WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam fusion research

  1. Progress in light ion beam fusion research on PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PBFA II is a 100 TW pulsed power accelerator constructed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in the Light Ion Fusion Program. The objective of PBFA II is to accelerate and focus upon an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target a lithium beam with sufficient energy, power, and power density to perform ignition scaling experiments. The technologies used in PBFA II include: (1) primary energy storage and compression with 6 MV, low-inductance Marx generators, (2) pulse forming in water-insulated, water-dielectric lines with self-closing water switches, (4) voltage addition in vacuum using self-magnetically-insulated biconic transmission lines, (5) inductive energy storage and pulse compression using a fast-opening plasma erosion switch, (6) beam formation using a magnetically-insulated ion diode, and (7) space-charge and current-neutralized beam propagation to the target in a gas-filled cell. The first multimodule shot was on December 11, 1985. The plans for PBFA II include development and demonstration of the pulse-shaping techniques which are necessary for high-gain target compressions. Following a modification of the accelerator which will probably include an ''extraction'' ion diode, a 4- to 5-meter plasma channel for beam bunching during propagation, and a target chamber located beneath the accelerator, temporally-shaped ion beam pulses will be available for pulse-shaped target experiments. (author)

  2. Particle beam fusion progress report January 1979 through June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following chapters are included: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle beam source development, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power research and development, (6) pulsed fusion applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project

  3. Automatic calibration and signal switching system for the particle beam fusion research data acquisition facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes both the hardware and software components of an automatic calibration and signal system (Autocal) for the data acquisition system for the Sandia particle beam fusion research accelerators Hydra, Proto I, and Proto II. The Autocal hardware consists of off-the-shelf commercial equipment. The various hardware components, special modifications and overall system configuration are described. Special software has been developed to support the Autocal hardware. Software operation and maintenance are described

  4. Accelerator and fusion research division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations

  5. US heavy ion beam research for high energy density physics applications and fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers. (authors)

  6. Fusion research in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungarian fusion research started in the 1970s, when the idea of installing a small tokamak experiment emerged. In return to computer equipment a soviet tokamak was indeed sent to Hungary and started to operate as MT-1 at the Central Research Institute for Physics (KFKI) in 1979. Major research topics included diagnostic development, edge plasma studies and investigation of disruptions. Following a major upgrade in 1992 (new vacuum vessel, active position control and PC network based data acquisition system) the MT-1M tokamak was used for the study of transport processes with trace impurity injection, micropellet ablation studies, X-ray tomography and laser blow-off diagnostic development. Although funding ceased in the middle of the 90's the group was held alive by collaborations with EU fusion labs: FZ -Juelich, IPP-Garching and CRPP-EPFL Lausanne. In 1998 the machine was dismantled due to reorganization of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. New horizons opened to fusion research from 1999, when Hungary joined EURATOM and a fusion Association was formed. Since then fusion physics studies are done in collaboration with major EU fusion laboratories, Hungarian researchers also play an active role in JET diagnostics upgrade and ITER design. Major topics are pellet ablation studies, plasma turbulence diagnosis using Beam Emission Spectroscopy and other techniques, tomography and plasma diagnostics using various neutral beams. In fusion relevant technology R and D Hungary has less records. Before joining EURATOM some materials irradiation studies were done at the Budapest Research Reactor at KFKI-AEKI. The present day fusion technology programme focuses still on irradiation studies, nuclear material database and electromagnetic testing techniques. Increasing the fusion technology research activities is a difficult task, as the competition in Hungarian industry is very strong and the interest of organizations in long-term investments into R and D is rather weak and

  7. Particle beam fusion progress report, January-June 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview and technical summaries are given for research progress in each of the following general areas: (1) fusion target studies; (2) target experiments; (3) particle beam source theory; (4) diagnostics development; (5) particle beam experiments; (6) pulsed power research and development; (7) pulse power application; and (8) Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator project

  8. Neutral beams for magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances in forming energetic beams of neutral hydrogen and deuterium atoms have led to a breakthrough in magnetic fusion: neutral beams are now heating plasmas to thermonuclear temperatures, here at LLL and at other laboratories. For example, in our 2XIIB experiment we have injected a 500-A-equivalent current of neutral deuterium atoms at an average energy of 18 keV, producing a dense plasma (1014 particles/cm3) at thermonuclear energy (14 keV or 160 million kelvins). Currently, LLL and LBL are developing beam energies in the 80- to 120-keV range for our upcoming MFTF experiment, for the TFTR tokamak experiment at Princeton, and for the Doublet III tokamak experiment at General Atomic. These results increase our long-range prospects of producing high-intensity beams of energies in the hundreds or even thousands of kilo-electron-volts, providing us with optimistic extrapolations for realizing power-producing fusion reactors

  9. Intense pulsed ion beams for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this review paper is the field of intense pulsed ion beam generation and the potential application of the beams to fusion research. Considerable progress has been made over the past six years. The ion injectors discussed utilize the introduction of electrons into vacuum acceleration gaps in conjunction with high voltage pulsed power technology to achieve high output current. Power levels from injectors exceeding 1000 MW/cm2 have been obtained for pulse lengths on the order of 10-7 sec. The first part of the paper treats the physics and technology of intense ion beams. The second part is devoted to applications of intense ion beams in fusion research. A number of potential uses in magnetic confinement systems have been proposed

  10. Electron-beam-fusion progress report, January--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research progress is reported for the following areas: (1) Proto I, (2) Proto II, (3) EBFA, (4) power flow, (5) contract progress reports, (6) progress in the Sandia program, (7) repetitively operated pulse generator development, (8) electron beam power from inductive storage, (9) fusion target design, (10) beam physics research, (11) power flow, (12) heavy ion fusion, (13) particle beam source development, (14) beam target interaction and target response studies, (15) diagnostic development, and (16) hybrid systems

  11. Economics of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics

  12. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  13. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  14. Intense ion beam research for inertial confinement fusion. Final technical report, 1 October 1981-31 October 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental research has been performed on the application of intense light ion beams to inertial confinement fusion. The following achievements are documented. A 1 TW accelerator (a module of the PBFA 1 device at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque), has been installed at Cornell and it has been used to develop high power magnetically insulated ion diodes. Ion beams at 0.3 TW level have been produced. The use of spectroscopic techniques to diagnose conditions in detail with in magnetically insulated diodes was proposed, and preliminary experiments have been successfully performed. These have revealed the anode plasma density, transverse velocities of ions within the diode (from Doppler broadening of ion emission lines) and the electric field profile in the accelerating gap (from the Stark shifted line profile of especially selected emission lines). Theoretical studies on the effects of lack of symmetry in the electron drift direction on the leakage electron current in a magnetically insulated diode show that even very small perturbations can cause a substantial enhancement of the leakage current. Experiments involving electron flow in a magnetically insulated diode have shown cathode sheath losses to occur in local burst as well as in a smooth manner

  15. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  16. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: research with multiple- beam experiment MBE-4; induction linac systems experiments; and long- range research and development of heavy-ion fusion accelerators

  17. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  18. Generation of intense ion beams and their application to controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Successful generation of pulsed multi-kA proton beams in the energy range 0.2 to 1.7 MeV using existing pulsed power technology has been achieved by three different techniques: reflex triodes, pinched electron-beam diodes and magnetically insulated diodes. Peak current densities in excess of 10 kAcm-2 have been observed on the NRL Gamble II machine and over 1.0 kAcm-2 on the Cornell Neptune machine. Peak total ion currents above 200 kA are produced by Gamble II. The potential applications of intense ion beams to magnetic confinement include (i) plasma heating and (ii) ion rings. A summary of continuous theoretical and experimental investigations on these applications is presented. (author)

  19. Research on modeling of heat source for electron beam welding fusion-solidification zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yajun; Fu Pengfei; Guan Yongjun; Lu Zhijun; Wei Yintao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the common heat source model of point and linear heat source in the numerical simulation of electron beam welding (EBW) were summarized and introduced.The combined point-linear heat source model was brought forward and to simulate the welding temperature fields of EBW and predicting the weld shape.The model parameters were put forward and regulated in the combined model,which included the ratio of point heat source to linear heat source Qpr and the distribution of linear heat source Lr.Based on the combined model,the welding temperature fields of EBW were investigated.The results show that the predicted weld shapes are conformable to those of the actual,the temperature fields are reasonable and correct by simulating with combined point-linear heat source model and the typical weld shapes are gained.

  20. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  1. Fusion research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress

  2. Conference on Norwegian fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of instituting a systematic research programme in Norway on aspects of thermonuclear and plasma physics has been raised. The conference here reported was intended to provide basic information on the status of fusion research internationally and to discuss a possible Norwegian programme. The main contributions covered the present status of fusion research, international cooperation, fusion research in small countries and minor laboratories, fusion research in Denmark and Sweden, and a proposed fusion experiment in Bergen. (JIW)

  3. Fusion research in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic growth of our country demands a rapid increase in the energy output. Fusion is one such alternate clean source of energy to contribute in the energy mix towards the second half of the century, with a virtually inexhaustible fuel supply. The environmental impact of fusion would be acceptable and relatively safe. These advantages have driven the world fusion research programme since its inception. Till a pure fusion energy source is available, it is worthwhile to develop it for the benefit of conventional fission fuel preparation and other various usages. Indian National Fusion Programme was initiated by indigenously developing the first Indian Tokamak, ADITYA, successfully commissioned in 1989 and has been generating interesting scientific results on various topics. The next major program at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) has been to construct a Steady State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) by mix of import and indigenous development. After successful engineering validation of the subsystems in integrated operations, successful machine operation has been continued. Since then, the machine has been upgraded with a graphite first wall. As a strategy towards leapfrogging to save time, IPR and Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) decided on India’s participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) as a full partner, unique features of which will be its ability to operate for long durations and at power levels ∼500 MW sufficient to demonstrate the physics of burning plasma in a power plant like environment. It will also serve as a test-bed for additional fusion power plant technologies. To accelerate the domestic fusion research programme with integration of knowledge gained from ITER, we would embark upon design of a smaller fusion machine which will use already available technologies to produce controlled fusion reactions and use it as an energetic neutron source for test of materials developed for future fusion reactors

  4. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  5. Inertial-confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial-confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasized. An account is given of experimental programs now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity-beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI (Darmstadt, FRG) are presented. (orig.)

  6. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundamental concepts, current status and future prospects of heavy-ion-driven inertial confinement fusion are described. Target physics issues are emphasised. An account is given of experimental programmes now under way, including beam/plasma interaction and accelerator physics experiments. Plans for high-intensity beam/target research using heavy-ion beams from the synchrotron at GSI, Darmstadt, FRG are presented. (author)

  7. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: paseidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Faltens, Andris [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, US (United States); Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  8. Fusion using radioactive ion beams

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Vinodkumar

    2010-07-01

    The capture-fission cross-section is measured for the collision of the massive nucleus 132Sn with 96Zr at near-barrier energies and compared with the collision of 124Sn with 96Zr. This study gives insight into fusion enhancement and hindrance in systems involving neutron-rich nuclei. The dinuclear system model (DNS) calculations describe the excitation function reasonably well and if we use the barrier heights predicted by this model we can conclude that fusion hindrance (represented by extra push energy) is greater for the more neutron-rich systems. The fusion excitation function for 9Li+70Zn and 9Li+208Pb systems are measured for near-barrier energies using ISAC1 and ISAC2 Facilities at TRIUMF. The -emitting evaporation residues (211−214At) are stopped in the 208Pb target and their decay is measured. The measured excitation function shows evidence for large enhancements in the sub-barrier energies, which is not accounted by current theoretical models. Suppression of the above-barrier cross-section with respect to these theoretical models are also seen.

  9. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  10. Inertial Fusion Driven By Intense Heavy-Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  11. Cold fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy

  12. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy

  13. Conceptual design of light ion beam inertia nuclear fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light ion beam, inertia nuclear fusion system drew attention recently as one of the nuclear fusion systems for power reactors in the history of the research on nuclear fusion. Its beginning seemed to be the judgement that the implosion of fusion fuel pellets with light ions can be realized with the light ions which can be obtained in view of accelerator techniques. Of course, in order to generate practically usable nuclear fusion reaction by this system and maintain it, many technical difficulties must be overcome. This research was carried out for the purpose of discovering such technical problems and searching for their solution. At the time of doing the works, the following policy was adopted. Though their is the difference of fine and rough, the design of a whole reactor system is performed conformably. In order to make comparison with other reactor types and nuclear fusion systems, the design is carried out as the power plant of about one million kWe output. As the extent of the design, the works at conceptual design stage are performed to present the concept of design which satisfies the required function. Basically, the design is made from conservative standpoint. This research of design was started in 1981, and in fiscal 1982, the mutual adjustment among the design of respective parts was performed on the basis of the results in 1981, and the possible revision and new proposal were investigated. (Kako, I.)

  14. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units

  15. Induction linacs for heavy ion fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-05-01

    The new features of employing an induction linac as a driver for inertial fusion involve (1) transport of high-current low-emittance heavy ion beams, (2) multiple independently-focussed beams threading the same accelerator structure, and (3) synthesis of voltage waveforms to accomplish beam current amplification. A research program is underway at LBL to develop accelerators that test all these features with the final goal of producing an ion beam capable of heating matter to approx. 70 eV. This paper presents a discussion of some properties of induction linacs and how they may be used for HIF research. Physics designs of the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) and the Multiple Beam Experiment (MBE) accelerators are presented along with initial concepts of the MBE induction units.

  16. Is fusion research worth it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term energy R and D such as fusion needs to be valued as a 'real option'. The R and D itself does not provide energy, but rather the option to construct and operate energy-producing systems. An initial analysis of this problem [Goldenberg, Linton, Nuclear Fusion R and D, Energy Risk, 2006] used an inversion of the Black-Scholes formula to take explicit account of fluctuations in the real value of energy. That study concluded that for reasonable assumptions about the operating cost of fusion power plants, the fusion option was cost effective. Here we use a simpler estimate of the future value of energy, but look more carefully at the question of the opportunity cost of engaging in fusion R and D. We find again that fusion research is a good investment. (author)

  17. Alpha particles in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of 39 (mostly view graph) presentations addresses various aspects of alpha particle physics in thermonuclear fusion research, including energy balance and alpha particle losses, transport, the influence of alpha particles on plasma stability, helium ash, the transition to and sustainment of a burning fusion plasma, as well as alpha particle diagnostics. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  19. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  1. Relativistic-electron-beam-induced fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of a focussed relativistic electron beam (REB) with a solid target has been investigated. The beam performance of the REB generator ''REIDEN III'' is 500 kV, 80 kA at a focal spot of 1.5 mm diameter, which gives 2X1012Wcm-2. High-temperature dense plasmas are produced at the focal point on the solid target. It expands radially along the target surface. The measured electron temperature (1-2 keV) and the ion energy (approximately 2 keV) endorse the existence of enhanced REB absorption in a dense plasma. The neutrons observed (approximately 109/shot, 2.45 MeV) in the case of a CD2 target are of thermonuclear origin and compatible with the plasma temperature. On the assumption that the electron beam of radius r is stopped at a length Λ and deposits its energy, the energy balance equation is approximately given by πr2Λn1kT=IVtau. On inserting beam current I, voltage V, pulse time tau and density n1, the energy deposition distance Λ can be estimated. For a fusion temperature of 1 keV, the distance Λ must be two orders of magnitude shorter than the simple classical stopping length, which seems to be due to non-linear coupling. A pellet implosion experiment of a multi-structure target has been performed. (author)

  2. [Fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer

  3. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  4. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  5. Maryland controlled fusion research program. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This renewal proposal describes the University of Maryland research program on Magnetic Fusion Energy for a three-year period beginning January 1, 1986. This program consists of five tasks: (I) Plasma Theory; (II) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics for Mirror Machines; (III) Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics on TFTR; (IV) Atomic Physics; and (V) Magnetic Field Measurement by Ion Beams. The four separate tasks of continuing research (Tasks I to IV) and the new experimental task (Task V) are described in detail. The task descriptions contain estimated budgets for CY 86, 87, and 88

  6. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, M.A. [ed.] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Pulsed Power Sciences Center

    1994-08-01

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm{sup 2} on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall.

  7. Particle beam fusion progress report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the progress on the pulsed power approach to inertial confinement fusion. In 1989, the authors achieved a proton focal intensity of 5 TW/cm2 on PBFA-II in a 15-cm-radius applied magnetic-field (applied-B) ion diode. This is an improvement by a factor of 4 compared to previous PBFA-II experiments. They completed development of the three-dimensional (3-D), electromagnetic, particle-in-cell code QUICKSILVER and obtained the first 3-D simulations of an applied-B ion diode. The simulations, together with analytic theory, suggest that control of electromagnetic instabilities could reduce ion divergence. In experiments using a lithium fluoride source, they delivered 26 kJ of lithium energy to the diode axis. Rutherford-scattered ion diagnostics have been developed and tested using a conical foil located inside the diode. They can now obtain energy density profiles by using range filters and recording ion images on nuclear track recording film. Timing uncertainties in power flow experiments on PBFA-II have been reduced by a factor of 5. They are investigating three plasma opening switches that use magnetic fields to control and confine the injected plasma. These new switches provide better power flow than the standard plasma erosion switch. Advanced pulsed-power fusion drivers will require extraction-geometry applied-B ion diodes. During this reporting period, progress was made in evaluating the generation, transport, and focus of multiple ion beams in an extraction geometry and in assessing the probable damage to a target chamber first wall

  8. Nuclear fusion research in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheetham, A.D. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the recently formed National Plasma Fusion Research Facility centred around the H-1NF Heliac, located at the Australian National University, the Institute of Advanced Studies is described in the context of the international Stellarator program and the national collaboration with the Australian Fusion Research Group. The objectives of the facility and the planned physics research program over the next five years are discussed and some recent results will be presented. The facility will support investigations in the following research areas: finite pressure equilibrium and stability, transport in high temperature plasmas, plasma heating and formation, instabilities and turbulence, edge plasma physics and advanced diagnostic development. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, fiscal year 1980, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    Research during October 1979 to September 1980 is summarized. Areas covered include: accelerator operations; positron-electron project; stochastic beam cooling; high-field superconducting magnets; accelerator theory; neutral beam sources; and heavy ion fusion. (GHT)

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, fiscal year 1980, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research during October 1979 to September 1980 is summarized. Areas covered include: accelerator operations; positron-electron project; stochastic beam cooling; high-field superconducting magnets; accelerator theory; neutral beam sources; and heavy ion fusion

  12. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  13. Vortex stabilized electron beam compressed fusion grade plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-19

    Most inertial confinement fusion schemes are comprised of highly compressed dense plasmas. Those schemes involve short, extremely high power, short pulses of beams (lasers, particles) applied to lower density plasmas or solid pellets. An alternative approach could be to shoot an intense electron beam through very dense, atmospheric pressure, vortex stabilized plasma.

  14. Inertial fusion research: Annual technical report, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research activities undertaken at KMS Fusion (KMSF) during 1985. It is organized into three main technical sections; the first covers fusion experiments and theoretical physics, the second is devoted to progress in materials development and target fabrication, and the third describes laser technology research. These three individual sections have been cataloged separately

  15. Recent fusion research in the National Institute for Fusion Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), which was established in 1989, promotes academic approaches toward the exploration of fusion science for steady-state helical reactor and realizes the establishment of a comprehensive understanding of toroidal plasmas as an inter-university research organization and a key center of worldwide fusion research. The Large Helical Device (LHD) Project, the Numerical Simulation Science Project, and the Fusion Engineering Project are organized for early realization of net current free fusion reactor, and their recent activities are described in this paper. The LHD has been producing high-performance plasmas comparable to those of large tokamaks, and several new findings with regard to plasma physics have been obtained. The numerical simulation science project contributes understanding and systemization of the physical mechanisms of plasma confinement in fusion plasmas and explores complexity science of a plasma for realization of the numerical test reactor. In the fusion engineering project, the design of the helical fusion reactor has progressed based on the development of superconducting coils, the blanket, fusion materials and tritium handling. (author)

  16. Issues and opportunities: beam simulations for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UCRL- JC- 134975 PREPRINT code offering 3- D, axisymmetric, and ''transverse slice'' (steady flow) geometries, with a hierarchy of models for the ''lattice'' of focusing, bending, and accelerating elements. Interactive and script- driven code steering is afforded through an interpreter interface. The code runs with good parallel scaling on the T3E. Detailed simulations of machine segments and of complete small experiments, as well as simplified full- system runs, have been carried out, partially benchmarking the code. A magnetoinductive model, with module impedance and multi- beam effects, is under study. experiments, including an injector scalable to multi- beam arrays, a high- current beam transport and acceleration experiment, and a scaled final- focusing experiment. These ''phase I'' projects are laying the groundwork for the next major step in HIF development, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). Simulations aimed directly at the IRE must enable us to: design a facility with maximum power on target at minimal cost; set requirements for hardware tolerances, beam steering, etc.; and evaluate proposed chamber propagation modes. Finally, simulations must enable us to study all issues which arise in the context of a fusion driver, and must facilitate the assessment of driver options. In all of this, maximum advantage must be taken of emerging terascale computer architectures, requiring an aggressive code development effort. An organizing principle should be pursuit of the goal of integrated and detailed source- to- target simulation. methods for analysis of the beam dynamics in the various machine concepts, using moment- based methods for purposes of design, waveform synthesis, steering algorithm synthesis, etc. Three classes of discrete- particle models should be coupled: (1) electrostatic/ magnetoinductive PIC simulations should track the beams from the source through the final- focusing optics, passing details of the time- dependent distribution function to

  17. Issues and opportunities: beam simulations for heavy ion fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A

    1999-07-15

    UCRL- JC- 134975 PREPRINT code offering 3- D, axisymmetric, and ''transverse slice'' (steady flow) geometries, with a hierarchy of models for the ''lattice'' of focusing, bending, and accelerating elements. Interactive and script- driven code steering is afforded through an interpreter interface. The code runs with good parallel scaling on the T3E. Detailed simulations of machine segments and of complete small experiments, as well as simplified full- system runs, have been carried out, partially benchmarking the code. A magnetoinductive model, with module impedance and multi- beam effects, is under study. experiments, including an injector scalable to multi- beam arrays, a high- current beam transport and acceleration experiment, and a scaled final- focusing experiment. These ''phase I'' projects are laying the groundwork for the next major step in HIF development, the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). Simulations aimed directly at the IRE must enable us to: design a facility with maximum power on target at minimal cost; set requirements for hardware tolerances, beam steering, etc.; and evaluate proposed chamber propagation modes. Finally, simulations must enable us to study all issues which arise in the context of a fusion driver, and must facilitate the assessment of driver options. In all of this, maximum advantage must be taken of emerging terascale computer architectures, requiring an aggressive code development effort. An organizing principle should be pursuit of the goal of integrated and detailed source- to- target simulation. methods for analysis of the beam dynamics in the various machine concepts, using moment- based methods for purposes of design, waveform synthesis, steering algorithm synthesis, etc. Three classes of discrete- particle models should be coupled: (1) electrostatic/ magnetoinductive PIC simulations should track the beams from the source through the final- focusing optics

  18. A. Sakharov and Fusion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    In the landmark paper by Tamm and Sakharov [1], a controlled nuclear fusion reactor based on an axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration whose principles remain valid to this day, was proposed. In the light of present understanding of plasma physics the virtues (e.g. that of considering the D-D reaction) and the shortcomings of this paper are pointed out. In fact, relatively recent results of theoretical plasma physics (e.g. discovery of the so called second stability region) and advances in high field magnet technology have made it possible to identify the parameters of meaningful experiments capable of exploring D-D and D-^3He burn conditions. At the same time an experimental program (IGNIR) has been undertaken through a (funded) collaboration between Italy and Russia to investigate D-T plasmas close to ignition conditions based on an advanced high field toroidal confinement configuration. A. Sakharov envisioned a bolder approach to fusion research than that advocated by some of his contemporaries. The time taken to design and decide to fabricate the first experiment capable of reaching ignition conditions is due in part to the problem of gaining an adequate understanding the expected physics of fusion burning plasmas. However, most of the relevant financial effort has gone in the pursuit of slow and indirect enterprises complying with the ``playing it safe'' tendencies of large organizations or motivated by the purpose to develop technologies or maintain a high level of expertise in plasma physics to the expected benefit of other kinds of endeavors. The creativity demonstrated by A. Sakharov in dealing with civil rights and disarmament issues is needed, while maintaining our concerns for energy and the environment on a global scale, to orient the funding for fusion research toward a direct and well based scientific effort on concepts for which a variety of developments can be envisioned. These can span from uncovering new physics relevant, for instance

  19. Fusion at the barrier with light radioactive ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Signorini, C

    2001-01-01

    The experimental results recently obtained for fusion reactions at energies close to the Coulomb barrier with light radioactive (loosely bound) beams are reviewed and critically discussed. There have been two conflicting views on the effect of the loose binding of the projectile on the fusion cross section. On the one hand one expects an enhancement of the fusion cross section due to the loose binding while, on the other hand, the easy breakup of the projectile is expected to inhibit the fusion cross section. We critically discuss these two aspects of loose binding by comparing the experimental results for a number of radioactive beams. The data for sup 1 sup 7 F (where the last neutron binding energy S sub n =0.601 MeV), neither show breakup effects nor enhancement when compared with the fusion of the nucleus sup 1 sup 9 F. The data for a sup 6 He beam (S sub 2 sub n =0.975 MeV) show enhancement, very strong in one case, and the strong breakup (BU)+transfer cross section may be related to this. The fusion da...

  20. Inertial confinement fusion research at Osaka. New developments in laser energy drivers, laser and REB fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present approach to inertial confinement fusion is based on understanding the physics of beam-plasma interaction and implosion. The Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka, is now pursuing project 'Kongoh' which includes the Gekko (glass laser) programme, the Lekko (CO2 laser) programme and the Reiden experiment (REB), a scientific feasibility experiment. Lasers are the most developed energy drivers and are of great value in fundamental fusion research by implosion. REB has a good performance efficiency, and is suitable for a reactor scheme, while beam transport is rather cumbersome owing to plasma instability. Successful implosion experiments by glass microballoon have been performed. Interesting data on laser coupling have been obtained. (author)

  1. Heavy ion beam propagation through a gas-filled chamber for inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, N.O.

    1996-10-01

    The work presented here evaluates the dynamics of a beam of heavy ions propagating through a chamber filled with gas. The motivation for this research stems from the possibility of using heavy ion beams as a driver in inertial confinement fusion reactors for the purpose of generating electricity. Such a study is important in determining the constraints on the beam which limit its focus to the small radius necessary for the ignition of thermonuclear microexplosions which are the source of fusion energy. Nuclear fusion is the process of combining light nuclei to form heavier ones. One possible fusion reaction combines two isotopes of hydrogen, deuterium and tritium, to form an alpha particle and a neutron, with an accompanying release of {approximately}17.6 MeV of energy. Generating electricity from fusion requires that we create such reactions in an efficient and controlled fashion, and harness the resulting energy. In the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) approach to energy production, a small spherical target, a few millimeters in radius, of deuterium and tritium fuel is compressed so that the density and temperature of the fuel are high enough, {approximately}200 g/cm{sup 3} and {approximately}20 keV, that a substantial number of fusion reactions occur; the pellet microexplosion typically releases {approximately}350 MJ of energy in optimized power plant scenarios.

  2. Accelerator research for heavy ion inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now one decade since serious consideration was first given to the use of heavy ion accelerators for inertial confinement fusion. After an initial period of wide-ranging studies, the US program settled on an induction linac method proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). The ion kinetic energy is modest (30-100 MeV/amu, 5-10 GeV total) but intense beam currents of order 1 kA per beam in 10-30 beams are required on target in a short pulse of order 10-20 ns. In this review the conceptual designs are described, together with recent theory and experiments on high-current beam transport and use of multiple beams. Parallel efforts in West Germany, Japan and the Soviet Union are mentioned, and a two-year US study of heavy ion fusion electric power plants is summarized. (orig.)

  3. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  4. Developing high brightness beams for heavy ion driven inertial fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, J.W.; Ahle, L.A.; Anders, A; Bieniosek, F.M.; Chacon-Golcher, E.; Grote, D. P.; Henestroza, E.; Leung, K.N.; Molvik, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers require large currents and bright beams. In this paper we review the two different approaches for building HIF injectors and the corresponding ion source requirements. The traditional approach uses large aperture, low current density ion sources, resulting in a very large injector system. A more recent conceptual approach merges high current density mini-beamlets into a large current beam in order to significantly reduce the size of the injector. Experimen...

  5. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants

  6. Progress in bright ion beams for industry, medicine and fusion at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent progresses at LBNL in developing ion beams for industry, radiation therapy and inertial fusion applications were discussed. The highlights include ion beam lithography, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), and heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers using multiple linacs

  7. The concept of a research fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thus,for advancement towards a commercial fusion reactor,we have proposed here as a next step a steady state operated research fusion reactor with an increased plasma-wall detachment so as to further guarantee not only the production but also a long-term (for many years) confinement of a self-sustained plasma at the existing technology level. We consider the primary goal of the research fusion reactor is the provision of full-scale conditions for carrying out materials science experiments to create and test 1 st wall materials for the commercial fusion reactor

  8. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book

  9. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division: 1993 Summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, J.

    1994-04-01

    The Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) is not only one of the largest scientific divisions at LBL, but also the one of the most diverse. Major efforts include: (1) investigations in both inertial and magnetic fusion energy; (2) operation of the Advanced Light Source, a state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation facility; (3) exploratory investigations of novel radiation sources and colliders; (4) research and development in superconducting magnets for accelerators and other scientific and industrial applications; and (5) ion beam technology development for nuclear physics and for industrial and biomedical applications. Each of these topics is discussed in detail in this book.

  10. The status of nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author summarizes the status of nuclear fusion research as follows: scientific feasibility of a fusion reactor can be demonstrated in 3-6 years; large scale (future) experiments are needed to test engineering problems, etc., possibly in 1990; economical questions are becoming important. There are two aspects: the energy cost must be sufficiently low (absolute), and the fusion reactor cost should be competitive with indigenous energy sources (relative); and possible alternatives to improve the economical aspects of a CTR must be explored

  11. Beam dynamics analysis in pulse compression using electron beam compact simulator for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a final stage of an accelerator system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF, pulse shaping and beam current increase by bunch compression are required for effective pellet implosion. A compact simulator with an electron beam was constructed to understand the beam dynamics. In this study, we investigate theoretically and numerically the beam dynamics for the extreme bunch compression in the final stage of HIF accelerator complex. The theoretical and numerical results implied that the compact experimental device simulates the beam dynamics around the stagnation point for initial low temperature condition.

  12. Is fusion research worth it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term energy R and D such as fusion needs to be valued in the framework of options analysis. The R and D itself does not provide energy, but rather provides the option to construct and operate energy-producing systems. An initial analysis of this problem applied the Black-Scholes formula based on historical fluctuations in the cost of energy. That study concluded that for reasonable assumptions about the operating cost of fusion power plants, the fusion option was cost effective. Here we use a simpler and more transparent estimate of the future value of energy, but look more carefully at the question of the opportunity cost of engaging in fusion R and D, including the possibility of hedging financially against increased prices for acceptable energy through an 'energy insurance' fund, as compared with the fusion option. We find that the fusion option is very attractive if the probability is more than a few percent that fusion will cost less than the best environmentally acceptable alternative for its potential market share. (author)

  13. Fusion Research in Ioffe Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askinazi, L. G.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Altukhov, A. B.; Bakharev, N. N.; Belokurov, A. A.; Bulanin, V. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Chugunov, I.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D.; Goncharov, P. R.; Gurchenko, A. D.; Gusakov, E. Z.; Gusev, V. K.; Heuraux, S.; Iblyaminova, A. D.; Irzak, M. A.; Kantor, M. Yu.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Kiviniemi, T.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Khitrov, S. A.; Khromov, N. A.; Kornev, V. A.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Kurskiev, G. S.; Lashkul, S. I.; Lebedev, S. V.; Leerink, S.; Melnik, A. D.; Minaev, V. B.; Mironov, M. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Mukhin, E. E.; Nesenevich, V. G.; Niskala, P.; Novokhatsky, A. N.; Patrov, M. I.; Perevalov, A. A.; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, A. V.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Popov, A. Yu.; Rozhansky, V. A.; Rozhdestvenskiy, V. V.; Sakharov, N. V.; Saveliev, A. N.; Senichenkov, I. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Shchegolev, P. B.; Shatalin, S. V.; Shcherbinin, O. N.; Shevelev, A. E.; Sidorov, A. V.; da Silva, F.; Smirnov, A. I.; Stepanov, A. Yu.; Sysoeva, E. V.; Teplova, N. V.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Tukachinsky, A. S.; Varfolomeev, V. I.; Vekshina, E. O.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Voronin, A. V.; Voskoboinikov, S. P.; Wagner, F.; Yashin, A. Yu.; Zhubr, N. A.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present the fusion related activities of the Plasma Physics Division at the Ioffe Institute. The first experiments on lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) in a spherical tokamak performed at the Globus-M tokamak (R = 0.36 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 0.4 T, Ip = 200 kA) with a novel poloidally oriented grill resulted in an RF driven current of up to 30 kA at (100 kW, 2.5 GHz), exceeding the modelling predictions. At the FT-2 tokamak (R = 0.56 m, a = 0.08 m, Bt = 3 T, Ip = 30 kA) experiments with a traditional toroidally oriented grill revealed no strong dependence of the LHCD density limit on the H/D ratio in spite of LH resonance densities differing by a factor of 3. Microwave Doppler reflectometry (DR) at the Globus-M, and DR and heavy ion beam probe measurements at the tokamak TUMAN-3M (R = 0.53 m, a = 0.24 m, Bt = 1.0 T, Ip = 190 kA) demonstrated geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) suppression at the L to H transition. Observations at FT-2 using Doppler Enhanced Scattering showed that the GAM amplitude is anti-correlated both spatially and temporally to the drift turbulence level and electron thermal diffusivity. For the first time turbulence amplitude modulation at the GAM frequency was found both experimentally and in global gyrokinetic modelling. A model of the L-H transition is proposed based on this effect. The loss mechanisms of energetic ions' (EI) were investigated in the neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments on Globus-M and TUMAN-3M. Empirical scaling of the 2.45 MeV DD neutron rate for the two devices shows a strong dependence on toroidal field Bt1.29 and plasma current Ip1.34 justifying the Bt and Ip increase by a factor of 2.5 for the proposed upgrade of Globus-M. Bursts of ˜1 MHz Alfvenic type oscillations correlating with sawtooth crashes were observed in ohmic TUMAN-3M discharges. The possibility of low threshold parametric excitation of Bernstein and upper hybrid waves trapped in drift-wave eddies resulting in anomalous absorption in electron

  14. Ion beams in nuclear fusion with inertial confinement - fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a long-term solution of the energy problem the different technical concepts of thermonuclear fusion, dependent on their implementation chances, meet with ever greater interest worldwide. In this connection the fusion of light atomic nuclei with inertial confinement is considered a promising alternative as compared to the fusion with magnetic confinement of the hot plasma. Already more than ten years ago extensive investigations had started on the use of lasers and electrons as inducing radiation; and for about ten years now intensive experimental and theoretical works as well as technological studies have been carried out concerning the ignition of a thermonuclear fuel enclosed in a pellet through highly intense, pulsed and sharply focused beams of light and heavy ions

  15. Technical review of the Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers the technical aspects of Sandia Laboratories' Particle Beam Fusion Program and examines the program's initial goals, the progress made to date towards reaching those goals, and the future plans or methods of reaching those original or modified goals. A summary of Sandia Laboratories' effort, which seeks to demonstrate that high voltage pulsed power generated high-current electron or light ion beams can be used to ignite a deuterium or tritium pellet, is provided. A brief review and assessment of the Sandia Pulse Power Program is given. Several critical issues and summaries of the committee members' opinions are discussed

  16. Numerical study of neutron beam divergence in a beam-fusion scenario employing laser driven ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, A.; Green, A.; Ahmed, H.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Cerchez, M.; Clarke, R.; Doria, D.; Dorkings, S.; Fernandez, J.; McKenna, P.; Mirfayzi, S. R.; Naughton, K.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.; Peth, C.; Powell, H.; Ruiz, J. A.; Swain, J.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.

    2016-09-01

    The most established route to create a laser-based neutron source is by employing laser accelerated, low atomic-number ions in fusion reactions. In addition to the high reaction cross-sections at moderate energies of the projectile ions, the anisotropy in neutron emission is another important feature of beam-fusion reactions. Using a simple numerical model based on neutron generation in a pitcher-catcher scenario, anisotropy in neutron emission was studied for the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction. Simulation results are consistent with the narrow-divergence (∼ 70 ° full width at half maximum) neutron beam recently served in an experiment employing multi-MeV deuteron beams of narrow divergence (up to 30° FWHM, depending on the ion energy) accelerated by a sub-petawatt laser pulse from thin deuterated plastic foils via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism. By varying the input ion beam parameters, simulations show that a further improvement in the neutron beam directionality (i.e. reduction in the beam divergence) can be obtained by increasing the projectile ion beam temperature and cut-off energy, as expected from interactions employing higher power lasers at upcoming facilities.

  17. Outline of heavy ion beam accelerator for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion inertial fusion program has become more promising through the intense works on high energy, heavy ion accelerators during past four years. The heavy iron method is superior to the methods with other particle beam, because the peak current requirement is reduced drastically to several kA. The driver efficiency is expected to be 20% or more in the heavy ion method, and the absorption efficiency in the pellets is three times as high as that of laser fusion method. In Japan, Institute of Plasma Physics of Nagoya University and Institute of Laser Engineering of Osaka University participate mainly in the design of reactor and pellet systems, while National Laboratory for High Energy Physics and Institute for Nuclear Study of University of Tokyo have studied on heavy ion accelerators. In this paper, the outline of the accelerator system is described on the basis of the typical parameters of pellet design. The determination of beam parameters, the beam lines in reactors, current multiplication, the main parameters of the storage ring, the ion source and the linear accelerator are explained. In the present design concept, an RFQ linac is proposed in low velocity region. The focus action is independent of the beam velocity, and it has the capture efficiency as high as about 90%. (Kako, I.)

  18. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the

  19. Report on the cooperating researches utilizing fusion engineering facilities completed in the fiscal year 2008 (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Fusion Energy Technology of the Fusion Research and Development Directorate is carrying out cooperating researches with universities, research institutes and industries using five fusion engineering facilities; Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety Study (CATS), Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS), JAEA Electron Beam Irradiation System (JEBIS), RF Test Stand (RFTS). In the fiscal year 2007 (from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009), 19 activities were carried out as the cooperating researches. This report reviews the results of 8 activities which were completed in the fiscal year 2008. (author)

  20. Longitudinal beam dynamics for heavy ion fusion using WARPrz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WARPrz is a 2.5 dimensional, cylindrically symmetric, electrostatic, particle-in-cell code. It is part of the WARP family of codes which has been developed to study heavy ion fusion driver issues. WARPrz is being used to study the longitudinal dynamics of heavy ion beams including a longitudinal instability that is driven by the impedance of the LINAC accelerating modules. This instability is of concern because it can enhance longitudinal momentum spread; chromatic abhoration in the lens system restricts the amount of momentum spread allowed in the beam in the final focusing system. The impedance of the modules is modeled by a continuum of resistors and capacitors in parallel in WARPrz. We discuss simulations of this instability including the effect of finite temperature and reflection of perturbations off the beam ends. We also discuss intermittency of axial confining fields (''ears'' fields) as a seed for this instability

  1. Spiraling Beam Illumination Uniformity on Heavy Ion Fusion Target

    CERN Document Server

    Kurosaki, T; Noguchi, K; Koseki, S; Barada, D; Ma, Y Y; Ogoyski, A I; Barnard, J J; Logan, B G

    2012-01-01

    A few percent wobbling-beam illumination nonuniformity is realized in heavy ion inertial confinement fusion (HIF) by a spiraling beam axis motion in the paper. So far the wobbling heavy ion beam (HIB) illumination was proposed to realize a uniform implosion in HIF. However, the initial imprint of the wobbling HIBs was a serious problem and introduces a large unacceptable energy deposition nonuniformity. In the wobbling HIBs illumination, the illumination nonuniformity oscillates in time and space. The oscillating-HIB energy deposition may contribute to the reduction of the HIBs illumination nonuniformity. The wobbling HIBs can be generated in HIB accelerators and the oscillating frequency may be several 100MHz-1GHz. Three-dimensional HIBs illumination computations presented here show that the few percent wobbling HIBs illumination nonuniformity oscillates successfully with the same wobbling HIBs frequency.

  2. Inertial fusion with heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the status of present activities and considerations on future perspectives. It is organized as follows: After a short presentation of basic facts, the accelerator issues will be discussed, followed by a short description of a reactor concept and a discussion of target problems. Many theoretical studies and some experimental developments made during the past five years have increased our knowledge on specific accelerator and reactor issues and - as a spin-off of these results - have improved the performance of existing accelerator facilities. The direction for continued research in the near future has become an important question and is now being critically examined for planning further programs. The last chapter deals with these considerations for developing facilities which should enable experimental investigations of accelerator and target problems. (orig.)

  3. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C+ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr2+ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed

  4. Current trends in laser fusion driver and beam combination laser systems using stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors for a fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser facilities in the world have been developing flash-lamp-pumped ultrahigh-energy solid-state lasers for fusion research and high-repetition diode-pumped solid-state lasers to act as commercial fusion drivers. A commercial laser fusion driver requires a high-energy beam with a total energy of several megajoules per pulse in several nanoseconds with a ∼10-Hz repetition rate. However, current laser technologies have limitations in raising the beam energy when operating with a high repetition rate, which is necessary for a commercial fusion driver to function properly. The beam combination laser system, which that uses stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors, is a promising candidate for a fusion driver because it can obtain both a high energy and a high repetition rate with separate amplifications. For the realization of the beam combination laser system, a self-phase control technique was proposed for the coherent beam combined output, and its principle was demonstrated experimentally.

  5. Particle-beam-fusion progress report, July 1979 through December 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The following chapters are included in this semi-annual progress report: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle-beam source developments, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power, (6) pulsed power applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project. (MOW)

  6. Particle-beam-fusion progress report, July 1979 through December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following chapters are included in this semi-annual progress report: (1) fusion target studies, (2) target experiments, (3) particle-beam source developments, (4) particle beam experiments, (5) pulsed power, (6) pulsed power applications, and (7) electron beam fusion accelerator project

  7. Microfabricated Ion Beam Drivers for Magnetized Target Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter; Ji, Qing; Ardanuc, Serhan; Miller, Joseph; Lal, Amit; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Efficient, low-cost drivers are important for Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF). Ion beams offer a high degree of control to deliver the required mega joules of driver energy for MTF and they can be matched to several types of magnetized fuel targets, including compact toroids and solid targets. We describe an ion beam driver approach based on the MEQALAC concept (Multiple Electrostatic Quadrupole Array Linear Accelerator) with many beamlets in an array of micro-fabricated channels. The channels consist of a lattice of electrostatic quadrupoles (ESQ) for focusing and of radio-frequency (RF) electrodes for ion acceleration. Simulations with particle-in-cell and beam envelope codes predict >10x higher current densities compared to state-of-the-art ion accelerators. This increase results from dividing the total ion beam current up into many beamlets to control space charge forces. Focusing elements can be biased taking advantage of high breakdown electric fields in sub-mm structures formed using MEMS techniques (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems). We will present results on ion beam transport and acceleration in MEMS based beamlets. Acknowledgments: This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  8. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B G; Bieniosek, F M; Coleman, J E; Greenway, W G; Henestroza, E; Kwan, J W; Lee, E P; Leitner, M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barnard, J J; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Grote, D P; Covo, M K; LaFortune, K N [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA, 94551 (United States); Davidson, R C; Efthimion, P C; Gilson, E P; Grisham, L; Kaganovich, I D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hoffmann, D H H [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: bglogan@lbl.gov (and others)

    2008-05-15

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  9. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  10. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report summarizes experimental and theoretical investigations carried out in the framework of a feasibility study of inertial confinement fusion by heavy ion beams, funded by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology. After the completion of the conceptual design study HIBALL with an upgraded version, the investigations concentrated in 1984 mainly on problems of accelerator and target physics. In the area of accelerator physics the main interest was in the production and acceleration of high intensity heavy ion beams of high phase space density and in beam dynamics theory, in the area of target physics on beam-target interaction, radiation hydrodynamics, instabilities and the equation of state of highly compressed hot matter. (orig./AH)

  11. Beam dynamics studies of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A driver-scale injector for the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator project has been built at LBL. This machine has exceeded the design goals of high voltage (> 2 MV), high current (> 0.8 A of K+) and low normalized emittance (< 1 π mm-mr). The injector consists of a 750 keV diode pre-injector followed by an electrostatic quadrupole accelerator (ESQ) which provides strong (alternating gradient) focusing for the space-charge dominated beam and simultaneously accelerates the ions to 2 MeV. The fully 3-D PIC code WARP together with EGUN and POISSON were used to design the machine and analyze measurements of voltage, current and phase space distributions. A comparison between beam dynamics characteristics as measured for the injector and corresponding computer calculations will be presented

  12. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Particle beam fusion. Progress report, April 1978-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    During this period substantial improvements in the theoretical basis for particle beam fusion as well as the execution of critical experiments were instrumental in further definition of the optimum route to our goals of demonstrating scientific and practical feasibility. The major emphasis in the program continues to be focused primarily on issues of power concentration and energy deposition of intense particle beams in solid targets. This utilization of program resources is directed toward conducting significant target implosion and thermonuclear burn experiments using EBFA-I (1 MJ) in the 1981-1983 time period. This step, using EBFA-I, will then set the stage for net energy gain experiments to follow on EBFA-II (> 2 MJ) after 1985. Current program emphasis and activities differ substantially from those stressed in the laser approaches to inertial confinement fusion. Here the critical issues relate to delivering the needed power densities and energies to appropriate targets and to insure that the coupling of energy is efficient and matches target requirements.

  14. Particle beam fusion. Progress report, April 1978-December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During this period substantial improvements in the theoretical basis for particle beam fusion as well as the execution of critical experiments were instrumental in further definition of the optimum route to our goals of demonstrating scientific and practical feasibility. The major emphasis in the program continues to be focused primarily on issues of power concentration and energy deposition of intense particle beams in solid targets. This utilization of program resources is directed toward conducting significant target implosion and thermonuclear burn experiments using EBFA-I (1 MJ) in the 1981-1983 time period. This step, using EBFA-I, will then set the stage for net energy gain experiments to follow on EBFA-II (> 2 MJ) after 1985. Current program emphasis and activities differ substantially from those stressed in the laser approaches to inertial confinement fusion. Here the critical issues relate to delivering the needed power densities and energies to appropriate targets and to insure that the coupling of energy is efficient and matches target requirements

  15. Beam Dynamics and Pulse Duration Control During Final Beam Bunching in Driver System for Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Katayama, Takeshi; Kawata, Shigeo; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Someya, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    Beam dynamics is investigated by multi-particle simulations during a final beam bunching in a driver system for heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The longitudinal bunch compression causes the beam instability induced by the strong space charge effect. The multi-particle simulation can indicate the emittance growth due to the longitudinal bunch compression. Dependence in the beam pulse duration is also investigated for effective pellet implosion in HIF. Not only the spatial nonuniformity of the beam illumination, but also the errors of the beam pulse duration cause changes of implosion dynamics. The allowable regime of the beam pulse duration for the effective fusion output becomes narrow with decreasing the input beam energy. The voltage accuracy requirement at the beam velocity modulator is also estimated for the final beam bunching. It is estimated that the integrated voltage error is allowable as a few percent.

  16. Magnetic confinement fusion energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grad, H

    1977-03-01

    Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion offers probably the only relatively clean energy solution with completely inexhaustible fuel and unlimited power capacity. The scientific and technological problem consists in magnetically confining a hot, dense plasma (pressure several to hundreds of atmospheres, temperature 10/sup 8/ degrees or more) for an appreciable fraction of a second. The scientific and mathematical problem is to describe the behavior, such as confinement, stability, flow, compression, heating, energy transfer and diffusion of this medium in the presence of electromagnetic fields just as we now can for air or steam. Some of the extant theory consists of applications, routine or ingenious, of known mathematical structures in the theory of differential equations and in traditional analysis. Other applications of known mathematical structures offer surprises and new insights: the coordination between sub-supersonic and elliptic-hyperbolic is fractured; supersonic propagation goes upstream; etc. Other completely nonstandard mathematical structures with significant theory are being rapidly uncovered (and somewhat less rapidly understood) such as non-elliptic variational equations and new types of weak solutions. It is these new mathematical structures which one should expect to supply the foundation for the next generation's pure mathematics, if history is a guide. Despite the substantial effort over a period of some twenty years, there are still basic and important scintific and mathematical discoveries to be made, lying just beneath the surface.

  17. Status of light ion inertial fusion research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reports on the use of high-brightness proton beams, extracted from axial pinch-reflex diodes mounted on the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Gamble II generator, to study light ion inertial fusion. Topics covered include the modular approach, ion beam brightness studies, light-ion beam transport, final focusing, the single diode approach, the inductive storage approach, an energy loss experiment, and future plans. Analysis of a modular inertial confinement fusion (ICF) system using axial pinch-reflex diodes shows that an operational window for transport of light-ion species exists. A proof-of-principle experiment for the required final focusing cell was conducted on Gamble II. Preliminary experiments using vacuum inductive storage and plasma opening switches have demonstrated factorof-three pulse compressions, with corresponding power and voltage multiplications for pulse durations of interest to PBFA II. The stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured in other experiments. It is demonstrated that about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the deuteron beam is focused on the target to about .25 MA/cm2. Includes 6 diagrams

  18. Electron-beam-excited gas laser research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Net energy gain in laser fusion places requirements on the laser that are not realized by any existing laser. Utilization of relativistic electron beams (REB's), a relatively new source for the excitation of gas laser media, may lead to new lasers that could satisfy these requirements. Already REB's have been utilized to excite gas laser media and produce gas lasers that have not been produced as successfully any other way. Electron-beam-excitation has produced electronic-transition dimer lasers that have not yet been produced by any other excitation scheme (for example, Xe2/ sup *(1)/, Kr:O(21S)/sup 2/, KrF/sup *(3)/). In addition, REB's have initiated chemical reactions to produce HF laser radiation with unique and promising results. Relativistic-electron-beam gas-laser research is continuing to lead to new lasers with unique properties. Results of work carried out at Sandia Laboratories in this pioneering effort of electron-beam-excited-gas lasers are reviewed. (U.S.)

  19. Inertial confinement fusion research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion is now popular again. In Europe, several institutes become very active. Japan, the US and the USSR continue their efforts on ICF. The research objectives of Japan is completely dedicated for the energy production to the peaceful use. The most developed data in the author's works are presented

  20. Plasma physics and nuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Gill, Richard D

    1981-01-01

    Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research covers the theoretical and experimental aspects of plasma physics and nuclear fusion. The book starts by providing an overview and survey of plasma physics; the theory of the electrodynamics of deformable media and magnetohydrodynamics; and the particle orbit theory. The text also describes the plasma waves; the kinetic theory; the transport theory; and the MHD stability theory. Advanced theories such as microinstabilities, plasma turbulence, anomalous transport theory, and nonlinear laser plasma interaction theory are also considered. The book furthe

  1. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash

  2. Maryland controlled fusion research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griem, H.R.; Liu, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the technical progress in four major areas of tokamak research: (a) L/H transition and edge turbulence and transport; (b) active control of microturbulence and transport; (c) major disruptions; and (d) the sawtooth crash.

  3. The technology benefits of inertial confinement fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, H T

    1999-05-26

    The development and demonstration of inertial fusion is incredibly challenging because it requires simultaneously controlling and precisely measuring parameters at extreme values in energy, space, and time. The challenges range from building megajoule (10{sup 6} J) drivers that perform with percent-level precision to fabricating targets with submicron specifications to measuring target performance at micron scale (10{sup {minus}6} m) with picosecond (10{sup {minus}12} s) time resolution. Over the past 30 years in attempting to meet this challenge, the inertial fusion community around the world has invented new technologies in lasers, particle beams, pulse power drivers, diagnostics, target fabrication, and other areas. These technologies have found applications in diverse fields of industry and science. Moreover, simply assembling the teams with the background, experience, and personal drive to meet the challenging requirements of inertial fusion has led to spin-offs in unexpected directions, for example, in laser isotope separation, extreme ultraviolet lithography for microelectronics, compact and inexpensive radars, advanced laser materials processing, and medical technology. The experience of inertial fusion research and development of spinning off technologies has not been unique to any one laboratory or country but has been similar in main research centers in the US, Europe, and Japan. Strengthening and broadening the inertial fusion effort to focus on creating a new source of electrical power (inertial fusion energy [IFE]) that is economically competitive and environmentally benign will yield rich rewards in technology spin-offs. The additional challenges presented by IFE are to make drivers affordable, efficient, and long-lived while operating at a repetition rate of a few Hertz; to make fusion targets that perform consistently at high-fusion yield; and to create target chambers that can repetitively handle greater than 100-MJ yields while producing minimal

  4. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reports contains some articles contributed to the named conference. These concern the heavy ion fusion program of the Federal Republic of Germany, heavy ion accelerators, the HIBALL projects, storage rings for heavy ion beams, transport of heavy ion beams, and target projects for fusion applications. (HSI)

  5. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  6. Accelerator ampersand Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations

  7. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  8. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  9. Academic Training: New Trends in Fusion Research

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    11, 12 and 13 October 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 11 October from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs, 12 and 13 October from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - 11 and 12 October in the Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 13 October in the Theory Conference Room, bldg. 4 New Trends in Fusion Research A. FASOLI / EPFL, Lausanne, CH The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to i...

  10. Academic Training: New Trends in Fusion Research

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2004-01-01

    11, 12 and 13 October 2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 11 October from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs, 12 and 13 October from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - 11 and 12 October in the Main Auditorium, bldg. 500, 13 October in the TH Amphitheatre New Trends in Fusion Research A. FASOLI / EPFL, Lausanne, CH The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to su...

  11. Research and development on vanadium alloys for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Rowcliffe, A.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matsui, H.; Abe, K. [Tohoku Univ. (Japan); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Osch, E. van [NERF, Petten (Netherlands); Kazakov, V.A. [RIAR, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation)

    1998-03-01

    The current status of research and development on unirradiated and irradiated V-Cr-Ti alloys intended for fusion reactor structural applications is reviewed, with particular emphasis on the flow and fracture behavior of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys. Recent progress on fabrication, joining, oxidation behavior, and the development of insulator coatings is also summarized. Fabrication of large (>500 kg) heats of V-4Cr-4Ti with properties similar to previous small laboratory heats has now been demonstrated. Impressive advances in the joining of thick sections of vanadium alloys using GTA and electron beam welds have been achieved in the past two years, although further improvements are still needed.

  12. LIBRA - a light ion beam fusion conceptual reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LIBRA light ion beam fusion commercial reactor study is a self-consistent conceptual design of a 330 MWe power plant with an accompanying economic analysis. Fusion targets are imploded by 4 MJ shaped pulses of 30 MeV Li ions at a rate of 3 Hz. The target gain is 80, leading to a yield of 320 MJ. The high intensity part of the ion pulse is delivered by 16 diodes through 16 separate z-pinch plasma channels formed in 100 torr of helium with trace amounts of lithium. The blanket is an array of porous flexible silicon carbind tubes with Li17Pb83 flowing downward through them. These tubes (INPORT units) shield the target chamber wall from both neutron damage and the shock overpressure of the target explosion. The target chamber is 'self-pumped' by the target explosion generated overpressure into a surge tank partially filled with Li17Pb83 that surrounds the target chamber. This scheme refreshes the chamber at the desired 3 Hz frequently without excessive pumping demands. The blanket multiplication is 1.2 and the tritium breeding ratio is 1.4. The direct capital cost of a 331 MWe LIBRA design is estimated to be 2843 Dollar/kWe while a 1200 MWe LIBRA design will cost approximately 1300 Dollar/kWe. (orig.)

  13. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations

  14. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division 1989 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    This report discusses the research being conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. The main topics covered are: heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; high-energy physics technology; and bevalac operations.

  15. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Annual Report summarizes the scientific results of work carried out in 1982 in the framework of a feasibility study for inertial confinement fusion with heavy ion beams funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology. The principal aim of this basic research program is the investigation of key problems and the identification of critical issues of the heavy ion ICF concept in the fields of accelerator research, atomic physics, target physics, and reactor design. The research is carried out by about ten working groups at various research centers and universities. One of the highlights in 1982 was a symposium held end of March at GSI which focussed on a critical analysis of the HIBALL accelerator concept. Whereas technical issues and hardware parameters were found feasible the beam dynamics in the storage rings turned out to be beyond the so far believed stability limits. As a consequence a revised accelerator scenario based on a lower charge state and a higher linac current has been investigated during the last year. First considerations were made on an experimental facility necessary for the study of high-intensity beam dynamics and of beam target interaction. Experimental studies of this kind will be of increasing importance for the future of the project. (orig.)

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  18. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, October 1, 1987--March 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification -- both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  19. New approaches to the economic evaluation of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic evaluation of fusion research to date has focussed on the benefits of essentially unlimited energy for future generations. In this paper it is shown that energy research in general, and fusion research in particular, also provides benefits in the short term, benefitting us today as well as future generations. Short-term benefits are the result of two distinct aspects of fusion research. First, fusion research provides information for decision making on both the continuing fusion research efforts and on other energy research programs. Second, fusion research provides an expectation of a future energy source thereby promoting accelerated consumption of existing fossil fuels today. Both short-term benefits can be quantitatively evaluated and both are quite substantial. Together, these short-term benefits form the primary economic rationale for fusion research

  20. Heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion and recent experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods to confine the fuel during the burn phase, magnetic confinement fusion (MCF), and inertial confinement fusion (ICF), are now believed to be technically feasible. Recent advances in laser fusion, and the progress toward high gain laser fusion considerably raise the probability, that it will be a laser driver to ignite the first high gain fusion pellet under laboratory conditions. The high efficiency (25%) and proven reliability of accelerators, as well as their ability to deliver high intensity beam pulses at a high repetition rate (≥1 Hz) are main assets of ion driven fusion. High energy density in matter induced by heavy ion beams is summarized, followed by an overview of development of plasma lenses for focusing of heavy ion beams and a discussion of energy loss in a dense Z-pinch plasma. (R.P.) 23 refs.; 8 figs

  1. Systems approach for condition management design: JET neutral beam system-A fusion case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maturation of any new technology can be coarsely divided into three stages of a development lifecycle: (1) fundamental research, (2) experimental rig development and testing through to (3) commercialization. With the enhancement of machines like JET, the building of ITER and the initiation of DEMO design activities, the fusion community is moving from stages 1 and 2 towards stage 3. One of the consequences of this transition will be a shift in emphasis from scientific achievement to maximizing machine reliability and availability. The fusion community should therefore be preparing itself for this shift by examining all methods and tools utilized in established engineering sectors that might help to improve these fundamental performance parameters. To this end, the Culham Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE) has proactively engaged with UK industry to examine whether the development of condition management (CM) systems could help improve such performance parameters. This paper describes an initial CM design case study on the JET neutral beam system. The primary output of this study was the development of a CM design methodology that captures existing experience in fault detection, and classification as well as new methods for fault diagnosis. A summary of the methods used and the potential benefits of data fusion are presented here.

  2. A 3-year plan for beam science in the heavy-ion fusion virtual national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 1998, LBNL Director Charles Shank and LLNL Director Bruce Tarter signed a Memorandum of Agreement to create the Heavy-Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF-VNL) with the purpose of improving the efficiency and productivity of heavy ion research through coordination of the two laboratories' efforts under one technical director. In 1999, PPPL Director Robert Goldston signed the VNL MOA for PPPL's heavy-ion fusion group to join the VNL. LBNL and LLNL each contribute about 45% of the $10.6 M/yr trilab VNL effort, and PPPL contributes currently about 10% of the VNL effort. The three labs carry out collaborative experiments, theory and simulations of a variety of intense beam scientific issues described below. The tri-lab HIF VNL program is part of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) fusion program. A short description of the four major tasks areas of HIF-VNL research is given in the next section. The task areas are: High Current Experiment, Final Focus/Chamber Transport, Source/Injector/Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), and Theory/Simulation. As a result of the internal review, more detailed reviews of the designs, costs and schedules for some of the tasks have been completed, which will provide more precision in the scheduled completion dates of tasks. The process for the ongoing engineering reviews and governance for the future management of tasks is described in section 3. A description of the major milestones and scientific deliverables for flat guidance budgets are given in section 4. Section 5 describes needs for enabling technology development for future experiments that require incremental funding

  3. Beyond ITER: neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, R

    2014-02-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  4. Fusion Energy and Stopping Power in a Degenerate DT Pellet Driven by a Laser-Accelerated Proton Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.; Jafari, S.; Khanbabaei, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we have improved the fast ignition scheme in order to have more authority needed for high-energy-gain. Due to the more penetrability and energy deposition of the particle beams in fusion targets, we employ a laser-to-ion converter foil as a scheme for generating energetic ion beams to ignite the fusion fuel. We find the favorable intensity and wavelength of incident laser by evaluating the laser-proton conversion gain. By calculating the source-target distance, proton beam power and energy are estimated. Our analysis is generalized to the plasma degeneracy effects which can increase the fusion gain several orders of magnitude by decreasing the ion-electron collisions in the plasma. It is found that the wavelength of 0.53 μm and the intensity of about 1020 W/cm2, by saving about 10% conversion coefficient, are the suitable measured values for converting a laser into protons. Besides, stopping power and fusion burn calculations have been done in degenerate and non-degenerate plasma mediums. The results indicate that in the presence of degeneracy, the rate of fusion enhances. Supported by the Research Council of University of Guilan

  5. Inertial confinement fusion driven by heavy ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy ion inertial confinement fusion is reviewed with emphasis on the physics of fusion targets for direct and indirect drive, on radio-frequency and induction linear accelerators as the major options for reactor drivers, and on accelerator and plasma target experiments for heavy ion fusion, now starting at the SIS/ESR accelerator in Darmstadt. (author)

  6. State of controlled nuclear fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a commercial fusion reactor requires an adequate solution to the problems of heating and confinement of the nuclear fuel, as well as a considerable effort in materials technology and reactor engineering. A general discussion is presented of the status of the research connected with the most advanced concepts, indicating in each case the present situation and the main problems that must be solved to meet the requeriments estimated for power reactors. In particular, the laser-inertial concept is reviewed in detail. (author)

  7. The Role of the JET Project in Global Fusion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1983-01-01

    The aim of nuclear fusion research is to make fusion energy available as a new energy source. Fusion processes occur naturally in the sun, where hydrogen nuclei release energy by combining to form helium. A fusion reactor on earth will require even higher temperatures than in the interior...... of the sun, and it will be based on deuterium and tritium reactions. JET (Joint European Torus) is a major fusion experiment now under construction near Abingdon in the UK It is aimed at producing conditions approximating those necessary in a fusion reactor. The results expected from JET should permit...

  8. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers

  9. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  10. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioative beams

    OpenAIRE

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out) reactions using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because intensities of radioactive beams are in most of the cases significantly lower than the ones of the stable beams, reactions with the highest radioactive beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland who investigated the same nuclei.

  11. Developing models for simulation of pinched-beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For heavy-ion fusion energy applications, Mark and Yu have derived hydrodynamic models for numerical simulation of energetic pinched-beams including self-pinches and external-current pinches. These pinched-beams are applicable to beam propagation in fusion chambers and to the US High Temperature Experiment. The closure of the Mark-Yu model is obtained with adiabatic assumptions mathematically analogous to those of Chew, Goldberger, and Low for MHD. Features of this hydrodynamic beam model are compared with a kinetic treatment

  12. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described

  13. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Ronald C.

    1980-08-01

    A review is given of the technical programs carried out by the Plasma Fusion Center. The major divisions of work areas are applied plasma research, confinement experiments, fusion technology and engineering, and fusion systems. Some objectives and results of each program are described. (MOW)

  14. Customizable scientific web portal for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Web browsers have become a major application interface for participating in scientific experiments such as those in magnetic fusion. The recent advances in web technologies motivated the deployment of interactive web applications with rich features. In the scientific world, web applications have been deployed in portal environments. When used in a scientific research environment, such as fusion experiments, web portals can present diverse sources of information in a unified interface. However, the design and development of a scientific web portal has its own challenges. One such challenge is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite the high volume of information and number of tools it presents. Another challenge is that the visual output of the web portal must not be overwhelming to the end users, despite the high volume of data generated by fusion experiments. Therefore, the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of end users. In order to meet these challenges, the design and implementation of a web portal needs to support high interactivity and user customization. A web portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide by providing multiple services, such as real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access and interactive data visualization. The web portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing a collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant messaging services. The portal's design utilizes the multi-tier software architecture and has been implemented utilizing web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services, which allows users to create a unique, personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. This paper describes the software

  15. Researches on a reactor core in heavy ion inertial fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kondo, S; Iinuma, T; Kubo, K; Kato, H; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a study on a fusion reactor core is presented in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF), including the heavy ion beam (HIB) transport in a fusion reactor, a HIB interaction with a background gas, reactor cavity gas dynamics, the reactor gas backflow to the beam lines, and a HIB fusion reactor design. The HIB has remarkable preferable features to release the fusion energy in inertial fusion: in particle accelerators HIBs are generated with a high driver efficiency of ~30-40%, and the HIB ions deposit their energy inside of materials. Therefore, a requirement for the fusion target energy gain is relatively low, that would be ~50 to operate a HIF fusion reactor with a standard energy output of 1GW of electricity. In a fusion reactor the HIB charge neutralization is needed for a ballistic HIB transport. Multiple mechanical shutters would be installed at each HIB port at the reactor wall to stop the blast waves and the chamber gas backflow, so that the accelerator final elements would be protected from the ...

  16. Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A

    2002-09-01

    This article provides an overview of current U.S. research on accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion, that is, inertial fusion driven by intense beams of heavy ions with the goal of energy production. The concept, beam requirements, approach, and major issues are introduced. An overview of a number of new experiments is presented. These include: the High Current Experiment now underway at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; studies of advanced injectors (and in particular an approach based on the merging of multiple beamlets), being investigated experimentally at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; the Neutralized (chamber) Transport Experiment being assembled at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and smaller experiments at the University of Maryland and at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The comprehensive program of beam simulations and theory is outlined. Finally, prospects and plans for further development of this promising approach to fusion energy are discussed.

  17. International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFERC project is planned to encourage the ITER tokamak project and the fusion demonstration reactor development. In the project, coordination on the design and R and D of the DEMO fusion reactor, fusion reactor simulations and ITER remote experiments are being conducted at JAEA Aomori R and D site. In the present paper, broader approach activities toward realization of fusion power plants such as conceptual design of the DEMO reactor, R and D of fusion materials, testing of fusion reactor components and systems and preparation for the ITER remote experiment are reviewed. (author)

  18. Focused neutral beams with low chaotic divergence for plasma heating and diagnostics in magnetic fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of neutral beam injectors has been developed in the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for plasma heating and diagnostics in modern fusion devices. Ion optical system of these injectors is optimized to produce ion beams with low angular divergence. In order to provide beam focusing, the grids are formed to be spherical segments. Such geometrically focused neutral beams are particularly advantageous for plasma diagnostics when high spatial resolution is required. Another application of these beams is plasma heating in the machines with narrow ports through which only small size, high power density beams can be transported. (author)

  19. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, Technical Research Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report gives a summary of Plasma Fusion Center research activities. Particular emphasis is placed on describing (a) technical progress during the past year, (b) future plans, and (c) research programs and objectives at the individual research group level. In particular, the report covers the following: (1) applied plasma physics, (2) toroidal confinement experiments, (3) mirror confinement experiments, (4) fusion technology and engineering, and (5) fusion systems

  20. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as open-quotes driversclose quotes for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a open-quotes taxonomyclose quotes of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area

  1. European fusion energy research and international ITER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific feasibility of fusion energy has been demonstrated in recent tokamak experiments in Europe, Japan and the United States. The basic features of the confinement of high temperature hydrogen plasmas by strong magnetic fields are reasonably well understood, which creates a high level of confidence in the performance of the next step fusion devices. The most powerful fusion device in the world is the Joint European Torus (JET), which has ensured the European Fusion Programme its leading position in international fusion research. The nest step fusion reactor, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), is an international project involving the cooperation of the European Union, Japan, The Russian Federation and USA. The overall objective of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion power for peaceful purposes. Membership in the European Union would automatically make Finland a participant in the Community Fusion Programme and the international ITER project. (orig.)

  2. Parasitic components from charge transfer in neutral beams for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1978-02-01

    Charge exchange within accelerating grids in neutral beam systems produces parasitic beam components which degrade the performance of the systems. These components also change the plasma confinement properties at the target. This note discusses parasitic beams produced in three types of grid systems: (1) TFTR/MFTF sources, (2) accel-decel grids for low energy beams, and (3) the JSC negative ion system.

  3. Operating large controlled thermonuclear fusion research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MIT Tara Tandem Mirror is a large, state of the art controlled thermonuclear fusion research facility. Over the six years of its design, implementation, and operation, every effort was made to minimize cost and maximize performance by using the best and latest hardware, software, and scientific and operational techniques. After reviewing all major DOE fusion facilities, an independent DOE review committee concluded that the Tara operation was the most automated and efficient of all DOE facilities. This paper includes a review of the key elements of the Tara design, construction, operation, management, physics milestones, and funding that led to this success. We emphasize a chronological description of how the system evolved from the proposal stage to a mature device with an emphasis on the basic philosophies behind the implementation process. This description can serve both as a qualitative and quantitative database for future large experiment planning. It includes actual final costs and manpower spent as well as actual run and maintenance schedules, number of data shots, major system failures, etc. The paper concludes with recommendations for the next generation of facilities. 13 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Independent experts give strong backing to Euro fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An independent scientific team has spent 1990 reviewing Europe's fusion research programme for the European Communities Commission. The 1990 evaluation board headed by Prof. U. Colombo, ENEA chairman, Italy's energy research commission, recommends 'maintaining fusion as a priority in the Community's energy research strategy'

  5. Progress in inertial confinement fusion with light ion beams at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light ion beams offer the possibility of a very efficient and low-cost driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The energy deposition is straightforward since the ions deposit their energy in a dense plasma that prevents microscopic instabilities from producing preheating electrons. The difficulty with light ions has been the focusability. In 1984, a proof-of-principle experiment on Proto I, at the same current density and charge density required for inertial fusion on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II), showed that intense ion beams can be focused to the required divergence with the correct local physics. In 1985, diode and accelerator technology was examined on PBFA I at the same current and diode radius required for fusion on PBFA II. PBFA II finished its construction phase with a successful first shot on December 11, 1985. The accelerator is now being characterized and brought to full operational status

  6. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.;

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...

  7. Progress of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, we briefly describe the recent progress of ICF research. Four topics in this field are selected which are considered as the most important at present. These are the 'Cannonball' target; high power krypton fluoride (KrF) laser; Ion beam diodes and imploding foil/plasma. About the 'Cannonball' target, its principle and its advantages over the ordinary ablation drive are given. It is particularly indicated that by using this type of target, the Japanese researchers have gotten, thus far, the highest yield of neutrons in the world, i. e. 4 x 1010 neutrons per pulse. The important problem of hole sealing of such target is also discussed. The second topic described above is the powerful KrF excimer laser pumped by electron beams. This laser is now generally regarded as one of more promising lasers as a driver for ICF. Here we briefly describe the complex kinetics of pumping, quenching, radiation and absorption of this very interesting laser. A compression of KrF laser pulse length from about 100 nanosecond (ns) to a few ns is necessary for ICF work. We describe three of the compression methods, namely: pulse spletting and then stacking; Raman back scattering and the mixing of these two. In the third topic it is discussed on the present status of ion beam production, especially on the diodes which produce the ion beams. Three kinds of the diodes are mentioned. These are pinched reflex diode (PRD), diode with externally applied magnetic field and hybrid amphion diode. New works of Reiden-IV, in Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka and Etigol in Nagaoka Technical University, Nagaoka are also reported. The 4th topic concerned is the imploding foil/plasma. This method can produce plasma of very high temperature and very intensive soft X-ray which may either be used to produce X-ray laser or used as a new driver for ICF

  8. Software problems in magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main world effort in magnetic fusion research involves studying the plasma in a Tokamak device. Four large Tokamaks are under construction (TFTR in USA, JET in Europe, T15 in USSR and JT60 in Japan). To understand the physical phenomena that occur in these costly devices, it is generally necessary to carry out extensive numerical calculations. These computer simulations make use of sophisticated numerical methods and demand high power computers. As a consequence they represent a substantial investment. To reduce software costs, the computer codes are more and more often exhanged among scientists. Standardization (STANDARD FORTRAN, OLYMPUS system) and good documentation (CPC program library) are proposed to make codes exportable. Centralized computing centers would also help in the exchange of codes and ease communication between the staff at different laboratories. (orig.)

  9. Major achievements and challenges of fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tendler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The ITER project is truly at the frontier of knowledge, a collective effort to explore the tantalizing future of free, clean and inexhaustible energy offered by nuclear fusion. Where the Large Hadron Collider at CERN pushes the boundaries of physics to find the origins of matter, the ITER Project seeks to give humans an endless stream of power which could have potentially game-changing consequences for the entire planet. Seminal contributions to the general physics knowledge accomplished by the plasma physics research for the benefit of the ITER project will be brought to light. The legacy of Professor H Alfvén within the framework of the ITER project will be described.

  10. The role of innovations in fusion research. Artsimovich memorial lecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research traditionally is opened with the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture, this time given by Academician Ryutov. Using some examples from the field of fusion he illustrates the role of subsequent technological developments on the bringing to fruition of creative ideas in physics. The desirability to find forms of organization within the fusion research program that would allow the continued exploration of non-conventional ideas and alternative concepts is advocated

  11. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  12. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately

  13. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants

  14. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  15. Nuclear Fusion Research Understanding Plasma-Surface Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Robert E.H

    2005-01-01

    It became clear in the early days of fusion research that the effects of the containment vessel (erosion of "impurities") degrade the overall fusion plasma performance. Progress in controlled nuclear fusion research over the last decade has led to magnetically confined plasmas that, in turn, are sufficiently powerful to damage the vessel structures over its lifetime. This book reviews current understanding and concepts to deal with this remaining critical design issue for fusion reactors. It reviews both progress and open questions, largely in terms of available and sought-after plasma-surface interaction data and atomic/molecular data related to these "plasma edge" issues.

  16. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  17. High illumination uniformity scheme with 32 beams configuration for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Gu, Chun; Xu, Lixin; Zhou, Shenlei

    2016-04-01

    The self-adapting algorithms are improved to optimize a beam configuration in the direct drive laser fusion system with the solid state lasers. A configuration of 32 laser beams is proposed for achieving a high uniformity illumination, with a root-mean-square deviation at 10-4 level. In our optimization, the parameters such as beam number, beam arrangement, and beam intensity profile are taken into account. The illumination uniformity robustness versus the parameters such as intensity profile deviations, power imbalance, intensity profile noise, the pointing error, and the target position error is also discussed. In this study, the model is assumed a solid-sphere illumination, and refraction effects of incident light on the corona are not considered. Our results may have a potential application in the design of the direct-drive laser fusion of the Shen Guang-II Upgrading facility (SG-II-U, China).

  18. Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.

  19. Some implications for mirror research of the coupling between fusion economics and fusion physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis is made that physics understanding and innovation represent two of the most important ingredients of any program to develop fusion power. In this context the coupling between these and the econmics of yet-to-be realized fusion power plants is explored. The coupling is two-way: realistic evaluations of the economic (and environmental) requirements for fusion power systems can influence the physics objectives of present-day fusion research programs; physics understanding and innovative ideas can favorably impact the future economics of fusion power systems. Of equal importance is the role that physics/innovation can have on the time scale for the first practical demonstration of fusion power. Given the growing worldwide need for long-term solutions to the problem of energy it is claimed to be crucial that fusion research be carried out on a broad base and in a spirit that both facilitates the growth of physics understanding and fosters innovation. Developing this theme, some examples of mirror-based fusion system concepts are given that illustrate the coupling here described

  20. Research of beam smoothing technologies using CPP, SSD, and PS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Li, Ping; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Qiang; Wang, Yuancheng; Tian, Xiaocheng; Xu, Dangpeng; Dong, Jun; Zhu, Qihua

    2015-02-01

    Precise physical experiments place strict requirements on target illumination uniformity in Inertial Confinement Fusion. To obtain a smoother focal spot and suppress transverse SBS in large aperture optics, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) was studied combined with continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS). New ways of PS are being developed to improve the laser irradiation uniformity and solve LPI problems in indirect-drive laser fusion. The near field and far field properties of beams using polarization smoothing were studied and compared, including birefringent wedge and polarization control array. As more parameters can be manipulated in a combined beam smoothing scheme, quad beam smoothing was also studies. Simulation results indicate through adjusting dispersion directions of one-dimensional (1-D) SSD beams in a quad, two-dimensional SSD can be obtained. Experiments have been done on SG-III laser facility using CPP and Multi-FM SSD. The research provides some theoretical and experimental basis for the application of CPP, SSD and PS on high-power laser facilities.

  1. Development and Testing of Atomic Beam-Based Plasma Edge Diagnostics in the CIEMAT Fusion Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report the development of plasma edge diagnostic based on atomic beam techniques fir their application in the CIEMAT fusion devices is described. The characterisation of the beams in laboratory experiments at the CSIC, together with first results in the Torsatron TJ-II are reported. Two types of beam diagnostics have been developed: a thermal (effusive) Li and a supersonic, pulsed He beams. This work has been carried out in collaboration between the institutions mentioned above under partial financial support by EURATOM. (Author) 17 refs

  2. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  3. International information exchange in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formal and informal agreements exist between the US and several other countries, assuring the unrestricted exchange of magnetic fusion information. The Fusion Energy Library at Oak Ridge National Laboratory uses the US Department of Energy standard distribution system and exchange agreements to ensure the receipt of current reports. Selective dissemination of information, computer networks, and exchange programs are additional means for information gathering. The importance of these means as they relate to the fusion program in the US and specifically at ORNL is discussed

  4. Ion beam requirements for fast ignition of inertial fusion targets

    CERN Document Server

    Honrubia, J J

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam requirements for fast ignition are investigated by numerical simulation taking into account new effects such as ion beam divergence not included before. We assume that ions are generated by the TNSA scheme in a curved foil placed inside a re-entrant cone and focused on the cone apex or beyond. From the focusing point to the compressed core ions propagate with a given divergence angle. Ignition energies are obtained for two compressed fuel configurations heated by proton and carbon ion beams. The dependence of the ignition energies on the beam divergence angle and on the position of the ion beam focusing point have been analysed. Comparison between TNSA and quasi-monoenergetic ions is also shown.

  5. New Capabilities for Modeling Intense Beams in Heavy Ion Fusion Drivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant advances have been made in modeling the intense beams of heavy-ion beam-driven Inertial Fusion Energy (Heavy Ion Fusion). In this paper, a roadmap for a validated, predictive driver simulation capability, building on improved codes and experimental diagnostics, is presented, as are examples of progress. The Mesh Refinement and Particle-in-Cell methods were integrated in the WARP code; this capability supported an injector experiment that determined the achievable current rise time, in good agreement with calculations. In a complementary effort, a new injector approach based on the merging of ∼100 small beamlets was simulated, its basic feasibility established, and an experimental test designed. Time-dependent 3D simulations of the High Current Experiment (HCX) were performed, yielding voltage waveforms for an upcoming study of bunch-end control. Studies of collective beam modes which must be taken into account in driver designs were carried out. The value of using experimental data to tomographically ''synthesize'' a 4D beam particle distribution and so initialize a simulation was established; this work motivated further development of new diagnostics which yield 3D projections of the beam phase space. Other developments, including improved modeling of ion beam focusing and transport through the fusion chamber environment and onto the target, and of stray electrons and their effects on ion beams, are briefly noted

  6. Research on information fusion for engineering system integrated health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhanbao; Li, Xingshan; Sun, Cong; Liu, Qi

    2006-11-01

    Integrated Health Management technology is the emerging paradigm in system supervision and maintenance area, and it is the key to achieving true condition-based maintenance. But this task is complicated by the extremely large amount of the data available, the existence of uncertainties, and interactive engineering system operational conditions. Therefore, it is reasonable to research the health information fusion technology to achieve better performance and a higher level of autonomy for IHM system. This paper analyses the requirements of the information fusion in an IHM system, describes the fusion application areas, proposes the Health Sensing Unit (HSU) concept, and designs the distributed hierarchical fusion architecture. Using the confidence distance matrix as the measure of HSU's performance, this paper proposes a fusion algorithm to fuse multiple HSUs' output, and figure out the system health index according to the maximum likelihood principle. The simulation result yields conclusive evidence that fusion can be very valuable in the IHM technology for the system supervision and maintenance.

  7. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas

  8. Plasma physics and controlled fusion research during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    2001-06-01

    A review is given on the historical development of research on plasma physics and controlled fusion. The potentialities are outlined for fusion of light atomic nuclei, with respect to the available energy resources and the environmental properties. Various approaches in the research on controlled fusion are further described, as well as the present state of investigation and future perspectives, being based on the use of a hot plasma in a fusion reactor. Special reference is given to the part of this work which has been conducted in Sweden, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. Temperatures above the limit for ignition of self-sustained fusion reactions, i.e. at more than hundred million degrees, have been reached in large experiments and under conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the power losses. An energy producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient when being based on the present state of art. Future international research has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basic investigations and new ideas.

  9. Approximations in fusion and breakup reactions induced by radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas, W.H.Z.; Carlin Filho, N.; Hussein, M.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lubian, J. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Romanelli, A. [Facultad de Ingenieria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Some commonly used approximations for complete fusion and breakup transmission coefficients in collisions of weakly bound projectiles at near barrier energies are assessed. We show that they strongly depend on the adopted classical trajectory and can be significantly improved with proper treatment of the incident and emergent currents in the WKB approximation. (author)

  10. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1981-September 1982. Fiscal year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Bouret, C. (eds.)

    1983-05-01

    This report covers the activities of LBL's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division (AFRD) during 1982. In nuclear physics, the Uranium Beams Improvement Project was concluded early in the year, and experimentation to exploit the new capabilities began in earnest. Technical improvement of the Bevalac during the year centered on a heavy-ion radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) as part of the local injector upgrade, and we collaborated in studies of high-energy heavy-ion collision facilities. The Division continued its collaboration with Fermilab to design a beam-cooling system for the Tevatron I proton-antiprotron collider and to engineer the needed cooling components for the antiproton. The high-field magnet program set yet another record for field strength in an accelerator-type dipole magnet (9.2 T at 1.8 K). The Division developed the design for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a 1.3-GeV electron storage ring designed explicitly (with low beam emittance and 12 long straight sections) to generate high-brilliance synchrotron light from insertion devices. The Division's Magnetic Fusion Energy group continued to support major experiments at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and General Atomic Co. by developing positive-ion-based neutral-beam injectors. Progress was made toward converting our major source-test facility into a long-pulse national facility, the Neutral Beam Engineering Test Facility, which was completed on schedule and within budget in 1983. Heavy Ion Fusion research focused on planning, theoretical studies, and beam-transport experiments leading toward a High Temperature Experiment - a major test of this promising backup approach to fusion energy.

  11. Heavy-ion fusion driver research at Berkeley and Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy is restructuring the U.S. fusion program to place a greater emphasis on science. As a result, we will not build the ILSE or Elise heavy ion fusion (HIF) facilities described in 1992 and 1994 conferences. Instead we are performing smaller experiments to address important scientific questions. Accelerator technology for HIF is similar to that for other applications such as high energy physics and nuclear physics. The beam physics, however, differs from the physics encountered in most accelerators, where the pressure arising from the beam temperature (emittance) is the dominant factor determining beam size and focusing system design. In HIF, space charge is the dominant feature, leading us into a parameter regime where.the beam plasma frequency becomes comparable to the betatron frequency. Our experiments address the physics of non-neutral plasmas in this novel regime. Because the beam plasma frequency is low, Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations provide a good description of most of our experiments. Accelerators for HIF consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss experiments in injection, combining, and bending

  12. Finnish Fusion Research Programme Yearbook 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the national energy research programmes funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry and from 1995 by TEKES. National organization for fusion research is necessary for efficient and successful participation in international fusion programmes. FFUSION programme serves well for this purpose and it made possible to establish relations and the dialogue with the European Fusion Programme. The process led to the Finnish Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The first period of the FFUSION programme (1993-1994) was preparation for the association to the Community Programme. The strategy was to emphasize fusion technology parallel with the basic fusion and plasma physics and to activate the related Finnish industry to collaborate and participate in the FFUSION programme and later in the European Fusion Programme. The key element in the strategy is the focusing our fairly small R and D effort to a few topics, which increases possibilities to be competitive in Europe. The physics programme in FFUSION deals mainly with theoretical and computational studies of radio-frequency heating in tokamak plasmas. Technology programme started with prestudies in 1993 and it concentrates into two areas: fusion reactor materials and remote handling systems. (8 figs., 3 tabs.)

  13. Experimental research on indirectly-driven fast ignition in the research center of laser fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weimin; Shan, Lianqiang; Liu, Hongjie; Gu, Yuqiu; Ding, Yongkun; Zhang, Baohan

    2011-10-01

    Compared with central ignition of laser fusion, fast ignition separates compression and ignition thus it can relax the requirements on the implosion symmetry and the driven energy. Since 2008, the Research Center of Laser Fusion has begun the experimental researches on fast ignition based on Shenguang and SILEX-I laser facilities. The small scale cone-in-shell target for fast ignition was pre-compressed by the Shenguang II eight 260J/2ns/3 ω laser beams indirectly since beam smoothing was not available currently. The maximum density of the compressed cone-in-shell target 1.3 ns after the lasers' irradiation on the inside wall of hohlraum is about 4.8 g/cm3, and the implosion velocity is close to 1.9*107 cm/s, which are well consistent with the simulation results with two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code. Experiments on the production and the transport of hot electrons were performed on SILEX-I 200TW femtosecond laser facility. The laser-hot electrons conversion efficiency of metal film target was measured to be 10% ~20% with various laser parameters. The transport of hot electrons over hundreds of microns was carried out successfully in experiment by the use of axially symmetrical two-layer target.

  14. Proof-of-Concept Experiments for Negative Ion Driver Beams for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negative halogen ion beams have recently been proposed as heavy ion fusion drivers. They would avoid the problem of electron accumulation in positive ion beams, and could be efficiently photo-detached to neutrals if desired. Initial experiments using chlorine produced a current density of 45 mA/cm2 of 99.5% atomic negative Cl with an e/Cl- ratio as low as 7:1 and good emittance

  15. Transverse beam dynamics in recirculating accelerators for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A conceptual design for a circular induction accelerator has been proposed as a driver for heavy-ion fusion. In such an accelerator, errors in dipole strength and quadrupole alignment affect the transverse motion of the beam centroid. Analytic and numerical estimates are made of the beam-centroid displacement due to these errors, and a steering algorithm to correct the transverse mismatch from these errors is described and tested numerically

  16. Negative-ion-based neutral beams for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To maximize the usefulness of an engineering test reactor (e.g., ITER, TIBER), it is highly desirable that it operate under steady-state conditions. The most attractive option for maintaining the circulating current needed in the center of the plasma is the injection of powerful beams of neutral deuterium atoms. The beam simultaneously heats the plasma. At the energies required, in excess of 500 keV, such beams can be made by accelerating D- ions and then removing the electron. Sources are being developed that generate the D- ions in the volume of a specially constructed plasma discharge, without the addition of cesium. These sources must operate with minimum gas flow, to avoid stripping the D- beam, and with minimum electron output. We are designing at LBL highly efficient electrostatic accelerators that combine electric strong-focusing with dc acceleration and offer the possibility of varying the beam energy at constant current while minimizing breakdown. Some form of rf acceleration may also be required. To minimize irradiation of the ion sources and accelerators, the D- beam can be transported through a maze in the neutron shielding. The D- ions can be converted to neutrals in a gas or plasma target, but advances in laser and mirror technology may make possible very efficient photodetachment systems by the time an ETR becomes operational. 9 refs., 4 figs

  17. Customizable Scientific Web Portal for Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Web browser has become one of the major application interfaces for remotely participating in magnetic fusion experiments. Recently in other areas, web portals have begun to be deployed. These portals are used to present very diverse sources of information in a unified way. While a web portal has several benefits over other software interfaces, such as providing single point of access for multiple computational services, and eliminating the need for client software installation, the design and development of a web portal has unique challenges. One of the challenges is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite a high volume of tools and information that it presents. Another challenge is the visual output on the web portal often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments; therefore the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of users. An appropriate software architecture and web technologies can meet these problems. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It utilizes a multi-tier software architecture, and web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. The users can create a unique personalized working environment to fit their own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant message services. Furthermore, the web portal will provide a mechanism to allow users to create their own applications on the web portal as well as bridging capabilities to external applications such as

  18. Customisable Scientific Web Portal for Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Web browser has become one of the major application interfaces for remotely participating in magnetic fusion. Web portals are used to present very diverse sources of information in a unified way. While a web portal has several benefits over other software interfaces, such as providing single point of access for multiple computational services, and eliminating the need for client software installation, the design and development of a web portal has unique challenges. One of the challenges is that a web portal needs to be fast and interactive despite a high volume of tools and information that it presents. Another challenge is the visual output on the web portal often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments; therefore the applications and information should be customizable depending on the needs of users. An appropriate software architecture and web technologies can meet these problems. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It utilizes a multi-tier software architecture, and web 2.0 technologies, such as AJAX, Django, and Memcached, to develop a highly interactive and customizable user interface. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, shared visualization and online instant message services. Furthermore, the web portal will provide a mechanism to allow users to create their own applications on the web portal as well as bridging capabilities to external applications such as Twitter and other social networks. In this series of slides, we describe the software architecture of this scientific web portal and our experiences in utilizing web 2.0 technologies. A

  19. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D0 and T0 beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T0 + T+ space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D2 target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 1015/s, 7 x 1015/s, or 1.6 x 1016/s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm2

  20. Research and development toward realization of nuclear fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), a part of National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS), conducts fundamental research of nuclear fusion power, which can generate energy from seawater. The research is centered on three main projects: (1) Large Helical Device (LHD) experiments, (2) computational simulations for experimental reactors, and (3) nuclear fusion engineering. This article introduces the basic principle of nuclear fusion power and the technologies that have been developed up to now, and then discusses future prospects. At first, in order to explain why human beings needs nuclear fusion power, the advantages of nuclear fusion power are described in comparison with other energy sources in terms of energy demand, available resources, carbon dioxide emission, and so on. Then, the current technological status of Helical method, which is being developed at our institute, and Tokamak method and other methods, which are being developed worldwide, as well as the reaction conditions for nuclear fusion are introduced. Furthermore, the future possibilities of nuclear fusion power mainly with Helical method but also with Tokamak method, as well as the outlook for the establishment of prototype reactor are discussed. (S.K.)

  1. Light ion beams as the driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the high costs associated with producing the > or approx. =1 MJ, 10 ns pulse required to initiate a pellet, the efficiency and relatively low cost of pulse power driven ion beams makes this approach particularly attractive both for proof-of-principle and for reactors in the future. Although pulse power technology for producing multimegavolt and multimegampere electric pulses is well-established, the coupling of this energy into ion beams focused onto targets requires further work. During the last six years, focused ion beam intensity has been improved more than five orders of magnitude to a value of approx.1012 W/cm2. An additional factor of 40 in focused power density will be required; this will be provided by the PBFA II accelerator now being designed and scheduled for completion in 1985. This paper will briefly describe how pulse power systems deliver energy to ion sources, how beams are generated and focused, and a few examples of target irradiation experiments. Finally, a concept for delivering beams to pellets in the center of a reactor wall will be described

  2. Fusion research and technology records in INIS database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of a survey study ''''A survey on publications in Fusion Research and Technology. Science and Technology Indicators in Fusion R and T'''' by the same author on Fusion R and T records in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) bibliographic database. In that study, for the first time, all scientometric and bibliometric information contained in a bibliographic database, using INIS records, is analyzed and quantified, specific to a selected field of science and technology. A variety of new science and technology indicators which can be used for evaluating research and development activities is also presented in that study that study

  3. Spherical tokamak research for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between ITER and the commercial fusion reactor, there are many technological problems to be solved such as cost, neutron and steady-state operation. In the conceptual design of VECTOR and Slim CS reactors it was shown that the key is 'low aspect ratio'. The spherical tokamak (ST) has been expected as the base for fusion reactors. In US, ST is considered as a non-superconducting reactor for use in the neutron irradiation facility. Conceptual design of the superconducting ST reactor is conducted in Japan and Korea independently. In the present article, the prospect of the ST reactor design is discussed. (author)

  4. Magnetic fusion energy research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes final work by the Plasma Theory Branch for the Department of Energy Magnetic Fusion Office under contract EX-76-A-34-1006. This report is divided into four parts. First, there is a final disposition of numerical codes developed under this contract. Second, there is a summary of work completed since the last annual report. Third, there is a series of final recommendations to the Department of Energy Magnetic Fusion Office. These recommendations generally concern: (a) transport, (b) MHD stability, and (c) heating

  5. 1983 Annual technical report on inertial fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the laser fusion program at KMS Fusion is presented. A two-beam laser (1053 nm and 527 nm) system is used for the implosion physics. Stimulated Raman scattering is used to examine the implosion region for high-energy electrons. Holographic and fringe analysis techniques are also used in the diagnostics of the plasma. Computational techniques based on two-plasmon decay are shock-fitting techniques in Lagrangian hydrocodes are also described. Glass shell technology for laser targets is given. The design of the Chemically Pumped Iodine Laser (CPIL) is also presented. 86 refs., 46 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as open-quote open-quote drivers close-quote close-quote for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a open-quote open-quote taxonomy close-quote close-quote of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Applications of Research Reactors Towards Research on Materials for Nuclear Fusion Technology. Proceedings of a Technical Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of materials under development for Generation IV concepts. International collaboration among MTRs and specialized facilities has been identified as integral to progress in fusion development as well as enhancing reactor utilization. This publication specifies which areas of research remain in the qualification of structural materials and components, and has detailed the characteristics of many research reactors and devices that can accomplish an important portion of these necessary studies. This publication is the outcome of two recent IAEA sponsored meetings under its programme to enhance the utilization and collaboration of research reactor and material test facilities: - Consultancy meeting on Role of Research Reactors in Materials Research for Nuclear Fusion Technology, 13-15 December 2010, IAEA, Vienna; - Technical meeting on Materials under High Energy and High Intensity Neutron Fluxes for Nuclear Fusion Technology, 27-29 June 2011, IAEA, Vienna. These meetings brought together representatives from MTRs, spallation neutron sources, multiple beam irradiation facilities, material scientists as well as fusion community representatives to discuss the current state of fusion research and to plot necessary studies and modes of research collaboration

  8. Study of ion beam-initiated inertial-confinement fusion. Final report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past four years, Occidental Research Corporation has been conducting a fusion program which is based on a reactor concept in which geometrically focused and time compressed beams of cold light ions and neutralizing cold electrons from large area sources are ballistically propagated over several meters through a near vacuum to implode a pellet target. The approach combines the cost advantage of efficient moderate voltage pulsed power technology with the simplicity-advantage of unguided ballistic propagation. In addition, the compactness, efficiency, focusability and energy range of the system makes the approach of great interest for supplementary heating of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Theoretical analyses have been made of beam-target interaction, beam progagation and source accelerator design. A one-dimensional implosion and nuclear burn code indicates that significant yields can be obtained from simple targets with moderately energetic light ions. Experimentally the short-term objective is to demonstrate that the required degree of space-time focusing can be achieved on a 200-500 keV electron neutralized ion (or plasma) beam from a simple prototype 100 sq cm low temperature zeolite source

  9. Modeling crossed-beam energy transfer for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, D. J. Y.; Debayle, A.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-05-01

    We developed a numerical code that describes both the energy transfer occurring when two or more laser beams overlap in a weakly non-homogeneous plasma, and the beam energy losses associated with the electron-ion collisions. The numerical solutions are validated with both the exact analytical solutions in homogeneous plasmas, and with new approximate analytical solutions in non-homogeneous plasmas that include the aforementioned inverse bremsstrahlung effect. Comparisons with kinetic particle-in-cell simulations are satisfactory, provided the acoustic wave-breaking limit and the self-focusing regime are not reached. An application of the Cross-Beam Energy Transfer model is shown for a typical case of indirect-drive implosion in a gold hohlraum.

  10. Progress in Heavy Ion Driven Inertial Fusion Energy: From Scaled Experiments to the Integrated Research Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (approx 100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies (∼ 1 - 10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tun depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now beginning at LBNL. The mission of the HCX is to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  11. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (∼100's Amperes/beam) and ion energies (∼1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions, and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned. The step which bridges the gap between the IBX and an engineering test facility for fusion has been designated the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE (like the IBX) will provide an

  12. Fusion reactions initiated by laser-accelerated particle beams in a laser-produced plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Labaune, C; Depierreux, S; Goyon, C; Loisel, G; Yahia, V; Rafelski, J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of high-intensity pulsed laser technology enables the generation of extreme states of matter under conditions that are far from thermal equilibrium. This in turn could enable different approaches to generating energy from nuclear fusion. Relaxing the equilibrium requirement could widen the range of isotopes used in fusion fuels permitting cleaner and less hazardous reactions that do not produce high energy neutrons. Here we propose and implement a means to drive fusion reactions between protons and boron-11 nuclei, by colliding a laser-accelerated proton beam with a laser-generated boron plasma. We report proton-boron reaction rates that are orders of magnitude higher than those reported previously. Beyond fusion, our approach demonstrates a new means for exploring low-energy nuclear reactions such as those that occur in astrophysical plasmas and related environments.

  13. New era for fusion research centre

    CERN Multimedia

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2003-01-01

    The former director general of CERN, Sir Chris Llewellyn Smith, takes over as director of the Culham fusion laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK. Plans for the laboratory include continuing the success of the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) (1 page)

  14. Research on Kalman-filter based multisensor data fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion has played a significant role in diverse areas ranging from local robot guidance to global military theatre defense etc.Various multisensor data fusion methods have been extensively investigated by researchers,of which Klaman filtering is one of the most important.Kalman filtering is the best-known recursive least mean-square algorithm to optimally estimate the unknown.states of a dynamic system,which has found widespread application in many areas.The scope of the work is restricted to investigate the various data fusion and track fusion techniques based on the Kalman Filter methods.then a new method of state fusion is proposed.Finally the simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the introduced method.

  15. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  16. Spectrum analysis of hydrogen plasma in spherically convergent beam fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Sunaga, Yoshitaka; Hotta, Eiki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Energy Sciences, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan); Okino, Akitoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of spherical glow discharge fusion device was carried out using hydrogen gas. Effects of the discharge current and cathode voltage on spectrum profiles of hydrogen Balmar lines were measured. The profiles of all hydrogen lines were broadened with the cathode voltage. From the relationship between the maximum broadening width and the cathode voltage, it was indicated that the broadening was caused by the Doppler effect. From the spatial distribution of emission intensity, it was found that plasma core size became larger with discharge current and smaller with cathode voltage. (author)

  17. Three-dimensional particle simulation of heavy-ion fusion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beams in a heavy-ion-beam-driven inertial fusion (HIF) accelerator are collisionless, nonneutral plasmas, confined by applied magnetic and electric fields. These space-charge-dominated beams must be focused onto small (few mm) spots at the fusion target, and so preservation of a small emittance is crucial. The nonlinear beam self-fields can lead to emittance growth, and so a self-consistent field description is needed. To this end, a multidimensional particle simulation code, WARP [Friedman et al., Part. Accel. 37-38, 131 (1992)], has been developed and is being used to study the transport of HIF beams. The code's three-dimensional (3-D) package combines features of an accelerator code and a particle-in-cell plasma simulation. Novel techniques allow it to follow beams through many accelerator elements over long distances and around bends. This paper first outlines the algorithms employed in WARP. A number of applications and corresponding results are then presented. These applications include studies of: beam drift-compression in a misaligned lattice of quadrupole focusing magnets; beam equilibria, and the approach to equilibrium; and the MBE-4 experiment [AIP Conference Proceedings 152 (AIP, New York, 1986), p. 145] recently concluded at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Finally, 3-D simulations of bent-beam dynamics relevant to the planned Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE) [Fessenden, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Plasma Res. A 278, 13 (1989)] at LBL are described. Axially cold beams are observed to exhibit little or no root-mean-square emittance growth at midpulse in transiting a (sharp) bend. Axially hot beams, in contrast, do exhibit some emittance growth

  18. Differential acceleration in the final beam lines of a Heavy Ion Fusion driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion Science (United States)

    2013-10-19

    A long-standing challenge in the design of a Heavy Ion Fusion power plant is that the ion beams entering the target chamber, which number of order a hundred, all need to be routed from one or two multi-beam accelerators through a set of transport lines. The beams are divided into groups, which each have unique arrival times and may have unique kinetic energies. It is also necessary to arrange for each beam to enter the target chamber from a prescribed location on the periphery of that chamber. Furthermore, it has generally been assumed that additional constraints must be obeyed: that the path lengths of the beams in a group must be equal, and that any delay of \\main-pulse" beams relative to \\foot-pulse" beams must be provided by the insertion of large delay-arcs in the main beam transport lines. Here we introduce the notion of applying \\di erential acceleration" to individual beams or sets of beam at strategic stages of the transport lines. That is, by accelerating some beams \\sooner" and others \\later," it is possible to simplify the beam line con guration in a number of cases. For example, the time delay between the foot and main pulses can be generated without resorting to large arcs in the main-pulse beam lines. It is also possible to use di erential acceleration to e ect the simultaneous arrival on target of a set of beams ( e.g., for the foot-pulse) without requiring that their path lengths be precisely equal. We illustrate the technique for two model con gurations, one corresponding to a typical indirect-drive scenario requiring distinct foot and main energies, and the other to an ion-driven fast-ignition scenario wherein the foot and main beams share a common energy.

  19. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Fernández Niello, J.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Paul, M.; Ugalde, C.

    2015-11-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the 10,13,15C+12C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  20. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the 10,13,15C+12C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier

  1. Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) for measurements of fusion reactions with radioactive beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnelli, P.F.F. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ Buenos Aires (Argentina); Almaraz-Calderon, S. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Rehm, K.E., E-mail: rehm@anl.gov [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Albers, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P.F.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fernández Niello, J. [Laboratorio TANDAR, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Henderson, D.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Lai, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Marley, S.T.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R.C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel); Ugalde, C. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A detection technique for high-efficiency measurements of fusion reactions with low-intensity radioactive beams was developed. The technique is based on a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC) operating as an active target and detection system, where the ionization gas acts as both target and counting gas. In this way, we can sample an excitation function in an energy range determined by the gas pressure, without changing the beam energy. The detector provides internal normalization to the incident beam and drastically reduces the measuring time. In a first experiment we tested the performance of the technique by measuring the {sup 10,13,15}C+{sup 12}C fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  2. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target

  3. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs+ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE

  4. Design and testing of the 2 MV heavy ion injector for the Fusion Energy Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, W.; Benjegerdes, R.; Reginato, L.; Stoker, J.; Hipple, R.; Peters, C.; Pruyn, J.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.

    1995-04-01

    The Fusion Energy Research Group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has constructed and tested a pulsed 2 MV injector that produces a driver size beam of potassium ions. This paper describes the engineering aspects of this development which were generated in a closely coupled effort with the physics staff. Details of the ion source and beam transport physics are covered in another paper at this conference. This paper discusses the design details of the pulse generator, the ion source, the extractor, the diode column, and the electrostatic quadrupole column. Included will be the test results and operating experience of the complete injector.

  5. Materials research with neutron beams from a research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Root, J.; Banks, D. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Because of the unique ways that neutrons interact with matter, neutron beams from a research reactor can reveal knowledge about materials that cannot be obtained as easily with other scientific methods. Neutron beams are suitable for imaging methods (radiography or tomography), for scattering methods (diffraction, spectroscopy, and reflectometry) and for other possibilities. Neutron-beam methods are applied by students and researchers from academia, industry and government to support their materials research programs in several disciplines: physics, chemistry, materials science and life science. The arising knowledge about materials has been applied to advance technologies that appear in everyday life: transportation, communication, energy, environment and health. This paper illustrates the broad spectrum of materials research with neutron beams, by presenting examples from the Canadian Neutron Beam Centre at the NRU research reactor in Chalk River. (author)

  6. Electron-temperature requirements for neutralized inertial-confinement-fusion light-ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their large self-space-charge fields, light ion beam drivers of energy and power sufficient to achieve inertial confinement fusion (ICF) cannot be focused on a small fuel pellet unless neutralized. Even if initially neutralized with comoving electrons, these beams will not stay neutralized and focus during propagation through a vacuum chamber unless the initial thermal energy of the neutralizing electrons is sufficiently small. In this paper we discuss the effects which contribute to the effective initial temperature of the neutralizing electrons, including compressional shock heating. We also employ a simple heuristic model to construct envelope equations which govern axial as well as radial beam compression and use them to predict the largest initial electron temperature consistent with the required beam compression. This temperature for typical light ion beam systems is about ten eV - a temperature which may be possible to achieve

  7. 1981 inertial fusion research annual technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report consists of the following two topics: (1) target fabrication technology, and (2) fusion experiments. The first section is reported by the following seven areas: (1) characterization, (2) fuel shell technology, (3) polymer technology, (4) lithium foil development, (5) precision etch technology, (6) analytical instrumentation, and (7) target fabrication. The second area is reported by the following topics: (1) experiments, (2) plasma theory, (3) code development and simulation, and (4) lasers and optics

  8. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study focused on two tasks, the first concerned with the economics of fusion in an economy that relies heavily upon synthetic fuels, and the second concerned with the overall economic effects of pursuing soft energy technologies instead of hard technologies. This report is organized in two parts, the first entitled An Economic Analysis of Coproduction of Fusion-Electric Energy and Other Products, and the second entitled Arguments Associated with the Choice of Potential Energy Futures

  9. Response to FESAC survey, non-fusion connections to Fusion Energy Sciences. Applications of the FES-supported beam and plasma simulation code, Warp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grote, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vay, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-05-29

    The Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee’s subcommittee on non-fusion applications (FESAC NFA) is conducting a survey to obtain information from the fusion community about non-fusion work that has resulted from their DOE-funded fusion research. The subcommittee has requested that members of the community describe recent developments connected to the activities of the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences. Two questions in particular were posed by the subcommittee. This document contains the authors’ responses to those questions.

  10. History, progress, achievement and future prospect of research activities on fusion materials by Japanese university researchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research activities on fusion materials by Japanese university researchers are reviewed. Organized research on fusion materials has been initiated around mid 1970s under auspices of Monbusho (Ministry of Education, Science and Culture). Particularly effective was the Special Research Project on Fusion for fiscal year 1980 - 1989. At the same time, Japan/U.S. collaboration on fusion materials (1982 - 2000) has been very successful, yielding numerous useful results. The highlights of the technical achievement of these projects are briefly summarized. Both of these projects may be characterized to be composed of two major tasks, namely, fundamental aspects of alloy development for fusion and high fluence irradiation effects under fusion reactor environment. The basic philosophy of the project is discussed. The recent trend is to organize the university research activities into a comprehensive research network. (orig.)

  11. Demonstration of low-loss electron beam transport and mm-wave experiments of the fusion-FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urbanus, W. H.; Bongers, W. A.; van Dijk, G.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; de Kruif, R.; Manintveld, P.; Pluygers, J.; Poelman, A. J.; Schüller, F. C.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Sterk, A. B.; Verhoeven, A. G. A.; Valentini, M.; van der Wiel, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Fusion-FEM electrostatic Free Electron Maser, an electron beam loss current of less than 0.2% is essential for long-pulse operation. At reduced beam current, 3 A instead of the nominal 12 A, we have demonstrated electron beam acceleration and transport through the undulator at current losses

  12. Fusion Research Center, theory program. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Texas FRC theory program is directed primarily toward understanding the initiation, heating, and confinement of tokamak plasmas. It supports and complements the experimental programs on the TEXT and PRETEXT devices, as well as providing information generally applicable to the national tokamak program. A significant fraction of the Center's work has been carried out in collaboration with, or as a part of, the program of the Institute for Fusion Studies (IFS). During the past twelve months, 14 FRC theory reports and 12 IFS reports with partial FRC support have been issued

  13. Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the following topics: MBE-4: The Induction-Linac Approach; Current Amplification and Acceleration Schedules; Emittance and Current Amplification; Scaling Up the Results; Progress on the Carbon-Arc Source; Injector Development; Progress Towards an ILSE Design; Beam Combination; and Focusing-System Alignment Tolerances

  14. Summary of Progress in US Heavy Ion Fusion Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Construction of the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX-II), a new high- current, moderate-kinetic-energy accelerator facility at LBNL, is being completed in the spring of 2012. The machine will produce a nanosecond Li+ ion beam bunch at ∼ 2 MeV energy for volumetric heating of thin foils. Extensive simulations using the Warp code led to a physics design with specialized acceleration voltage waveforms that can achieve > 500-fold longitudinal beam compression. Planned experiments on NDCX-II to study warm dense matter include: measuring equation of state and phase transitions, conductivity, opacity and shock generation. Theoretically, we have: 1. Studied transverse and longitudinal beam compression on two-stream interactions of an intense ion beam in plasma. 2. Studied transverse gradients and profile shapes on beam-plasma instabilities. 3. Identified a class of self-consistent periodic kinetic “equilibria” for intense beams in alterna- ting-gradient focusing systems, and extended nonlinear perturbative particle simulations to such focusing systems. 4. Investigated nonlinear effects of beam-plasma instabilities on beam current neutralization. 5. Proposed a Rayleigh-Taylor instability mechanism for droplet formation in expanding warm dense matter. 6. Carried out theoretical studies of using a beam “wobbler” (periodic deflector) as a beam smoothing technique. Using HYDRA simulations to design the novel Heavy Ion Fusion X-target, it was found that, by adding an aluminum pusher and radial tamping, the fusion gain can be increased from 50 to 300, and the stagnation fuel density doubled to 100 g/cm3 at peak compression, with a ρr „ 2 g/cm2. The X-target has a simple cylindrical metal case filled with DT fuel and a conical insert with an “X” shaped cross-section. Using multiple heavy ion beams to illuminate the target axially from only one side, the fuel can be compressed and ignited at the X-vertex. The simulations showed negligible

  15. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  16. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s2 if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 μm thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s2 acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive

  17. Impact of beam transport method on chamber and driver design for heavy ion inertial fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Yu, S.S.; Neff, S.; Sharp, W.M.

    2002-12-01

    In heavy ion inertial fusion energy systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. In this paper, we examine three different modes of beam propagation: neutralized ballistic transport, assisted pinched transport, and self-pinched transport. The status of our understanding of these three modes is summarized, and the constraints imposed by beam propagation upon the chamber environment, as well as their compatibility with various chamber and target concepts, are considered. We conclude that, on the basis of our present understanding, there is a reasonable range of parameter space where beams can propagate in thick-liquid wall, wetted-wall, and dry-wall chambers.

  18. General design of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility deuteron injector: Source and beam line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-Engineering Validation and Engineering Design Activities (IFMIF-EVEDA) project, CEA/IRFU is in charge of the design and realization of the 140 mA cw deuteron Injector. The electron cyclotron resonance ion source operates at 2.45 GHz and a 4 electrode extraction system has been chosen. A 2 solenoid beam line, together with a high space charge compensation have been optimized for a proper beam injection in the 175 MHz radio frequency quadrupole. The injector will be tested with proton and deuteron beam production either in pulsed mode or in cw mode on the CEA-Saclay site before to be shipped to Japan. Special attention was paid to neutron emission due to (d,D) reaction. In this paper, the general IFMIF Injector design is reported, pointing out beam dynamics, radioprotection, diagnostics, and mechanical aspects.

  19. Unilateral Fusion of Maxillary Lateral Incisor: Diagnosis Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iury Oliveira Castro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this paper is to report a dental fusion case focusing on clinical and radiographic features for the diagnosis. Method. To report a case of right maxillary lateral incisor fusion and a supernumerary tooth, the anatomy of the root canal and dental united portion were assessed by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. Results. The clinical examination showed dental juxtaposition with the absence of interdental papilla and esthetic impairment in the right maxillary lateral incisor region. The periapical radiography did not provide enough information for the differential diagnosis due to the inherent limitations of this technique. CBCT confirmed the presence of tooth fusion. Conclusion. CBCT examination supports the diagnosis and provides both the identification of changes in tooth development and the visualization of their extent and limits.

  20. National facility for neutron beam research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Rao

    2004-07-01

    In this talk, the growth of neutron beam research (NBR) in India over the past five decades is traced beginning with research at Apsara. A range of problems in condensed matter physics could be studied at CIRUS, followed by sophisticated indegenous instrumentation and research at Dhruva. The talk ends with an overview of current scenario of NBR world-wide and future of Indian activities.

  1. Heat transfer phenomena in gas protected particle beam fusion reactor cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behavior of the fireball produced in particle beam fusion reactor cavities as the cavity gas near the target absorbs the X-rays and ionic debris emanating from the microexplosion is examined. Thermal response of the first wall to the radiative heat flux from the gas is examined parametrically. Criteria for the suitability of different cavity fill gases based on their ability to protect the first wall from excessive surface heating and ablation are discussed. 9 refs

  2. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author )

  3. Looking back at half a century of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives a short overview of the origins of nuclear fusion and of its development as a potential source of terrestrial energy. The main milestones of the fusion history are: -) the Einstein's prediction that mass can be converted into energy; -) the complete understanding of the main fusion reactions in the sun and stars in late 1920; -) many different magnetic configurations were proposed in the early years of fusion research: the earliest magnetic confinement devices in the U.K were toroidal pinches, the stellarator was invented in the U.S.A and the helical heliotron in Japan ; -) the success of the Russian tokamak T-3 to produce hot enough plasmas opened the way to the construction of very large tokamaks: JET (U.K), TFTR (Usa), JT-60 (Japan) and Tore-supra (France); -) an alternative approach to fusion: the inertial confinement; and -) the ITER project. After many years, the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion via the magnetic confinement route has been demonstrated and the next generation of inertial confinement experiments is expected to reach a similar position. (A.C.)

  4. Modeling of direct beam extraction for a high-charge-state fusion driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, O. A.; Grant Logan, B.

    A newly proposed type of multicharged ion source offers the possibility of an economically advantageous high-charge-state fusion driver. Multiphoton absorption in an intense uniform laser focus can give multiple charge states of high purity, simplifying or eliminating the need for charge-state separation downstream. Very large currents (hundreds of amperes) can be extracted from this type of source. Several arrangements are possible. For example, the laser plasma could be tailored for storage in a magnetic bucket, with beam extracted from the bucket. A different approach, described in this report, is direct beam extraction from the expanding laser plasma. We discuss extraction and focusing for the particular case of a 4.1 MV beam of Xe 16+ ions. The maximum duration of the beam pulse is limited by the total charge in the plasma, while the practical pulse length is determined by the range of plasma radii over which good beam optics can be achieved. The extraction electrode contains a solenoid for beam focusing. Our design studies were carried out first with an envelope code and then with a self-consistent particle code. Results from our initial model showed that hundreds of amperes could be extracted, but that most of this current missed the solenoid entrance or was intercepted by the wall and that only a few amperes were able to pass through. We conclude with an improved design which increases the surviving beam to more than 70 A.

  5. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, held in Washington D.C., 1-6 October 1990, and organized in cooperation with the United States Department of Energy, was devoted to the exchange and dissemination of reports on the steady progress in the research on both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, aiming ultimately for the production of commercial energy from controlled thermonuclear reactors. More than two hundred technical papers presented work on tokamak experiments, inertial confinement, non-tokamak confinement systems, magnetic confinement theory and modelling, plasma heating and current drive, the ITER project, technology and reactor concepts, and the economic, safety and environmental aspects of thermonuclear fusion. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. ITER implementation and fusion energy research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER Project is jointly implemented by China, EU, India, Japan, Korea, Russian Federation and USA, under the coordination of Center Team of ITER International Fusion Energy Organization (IO-CT). Chinese fusion research related institutes and industrial enterprises are fully involved in the implementation of China contribution to the project under the leadership of ITER China Domestic Agency (CN-DA), together with IO-CT. The progresses of Procurement Packages (PA) allocated to China and the technical issues, especially on key technology development and schedule, QA/QC issues, are highlighted in this report. The specific enterprises carrying out different PAs are identified in order to make the increasing international manufactures and producers to ITER PAs know each other well for the successful implementation of ITER project. The participation of China to the management of IO-CT is also included, mainly from the governmental aspect and staff recruited from China. On the other hand, the domestic fusion researches, including upgrade of EAST, HL-2A Tokamaks in China, TBM program, the next step design activities for fusion energy power plant, namely, CFETR and training in this area, are also introduced for global cooperation for international fusion community. (author)

  7. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research contains papers in two sessions: the first part, on Magnetic Confinement Theory and Modelling, was presented in session D at the conference; the second part, on Non-Tokamak Confinement Systems, was given in session C of the conference. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  9. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  10. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, technical research programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature fusion plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator A and C tokamaks, including pioneering investigations of the equilibrium, stability, transport and radiation properties of fusion plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of a new and innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experimental facility scheduled for 1983; and (4) a broadly based program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas (e.g., magnet systems, superconducting materials development, environmental and safety studies, advanced gyrotron development for RF heating, preconceptual design studies of torsatrons and stellarators, and advanced tokamak design and reactor studies).

  11. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, technical research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research programs have produced significant results on four fronts: (1) the basic physics of high-temperature fusion plasmas (plasma theory, RF heating, development of advanced diagnostics and small-scale experiments on the Versator tokamak and Constance mirror devices); (2) major confinement results on the Alcator A and C tokamaks, including pioneering investigations of the equilibrium, stability, transport and radiation properties of fusion plasmas at high densities, temperatures and magnetic fields; (3) development of a new and innovative design for axisymmetric tandem mirrors with inboard thermal barriers, with initial operation of the TARA tandem mirror experimental facility scheduled for 1983; and (4) a broadly based program of fusion technology and engineering development that addresses problems in several critical subsystem areas

  12. EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

  13. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, D. H.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Park, M.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe.

  14. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics. (WRF)

  15. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1987 summary of activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the design and the initial studies for the Advanced Light Source is given. The research efforts for the Center for X-Ray Optics include x-ray imaging, multilayer mirror technology, x-ray sources and detectors, spectroscopy and scattering, and synchrotron radiation projects. The Accelerator Operations highlights include the research by users in nuclear physics, biology and medicine. The upgrade of the Bevalac is also discussed. The High Energy Physics Technology review includes the development of superconducting magnets and superconducting cables. A review of the Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research is also presented. The Magnetic Fusion Energy research included the development of ion sources, accelerators for negative ions, diagnostics, and theoretical plasma physics

  16. Research on Brightness Measurement of Intense Electron Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Huang; Yang, GuoJun; Li, YiDing; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The mostly research fasten on high emission density of injector to study electron beam's brightness in LIA. Using the injector(2MeV) was built to research brightness of multi-pulsed high current(KA) electron beam, and researchs three measurement method (the pepper-pot method, beam collimator without magnetic field, beam collimator with magnetic field method) to detect beam's brightness with time-resolved measurement system.

  17. Joint research center activity in thermonuclear fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, G.; Rocco, P. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre)

    1984-04-01

    A review of the activities in progress in the field of thermonuclear fusion technology at the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities is presented. The research areas are: (I) reactor studies, including conceptual design studies of experimental Tokamak reactors (INTOR/NET) and safety analyses; (II) experimental investigation on first wall and blanket materials and components. Emphasis has been given to those topics which are not reported in detail in the following articles of the issue.

  18. FINESSE: study of the issues, experiments and facilities for fusion nuclear technology research and development. Interim report. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following chapters are included in this study: (1) fusion nuclear issues, (2) survey of experimental needs, (3) requirements of the experiments, (4) non-fusion facilities, (5) fusion facilities for nuclear experiments, and (6) fusion research and development scenarios

  19. HIBALL - a conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary concept for a heavy-ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion power plant is presented. The high repetition rate of the RF accelerator driver is utilized to serve four reactor chambers alternatingly. In the chambers a novel first-wall protection scheme is used. At a target gain of 83 the total net electrical output is 3.8 GW. The recirculating power fraction is below 15%. The main goal of the comprehensive HIBALL study (which is continuing) is to demonstrate the compatibility of the design of the driver, the target and the reactor chambers. Though preliminary, the present design is essentially self-consistent. Tentative cost estimates are given. The costs compare well with those found in similar studies on other types of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  20. HIBALL - a conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A preliminary concept for a heavy-ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion power plant is presented. The high repetition rate of the RF accelerator driver is utilized to serve four reactor chambers alternatingly. In the chambers a novel first-wall protection scheme is used. At a target gain of 83 the total net electrical output is 3.8 GW. The recirculating power fraction is below 15%. The main goal of the comprehensive HIBALL study (which is continuing) is to demonstrate the compatibility of the design of the driver, the target and the reactor chambers. Though preliminary, the present dessign is essentially self-consistent. Tentative cost estimates are given. The costs compare well with those found in similar studies on other types of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  1. Copper-coated laser-fusion targets using molecular-beam levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of diagnostic experiments at the Shiva laser fusion facility required targets of glass microspheres coated with 1.5 to 3.0 μm of copper. Previous batch coating efforts using vibration techniques gave poor results due to microsphere sticking and vacuum welding. Molecular Beam Levitation (MBL) represented a noncontact method to produce a sputtered copper coating on a single glassmicrosphere. The coating specifications that were achieved resulted in a copper layer up to 3 μm thick with the allowance of a maximum variation of 10 nm in surface finish and thickness. These techniques developed with the MBL may be applied to sputter coat many soft metals for fusion target applications

  2. Dynamical Dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions by using stable and radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of the dynamical dipole mode in the 192Pb composite system was investigated through the study of its prompt decay employing the 40Ca + 152Sm and 48Ca + 144Sm reactions at E(lab)=11 and 10.1 MeV/u, respectively. The γ-rays and light charged particles were detected in coincidence with evaporation residues and fission fragments. First results of this experiment show that the dynamical dipole mode survives in collisions involving heavier mass reaction partners than those studied previously. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the prompt dipole radiation could be of interest for the synthesis of super-heavy elements through 'hot' fusion reactions. Furthermore, by using radioactive beams and the prompt radiation as a probe we could get information on the symmetry energy at sub-saturation densities. (authors)

  3. Inertial fusion research. Annual technical report, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains research progress during this period on each of the following 5 areas: (1) parametric instabilities, (2) cryogenic implosion experiments, (3) x-ray laser experiments, (4) XCALIBR, an effective soft x-ray calibration facility, and (5) DELPHI- a new hydrodynamics code, (6) polymer technology, (7) glass shell technology, (8) shell production facility, (9) cryogenic technology, (10) characterization and quality assurance, and (11) coating technology

  4. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fifth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this and previous efforts, ECON has provided economic assessment of a fusion research program. This phase of study has focused on the future markets for fusion energy and the economics of fusion in those markets. These tasks were performed: (1) fusion market growth, (2) inflation vs. capital investment decisions, and (3) economics of cogeneration

  5. Present status of liquid metal research for a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabarés, Francisco L.

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of solid materials as targets of divertor plasmas in magnetic fusion research is accepted as the standard solution for the very challenging issue of power and particle handling in a fusion reactor, a generalized feeling that the present options chosen for ITER will not represent the best choice for a reactor is growing up. The problems found for tungsten, the present selection for the divertor target of ITER, in laboratory tests and in hot plasma fusion devices suggest so. Even in the absence of the strong neutron irradiation expected in a reactor, issues like surface melting, droplet ejection, surface cracking, dust generation, etc., call for alternative solutions in a long pulse, high efficient fusion energy-producing continuous machine. Fortunately enough, decades of research on plasma facing materials based on liquid metals (LMs) have produced a wealth of appealing ideas that could find practical application in the route to the realization of a commercial fusion power plant. The options presently available, although in a different degree of maturity, range from full coverage of the inner wall of the device with liquid metals, so that power and particle exhaust together with neutron shielding could be provided, to more conservative combinations of liquid metal films and conventional solid targets basically representing a sort of high performance, evaporative coating for the alleviation of the surface degradation issues found so far. In this work, an updated review of worldwide activities on LM research is presented, together with some open issues still remaining and some proposals based on simple physical considerations leading to the optimization of the most conservative alternatives.

  6. Atomic data for controlled fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is an evaluated graphical and tabular compilation of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are tabulated and graphed as a function of energy for collision processes involving heavy particles, electrons, and photons with atoms and ions. Also included are sections on data for particle penetration through macroscopic matter, particle transport properties, particle interactions with surfaces, and pertinent charged particle nuclear cross sections and reaction rates. In most cases estimates have been made of the data accuracy

  7. Electromagnetic waves for thermonuclear fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzucato, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The science of magnetically confined plasmas covers the entire spectrum of physics from classical and relativistic electrodynamics to quantum mechanics. During the last sixty years of research, our initial primitive understanding of plasma physics has made impressive progress thanks to a variety of experiments - from tabletop devices with plasma temperatures of a few thousands of degrees and confinement times of less than 100 microseconds, to large tokamaks with plasma temperatures of up to five hundred million degrees and confinement times approaching one second. We discovered that plasma con

  8. 1978 annual report on laser fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress during this period is reported for each of the following topics: (1) spherical shell fuel containers, (2) polymer research, (3) cryogenic technology, (4) fabrication technology, (5) implosion physics, (6) fast ion measurements of laser-produced spherical plasmas, (7) absorbed energy measurements, (8) diagnostics, (9) fast ion energy loss in dense plasmas, (10) electron transport, (11) ionization equation of state, (12) profile modification by pondermotive forces, (13) pondermotive potential effects on Ohm's law, (14) effect of flux-limited thermal transport on critical surface jump conditions, (15) spherical rarefaction shocks, (16) explosively heated Gaussian objects, (17) bandwidth broadening, (18) frequency doubling experiments, (19) advanced laser candidates, (20) glass laser operation, and (21) 2TW laser upgrade

  9. HIBALL-II - an improved conceptual heavy ion beam driven fusion reactor study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved design of the HIBALL inertial-confinement fusion power station is presented. The new RF-linac based heavy ion driver has improved concepts for beam stacking, bunching and final focusing. The new target design takes into account radiation transport effects in a coarse approximation. The system of four reactors with a net total output of 3.8 GW electric is essentially the same as described earlier, however, progress in the analysis has enhanced its credibility and self-consistency. Considerations of environmental and safety aspects and cost estimates are given. (orig.)

  10. Three dimensional PIC simulation of heavy ion fusion beams: Recent improvements to and applications of WARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The multi-dimensional particle simulation code WARP is used to study the transport and acceleration of space-charge dominated ion beams in present-day and near-term experiments, and in fusion drivers. The algorithms employed in the 3d package and a number of applications have recently been described. In this paper the authors review the general features and major applications of the code. They then present recent developments in both code capabilities and applications. Most notable is modeling of the planned ESQ injector for ILSE, which uses the code's newest features, including subgrid-scale placement of internal conductor boundaries

  11. Niobium thermal - mechanical treatment produced by continuously cast ingots and electron beam fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuonsly cast Nb ingots produced in Brazil by electron beam fusion have been thermally-mechanically processed. These ingots were subjected to a pre-deformation between 0 to 50%, and subsequently treated thermally between 900 to 18000C for 2,3 and 4 hours. Grain refinement was attained by further reduction in area deformations between 42 to 96%, followed by thermal treatments for 3 hours between 810 to 13000C. The results material exhibited an equiaxial grain structure of 50 μm and was tensile tested. These tensile results are compared to the results for niobium produced by traditional commercial practices. (Author)

  12. MR cone-beam CT fusion image overlay for fluoroscopically guided percutaneous biopsies in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Patel, Premal A; Gu, Richard; Rea, Vanessa; Amaral, Joao; Connolly, Bairbre L

    2016-03-01

    Lesions only visible on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging cannot easily be targeted for image-guided biopsy using ultrasound or X-rays but instead require MR guidance with MR-compatible needles and long procedure times (acquisition of multiple MR sequences). We developed an alternative method for performing these difficult biopsies in a standard interventional suite, by fusing MR with cone-beam CT images. The MR cone-beam CT fusion image is then used as an overlay to guide a biopsy needle to the target area under live fluoroscopic guidance. Advantages of this technique include (i) the ability for it to be performed in a conventional interventional suite, (ii) three-dimensional planning of the needle trajectory using cross-sectional imaging, (iii) real-time fluoroscopic guidance for needle trajectory correction and (iv) targeting within heterogeneous lesions based on MR signal characteristics to maximize the potential biopsy yield.

  13. ION BEAM HEATED TARGET SIMULATIONS FOR WARM DENSE MATTER PHYSICS AND INERTIAL FUSION ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J.J.; Armijo, J.; Bailey, D.S.; Friedman, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.; Leung, P.T.; Logan, B.G.; Marinak, M.M.; More, R.M.; Ng, S.F.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Veitzer, S.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yu, S.S.; Zylstra, A.B.

    2008-08-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  14. Ion Beam Heated Target Simulations for Warm Dense Matter Physics and Inertial Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, J J; Armijo, J; Bailey, D S; Friedman, A; Bieniosek, F M; Henestroza, E; Kaganovich, I; Leung, P T; Logan, B G; Marinak, M M; More, R M; Ng, S F; Penn, G E; Perkins, L J; Veitzer, S; Wurtele, J S; Yu, S S; Zylstra, A B

    2008-08-12

    Hydrodynamic simulations have been carried out using the multi-physics radiation hydrodynamics code HYDRA and the simplified one-dimensional hydrodynamics code DISH. We simulate possible targets for a near-term experiment at LBNL (the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment, NDCX) and possible later experiments on a proposed facility (NDCX-II) for studies of warm dense matter and inertial fusion energy related beam-target coupling. Simulations of various target materials (including solids and foams) are presented. Experimental configurations include single pulse planar metallic solid and foam foils. Concepts for double-pulsed and ramped-energy pulses on cryogenic targets and foams have been simulated for exploring direct drive beam target coupling, and concepts and simulations for collapsing cylindrical and spherical bubbles to enhance temperature and pressure for warm dense matter studies are described.

  15. The preliminary research for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Chang Hyun; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The purpose of this project is to elucidate the solution to the production of bioactive substance using biotransformation process from core technology of biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology. And, this strategy will provide core technology for development of drugs as new concept and category. Research scopes and contents of project include 1) The development of mutant for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 2) The development of host for biosynthetic engineering by radiation fusion technology 3) The preliminary study for biosynthetic engineering of isoflavone by radiation fusion technology. The results are as follows. Isoflavone compounds(daidzein, hydroxylated isoflavone) were analyzed by GC-MS. The study of radiation doses and p-NCA high-throughput screening for mutant development were elucidated. And, it was carried out the study of radiation doses for host development. Furthermore, the study of redox partner and construction of recombinant strain for region-specific hydroxylation(P450, redox partner). In addition, the biological effect of 6,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone as an anti-obesity agent was elucidated in this study.

  16. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: An updated vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Fusion Computing Council perspective is written to present the primary of the fusion computing community at the time of publication of the report necessarily as a summary of the information contained in the individual sections. These concerns reflect FCC discussions during final review of contributions from the various working groups and portray our latest information. This report itself should be considered as dynamic, requiring periodic updating in an attempt to track rapid evolution of the computer industry relevant to requirements for magnetic fusion research. The most significant common concern among the Fusion Computing Council working groups is networking capability. All groups see an increasing need for network services due to the use of workstations, distributed computing environments, increased use of graphic services, X-window usage, remote experimental collaborations, remote data access for specific projects and other collaborations. Other areas of concern include support for workstations, enhanced infrastructure to support collaborations, the User Service Centers, NERSC and future massively parallel computers, and FCC sponsored workshops

  17. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  18. High peak power Nd:glass lasers for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly reviews the basics of fusion and some of the major problems associated with building a 4 arms 1 kJ, 1 ns Nd:glass laser chain currently under development at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre(BARC), Bombay. With this laser, it is proposed to study the various laser plasma interaction processes and to obtain compression of glass micro balloon targets filled with DT gas. (author). 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Unusual fusion of a distomolar with a third molar assessed by cone-beam computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Duarte Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supernumerary teeth are teeth that occur in addition to the normal series. They can be observed in all quadrants of the jaw, with highest incidence in the maxilla. When a supernumerary tooth is distal to the most posterior molar, it is called a distomolar. Distomolars are more common unilaterally, in the maxilla and in black people and affect 2.2% of the population. In contrast, fusion is the result of the union of two separate tooth germs, forming a single tooth joined by dentin and/ or enamel, and fusion of a permanent tooth with a supernumerary accounts for fewer than 0.1% of cases, usually involving anterior maxillary teeth. Periapical radiographs are routinely used for endodontic diagnosis and preoperative planning, for transoperative guidance and for postoperative follow-up. However, the two-dimensional nature of this imaging technique can impose limitations on the ability to determine the anatomy of root canals in teeth with anatomical variations. The objective of this case report is to describe a rare case of fusion of a distomolar with a third molar, assessed using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.

  20. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Heikkinen, J.; Korhonen, R. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)] [and others

    1998-12-31

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  1. FFUSION research programme 1993-1998. Final report of the Finnish fusion research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the Fusion Energy Research Programme, FFUSION, during the period 1993-1998. After the planning phase the programme started in 1994, and later in March 1995 the FFUSION Programme was integrated into the EU Fusion Programme and the Association Euratom-Tekes was established. Research areas in the FFUSION Programme are (1) fusion physics and plasma engineering, (2) fusion reactor materials and (3) remote handling systems. In all research areas industry is involved. Recently, a project on environmental aspects of fusion and other future energy systems started as a part of the socio-economic research (SERF) in the Euratom Fusion Programme. A crucial component of the FFUSION programme is the close collaboration between VTT Research Institutes, universities and Finnish industry. This collaboration has guaranteed dynamic and versatile research teams, which are large enough to tackle challenging research and development projects. Regarding industrial fusion R and D activities, the major step was the membership of Imatran Voima Oy in the EFET Consortium (European Fusion Engineering and Technology), which further strengthened the position of industry in the engineering design activities of ITER. The number of FFUSION research projects was 66. In addition, there were 32 industrial R and D projects. The total cost of the FFUSION Programme in 1993-1998 amounted to FIM 54 million in research at VTT and universities and an additional FIM 21 million for R and D in Finnish industry. The main part of the funding was provided by Tekes, 36%. Since 1995, yearly Euratom funding has exceeded 25%. The FFUSION research teams have played an active role in the European Programme, receiving excellent recognition from the European partners. Theoretical and computational fusion physics has been at a high scientific level and the group collaborates with the leading experimental laboratories in Europe. Fusion technology is focused on reactor materials, joining

  2. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pint, Bruce A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  3. EURATOM/UKAEA Association fusion research. 2002/2003 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on work carried out between April 2002 to March 2003 by the EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, mainly at the Culham Science Centre in Oxfordshire, UK, in support of the European research programme into energy production from controlled fusion. This could in principle provide effectively limitless electricity, with security of supply, inherent safety, and minimal environmental impact. At the end of March 2003 funding of fusion research in the UK was transferred from the Office of Science and Technology at the Department of Trade and Industry to the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. A Fusion Advisory Board has also been established, to provide external guidance and monitoring of the programme. Fusion research in Europe is based primarily on the tokamak concept, in which the fuel, an ionised gas ('plasma'), is confined by a magnetic field produced by currents in external coils and in the fuel itself. The Joint European Torus (JET) tokamak at Culham is Europe's principal fusion experiment, and one of the two leading devices of its type in the world. Both the UK programme and the European programme as a whole are increasingly focussed on ITER, a proposed tokamak that would test the plasma performance and most of the technology required for a fusion power plant. Negotiations on the siting and construction of ITER, boosted by the accession of the USA, China and, most recently, South Korea, are progressing towards a conclusion in 2004. The EURATOM/UKAEA Association operates the JET facilities for visiting scientists from all the EURATOM Fusion Associations. Several improvements to JET were implemented by UKAEA in 2002/03, including improved neutral beam injectors and an additional pellet injection track. UKAEA has also contributed to the scientific and technical programme on JET, notably in studies of energy confinement in the baseline 'ELMy H-mode' operating regime envisaged for ITER, the formation of internal transport barriers in

  4. Highly Repetitive Laser Inertial fusion driver with Tiled Coherent Beam Combination Laser using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In these days, the energy problem is serious in the world. It is necessary to develop a new source of the sustainable energy. In these sustainable energy sources, fusion energy is the most promised energy source. Especially, the laser inertial fusion energy is easy to maintain and easy to increase its scale. However, there are 3 hot problems to achieve the laser inertial fusion energy. To achieve the LIFE, it is necessary to develop 2.5 kJ/10 ns at 10 Hz laser. The Second problem is target injection with high repetition rate and high accuracy. We need to inject the fuel target to the centre of a chamber with accuracy to 20 μm after the fusion reaction. The third problem is the target window coating due to debris from the target implosion. The first and the second problems can be resolved simply by coherent beam combination laser using Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors (SBS-PCM). The 4-beam combination system is built to prove its feasibility to laser inertial fusion energy driver. The input energy of the each sub-beam is 1.032 ± 0.027 mJ, and the output energy of sub-beam is 402.3 ± 1.21 mJ. The standard deviations of the phase differences between the reference beam and other beams were measured to be less than λ/13, during 2,500 shots (250 s), and we will get it better than λ/20 soon. The coherent beam combination using SBS-PCM has additional advantages in LIFE reactor system. In the fusion reaction, target injection is one of the serious problems. The repetition rate of the target injection is ∼ 10 Hz, and the target speed is around 400 m/s. We need the accuracy of target position to 20 μm. Because of the turbulent flow after the prior fusion reaction, it is impossible to inject the target with the accuracy to more than 20 μm. This method can give the accuracy to less than 1 μm even when the turbulence exists in the reactor chamber. In this paper, the authors introduce the tiled coherent beam combining laser using SBS

  5. Inertial fusion research at the University of Rochester: progress in direct drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) during the past year with both the 24-beam, 1054-nm OMEGA laser facility and the single-beam, 351-nm GDL system have concentrated on defining the uniformity and the physics of coronal coupling and energy transport in spherical geometry for short-wavelength, direct-drive laser fusion. In this paper, the role of LLE in the United States inertial fusion program is reviewed

  6. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of research and development (R and D) activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, research institutes, and universities, during the period from 1 April, 2003 to 31 March, 2004. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, theoretical and analytical plasma researches, research and development of fusion reactor technologies towards ITER and fusion power demonstration plants, and activities in support of ITER design and construction. (J.P.N.)

  7. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  8. Solenoid transport of a heavy ion beam for warm dense matterstudies and inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Julien

    2006-10-01

    From February to July 2006, I have been doing research as a guest at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in the Heavy Ion Fusion group. This internship, which counts as one semester in my master's program in France, I was very pleased to do it in a field that I consider has the beauty of fundamental physics, and at the same time the special appeal of a quest for a long-term and environmentally-respectful energy source. During my stay at LBNL, I have been involved in three projects, all of them related to Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX). The first one, experimental and analytical, has consisted in measuring the effects of the eddy currents induced by the pulsed magnets in the conducting plates of the source and diagnostic chambers of the Solenoid Transport Experiment (STX, which is a subset of NDCX). We have modeled the effect and run finite-element simulations that have reproduced the perturbation to the field. Then, we have modified WARP, the Particle-In-Cell code used to model the whole experiment, in order to import realistic fields including the eddy current effects and some details of each magnet. The second project has been to take part in a campaign of WARP simulations of the same experiment to understand the leakage of electrons that was observed in the experiment as a consequence to some diagnostics and the failure of the electrostatic electron trap. The simulations have shown qualitative agreement with the measured phenomena, but are still in progress. The third project, rather theoretical, has been related to the upcoming target experiment of a thin aluminum foil heated by a beam to the 1-eV range. At the beginning I helped by analyzing simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion and cooling of the heated material. But, progressively, my work turned into making estimates for the nature of the liquid/vapor two-phase flow. In particular, I have been working on criteria and models to predict the formation of droplets, their size

  9. A high-current four-beam xenon ion source for heavy-ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing interest in inertial confinement fusion using heavy ions has elicited from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory a proposal to use a multi-channel radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) structure for the initial stage of the heavy-ion accelerator. The RFQ would have 4 channels in each module and each channel would accelerate 25 mA of Xe+1. Based on experiments with xenon beam production with a high current duoPlGatron source at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, a 245 keV 4-beam xenon injector has been designed for this 4-channel RFQ. The injector is of modular design with 4 small independent plasma sources mounted in a 10 cm square array on a common combined extraction and acceleration column. The electrodes have 4 separate sets of apertures and each channel produces a 29 mA beam for injection into its corresponding RFQ channel. This paper presents a conceptual design for the injector, code calculations for the column electrode design and results of a preliminary test carried out to verify the feasibility of the concept. (author)

  10. Linear induction accelerator for charge-neutralized ion beams in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batishchev, O.V.; Golota, V.I.; Karas, V.I.; Kiyashko, V.A.; Kornilov, E.A.; Sigov, Yu.S.; Silaev, I.I.; Fainberg, Ya.B. [Khar`kov Physico-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    1993-05-01

    Results are presented from experimental, analytical, and numerical studies of the physical processes that occur in a high-current ion induction accelerator (the ion linac IINDUS). The experiments were performed in a module of the IINDUS accelerator consisting of an injector of gaseous or metallic ions and two induction sections with magnetically insulated cusps in the accelerator gaps filled with plasma. The following ion beam parameters were found: 2-3 kA, 0.5 MeV, 0.5 {mu}s. The two most dangerous instabilities effecting beam quality were studied. These are the high-frequency beam-plasma instability and the filamentation instability. A nonlinear analytical theory of charge neutralization of a high-current ion beam in magnetically insulated accelerating gaps is presented. In order to develop diagnostics for high-current beams of accelerated particles the amplitude and shape of the acoustic pulse excited in a metal target by the particles have been studied theoretically and experimentally as functions of the beam parameters. The possibility of practical application of this acceleration in ICF has been studied using a 2.5-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic code to simulate the processes of acceleration, charge neutralization, and stability of the ion beam in the accelerating channel. The results provide evidence in favor of the prospects for this direction of research. 70 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Energy demand and possible strategy of fusion research in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China, presently the country with the world's largest population, will face serious pollution problems and shortage of energy in the near future to face the foreseen rapid social-economic development. Fossil fuels (coal, gas and oils) will be the main energy resources responsible for serious pollution and environmental problems in the long term. The energy development strategy recently declared by the government include: 1) develop the technologies for high efficiency, / low pollution utilization of fossil fuel, especially coal, the development of clean and renewable energy such as hydrodynamic, solar, wind and biomass will be strongly supported; 2) the fission power will be developed as far as possible in next 10 to 40 years. Rapid development of fission power will pose a new and serious problem for China namely, shortage of the natural uranium ore and large amounts of radioactive wastes with long half-lives to deal with; 3) Therefore, China must support fusion energy development as much as possible from now. The possible strategy for fusion research in China is: strengthen the support for EAST to achieve its scientific missions as soon as possible and support ITER activities on the joint design, construction, assembly and burning plasma experiments; to begin the conceptual and engineering design of the test fusion reactor as soon as possible and promote construction of the test reactor due to be constructed around 2020∼2030. Several conceptual designs of test reactors with different blankets have been proposed. It is hoped that the first fusion power plant will be constructed around 2040∼2050. (author)

  12. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council. The primary aim of this Council, which had its first meeting in conjunction with the Madison Conference, is to promote international co-operation in controlled nuclear fusion

  13. Fusion Energy Advisory Committee report on program strategy for US magnetic fusion energy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) was charged by the Department of Energy (DOE) with developing recommendations on how best to pursue the goal of a practical magnetic fusion reactor in the context of several budget scenarios covering the period FY 1994-FY 1998. Four budget scenarios were examined, each anchored to the FY 1993 figure of $337.9 million for fusion energy (less $9 million for inertial fusion energy which is not examined here)

  14. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA (Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator) II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, G.L.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1986-12-01

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards.

  15. Safety training and safe operating procedures written for PBFA [Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator] II and applicable to other pulsed power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure that work in advancing pulsed power technology is performed with an acceptably low risk, pulsed power research facilities at Sandia National Laboratories must satisfy general safety guidelines established by the Department of Energy, policies and formats of the Environment, Safety, and Health (ES and H) Department, and detailed procedures formulated by the Pulsed Power Sciences Directorate. The approach to safety training and to writing safe operating procedures, and the procedures presented here are specific to the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II) Facility but are applicable as guidelines to other research and development facilities which have similar hazards

  16. Magnetohydrodynamic research in fusion blanket engineering and metallurgical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent research activities in liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (LM-MHDs) is presented in this article. Two major reserach areas are discussed. The first topic involves the thermomechanical design issues in a proposed tokamak fusion reactor. The primary concerns are in the magneto-thermal-hydraulic performance of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The second topic involves the application of MHD in material processing in the metallurgical and semiconductor industries. The two representative applications are electromagnetic stirring (EMS) of continuously cast steel and the Czochralski (CZ) method of crystal growth in the presence of a magnetic field. (author) 24 figs., 10 tabs., 136 refs

  17. On the use of intense ion beams for generating magnetized target fusion plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) is a concept for creating a burning D-T plasma in a potentially inexpensive system. In essence, the concept involves ion heating on time scales short compared to ion transport times plus strong inhibition of thermal electron transport with a transverse magnetic field. The magnetic field is not intended to confine the ionic component. MTF is an intrinsically pulsed concept. A straightforward analysis of MTF indicates that D-T burning conditions can be achieved in compact plasma volumes with modest initial temperatures, through the use of pulsed power technology. In terms of size, density, temperature, and time scales, MTF occupies a position in phase space that is intermediate between steady MFE schemes and ICF. In terms of cost, it is one to two orders of magnitude less expensive than these. In this paper, the authors consider a possible method for creating the initial conditions adequate for the MTF concept through the use intense ion beam injection

  18. Estimating cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scintilla, L. D.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-07-01

    A three-dimensional, semi-stationary, simplified thermal numerical model was developed. The average cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting of 90MnCrV8 was estimated by computing the conductive power loss. Basing on heat affected zone extension experimentally measured and using an inverse methodology approach, the unknown thermal load on the cutting front during laser cutting was calculated. The accuracy of the numerical power loss estimation was evaluated comparing the results from simulation with the ones from analytical models. A good agreement was found for all the test cases considered in this study. The conduction losses estimation was used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts due to the lower average cut front temperature. This results in the increase of viscosity of molten material and in the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  19. Three-dimensional modeling of beam emission spectroscopy measurements in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Guszejnov, D; Pusztai, I; Refy, D; Zoletnik, S; Lampert, M; Nam, Y U; 10.1063/1.4764564

    2013-01-01

    One of the main diagnostic tools for measuring electron density profiles and the characteristics of long wavelength turbulent wave structures in fusion plasmas is Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES). The increasing number of BES systems necessitated an accurate and comprehensive simulation of BES diagnostics, which in turn motivated the development of the RENATE simulation code that is the topic of this paper. RENATE is a modular, fully three-dimensional code incorporating all key features of BES systems from the atomic physics to the observation, including an advanced modeling of the optics. Thus RENATE can be used both in the interpretation of measured signals and the development of new BES systems. The most important components of the code have been successfully benchmarked against other simulation codes. The primary results have been validated against experimental data from the KSTAR tokamak.

  20. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1980-September 1981. Fiscal year, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Thomson, H.A. (eds.)

    1982-04-01

    Major accomplishments during fiscal year 1981 are presented. During the Laboratory's 50th anniversary celebrations, AFRD and the Nuclear Science Division formally dedicated the new (third) SuperHILAC injector that adds ions as heavy as uranium to the ion repertoire at LBL's national accelerator facilities. The Bevalac's new multiparticle detectors (the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System and the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall) were completed in time to take data before the mid-year shutdown to install the new vacuum liner, which passed a milestone in-place test with flying colors in September. The Bevalac biomedical program continued patient treatment with neon beams aimed at establishing a complete data base for a dedicated biomedical accelerator, the design of which NCI funded during the year. Our program to develop alternative Isabelle superconducting dipole magnets, which DOE initiated in FY80, proved the worth of a new magnet construction technique and set a world record - 7.6 Tesla at 1.8 K - with a model magnet in our upgraded test facility. Final test results at LBL were obtained by the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group on the powerful neutral beam injectors developed for Princeton's TFTR. The devices exceeded the original design requirements, thereby completing the six-year, multi-million-dollar NBSTF effort. The group also demonstrated the feasibility of efficient negative-ion-based neutral beam plasma heating for the future by generating 1 A of negative ions at 34 kV for 7 seconds using a newly developed source. Collaborations with other research centers continued, including: (1) the design of LBL/Exxon-dedicated beam lines for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory; (2) beam cooling tests at Fermilab and the design of a beam cooling system for a proton-antiproton facility there; and (3) the development of a high-current betatron for possible application to a free electron laser.

  1. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division annual report, October 1980-September 1981. Fiscal year, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major accomplishments during fiscal year 1981 are presented. During the Laboratory's 50th anniversary celebrations, AFRD and the Nuclear Science Division formally dedicated the new (third) SuperHILAC injector that adds ions as heavy as uranium to the ion repertoire at LBL's national accelerator facilities. The Bevalac's new multiparticle detectors (the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System and the GSI-LBL Plastic Ball/Plastic Wall) were completed in time to take data before the mid-year shutdown to install the new vacuum liner, which passed a milestone in-place test with flying colors in September. The Bevalac biomedical program continued patient treatment with neon beams aimed at establishing a complete data base for a dedicated biomedical accelerator, the design of which NCI funded during the year. Our program to develop alternative Isabelle superconducting dipole magnets, which DOE initiated in FY80, proved the worth of a new magnet construction technique and set a world record - 7.6 Tesla at 1.8 K - with a model magnet in our upgraded test facility. Final test results at LBL were obtained by the Magnetic Fusion Energy Group on the powerful neutral beam injectors developed for Princeton's TFTR. The devices exceeded the original design requirements, thereby completing the six-year, multi-million-dollar NBSTF effort. The group also demonstrated the feasibility of efficient negative-ion-based neutral beam plasma heating for the future by generating 1 A of negative ions at 34 kV for 7 seconds using a newly developed source. Collaborations with other research centers continued, including: (1) the design of LBL/Exxon-dedicated beam lines for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory; (2) beam cooling tests at Fermilab and the design of a beam cooling system for a proton-antiproton facility there; and (3) the development of a high-current betatron for possible application to a free electron laser

  2. Fusion studies with low-intensity radioactive ion beams using an active-target time projection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolata, J. J.; Howard, A. M.; Mittig, W.; Ahn, T.; Bazin, D.; Becchetti, F. D.; Beceiro-Novo, S.; Chajecki, Z.; Febbrarro, M.; Fritsch, A.; Lynch, W. G.; Roberts, A.; Shore, A.; Torres-Isea, R. O.

    2016-09-01

    The total fusion excitation function for 10Be+40Ar has been measured over the center-of-momentum (c.m.) energy range from 12 to 24 MeV using a time-projection chamber (TPC). The main purpose of this experiment, which was carried out in a single run of duration 90 h using a ≈100 particle per second (pps) 10Be beam, was to demonstrate the capability of an active-target TPC to determine fusion excitation functions for extremely weak radioactive ion beams. Cross sections as low as 12 mb were measured with acceptable (50%) statistical accuracy. It also proved to be possible to separate events in which charged particles were emitted from the fusion residue from those in which only neutrons were evaporated. The method permits simultaneous measurement of incomplete fusion, break-up, scattering, and transfer reactions, and therefore fully exploits the opportunities presented by the very exotic beams that will be available from the new generation of radioactive beam facilities.

  3. Early Career. Harnessing nanotechnology for fusion plasma-material interface research in an in-situ particle-surface interaction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2014-08-08

    This project consisted of fundamental and applied research of advanced in-situ particle-beam interactions with surfaces/interfaces to discover novel materials able to tolerate intense conditions at the plasma-material interface (PMI) in future fusion burning plasma devices. The project established a novel facility that is capable of not only characterizing new fusion nanomaterials but, more importantly probing and manipulating materials at the nanoscale while performing subsequent single-effect in-situ testing of their performance under simulated environments in fusion PMI.

  4. Annual report of the Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research, JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JFT-2 operating regime was extended to higher toroidal field of 18 kG. Plasma confinements were studied on impurities, instabilities, plasma-wall interaction. Properties of a plasma with a separatrix magnetic surface and plasma behaviour in the scrape-off layer were studied in JFT-2a. In the diagnostics, a grazing-incidence vacuum ultra-violet spectrometer for studies on impurities was completed and put into operation. Several minor improvement and remodelling on the JFT-2 and JFT-2a tokamaks were carried out for the convenience of operation. In the plasma heating, constructions of the JFT-2 neutral injection system and the injector test stand ITS-2 for development of the higher energy ion source were started. The design of 200 kW RF power source for the plasma heating in JFT-2 was also made. Research in surface effects in fusion devices started at April 1, 1975. Experimental apparatus was designed and constructed in this fiscal year. A group for superconducting magnet development for fusion device was set up in January, 1976. Theoretical works continued in the analyses on transport processes, plasma heating, and mhd stabilities with an increasing effort on computational studies. A preliminary design of the 100 MW sub(t) tokamak experimental fusion reactor has been started in April, 1975. At the same time a conceptual design of the 2000 MW sub(t) power reactor was further improved. In the development of large tokamak device of next generation, programs on JT-60 and JT-4 are being carried out. Research and development works and detailed design studies on JT-60 are started based on the preliminary design studies made in the previous year. Preliminary design studies on JT-4 are completed. (auth.)

  5. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, Takashi; Naito, Osamu; Ogiwara, Norio; Saigusa, Mikio; Seki, Masahiro; Murasawa, Michihiko; Uehara, Yusuke [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    Research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. The main objectives of the JT-60 experiments are: confinement improvement, impurity control and divertor studies, steady-state studies, and energetic particle physics. JFT-2M experiments progressed in the momentum transport study by applying an external helical field and toroidal momentum input with NBI, and also, the boundary plasma study through the introduction of an electric field in the scrape-off layer (SOL) by the divertor biasing. Progress in the DIII-D experiments was obtained in the studies of divertor radiation, advanced tokamak and VH-mode plasma. As for the fusion technology research, activities are focused on the Research and Development (R and D) for ITER EDA: superconducting magnets, neutral beam heating, radio frequency heating, plasma facing components, reactor structure, remote maintenance, shielding blanket, tritium processing, tritium safety and fusion safety. Based on the Outline Design approved in March 1994 by the ITER Council a sensitivity study was conducted by the new director and JCT in close collaboration with four Home Teams in order to determine the optimum way to achieve a reduction in the cost of ITER while minimizing the impacts regarding its performance margins. Japanese Home Team carried out a part of the ITER design based on task agreements, mainly in the field of vacuum vessel, first wall and blanket, initial assembly, etc. The DREAM tokamak reactor concept was improved focusing on the reactor internals and safety. (J.P.N.).

  6. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1994 to March 31, 1995. The main objectives of the JT-60 experiments are: confinement improvement, impurity control and divertor studies, steady-state studies, and energetic particle physics. JFT-2M experiments progressed in the momentum transport study by applying an external helical field and toroidal momentum input with NBI, and also, the boundary plasma study through the introduction of an electric field in the scrape-off layer (SOL) by the divertor biasing. Progress in the DIII-D experiments was obtained in the studies of divertor radiation, advanced tokamak and VH-mode plasma. As for the fusion technology research, activities are focused on the Research and Development (R and D) for ITER EDA: superconducting magnets, neutral beam heating, radio frequency heating, plasma facing components, reactor structure, remote maintenance, shielding blanket, tritium processing, tritium safety and fusion safety. Based on the Outline Design approved in March 1994 by the ITER Council a sensitivity study was conducted by the new director and JCT in close collaboration with four Home Teams in order to determine the optimum way to achieve a reduction in the cost of ITER while minimizing the impacts regarding its performance margins. Japanese Home Team carried out a part of the ITER design based on task agreements, mainly in the field of vacuum vessel, first wall and blanket, initial assembly, etc. The DREAM tokamak reactor concept was improved focusing on the reactor internals and safety. (J.P.N.)

  7. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Michiya; Asakura, Nobuyuki; Moriyama, Shinichi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Seki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high-temperature plasma research in JT-60U and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. (author)

  8. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 1998. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. (J.P.N.)

  9. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1995 to March 31, 1996. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high-temperature plasma research in JT-60U and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. (author)

  10. Coherent Tiled 4 Beam Combination by Phase Controlled Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation Mirrors toward the Practical Laser Fusion Driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The coherent beam combination using the phase controlled stimulated Brillouin scattering phase conjugate mirrors (SBS-PCMs) is one of the promising techniques for the practical laser fusion drivers. Its ability has been demonstrated experimentally through this work. The phase fluctuations of the titled beams are less than 1/25 wavelength even when the amplifiers are inserted and operated in the beam combining system, which means that this new technique can be applied to combine the currently available lasers such as 100 J/ns/10 Hz for a real laser driver module whose output energy is greater than 5 kJ/ns/10 Hz. (author)

  11. Possibility of particle-beam-pumped Ar-Xe laser as an inertial confinement fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-product-beam pumped Ar-Xe laser as a candidate of the driver for a hybrid fission-fusion reactor is studied. Such hybrid reactor can reduce the power requirements for the laser driver. These Ar-Xe lasers have been realized as reactor pumped lasers (RPL) with pulsed reactors. However, high power RPL experiments often face the problem of premature termination of laser output power with respect to the pumping power. Several reasons, including temperature effects, outgassing of impurities from walls have been discussed. Two experiments, elucidating the influence of water vapor impurities in the lasing gas mixture and laser threshold, and the effects of temperature rise in the laser gas on laser output have been performed at the Munich Tandem accelerator, using 100 MeV 32S9+ beams, thus simulating RPL experiments at a pumping power density of ∼ 100 W/cm3. Using these experimental and theoretical results, these RPL-oscillations can be stabilized with high instinctive efficiency. Laser-gas-purification systems and breakeven conditions and related requirements on the hybrid reactor using RPL driver schematically discussed. (author)

  12. International power supply policy and the globalisation of research: the example of fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present state of our information, we can affirm that fusion research, as far as the necessary financial expenditures and their political justification are concerned, is a matter of politically controversial debate. In the political arenas, projects like controlled nuclear fusion are discussed primarily with regard to the controllability of complex technical systems and the sustainability of our future supply of electric power. The attempt to discuss this problem will have to consider: (i) on the one hand, already established concepts of sustainability; (ii) and on the other, the - according to the present state of our knowledge - foreseeable characteristics of a system of power generation and supply based on fusion reactors. Not only do the goals of global technology projects have to be embedded in patterns of universally accepted legitimisation (sustainability), but the organisation of research and development is also changing into networks acting globally. In this sense, globalisation means not only the worldwide linking of financial markets and the permanent availability of information and communication networks, but above all the creation of global organisations of research and innovation processes. The globalisation of research and development of technology has several dimensions: (i) the recognition and treatment of global problems; (ii) the transformation and evolution of new forms of organisation and cooperation in a global community of researchers; (iii) the constitution of Global Change Research. Fusion is playing a 'pathfinder role' for these processes and is at the same time itself an expression of the globalisation of the production of technology

  13. Elements of power plant design for inertial fusion energy. Final report of a coordinated research project 2000-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two major approaches in fusion energy research: magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE). The basic physics of IFE (compression and ignition of small fuel pellets containing deuterium and tritium) is being increasingly understood. Based on recent advances by individual countries, IFE has reached a stage at which benefits could be obtained from a coordinated approach in the form of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Elements of Power Plant Design for Inertial Fusion Energy. This CRP helped Member States to promote the development of plasma/fusion technology transfer and to emphasize safety and environmental advantages of fusion energy. The CRP was focused on interface issues including those related to, - the driver/target interface (e.g. focusing and beam uniformity required by the target), - the driver/chamber interface (e.g. final optics and magnets protection and shielding), - and the target/chamber interface (e.g. target survival during injection, target positioning and tracking in the chamber). The final report includes an assessment of the state of the art of the technologies required for an IFE power plant (drivers, chambers, targets) and systems integration as presented and evaluated by members of the CRP. Additional contributions by cost free invited experts to the final RCM are included. The overall objective of this CRP was to foster the inertial fusion energy development by improving international cooperation. The variety of contributions compiled in this TECDOC reflects, that the goal of stimulating the exchange of knowledge was well achieved. Further the CRP led to the creation of a network, which not only exchanged their scientific results, but also developed healthy professional relations and strong mutual interest in the work of the group members

  14. Socioeconomic Research on Fusion. Serf 1997-98

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin this study the environmental externalisation produced in some stages of a hypothetical fusion power plant have been studied. The results are the CIEMAT contribution in the macro task named External costs and benefits of the Socioeconomic Research on Fusion (SERF 1997-98) European project. For the externalisation economical assessment the Externe methodology has been applied. Lauffen, sited in the SW of Germany has been selected as the hypothetical location of the power plant. The technology, for two different models, was described by Max Planck Institute and the externalisation of the materials manufacturing, power plant construction and operation as well as accidents have been monetarily evaluated. The obtained results revealed that for the plant model which uses cooling water, the prevalent cause of external costs were the collective doses produced by the global dispersion of 14C emissions. External costs produced by radiological accidents represent low values, however the preliminary assessment performed for the external impacts caused by the ingestion of contaminated food stuff and water, point out that a more detailed analysis for this stage, is needed. It should be noted that the results presented in this study, are partial values since other potentially important stages such as disposal of radiological waste and decommissioning of the power plant, have not been included. (Author) 30 refs

  15. Socioeconomic Research on Fusion. SERF 1997-98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saez, R.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Lomba, L.; Palomino, I.; Recreo, F.; Robles, B.; Suanez, A.; Cancio, D. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain)

    1999-09-01

    In this study the environmental externalities produced in some stages of a hypothetical fusion power plant have been studied. The results are the CIEMAT contribution in the macro task named External costs and benefits of the Socioeconomic Research on Fusion (SERF 1997-98) European project. For the externalities economical assessment the Externe methodology has been applied. Lauffen, sited in the SW of Germany has been selected as the hypothetical location of the power plant. The technology, for two different models, was described by Max Planck Institute and the externalities of the materials manufacturing, power plant construction and operation as well as accidents have been monetarily evaluated. The obtained results revealed that for the plant model which uses cooling water, the prevalent cause of external costs were collective doses produced by the global dispersion of 14C emissions. External costs produced by radiological accidents represent low values, however the preliminary assessment performed for the external impacts caused by the ingestion of contaminated foodstuff and water, point out that a more detailed analysis for this stage, is needed. It should be noted that the results presented in this study, are partial values since other potentially important stages such as disposal of radiological waste and decommissioning of the power plant, have not been included. (Author)

  16. Radiation hazards in PF-1000 plasma generator fusion research (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on radiation exposures to researchers and technicians involved in fusion research. It is the second article in the series on this topic. It discusses immediate exposures to the ionizing radiation that is generated immediately during fusion research performed on the PF-1000, a dense magnetized plasma generator that is the world's largest. (author)

  17. Annual report of Fusion Research and Development Directorate of JAEA for FY2008 and FY2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of major results and progress on research and development (R and D) activities at Fusion Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for FY2008 (from April 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009) and FY2009 (from April 1, 2009 to March 31, 2010), including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAEA, research institutes, and universities. Concerning the ITER project, JAEA was nominated as the domestic agency by the Japanese government after the ITER Agreement took effect, and has fulfilled the obligations. In the development of superconducting conductors, JAEA constructed a technical platform for the fabrication of superconducting conductors for toroidal field (TF) coils ahead of other countries. JAEA immediately started and completed the construction of a plant to fabricate superconducting conductors, and started their fabrication ahead of other countries. In the development of gyrotron high-frequency heating equipment, since only the JAEA satisfies the ITER's procurement specifications among supplier countries, the ITER Organization requested JAEA to conduct confidence tests, and achieved results such as data acquisition that could contribute to the development of the ITER's operational scenario. For the development of neutral beam injectors, advantages of the multi-stage acceleration system developed by JAEA was recognized as a result of comparative experiments with single-stage acceleration systems developed in Europe for the particle acceleration system, and was adopted in the ITER's technical specifications. For the Broader Approach (BA) activities, JAEA was designated as the implementing agency by the Japanese government after the BA Agreement took effect, and has fulfilled the obligations and promoted three projects in the BA activities steadily through domestic cooperation and coordination with Europe. Concerning activities related to the International Fusion Energy

  18. ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT. ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OAK A271 ADVANCED FUSION TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ANNUAL REPORT TO THE US DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. The General Atomics (GA) Advanced Fusion Technology Program seeks to advance the knowledge base needed for next-generation fusion experiments, and ultimately for an economical and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. To achieve this objective, they carry out fusion systems design studies to evaluate the technologies needed for next-step experiments and power plants, and they conduct research to develop basic and applied knowledge about these technologies. GA's Advanced Fusion Technology program derives from, and draws on, the physics and engineering expertise built up by many years of experience in designing, building, and operating plasma physics experiments. The technology development activities take full advantage of the GA DIII-D program, the DIII-D facility and the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program and the ICF Target Fabrication facility

  19. Beam tomography research at Daresbury Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam tomography research at Daresbury Laboratory has focussed on the development of normalised phase space techniques—starting with the idea of sampling tomographic projections at equal phase advances. This idea has influenced the design and operation of the tomography sections at the Photo Injector Test Facility at Zeuthen (PITZ) and at the Accelerator and Lasers in Combined Experiments (ALICE) at Daresbury. We have studied the feasibility of using normalised phase space to measure the effect of space charge. Quadrupole scan measurements are carried out at two different parts of a beamline. Reconstructions at the same location give results that are clearly rotated with respect to each other in normalised phase space. We are able to show that a significant part of this rotation can be attributed to the effect of space charge. We show how the normalised phase space technique can be used to increase the reliability of the Maximum Entropy Technique (MENT). While MENT is known for its ability to work with just a few projections, the accuracy of its reconstructions has seldom been questioned. We show that for typical phase space distributions, MENT could produce results that look quite different from the original. We demonstrate that a normalised phase space technique could give results that are closer to the actual distribution. We also present simpler ways of deriving the phase space tomography formalism and the Maximum Entropy Technique

  20. Studies on the feasibility of heavy ion beams for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies on the ''Feasibility of Heavy Ion Beams for Inertial Confinement'' funded by the German Ministry of Research and Technology have been continued in the same extent as in previous years. This Annual Report summarizes the scientific results of research carried out in the framework of this project at various research laboratories and universities. The principal aims of this research program are the identification and investigation of key issues of the heavy ion ICF concept based on a RF linac driver. Work done in 1983 concentrated on problems of accelerator and target physics: The theoretical investigations on the dynamics of high-intensity beams were continued. For the first time a low frequency RFQ for a high A/q ratio, to be used as a first unit of an injector, was put into operation. Theoretical target studies concentrated more on fundamental physics problems in the ICF targets, and on considerations for the generation of dense plasmas by intense beams of heavy ions. (orig./GG)

  1. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1,2000 to March 31, 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are outstanding at high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and development in ITER EDA including technological R and Ds. The JT-60 project aims at contributing to the physics R and D for ITER and establishing the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. For the achievement of those objectives, both physical and engineering researches have been done. The JT-60 have continued to be productive in many areas covering performance improvements of high βp ELMy H-mode regime and reversed shear plasma, non-inductive current drive, physics study relevant to improved modes, stabilization of MHD modes, feedback control, disruption study, understandings on energetic particles, and scrape off layer and divertor studies with increased pumping capability. On JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being promoted, including application of the low activation ferritic steel, with the flexibility of a medium-sized device. The pre-testing on compatibility of ferritic steel plates (FPs), covering ∼20% of the inside wall of the vacuum vessel, with plasma was performed, demonstrating no adverse effects on plasmas. Boronization was introduced for the first time in JFT-2M after installation of inside FPs. High-βN discharges (βN up to ∼2.8) were obtained with inside FPs and boronization. Formation of negative electric field at the H-mode transition during ECH was clarified by the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The MSE polarimeter system, which is capable of simultaneous measurement of a radial electric field, has been newly developed. In RF experiments, fast wave electric field profile was directly measured for the first time using the beat wave and HIBP. The principal objective of theoretical and

  2. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  3. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  4. Developments in bone tissue engineering research for spinal fusion

    OpenAIRE

    van Gaalen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many orthopaedic procedures require fusion of a bony defect. Sometimes a bone graft is needed for this fusion. Autograft bone is considered the golden standard. The harvesting of this bone is time consuming and may have serious side effects, such as chronic donor site pain. Available alternatives are reviewed and discussed based on their benefits and drawbacks. As an alternative, bone Tissue Engineering (TE), i.e. osteoprogenitor cells seeded on porous ceramic scaffolds, for spinal fusion was...

  5. Computing for magnetic fusion energy research: The next five years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers computing needs in magnetic fusion for the next five years. It is the result of two and a half years of effort by representatives of all aspects of the magnetic fusion community. The report also factors in the results of a survey that was distributed to the laboratories and universities that support fusion. There are four areas of computing support discussed: theory, experiment, engineering, and systems

  6. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Moriyama, Shinichi; Tanaka, Fumiya; Tuda, Takashi; Tsuji, Hiroshi (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and completion of ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) in July 2001, including technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  7. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2001 to March 31, 2002. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and completion of ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) in July 2001, including technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  8. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1971. Vol. III. Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of controlled nuclear fusion research is to make a new energy source available to mankind, a source that will be virtually unlimited and that gives promise of being environmentally cleaner than the sources currently exploited. This goal has stimulated research in plasma physics over the past two decades, leading to significant advances in the understanding of matter in its most common state as well as to progress in the confinement and heating of plasma. An indication of this progress is that in several countries considerable effort is being devoted to design studies of fusion reactors and to the technological problems that will be encountered in realizing these reactors. This range of research, from plasma physics to fusion reactor engineering, is shown in the present three-volume publication of the Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. The Conference was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency and was held in Madison, Wisconsin, USA from 17 to 23 June 1971. The enthusiastic co-operation of the University of Wisconsin and of the United States Atomic Energy Commission in the organization of the Conference is gratefully acknowledged. The Conference was attended by over 500 scientists from 24 countries and 3 international organizations, and 143 papers were presented. These papers are published here in the original language; English translations of the Russian papers will be published in a Special Supplement to the journal Nuclear Fusion. The series of conferences on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research has become a major international forum for the presentation and discussion of results in this important and challenging field. In addition to sponsoring these conferences, the International Atomic Energy Agency supports controlled nuclear fusion research by publishing the journal Nuclear Fusion, and has recently established an International Fusion Research Council

  9. A proposed method for accurate 3D analysis of cochlear implant migration using fusion of cone beam CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eDees

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe goal of this investigation was to compare fusion of sequential cone beam CT volumes to the gold standard (fiducial registration in order to be able to analyze clinical CI migration with high accuracy in three dimensions. Materials and MethodsPaired time-lapsed cone beam CT volumes were performed on five human cadaver temporal bones and one human subject. These volumes were fused using 3D Slicer 4 and BRAINSFit software. Using a gold standard fiducial technique, the accuracy, robustness and performance time of the fusion process were assessed.Results This proposed fusion protocol achieves a sub voxel mean Euclidean distance of 0.05 millimeter in human cadaver temporal bones and 0.16 millimeter when applied to the described in vivo human synthetic data set in over 95% of all fusions. Performance times are less than two minutes.ConclusionHere a new and validated method based on existing techniques is described which could be used to accurately quantify migration of cochlear implant electrodes.

  10. Perspective on fusion research in China (2) fusion activities in China with special intonation on hybrid reactor program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lijian, Qiu

    2001-09-01

    Chinese fusion research was started from 1958, but with more clear problem definition it has been set up as the national program for development of the hybrid reactor in 1986. In this paper, it will be described how the organized program is going on.

  11. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  12. The scientific benefits of inertially confined fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Key, M

    1999-05-14

    A striking feature of 25 years of research into inertially confined fusion (ICF) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been its significant impact in other fields of science. Most ICF facilities worldwide are now being used in part to support a wider portfolio of research than simply ICF. Reasons for this trend include the high intrinsic interest of the new science coupled with the relative ease and low marginal cost of adapting the facilities particularly lasers, to carry out experiments with goals other than ICF. The availability at ICF laboratories of sophisticated theory and modeling capability and advanced diagnostics has given added impetus. The expertise of ICF specialists has also triggered more lateral scientific spin-offs leading for example to new types of lasers and to related developments in basic science. In a generic sense, the facilities developed for ICF have made possible study of new regimes of the properties of matter at extremely high-energy density and the interaction of ultraintense light with matter. This general opportunity has been exploited in numerous and diverse specific lines of research. Examples elaborated below include laboratory simulation of astrophysical phenomena; studies of the equation of state (EOS) of matter under conditions relevant to the interior of planets and stars; development of uniquely intense sources of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) to hard x-ray emission, notably the x-ray laser; understanding of the physics of strong field interaction of light and matter; and related new phenomena such as laser-induced nuclear processes and high-field-electron accelerators. Some of these developments have potential themselves for further scientific exploitation such as the scientific use of advanced light sources. There are also avenues for commercial exploitation, for example the use of laser plasma sources in EUV lithography. Past scientific progress is summarized here and projections are made for new science that may flow from the

  13. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono, M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, R. Kaita, H.W. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, J.M. Canik, S. Diem, S.P.. Gerhardt, J. Hosea, S. Kaye, D. Mansfield, R. Maingi, J. Menard, S. F. Paul, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, C.H. Skinner, V. Soukhanovskii, G. Taylor, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-14

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ~ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  14. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  15. Magnetic fusion energy and computers. The role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development (second edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the structure and uses of the MFE Network and presents a compilation of future computing requirements. Its primary emphasis is on the role of supercomputers in fusion research. One of its key findings is that with the introduction of each successive class of supercomputer, qualitatively improved understanding of fusion processes has been gained. At the same time, even the current Class VI machines severely limit the attainable realism of computer models. Many important problems will require the introduction of Class VII or even larger machines before they can be successfully attacked

  16. Developments in bone tissue engineering research for spinal fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaalen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many orthopaedic procedures require fusion of a bony defect. Sometimes a bone graft is needed for this fusion. Autograft bone is considered the golden standard. The harvesting of this bone is time consuming and may have serious side effects, such as chronic donor site pain. Available alternatives ar

  17. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division. Annual report, October 1978-September 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered include: Super HILAC and Bevalac operations; high intensity uranium beams line item; advanced high charge state ion source; 184-inch synchrocyclotron; VENUS project; positron-electron project; high field superconducting accelerator magnets; beam cooling; accelerator theory; induction linac drivers; RF linacs and storage rings; theory; neutral beam systems development; experimental atomic physics; neutral beam plasma research; plasma theory; and the Tormac project

  18. Modifications of the laser beam coherence inertial confinement fusion plasmas; Modifications des proprietes de coherence des faisceaux laser dans les plasmas de fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grech, M

    2007-06-15

    Inertial confinement fusion by laser requires smoothed laser beam with well-controlled coherence properties. Such beams are made of many randomly distributed intensity maxima: the so-called speckles. As the laser beam propagates through plasma its temporal and spatial coherence can be reduced. This phenomenon is called plasma induced smoothing. For high laser intensities, instabilities developing independently inside the speckles are responsible for the coherence loss. At lower intensities, only collective effects, involving many speckles, can lead to induced smoothing. This thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of these mechanisms. Accounting for the partially incoherent behavior of the laser beams requires the use of statistical description of the laser-plasma interaction. A model is developed for the multiple scattering of the laser light on the self-induced density perturbations that is responsible for a spreading of the temporal and spatial spectra of the transmitted light. It also serves as a strong seed for the instability of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering that induces both, angular spreading and red-shift of the transmitted light. A statistical model is developed for this instability. A criterion is obtained that gives a laser power (below the critical power for filamentation) above which the instability growth is important. Numerical simulations with the interaction code PARAX and an experiment performed on the ALISE laser facility confirm the importance of these forward scattering mechanisms in the modification of the laser coherence properties. (author)

  19. Proceedings of 1995 the first Taedok international fusion symposium on advanced tokamak researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This proceeding is from the First Taeduk International Fusion Symposium on advanced tokamak research, which was held at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taeduk Science Town, Korea on March 28-29, 1995. (Author) .new

  20. Proceedings of 1995 the first Taedok international fusion symposium on advanced tokamak researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, K. W.; Hwang, C. K.; Hong, B. G.; Hong, G. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-05-01

    This proceeding is from the First Taeduk International Fusion Symposium on advanced tokamak research, which was held at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taeduk Science Town, Korea on March 28-29, 1995. (Author) .new.

  1. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at the Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M as well as DIII-D (US-Japan collaboration), and progress in ITER EDA, including ITER technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  2. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at the Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M as well as DIII-D (US-Japan collaboration), and progress in ITER EDA, including ITER technology R and D. (J.P.N.)

  3. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard H-mode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  4. FY-2013 FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) Joint Research Target Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenstermacher, M. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Garofalo, A. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Hubbard, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Whyte, D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The H-mode confinement regime is characterized by a region of good thermal and particle confinement at the edge of the confined plasma, and has generally been envisioned as the operating regime for ITER and other next step devices. This good confinement is often interrupted, however, by edge-localized instabilities, known as ELMs. On the one hand, these ELMs provide particle and impurity flushing from the plasma core, a beneficial effect facilitating density control and stationary operation. On the other hand, the ELMs result in a substantial fraction of the edge stored energy flowing in bursts to the divertor and first wall; this impulsive thermal loading would result in unacceptable erosion of these material surfaces if it is not arrested. Hence, developing and understanding operating regimes that have the energy confinement of standard Hmode and the stationarity that is provided by ELMs, while at the same time eliminating the impulsive thermal loading of large ELMs, is the focus of the 2013 FES Joint Research Target (JRT): Annual Target: Conduct experiments and analysis on major fusion facilities, to evaluate stationary enhanced confinement regimes without large Edge Localized Modes (ELMs), and to improve understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that allow acceptable edge particle transport while maintaining a strong thermal transport barrier. Mechanisms to be investigated can include intrinsic continuous edge plasma modes and externally applied 3D fields. Candidate regimes and techniques have been pioneered by each of the three major US facilities (C-Mod, D3D and NSTX). Coordinated experiments, measurements, and analysis will be carried out to assess and understand the operational space for the regimes. Exploiting the complementary parameters and tools of the devices, joint teams will aim to more closely approach key dimensionless parameters of ITER, and to identify correlations between edge fluctuations and transport. The role of rotation will be

  5. Annual report of the Fusion Research and Development Center for the period of April 1, 1979 to March 31, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Fusion Research and Development Center (Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development) from April 1979 to March 1980 are described. In Plasma physics research two experiments both related to radio-frequency power injection into tokamak plasmas are to be noted. One is the demonstration of current drive by lower hybrid waves in JFT-2 and the other high efficiency ICRF heating at two-ion hybrid resonance in JFT-2a/DIVA. A multi-MW neutral beam injection system was installed and tested at JFT-2 with heating experiments expected to start shortly. JFT-2a/DIVA was shutdown to make space for the injector. A new ingredient in this area is the initiation of dee plasma experiments in Doublet III at San Diego, USA by JAERI team under US-Japan cooperation agreement. Progress was rapid achieving all experimental objective planned for this period. Construction of JT-60 is in progress as planned. A Mukoyama site where JT-60 and other new facilities will be located was procured in October 1979, which was followed by the construction starts of JT-60 buildings. The completion of JT-60 is expected in fall 1984. The progressive brief summaries are presented in following topics; development of neutral beam and radiofrequency heating system for JT-60, installation of the cluster testing facility with NbTi field coils, and design of tritium handling facility. (J.P.N.)

  6. Interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedjalil, N.; Mehrangiz, M.; Jafari, S.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme has been presented. We propose here to merge a plasma-loaded cone with the precompressed DT target in order to strongly focus the incident laser beam on the core to improve the fusion gain. The WKB approximation is used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of beamwidth of the incident laser beam with the distance of propagation in the plasma medium. The effects of initial plasma and laser parameters, such as initial plasma electron temperature, initial radius of the laser beam, initial laser beam intensity and plasma density, on self-focusing and defocusing of the Gaussian laser beam have been studied. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the plasma frequency (or plasma density) in the cone, the laser beam will be self-focused noticeably, while for a thinner laser beam (with small radius), it will diverge as propagate in the cone. By evaluating the energy deposition of the relativistic electron ignitors in the fuel, the importance of electron transportation in the cone-attached shell was demonstrated. Moreover, by lessening the least energy needed for ignition, the electrons coupling with the pellet enhances. Therefore, it increases the fusion efficiency. In this scheme, with employing a plasma-loaded cone, the fusion process improves without needing an ultrahigh-intensity laser beam in a conventional ICF.

  7. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory heavy ion fusion program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bangerter, R.O.; Lee, E.P.; Monsler, M.J.; Yu, S.S.

    1978-12-29

    In the large fusion program at Livermore we are actively doing research in most areas of inertial confinement fusion. The areas in which we are funded for research specific to heavy ion fusion are: (1) target design; (2) energy conversion chamber design and (3) ion beam propagation in the combustion chamber. There are two main thrusts to the target design effort: (1) development of targets which are optimally suited to heavy ion fusion power production and (2) fundamental studies of the beam-target interaction.

  8. Light ion research for inertial confinement fusion at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Light ion beams offer the possibility of a very efficient and low-cost driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). The energy deposition is straightforward since the ions deposit their energy in a dense plasma that prevents microscopic instabilities from producing preheating electrons. The difficulty with light ions has been the focusability. In 1984, a proof-of-principle experiment on Proto I, at the same current density and charge density required for inertial fusion on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II), showed that intense ion beams can be focused to the required divergence with the correct local physics. In 1985, the result was scaled to PBFA I at the same current and diode radius required for fusion on PBFA II. PBFA II finished its construction phase with a successful first shot on December 11, 1985. The accelerator is now being characterized and brought to full operational status. The results, to date, of that effort and the relevant data base on beam control and ion source purity will be presented

  9. Assessment of contemporary mathematical methods for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treve, Y. M.

    1978-03-01

    The mathematical techniques reviewed have been selected on the basis of their relevance to at least four outstanding theoretical problems of magnetic fusion research, namely: (a) ion heating; (b) particle-wave interactions; (c) stability of magnetic surfaces in real tokamaks; and (d) strong plasma turbulence. These problems have a common feature: they all involve chaotic motions in spite of the perfectly deterministic nature of the mathematical models used for their description. In the first section devoted to Hamiltonian systems we briefly review the essentials of the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and discuss the Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser theorem and its implications. In section 2 we review the difficulties of the problem of turbulence and present the Ruelle-Takens picture. An example of a dynamical system with a strange attractor is constructed and the Hopf bifurcation theory is discussed. Finally we review the properties of the Lorenz model for the convective instability of an atmospheric layer which is known to have a strange attractor for sufficiently high Rayleigh numbers.

  10. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  11. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by ''FOA'' in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  12. NASA-NIAC 2001 Phase I Research Grant on Aneutronic Fusion Spacecraft Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarditi, Alfonso G. (Principal Investigator); Scott, John H.; Miley, George H.

    2012-01-01

    This study was developed because the recognized need of defining of a new spacecraft architecture suitable for aneutronic fusion and featuring game-changing space travel capabilities. The core of this architecture is the definition of a new kind of fusion-based space propulsion system. This research is not about exploring a new fusion energy concept, it actually assumes the availability of an aneutronic fusion energy reactor. The focus is on providing the best (most efficient) utilization of fusion energy for propulsion purposes. The rationale is that without a proper architecture design even the utilization of a fusion reactor as a prime energy source for spacecraft propulsion is not going to provide the required performances for achieving a substantial change of current space travel capabilities.

  13. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1,2000 to March 31, 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Masaaki; Kizu, Kaname; Kusakawa, Fumio; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Sengoku, Seio (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are outstanding at high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and development in ITER EDA including technological R and Ds. The JT-60 project aims at contributing to the physics R and D for ITER and establishing the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. For the achievement of those objectives, both physical and engineering researches have been done. The JT-60 have continued to be productive in many areas covering performance improvements of high {beta}{sub p} ELMy H-mode regime and reversed shear plasma, non-inductive current drive, physics study relevant to improved modes, stabilization of MHD modes, feedback control, disruption study, understandings on energetic particles, and scrape off layer and divertor studies with increased pumping capability. On JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being promoted, including application of the low activation ferritic steel, with the flexibility of a medium-sized device. The pre-testing on compatibility of ferritic steel plates (FPs), covering {approx}20% of the inside wall of the vacuum vessel, with plasma was performed, demonstrating no adverse effects on plasmas. Boronization was introduced for the first time in JFT-2M after installation of inside FPs. High-{beta}{sub N} discharges ({beta}{sub N} up to {approx}2.8) were obtained with inside FPs and boronization. Formation of negative electric field at the H-mode transition during ECH was clarified by the heavy ion beam probe (HIBP). The MSE polarimeter system, which is capable of simultaneous measurement of a radial electric field, has been newly developed. In RF experiments, fast wave electric field profile was directly measured for the first time using the beat wave and HIBP. The

  14. Configuration of the Virtual Laboratory for Fusion Researches in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Nakanishi, H.; Ishiguro, S.; Takami, S.; Tsuda, K.; Okamura, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Toki (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    SNET is a virtual laboratory system for nuclear fusion research in Japan, it has been developed since 2001 with SINET3, which is a national academic network backbone operated by National Institute of Computer sciences. Twenty one sites including major Japanese universities, JAEA and NIFS are mutually connected on SNET with the speed of 1 Gbps in 2008 fiscal year. The SNET is a closed network system based on L2 and L3 VPN and is connected to the web through the firewall at NIFS for security maintenance. Collaboration categories in SNET are as follows: the LHD remote participation; the remote use of supercomputer system; the all Japan ST (Spherical Tokamak) research program. For example, the collaborators of the first category in a remote station can control their diagnostic devices at LHD and analyze the LHD data as if they were at the LHD control room. The detail of the network policy is different from each other because each category has its own particular purpose. In October 2008, the Kyushu University and NIFS were connected by L2 VPN. The site was already connected by L3 VPN, but the data transfer rate was rather low. L2 VPN supports the bulk data transfer which is produced by QUEST, the spherical tokamak device at Kyushu University. The wide-area broadcast test began to distribute to remote stations the video which is presented at the front panel of the LHD control room. ITER activity started in 2007 and 'The ITER Remote Experimentation Centre' will be constructed at the Rokkasho village in Japan under ITER-BA agreement. SNET would be useful for distributing the data of ITER to Japanese universities and institutions. (authors)

  15. User facility for research on fusion systems with dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D.

    1999-01-07

    There are a number of fusion systems whose dimensions can be scaled down to a few centimeters, if the plasma density and confining magnetic field are raised to sufficiently high values. This prompts a "user-facility" approach to the studies of this class of fusion systems. The concept of such a user facility was first briefly mentioned in Ref. 1. Here we present a more detailed description.

  16. Annual report of the Fusion Research Center for the period of April 1, 1983 to March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Fusion Research Center (Department of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Department of Large Tokamak Development) from April 1983 to March 1984 are described. Installation and commissioning of the new tokamak JFT-2M had been completed. The 2nd ICRF heating experiment and LH current drive experiment were started. In the field of plasma theory, the scaling law of the critical beta in a tokamak was obtained and the ICRF heating was analyzed in detail. The first phase of the cooperation of Doublet III will be finished in Sept. 1984. The JT-60 program progressed as scheduled. Installation of the tokamak machine, initiated in Feb. 1983, will be finished in Sept. 1984. The tests of power supply and control system on site and the fabrication of the neutral beam injectors in factory proceeded successfully. Performance tests of prototype injector unit for JT-60 NBI progressed as scheduled. A new advanced source plasma generator was developed to provide a high proton ratio exceeding 90%. Klystrons for JT-60 LH heating achieved the output power of 1 MW for 10 sec. Performance tests of titanium evaporators for JT-60 were completed. The Japanese coil for IEA Large Coil Task was installed in a test facility at ORNL and the partial cool-down was carried out. Construction of the Tritium Process Laboratory was completed. Design studies of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) and INTOR proceeded. (author)

  17. Neutron beam research at BARC (India) and international collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanadham, M.; Mukhopadhyay, R. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2001-03-01

    Neutron beam research started in India more than four decades ago. Presently, the National Facility for Neutron Beam Research, NFNBR is located in Dhruva, a 100 MW research reactor. The entire facility, including the development of neutron detectors, is the result of indigenous efforts of the participating scientists from Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, BARC. NFNBR is accessible to national and international collaborations, and about forty research groups from various institutions have already availed this facility. Active collaboration with ISIS started since 1984, when the day-1 spectrometer, built at BARC, became operational at ISIS. The collaboration continued with the fabrication, at BARC, of parts for OSIRIS spectrometer. Many neutron beam researchers from BARC have carried out collaborative experiments using the neutron sources at USA, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Japan. (author)

  18. Progress in heavy ion driven inertial fusion energy: From scaled experiments to the integrated research experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise of inertial fusion energy driven by heavy ion beams requires the development of accelerators that produce ion currents (∼100s Amperesheam) and ion energies (∼1-10 GeV) that have not been achieved simultaneously in any existing accelerator. The high currents imply high generalized perveances, large tune depressions. and high space charge potentials of the beam center relative to the beam pipe. Many of the scientific issues associated with ion beams of high perveance and large tune depression have been addressed over the last two decades on scaled experiments at Lawrence Berkeley and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the University of Maryland, and elsewhere. The additional requirement of high space charge potential (or equivalently high line charge density) gives rise to effects (particularly the role of electrons in beam transport) which must be understood before proceeding to a large scale accelerator. The first phase of a new series of experiments in Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory (HIF VNL), the High Current Experiments (HCX), is now being constructed at LBNL. The mission of the HCX will be to transport beams with driver line charge density so as to investigate the physics of this regime, including constraints on the maximum radial filling factor of the beam through the pipe. This factor is important for determining both cost and reliability of a driver scale accelerator. The HCX will provide data for design of the next steps in the sequence of experiments leading to an inertial Fusion energy power plant. The focus of the program after the HCX will be on integration of all of the manipulations required for a driver. In the near term following HCX, an Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) of the same general scale as the HCX is envisioned

  19. A survey on publications in fusion research and technology science and technology indicators in fusion R and T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific publications disseminate research results and are therefore an interesting subject for science and technology analysis. Bibliographic databases contain scientific publications which are indexed and structured. The paper considers Fusion Research and Technology records which are stored in the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) bibliographic database. For the first time, all scientometric and bibliometric information specific to a selected field of science and technology contained in a bibliographic database, using INIS records, is analysed and quantified. A variety of new science and technology indicators which can be used for assessing research and development activities are also presented. (author)

  20. Magnetic fusion energy and computers: the role of computing in magnetic fusion energy research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the role of computing in the Department of Energy magnetic confinement fusion program. The present status of the MFECC and its associated network is described. The third part of this report examines the role of computer models in the main elements of the fusion program and discusses their dependence on the most advanced scientific computers. A review of requirements at the National MFE Computer Center was conducted in the spring of 1976. The results of this review led to the procurement of the CRAY 1, the most advanced scientific computer available, in the spring of 1978. The utilization of this computer in the MFE program has been very successful and is also described in the third part of the report. A new study of computer requirements for the MFE program was conducted during the spring of 1979 and the results of this analysis are presented in the forth part of this report

  1. Plasma opening switch development for the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conducted plasma opening switch (POS) experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' new Particle Beam Fusin Accelerator II (PBFA II) (12 MV, 100 TW, 50 ns), on the Supermite accelerator (2 MV, 2 TW, 50 ns) and on the Naval Research Laboratory's Gamble II accelerator (1.8 MV, 1.6 TW, 70 ns). The POS systems on the PBFA II and Supermite accelerators use a newly developed flashboard plasma source to provide the plasma necessary to conduct the large (> 1 MA) currents produced byu these accelerators. In the Supermite experiments, the plasma opening switch conducted currents up to 1 MA before opening in less than 10 ns into an electron beam load. These experiments achieved significant voltage gain relative to the voltage across a matched load. In experiments on Gamble II, power gains of up to 1.7 were achieved using a POS in a strongly coaxial geometry (r/sub outer//r/sub inner/ = 2) with a large magnetic field at the cathode. The POS system on PBFA II is unique because of its size and voltage. This POS system is designed to conduct over 6 MA before opening. In present experiments it has conducted currents of 4-5 MA for over 50 ns

  2. Inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for beam plasma research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the design and principle of operation of an inverse time-of-flight spectrometer for research in the plasma produced by an electron beam in the forevacuum pressure range (5–20 Pa). In the spectrometer, the deflecting plates as well as the drift tube and the primary ion beam measuring system are at high potential with respect to ground. This provides the possibility to measure the mass-charge constitution of the plasma created by a continuous electron beam with a current of up to 300 mA and electron energy of up to 20 keV at forevacuum pressures in the chamber placed at ground potential. Research results on the mass-charge state of the beam plasma are presented and analyzed

  3. Laser development for laser fusion applications research. Progress report, October 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Research progress is reported on three laser programs being developed for the commercialization of laser-fusion energy. The lasers include iodine, hydrogen fluoride and Group VI atoms (e.g., O, S, Se, Te). (TFD)

  4. Research of Multi-sensor Images Based on Color Fusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Yao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With the development of image sensor technology, multi-sensor image fusion technology emerged and was widely used in the field of military surveillance, medical diagnosis, remote sensing, intelligent robot and so on. However, the current image fusion technology mainly focuses on the research of gray images, the color image fusion is rarely. Because color image contains more information compared with gray image, the research on color image fusion technology is becoming more and more urgent. In this paper, the realization of several typical color image fusion algorithms were discussed, the principle and their respective advantages and disadvantages were analyzed. Secondly, according to the different characteristics of visible image and infrared image, this paper proposes a color image fusion algorithm based on Curve let transform, this algorithm will combine visible image, infrared image with its negative respectively fusion, color mapping rules are in couple with the human visual characteristics. Experiments show that color fusion images obtained are richer in color, they contains more details and recognize easily.

  5. Research and development plan of fusion technologies in JAERI toward DEMO reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the 'Third Phase Basic Program on Fusion Research and Development' established by the Fusion Council of the Japan Atomic Energy Commission, research and development (R and D) of fusion technologies aim at realization of two elements: development of ITER key components and their improvement for higher performances; and construction of sound technical basis of fusion nuclear technologies essential for fusion energy utilization. JAERI has been assigned in the Third Phase Basic Program as a responsible institute for developing the above two elements, and accordingly has been implementing technology R and Ds categorized in the following three areas: R and D for ITER construction and operation; R and D for ITER utilization (blanket testing in ITER) and toward DEMO; and R and D on basic fusion technologies. The present report reviews the status and the plan of fusion technology R and Ds in the latter two areas, and presents the technical objectives, technical issues, status of R and D and near-term R and D plans for: breeding blankets; structural materials; the IFMIF program; improvements of the key ITER components for higher performances toward DEMO; and basic fusion technologies. (author)

  6. Multimodal options for materials research to advance the basis for fusion energy in the ITER era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkle, S. J.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Tanigawa, H.

    2013-10-01

    Well-coordinated international fusion materials research on multiple fundamental feasibility issues can serve an important role during the next ten years. Due to differences in national timelines and fusion device concepts, a parallel-track (multimodal) approach is currently being used for developing fusion energy. An overview is given of the current state-of-the-art of major candidate materials systems for next-step fusion reactors, including a summary of existing knowledge regarding operating temperature and neutron irradiation fluence limits due to high-temperature strength and radiation damage considerations, coolant compatibility information, and current industrial manufacturing capabilities. There are two inter-related overarching objectives of fusion materials research to be performed in the next decade: (1) understanding materials science phenomena in the demanding DT fusion energy environment, and (2) application of this knowledge to develop and qualify materials to provide the basis for next-step facility construction authorization by funding agencies and public safety licensing authorities. The critical issues and prospects for development of high-performance fusion materials are discussed along with recent research results and planned activities of the international materials research community.

  7. Beam smoothing and temporal effects: optimized preparation of laser beams for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Direct-drive laser fusion received a number of setbacks from the experimental observation in the 1960s and 1970s of very complex interactions in laser plasma experiments caused by a number of nonlinear and anomalous phenomena. Although smoothing methods were introduced intuitively or empirically -succeeding in reducing these difficulties - it was not until a few years ago that the 20-ps stochastic pulsation mechanism was discovered. We assume here that this 20 ps stochastic pulsation may be the major obstacle to achieving direct-drive fusion, even though it is now generally assumed that the major challenge to the achievement of direct-drive fusion is the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. While we do not discount the importance of the Rayleigh-Taylor mechanisms, we concentrate here on the analysis of the pulsation process. A method of analysis was developed, using, time-dependent real-time computations employing a genuine two-fluid model, which includes the interior electric fields and the very large amplitude longitudinal plasma oscillations that are driven by the laser field. These mechanisms, which were first suggested in 1974, reveal themselves now as self-generated von-Laue gratings, preventing the propagation of laser radiation through the outermost plasma corona and preventing energy deposition by temporal interuption caused by thermal relaxation and the subsequent reestablishment of these gratings, and so on. The abolition of this pulsation by broad-band laser irradiation or other smoothing methods is now well understood. A synopsis of these developments is presented here consistent with Rubbia's proposition of using the MJ drivers for laser fusion, the technology for which is now available. (author)

  8. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of research and development (R and D) activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, research institutes, and universities, during the period from 1 April, 2002 to 31 March, 2003. The activities in the Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high performance plasma researches in JT-60 and JFT-2M, research and development of fusion reactor technologies towards ITER and fusion power demonstration plants, and activities in support of ITER design and construction. JT-60 program has continued to produce fruitful knowledge and understanding necessary to achieve reactor relevant performances of tokamak fusion devices. JFT-2M has made contributions in more basic areas of tokamak plasma research and development in pursuit of high performance plasma. The objectives of JT-60 research have been more shifted to physics R and Ds in support of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and establishment of physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR as a fusion power demonstration plant. In JFT-2M, the advanced material tokamak experiment program has been carried out to test the low activation ferritic steel for development of the structural material for a fusion reactor. In the area of theories and analyses, significant progress has been made in understanding of the ITB, energy confinement scaling in ITB plasmas, MHD equilibrium in the current hole region, asymmetric feature of divertor plasmas and the divertor detachment. In addition, through the project of numerical experiment on tokamak, the mechanism of the ion temperature gradient mode was clarified by particle simulations. The physics of divertor plasma was also studied by particle simulations. R and Ds of fusion reactor technologies have been carried out both to further improve technologies necessary for ITER construction, and to accumulate

  9. Optical design of a laser system for nuclear fusion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Metz, J

    1971-07-01

    High power laser improvements, high quality aspheric lenses, and sharp focusing on a solid deuterium target enable us to get numerous nuclear fusion reactions inside the deuterium plasma. Since Maiman successfully built the first light amplifier in 1960 [Nature 187, 493 (1960)] and Terhune performed air breakdown experiments in 1962 ["Optical Third Harmonic Generation," Comptes rendus de la 3ème Conférence Internationale d'Electronique Quantique, Paris, 11-15 février 1963, P. Grivet and N. Bloembergen, Eds. (Dunod, Paris, 1964), pp. 1559-15761, the laser has been thought of as a valuable energy source for fusion devices. Now a kind of race has started toward high temperature plasmas created by powerful lasers. However, the peak power of solid state laser is limited by glass damage, pump efficiences, and unwanted effects such as superradiance. So it is necessary to improve all the optical properties of the laser and the focusing of the lens on the target. In this paper, requirements for fusion implying a very high flux will be stated. Successive optical designs will be described together with measurement methods, and the contribution of optical improvements to the occurrence of nuclear fusion reaction in deuterium targets will be evaluated.

  10. Remote-handling challenges in fusion research and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Rob; Loving, Antony

    2016-05-01

    Energy-producing nuclear fusion reactions taking place in tokamaks cause radiation damage and radioactivity. Remote-handling technology for repairing and replacing in-vessel components has evolved enormously over the past two decades -- and is now being deployed elsewhere too.

  11. Introduction of International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mission of the IFERC project is to accelerate the development of thermonuclear demo reactor by joining and contributing to the ITER project. It consists of three subprojects, the design of thermonuclear demo reactor, the computer simulation study on thermonuclear fusion and the remote experiment for ITER. In the present paper, present status, organization and future prospect of the project are described. (author)

  12. Research and Realization of Medical Image Fusion Based on Three-Dimensional Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new medical image fusion technique is presented. The method is based on three-dimensional reconstruction. After reconstruction, the three-dimensional volume data is normalized by three-dimensional coordinate conversion in the same way and intercepted through setting up cutting plane including anatomical structure, as a result two images in entire registration on space and geometry are obtained and the images are fused at last.Compared with traditional two-dimensional fusion technique, three-dimensional fusion technique can not only resolve the different problems existed in the two kinds of images, but also avoid the registration error of the two kinds of images when they have different scan and imaging parameter. The research proves this fusion technique is more exact and has no registration, so it is more adapt to arbitrary medical image fusion with different equipments.

  13. Annual report of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1985 to March 1986 are described. The JT-60 tokamak machine was completed in April 1985 after a seven-year construction period, and the first plasma operation was achieved on April 8, 1985. Initial experiments with Joule-heated plasmas were performed for three months from April to June 1985 and confirmed tokamak discharges of sufficient plasma current and density as required for additional heating in the divertor configuration. In JFT-2M experiments on beam and ICRF heated plasmas, H-mode discharges with good confinement characteristics were achieved in open divertor configurations. The Doublet III device had been modified into D-III D with a large deeshaped cross-section. The first plasma was obtained in February 1986. The development of a numerical tokamak code TRITON-II was continued. Plasma-surface interaction studies and vacuum technology development were continued. In the study of plasma heating technology, programmable control of the neutral beam energy was demonstrated in a proto-type injector unit. Negative hydrogen ion beams of 25 keV, 0.1 A were extracted by using multiaperture extraction grid. Research was also carried out on improvements of RF coupling system with emphasis on RF breakdown phenomena in a pill box type ceramic window. In the development of superconducting magnets, generation of a 12T magnetic field was demonstrated by the Test Module Coils. The fabrication of the Demonstration Poloidal Coil was started. Preliminary tritium tests on JAERI's proto-type Pd-diffuser and ceramic electrolysis cell had been successfully carried out in the TSTA at LANL. The design study of the Fusion Experimental Reactor was continued. A wide range of scoping studies was also made to evaluate cost/benefits effects. INTOR design studies were concentrated on tokamak innovations. (J.P.N.)

  14. Upgrade of the IGN-14 neutron generator for research on detection of fusion-plasma products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igielski, Andrzej; Kurowski, Arkadiusz; Janik, Władysław; Gabańska, Barbara; Woźnicka, Urszula, E-mail: Urszula.Woznicka@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-10-11

    The fast neutron generator (IGN-14) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków (Poland) is a laboratory multi-purpose experimental device. Neutrons are produced in a beam-target D–D or D–T reactions. A new vacuum chamber installed directly to the end of the ion guide of IGN-14 makes it possible to measure not only neutrons but also alpha particles in the presence of a mixed radiation field of other accompanying reaction products. The new experimental setup allows test detectors dedicated to spectrometric measurements of thermonuclear fusion reaction products. - Highlights: • Nuclear reactions at the target correspond to the fusion reaction in hot plasma. • Measuring vacuum chamber has been built and installed. • Spatial distribution of the particle mixed fields in chamber was calculated. • New experimental setup for tests of detectors dedicated to measure of fusion reaction products.

  15. Dhruva reactor -- a high flux facility for neutron beam research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhruva reactor, the highest flux thermal neutron source in India has been operating at full power of 100 MW over the past two years. Several advanced facilities like the cold source, guides, etc. are being installed for neutron beam research in condensed matter. A large number and variety of neutron spectrometers are operational. This paper deals with the basic advantages that one can derive from neutron scattering investigations and gives a brief description of the instruments that are developed and commissioned at Dhruva for neutron beam research. (author). 3 figs

  16. Thermal and mechanical properties of e-beam irradiated butt-fusion joint in high-density polyethylene pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vipin; Pokharel, Pashupati; Kang, Min Kwan; Choi, Sunwoong

    2016-05-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of a butt-fusion joint in high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes were investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy of welded samples revealed the changes of crystallinity due to the cross linking effect of electron beam irradiation. The suppression of the degree of crystallinity with increasing the irradiation dose from 0 kGy to 500 kGy indicated that the e-beam radiation induced cross-links among the polymer chains at the weld zone. The cross-link junction at the joint of HDPE pipe prevented chain folding and reorganization leading to the formation of imperfect crystallites with smaller size and also less in content. Tensile test of the welded samples with different dose of e-beam irradiation showed the increased values of the yield stress and Young's modulus as a function of irradiation dose. On the other hand, the elongation at break diminished clearly with increasing the irradiation doses.

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the following topics on heavy ion fusion: MBE-4 drifting beam quadrupole operating range; transverse emittance growth in MBE-4; an improved ion source for MBE-4; drifting beam studies on MBE-4; 2-MV injector; improvements in lifetime of the C+ source; injector control system; Maxwell spark gap test update; ILSE cosine 2θ quadrupole magnet development; electrostatic quadrupole prototype development activity; induction accelerator cell development; effect of a spread in beamlet currents on longitudinal stability; and heavy ion linac driver analysis

  18. Final design of the neutral beam lines for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final design of the neutral beam lines for TFTR has been completed. A prototype has been assembled at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and is undergoing testing as part of the Neutral Beam System Test Facility (NBSTF). The final neutral beam line (NBL) configuration differs in several details from that previously reported upon; certain components have been added; and testing of the cryopump system has led to some design simplification. It is these developments which are reported herein

  19. E-beam facility for collaborative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An indigenously developed Microtron facility at Mangalore University is being used for variety of research activities in interdisciplinary areas of science and technology. The unique facility with 8 MeV electrons, intense Bremsstrahlung photons and neutrons of moderate flux facilitates a number of co-ordinated R and D programs in collaboration with universities and national laboratories. A bird's eye view of all these activities along with a few sample results is presented in this paper. (author)

  20. Research on stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Kotenko, V. G.; Chernitskiy, S. V.; Nemov, V. V.; Ågren, O.; Noack, K.; Kalyuzhnyi, V. N.; Hagnestål, A.; Källne, J.; Voitsenya, V. S.; Garkusha, I. E.

    2014-09-01

    The development of a stellarator-mirror fission-fusion hybrid concept is reviewed. The hybrid comprises of a fusion neutron source and a powerful sub-critical fast fission reactor core. The aim is the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and safe fission energy production. In its fusion part, neutrons are generated in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma, confined magnetically in a stellarator-type system with an embedded magnetic mirror. Based on kinetic calculations, the energy balance for such a system is analyzed. Neutron calculations have been performed with the MCNPX code, and the principal design of the reactor part is developed. Neutron outflux at different outer parts of the reactor is calculated. Numerical simulations have been performed on the structure of a magnetic field in a model of the stellarator-mirror device, and that is achieved by switching off one or two coils of toroidal field in the Uragan-2M torsatron. The calculations predict the existence of closed magnetic surfaces under certain conditions. The confinement of fast particles in such a magnetic trap is analyzed.

  1. Summaries of FY 1986 research in the Applied Plasma Physics Fusion Theory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Theory Program is charged with supporting the development of theories and models of plasmas for the fusion research effort. This work ranges from first-principles analysis of elementary plasma processes to empirical simulation of specific experiments. The Theory Program supports research by industrial contractors, US government laboratories, and universities. The university support also helps to fulfill the DOE mission of training scientists for the fusion program. The Theory Program is funded through the Fusion Theory Branch, Division of Applied Plasma Physics in the Office of Fusion Energy. The work is divided among 31 institutions, of which 19 are universities, five are industrial contractors, and seven are US government laboratories; see Table 1 for a complete list. The FY 1986 Theory Program budget was divided among theory types: toroidal, mirror, alternate concept, generic, and atomic. Device modeling is included among the other funding categories, and is not budgeted separately

  2. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 2004 to March 31, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of research and development (R and D) activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment during the period from 1 April, 2004 to 31 March, 2005, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, research institutes, and universities. In the JT-60 research program, the pulse length of the tokamak discharge was extended successfully up to 65 s in FY 2003. In FY 2004, following the successful results, optimization of long pulse discharges was continued. The pulse length of the negative-ion based neutral beam injection system has reached up to 25 s with an injection power of 1 MW. In the electron cyclotron wave system, the pulse length has also extended up to 45 s with an RF power of 0.35 MW by using four gyrotrons in a series operation. Sustainment of higher normalized β of βN>2.3 for 22.3 s, or βN>2.5 for 15.5 s has been achieved by exploiting available plasma heating systems. This discharge exhibits not only the high βN, but also high confinement improvement with the H factor of H89P=1.9-2.3 and high normalized fusion performance of G≡H89PβN/q952=0.4-0.5 during the sustainment, where q95 is a safety factor at the edge. G-0.4 corresponds to the fusion energy gain of Q=10 for the ITER standard scenario. The H-mode plasma with H89P-1.4 has been maintained for about 30 s, although degradation of the performance was observed at the later half of the discharge. In the reversed shear plasmas, the operation regime was successfully extended. Demonstration of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization and improvement of plasma performance in the high beta region (βN - 3) has been performed using local current drive by the second harmonic electron cyclotron waves. In addition, a real-time control system of safety factor profile has been developed. The design of National Centralized Tokamak (NCT), which is the superconducting modification of JT-60, progressed both in physics and engineering

  3. FEL beam qualities and application researches at the FELI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FELI four FEL facilities (FEL-1, FEL-2, FEL-3 and FEL-4) are open for users to supply several MW-level FELs covering a wide wavelength range from 278 nm to 40 μm. The ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-FEL facility (FEL-3) keeps the world record for the shortest wavelength oscillation of linac-based FELs with a thermionic gun since 1995. Technical challenges have been tried at simultaneous FEL beam sharing with fan-shaped mirrors for multistations including two manipulators and at FEL beam diagnostics of micropulse length and beam profile. The latter is for the evaluations of FEL peak power densities at irradiated spots. FEL peak power densities and adequate wavelengths are evaluated at thirteen research subjects performed at the FELI. The application researches have been performed distributed in a wide field of material science, chemical technology and bio-medical applications. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Coherence control for laser fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several techniques have been developed for the beam smoothing of high power glass laser for the inertial confinement fusion research. A principal concept of beam smoothing includes the random phasing of beam and the speckle suppression. Techniques of coherence control are quite important in order to smooth out the speckle. Techniques reviewed here are the polarization distribution across the beam, the introduction of incoherence, the angular dispersion of spectral component, and the frequency modulated light with temporal and spatial color cycles. (author)

  5. Light-ion inertial confinement fusion research at Naval Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-brightness proton beams (0.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of >=10 TW.cm-2.rad-2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equatorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominantly azimuthally symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% increase in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about 0.25 MA.cm-2. Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>or approx. 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport plasma-filled magnetic focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  6. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1997-03-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D{sup -} ion beam. Beam acceleration test started in July, 1995 using one ion source. In the preliminary experiment, D{sup -} ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D{sup -} beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/I{sub D}- <1. The highest energy beam of 460 keV, 2.4 A, 0.44 s has also been obtained. Neutral beam injection starts in March, 1996 using two ion sources. To realize 1 MeV class NBI system for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), demonstration of ampere class negative ion beam acceleration up to 1 MeV is an important mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a high energy test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) was constructed. The system consists of a 1 MV, 1 A acceleration power supply and a 100 kW power supply system for negative ion production. Up to now, an H{sup -} ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator. (author)

  7. Annual report of the Fusion Research and Development Center for the period of April 1, 1980 to March 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Fusion Research and Development Center (Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development) from April 1980 to 1981 are described. In plasma physics research, 1.5 MW NBI heating experiments were successfully made on JFT-2 to yield an average beta value of 2.5% without any deleterious effect on plasma confinement. Joint JAERI-US/DOE ECRH experiments revealed detailed physics of plasma heating. Installation of a 1 MW ICRF system was completed. In the Doublet-III experiment, a JAERI-US/DOE cooperation program, extensive studies were made on Joule heated dee-shaped Plasmas. In theory and computation emphasis was placed on beta optimization of tokamaks. Construction of JT-60 was continued as planned. Manufacturing of the major components and facilities was advanced well, e.g. 14 out of the 19 toroidal field coils were completed. Construction of the buildings was continued at the Naka site. In plasma heating technology, construction of the JT-60 prototype NBI unit was in progress, and development works on ion sources and beam line components as well. Trial fabrication of high power klystrons for JT-60 RF heating was started. In superconducting magnet technology, cool-down tests of cluster coils were successfully made. Manufacturing of the Japanese coil for the Large Coil Task under the auspiece of IEA, and of a Nb3Sn test module coil was continued. A test facility for the LCT coil was completed. Basic studies on key processes of tritium technology were continued using hydrogen and deuterium. Design of the Tritium Process Laboratory was continued. Development of first wall materials for JT-60 was advanced. Extensive tests were made on a number of low-Z coatings. Design studies of INTOR, a cooperative work in IAEA, were continued. In addition, design of the Fusion Experimental Reactor was started on a conventional type tokamak reactor and swimming pool type one. (author)

  8. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008): Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration,...

  9. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008): Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration,...

  10. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 2 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: D and C. Session D contains papers on magnetic confinement theory and modelling tokamaks, and session C the papers on non-tokamak confinement system. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Magnetic-mirror principle as applied to fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tutorial account is given of the key physics issues in the confinement of high temperature plasma in magnetic mirror systems. The role of adiabatic invariants and particle drifts and their relationship to equilibrium and stability are discussed, in the context of the various forms of mirror field geometry. Collisional effects and the development and the control of ambipolar potentials are reviewed. The topic of microinstabilities is discussed together with the means for their control. The properties and advantages for fusion power purposes of various special embodiments of the mirror idea, including tandem mirrors, are discussed

  12. Progress in inertial fusion research at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO2 laser light on target. (author)

  13. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains, in addition to the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture, the papers on tokamaks, and session E the papers on heating and current drive. Each of these papers and their authors is listed in the Contents; in turn, each paper contains an abstract for more information as to the contents of a specific paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  14. Update on muon-catalyzed fusion research at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental investigation of muon-catalyzed fusion in mixtures of the hydrogen isotopes (and helium) began in 1982 at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The explorations cover a wide range of mixture densities (12 to 140% liquid hydrogen density) and temperatures (13 to 1800K). Many parameters of muon catalysis have been measured for the first time, including distinct dtμ-molecular formation rates as functions of temperature and density. The discovery that the effective α-μ sticking probability becomes quite small for elevated mixture densities is particularly intriguing and challenging to our understanding. Preliminary new results will be presented in the context of acquired results

  15. Use of Neutron Beams for Materials Research Relevant to the Nuclear Energy Sector. Annex: Individual Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technologies such as fission and fusion reactors, including associated waste storage and disposal, rely on the availability of not only nuclear fuels but also advanced structural materials. In 2010–2013, the IAEA organized and implemented the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development, Characterization and Testing of Materials of Relevance to Nuclear Energy Sector Using Neutron Beams. A total of 19 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation (two institutions), South Africa, Switzerland and United States of America) cooperated with the main objective to address the use of various neutron beam techniques for characterization, testing and qualification of materials and components produced or under development for applications in the nuclear energy sector. This CRP aimed to bring stakeholders and end users of research reactors and accelerator based neutron sources together for the enhanced use of available facilities and development of new infrastructures for applied materials research. Work envisioned under this CRP was related to the optimization and validation of neutron beam techniques, including facility and instrument modifications/optimizations as well as improved data acquisition, processing and analysis systems. Particular emphasis was placed on variable environments during material characterization and testing as required by some applications such as intensive irradiation load, high temperature and high pressure conditions, and the presence of strong magnetic fields. Targeted neutron beam techniques were neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and digital neutron radiography/tomography. The publication IAEA-TECDOC-1773 is a compilation of the main results and findings of the CRP, and this CD-ROM accompanying the publication contains 19 reports with additional relevant

  16. Use of Neutron Beams for Materials Research Relevant to the Nuclear Energy Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear technologies such as fission and fusion reactors, including associated waste storage and disposal, rely on the availability of not only nuclear fuels but also advanced structural materials. In 2010–2013, the IAEA organized and implemented the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development, Characterization and Testing of Materials of Relevance to Nuclear Energy Sector Using Neutron Beams. A total of 19 institutions from 18 Member States (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation (two institutions), South Africa, Switzerland and United States of America) cooperated with the main objective to address the use of various neutron beam techniques for characterization, testing and qualification of materials and components produced or under development for applications in the nuclear energy sector. This CRP aimed to bring stakeholders and end users of research reactors and accelerator based neutron sources together for the enhanced use of available facilities and development of new infrastructures for applied materials research. Work envisioned under this CRP was related to the optimization and validation of neutron beam techniques, including facility and instrument modifications/optimizations as well as improved data acquisition, processing and analysis systems. Particular emphasis was placed on variable environments during material characterization and testing as required by some applications such as intensive irradiation load, high temperature and high pressure conditions, and the presence of strong magnetic fields. Targeted neutron beam techniques were neutron diffraction, small angle neutron scattering and digital neutron radiography/tomography. This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of the CRP, and the CD-ROM accompanying this publication contains 19 reports with additional relevant technical details

  17. ITER and IAEA to enhance co-operation on fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The IAEA and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Organization today signed an agreement that will enhance the research of fusion, a form of nuclear energy created by the merging of light atoms. The Co-operation Agreement is aimed at strengthening the working relationship between both organizations 'with a view to facilitating the effective attainment of the objectives set forth in the IAEA Statute and the ITER Agreement.' Yury Sokolov, Deputy Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Director General of the ITER Organization, Kaname Ikeda, signed the agreement on the opening day of the 22nd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, being held in Geneva, Switzerland, from 13 to 18 October. The IAEA has been closely involved with ITER since its inception, as the previous ITER co-operation phases and the ITER negotiations were held under its auspices. The IAEA Director-General is also the Depository of the ITER Agreement. 'The IAEA has played a crucial role in the evolution of the ITER project,' said Mr. Ikeda. 'We look forward to continued, dynamic collaboration.' Mr. Sokolov added that the IAEA has helped the international fusion community to focus its plasma physics research on the ITER design. This has made fusion research more results-oriented and has encouraged greater global investment in fusion. 'ITER is a clear example of how a large international project can be successfully organized. We are proud of the IAEA's role in ITER's development,' he said. According to the Co-operation Agreement, both organizations will exchange information regarding the study and potential application of fusion energy and will participate in each other's meeting. These will include ITER Council meetings and Annual Conferences of the IAEA, as well as its scientific and technical committees. The IAEA and the ITER Organization will also co-operate on training, publications, organization of scientific conferences, plasma physics and

  18. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Zakharov, J. Li and Y. Wu

    2010-11-18

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  19. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  20. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O' Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Recent progress of high-power negative ion beam development for fusion plasma heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Akino, Noboru; Aoyagi, Tetsuo; Ebisawa, Noboru; Fujiwara, Yukio; Honda, Atsusi; Inoue, Takashi; Itoh, Takao; Kawai, Mikito; Kazawa, Minoru; Koizumi, Junichi; Kuriyama, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Kenji; Miyamoto, Naoki; Mogaki, Kazuhiko; Ohara, Yoshihiro; Ohga, Tokumichi; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Oohara, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Katsumi; Satoh, Fujio; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Syunji; Usami, Hirotsugu; Usui, Katsutomi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Takeshi

    1997-06-01

    A negative-ion-based neutral beam injector (N-NBI) has been constructed for JT-60U. The N-NBI is designed to inject 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beams using two ion sources, each producing a 500 keV, 22 A D - ion beam. In the preliminary experiment using one ion source, a D - ion beam of 13.5 A has been successfully accelerated with an energy of 400 keV (5.4 MW) for 0.12 s at an operating pressure of 0.22 Pa. This is the highest D - beam current and power in the world. Co-extracted electron current was effectively suppressed to the ratio of Ie/ ID - mile stone. To achieve the mile stone, a prototype accelerator and a 1 MV, 1 A test facility called MeV Test Facility (MTF) were constructed. Up to now, an H - ion beam was accelerated up to the energy of 805 keV with an acceleration drain current of 150 mA for 1 s in a five stage electrostatic multi-aperture accelerator.

  2. Propagation of a laser beam in a time-varying waveguide. [plasma heating for controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, J. M.; Kevorkian, J.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of an axisymmetric laser beam in a plasma column having a radially parabolic electron density distribution is reported. For the case of an axially uniform waveguide it is found that the basic characteristics of alternating focusing and defocusing beams are maintained. However, the intensity distribution is changed at the foci and outer-beam regions. The features of paraxial beam propagation are discussed with reference to axially varying waveguides. Laser plasma coupling is considered noting the case where laser heating produces a density distribution radially parabolic near the axis and the energy absorbed over the focal length of the plasma is small. It is found that: (1) beam-propagation stability is governed by the relative magnitude of the density fluctuations existing in the axial variation of the waveguides due to laser heating, and (2) for beam propagation in a time-varying waveguide, the global instability of the propagation is a function of the initial fluctuation growth rate as compared to the initial time rate of change in the radial curvature of the waveguide.

  3. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  4. Practical and research aspects of beam-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a heavy-ion accelerator to research in beam-foil spectroscopy requires certain capital equipment which is somewhat unorthodox when viewed from the standpoint of conventional, low-energy nuclear physics. It is necessary that people who wish to expand their accelerator work to include beam-foil studies understand the nature and cost of such major apparatus. We will survey the equipment needs, starting with the particle analyzer at the output of the accelerator and including the equipment used in a variety of beam-foil experiments. Electronic and computer devices will not be discussed since they are essentially identical with those employed in nuclear studies. Considerable attention will be given to optical spectrometers and spectographs including simple instruments which might be used by a laboratory just getting started in beam-foil research, or which has limited financial resources. Attention will be given to the production and use of the exciter foils. We will then discuss some typical beam-foil experiments having to do with the excitation, detection, and analysis of spectral lines from electronic levels in multiply-ionized atoms, and also with the measurement of the mean lives of such levels. Finally, we will review some of the special properties of the beam-foil light source as regards the population of the magnetic sub-states of a given level. Recent work on the character of the emitted light will be presented. That work will deal specifically with the origin of the polarization of the light. The relevant experiments involve varying the angle between the plane of the exciter foil and the particle velocity. (author)

  5. Status of light ion inertial fusion research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-brightness proton beams have recently been extracted from axial pinch-reflex diodes mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. The source power brightness that was measured exceeded 10 TW/cm2rad2. Analysis of a modular ICF system using such diodes shows that an operational window for transport of light-ion species exists. Multi-terawatt beams can be transported a few meters in channels a few centimeters in diameter. A proof-of-principle experiment for the required final focusing cell has been successfully carried out on Gamble II. A new barrel-shaped equatorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA II as a single diode has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% ion efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. Preliminary experiments using vacuum inductive storage and plasma opening switches have demonstrated factor-of-three pulse compressions, with corresponding power and voltage multiplications for pulse durations of interest to PBFA II. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the deutron beam is focused on the target to about 0.25 MA/cm2

  6. Methods of economic analysis applied to fusion research. Fourth annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study reported here has involved three separate tasks. The first task deals with the development of expected utility analysis techniques for economic evaluation of fusion research. A decision analytic model is developed for the incorporation of market uncertainties, as well as technological uncertainties in an economic evaluation of long-range energy research. The model is applied to the case of fusion research. The second task deals with the potential effects of long-range energy RD and D on fossil fuel prices. ECON's previous fossil fuel price model is extended to incorporate a dynamic demand function. The dynamic demand function supports price fluctuations such as those observed in the marketplace. The third task examines alternative uses of fusion technologies, specifically superconducting technologies and first wall materials to determine the potential for alternative, nonfusion use of these technologies. In both cases, numerous alternative uses are found

  7. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: Quantum Beam Science Research' (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Quantum Beam Science Research (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for interim assessment of 'Quantum Beam Science Research', in accordance with General Guideline for Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research program of the Quantum Beam Science Research, which includes the management of the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (hereinafter referred to as 'QuBS') and the research activities in the area of Quantum Beam Science during October, 2005 to September, 2007. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities in Quantum Beam Science based on the documents and oral presentations prepared by QuBS. This evaluation report presents the summary and the submitted by the Committee. (author)

  8. Experimental progress in magnetic-mirror fusion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, T. C.

    1981-08-01

    This paper discusses experimental progress in the control, confinement, and understanding of magnetic-mirror confined plasmas. A summary is given of the data base established in previous experiments on which magnetic-mirror principles are based. It includes a detailed description of present tandem and field-reversed mirror experimental results. The discussion also includes the concepts and parameters of experiments now under construction; it is shown how these experiments can both test new thermal-barrier concepts and bridge the gap between existing facilities and eventual power producers. Consideration is given to small-scale physics-oriented experiments, aimed at testing new ideas and refining the knowledge of mirror confinement. The paper concludes with an extensive bibliography of reports from the field of magnetic-mirror fusion.

  9. Discourse, Power, and Knowledge in the Management of "Big Science": The Production of Consensus in a Nuclear Fusion Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Extends a Foucauldian view of power/knowledge to the archetypical knowledge-intensive organization, the scientific research laboratory. Describes the discursive production of power/knowledge at the "big science" laboratory conducting nuclear fusion research and illuminates a critical incident in which the fusion research "discipline" imposes…

  10. Energetic particle physics in fusion research in preparation for burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium–tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the ‘sea’ of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). (review)

  11. Enhanced thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutated by high-energy pulse electron beam and protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Yu; Zhu, Rongrong; Zhang, Qin; Wang, Shi-Long

    2012-11-01

    To increase thermotolerance and ethanol tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain YZ1, the strategies of high-energy pulse electron beam (HEPE) and three rounds of protoplast fusion were explored. The YF31 strain had the characteristics of resistant to high-temperature, high-ethanol tolerance, rapid growth and high yield. The YF31 could grow on plate cultures up to 47 °C, containing 237.5 g L(-1) of ethanol. In particular, the mutant strain YF31 generated 94.2 ± 4.8 g L(-1) ethanol from 200 g glucose L(-1) at 42 °C, which was 2.48 times the production of the wild strain YZ1. Results demonstrated that the variant phenotypes from the strains screening by HEPE irradiation could be used as parent stock for yeast regeneration and the protoplast fusion technology is sufficiently powerful in combining suitable characteristics in a single strain for ethanol fermentation. PMID:22488242

  12. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research Vol. I. Proceedings of a Symposium on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas.

  13. Fokker--Planck/transport analyses of fusion plasmas in contemporary beam-driven tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirin, A.A.; McCoy, M.G.; Killeen, J.; Rensink, M.E.; Shumaker, D.E.; Jassby, D.L.; Post, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    The properties of deuterium plasmas in experimental tokamaks heated and fueled by intense neutral-beam injection are evaluated with a Fokker-Planck/radial transport code coupled with a Monte Carlo neutrals treatment. Illustrative results are presented for the Poloidal Divertor Experiment at PPPL as a function of beam power and plasma recycling coefficient, R/sub c/. When P/sub beam/ = 8 MW at E/sub b/ = 60 keV, and R/sub c/ = 0.2, then approximately 0.5, (/sup 2///sub 3/ ) = 22 keV approximately 6, and the D-D neutron intensity is 10/sup 16/ n/sec.

  14. Annual report on major results and progress of Naka Fusion Research Establishment of JAERI from April 1 to September 30, 2005 and Fusion Research and Development Directorate of JAEA from October 1, 2005 to March 31, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of major results and progress on research and development (R and D) activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) during the period from April 1 to September 30, 2005 and at Fusion Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) from October 1, 2005 to March 31, 2006, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAERI, research institutes, and universities. In JT-60, ferritic steel tiles (FSTs) were installed inside the vacuum vessel of JT-60U to reduce the toroidal field ripple. After the installation of FSTs, a high normalized beta plasma at βN∼2.3 was sustained for 28.6s with ELMy H-mode confinement as required for an ITER hybrid operation scenario. National Centralized Tokamak was placed as the ITER satellite tokamak in collaboration with the EU fusion community, and the facility design was modified strongly in support of ITER. In theoretical and analytical researches, studies on H-mode confinement, ITB in reversed shear plasmas, aspect ratio effects on external MHD modes and magnetic island evolution in a rotating plasma were progressed. Progress was also made in the NEXT project in which the behaviors of collisionless MHD modes and the dynamics of zonal flows were simulated. In fusion reactor technologies, R and Ds for ITER and fusion DEMO plants have been carried out. For ITER, a steady state operation of the 170GHz gyrotron up to 1000 s with 0.2 MW was demonstrated. Also current density of the neutral beam injector has been extended to 134A/m2 at 0.75MeV. In the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM), designs of Water and Helium Cooled Solid Breeder TBMs and R and Ds of tritium breeder/multiplier materials were progressed. Tritium processing technology for breeding blankets was also progressed. For the DEMO reactors, high temperature superconductor such as Bi2212 has been examined. In plasma facing components

  15. Programmed laser beams for optimum production of fusion reactions in fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a thermonuclear reactor in which a pellet of mixed deuterium and tritium, surrounded by a breeding blanket of swirling molten lithium, is ignited by a laser pulse. The invention consists in the use of three pulses: the first of about 1 to 2 J serves to vaporize the pellet and weakly ionize the resultant gas; the second of 200 to 400 J is directed by reflectors below the pellet so as to confine the plasma in a pyramidal shape with lower density at the bottom; and the final pulse, with an energy of about 105 J, produces fusion. (N.D.H.)

  16. Magnetized Inertial Fusion (MIF) Research at the Shiva Star Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James; Grabowski, C.; Domonkos, M.; Ruden, E. L.; Amdahl, D. J.; White, W. M.; Frese, M. H.; Frese, S. D.; Wurden, G. A.; Weber, T. E.

    2015-11-01

    The AFRL Shiva Star capacitor bank (1300 μF, up to 120 kV) used typically at 4 to 5 MJ stored energy, 10 to 15 MA current, 10 μs current rise time, has been used to drive metal shell (solid liner) implosions for compression of axial magnetic fields to multi-megagauss levels, suitable for compressing magnetized plasmas to MIF conditions. MIF approaches use magnetic field to reduce thermal conduction relative to inertial confinement fusion (ICF). MIF substantially reduces required implosion speed and convergence. Using profiled thickness liner enables large electrode apertures and field-reversed configuration (FRC) injection. Using a longer capture region, FRC trapped flux lifetime was made comparable to implosion time and an integrated compression test was conducted. The FRC was radially compressed a factor of ten, to 100x density >1018 cm-3 (a world FRC record), but temperatures were only 300-400 eV, compared to intended several keV. Compression to megabar pressures was inferred by the observed liner rebound, but the heating rate during the first half of the compression was less than the normal FRC decay rate. Principal diagnostics were soft x-ray imaging, soft x-ray diodes, and neutron measurements. This work has been supported by DOE-OFES.

  17. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ide, Shunsuke; Matsukawa, Makoto; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Koichi; Takahashi, Ichiro [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1997-10-01

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. The objectives of the JT-60 project are to contribute to the ITER physics R and D and to establish the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. Objectives of the JFT-2M program are (1) advanced and basic researches for the development of high-performance plasmas for nuclear fusion and (2) contribution to the physics R and D for ITER, with a merit of flexibility of a medium-size device. The Detailed Design Report (DDR) of ITER was issued by the Director in November 1996, as the basis of the Final Design Report (FDR). After the formal review by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), the DDR was officially accepted by the ITER Council at its 11th Meeting held in December 1996. The DDR is composed of various technical documents on the detailed design of plasma parameters, tokamak components, plant system and tokamak building. The major results of safety analyses described in the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR)-1 was also included in the DDR. The FDR will be prepared by the end of 1997 for presentation at the ITER Council. (J.P.N.)

  18. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment. From April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, during the period from April 1, 1996 to March 31, 1997. The activities in Naka Fusion Research Establishment are highlighted by high temperature plasma research in JT-60 and JFT-2M, and progress in ITER-EDA, including technology development. The objectives of the JT-60 project are to contribute to the ITER physics R and D and to establish the physics basis for a steady state tokamak fusion reactor like SSTR. Objectives of the JFT-2M program are (1) advanced and basic researches for the development of high-performance plasmas for nuclear fusion and (2) contribution to the physics R and D for ITER, with a merit of flexibility of a medium-size device. The Detailed Design Report (DDR) of ITER was issued by the Director in November 1996, as the basis of the Final Design Report (FDR). After the formal review by the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), the DDR was officially accepted by the ITER Council at its 11th Meeting held in December 1996. The DDR is composed of various technical documents on the detailed design of plasma parameters, tokamak components, plant system and tokamak building. The major results of safety analyses described in the Non-site Specific Safety Report (NSSR)-1 was also included in the DDR. The FDR will be prepared by the end of 1997 for presentation at the ITER Council. (J.P.N.)

  19. Research on beam splitting prism in laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-hua; Xiong, Shi-fu; Kou, Yang; Pan, Yong-gang; Chen, Heng; Li, Zeng-yu; Zhang, Chuan-xin

    2014-08-01

    With the rapid development of optical testing technology, laser heterodyne interferometer has been used more and more widely. As the testing precision requirements continue to increase, the technical prism is an important component of heterodyne interference. The research utilizing thin film technology to improve optical performance of interferometer has been a new focus. In the article, based on the use requirements of interferometer beam splitting prism, select Ta2O5 and SiO2 as high and low refractive index materials respectively, deposit on substrate K9. With the help of TFCalc design software and Needle method, adopting electron gun evaporation and ion assisted deposition, the beam splitting prism is prepared successfully and the ratio of transmittance and reflectance for this beam splitting prism in 500~850 nm band, incident angle 45 degree is 8:2. After repeated tests, solved the difference problem of film deposition process parameters ,controlled thickness monitoring precision effectively and finally prepared the ideal beam splitting prism which is high adhesion and stable optics properties. The film the laser induced damage threshold and it meet the requirements of heterodyne interferometer for use.

  20. High-intensity light-ion beam research at NRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-brightness proton beams (.4 MA, 1 MV) have recently been extracted from 20 cm2 axial pinch-reflex diodes (PRDs) mounted on the NRL Gamble II generator. A source power brightness of GT 10 TW/cm2 rad 2 was achieved in these experiments. A new barrel-shaped equitorial PRD that can be coupled to PBFA-II has also been operated on Gamble II and has demonstrated 50% proton efficiency with predominately azimuthally-symmetric charged-particle flow. In other experiments the stopping power of deuterons in hot plasmas was measured using a PRD on Gamble II. Results show about 40% enhancement in stopping power over that in cold targets when the beam was focused to about .25 MA/cm2. Research is also being performed on transporting ion beams in large-diameter channels (>= 2.5 cm) and on a post-transport, plasma-filled, magnetic-focusing section to bring the beam to pellet dimensions. (author)

  1. Low pressure and high power rf sources for negative hydrogen ions for fusion applications (ITER neutral beam injection).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Kraus, W; Falter, H D; Berger, M; Christ-Koch, S; Fröschle, M; Gutser, R; Heinemann, B; Martens, C; McNeely, P; Riedl, R; Speth, E; Wünderlich, D

    2008-02-01

    The international fusion experiment ITER requires for the plasma heating and current drive a neutral beam injection system based on negative hydrogen ion sources at 0.3 Pa. The ion source must deliver a current of 40 A D(-) for up to 1 h with an accelerated current density of 200 Am/(2) and a ratio of coextracted electrons to ions below 1. The extraction area is 0.2 m(2) from an aperture array with an envelope of 1.5 x 0.6 m(2). A high power rf-driven negative ion source has been successfully developed at the Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) at three test facilities in parallel. Current densities of 330 and 230 Am/(2) have been achieved for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively, at a pressure of 0.3 Pa and an electron/ion ratio below 1 for a small extraction area (0.007 m(2)) and short pulses (ITER source but without extraction system, is intended to demonstrate the size scaling and plasma homogeneity of rf ion sources. The source operates routinely now. First results on plasma homogeneity obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probes are very promising. Based on the success of the IPP development program, the high power rf-driven negative ion source has been chosen recently for the ITER beam systems in the ITER design review process.

  2. Pulsed-power considerations for electron-beam pumped krypton-fluoride lasers for inertial confinement fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Los Alamos National Laboratory inertial confinement fusion (ICF) program that is developing the krypton-fluoride excimer laser for use as an ICF driver. The KrF laser has a number of inherent characteristics that make it a promising driver candidate, such as short wavelength (0.25 μm), broad bandwidth to target (>100 cm-1), pulse-shaping with high dynamic range, and the potential for high overall efficiency (>5%) and repetitive operation. The large KrF laser amplifiers needed for ICF drivers are electron-beam pumped. A key issue for all laser ICF drivers is cost, and a leading cost component of a KrF laser driver is associated with the pulsed power and electron diode. Therefore, the efficient generation of electron beams is a high priority. The Los Alamos ICF program is investigating pulsed-power and diode designs and technologies to further the development of affordable KrF laser ICF drivers

  3. The tritium monitoring requirements of fusion and the status of research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a summary of an investigation into the tritium monitoring requirements of tritium laboratories, D-T burning ignition experiments, and fusion reactors. There is also a summary of the status of research into tritium monitoring and a survey of commercially available tritium monitors

  4. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1994. V. 3. Proceedings of the fifteenth international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the third volume of the proceedings of the 15th International Atomic Energy Agency Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research held in Seville, Spain, from 26 September - 1 October 1994. Contained in it are 29 papers on inertial confinement and 46 papers on magnetic confinement. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. Assessment report of research and development activities. Activity: 'Quantum beam science research' (Result evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereinafter referred to as 'JAEA') consulted an assessment committee, 'Evaluation Committee of Research Activities for Quantum Beam Science Research' (hereinafter referred to as 'Committee') for result evaluation of 'Quantum Beam Science Research', in accordance with 'General Guideline for Evaluation of Government Research and Development (R and D) Activities' by Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, 'Guideline for Evaluation of R and D in Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology' and 'Regulation on Conduct for Evaluation of R and D Activities' by JAEA. In response to the JAEA's request, the Committee assessed the research activities of the Quantum Beam Science Research, which includes the management of the Quantum Beam Science Directorate (hereinafter referred to as 'QuBS') from October, 2005 to June, 2009. The Committee evaluated the management and research activities in Quantum Beam Science based on the documents and oral presentations prepared by QuBS. This report presents the results of the evaluation by the Committee. (author)

  6. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993. The main objectives of JT-60U experiments in FY1992 were to improve plasma confinement properties and to study non-inductive current drive. High-βp H-mode performance obtained in March 1993 was highlighted, in particular, a world-record fusion-triple-product of 1.1 x 1021 m-3 · s · keV, and record values for JT-60 of neutron yield rate of 5.6 x 1016 s-1, stored energy of 8.3 MJ, and H-factor of 3.6. The JFT-2M continued to study divertor biasing and ergodic limiter experiments, and disruption control by ECH. The study in Plasma Theory and Computation focused on scaling laws of the thermal energy confinement and the bootstrap current, the iron temperature gradient instability, the MHD stability, the rotation damping by external magnetic error field, and the burning plasma of D-3He fusion. As for the fusion engineering research, the vacuum technology advanced the development of a high resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer, etc. The super-conducting Demo Poloidal Coil achieved pulsed operation with 7 T in 0.5 s, and newly developed conductors made of Nb3Al and Nb3Sn showed 40 kA at 12 T and 82 kA at 13.6 T, respectively. A high energy H- beam of 350 kV, 0.17 A was produced with a current density of 10 mA/cm2. Much effort was made in developing the ECH gyrotron with an output power of 460 kW at 120 GHz for 100 ms. The main progress in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (a US/Japan collaboration) was continuous loop run for 25 days. The developed plasma facing components posed no problem under a heat flux of 20 MW/m2 for 30 s over 1000 thermal cycles. (J.P.N.)

  7. A system for measuring defect induced beam modulation on inertial confinement fusion-class laser optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Mike; Hawley-Fedder, Ruth; Widmayer, Clay; Williams, Wade; Weinzapfel, Carolyn; Roberts, Dave

    2005-12-01

    A multi-wavelength laser based system has been constructed to measure defect induced beam modulation (diffraction) from ICF class laser optics. The Nd:YLF-based modulation measurement system (MMS) uses simple beam collimation and imaging to capture diffraction patterns from optical defects onto an 8-bit digital camera at 1053, 527 and 351 nm. The imaging system has a field of view of 4.5 x 2.8 mm2 and is capable of imaging any plane from 0 to 30 cm downstream from the defect. The system is calibrated using a 477 micron chromium dot on glass for which the downstream diffraction patterns were calculated numerically. Under nominal conditions the system can measure maximum peak modulations of approximately 7:1. An image division algorithm is used to calculate the peak modulation from the diffracted and empty field images after the baseline residual light background is subtracted from both. The peak modulation can then be plotted versus downstream position. The system includes a stage capable of holding optics up to 50 pounds with x and y translation of 40 cm and has been used to measure beam modulation due to solgel coating defects, surface digs on KDP crystals, lenslets in bulk fused silica and laser damage sites mitigated with CO2 lasers.

  8. Conceptual design of 100 J cryogenically-cooled multi-slab laser for fusion research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divoky M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a comparison of two alternative laser layouts for HiLASE and ELI Beamlines projects. The cryogenically cooled laser is 100 J class with 2 ns pulse length and operates at 10 Hz repetition rate. The laser beam is intended for industrial applications in HiLASE, for OPCPA pumping in ELI Beamlines and can serve as a test bed for large scale high repetition rate fusion lasers. First layout utilizes classical scheme with preamplifier and main amplifier, while the second layout utilizes single amplifier scheme with two amplifier heads. The comparison is based on the results obtained from homemade MATLAB code for evaluation of amplified spontaneous emission and stored energy and on a beam propagation simulated in MIRÓ code.

  9. Ion Micro Beam, promising methods for interdisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutroneo, M.; Havranek, V.; Torrisi, L.; Svecova, B.

    2016-05-01

    An increasing attractiveness of top-down nanotechnology using nuclear microprobe techniques have been gathered to the micro and nano patterning process for polymers. This paper presents the research activity on innovative promising techniques able to produce three- dimensional (3D) micro-structures in polymeric resists as well as to obtain images of fabricated nanostructures at Tandetron Laboratory (LT) of the Nuclear Physics Institute in Rez (Czech Republic). The Proton Beam Writing (PBW) technique was used to irradiate PMMA resist with energy of MeVs protons. The fabricated patterns were developed in chemical bath using different etching rates. An overview of micro-scale structures have been fabricated selecting the beam, the energy, the fluence and the exposition time. The produced structures were investigated by different analysis techniques among which Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (STIM). The characterizations of the fabricated microtunnels are presented and discussed.

  10. Transition from Beam-Target to Thermonuclear Fusion in High-Current Deuterium Z -Pinch Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Dustin T.; Welch, Dale R.; Rose, Dave V.; Thoma, Carsten; Clark, Robert E.; Mostrom, Chris B.; Schmidt, Andrea E. W.; Link, Anthony J.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion yields from dense, Z -pinch plasmas are known to scale with the drive current, which is favorable for many potential applications. Decades of experimental studies, however, show an unexplained drop in yield for currents above a few mega-ampere (MA). In this work, simulations of DD Z -Pinch plasmas have been performed in 1D and 2D for a constant pinch time and initial radius using the code Lsp, and observations of a shift in scaling are presented. The results show that yields below 3 MA are enhanced relative to pure thermonuclear scaling by beamlike particles accelerated in the Rayleigh-Taylor induced electric fields, while yields above 3 MA are reduced because of energy lost by the instability and the inability of the beamlike ions to enter the pinch region.

  11. ITER project starring - new step of R and D of fusion researches in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER is an international tokamak research/engineering proposal which intended to be an experimental project between today's studies of plasma physics and future electricity-producing fusion power plants. The seven participants (EU, USA, Russia, Japan, Korea, China and India) formally agreed to fund the project in November, 2006. It is based in Cadarache, France. This feature articles consist of six reports such as ITER system starting-hope for Japanese leadership by Kaname IKEDA, outline of ITER and BA project and realization of fusion power by Hiroki MATSUO, hope for development of fusion by Humitaka SATO, ITER projects details by Masahiro MORI, broader approach (BA) projects details by Takeo NISHITANI, and trends of development by each country by Hidetoshi YOSHIDA. (S.Y.)

  12. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Inabe, Teruo; Kaneko, Tadao; Konoshima, Sigeru; Miura, M. Yushi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In JT-60, some mechanical improvements of the centrifugal pellet injector have been done for stable production and successive ejection of pellet. In addition, a guide tube for an injection from top of high-field side was installed as well as the low-field side in February 2000. The injection power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system of the frequency of 110 GHz installed last year was increased up to {approx}0.75 MW for 2 seconds in this year using the control of RF beam angle. Two gyrotrons were newly installed with total power increased from 1 MW to 3 MW. Highlights of the JT-60 experiments in FY (Fiscal Year) 2000 may be summarized as follows: (1) A reversed shear discharge with an equivalent fusion multiplication factor Q{sub DT}{sup eq} of {approx}0.5 was achieved successfully at plasma current of 2.4 MA for 0.8 seconds. (2) Quasi-steady operation of low current reversed shear plasma with a large fraction ({approx}80%) of bootstrap current was realized under full non-inductive current drive condition. H-factor of 3.3-3.8 at electron density as high as 73% of the Greenwald limit was sustained for 6 times of the energy confinement time. (3) Normalized beta exceeding the ideal no-wall stability limit was obtained in reversed shear plasmas with a ratio of an outer-wall radius to a plasma minor radius less than 1.3. (4) L-H transition power was reduced by {approx}30% in the W-shaped divertor with pumping from both inside and outside slots compared with that in the open divertor. Helium exhaust rate in ELMy H-mode plasmas was improved up to 50% higher than the inside slot pumping. (5) Current drive efficiency of 1.3x10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}/W was attained with the central electron temperature of 8.6 keV. The efficiency is about 2.6 times higher than that of 100 keV. On the JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being produced including the application of the low activation ferritic steel. A dramatic reduction of trapped ion loss due to the

  13. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  14. Status of inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology advancement to high-power beams has also given birth to new technologies. That class of Free Electron Lasers that employs rf linacs, synchrotrons, and storage rings - although the use the tools of High Energy Physics (HEP) - was developed well behind the kinetic energy frontier. The induction linac, however, is something of an exception; it was born directly from the needs of the magnetic fusion program, and was not motivated by a high-energy physics application. The heavy-ion approach to inertial fusion starts with picking from the rich menu of accelerator technologies those that have, ab initio, the essential ingredients needed for a power plant driver: multigap acceleration - which leads to reliability/lifetime; electrical efficiency; repetition rate; and beams that can be reliably focused over a suitably long distance. The report describes the programs underway in Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research as well as listing expected advances in driver, target, and beam quality areas in the inertial fusion power program

  15. Centroid and Envelope Eynamics of Charged Particle Beams in an Oscillating Wobbler and External Focusing Lattice for Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent heavy ion fusion target studies show that it is possible to achieve ignition with direct drive and energy gain larger than 100 at 1MJ. To realize these advanced, high-gain schemes based on direct drive, it is necessary to develop a reliable beam smoothing technique to mitigate instabilities and facilitate uniform deposition on the target. The dynamics of the beam centroid can be explored as a possible beam smoothing technique to achieve a uniform illumination over a suitably chosen region of the target. The basic idea of this technique is to induce an oscillatory motion of the centroid for each transverse slice of the beam in such a way that the centroids of different slices strike different locations on the target. The centroid dynamics is controlled by a set of biased electrical plates called 'wobblers'. Using a model based on moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations, we show that the wobbler deflection force acts only on the centroid motion, and that the envelope dynamics are independent of the wobbler fields. If the conducting wall is far away from the beam, then the envelope dynamics and centroid dynamics are completely decoupled. This is a preferred situation for the beam wobbling technique, because the wobbler system can be designed to generate the desired centroid motion on the target without considering its effects on the envelope and emittance. A conceptual design of the wobbler system for a heavy ion fusion driver is briefly summarized.

  16. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device; Caracterizacion del Borde del Plasma del Dispositivo de Fusion TJ-II del CIEMAT mediante el Diagnostico del Haz Supersonico de Helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author ) 36 refs.

  17. Magnetic mirror fusion research at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overall view is given of progress and plans for pressing forward with mirror research at Livermore. No detail is given on any one subject, and many interesting investigations being carried out at University laboratories in the U.S. that augment and support efforts at Livermore are omitted

  18. Evaluation of the fusion technology and safety programme of the Joint Research Centre (1980-85)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Research Centre, Ispra, has been involved in fusion research since 1973. In July 1985 the Commission of European Communities - DG XII, following a policy of systematically evaluating its RandD activities, appointed a panel of external experts to evaluate the fusion technology and safety programme carried out at the Joint Research Centre. This report describes the work of the panel in evaluating the research performed by the JRC within the framework of its 1984-87 programme. The achievements of the previous programme, 1980-83, were also taken into consideration. The different research areas covered in the programme, i.e.: reactor studies, breeding blanket technology, structural materials studies, risk assessment and tritium laboratory studies, are described and a draft proposal for the period 1987-90 presented. The evaluation panel has been asked to assess the following aspects: the scientific and technical achievements of the programme, the contribution of the programme to the development of other Community policies, the role played by the JRC in the European fusion research (including NET) and in international collaborations such as INTOR. From its assessment the evaluation panel has made a series of recommendations for the current programme and for future work

  19. Performance of magnetically-injected-plasma opening switches on the particle beam fusion accelerator 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma opening switch (POS) experiments have been performed on the PBFA II ion beam accelerator to develop a switch which will provide voltage and power gain to an applied-B lithium ion diode. These experiments have successfully coupled power to electron and ion beam diodes using a Magnetically-Injected-Plasma (MIP) POS. Carbon plasma with electron densities of 1 x 1012 to 2 x 1013 /cm3 have been injected from the anode into the 8 cm gap of the 20-ohm Magnetically-Insulated-Transmission Line (MITL) of PBFA II along a Br,z magnetic field. The MIP switch uses the inertia of the plasma to keep the switch closed and the magnetic pressure of Bθ from the conduction current to open the switch. The configuration of the injecting magnetic field and the plasma source has a significant effect on the efficiency of coupling power to high impedance loads. Plasma near the center of the injecting magnetic field limits the opening impedance of the switch and subsequently the power delivered to the load. The axial location of the switch with respect to the load has also been identified as a critical parameter in increasing the coupling efficiency. A length of 10 to 20 cm of MITL between the POS and the load has increased the power delivered to the load. Data on switch performance with high impedance loads and factors which improved performance are discussed

  20. Parametric Study of the current limit within a single driver-scale transport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ∼0.2 (micro)C/m) over long pulse durations (4 (micro)s) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (∼80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics

  1. Parametic Study of the current limit within a single driver-scaletransport beam line of an induction Linac for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The High Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is part of the US program that explores heavy-ion beam as the driver option for fusion energy production in an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plant. The HCX is a beam transport experiment at a scale representative of the low-energy end of an induction linear accelerator driver. The primary mission of this experiment is to investigate aperture fill factors acceptable for the transport of space-charge-dominated heavy-ion beams at high intensity (line charge density ~0.2 μC/m) over long pulse durations (4 μs) in alternating gradient focusing lattices of electrostatic or magnetic quadrupoles. This experiment is testing transport issues resulting from nonlinear space-charge effects and collective modes, beam centroid alignment and steering, envelope matching, image charges and focusing field nonlinearities, halo and, electron and gas cloud effects. We present the results for a coasting 1 MeV K+ ion beam transported through ten electrostatic quadrupoles. The measurements cover two different fill factor studies (60% and 80% of the clear aperture radius) for which the transverse phase-space of the beam was characterized in detail, along with beam energy measurements and the first halo measurements. Electrostatic quadrupole transport at high beam fill factor (~80%) is achieved with acceptable emittance growth and beam loss. We achieved good envelope control, and re-matching may only be needed every ten lattice periods (at 80% fill factor) in a longer lattice of similar design. We also show that understanding and controlling the time dependence of the envelope parameters is critical to achieving high fill factors, notably because of the injector and matching section dynamics.

  2. Future directions in fusion research: Super high field tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experimental results and advances in magnet engineering suggest that super high field, high aspect ratio tokamak devices could be a very efficient way to achieve burning plasma conditions and could open up a new area of research. Copper magnet devices with fields of 13 to 25 T at the plasma are considered. The super high field approach could also provide advantages for ETR and demonstration/commercial reactor concepts (magnetic fields at the plasma in the 8 to 13 T range)

  3. Epithermal neutron beam for BNCT research at Washington State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new filter has been designed and analysed for the Washington State University TRIGATM research reactor. Optimum balance of epithermal flux and background KERMA was obtained with a FluentalTM and alumina filter. The epithermal neutron flux calculated by the DORT transport code was approximately 9 x 108 n/cm2-s with a background KERMA of about 3x10-13 Gy/n/cm2. Operation of the beam for animal testing is expected to commence in 2000. (author)

  4. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  5. Advanced tokamak research at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in support of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion energy research aims to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable energy system. The tokamak, a doughnut shaped plasma confined by magnetic fields generated by currents flowing in external coils and the plasma, is a leading concept. Advanced Tokamak (AT) research in the DIII-D tokamak seeks to provide a scientific basis for steady-state high performance operation. This necessitates replacing the inherently pulsed inductive method of driving plasma current. Our approach emphasizes high pressure to maximize fusion gain while maximizing the self-driven bootstrap current, along with external current profile control. This requires integrated, simultaneous control of many characteristics of the plasma with a diverse set of techniques. This has already resulted in noninductive conditions being maintained at high pressure on current relaxation timescales. A high degree of physical understanding is facilitated by a closely coupled integrated modelling effort. Simulations are used both to plan and interpret experiments, making possible continued development of the models themselves. An ultimate objective is the capability to predict behaviour in future AT experiments. Analysis of experimental results relies on use of the TRANSP code via the FusionGrid, and our use of the FusionGrid will increase as additional analysis and simulation tools are made available

  6. Research on heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. study of high-energy multi-gap accelerators for the production of large currents of heavy ions for inertial confinement fusion is centered on the single-pass induction linac method. The large technology base associated with multi-gap accelerators for high-energy physics gives confidence that high efficiency, high repetition rate and good availability can be achieved, and that the path from scientific demonstration to commercial realization can be a smooth one. In an induction linac driver, multiple (parallel) ion beams are accelerated through a sequence of pulsed transformers. Crucial to the design is the manipulation of electric fields to amplify the beam current during acceleration. A proof-of-principle induction linac experiment (MBE-4) is under way and has begun the first demonstration of current amplification, control of the bunch ends, and acceleration of multiple beams. A recently completed experiment, called the Single Beam Transport Experiment, has shown that one can now count on more freedom to design an alternating-gradient quadrupole focusing channel to transport much higher ion beam currents than formerly believed possible. This result, together with the recent development of efficient sources for multiple charged ions, has rekindled interest in exploring drivers with heavy ions of charge state greater than unity. A recent study on Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) has shown that a substantial cost saving results from the use of multiple charged ions and that a remarkably broad range of options exist for viable power plant designs. The cost of a driver at 3-4 MJ could be US $200 per joule or less, and the cost of electricity could be in the range of 50-55 million US $ per kilowatt-hour. A next-generation experiment is needed to address the questions of high-power beam transport by magnetic lenses and of focusing the ions on a spot of about 1-2 mm radius, in a stable, reproducible way. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. TechnoFusion, a relevant facility for fusion technologies: The remote handling area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The future commercial production of electricity based on thermonuclear fusion requires the development of a number of research projects in addition to ITER, mostly related to the development of long-term technologies needed for future fusion reactors. Among the priority areas identified in the framework of international fusion research programmes, it is projected to build a specific research centre for fusion technologies in Spain. The so-called National Centre for Fusion Technologies, TechnoFusion, will be equipped with a large number of top facilities for the fusion technological development. The research activities will be focused primarily on several areas, including the implementation of advanced manufacturing technologies, the evaluation of radiation effects on low activation structural and functional materials, the in-beam and out-beam characterization of materials, the development of robotics and automated systems for remote handling, studies of liquid metal technologies and computer simulation. Currently no similar facilities to TechnoFusion exist, so it will provide more realistic tests than those available in other facilities up today, helping in the fast track to DEMO and IFMIF. The present document summarizes a review of the different facilities to be included in TechnoFusion, with special emphasis on those proposed for remote handling (RH) applications. The paper will review the technical specifications concerning the RH facility, the analysis of the mock-up components and tests to be performed, and the relevance of the RH lab capabilities, particularly the required equipment under irradiation conditions.

  8. Progress and challenges in the development of light ion beam drivers for inertial fusion energy (IFE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of a light ion beam driver for IFE is based on multi-terawatt, multi-mega-volt pulsed power generators, two-stage ion acceleration and charge neutralized transport. The main challenge of this approach is the accelerator, consisting of two interconnected vacuum diodes, the injector and the post-accelerator, both operating at very high power densities and electric fields. In this paper we discuss the progress recently achieved in our understanding of the injector gap physics. This progress has become possible through detailed temporally and spatially resolved measurements of field and particle densities in the acceleration gap and through an improved control of the ion current density uniformity by shaping of the insulating magnetic field. (authors)

  9. Nuclear analysis of the heavy-ion-beam-driven fusion reactor HIBALL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed three-dimensional Monte Carlo nuclear analysis is presented for the heavy-ion-beam-driven reactor HIBALL. Neutron target interactions leading to neutron multiplication, spectrum softening, and gamma production are included in the model. A 0.66m-thick blanket cooleb by Pb83 Li 17 reduces the radiation damage in the HT-9 ferritic steel first wall to 2.7 dpa/full power year, allowing it to last the whole life of the plant. The overall tritium breeding ratio and the overall energy multiplication are 1.25 and 1.27, respectively. The four reactor cavities in the HIBALL power plant yield a total thermal power of 10 200 MW(thermal)

  10. Energy from inertial fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 22 articles on inertial fusion energy (IFE) research and development written in the framework of an international collaboration of authors under the guidance of an advisory group on inertial fusion energy set up in 1991 to advise the IAEA. It describes the actual scientific, engineering and technological developments in the field of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). It also identifies ways in which international co-operation in ICF could be stimulated. The book is intended for a large audience and provides an introduction to inertial fusion energy and an overview of the various technologies needed for IFE power plants to be developed. It contains chapters on (i) the fundamentals of IFE; (ii) inertial confinement target physics; (iii) IFE power plant design principles (requirements for power plant drivers, solid state laser drivers, gas laser drivers, heavy ion drivers, and light ion drivers, target fabrication and positioning, reaction chamber systems, power generation and conditioning and radiation control, materials management and target materials recovery), (iv) special design issues (radiation damage in structural materials, induced radioactivity, laser driver- reaction chamber interfaces, ion beam driver-reaction chamber interfaces), (v) inertial fusion energy development strategy, (vi) safety and environmental impact, (vii) economics and other figures of merit; (viii) other uses of inertial fusion (both those involving and not involving implosions); and (ix) international activities. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  12. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilan, N., E-mail: nicola.pilan@igi.cnr.it; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX—Associazione EURATOM-ENEA per la Fusione, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF{sub 6} instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  13. A Schrdinger formulation research for light beam propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承宜; 郭弘; 胡巍; 邓锡铭

    2000-01-01

    The wave equation of light beam propagation was written in the form of an axial-coordinate-dependent Schrodinger equation, and the expectation value of a dynamical variable, the trial function of variational approach and the ABCD law were discussed by use of quantum mechanics approach. In view of the evolution equations of expectation values of dynamical variables in the framework of quantum mechanics, the definition of a potential function representing the beam propagation stability and its universal formula with the quality factor, the universal formula of beam width and curvature radius for a paraxial beam and cylindrically symmetric non-paraxial beam, the general formula of second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of beam for a paraxial beam, and the general criteria of the conservation of beam quality factor and the existence of a potential well of a potential function for a paraxial beam, were given or derived, respectively. Starting with the same trial function, the co

  14. Note: Spectrometer with multichannel photon-counting detector for beam emission spectroscopy in magnetic fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizunov, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khilchenko, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630073 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khilchenko, V.; Kvashnin, A.; Zubarev, P. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A spectrometer based on a linear array photomultiplier tube (PMT) has been developed and calibrated. A 0.635 m focal length Czerny-Turner monochromator combined with a coupling optics provides an image of a narrow 0.5 nm spectral range with a resolution of 0.015 nm/channel on a 32-anode PMT. The system aims at spectroscopy of D{sub α} or H{sub α} lines emitted by a diagnostic atomic beam in a plasma (primarily a motional Stark effect diagnostics). To record a low photon flux of ∼10{sup 6} s{sup −1} per channel with the time resolution of 100 μs, a pulse counting approach has been used. Wideband amplifiers scale single-electron pulses and transmit them to a digital data processing core hardwired in a programmable logic matrix. Calibrations have shown that the aberration-limited instrument function fits to a single detector channel of 1 mm width. Pilot results of passive measurements of D{sub α} light emission from the plasma confined in a magnetic trap are presented.

  15. Annual report of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R and D activities of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1990 to March 31, 1991. Since the shutdown of JT-60 in November 1989, the reconstruction work of the JT-60 device was continued until the end of March 1991. In the JT-60 Upgrade, the poloidal field coils and vacuum vessel were renewed and the plasma current was planned to increase up to 6 MA with lower single null divertor. The divertor plates were designed to be toroidally continuous and to use high-heat-conduction C/C composite materials. Another objective of JT-60U is to facilitate tokamak experiments with deuterium as the working gas. In the JFT-2M program, a system for divertor bias experiments was brought into operation and initial experiments were started to study its effects on plasma discharges. Effects of ergodic magnetic limiter on H-modes were examined and stationary H-modes were obtained under the control of ergodic magnetic limiter currents. The DIII-D program was highlighted by the attainment of 11% beta with a double null divertor plasma. As for the fusion engineering research, development activities of the ceramic turbo-viscous pump and the surface insulation techniques for the tokamak in-vessel components are remarked in the vacuum technology area. In the high heat flux experiments with the JAERI Electron Beam Irradiation Stand (JEBIS), carbon-based materials and refractory metals were tested to evaluate surface erosion at plasma disruptions. The ITER Conceptual Design Activities, which began in April 1988 under the auspices of the IAEA, were successfully completed in December 1990. A lot of contributions to the program were made by JAERI people to support the design and R and D activities and to prepare a plan for the forthcoming Engineering Design Activities. (J.P.N.)

  16. Stabilized Spheromak Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, T

    2007-04-03

    The U.S. fusion energy program is focused on research with the potential for studying plasmas at thermonuclear temperatures, currently epitomized by the tokamak-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) but also continuing exploratory work on other plasma confinement concepts. Among the latter is the spheromak pursued on the SSPX facility at LLNL. Experiments in SSPX using electrostatic current drive by coaxial guns have now demonstrated stable spheromaks with good heat confinement, if the plasma is maintained near a Taylor state, but the anticipated high current amplification by gun injection has not yet been achieved. In future experiments and reactors, creating and maintaining a stable spheromak configuration at high magnetic field strength may require auxiliary current drive using neutral beams or RF power. Here we show that neutral beam current drive soon to be explored on SSPX could yield a compact spheromak reactor with current drive efficiency comparable to that of steady state tokamaks. Thus, while more will be learned about electrostatic current drive in coming months, results already achieved in SSPX could point to a productive parallel development path pursuing auxiliary current drive, consistent with plans to install neutral beams on SSPX in the near future. Among possible outcomes, spheromak research could also yield pulsed fusion reactors at lower capital cost than any fusion concept yet proposed.

  17. Heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With controlled thermonuclear fusion holding out the possibility of a prolific and clean new source of energy, the goal remains elusive after many years of continual effort. While the conventional Tokamak route with magnetic confinement continues to hit the headlines, other alternatives are now becoming competitive. One possible solution is to confine the thermonuclear fuel pellet by high power beams. Current research and perspectives for future work in such inertial confinement was the subject of the 'Prospects for Heavy Ion Fusion' European Research Conference held in Aghia Pelaghia, Crete, last year. Its main focus was on the potential of heavy ion accelerators as well as recent advances in target physics with high power lasers and light ion beams. Carlo Rubbia declared that high energy accelerators, with their high efficiency, are the most promising approach to economical fusion energy production. However the need for cost saving in the driver accelerator requires new ideas in target design tailored to the particularities of heavy ion beams, which need to be pushed to the limits of high current and phase space density at the same time

  18. Approaches of fusion science to global warming from the perspective of thermofluid research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scientific interest in the environmental and meteorological fields has been focused on the estimation of the temperature rise on the earth in the near and far future. The temperature rise is estimated by a gas transfer flux. It is very difficult to measure and estimate the gas transfer rate resulting from the air-sea interaction because of very high Schmidt number (Sc) turbulent fluid flow with free surface deformation. On the other hand, the utilization of high Prandtl number (Pr) fluid flows, like a Flibe, with free surface as a coolant in an advanced magnetic fusion reactor and as a chamber protection scheme in an inertial confinement fusion reactor have been considered. From the perspective of thermofluid research, it would be very important to discuss on some common aspects between fusion nuclear technology and global warming problem. Since the thermal diffusivities of high Pr or Sc fluids are very small, when the high temperature or concentration regions appear on the free surface caused by plasma radiation or carbon-dioxide gas absorption, respectively, the scalar transport from the free surface to the bulk flow must be very slow compared with the fluid motion. In this paper, some common aspects between the heat transfer of high Pr free surface flow in fusion engineering and the mass transfer of high Sc free surface flow in the global warming problem are discussed

  19. 核聚变研究50年%FUSION RESEARCH IN THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱励俭

    2001-01-01

    The present status and future prospect of fusion research and thepredicted energy demand in the world have been reviewed.A proposal on development of fusion-fission hybrid reactors,including outlined schedule and predicted achievements,has been presented based on the discussion on the strategy and chance of development of fusion energy forward to the future and the advantages of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.%分析了国内外核聚变研究成果现状和发展的趋势,对国民经济发展过程中的能源需求作了预测,对中国的聚变能源战略和历史机遇(经济、技术体系、地位)作了讨论,介绍了聚变-裂变混合堆并提出了发展聚变-裂变混合堆的总体设想、研究内容和预期目标。

  20. Research Needs for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Bethesda, Maryland, June 8-12, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-08

    Nuclear fusion - the process that powers the sun - offers an environmentally benign, intrinsically safe energy source with an abundant supply of low-cost fuel. It is the focus of an international research program, including the ITE R fusion collaboration, which involves seven parties representing half the world's population. The realization of fusion power would change the economics and ecology of energy production as profoundly as petroleum exploitation did two centuries ago. The 21st century finds fusion research in a transformed landscape. The worldwide fusion community broadly agrees that the science has advanced to the point where an aggressive action plan, aimed at the remaining barriers to practical fusion energy, is warranted. At the same time, and largely because of its scientific advance, the program faces new challenges; above all it is challenged to demonstrate the timeliness of its promised benefits. In response to this changed landscape, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES ) in the US Department of Energy commissioned a number of community-based studies of the key scientific and technical foci of magnetic fusion research. The Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) for Magnetic Fusion Energy Sciences is a capstone to these studies. In the context of magnetic fusion energy, ReNeW surveyed the issues identified in previous studies, and used them as a starting point to define and characterize the research activities that the advance of fusion as a practical energy source will require. Thus, ReNeW's task was to identify (1) the scientific and technological research frontiers of the fusion program, and, especially, (2) a set of activities that will most effectively advance those frontiers. (Note that ReNeW was not charged with developing a strategic plan or timeline for the implementation of fusion power.) This Report presents a portfolio of research activities for US research in magnetic fusion for the next two decades. It is intended to provide

  1. Benefit-analysis of accomplishments from the magnetic fusion energy (MFE) research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Program Analysis to examine benefits from selected accomplishments of DOE's Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Research Program. The study objectives are presented. The MFE-induced innovation and accomplishments which were studied are listed. Finally, the benefit estimation methodology used is described in detail. The next seven chapters document the results of benefit estimation for the MFE accomplishments studied

  2. How accurate are the fusion of cone-beam CT and 3-D stereophotographic images?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas S N Jayaratne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT and stereophotography are two of the latest imaging modalities available for three-dimensional (3-D visualization of craniofacial structures. However, CBCT provides only limited information on surface texture. This can be overcome by combining the bone images derived from CBCT with 3-D photographs. The objectives of this study were 1 to evaluate the feasibility of integrating 3-D Photos and CBCT images 2 to assess degree of error that may occur during the above processes and 3 to identify facial regions that would be most appropriate for 3-D image registration. METHODOLOGY: CBCT scans and stereophotographic images from 29 patients were used for this study. Two 3-D images corresponding to the skin and bone were extracted from the CBCT data. The 3-D photo was superimposed on the CBCT skin image using relatively immobile areas of the face as a reference. 3-D colour maps were used to assess the accuracy of superimposition were distance differences between the CBCT and 3-D photo were recorded as the signed average and the Root Mean Square (RMS error. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The signed average and RMS of the distance differences between the registered surfaces were -0.018 (±0.129 mm and 0.739 (±0.239 mm respectively. The most errors were found in areas surrounding the lips and the eyes, while minimal errors were noted in the forehead, root of the nose and zygoma. CONCLUSIONS: CBCT and 3-D photographic data can be successfully fused with minimal errors. When compared to RMS, the signed average was found to under-represent the registration error. The virtual 3-D composite craniofacial models permit concurrent assessment of bone and soft tissues during diagnosis and treatment planning.

  3. Characterization of the DD-neutron source for the 80 degrees beam line of the fusion neutronics source (FNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification of the d-D neutron source with a titanium deuteride target of the FNS facility was investigated in order to utilize the d-D neutron source for fusion neutronics researches. The characteristics of neutron produced by the d-D reaction were described based on the reaction kinematics, and the target assembly of the accelerator was modeled for the MCNP calculation in detail. In order to validate this calculation, the angular distribution of the neutron was measured with the activation foil method. The measured reaction rates were well predicted by the MCNP calculation, and the validity of the present calculation was confirmed. A MCNP source term for analyses calculations of experiments with DD neutrons was prepared from the results of the above calculation. (author)

  4. Applied research with cyclotron beams at FLNR JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Apel, P.Yu.; Didyk, A.Yu.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Gulbekian, G.G. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation). Flerov Lab. of Nuclear Reactions

    1997-03-01

    The Center of Applied Physics at the Flerov Laboratory carries out an R and D program comprising development of track membrane technology, materials research with heavy ion beams and production of radioisotopes. Experiments are performed on three cyclotrons: U-400, U-200 and IC-100 providing a wide variety of ion beams with the energies of 1 to 10 MeV/u. The activity on track membranes (TMs) includes studies of track formation in polymers and latent track structure, track sensitization and etching, methods of membrane testing, development of track membranes on the basis of new materials, surface modification of TMs, design and construction of facilities for track membrane production. Recent experiments on heavy ion-induced radiation damage in non-polymeric substances have been devoted to defect creation in semiconductor and dielectric single crystals. TEM, SEM, STM and `in situ` luminescent spectroscopy are used to investigate heavy ion effects. Methods for producing several isotopes of high radiochemical and isotopic purity for medical, biomedical and environmental protection applications have been developed. (author)

  5. Fifty Years of Magnetic Fusion Research (1958–2008: Brief Historical Overview and Discussion of Future Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila A. El-Guebaly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty years ago, the secrecy surrounding magnetically controlled thermonuclear fusion had been lifted allowing researchers to freely share technical results and discuss the challenges of harnessing fusion power. There were only four magnetic confinement fusion concepts pursued internationally: tokamak, stellarator, pinch, and mirror. Since the early 1970s, numerous fusion designs have been developed for the four original and three new approaches: spherical torus, field-reversed configuration, and spheromak. At present, the tokamak is regarded worldwide as the most viable candidate to demonstrate fusion energy generation. Numerous power plant studies (>50, extensive R&D programs, more than 100 operating experiments, and an impressive international collaboration led to the current wealth of fusion information and understanding. As a result, fusion promises to be a major part of the energy mix in the 21st century. The fusion roadmaps developed to date take different approaches, depending on the anticipated power plant concept and the degree of extrapolation beyond ITER. Several Demos with differing approaches will be built in the US, EU, Japan, China, Russia, Korea, India, and other countries to cover the wide range of near-term and advanced fusion systems.

  6. Positron beam facility at Kyoto University Research Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Sato, K.; Yoshiie, T.; Sano, T.; Kawabe, H.; Nagai, Y.; Nagumo, K.; Inoue, K.; Toyama, T.; Oshima, N.; Kinomura, A.; Shirai, Y.

    2014-04-01

    A positron beam facility is presently under construction at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR), which is a light-water moderated tank-type reactor operated at a rated thermal power of 5 MW. A cadmium (Cd) - tungsten (W) source similar to that used in NEPOMUC was chosen in the KUR because Cd is very efficient at producing γ-rays when exposed to thermal neutron flux, and W is a widely used in converter and moderator materials. High-energy positrons are moderated by a W moderator with a mesh structure. Electrical lenses and a solenoid magnetic field are used to extract the moderated positrons and guide them to a platform outside of the reactor, respectively. Since Japan is an earthquake-prone country, a special attention is paid for the design of the in-pile positron source so as not to damage the reactor in the severe earthquake.

  7. Annual report of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1 1989 to March 31 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1989 to March 1990 are reported. The experiment on JT-60 was continued to October 1989. In the pellet injection experiment, plasma energy confinement was improved and the maximum fusion product reached 1.2 x 1020 m-3 s keV. The portion of the bootstrap current was up to 80% of the total plasma current in the high poloidal beta discharge. The fabrication of the new vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils for the JT-60 machine upgrade (JT-60U) have been made. The experiment to improve the confinement on JFT-2M was conducted. The ergodic magnetic limiter coils were installed. Quasi-steady-state H-mode discharge (10 sec at maximum) was achieved and a new high-beta regime with the improved Troyon coefficient have been explored in DIII-D. As for theoretical and computational studies, thermal instabilities of an edge plasma, plasma performance determined by the MHD instabilities and burning plasma problems were investigated. A new type of a vacuum pump--the ceramic turbo-viscous pump--has been developed. In the high heat flux technology, small-scale divertor samples are manufactured by means of brazing carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite to copper heat sinks. The thermal cycle tests show they endure against a heat flux up to 10MW/m2. As for the development of plasma heating technology, the 50 keV-10A negative hydrogen beam was extracted by means of seeding cesium in the ion plasma generator. 1.4 MW-10sec RF was generated from an improved electron gun in the modified 2GHz-range klystron. Nb3Sn superconducting coil with an inner diameter of 1.0 m was successfully magnetized up to 7 T in 1 sec. The gram-level tritium experiments were performed. Conceptual design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is proceeding under the auspices of the IAEA. Design study of the Fusion Experimental Reactor (FER) concept has been conducted. (J.P.N.)

  8. Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research. Vol. II. Proceedings of a Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Physics Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on controlled nuclear fusion was first disclosed at the Second United Nations Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, held at Geneva in 1958. From the information given, it was evident that a better understanding of the behaviour of hot dense plasmas was needed before the goal of economic energy release from nuclear fusion could be reached. The fact that research since then has been most complex and costly has enhanced the desirability of international co-operation and exchange of information and experience. Having organized its First Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research at Salzburg in 1961, the International Atomic Energy Agency again provided the means for such cooperation in organizing its Second Conference on this subject on 6-10 September, 1965, at Culham, Abingdon, Berks, England. The meeting was arranged with the generous help of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority at their Culham Laboratory, where the facilities and assistance of the staff were greatly appreciated. At the meeting, which was attended by 268 participants from 26 member states and three international organizations, significant results from many experiments, including those from the new and larger machines, became available. It has now become feasible to intercorrelate data obtained from a number of similar machines; this has led to a more complete understanding of plasma behaviour. No breakthrough was reported nor had been expected towards the economical release of the energy from fusion, but there was increased understanding of the problems of production, control and containment of high-density and high-temperature plasmas

  9. High power electron and ion beam research and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nation, J.A.; Sudan, R.N. (eds.)

    1977-01-01

    Topics covered in volume II include: collective accelerators; microwaves and unneutralized E-beams; technology of high-current E-beam accelerators and laser applications of charged-particle beams. Abstracts of twenty-nine papers from the conference were prepared for the data base in addition to six which appeared previously. (GHT)

  10. High current beam transport with multiple beam arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights of recent experimental and theoretical research progress on the high current beam transport of single and multiple beams by the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) are presented. In the single beam transport experiment (SBTE), stability boundaries and the emittance growth of a space charge dominated beam in a long quadrupole transport channel were measured and compared with theory and computer simulations. Also, a multiple beam ion induction linac (MBE-4) is being constructed at LBL which will permit study of multiple beam transport arrays, and acceleration and bunch length compression of individually focused beamlets. Various design considerations of MBE-4 regarding scaling laws, nonlinear effects, misalignments, and transverse and longitudinal space charge effects are summarized. Some aspects of longitudinal beam dynamics including schemes to generate the accelerating voltage waveforms and to amplify beam current are also discussed

  11. Report of the 1990 workshop on plasma-materials interactions for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1990 Workshop of the Working Group in Research Committee on A and M Data, on plasma-materials interactions was held at the Headquarters of JAERI, Tokyo, on July 10-11, 1990. The aim of the Workshop was to obtain future prospects for the activities of the Working Group, by discussing current problems in plasma-materials interactions relevant to fusion research. This report contains all the 16 papers presented at hte Workshop, which are mainly concerned with problems in the first wall of large Tokamak devices, such as retention and release of hydrogen in carbon materials, sputtering and problems in material data system. (author)

  12. Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2007-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through its coordinated research activities, the IAEA promotes the development and application of nuclear technologies in Member States. The scientific and technical knowledge required for the construction and operation of large nuclear fusion research facilities, including ITER and the Laser Megajoule in France, and the Z machine and the National Ignition Facility in the United States of America, necessitates several accompanying research and development programmes in physics and technology. This is particularly true in the areas of materials science and fusion technology. Hence, the long standing IAEA effort to conduct coordinated research projects (CRPs) in these areas is aimed at: (i) the development of appropriate technical tools to investigate the issue of materials damage and degradation in a fusion plasma environment; and (ii) the emergence of a knowledge based understanding of the various processes underlying materials damage and degradation, thereby leading to the identification of suitable candidate materials fulfilling the stringent requirements of a fusion environment in any next step facility. Dense magnetized plasma (DMP) devices serve as a first test bench for testing of fusion relevant plasma facing materials, diagnostic development and calibration, technologies and scaling to conceptual principles of larger devices while sophisticated testing facilities such as the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) are being designed. The CRP on Integrated Approach to Dense Magnetized Plasmas Applications in Nuclear Fusion Technology described herein was initiated in 2007 with the participation of 12 research institutions in 8 Member States and was concluded in 2011. It was designed with specific research objectives falling into two main categories: support to mainstream fusion research and development of DMP technology. This publication is a compilation of the individual reports submitted by the 12 CRP participants. These reports discuss

  13. Relativistic high-current electron beams in dense plasmas in the context of the fast ignition of inertially confined fusion targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of two similar experiments on laser generated relativistic electron beam (REB) transport in aluminum samples related to the fast ignition (FI) of inertially confined fusion targets. Their goal was to characterize high current density REB energy losses in solid and compressed samples, as the viability of the FI scheme is highly determined by the amount of such energy losses. The experiments were performed on the JLF-Titan laser system. A REB was generated by an intense ps laser beam ≥ 1020 W.cm-2 in planar targets compressed by a ns laser beam ≥ 1013 W.cm-2 leading to REB current densities jh ∼ 1011 A.cm-2 in the aluminum sample under study. A variation of resistive energy losses between solid and compressed samples was observed for the thickest ones as predicted by numerical hybrid simulations. (authors)

  14. Research of beam conditioning technologies using continuous phase plate, Multi-FM smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Jia, Huaiting; Tian, Xiaocheng; Yuan, Haoyu; Zhu, Na; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-10-01

    In the research of inertial confinement fusion, laser plasma interaction (LPI) is becoming a key problem that affects ignition. Here, multi-frequency modulation (Multi-FM) smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), continuous phase plate (CPP) and polarization smoothing (PS) were experimentally studied and implemented on the SG-III laser facility. After using these techniques, the far field distribution of SG-Ⅲ laser facility can be adjusted, controlled and repeated accurately. The output spectrums of the cascade phase modulators used for Multi-FM SSD were stable and the FM-to-AM effect can be restrained. Experiments on SG-III laser facility indicate that when the number of color cycles adopts 1, imposing SSD with 3.3 times diffraction limit (TDL) did not lead to pinhole closure in the spatial filters of preamplifier and main amplifiers with 30-TDL pinhole size. The nonuniformity of the focal spots using Multi-FM SSD, CPP and PS drops to 0.18, comparing to 0.26 with CPP+SSD, 0.57 with CPP+PS and 0.84 with only CPP and wedged lens. Polarization smoothing using flat birefringent plate in the convergent beam of final optics assembly (FOA) was studied. The PS plates were manufactured and equipped on SG-III laser facility for LPI research. Combined beam smoothing and polarization manipulation were also studied to solve the LPI problem. Results indicate that through adjusting dispersion directions of SSD beams in a quad, two dimensional SSD can be obtained. Using polarization control plate (PCP), polarization on the near field and far field can be manipulated, providing new method to solve LPI problem in indirect drive laser fusion.

  15. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In JT-60, some mechanical improvements of the centrifugal pellet injector have been done for stable production and successive ejection of pellet. In addition, a guide tube for an injection from top of high-field side was installed as well as the low-field side in February 2000. The injection power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system of the frequency of 110 GHz installed last year was increased up to ∼0.75 MW for 2 seconds in this year using the control of RF beam angle. Two gyrotrons were newly installed with total power increased from 1 MW to 3 MW. Highlights of the JT-60 experiments in FY (Fiscal Year) 2000 may be summarized as follows: (1) A reversed shear discharge with an equivalent fusion multiplication factor QDTeq of ∼0.5 was achieved successfully at plasma current of 2.4 MA for 0.8 seconds. (2) Quasi-steady operation of low current reversed shear plasma with a large fraction (∼80%) of bootstrap current was realized under full non-inductive current drive condition. H-factor of 3.3-3.8 at electron density as high as 73% of the Greenwald limit was sustained for 6 times of the energy confinement time. (3) Normalized beta exceeding the ideal no-wall stability limit was obtained in reversed shear plasmas with a ratio of an outer-wall radius to a plasma minor radius less than 1.3. (4) L-H transition power was reduced by ∼30% in the W-shaped divertor with pumping from both inside and outside slots compared with that in the open divertor. Helium exhaust rate in ELMy H-mode plasmas was improved up to 50% higher than the inside slot pumping. (5) Current drive efficiency of 1.3x1019 A/m2/W was attained with the central electron temperature of 8.6 keV. The efficiency is about 2.6 times higher than that of 100 keV. On the JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being produced including the application of the low activation ferritic steel. A dramatic reduction of trapped ion loss due to the toroidal field ripple was identified for the

  16. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Inabe, Teruo; Kaneko, Tadao; Konoshima, Sigeru; Miura, M. Yushi; Nakamura, Kazuyuki [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-01-01

    In JT-60, some mechanical improvements of the centrifugal pellet injector have been done for stable production and successive ejection of pellet. In addition, a guide tube for an injection from top of high-field side was installed as well as the low-field side in February 2000. The injection power of electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system of the frequency of 110 GHz installed last year was increased up to {approx}0.75 MW for 2 seconds in this year using the control of RF beam angle. Two gyrotrons were newly installed with total power increased from 1 MW to 3 MW. Highlights of the JT-60 experiments in FY (Fiscal Year) 2000 may be summarized as follows: (1) A reversed shear discharge with an equivalent fusion multiplication factor Q{sub DT}{sup eq} of {approx}0.5 was achieved successfully at plasma current of 2.4 MA for 0.8 seconds. (2) Quasi-steady operation of low current reversed shear plasma with a large fraction ({approx}80%) of bootstrap current was realized under full non-inductive current drive condition. H-factor of 3.3-3.8 at electron density as high as 73% of the Greenwald limit was sustained for 6 times of the energy confinement time. (3) Normalized beta exceeding the ideal no-wall stability limit was obtained in reversed shear plasmas with a ratio of an outer-wall radius to a plasma minor radius less than 1.3. (4) L-H transition power was reduced by {approx}30% in the W-shaped divertor with pumping from both inside and outside slots compared with that in the open divertor. Helium exhaust rate in ELMy H-mode plasmas was improved up to 50% higher than the inside slot pumping. (5) Current drive efficiency of 1.3x10{sup 19} A/m{sup 2}/W was attained with the central electron temperature of 8.6 keV. The efficiency is about 2.6 times higher than that of 100 keV. On the JFT-2M, advanced and basic research of tokamak plasma is being produced including the application of the low activation ferritic steel. A dramatic reduction of trapped ion loss due to the

  17. International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector acceptance tests at CEA/Saclay: 140 mA/100 keV deuteron beam characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobin, R., E-mail: rjgobin@cea.fr; Bogard, D.; Chauvin, N.; Chel, S.; Delferrière, O.; Harrault, F.; Mattei, P.; Senée, F. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Cara, P. [Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Mosnier, A. [Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191-Gif/Yvette (France); Fusion for Energy, BFD Department, Garching (Germany); Shidara, H. [IFMIF/EVEDA Project Team, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Okumura, Y. [JAEA, Division of Rokkasho BA Project, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    In the framework of the ITER broader approach, the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) deuteron accelerator (2 × 125 mA at 40 MeV) is an irradiation tool dedicated to high neutron flux production for future nuclear plant material studies. During the validation phase, the Linear IFMIF Prototype Accelerator (LIPAc) machine will be tested on the Rokkasho site in Japan. This demonstrator aims to produce 125 mA/9 MeV deuteron beam. Involved in the LIPAc project for several years, specialists from CEA/Saclay designed the injector based on a SILHI type ECR source operating at 2.45 GHz and a 2 solenoid low energy beam line to produce such high intensity beam. The whole injector, equipped with its dedicated diagnostics, has been then installed and tested on the Saclay site. Before shipment from Europe to Japan, acceptance tests have been performed in November 2012 with 100 keV deuteron beam and intensity as high as 140 mA in continuous and pulsed mode. In this paper, the emittance measurements done for different duty cycles and different beam intensities will be presented as well as beam species fraction analysis. Then the reinstallation in Japan and commissioning plan on site will be reported.

  18. The role of the neutral beam fueling profile in the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and other tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalings for the stored energy and neutron yield, determined from experimental data are applied to both deuterium-only and deuterium-tritium plasmas in different neutral beam heated operational domains in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The domain of the data considered includes the Supershot, High poloidal beta, Low-mode, and limiter High-mode operational regimes, as well as discharges with a reversed magnetic shear configuration. The new important parameter in the present scaling is the peakedness of the heating beam fueling profile shape. Ion energy confinement and neutron production are relatively insensitive to other plasma parameters compared to the beam fueling peakedness parameter and the heating beam power when considering plasmas that are stable to magnetohydrodynamic modes. However, the stored energy of the electrons is independent of the beam fueling peakedness. The implication of the scalings based on this parameter is related to theoretical transport models such as radial electric field shear and Ion Temperature Gradient marginality models. Similar physics interpretation is provided for beam heated discharges on other major tokamaks

  19. Laser development for laser fusion applications. Research progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research conducted during this period is reported on the following: (1) rare-gas-halogen lasers, (2) XeCl laser at excitation rates of 1.7 to 4.7 MW/cm3, (3) rare gas halogen laser modeling, (4) three-body ion recombination coefficients, (5) electron beam accelerators, (6) power conditioning studies for accelerators, (7) chemically pumped iodine lasers, (8) hydrogen fluoride lasers, and (9) supporting research

  20. Developing a plasma focus research training system for the fusion energy age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 3 kJ UNU/ICTP Plasma Focus Facility is the most significant device associated with the AAAPT (Asian African Association for Plasma Training). In original and modified/upgraded form it has trained generations of plasma focus (PF) researchers internationally, producing many PhD theses and peer-reviewed papers. The Lee Model code was developed for the design of this PF. This code has evolved to cover all PF machines for design, interpretation and optimization, for derivation of radiation scaling laws; and to provide insights into yield scaling limitations, radiative collapse, speed-enhanced and current-stepped PF variants. As example of fresh perspectives derivable from this code, this paper presents new results on energy transfers of the axial and radial phases of generalized PF devices. As the world moves inexorably towards the Fusion Energy Age it becomes ever more important to train plasma fusion researchers. A recent workshop in Nepal shows that demand for such training continues. Even commercial project development consultants are showing interest. We propose that the AAAPT-proven research package be upgraded, by modernizing the small PF for extreme modes of operation, switchable from the typical strong-focus mode to a slow-mode which barely pinches, thus producing a larger, more uniform plasma stream with superior deposition properties. Such a small device would be cost-effective and easily duplicated, and have the versatility of a range of experiments from intense multi-radiation generation and target damage studies to superior advanced-materials deposition. The complementary code is used to reference experiments up to the largest existing machine. This is ideal for studying machine limitations and scaling laws and to suggest new experiments. Such a modernized versatile PF machine complemented by the universally versatile code would extend the utility of the PF experience; so that AAAPT continues to provide leadership in pulsed plasma research training in

  1. A Schr(o)idinger formulation research for light beam propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The wave equation of light beam propagation was written in the form of an axial-coordinate-dependent Schrdinger equation, and the expectation value of a dynamical variable, the trial function of variational approach and the ABCD law were discussed by use of quantum mechanics approach. In view of the evolution equations of expectation values of dynamical variables in the framework of quantum mechanics, the definition of a potential function representing the beam propagation stability and its universal formula with the quality factor, the universal formula of beam width and curvature radius for a paraxial beam and cylindrically symmetric non-paraxial beam, the general formula of second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of beam for a paraxial beam, and the general criteria of the conservation of beam quality factor and the existence of a potential well of a potential function for a paraxial beam, were given or derived, respectively. Starting with the same trial function, the comparative research of our formulation with variational approach was done, which gave some further insight into the physical nature of a beam propagation parameters. The ABCD law of non-paraxial beam was discussed in terms of the definition of the non-paraxial expectation value of a dynamical variable for the first time. The applications to the media of constant second derivative of beam width with respect to the axial coordinate of a beam, square law media and the media of constant refractive index in the momentum representation were discussed, respectively.

  2. Highly charged ions in magnetic fusion plasmas: research opportunities and diagnostic necessities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    2015-07-01

    Highly charged ions play a crucial role in magnetic fusion plasmas. These plasmas are excellent sources for producing highly charged ions and copious amounts of radiation for studying their atomic properties. These studies include calibration of density diagnostics, x-ray production by charge exchange, line identifications and accurate wavelength measurements, and benchmark data for ionization balance calculations. Studies of magnetic fusion plasmas also consume a large amount of atomic data, especially in order to develop new spectral diagnostics. Examples we give are the need for highly accurate wavelengths as references for measurements of bulk plasma motion, the need for accurate line excitation rates that encompass both electron-impact excitation and indirect line formation processes, for accurate position and resonance strength information of dielectronic recombination satellite lines that may broaden or shift diagnostic lines or that may provide electron temperature information, and the need for accurate ionization balance calculations. We show that the highly charged ions of several elements are of special current interest to magnetic fusion, notably highly charged ions of argon, iron, krypton, xenon, and foremost of tungsten. The electron temperatures thought to be achievable in the near future may produce W70+ ions and possibly ions with even higher charge states. This means that all but a few of the most highly charged ions are of potential interest as plasma diagnostics or are available for basic research.

  3. Fusion of smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies research, systems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Favorskaya, Margarita; Jain, Lakhmi; Howlett, Robert

    2015-01-01

      This monograph book is focused on the recent advances in smart, multimedia and computer gaming technologies. The Contributions include:   ·         Smart Gamification and Smart Serious Games. ·         Fusion of secure IPsec-based Virtual Private Network, mobile computing and rich multimedia technology. ·         Teaching and Promoting Smart Internet of Things Solutions Using the Serious-game Approach. ·         Evaluation of Student Knowledge using an e-Learning Framework. ·         The iTEC Eduteka. ·         3D Virtual Worlds as a Fusion of Immersing, Visualizing, Recording, and Replaying Technologies. ·         Fusion of multimedia and mobile technology in audioguides for Museums and Exhibitions: from Bluetooth Push to Web Pull. The book is directed to researchers, students and software developers working in the areas of education and information technologies.  

  4. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  5. Energy deposition of ions in materials, and numerical simulations of compression, ignition, and burn of ion beam driven inertial confinement fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article various aspects of ion beam inertial confinement fusion are discussed. In particular a very thorough discussion of aspects of energy deposition of ions in hot plasmas and cold materials is given. Using energy deposition profiles given by these calculations, computer simulations of the compression, ignition and burn phases have been carried out for a single shell, pusher-tamper-DT fuel, multi-layered spherical pellet, suitable for use in a fusion reactor. The gain of this pellet was calculated to be 97 for an input energy of 7.38 MJ and an output energy of 715 MJ. This pellet has several other attractive features, including being environmentally attractive because of minimal radioactivity production and being insensitive to pusher-fuel instabilities. (orig.)

  6. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately

  7. Development of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Wittmayer, F.J.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1976-08-17

    A program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors suitable for use in constructing fusion research magnets has resulted in the commercial production of conductors having cross-sectional areas in the range 0.06 cm/sup 2/ to 0.84 cm/sup 2/. Critical current densities near the goal of 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 12 T and 4.2 K have been obtained in conductors produced by two different techniques. The latest results of this program are presented and discussed.

  8. Balanced biomedical program plan. Volume X. Fusion analysis for and environmental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-06-01

    In this draft planning document for health and environmental research needs relevant to the development of fusion technology, an attempt is made to integrate input from the participating laboratories on the basis of the King-Muir study categories. The general description covers only those concepts and features that are considered important to an understanding of possible and probable effects of thermonuclear reactors on health and the environment. Appendixes are included which reflect an understanding of three areas of special interest: materials requirements, effects from magnetic fields, and tritium effects.

  9. Annual report of Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period from April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities at Naka Fusion Research Establishment, JAERI, are reported for the period from April 1, 1993 to March 31, 1994. The main objectives of JT-60U experiments in FY1993 were to achieve and sustain high confinement regime with current drive. The JFT-2M experiments progressed in the systematic study of the plasma responses by applying an external helical field and also in the study of the boundary plasma with electric field or current in the scrape off layer (SOL) introduced by the divertor bias system. The study in Plasma Theory and Computation focused on the ion temperature gradient instability, the linear toroidal particle simulation, the MHD stability and the analyses of burning plasma. The progresses on DIII-D experiments were obtained in the studies of divertor radiation, cryopumping and VH-mode plasma. As for the fusion engineering research, further developments of a ceramic vacuum pump and a high-resolution quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) were made. A high energy H- beam of 400keV and 0.18A was produced with a current density of 13mA/cm2 for 1s. Many efforts were made in developing the long pulse gyrotron and the high efficiency collector potential depression (CPD) gyrotron in the radio-frequency (RF) technology area. The main progress in the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (under US/Japan collaboration) was to demonstrate the plasma exhaust stream under non-steady tokamak operation. Heating experiments of the development 1m long divertor module for ITER were performed at a heat flux of 15MW/m2 for 30sec. The R and D of the reactor structure were focused on the major components such as non-circular bellows, fail-safe first wall, etc.. The R and D of the blanket technology were focussed on the box structure for ITER shielding blanket and the out-of-reactor testing of ITER breeding blanket. (J.P.N.)

  10. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  11. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  12. Summary on the researcher exchanges from FY2006-2011 from Chinese side (basic research of nuclear fusion reactor engineering)20-A,D,E,F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 2006-2010, there are many research activities carried out in the field of “basic research of nuclear fusion reactor engineering” between Japan and China. This field includes: “study on reduced activation material for fusion”, “development of superconducting key technology for advanced fusion reactor”, “study of tritium behavior in solid and liquid breed material”, “advanced reactor design and technological integration”. More than 10 researchers from China visited National Institute for Fusion Science and other Japanese institute and university every year. Several JSPS-CAS CUP Program Seminars were held in China. Based on EAST, LHD operation, JT-60 upgrade construction, ITER project, demonstration fusion reactor design, we can foresee that many co-operations can be carried out widely in this field. (author)

  13. Future on the ITER program. On a branch of research on nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a huge cost for research and development of nuclear fusion is required, some international cooperative research such as ITER program have been intended to promote, to which Japanese response is required. As the program can be understood on its meaning at a viewpoint of promotion of basic science, concept on a key of energy problem is not insufficient yet And, its effect on technical problems and environment cannot be neglected Here was shown some proposals necessity for discussion on how the program had to be promoted under consideration of these problems. When a large scale program consuming national budget will be carried out, it is natural that agreement of national peoples must be obtained. Regretfully, in Japan discussion on science program above all nuclear policy has scarcely been experienced at citizens' levels, and some bitter experiences, where the concerned have promoted it in one side under a concept without any change once decided, have been pressured without any response to scientific advancements and social changes. Therefore, future plan on the nuclear fusion must be carried out a number of thorough discussion at a wide range from various viewpoints such as its realizing feasibility, safety, economics, and so forth, to promote careful adaptabilities. And, the concerned under promotion of the program and the relatives in the academic community seem to have a responsibility to easily explain present condition and scope of the plan to not only scientists but also citizens to awake them to promote its discussion with them. (G.K.)

  14. Collaborative Research: Instability and transport of laser beam in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Harvey Arnold [New Mexico Consortium; Lushnikov, Pavel [University of New Mexico

    2014-11-18

    Our goal was to determine the onset of laser light scattering due to plasma wave instabilities. Such scatter is usually regarded as deleterious since laser beam strength is thereby diminished. While this kind of laser-plasma-instability (LPI) has long been understood for the case of coherent laser light, the theory of LPI onset for a laser beam with degraded coherence is recent. Such a laser beam fills plasma with a mottled intensity distribution, which has large fluctuations. The key question is: do the exceptionally large fluctuations control LPI onset or is it controlled by the relatively quiescent background laser intensity? We have answered this question. This is significant because LPI onset power in the former case is typically small compared to that of the latter. In addition, if large laser intensity fluctuations control LPI onset, then nonlinear effects become significant for less powerful laser beams than otherwise estimated.

  15. Drivers for light ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light ion approach to inertial confinement fusion requires the production of 1013 to 1014 watt and 106 to 107 joule pulses. The accelerator technology developed in the particle beam fusion program is capable of fulfilling these requirements

  16. Laser beam riding guided system principle and design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhou; Jin, Yi; Xu, Zhou; Xing, Hao

    2016-01-01

    With the development of science and technology, precision-strike weapons has been considered to be important for winning victory in military field. Laser guidance is a major method to execute precision-strike in modern warfare. At present, the problems of primary stage of Laser guidance has been solved with endeavors of countries. Several technical aspects of laser-beam riding guided system have been mature, such as atmosphere penetration of laser beam, clutter inhibition on ground, laser irradiator, encoding and decoding of laser beam. Further, laser beam quality, equal output power and atmospheric transmission properties are qualified for warfare situation. Riding guidance instrument is a crucial element of Laser-beam riding guided system, and is also a vital element of airborne, vehicle-mounted and individual weapon. The optical system mainly consist of sighting module and laser-beam guided module. Photoelectric detector is the most important sensing device of seeker, and also the key to acquire the coordinate information of target space. Currently, in consideration of the 1.06 u m of wavelength applied in all the semi-active laser guided weapons systems, lithium drifting silicon photodiode which is sensitive to 1.06 u m of wavelength is used in photoelectric detector. Compared to Solid and gas laser, diode laser has many merits such as small volume, simple construction, light weight, long life, low lost and easy modulation. This article introduced the composition and operating principle of Laser-beam riding guided system based on 980 nm diode laser, and made a analysis of key technology; for instance, laser irradiator, modulating disk of component, laser zooming system. Through the use of laser diode, Laser-beam riding guided system is likely to have smaller shape and very light.

  17. Collection of summaries of reports on result of research at basic experiment device for nuclear fusion reactor blanket design, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report meeting was held on May 22, 1995 at University of Tokyo by about 40 participants. As the topics on the fusion reactor engineering research in Japan, lectures were given on the present state and future of nuclear fusion networks and on the strong magnetic field tokamak using electromagnetic force-balanced coils being planned. Thereafter, the reports of the results of the researches which were carried out by using this experimental facility were made, centering around the subject related to the future conception 'The interface properties of fusion reactor materials and particle transport control'. The publication was made on the future conception of the basic experiment setup for fusion reactor blanket design, the application of high temperature superconductors to the advancement of nuclear fusion reactors, the modeling of the dynamic irradiation behavior of fusion reactor materials, the interface particle behavior in plasma-wall interaction, the behavior of tritium on the surface of breeding materials, and breeding materials and the behavior of tritium in plasma-wall interaction. (K.I.)

  18. Report of the 1991 workshop on particle-material interactions for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Workshop on Particle-Material Interactions in the Working Group of the Research Committee on A and M Data was held at the head-quarters of JAERI, Tokyo, on December 12-13, 1991. The purpose of the Workshop was to obtain future prospects for the activities of the Working Group, by discussing current states and problems in the research on particle-material interactions relevant to the thermocontrolled fusion. The present report contains 16 papers presented at the Workshop, which are mainly concerned with plasma-facing materials in ITER, radiation damage in carbon materials, trapping, emission and permeation of hydrogen in metals, and heavy ion-solid surface interactions. (author)

  19. Drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Drivers for Inertial Confinement Fusion, held in Paris, November 14-18, 1994, more than 80 physicists came from 12 countries to present and discuss their research. This conference treated of programmatic and topical overviews, glass lasers, gas lasers, ion beams and pulsed power. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  20. Web-based (HTML5) interactive graphics for fusion research and collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Interactive data visualization is supported via the Web without a browser plugin and provides users easy, real-time access to data of different types from various locations. ► Crosshair, zoom, pan as well as toggling dimensionality and a slice bar for multi-dimensional data are available. ► Data with PHP API can be applied: MDSplus and SQL have been tested. ► Modular in design, this has been deployed to support both the experimental and the simulation research arenas. - Abstract: With the continuing development of web technologies, it is becoming feasible for websites to operate a lot like a scientific desktop application. This has opened up more possibilities for utilizing the web browser for interactive scientific research and providing new means of on-line communication and collaboration. This paper describes the research and deployment for utilizing these enhanced web graphics capabilities on the fusion research tools which has led to a general toolkit that can be deployed as required. It allows users to dynamically create, interact with and share with others, the large sets of data generated by the fusion experiments and simulations. Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), a general-purpose scripting language for the Web, is used to process a series of inputs, and determine the data source types and locations to fetch and organize the data. Protovis, a Javascript and SVG based web graphics package, then quickly draws the interactive graphs and makes it available to the worldwide audience. This toolkit has been deployed to both the simulation and experimental arenas. The deployed applications will be presented as well as the architecture and technologies used in producing the general graphics toolkit.

  1. Web-based (HTML5) interactive graphics for fusion research and collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, E.N., E-mail: kimny@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Schissel, D.P.; Abla, G.; Flanagan, S.; Lee, X. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactive data visualization is supported via the Web without a browser plugin and provides users easy, real-time access to data of different types from various locations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosshair, zoom, pan as well as toggling dimensionality and a slice bar for multi-dimensional data are available. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data with PHP API can be applied: MDSplus and SQL have been tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modular in design, this has been deployed to support both the experimental and the simulation research arenas. - Abstract: With the continuing development of web technologies, it is becoming feasible for websites to operate a lot like a scientific desktop application. This has opened up more possibilities for utilizing the web browser for interactive scientific research and providing new means of on-line communication and collaboration. This paper describes the research and deployment for utilizing these enhanced web graphics capabilities on the fusion research tools which has led to a general toolkit that can be deployed as required. It allows users to dynamically create, interact with and share with others, the large sets of data generated by the fusion experiments and simulations. Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), a general-purpose scripting language for the Web, is used to process a series of inputs, and determine the data source types and locations to fetch and organize the data. Protovis, a Javascript and SVG based web graphics package, then quickly draws the interactive graphs and makes it available to the worldwide audience. This toolkit has been deployed to both the simulation and experimental arenas. The deployed applications will be presented as well as the architecture and technologies used in producing the general graphics toolkit.

  2. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, Frederick W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Noe, Susan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the ORNL fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing DOE Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger U.S. and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.

  3. Study of beam transport lines for a biomedical research facility at CERN based on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, D; Garonna, A; Peach, K

    2014-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN has been proposed to provide ion beams with magnetic rigidities up to 6.7 T.m for biomedical research, in parallel to its continued operation for LHC and SPS fixed target physics experiments. In the context of this project, two beamlines are proposed for transporting the extracted beam to future experimental end-stations: a vertical beamline for specific low-energy radiobiological research, and a horizontal beamline for radiobiology and medical physics experimentation. This study presents a first linear-optics design for the delivery of 1–5mm FWHM pencil beams and 5 cm 5 cm homogeneous broad beams to both endstations. High field uniformity is achieved by selection of the central part of a strongly defocused Gaussian beam, resulting in low beam utilisation.

  4. Annual report of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1, 1987 to March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Naka Fusion Research Establishment for the period of April 1987 to March 1988 are described. In JT-60, the plasma heating experiment aiming at a reactor-grade plasma was started in June 1987, after completing the integrated performance test of NBI and RF heating systems with the tokamak machine, most of the first wall being replaced to carbon tiles from titanium-carbide films. Enphasis was placed in the experiment on increasing the plasma current together with the optimization of plasma control and heating. The steady improvement of plasma performance lead finally in September reactor-grade plasma parameters, which were located inside the region depicted by the Atomic Energy Commission at the start of the JT-60 project. In JFT-2M and Doublet III-D, extensive experiments revealed detailed phenomenology of H-mode transition and its characteristics. The test of a prototype turbo molecular pump with a ceramic rotor driven by gas turbine was successfully completed. In the development of negative ion sources, steady improvement was made in the efficiency of negative ion formation and beam extraction. In the RF technology, test-fabricated 120 GHz gyrotron worked well. The Demo Poloidal Coil program was progressed as scheduled. The coils, two NbTi and one Nb3Sn, were under fabrication. The large cryogenic system was completed by sharing the JT-60 power supply. In the Tritium Process Laboratory, installation into glove boxes was completed in March 1988 of various experimental apparatus, i.e., fuel clean-up system, cryogenic distillation and thermal diffusion systsms for hydrogen isotope separation etc. In the reactor design study, recapitulation and review of FER design for last two years were made. (author)

  5. Modeling of the cross-beam energy transfer with realistic inertial-confinement-fusion beams in a large-scale hydrocode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-01-01

    A method for modeling realistic laser beams smoothed by kinoform phase plates is presented. The ray-based paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) model with Gaussian thick rays allows one to create intensity variations, or pseudospeckles, that reproduce the beam envelope, contrast, and high-intensity statistics predicted by paraxial laser propagation codes. A steady-state cross-beam energy-transfer (CBET) model is implemented in a large-scale radiative hydrocode based on the PCGO model. It is used in conjunction with the realistic beam modeling technique to study the effects of CBET between coplanar laser beams on the target implosion. The pseudospeckle pattern imposed by PCGO produces modulations in the irradiation field and the shell implosion pressure. Cross-beam energy transfer between beams at 20(∘) and 40(∘) significantly degrades the irradiation symmetry by amplifying low-frequency modes and reducing the laser-capsule coupling efficiency, ultimately leading to large modulations of the shell areal density and lower convergence ratios. These results highlight the role of laser-plasma interaction and its influence on the implosion dynamics. PMID:25679718

  6. Annual report of the Fusion Research and Development Center for the period of April 1, 1981 to March 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development activities of the Fusion Research and Development Center (Division of Thermonuclear Fusion Research and Division of Large Tokamak Development) from April 1981 to March 1982 are described. Emphasis in the JFT-2 and Doublet III Tokamak programs was placed on high-power heating experiments. JFT-2M, which is to replace JFT-2, is in fabrication and will be operational in early 1983. Construction of JT-60 progressed as planned with its completion targeted in March 1985. In fusion technology programs development of the prototype NBI unit and klystrons for JT-60 made satisfactory progress; particularly rewarding was the demonstration of full capability of the NBI prototype unit in March 1982. The Japanese coil for the IEA Large Coil Task was completed and passed the cooldown test in the domestic test facility. Activities in the design of the near-term FER and INTOR and the power reactor were continued. (author)

  7. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramian, A J; Deri, R J; Erlandson, A C

    2011-02-24

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  8. Development of a Cost-Effective Design for the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) is one of the components of a US Next Step Options (NSO) study which is considering what major experiments might be undertaken in a restructured US Fusion Sciences Program. FIRE is designed for a plasma current of ∼6.5 MA, a burn time of at least 10 s, and a Q in the range of 5 to 10. FIRE has a major radius of 2.0 m, a minor radius of 0.525 m, and a field on axis of 10T. All of the coils are inertially cooled by liquid nitrogen. FIRE will operate primarily in a double null configuration with an x-point triangularity of 0.8 and an x-point elongation of 2.2. In addition to these technical requirements, a major goal for the FIRE project is for a total project cost of approximately $1B (in FY 99 dollars). This paper describes the process and rationale for the engineering design chosen for FIRE, taking into account both the performance and cost goals

  9. Survey of Laser Markets Relevant to Inertial Fusion Energy Drivers, information for National Research Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a new technology for commercial application can be significantly accelerated by leveraging related technologies used in other markets. Synergies across multiple application domains attract research and development (R and D) talent - widening the innovation pipeline - and increases the market demand in common components and subsystems to provide performance improvements and cost reductions. For these reasons, driver development plans for inertial fusion energy (IFE) should consider the non-fusion technology base that can be lveraged for application to IFE. At this time, two laser driver technologies are being proposed for IFE: solid-state lasers (SSLs) and KrF gas (excimer) lasers. This document provides a brief survey of organizations actively engaged in these technologies. This is intended to facilitate comparison of the opportunities for leveraging the larger technical community for IFE laser driver development. They have included tables that summarize the commercial organizations selling solid-state and KrF lasers, and a brief summary of organizations actively engaged in R and D on these technologies.

  10. Compendium of computer codes for the researcher in magnetic fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.D. (ed.)

    1989-03-10

    This is a compendium of computer codes, which are available to the fusion researcher. It is intended to be a document that permits a quick evaluation of the tools available to the experimenter who wants to both analyze his data, and compare the results of his analysis with the predictions of available theories. This document will be updated frequently to maintain its usefulness. I would appreciate receiving further information about codes not included here from anyone who has used them. The information required includes a brief description of the code (including any special features), a bibliography of the documentation available for the code and/or the underlying physics, a list of people to contact for help in running the code, instructions on how to access the code, and a description of the output from the code. Wherever possible, the code contacts should include people from each of the fusion facilities so that the novice can talk to someone ''down the hall'' when he first tries to use a code. I would also appreciate any comments about possible additions and improvements in the index. I encourage any additional criticism of this document. 137 refs.

  11. Induction linac drivers for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program of the US Dept. of Energy has for several years concentrated on developing linear induction accelerators as Inertial Fusion (IF) drivers. This accelerator technology is suitable for the IF application because it is readily capable of accelerating short, intense pulses of charged particles with good electrical efficiency. The principal technical difficulty is in injecting and transporting the intense pulses while maintaining the necessary beam quality. The approach used has been to design a system of multiple beams so that not all of the charge has to be confined in a single beam line. The beams are finally brought together in a common focus at the target. The status and future plans of the program are briefly presented and systems study results for HIF are briefly reviewed. (author)

  12. Annual report on major results and progress of Fusion Research and Development Directorate of JAEA from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This annual report provides an overview of major results and progress on research and development (R and D) activities at Fusion Research and Development Directorate of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) from April 1, 2006 to March 31, 2007, including those performed in collaboration with other research establishments of JAEA, research institutes, and universities. In JT-60, as a result of ferritic steel tiles (FSTs) installation to reduce the toroidal field ripple and the application of the real time current profile control, high boot strap current fraction (∼0.7) has successfully been sustained about 8 s. In addition, the conceptual design of JT-60SA, which was placed as a combined project of JA-EU Satellite Tokamak Programme under the Broader Approach Programme and JAEA's programme for national use, was progressed. In theoretical and analytical researches, studies on ITB events and their triggers, plasma shape effect on edge stability and driven magnetic island evolution in rotating plasmas were progressed. In the NEXT project, computer simulations of the plasma turbulence were progressed. In fusion reactor technologies, R and Ds for ITER and fusion DEMO plants have been carried out. For ITER, a steady state operation of the 170GHz gyrotron up to 10min with 0.82MW was demonstrated. Also current density of the neutral beam injector has been extended to 146A/m2 at 0.84MeV. In the ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM), designs and R and Ds of Water and Helium Cooled Solid Breeder TBMs including tritium breeder/multiplier materials were progressed. Tritium processing technology for breeding blankets and neutronics integral experiments with a blanket mockup were also progressed. For ITER and DEMO blankets, studies on neutron irradiation effects and ion irradiation effects on F82H steel characteristics were continued using HFIR, TIARA and so on. In the IFMIF program, transitional activities to EVEDA were continued. In the ITER Program, under the framework of the ITER

  13. Analysis of tritium production in TRIGA Mark II reactor at JSI for the needs of fusion research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jazbec, Anze; Zerovnik, Gasper; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-12-15

    In future, electricity could be produced in fusion power plants. One of the steps towards development of fusion power plants is the construction of an experimental fusion reactor ITER where deuterium (D) and tritium (T) will be fused and energy will be released. As natural concentrations of T are extremely low, the T as fusion fuel will have to be produced artificially. A series of calculations were made to investigate the possibility of producing small quantities of T for experimental fusion reactors such as JET and ITER in a small research reactor like the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI). The T production is the largest if all irradiation channels in reactor's reflector are filled with LiAlO{sub 2} samples. When samples are inserted, the excess reactivity decreases by around 200 pcm. In the second part of the work an estimate was made of how long the reactor can operate with current fuel supplies. Calculations were made with the TRIGLAV computer code. TRIGA can operate at full power for at least 2,860 days, during which 152 mg of T could be produced. We conclude that small TRIGA reactors can not produce any significant quantities of T for the needs of the future experimental fusion reactors. (orig.)

  14. Second Symposium on ``Current trends in international fusion research: review and assessment`` Chairman`s summary of session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R.F.

    1998-02-26

    This session began with a keynote speech by B. Coppi of M.I.T., entitled: ``Physics of Fusion Burning Plasmas, Ignition, and Relevant Technology Issues.`` It continued with a second paper on the tokamak approach to fusion, presented by E. Mazzucato of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, entitled ``High Confinement Plasma Confinement Regime in TFTR Configurations with Reversed Magnetic Shear.`` The session continued with three talks discussing various aspects of the so-called ``Field Reversed Configuration`` (FRC), and concluded with a talk on a more general topic. The first of the three FRC papers, presented by J. Slough of the University of Washington, was entitled ``FRC Reactor for Deep Space Propulsion.`` This paper was followed by a paper by S. Goto of the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Osaka University in Japan, entitled ``Experimental Initiation of Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) Toward Helium-3 Fusion.`` The third of the FRC papers, authored by H. Mimoto and Y. Tomito of the National Institute for Fusion Science, Nagoya, Japan, and presented by Y. Tomita was entitled ``Helium-3 Fusion Based on a Field-Reversed Configuration.`` The session was concluded with a paper presented by D. Ryutov of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory entitled: ``A User Facility for Research on Fusion Systems with Dense Plasmas.``

  15. Analysis of tritium production in TRIGA Mark II reactor at JSI for the needs of fusion research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In future, electricity could be produced in fusion power plants. One of the steps towards development of fusion power plants is the construction of an experimental fusion reactor ITER where deuterium (D) and tritium (T) will be fused and energy will be released. As natural concentrations of T are extremely low, the T as fusion fuel will have to be produced artificially. A series of calculations were made to investigate the possibility of producing small quantities of T for experimental fusion reactors such as JET and ITER in a small research reactor like the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Jozef Stefan Institute (JSI). The T production is the largest if all irradiation channels in reactor's reflector are filled with LiAlO2 samples. When samples are inserted, the excess reactivity decreases by around 200 pcm. In the second part of the work an estimate was made of how long the reactor can operate with current fuel supplies. Calculations were made with the TRIGLAV computer code. TRIGA can operate at full power for at least 2,860 days, during which 152 mg of T could be produced. We conclude that small TRIGA reactors can not produce any significant quantities of T for the needs of the future experimental fusion reactors. (orig.)

  16. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research. Annual Report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the 1994 annual report describing the scientific activity of the Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Material Research (Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, FZR). This institute is devoted to the application of ion beams for the modification and analysis of near-surface layers of solids. (MSA)

  17. Report of the second joint Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Materials. July 12, 2002, Tokyo, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Joint research committees in purpose of the discussion on DEMO blanket in view point of the both of reactor technology and materials were held by the Research Committee for Fusion Reactor and Fusion Materials. The joint research committee was held in Tokyo on July 12, 2002. In the committee, the present status of development of solid and liquid breeding blanket, the present status of development of reduced activation structure materials, and IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility) program were discussed based on the discussions of the development programs of the blanket and materials at the first joint research committee. As a result, it was confirmed that high electric efficiency with 41% would be obtained in the solid breeding blanket system, that neutron radiation data of reduced activation ferritic steel was obtained by HFIR collaboration, and that KEP (key element technology phase) of IFMIF would be finished at the end of 2002 and the data base for the next step, i.e. EVEDA (engineering validation/engineering design activity) was obtained. In addition, the present status of ITER CTA, which was a transient phase for the construction, and the outline of ITER Fast Track, which was an accelerated plan for the performance of the power plants, were reported. This report consists of the summary of the discussion and the viewgraphs which were used at the second joint research committee, and these are very useful for the researchers of the fusion area in Japan. (author)

  18. Nuclear fusion systems analysis research. FY 1975 annual report, 1 July 1974--30 June 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherwax, R.K. (ed.)

    1975-12-31

    This report summarizes research conducted during FY 1975 on the parametric systems analysis of fusion central power stations. As described in the report the methodology being pursued provides for a phased analysis starting with simple ''nominal'' parameters and associated computer codes and progressing to more complex functional models and then to physically based mathematical models for the systems of major significance in future power station viability. The nominal parameter analysis for preliminary screening only derives from consideration of extant reactor point designs and defines a nominal 5000 MWt reactor with either a 900 or 1250 K peak blanket coolant temperature. Functionalized performance and cost models are described for helium Brayton cycle, steam Rankine cycle and binary cycle electric power generation systems.

  19. Safety Culture and Best Practices at Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, Keith [PPPL

    2014-05-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).

  20. Safety Culture And Best Practices At Japan's Fusion Research Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rule, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, NJ (United States); King, M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Takase, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Oshima, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Sukegawa, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The Safety Monitor Joint Working Group (JWG) is one of the magnetic fusion research collaborations between the US Department of Energy and the government of Japan. Visits by occupational safety personnel are made to participating institutions on a biennial basis. In the 2013 JWG visit of US representatives to Japan, the JWG members noted a number of good safety practices in the safety walkthroughs. These good practices and safety culture topics are discussed in this paper. The JWG hopes that these practices for worker safety can be adopted at other facilities. It is a well-known, but unquantified, safety principle that well run, safe facilities are more productive and efficient than other facilities (Rule, 2009). Worker safety, worker productivity, and high quality in facility operation all complement each other (Mottel, 1995).