safety and reliability of the stockpile of nuclear weapons. Although significant progress has been made in recent years, major challenges still remain in the quest for thermonuclear ignition via laser fusion. Here, we review the current state of the art in inertial confinement fusion research and describe the underlying physical principles.

  14. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Carnelli, P. F. F.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-06-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  15. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Almaraz-Calderon S.; Carnelli P. F. F.; Rehm K. E.; Albers M.; Alcorta M.; Bertone P.F.; Digiovine B.; Esbensen H.; Fernandez Niello J. O.; Henderson D.; Jiang C.L.; Lai J; Marley S. T.; Nusair O.; Palchan-Hazan T.

    2015-01-01

    Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  16. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  17. Study on the Feasibility of Direct Fusion Energy Conversion for Deep-Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G.; Miley, George H.; Scott, John H.

    2012-10-01

    A significant change in the current space mission capabilities can be achieved with a highly efficient integration of a fusion energy source with an advanced space propulsion thruster, both with low specific mass. With aneutronic nuclear fusion as the high-density primary energy source, this study considers first electric energy extraction from the fusion reaction products via direct energy conversion to recirculate power as required for the operation of the fusion core. Then the beam of remaining reaction products is conditioned to achieve the optimal thrust and specific impulse for the mission. The research is specifically focused on two key issues: (i) Efficiency improvement of a Traveling Wave Direct Energy Converter (TWDEC, [1]) by achieving a higher ion beam density and optimization of the electrode coupling and of the neutralizing electron flow. (ii) A fast-particle kinetic energy-to-thrust conversion process based on collective interaction between ion bunches well separated in space [2]. Computer simulation results and a design for a basic physics experiment currently under development are reported. [4pt] [1] H. Momota et al., Fus. Tech., 35, 60(1999)[0pt] [2] A. G. Tarditi et al. Proc. NETS 2012 Conf., Woodlands, TX (2012)

  18. A community call for a dedicated radiobiological research facility to support particle beam cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Dosanjh, Manjit;

    2012-01-01

    Recently more than one hundred researchers followed an invitation to a brainstorming meeting on the topic of a future dedicated radio-biological and radio-physical research center. 100 more joint the meeting via webcast. After a day of presentations and discussions it was clear, that an urgent need...

  19. Fusion Protein Linkers: Property, Design and Functionality

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoying; Zaro, Jennica; Shen, Wei-Chiang

    2012-01-01

    As an indispensable component of recombinant fusion proteins, linkers have shown increasing importance in the construction of stable, bioactive fusion proteins. This review covers the current knowledge of fusion protein linkers and summarizes examples for their design and application. The general properties of linkers derived from naturally-occurring multi-domain proteins can be considered as the foundation in linker design. Empirical linkers designed by researchers are generally classified i...

  20. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Phuoc, K.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. Purpose: To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. Method: Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in -54Ca40+116Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. Results: The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium isotopes strongly lowers the bare potential barrier. However, this static effect is not apparent when dynamical effects are included. On the contrary, a fusion hindrance is observed in TDHF calculations with the most neutron-rich calcium isotopes which cannot be explained by vibrational couplings. Transfer reactions are also important in these systems due to charge equilibration processes. Conclusions: Despite its impact on the bare potential, the neutron skin is not seen as playing an important role in the fusion dynamics. However, the charge transfer with exotic projectiles could lead to an increase of the Coulomb repulsion between the fragments, suppressing fusion. The effects of transfer and dissipative mechanisms on fusion with exotic nuclei deserve further studies.

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report. Application technology of next-generation high-density energy beams; 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Jisedai komitsudo energy beam riyo gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Survey was made on application technologies of next- generation high-density energy beams. For real application of laser power, application to not exciting source of YAG crystal but machining directly is highly efficient. For generation of semiconductor laser high-power coherent beam, phase synchronization and summing are large technological walls. Short pulse, high intensity and high repeatability are also important. Since ultra-short pulse laser ends before heat transfer to the periphery, it is suitable for precise machining, in particular, ultra-fine machining. To use beam sources as tool for production process, development of transmission, focusing and control technologies, and optical fiber and device is indispensable. Applicable fields are as follows: machining (more than pico seconds), surface modification (modification and functionalization of tribo- materials and biocompatible materials), complex machining, fabrication of quantum functional structured materials (thin film, ultra-fine particle), agriculture, ultra-precise measurement, non-destructive measurement, and coherent chemistry in chemical and environment fields. (NEDO)

  2. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2005-01-01

    The primary objectives of this book are, firstly, to present the essential theoretical background needed to understand recent fusion research and, secondly, to describe the current status of fusion research for graduate students and senior undergraduates. It will also serve as a useful reference for scientists and engineers working in the related fields. In Part I, Plasma Physics, the author explains the basics of magneto-hydrodynamics and kinetic theory in a simple and compact way and, at the same time, covers important new topics for fusion studies such as the ballooning representation, instabilities driven by energetic particles and various plasma models for computer simulations. Part II, Controlled Nuclear Fusion, attempts to review the "big picture" in fusion research. All important phenomena and technologies are addressed, with a particular emphasis on the topics of most concern in current research.

  3. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Tool Kit Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research on desensitized optimal filtering techniques and a navigation and sensor fusion tool kit using advanced filtering techniques is proposed. Research focuses...

  4. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K.

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  5. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorita, T., E-mail: yorita@rcnp.osaka-u.ac.jp; Hatanaka, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ueda, H.; Yasuda, Y.; Morinobu, S.; Tamii, A.; Kamakura, K. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  6. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  7. Laser fusion program at LASL. Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoberne, F.; Stark, E. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. Experiments, which led to the generation of approximately 5 x 10/sup 5/ fusion neutron on our Two-Beam System in early 1977, with laser output powers of 0.16 to 0.4 TW, are described. These significant results and recent theoretical advancements indicate that the CO/sub 2/ laser is the driver of greatest promise for commercial laser fusion application. Initial test runs on the Eight-Beam System achieved an output energy of approximately 850 J with one beam of less than 1-ns duration, which makes us certain that the design goal of the system will be met on time. Antares, our 100- to 200-TW target irradiation system, is progressing on schedule. Very promising test results obtained on the prototype, as well as encouraging progress in optics development, are summarized. Modifications to the LASNEX code are described. Further progress in various target fabrication and nondestructive fuel-assay techniques is reported, and the development of new diagnostic tools is described. Among new tools are single-channel and four-channel x-ray diode assemblies, both using aluminum cathodes, to study the time history of soft x-ray emission; and a 10-..mu..m microscope, developed in-house, which aids us in verifying optimum target alignment and laser focusing. A design modification of the magnetically protected reactor cavity concept is being investigated.

  8. Experimental research of different plasma cathodes for generation of high-current electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafir, G.; Kreif, M.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Gleizer, S.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Physics Department, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Gunin, A. V.; Kutenkov, O. P.; Rostov, V. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Pegel, I. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-21

    The results of experimental studies of different types of cathodes—carbon-epoxy rods, carbon-epoxy capillary, edged graphite, and metal-dielectric—under the application of high-voltage pulses with an amplitude of several hundreds of kV and pulse duration of several nanoseconds are presented. The best diode performance was achieved with the edged graphite and carbon-epoxy-based cathodes characterized by uniform and fast (<1 ns) formation of explosive emission plasma spots and quasi-constant diode impedance. This result was achieved for both annular cathodes in a strong magnetic field and planar cathodes of a similar diameter (∼2 cm) with no external magnetic field. The cathodes based on carbon-epoxy rods and carbon-epoxy capillaries operating with an average current density up to 1 kA/cm{sup 2} showed insignificant erosion along 10{sup 6} pulses of the generator and the generated electron beam current showed excellent reproducibility in terms of the amplitude and waveform.

  9. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  10. Neutron spectrum measurements at a radial beam port of the NUR research reactor using a Bonner spheres spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazrou, H; Nedjar, A; Seguini, T

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the measurement campaign held around the neutron radiography (NR) facility of the Algerian 1MW NUR research reactor. The main objective of this work is to characterize accurately the neutron beam provided at one of the radial channels of the NUR research reactor taking benefit of the acquired CRNA Bonner spheres spectrometer (BSS). The specific objective was to improve the image quality of the NR facility. The spectrometric system in use is based on a central spherical (3)He thermal neutron proportional counter combined with high density polyethylene spheres of different diameters ranging from 3 to 12in. This counting system has good gamma ray discrimination and is able to cover an energy range from thermal to 20MeV. The measurements were performed at the sample distance of 0.6m from the beam port and at a height of 1.2m from the facility floor. During the BSS measurements, the reactor was operating at low power (100W) to avoid large dead times, pulse pileup and high level radiation exposures, in particular, during spheres handling. Thereafter, the neutron spectrum at the sample position was unfolded by means of GRAVEL and MAXED computer codes. The thermal, epithermal and fast neutron fluxes, the total neutron flux, the mean energy and the Cadmium ratio (RCd) were provided. A sensitivity analysis was performed taking into account various defaults spectra and ultimately a different response functions in the unfolding procedure. Overall, from the obtained results it reveals, unexpectedly, that the measured neutron spectrum at the sample position of the neutron radiography of the NUR reactor is being harder with a predominance of fast neutrons (>100keV) by about 60%. Finally, those results were compared to previous and more recent measurements obtained by activation foils detectors. The agreement was fairly good highlighting thereby the consistency of our findings.

  11. 16. International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion (HIF'06)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adonin, A.; Ausset, P.; Babadunni, O.; Barnard, J.; Barriga-Carrasco, M.; Bawa, O.; Benedetti, C.; Bieniosek, F.; Bouchigny, S.; Bret, A.; Celata, Ch.; Chieze, J.P.; Coelho, L.F.; Cohen, R.; Coleman, J.; Cremer, S.; Crouseilles, N.; Davidson, R.; Debonnel, Ch.; Deutsch, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Efremov, V.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fertman, A.; Friedman, A.; Gardes, D.; Gericke, D.; Gilson, E.; Golubev, A.; Gombert, M.M.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.; Gutnic, M.; Haber, I.; Hammel, B.; Hasegawa, J.; Hegelich, B.M.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Horioka, K.; Jacoby, J.; Kaganovich, I.; Katagiri, K.; Kawata, S.; Kikuchi, T.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kurilenkov, Y.; Latu, G.; Lenglet, A.; Logan, G.; Lund, St.; Maynard, G.; Molvik, A.; Nishinomiya, S.; Ogawa, M.; Oguri, Y.; Piriz, A.R.; Popoff, R.; Pusterla, M.; Qin, H.; Roth, M.; Roy, P.; Sant' Anna, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.; Sharkov, B.; Sharp, W.; Sonnendrucker, E.; Spiller, P.; Startsev, E.; Stoltz, P.; Synakowski, E.; Tahir, N.; Takayama, K.; Tashev, B.; Turchetti, G.; Turtikov, V.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.L.; Velarde, P.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.; Weyrich, K.; Yaramyshev, St.; Zenkevich, P

    2006-07-01

    The contributions to this symposium have been divided into 8 issues: 1) overviews of national fusion programs, 2) other fusion programs, 3) accelerators, 4) warm dense matter, 5) ion beam neutralization, 6) atomic physics, 7) beam dynamics, and 8) stopping power. This document gathers only the resumes of the articles.

  12. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  13. Evaluating and planning the radioactive waste options for dismantling the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K.; Scott, J.; Larson, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is a one-of-a kind tritium fusion research reactor, and is planned to be decommissioned within the next several years. This is the largest fusion reactor in the world and as a result of deuterium-tritum reactions is tritium contaminated and activated from 14 Mev neutrons. This presents many unusual challenges when dismantling, packaging and disposing its components and ancillary systems. Special containers are being designed to accommodate the vacuum vessel, neutral beams, and tritium delivery and processing systems. A team of experienced professionals performed a detailed field study to evaluate the requirements and appropriate methods for packaging the radioactive materials. This team focused on several current and innovative methods for waste minimization that provides the oppurtunmost cost effective manner to package and dispose of the waste. This study also produces a functional time-phased schedule which conjoins the waste volume, weight, costs and container requirements with the detailed project activity schedule for the entire project scope. This study and project will be the first demonstration of the decommissioning of a tritium fusion test reactor. The radioactive waste disposal aspects of this project are instrumental in demonstrating the viability of a fusion power reactor with regard to its environmental impact and ultimate success.

  14. Research on Finger Crease Recognition Algorithm Based on Feature Fusion%基于特征融合的指节折痕识别算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐娟; 罗荣芳

    2015-01-01

    手指指节折痕同指纹和掌纹一样,具有唯一性、稳定性及可区分性的特点,可作为一种用于人体身份识别的生物特征。针对手指指节折痕的分布特征和形状特征,研究一种基于特征融合的指节折痕识别算法。首先利用Radon变换对指节折痕子图像进行变换,形成投影矩阵;其次利用奇异值分解方法对投影矩阵进行奇异值分解,从而形成指节折痕特征矢量;更进一步,考虑指节折痕特征比较简单的特点,重点研究了指节折痕的特征融合策略,用以描述指节折痕特征以达到最大的可区分性;此外定义了一种城区距离来衡量不同指节折痕特征之间的相似度,进行指节折痕特征匹配。最后在自建图像数据库中进行了测试,验证了算法的可行性及有效性。%As well as fingerprints and palmprint,finger crease has characteristics of uniqueness,stability and differentiation,it can be used as a biometric for human identification. According to the distribution and shape feature of finger crease, an algorithm for finger crease recognition based on feature fusion is researched. Firstly, using Radon Transform to transform finger crease sub image, the projection matrix is obtained. Secondly,using the Singular Value Decomposition method to decompose the projection matrix,the feature vector of finger crease is obtained. Furthermore,considering the simplicity of the finger crease,the feature fusion strategy is emphatically researched, which enable combined-feature to have the bigger distinctiveness. In addition, a city distance is defined to measure the similarity between different finger crease feature and the finger crease is matched by the City Block Distance. Finally, the test is performed with the self-built image database and the experimental results demonstrate that the algorithm proposed is feasible and effective.

  15. Conceptual exploration package for data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousselme, Anne-Laure; Grenier, Dominic; Bosse, Eloi

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we present a software package designed to explore data fusion area applied to different contexts. This tool, called CEPfuse (Conceptual Exploration Package for Data Fusion) provides a good support to become familiar with all concepts and vocabulary linked to data fusion. Developed with Matlab 5.2, it's also a good tool to test, compare and analyze algorithms. Although the core of this package is evidential reasoning and identity information fusion, it has been conceived to develop all the interesting part of the Multi-Sensor Data Fusion system. Actually, because we concentrate our research work on identity information fusion, the principal included algorithms are Dempster- Shafer rules of combination, Shafer-Logan algorithms for hierarchical structures, and several decision rules.

  16. Angular momentum transfer in incomplete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Tomar; K Surendra Babu; K Sudarshan; R Tripathi; A Goswami

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric cross-section ratios of evaporation residues formed in 12C+93Nb and 16O + 89Y reactions were measured by recoil catcher technique followed by off-line -ray spectrometry in the beam energy range of 55.7-77.5 MeV for 12C and 68-81 MeV for 16O. The isomeric cross-section ratios were resolved into that for complete and incomplete fusion reactions. The angular momentum of the intermediate nucleus formed in incomplete fusion was deduced from the isomeric cross-section ratio by considering the statistical de-excitation of the incompletely fused composite nucleus. The data show that incomplete fusion is associated with angular momenta slightly smaller than critical angular momentum for complete fusion, indicating the deeper interpenetration of projectile and target nuclei than that in peripheral collisions.

  17. A Dual-beam Implanter for Research of Material Irradiation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Bing; CUI; Bao-qun; MA; Ying-jun; MA; Rui-gang; CHEN; Li-hua; HUANG; Qing-hua; MA; Xie

    2015-01-01

    With the development of reactor technology,the researches on the effect of material irradiation are becoming more and more interesting and expanding.To understand and model the aging caused by atomic displacements,helium and hydrogen production,material scientists and reactor

  18. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  19. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  20. Motivating young students to be part of the global research in nuclear through the Seminar of Nuclear Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Varas, Gonzalo; Ochoa Valero, Raquel; Barbas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Jóvenes Nucleares (Spanish Young Generation in Nuclear, JJNN) is a non-profit organization that depends on the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE). The Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Technical University of Madrid, UPM) was chosen to host the Seminar as it is one of the most prestigious technical universities of Spain, and has a very strong curriculum in nuclear engineering training and research. Both, the UPM and the SNE, supported strongly the seminar: the opening session was c...

  1. Incomplete fusion reactions in 16O+165Ho

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Sharma; B Bindu Kumar; S Mukherjee; S Chakrabarty; B S Tomar; A Goswami; G K Gubbi; S B Manohar; A K Sinha; S K Datta

    2000-03-01

    Excitation functions for evaporation residues of the system 16O+165Ho have been measured up to 100 MeV. Recoil range distribution of long lived reaction products were measured at 16O beam energy of 100 MeV. Detailed Monte Carlo simulation of recoil range distributions of products were performed with the help of PACE2 code, in order to extract the contributions of incomplete fusion in the individual channels. The results clearly show the incomplete fusion contributions in the tantalum and thulium products. This is confirmed by the predictions of breakup fusion model of the incomplete fusion.

  2. Preliminary Research Results for the Generation and Diagnostics of High Power Ion Beams on FLASH II Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海亮; 邱爱慈; 孙剑锋; 何小平; 汤俊萍; 王海洋; 李洪玉; 李静雅; 任书庆; 欧阳小平; 张国光

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary experimental results of the generation and diagnostics of high power ion beams on FLASH II accelerator are reported. The high-power ion beams presently are being produced in a pinched diode. The method for enhancing the ratio of ion to electron current is to increase the electron residing time by pinching the electron flow. Furthermore, electron beam pinching can be combined with electron reflexing to achieve ion beams with even higher efficiency and intensity. The anode plasma is generated by anode foil bombarded with electronand anode foil surface flashover. In recent experiments on FLASH II accelerator, ion beams have been produced with a current of 160 kA and anen ergy of 500 keV corresponding to an ion beam peak power of about 80 GW. The ion number ard current of high power ion beams were determined by monitoring delayed radioactivity from nuclear reactions induced in a 12C target by the proton beams. The prompt γ-rays and diode bremsstrahlung X-rays were measured with a PIN semi-conductor detector and a plastic scintillator detector. The current density distribution of ion beam were measured with a biased ion collector array. The ion beams were also recorded with a CR-39 detector.

  3. Index of light ion inertial confinement fusion publications and presentations January 1989 through December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.

    1995-11-01

    This report lists publications and presentations that are related to inertial confinement fusion and were authored or coauthored by Sandians in the Pulsed Power Sciences Center from 1989 through 1993. The 661 publications and presentations are categorized into the following general topics: (1) reviews, (2) ion sources, (3) ion diodes, (4) plasma opening switches, (5) ion beam transport, (6) targets and deposition physics, (7) advanced driver and pulsed power technology development, (8) diagnostics, and (9) code development. Research in these areas is arranged by topic in chronological order, with the early efforts under each topic presented first. The work is also categorized alphabetically by first author. A list of acronyms, abbreviations, and definitions of use in understanding light ion inertial confinement fusion research is also included.

  4. Development of an automatic validation system for simulation codes of the fusion research; Entwicklung eines automatischen Validierungssystems fuer Simulationscodes der Fusionsforschung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galonska, Andreas

    2010-03-15

    In the present master thesis the development oa an automatic validation system for the simulation code ERO is documented. This 3D Monte-carlo code models the transport of impurities as well as plasma-wall interaction processes and has great importance for the fusion research. The validation system is based on JuBE (Julich Benchmarking Environment), the flexibility of which allows a slight extension of the system to other codes, for instance such, which are operated in the framework of the EU Task Force ITM (Integrated Tokamak Modelling). The chosen solution - JuBE and a special program for the ''intellectual'' comparison of actual and reference-edition data of ERO is described and founded. The use of this program and the configuration of JuBE are detailedly described. Simulations to different plasma experiments, which serve as reference cases for the automatic validation, are explained. The working of the system is illustrated by the description of a test case. This treats the failure localization and improvement in the parallelization of an important ERO module (tracking of physically eroded particle). It is demonstrated, how the system reacts in an erroneous validation and the subsequently performed error correction leads to a positive result. Finally a speed-up curve of the parallelization is established by means of the output data of JuBE.

  5. Recent progress on tritium technology research and development for a fusion reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, T.; Nakamura, H.; Kawamura, Y.; Iwai, Y.; Isobe, K.; Yamada, M.; Kurata, R.; Edao, Y. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Suzuki, T.; Oyaizu, M.; Yamanishi, T. [Tritium Technology Group, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura (Japan)

    2015-03-15

    JAEA (Japan Atomic Energy Agency) manages 2 tritium handling laboratories: Tritium Processing Laboratory (TPL) in Tokai and DEMO-RD building in Rokkasho. TPL has been accumulating a gram level tritium safety handling experiences without any accidental tritium release to the environment for more than 25 years. Recently, our activities have focused on 3 categories, as follows. First, the development of a detritiation system for ITER. This task is the demonstration test of a wet Scrubber Column (SC) as a pilot scale (a few hundreds m{sup 3}/h of processing capacity). Secondly, DEMO-RD tasks are focused on investigating the general issues required for DEMO-RD design, such as structural materials like RAFM (Reduced Activity Ferritic/Martensitic steels) and SiC/SiC, functional materials like tritium breeder and neutron multiplier, and tritium. For the last 4 years, we have spent a lot of time and means to the construction of the DEMO-RD facility and to its licensing, so we have just started the actual research program with tritium and other radioisotopes. This tritium task includes tritium accountancy, tritium basic safety research such as tritium interactions with various materials, which will be used for DEMO-RD and durability. The third category is the recovery work from the Great East Japan earthquake (2011 earthquake). It is worth noting that despite the high magnitude of the earthquake, TPL was able to confine tritium properly without any accidental tritium release.

  6. DIII-D Research Operations annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991. Magnetic Fusion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T.C.; Evans, T.E. [eds.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Doublet-3 research operations: DIII-D Program Overview; Boundary Plasma Research Program/Scientific Progress; Radio Frequency Heating and Current Drive; Core Physics; DIII-D Operations; Program Development; Support Services; ITER Contributions; Burning Plasma Experiment Contributions; and Collaborative Efforts.

  7. Final Report: Establishment of an Institute for Fusion Studies, June 1, 1980 - March 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazeltine, Richard D.

    1999-12-03

    The mission of the Institute for Fusion Studies has been to serve as a national center for theoretical fusion and plasma physics research. As an independent scientific group of critical size, its objectives were to conduct research on fundamental phenomena important to fusion; to serve as a center for fusion theory exchange activities with other countries; to exchange scientific developments with other academic disciplines; and to train students and postdoctoral fellows in fusion and plasma physics research.

  8. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rudakov, L. I. [Icarus Research Inc., Bethesda, Maryland 20824 (United States); Velikovich, A. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100 ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  9. Radiation sources with planar wire arrays and planar foils for inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Safronova, A. S.; Rudakov, L. I.; Esaulov, A. A.; Velikovich, A. L.; Shrestha, I.; Astanovitsky, A.; Osborne, G. C.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Weller, M. E.; Keim, S.; Stafford, A.; Cooper, M.

    2014-03-01

    This article reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research, each of them being a multi-year international effort. One of these is the development of innovative sources, such as planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator, which act mainly as a resistor, even though the physical mechanism of efficient magnetic energy conversion into radiation still remains unclear. We review the results of our extensive studies of PWAs. We also report the new results of the experimental comparison PWAs with planar foil liners (another promising alternative to wire array loads at multi-mega-ampere generators). Pioneered at UNR, the PWA Z-pinch loads have later been tested at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on the Saturn generator, on GIT-12 machine in Russia, and on the QiangGuang-1 generator in China, always successfully. Another of these is the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, which started in early 1980s with Zucker's experiments at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Successful continuation of this approach was the Load Current Multiplier (LCM) proposed by Chuvatin in collaboration with Rudakov and Weber from NRL. The 100 ns LCM was integrated into the Zebra generator, which almost doubled the plasma load current, from 0.9 to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum radiation source for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR [Jones et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 125001 (2010)]. The first successful proof-of-the-principle experimental implementation of new hohlraum concept at university-scale generator Zebra/LCM is demonstrated. A numerical simulation capability with VisRaD code (from PRISM Co.) established at UNR allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics and provides the possibility of optimization of a new hohlraum. Future studies are discussed.

  10. Analysis of the Pipe Heat Loss of the Water Flow Calorimetry System in EAST Neutral Beam Injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yongjian; Yu, Ling; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Weitang

    2016-11-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is one of the main auxiliary heating methods in controllable nuclear fusion research. In the EAST neutral beam injector, a water flow calorimetry (WFC) system is applied to measure the heat load on the electrode system of the ion source and the heat loading components of the beamline. Due to the heat loss in the return water pipe, there are some measuring errors for the current WFC system. In this paper, the errors were measured experimentally and analyzed theoretically, which lay a basis for the exact calculation of beam power deposition distribution and neutralization efficiency. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2013GB101001) and the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  11. Research and Analysis on Multi-sensor Data Fusion Algorithm Based on Intelligent Vehicle%基于智能车辆的多传感器数据融合算法研究与分析综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋维堂; 张鸰

    2012-01-01

    Multi-sensor data fusion is a new technology which developed in 1980s. It can be used to synthesize the intelligent vehicle data that collected by multiple sensors,and take advantage of redundancy and complementary between the multi-sensor data to arrive an accurate environmental information for ground vehicle location,vehicle tracking, vehicle navigation etc. Based on classification and summary of existing data fusion methods, this paper elaborates the research on multi-sensor data fusion algorithm and the application of data fusion technology. This paper could provide reference for research of multi-sensor data fusion on intelligent vehicles.%多传感器数据融合是20世纪80年代发展起来的一门新技术,将智能车辆中多个传感器采集的数据进行合成,并充分利用多感器数据间的冗余和互补特性,从而得出准确的环境信息用于地面车辆定位、车辆跟踪、车辆导航等。文章通过对现有的数据融合方法进行分类和归纳总结,对多传感器数据融合算法的研究和数据融合技术的应用情况进行阐述,为智能车辆多传感数据融合方面的研究提供参考。

  12. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  13. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology

  14. Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the wa

  15. Neutron production by neutral beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.H.; Massoletti, D.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.

    1979-11-01

    Neutron yields, from interactions of multiampere 40- to 120-keV deuterium beams with deuterium atoms implanted in copper targets, have been measured in order to provide input data for shielding of neutral-deuterium beam facilities for magnetic fusion experiments.

  16. Fusion Power Program biannual progress report, April-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    This biannual report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the April-September 1979 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Separate abstracts were prepared for three sections. (MOW)

  17. Fusion Power Program. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    This quarterly report summarizes the Argonne National Laboratory work performed for the Office of Fusion Energy during the October--December 1978 quarter in the following research and development areas: materials; energy storage and transfer; tritium containment, recovery and control; advanced reactor design; atomic data; reactor safety; fusion-fission hybrid systems; alternate applications of fusion energy; and other work related to fusion power. Three separate abstracts were prepared for the included sections. (MOW)

  18. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, H., E-mail: hannu.koivisto@phys.jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thuillier, T. [LPSC, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Grenoble-Alpes1, 53 Rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Xie, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Machicoane, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  19. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bangerter, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Bock, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  20. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Bangerter, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Bock, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  1. Beyond ITER: Neutral beams for DEMO

    CERN Document Server

    McAdams, R

    2013-01-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, ITER is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the DEMO programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  2. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  3. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  4. Fusion the energy of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    McCracken, Garry

    2012-01-01

    Fusion: The Energy of the Universe, 2e is an essential reference providing basic principles of fusion energy from its history to the issues and realities progressing from the present day energy crisis. The book provides detailed developments and applications for researchers entering the field of fusion energy research. This second edition includes the latest results from the National Ignition Facility at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory at Livermore, CA, and the progress on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak programme at Caderache, France.

  5. Fusion Energy from the electric utilities perspective: Fusion Innovation Industry Forum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagle, J. A.; Felipe, A.; Gomez, A.; Sanchez-Mayoral, M. L.; Merino, A.

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents the different future energy scenarios envisaged and the so called Power Generation Fleet Transition in which Fusion Energy could play an important role. A review of the R and D and Innovation main drivers in the electric sector is outline, with a detail description of the main issues and strategic challenges in the medium and short term. The worldwide historical involvement of electric utilities in Fusion is presented and revised under the new USA Utilities technical assessment carried out by the Electric Power Research Institute EPRI. The paper also presents the work done in the last few years by the European Fusion Industry Innovation Forum FIIF-MB in order to to evaluate a wide range of fusion concepts from the utility standpoint, to enhance utilities perspective on fusion, to provide guidance to Government Bodies and national Energy strategies for fusion-utilities and finally to establish a basis for communication and cooperation in fusion for utilities standpoint. Finally the paper comments the utilities challenges pointed out by the Fusion electricity: a road map to the realization of fusion energy report issued this year by the European Fusion Development Agreement EFDA.

  6. Research on Mechanical Measurement System based on Data Fusion Technology of Multi-sensor%基于多传感器数据融合技术的力学量测量系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东方; 刘玉波; 陈博

    2011-01-01

    多传感器的数据融合已经在系统智能检测领域得到越来越多的应用,本论文针对传统的数据融合算法未考虑传感器自身可靠性这一不足,分析了面向传感器可靠性的数据融合算法,并在多元力学参数检测系统中加以应用,给出了系统的总体框架,并对数据融合的具体应用进行了分析,这对于进一步提高力学参数的智能传感检测及数据融合的研究具有一定的借鉴意义.%Data fusion technology of multi-sensor has been used more and wider in the field of intelligent detection system. This paper aimed at the problems that the traditional data fusion algorithm did not take the reliability of sensors into consideration, the data fusion algorithm that based on reliability of multi-sensors was analyzed, and put it into application of multi-mechanical parameters detection system.The whole structure frame of mechanical parameters detection system was also pointed out, and the application of data fusion technology was discussed in detail. All this work is significative for enhancing the research level of mechanical parameters detection system and data fusion.

  7. Purdue Contribution of Fusion Simulation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brooks

    2011-09-30

    The overall science goal of the FSP is to develop predictive simulation capability for magnetically confined fusion plasmas at an unprecedented level of integration and fidelity. This will directly support and enable effective U.S. participation in research related to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the overall mission of delivering practical fusion energy. The FSP will address a rich set of scientific issues together with experimental programs, producing validated integrated physics results. This is very well aligned with the mission of the ITER Organization to coordinate with its members the integrated modeling and control of fusion plasmas, including benchmarking and validation activities. [1]. Initial FSP research will focus on two critical areas: 1) the plasma edge and 2) whole device modeling including disruption avoidance. The first of these problems involves the narrow plasma boundary layer and its complex interactions with the plasma core and the surrounding material wall. The second requires development of a computationally tractable, but comprehensive model that describes all equilibrium and dynamic processes at a sufficient level of detail to provide useful prediction of the temporal evolution of fusion plasma experiments. The initial driver for the whole device model (WDM) will be prediction and avoidance of discharge-terminating disruptions, especially at high performance, which are a critical impediment to successful operation of machines like ITER. If disruptions prove unable to be avoided, their associated dynamics and effects will be addressed in the next phase of the FSP. The FSP plan targets the needed modeling capabilities by developing Integrated Science Applications (ISAs) specific to their needs. The Pedestal-Boundary model will include boundary magnetic topology, cross-field transport of multi-species plasmas, parallel plasma transport, neutral transport, atomic physics and interactions with the plasma wall

  8. Optimized Superconducting Quadrupole Arrays for Multiple Beam Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.; Ball, Millicent, J.

    2005-09-20

    This research project advanced the development of reliable, cost-effective arrays of superconducting quadrupole magnets for use in multi-beam inertial fusion accelerators. The field in each array cell must be identical and meet stringent requirements for field quality and strength. An optimized compact array design using flat double-layer pancake coils was developed. Analytical studies of edge termination methods showed that it is feasible to meet the requirements for field uniformity in all cells and elimination of stray external field in several ways: active methods that involve placement of field compensating coils on the periphery of the array or a passive method that involves use of iron shielding.

  9. Visualization of membrane fusion, one particle at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterstrom, Jason; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2013-03-12

    Protein-mediated fusion between phospholipid bilayers is a fundamental and necessary mechanism for many cellular processes. The short-lived nature of the intermediate states visited during fusion makes it challenging to capture precise kinetic information using classical, ensemble-averaging biophysical techniques. Recently, a number of single-particle fluorescence microscopy-based assays that allow researchers to obtain highly quantitative data about the fusion process by observing individual fusion events in real time have been developed. These assays depend upon changes in the acquired fluorescence signal to provide a direct readout for transitions between the various fusion intermediates. The resulting data yield meaningful and detailed kinetic information about the transitory states en route to productive membrane fusion. In this review, we highlight recent in vitro and in vivo studies of membrane fusion at the single-particle level in the contexts of viral membrane fusion and SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion. These studies afford insight into mechanisms of coordination between fusion-mediating proteins as well as coordination of the overall fusion process with other cellular processes. The development of single-particle approaches to investigate membrane fusion and their successful application to a number of model systems have resulted in a new experimental paradigm and open up considerable opportunities to extend these methods to other biological processes that involve membrane fusion.

  10. [Initial research of one-beam pumping up-conversion 3D volumetric display based on Er:ZBLAN glass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-bo; Li, Mei-xian; Wen, Ou; Zhang, Fu-chu; Song, Zeng-fu

    2003-06-01

    This paper investigates one-beam pumping up-conversion three-dimensional volumetric display, which is based on a Er:ZBLAN fluoride glass. The light-length of the facula of one-beam up-conversion luminescence was studied by a 966 nm semiconductor laser. The up-conversion luminescence spectrum was also obtained. It was found that the property of one-beam pumping three-dimensional volumetric display can be improved significantly by 1.52 microns LD laser multi-photon up-conversion, this finding has not been reported.

  11. Beam Injection in Recirculator SALO

    CERN Document Server

    Guk, Ivan S; Dovbnya, Anatoly N; Kononenko, Stanislav; Peev, Fedor; Tarasenko, Alexander; Van der Wiel, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Possible antetypes of injectors for electron recirculator SALO,* intended for nuclear-physical research, are analyzed. The plan injection of beams in recirculator is offered. Expected parameters of beams are designed.

  12. Accelerator and fusion research division

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transverse and longitudinal phase volumes are evaluated and dilution factors defined. A new and simpler expression for the effect of third-order geometric aberrations is given. Constraints on the final quadrupole bore radius are discussed. Parameters of the example design are given and the preceding analysis is applied to it. The available dilution factor allows a comparison between the present induction linac example design and the rf linac designs available in 1978. The last sections contain a discussion of phase-space limitation on attaining high power density for spot heating experiments, and a brief discussion and summary.

  13. Clinical Research Status of Adjacent Segment Degeneration After Lumbar Spinal Fusion%腰椎融合术后邻近节段退变的临床研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李伟; 苟林; 李亮; 张兵; 吴辉; 林宏

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveClinical research status of adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar fusion analysis.Methods The clinical data of adjacent segment degeneration collected in our hospital in recent years appeared after lumbar fusion, research status of adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar fusion and comprehensive analysis. Results The concept of adjacent segment degeneration included imaging of adjacent segment degeneration of adjacent segment degeneration and clinical symptoms, the incidence of a minimum of 8% of the former, up to 95%, the lowest incidence of clinical symptoms for 5.2% adjacent segment degeneration, a maximum of 18.5%. For adjacent segment degeneration prevention measures include: to reduce intraoperative fusion segments, application of non fusiontechnology, sagittal balance etc. ConclusionAfter lumbar fusion is prone to adjacent segment degeneration, the patients with application of non fusion technology can signiifcantly reduce the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration.%目的:分析腰椎融合术后邻近节段退变的临床研究现状。方法收集我院近年来出现的腰椎融合术后邻近节段退变的临床资料,综合分析腰椎融合术后邻近节段退变的研究现状。结果邻近节段退变的概念包括影像学邻近节段退变和临床症状邻近节段退变,前者的发生率最低为8%,最高可达到95%,临床症状邻近节段退变的发生率最低为5.2%,最高为18.5%。对于邻近节段退变的预防措施主要有:术中减少融合节段、应用非融合技术、维持矢状面平衡等等。结论腰椎融合术后很容易发生邻近节段退变,通过对患者应用非融合技术可显著减少邻近节段退变的发生。

  14. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  15. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  16. Transmutation of Minor Actinides in a Spherical Torus Tokamak Fusion Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENGKaiming; ZHANGGuoshu

    2002-01-01

    Fusion energy will be a long-term energy source. Great efforts have been devoted to fusion research in the past 50 years, and there is still a long way to go. Transmutation of high-level waste (HLW) utilizing D-T fusion neutrons is a good choice for an early application of fusion.

  17. Beaming teaching application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Milos; Madsen, Esben; Olesen, Søren Krarup;

    2012-01-01

    BEAMING is a telepresence research project aiming at providing a multimodal interaction between two or more participants located at distant locations. One of the BEAMING applications allows a distant teacher to give a xylophone playing lecture to the students. Therefore, rendering of the xylophon...

  18. 基于决策树的IDS报警数据融合技术研究%RESEARCH ON IDS SECURITY DATA FUSION TECHNOLOGY BASED ON DECISION TREE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正兴; 苏旸

    2013-01-01

    针对当前多个IDS的相互协作带来的海量报警数据,提出一种基于决策树的IDS报警数据融合技术,介绍决策树及其构造算法ID3,并利用决策树改进IDS报警数据融合中的属性匹配融合技术,提高了融合效率,融合后的报警数据降低了漏警率。实验证明了该方法的有效性。%In order to reduce the amount of security data produced by the collaboration of a lot of intrusion detection systems , the paper puts forward an IDS security data fusion technology based on decision tree and introduces both itself and its building arithmetic called ID 3. Then it adopts decision tree to ameliorate the attribute matching fusion technology in IDS security data fusion ,so that its fusion efficiency is in-creased and its missing rate of fused security data is decreased .Experiment confirms the validity of the method .

  19. Status and problems of fusion reactor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, U

    2001-03-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes.

  20. 基于NSCT变换的医学图像融合研究%RESEARCH ON NSCT-BASED MEDICAL IMAGE FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀华; 兴旺

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of medical images and provide reliable information basis for medical diagnosis, the NSCT transform with more advanced multi-resolution and multi-directional decomposition is introduced to CT and MRI medical image fusion for study, and in light of the characteristics of medical images, an improved fusion rule with central region energy weighted average is proposed. The simulative experiments of medical image fusion with different NSCT transform-based fusion rules are carried out, and the comparative analyses of them with Contourlet Transform are done. Experimental results show that, the improve NSCT transform-based the fusion rules algorithm makes the medical fused image have richer amount of information and higher contrast, the related evaluation shows the effectiveness of the algorithm.%为了提高医学图像的质量,为医学诊断提供可靠的信息依据,将更为先进的多分辨率、多方向分解的NSCT变换引入到CT和MRI医学图像融合中进行研究,并针对医学图像的特点,提出一种改进的中心区域能量加权平均融合规则.进行基于NSCT变换的不同融合规则的医学图像融合仿真实验,并与Contourlet变换进行比较分析.实验结果表明,基于NSCT变换的改进融合规则算法使医学融合图像具有更丰富的信息量和更高的对比度,相关评价指标表明了该算法的有效性.

  1. C+C Fusion Cross Sections Measurements for Nuclear Astrophysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaraz-Calderon S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total fusion cross section of carbon isotopes were obtained using the newly developed MUSIC detector. MUSIC is a highly efficient, active target-detector system designed to measure fusion excitation functions with radioactive beams. The present measurements are relevant for understanding x-ray superbursts. The results of the first MUSIC campaign as well as the astrophysical implications are presented in this work.

  2. Recent contributions to fusion reactor design and technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    The report contains a collection of 16 recent fusion technology papers on the STARFIRE Project, the study of alternate fusion fuel cycles, a maintainability study, magnet safety, neutral beam power supplies and pulsed superconducting magnets and energy transfer. This collection of papers contains contributions for Argonne National Laboratory, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company, General Atomic Company, The Ralph M. Parsons Company, the University of Illinois, and the University of Wisconsin. Separate abstracts are presented for each paper. (MOW)

  3. Research on beam characteristics in a large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonator with parabolic mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Yingxiong; Xiao, Yu; Zhong, Lijing; Wu, Chao; Wang, Zhen; Wan, Wen; Tang, Xiahui

    2016-07-20

    Large-Fresnel-number unstable-waveguide hybrid resonators employing spherical resonator mirrors suffer from spherical aberration, which adversely affects beam quality and alignment sensitivity. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical wave-optics simulations of the beam characteristics of a negative-branch hybrid resonator having parabolic mirrors with a large equivalent Fresnel number in the unstable direction. These results are compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors. Using parabolic mirrors, the output beam has a smaller beam spot size and higher power density at the focal plane. We found that the power extraction efficiency is 3.5% higher when compared with a resonator using spherical mirrors as the cavity length was varied between -1 and 1 mm from the ideal confocal resonator. In addition, the power extraction efficiency is 5.6% higher for mirror tilt angles varied between -6 and 6 mrad. Furthermore, the output propagating field is similar to a converging wave for a spherical mirror resonator and the output beam direction deviates 3.5 mrad from the optical axis. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Information Fusion in the Immune System

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Biologically-inspired methods such as evolutionary algorithms and neural networks are proving useful in the field of information fusion. Artificial Immune Systems (AISs) are a biologically-inspired approach which take inspiration from the biological immune system. Interestingly, recent research has show how AISs which use multi-level information sources as input data can be used to build effective algorithms for real time computer intrusion detection. This research is based on biological information fusion mechanisms used by the human immune system and as such might be of interest to the information fusion community. The aim of this paper is to present a summary of some of the biological information fusion mechanisms seen in the human immune system, and of how these mechanisms have been implemented as AISs

  5. Development of radiation fusion technology with food technology by the application of high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juwoon; Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; and others

    2012-04-15

    This study was performed to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering was developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources was developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin was developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam was introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of foodborne outbreaks. Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export. Systemized

  6. Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun; Choi, Jong Il

    2010-04-15

    This study was studied to achieve stable food supply and food safety with radiation fusion technology as a preparation for food weaponization. Results at current stage are following: First, for the development of radiation and food engineering fusion technology using high dose irradiation, the effects of high dose irradiation on food components were evaluated. The combination treatment of irradiation with food engineering were developed. Irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant food borne bacteria were determined. Second, for the development of E-beam irradiation technology, the effects of radiation sources on food compounds, processing conditions, and food quality of final products were compared. Food processing conditions for agricultural/aquatic products with different radiation sources were developed and the domination of E-beam irradiation foods were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not were developed. Third, for the fundamental researches to develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods were developed using high dose irradiation. Food processing for export strategy foods such as process ginseng were developed. Food processing with irradiation to destroy mycotoxin and to inhibit production of mycotoxin were developed. Mathematical models to predict necessary irradiation doses and radiation sources were developed and validated. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for irradiation approval on meat products, sea foods and dried sea foods, and use of E-beam were introduced. Results from this research project, the followings are expected. (1) Improvement of customer acceptance and activation of irradiation technology by the use of various irradiation rays. (2) Increase of indirect food productivity, and decrease of SOC and improvement of public health by prevention of food borne outbreaks. (3) Build of SPS/TBT system against imported products and acceleration of domestic product export

  7. PRESENT CLINICAL RESEARCH SITUATION OF ADJACENT SEGMENT DEGENERATION AFTER LUMBAR SPINAL FUSION%腰椎融合术后邻近节段退变的临床研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    双峰; 侯树勋

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the present clinical research situation of adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after lumbar spinal fusion. Methods The recent literature concerning ASD in the concept, the incidence, the risk factors, and prevention was reviewed. Results The concept of ASD includes radiographic ASD and clinical ASD. The incidences of radiographic ASD and clinical ASD were 8%-100% and 5.2%-18.5%, respectively. The risk factors for ASD include both patient and surgical factors. Patient factors include age, gender, preoperative condition, and so on. Surgical factors include the length of the fusion, mode of fusion, internal fixator, sagittal balance, excessive distraction of disc space, and so on. It can prevent ASD to reduce the length of the fusion, to keep sagittal balance, and to use the non-fusion technology. Conclusion Many researches have proved that the incidence of ASD is increased after lumbar spinal fusion, and it can be reduced by the non-fusion technology. Non-fusion technology has obtained good short-term results. But the long-term results should be further observed because there are some complications.%目的 对腰椎融合术后出现邻近节段退变(adjacent segment degeneration,ASD)的临床研究现状进行综述. 方法 查阅近年关于腰椎融合术后出现ASD的概念、发生率、相关影响因素和预防等方面的文献,并进行综述. 结果 ASD的概念包括影像学ASD和临床症状ASD,腰椎融合术后影像学ASD发生率可达8%~100%,临床症状ASD发生率为5.2%~18.5%.ASD的发生与个体因素(年龄、性别、术前情况等)和手术因素(融合节段长短、融合术式、内固定使用、矢状面平衡、椎间隙过度撑开等)相关.术中减少融合节段、维持矢状面平衡以及非融合技术的应用可预防ASD的发生. 结论 腰椎融合术后ASD发生率增高.非融合技术的应用降低了ASD的发生率,取得了较好的近期临床效果,但也存在一些并发症,

  8. Optimization of the Epithermal Neutron Beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Rorer, David C.; Reciniello, Richard N.; Holden, Norman E.

    2003-06-01

    Clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumor had been carried out for half a decade, using an epithermal neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a higher intensity, more forward-directed neutron beam with less contamination from gamma rays, fast and thermal neutrons are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  9. Optimization of the epithermal neutron beam for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jih-Perng; Reciniello, Richard N; Holden, Norman E

    2004-05-01

    The use of epithermal neutron beam in clinical trials of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy for patients with malignant brain tumors had been carried out for half a decade at the Brookhaven's Medical Reactor. The decision to permanently close this reactor in 2000 cut short the efforts to implement a new conceptual design to optimize this beam in preparation for use with possible new BNCT protocols. Details of the conceptual design to produce a highly intensified and focused neutron beam with less gamma and neutron contamination in tissues are presented here for their potential applicability to other reactor facilities. Neutron-photon coupled Monte Carlo calculations were used to predict the flux, current, heating, and absorbed dose produced by the proposed design. The results were benchmarked by the dose rate and flux measurements taken at the facility then in use.

  10. Research on multi-source heterogeneous data fusion and its application%一种多源异构数据融合方法及其应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜建华; 洪年松; 张广云

    2016-01-01

    针对基于多源数据融合的多用户决策问题,建立了多源异构数据融合模型,研究了基于三角模糊数的异构数据统一量化表示方法,采用有序加权平均算子融入决策者的偏好,设计了一种支持多用户决策的多源异构数据融合算法。实际应用表明,本文设计的算法能解决多源异构数据在结构和语义上的模糊性、差异性和异构性等问题,通过在数据融合过程中考虑决策者偏好,提高了多用户决策结果的可靠度。%As to the multi-source data fusion based multi-user decision, a model of multi-source heterogeneous data fusion was designed. Triangular fuzzy number based uniform quantity description of multi-source data was researched. The ordered weight average (OWA) was used to deal with the preference of decision-maker and a data fusion algorithm for decision making was designed. At last, practical application shows the algorithm can solve the problems of semantic ambiguity, difference and heterogeneity of multi-source heterogeneous data, and the reliability of decision results was improved by considering data maker's preference into the process of data fusion.

  11. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  12. Anomalous Doppler effect at interaction of electromagnetic waves with electron beams experimental researches and opportunities for application

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, B I

    2002-01-01

    The anomalous Doppler effect (ADE) in systems consisting of an electron beam and slow wave structure in longitudinal magnetic field is considered. Resonance condition for amplifiers and generators based on ADE enables resonance maintaining in case of wave phase velocity or beam velocity changing (acceleration of ions at ADE, reception of high efficiency at microwave generation). Essential advantages can be reached at combination of ADE and normal Doppler effect. The review of experimental studies of ADE is presented: amplification and generation of microwaves, energetic relations, excitation of accelerating IH-structures, development of ion acceleration.

  13. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  14. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  15. The National Ignition Facility: Status and Plans for Laser Fusion and High-Energy-Density Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E I; Wuest, C R

    2002-10-16

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF), currently under construction at the University of California's Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, is a stadium-sized facility containing a 192-beam, 1.8-Megajoule, 500-Terawatt, 351-nm laser system and a 10-meter diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF is being built by the National Nuclear Security Administration and when completed will be the world's largest laser experimental system, providing a national center to study inertial confinement fusion and the physics of matter at extreme energy densities and pressures. NIF will provide 192 energetic laser beams that will compress small fusion targets to conditions where they will ignite and burn, liberating more energy than is required to initiate the fusion reactions. NIF experiments will allow the study of physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million K and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure. These conditions exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapons explosions. In the course of designing the world's most energetic laser system, a number of significant technology breakthroughs have been achieved. Research is also underway to develop a shorter pulse capability on NIF for very high power and extreme electromagnetic field research and applications. We discuss here the technology challenges and solutions that have made NIF possible, along with enhancements to NIF's design that could lead to near-exawatt power levels.

  16. Superconducting focusing quadrupoles for heavy ion fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbi, G.L.; Faltens, A.; Leitner, M.; Lietzke, A.; Seidl, P.; Barnard, J.; Lund, S.; Martovetsky, N.; Gung, C.; Minervini, J.; Radovinsky, A.; Schultz, J.; Meinke, R.

    2003-05-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) Program is developing superconducting focusing magnets for both near-term experiments and future driver accelerators. In particular, single bore quadrupoles have been fabricated and tested for use in the High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The next steps involve the development of magnets for the planned Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) and the fabrication of the first prototype multi-beam focusing arrays for fusion driver accelerators. The status of the magnet R&D program is reported, including experimental requirements, design issues and test results.

  17. The EU fusion programme and roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pero, H., E-mail: Herve.Pero@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Paidassi, S. [European Commission, DG-RTD, CDMA 05/146, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► The EU fusion programme has to evolve from today's research to a strong goal-oriented programme driven by an ambitious roadmap. ► The programme shall focus on ITER and reactor-relevant technologies development. ► A new structure based on joint programming will be developed to implement the programme during Horizon 2020. -- Abstract: To meet ITER and fusion energy challenges, a gradual transition of the EU fusion programme priorities from today's fusion research to a strongly goal-oriented programme with clear milestones is required. This transition and the programme priorities should be driven by an ambitious, yet realistic roadmap to be agreed by EU fusion stakeholders. The programme must primarily focus on: ensuring the success of ITER; and research and development of reactor-relevant technologies. Industry must be involved early in the implementation and international collaboration should be conducted as part of a strategic approach. Joint programming should be a cornerstone of the EU fusion programme in Horizon 2020. Options for the new structure and current actions required to implement the roadmap during Horizon 2020 will be presented.

  18. 基于NSCT-PCNN算法的雷达图像融合研究%Research of radar image fusion based on NSCT-PCNN algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅圣雪; 林忠宇

    2012-01-01

    为了提高雷达图像的融合质量,创新性地将非下采样Contourlet变换(NSCT)与脉冲耦合神经网络(PCNN)相结合,运用到可见光和红外雷达图像的融合中.先对待融合的两幅源图像进行NSCT分解,利用得到的低频子带系数去触发PCNN的神经元,最后进行NSCT重构,得到所需要的新图像.结果表明此方法较传统的融合方法,提高了信息量和清晰度,获得了较好的识别率.此方法得到的图像更有利于对流云形成时的预测.%In order to improve the quality of the radar image fusion. the method to combine Nonsubsample Contourlet Translation (NSCT) with Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) for visible and infrared radar image fusion is innovationally adopted. The process of this method is: the two source images under fusion are decomposed by NSCT, then the low-frequency subband coefficient is utilized to trigger on PCNN neurons, and finally the image is reconstructed with NSCT to obtain a new required image. The results indicate that, compared with traditional fusion methods, this method has higher information capacity, clarity and identification rate. The conclution is that the image got by this method is more advantageous to predict when the convective cloud is generated.

  19. 敏捷开发过程与CMMI实施融合研究%Research on Fusion of Agile Development Process and CMMI Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 彭章纲

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the basic characteristics of agile development process, compares the differences of agile development and traditional project management, puts forward the fusion strategies agile development processes and the CMMI implementation.%介绍敏捷开发过程的基本特征,比较敏捷开发与传统项目管理之间的差别,提出敏捷开发过程与CMMI实施的融合策略。

  20. 基于多传感器数据融合技术的应用研究%Research Based on Multi-sensor Data Fusion Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋强; 王爱民; 张运素

    2013-01-01

    复杂系统的多传感器数据融合是一门新兴的技术,它通过对来自多个传感器的数据进行多级别、多方面、多层次的处理从而产生出单个传感器所不能获得的更有意义的信息.数据融合在军事领域和民用领域都有很大的发展和应用前景.该文提出了一种基于神经网络融合算法的多传感器数据融合技术,对所采用的数据融合技术用于烧结终点预测进行了详细介绍.通过仿真结果证明,该方法鲁棒性强,准确性高,泛化能力广,具有很强的实用性和推广价值.%The complex system multi-sensor data fusion was an emerging technology,which based on the data from multiple sensors multiple levels,many Levels of processing in order to produce a single sensor cannot get obtain meaningful information.Data fusion in military and civil areas have great developmental and applicative prospect.Proposed a multi-sensor data fusion technology,which was based on neural network algorithm,data fusion technology for the BTP projections described in detail.The application result shows that the prediction with this method can achieve higher robust,better utility and expensive value.