WorldWideScience

Sample records for beam filamentation instability

  1. FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY OF LASER BEAMS IN NONLOCAL NONLINEAR MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文双春; 范滇元

    2001-01-01

    The filamentation instability of laser beams propagating in nonlocal nonlinear media is investigated. It is shown that the filamentation instability can occur in weakly nonlocal self-focusing media for any degree of nonlocality, and in defocusing media for the input light intensity exceeding a threshold related to the degree of nonlocality. A linear stability analysis is used to predict the initial growth rate of the instability. It is found that the nonlocality tends to suppress filamentation instability in self-focusing media and to stimulate filamentation instability in self-defocusing media. Numerical simulations confirm the results of the linear stability analysis and disclose a recurrence phenomenon in nonlocal self-focusing media analogous to the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem.

  2. Current filamentation model for the Weibel/Filamentation instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Chang-Mo; Huynh, Cong Tuan; Kim, Chul Min

    2016-10-01

    A current filamentaion model for a nonrelativistic plasma with e +/e- beam has been presented together with PIC simulations, which can explain the mangetic field enhancement during the Weibel/ Filamentation instabilities. This filament model assumes the Hammer-Rostoker equilibrium. In addition, this model predicts preferential acceleration/deceleration for electron-ion plasmas depending on the injected beam to be e +/e-.

  3. Spatial-temporal evolution of the current filamentation instability

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, V B; Stockem, A; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

    2015-01-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of the purely transverse current filamentation instability is analyzed by deriving a single partial differential equation for the instability and obtaining the analytical solutions for the spatially and temporally growing current filament mode. When the beam front always encounters fresh plasma, our analysis shows that the instability grows spatially from the beam front to the back up to a certain critical beam length; then the instability acquires a purely temporal growth. This critical beam length increases linearly with time and in the non-relativistic regime it is proportional to the beam velocity. In the relativistic regime the critical length is inversely proportional to the cube of the beam Lorentz factor $\\gamma_{0b}$. Thus, in the ultra-relativistic regime the instability immediately acquires a purely temporal growth all over the beam. The analytical results are in good agreement with multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations performed with OSIRIS. Relevance of curr...

  4. Controlling multiple filaments by relativistic optical vortex beams in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, L. B.; Huang, T. W.; Xiao, K. D.; Wu, G. Z.; Yang, S. L.; Li, R.; Yang, Y. C.; Long, T. Y.; Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Qiao, B.; Ruan, S. C.; Zhou, C. T.

    2016-09-01

    Filamentation dynamics of relativistic optical vortex beams (OVBs) propagating in underdense plasma is investigated. It is shown that OVBs with finite orbital angular momentum (OAM) exhibit much more robust propagation behavior than the standard Gaussian beam. In fact, the growth rate of the azimuthal modulational instability decreases rapidly with increase of the OVB topological charge. Thus, relativistic OVBs can maintain their profiles for significantly longer distances in an underdense plasma before filamentation occurs. It is also found that an OVB would then break up into regular filament patterns due to conservation of the OAM, in contrast to a Gaussian laser beam, which in general experiences random filamentation.

  5. Filamentation instability in two counter-streaming laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Dong, Quan-Li; Yuan, Da-Wei; Liu, Xun; Hua, Neng; Qiao, Zhan-Feng; Zhu, Bao-Qiang; Zhu, Jian-Qiang; Jiang, Bo-Bin; Du, Kai; Tang, Yong-Jian; Zhao, Gang; Yuan, Xiao-Hui; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-12-01

    The filamentation instability was observed in the interaction of two counter-streaming laser ablated plasma flows, which were supersonic, collisionless, and also closely relevant to astrophysical conditions. The plasma flows were created by irradiating a pair of oppositely standing plastic (CH) foils with 1ns-pulsed laser beams of total energy of 1.7 kJ in two laser spots. With characteristics diagnosed in experiments, the calculated features of Weibel-type filaments are in good agreement with measurements. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11074297, 11674146, and 11220101002) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01500.

  6. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vishnu M Bannur

    2001-10-01

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability. It contains new, nonelectromagnetic, neutrino-plasma (or electroweak) stable and unstable modes also. The growth of the instability is weak for the highly relativistic neutrino flux, but becomes stronger for weakly relativistic neutrino flux in the case of parameters appropriate to the early universe and supernova explosions. However, this mode is dominant only for the beam velocity greater than 0.25 and in the other limit electroweak unstable mode takes over.

  7. The role of collisions in the laser filamentation and Weibel instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; Trines, R.; Norreys, P.; Cairns, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-10-01

    We report on two instabilities that are associated with inertial fusion, namely the laser filamentation instability and the Weibel instability that can filament the relativistic electron beam in fast ignition. We look at the role collisions have in these instabilities. First we consider the filamentation instability of lasers in high Z plasmas typical of hohlraum targets. The wavelength dependence of the two principal laser filamentation mechanisms, namely the ponderomotive force and Joule heating, are examined and deductions are made of their relative importance for current holhraum experiments. The Joule heating mechanism is important for short wavelengths and high Z materials while the ponderomotive force becomes more important for longer wavelengths and low Z materials. The high Z targets are susceptible to thermal filamentation, creating non-uniform plasmas. The effect of plasma density and laser bandwidth is also examined and reported on. In fast ignition, we show that the Weibel instability growth rate, which drives the filamentation of a relativistic electron beam, is reduced when collisions are considered.

  8. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  9. Filamentation due to the Weibel Instability in two counterstreaming laser ablated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quan-Li; Yuan, Dawei; Gao, Lan; Liu, Xun; Chen, Yangao; Jia, Qing; Hua, Neng; Qiao, Zhanfeng; Chen, Ming; Zhu, Baoqiang; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhao, Gang; Ji, Hantao; Sheng, Zheng-Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Weibel-type filamentation instability was observed in the interaction of two counter streaming laser ablated plasma flows, which were supersonic, collisionless, and closely relevant to astrophysical conditions. The plasma flows were created by irradiating a pair of oppositely standing plastic (CH) foils with 1ns-pulsed laser beams of total energy of 1.7 kJ in two laser spots. With characteristics diagnosed in experiments, the calculated features of Weibel-type filaments are in good agreement with measurements.

  10. Conformations, hydrodynamic interactions, and instabilities of sedimenting semiflexible filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Saggiorato, G; Winkler, R G; Gompper, G

    2015-01-01

    The conformations and dynamics of semiflexible filaments subject to a homogeneous external (gravitational) field, e.g., in a centrifuge, are studied numerically and analytically. The competition between hydrodynamic drag and bending elasticity generates new shapes and dynamical features. We show that the shape of a semiflexible filament undergoes instabilities as the external field increases. We identify two transitions that correspond to the excitation of higher bending modes. In particular, for strong fields the filament stabilizes in a non-planar shape, resulting in a sideways drift or in helical trajectories. For two interacting filaments, we find the same transitions, with the important consequence that the new non-planar shapes have an effective hydrodynamic repulsion, in contrast to the planar shapes which attract themselves even when their osculating planes are rotated with respect to each other. For the case of planar filaments, we show analytically and numerically that the relative velocity is not n...

  11. Three-dimensional simulations of viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional Langrangian integral method is used to simulate the elastic end-plate instability that occurs in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is demonstrated that the upper convected Maxwell model describes the essential features of the instabi...

  12. Kinetic effects in the transverse filamentation instability of pair plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Angelo M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the filamentation instability produced by two counter-streaming pair plasmas is studied with particle-in-cell (PIC simulations in both one (1D and two (2D spatial dimensions. Radiation friction effects on particles are taken into account. During the nonlinear stage of the instability, a strong broadening of the particle energy spectrum occurs accompanied by the formation of a peak at twice their initial energy. A simple theory of the peak formation is presented. The presence of radiative losses does not change the dynamics of the instability but affects the structure of the particle spectra.

  13. Free-Space Nonlinear Beam Combining Towards Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Shermineh; Kepler, Daniel; Baudelet, Matthieu; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Richardson, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Multi-filamentation opens new degrees of freedom for manipulating electromagnetic waves in air. However, without control, multiple filament interactions, including attraction, repulsion or fusion often result in formation of complex disordered filament distributions. Moreover, high power beams conventionally used in multi-filament formation experiments often cause significant surface damage. The growing number of applications for laser filaments requires fine control of their formation and propagation. We demonstrate, experimentally and theoretically, that the attraction and fusion of ultrashort beams with initial powers below the critical value enable the eventual formation of a filament downstream. Filament formation is delayed to a predetermined distance in space, avoiding optical damage to external beam optics while still enabling robust filaments with controllable properties as if formed from a single high power beam. This paradigm introduces new opportunities for filament engineering eliminating the nee...

  14. Particle accelerations and current structures of Weibel and Filamentation instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, C. M.; Huynh, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Particle accelerations of the Wibel instability (WI) and the Filamentation instability(FI) are studied by using PIC simuations, comparing them side-by-side. Although two instabilities are almost identical in the linear growth phase, significant differences are found in the nonlinear phase in their particle accelerations and current structures. The FI shows enhanced electron acceleration, whereas particle acceleration is almost absent in the WI. The different particle accelerations between the FI and the WI seem to be associated with their different current structures; a hollow electron current structure for the FI and a center filled current structure for that of the WI. Different electron distributions seem to bring in different current filament structures, eventually leading to different magnetic characteristics.

  15. Filamentation instability of counter-streaming laser-driven plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A; Chang, P -Y; Germaschewski, K; Hu, S X; Nilson, P M

    2013-01-01

    Filamentation due to the growth of a Weibel-type instability was observed in the interaction of a pair of counter-streaming, ablatively-driven plasma flows, in a supersonic, collisionless regime relevant to astrophysical collisionless shocks. The flows were created by irradiating a pair of opposing plastic (CH) foils with 1.8 kJ, 2-ns laser pulses on the OMEGA EP laser system. Ultrafast laser-driven proton radiography was used to image the Weibel-generated electromagnetic fields. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the analytical theory of the Weibel instability and with particle-in-cell simulations.

  16. Filamentation Instability of Counterstreaming Laser-Driven Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Chang, P.-Y.; Germaschewski, K.; Hu, S. X.; Nilson, P. M.

    2013-11-01

    Filamentation due to the growth of a Weibel-type instability was observed in the interaction of a pair of counterstreaming, ablatively driven plasma flows, in a supersonic, collisionless regime relevant to astrophysical collisionless shocks. The flows were created by irradiating a pair of opposing plastic (CH) foils with 1.8 kJ, 2-ns laser pulses on the OMEGA EP Laser System. Ultrafast laser-driven proton radiography was used to image the Weibel-generated electromagnetic fields. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the analytical theory of the Weibel instability and with particle-in-cell simulations.

  17. Beam Instabilities in the Scale Free Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Folli, Viola; Conti, Claudio; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.033901

    2012-01-01

    The instabilities arising in a one-dimensional beam sustained by the diffusive photorefractive nonlinearity in out-of-equilibrium ferroelectrics are theoretically and numerically investigated. In the "scale-free model", in striking contrast with the well-known spatial modulational instability, two different beam instabilities dominate: a defocusing and a fragmenting process. Both are independent of the beam power and are not associated to any specific periodic pattern.

  18. Study of filamentation instability on the divergence of ultraintense laser-driven electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, X H; Xu, H; Ge, Z Y; Shao, F Q; Borghesi, M; Ma, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Generation of relativistic electron (RE) beams during ultraintense laser pulse interaction with plasma targets is studied by collisional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Strong magnetic field with transverse scale length of several local plasma skin depths, associated with RE currents propagation in the target, is generated by filamentation instability (FI) in collisional plasmas, inducing a great enhancement of the divergence of REs compared to that of collisionless cases. Such effect is increased with laser intensity and target charge state, suggesting that the RE divergence might be improved by using low-Z materials under appropriate laser intensities in future fast ignition experiments and in other applications of laser-driven electron beams.

  19. Filamentation instability of current-driven dust ion-acoustic waves in a collisional dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Haghtalab, T.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, Birjand University, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    A theoretical investigation has been made of the dust ion-acoustic filamentation instability in an unmagnetized current-driven dusty plasma by using the Lorentz transformation formulas. The effect of collision between the charged particles with neutrals and their thermal motion on this instability is considered. Developing the filamentation instability of the current-driven dust ion-acoustic wave allows us to determine the period and the establishment time of the filamentation structure and threshold for instability development.

  20. Filamentation instability of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir; Rastbood, E. [Physics Department of Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities of nonextensive current-driven plasma in the ion acoustic frequency range have been studied using the Lorentz transformation formulas. Based on the kinetic theory, the possibility of filamentation instability and its growth rate as well as the ion acoustic instability have been investigated. The results of the research show that the possibility and growth rate of these instabilities are significantly dependent on the electron nonextensive parameter and drift velocity. Besides, the increase of electrons nonextensive parameter and drift velocity lead to the increase of the growth rates of both instabilities. In addition, the wavelength region in which the filamentation instability occurs is more stretched in the presence of higher values of drift velocity and nonextensive parameter. Finally, the results of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities have been compared and the conditions for filamentation instability to be dominant mode of instability have been presented.

  1. Summary of impedance issues and beam instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the session on impedance issues and beam instabilities at the ICFA workshop on future circular electron-positron factories “eeFACT2016” [1] held at the Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, from 24 to 27 October 2016. This session also covered active beam stabilization by feedback systems. Beam-beam effects and coherent beambeam instabilities were addressed separately and, therefore, are not included here.

  2. Quantum effects in beam-plasma instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, A

    2015-01-01

    Among the numerous works on quantum effects that have been published in recent years, streaming instabilities in plasma have also been revisited. Both the fluid quantum and the kinetic Wigner-Maxwell models have been used to explore quantum effects on the Weibel, Filamentation and Two-Stream instabilities. While quantum effects usually tend to reduce the instabilities, they can also spur new unstable branches. A number of theoretical results will be reviewed together with the implications to one physical setting, namely the electron driven fast ignition scenario.

  3. THREE-BEAM INSTABILITY IN THE LHC*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    In the LHC, a transverse instability is regularly observed at 4TeV right after the beta-squeeze, when the beams are separated by about their ten transverse rms sizes [1-3], and only one of the two beams is seen as oscillating. So far only a single hypothesis is consistent with all the observations and basic concepts, one about a third beam - an electron cloud, generated by the two proton beams in the high-beta areas of the interaction regions. The instability results from a combined action of the cloud nonlinear focusing and impedance.

  4. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  5. On the descriptions of beam instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maillard, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    We investigate two interesting features of beam instabilities in accelerators : First, we provide the equivalence between two models to describe transverse instabilities, the circulant matrix model (based on a longitudinal phase space discretization) and the Vlasov formalism. Secondly, we show how to derive dispersion integrals for transverse detuning effects in the Vlasov formalism, thus allowing for Landau damping mechanism.

  6. Beam instability studies for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.

    1994-09-01

    Beam instability studies of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) during the period 1989--1993 are briefly reviewed in this paper. Various topics are covered: single bunch and multi-bunch, single beam and beam-beam, parasitic heating and active feedback, etc. Although the SSC will not be built, many of the results obtained from these studies remain as useful references to the accelerator community.

  7. Propagation instabilities of high-intensity laser-produced electron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarakis, M; Beg, F N; Clark, E L; Dangor, A E; Edwards, R D; Evans, R G; Goldsack, T J; Ledingham, K W D; Norreys, P A; Sinclair, M A; Wei, M-S; Zepf, M; Krushelnick, K

    2003-05-01

    Measurements of energetic electron beams generated from ultrahigh intensity laser interactions (I>10(19) W/cm(2)) with dense plasmas are discussed. These interactions have been shown to produce very directional beams, although with a broad energy spectrum. In the regime where the beam density approaches the density of the background plasma, we show that these beams are unstable to filamentation and "hosing" instabilities. Particle-in-cell simulations also indicate the development of such instabilities. This is a regime of particular interest for inertial confinement fusion applications of these beams (i.e., "fast ignition").

  8. Effects of filamentation instability on the divergence of relativistic electrons driven by ultraintense laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. H.; Zhuo, H. B.; Xu, H.; Ge, Z. Y.; Shao, F. Q.; Borghesi, M.; Ma, Y. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Generation of relativistic electron (RE) beams during ultraintense laser pulse interaction with plasma targets is studied by collisional particle-in-cell simulations. A strong magnetic field with a transverse scale length of several local plasma skin depths, associated with RE current propagation in the target, is generated by filamentation instability in collisional plasmas, inducing a great enhancement of the divergence of REs compared to that of collisionless cases. Such an effect is increased with laser intensity and target charge state, suggesting that the RE divergence might be improved by using low-Z materials under appropriate laser intensities in future fast ignition experiments and in other applications of laser-driven electron beams.

  9. Collisional effects on the current-filamentation instability in a dense plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Biao; SHENG Zheng-Ming; ZHANG Jie

    2009-01-01

    The collisional current-filamentation instability (CFI) is studied for a nonrelativistic electron beampenetrating an infinite uniform plasma.It is analytically shown that the CFI is driven by the drift-anisotropyrather than the classical anisotropy of the beam and the background plasma.Therefore,collisional effects can either attenuate or enhance the CFI depending on the drift-anisotropy of the beam-plasma system.Numerical results are given for some typical parameters,which show that collisional effects cannot stabilize but enhance the CFI in a dense plasma.Thus,the CFI may play a dominant role in the fast electron transport and deposition relevant to the fast ignition scenario(FIS).

  10. The role of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in filament threads

    CERN Document Server

    Terradas, J; Ballester, J L

    2012-01-01

    Many solar filaments and prominences show short-lived horizontal threads lying parallel to the photosphere. In this work the possible link between Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and thread lifetimes is investigated. This is done by calculating the eigenmodes of a thread modelled as a Cartesian slab under the presence of gravity. An analytical dispersion relation is derived using the incompressible assumption for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) perturbations. The system allows a mode that is always stable, independently of the value of the Alfv\\'en speed in the thread. The character of this mode varies from being localised at the upper interface of the slab when the magnetic field is weak, to having a global nature and resembling the transverse kink mode when the magnetic field is strong. On the contrary, the slab model permits another mode that is unstable and localised at the lower interface when the magnetic field is weak. The growth rates of this mode can be very short, of the order of minutes for typical thr...

  11. Amplification of Weibel instability in the relativistic beam-plasma interactions due to ion streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardaneh, Kazem; Cai, DongSheng; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2014-11-01

    On the basis of a three-dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, we have analyzed the Weibel instability driven by a relativistic electron-ion beam propagating into an unmagnetized ambient electron-ion plasma. The analysis is focused on the ion contribution in the instability, considering the earliest evolution in shock formation. Simulation results demonstrate that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying the small-scale, fluctuating, and dominantly transversal magnetic fields. These magnetic fields deflect particles behind the beam front both perpendicular and parallel to the beam propagation direction. Initially, the incoming electrons respond to field fluctuations growing as the result of the Weibel instability. Therefore, the electron current filaments are generated and the total magnetic energy grows linearly due to the mutual attraction between the filaments, and downstream advection of the magnetic field perturbations. When the magnetic fields become strong enough to deflect the much heavier ions, the ions begin to get involved in the instability. Subsequently, the linear growth of total magnetic energy decreases because of opposite electron-ion currents and topological change in the structure of magnetic fields. The ion current filaments are then merged and magnetic field energy grows more slowly at the expense of the energy stored in ion stream. It has been clearly illustrated that the ion current filaments extend through a larger scale in the longitudinal direction, while extension of the electron filaments is limited. Hence, the ions form current filaments that are the sources of deeply penetrating magnetic fields. The results also reveal that the Weibel instability is further amplified due to the ions streaming, but on a longer time scale. Our simulation predictions are in valid agreement with those reported in the literature.

  12. Collisional effects on the oblique instability in relativistic beam-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, B.; Ding, W. J.; Sheng, Z. M.; Ren, C.; Kong, X.; Mu, J.; Zhang, J.

    2012-07-01

    The general oblique instability for a relativistic electron beam propagating through a warm and resistive plasma is investigated fully kinetically by a variable rotation method. Analysis shows that the electrostatic part of the oblique instability is attenuated and eventually stabilized by collisional effects. However, the electromagnetic part of the oblique instability (EMOI) is enhanced. Since the current-filamentation instability as a special case of the EMOI has a larger growth rate, it becomes dominant in the collisional case as shown in our two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. While the beam diverges in the collisionless case, it can become magnetically collimated in the collisional case due to stabilization of the electrostatic instabilities when the initial beam spreading angle is less than certain magnitude such as a dozen degrees.

  13. Ion sound instability driven by ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarov, O; Kaganovich, I D; Ilgisonis, V I

    2014-01-01

    In many natural and laboratory conditions, plasmas are often in the non-equilibrium state due to presence of stationary flows, when one particle species (or a special group, such as group of high energy particles, i.e. beam) is mowing with respect to the other plasma components. Such situations are common for a number of different plasma application such as diagnostics with emissive plasma probes, plasma electronics devices and electric propulsion devices. The presence of plasma flows often lead to the instabilities in such systems and subsequent development of large amplitude perturbations. The goal of this work is to develop physical insights and numerical tools for studies of stability of the excitation of the ion sound waves by the ion beam in the configuration similar to the plasma Pierce diode. This systems, in some limiting cases, reduce to mathematically similar equations originally proposed for Pierce instability. The finite length effect are crucial for this instability which generally belong to the...

  14. Evidence of locally enhanced target heating due to instabilities of counter-streaming fast electron beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, Petra; Cecchetti, Carlo A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory at INO, CNR, Pisa (Italy); Booth, Nicola; Woolsey, Nigel [Physics Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Chen, Hui [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Evans, Roger G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Gregori, Gianluca; Li, Bin; Mithen, James; Murphy, Christopher D. [Physics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Labate, Luca; Gizzi, Leonida A. [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory at INO, CNR, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Levato, Tadzio [Intense Laser Irradiation Laboratory at INO, CNR, Pisa (Italy); University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Makita, Mikako; Riley, David [Physics Department, Queens University Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Notley, Margaret; Pattathil, Rajeev [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, STFC, Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    The high-current fast electron beams generated in high-intensity laser-solid interactions require the onset of a balancing return current in order to propagate in the target material. Such a system of counter-streaming electron currents is unstable to a variety of instabilities such as the current-filamentation instability and the two-stream instability. An experimental study aimed at investigating the role of instabilities in a system of symmetrical counter-propagating fast electron beams is presented here for the first time. The fast electron beams are generated by double-sided laser-irradiation of a layered target foil at laser intensities above 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2}. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the emission from the central Ti layer shows that locally enhanced energy deposition is indeed achieved in the case of counter-propagating fast electron beams.

  15. Kinetic theory of the filamentation instability in a collisional current-driven plasma with nonextensive distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorashadizadeh, S. M., E-mail: smkhorashadi@birjand.ac.ir; Rastbood, E. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand 97179-63384 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran 19839-63113 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    The evolution of filamentation instability in a weakly ionized current-carrying plasma with nonextensive distribution was studied in the diffusion frequency region, taking into account the effects of electron-neutral collisions. Using the kinetic theory, Lorentz transformation formulas, and Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision model, the generalized dielectric permittivity functions of this plasma system were achieved. By obtaining the dispersion relation of low-frequency waves, the possibility of filamentation instability and its growth rate were investigated. It was shown that collisions can increase the maximum growth rate of instability. The analysis of temporal evolution of filamentation instability revealed that the growth rate of instability increased by increasing the q-parameter and electron drift velocity. Finally, the results of Maxwellian and q-nonextensive velocity distributions were compared and discussed.

  16. Robustness of the filamentation instability for asymmetric plasma shells collision in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    The filamentation instability triggered when two counter streaming plasma shells overlap appears to be the main mechanism by which collisionless shocks are generated. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely suppress this instability. In a recent paper [Phys. Plasmas 18, 080706 (2011)], it was demonstrated in two dimensions that for the case of two cold, symmetric, relativistically colliding shells, such cancellation cannot occur if the field is not perfectly aligned. Here, this result is extended to the case of two asymmetric shells. The filamentation instability appears therefore as an increasingly robust mechanism to generate shocks.

  17. Beam-Ion Instability in PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.; Kulikov, A.; Wang, Min-Huey; Wienands, U.; /SLAC

    2007-11-07

    The instability in the PEP-II electron ring has been observed while reducing the clearing gap in the bunch train. We study the ion effects in the ring summarizing existing theories of the beam-ion interaction, comparing them with observations, and estimating effect on luminosity in the saturation regime. Considering the gap instability we suggest that the instability is triggered by the beam-ion instability, and discuss other mechanisms pertinent to the instability.

  18. Robustness of the filamentation instability as shock mediator in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    The filamentation instability (sometimes also referred to as "Weibel") is a key process in many astrophysical scenario. In the Fireball model for Gamma Ray Bursts, this instability is believed to mediate collisionless shock formation from the collision of two plasma shells. It has been known for long that a flow aligned magnetic field can completely cancel this instability. We show here that in the general case where there is an angle between the field and the flow, the filamentation instability can never be stabilized, regardless of the field strength. The presented model analyzes the stability of two symmetric counter-streaming cold electron/proton plasma shells. Relativistic effects are accounted for, and various exact analytical results are derived. This result guarantees the occurrence of the instability in realistic settings fulfilling the cold approximation.

  19. An important effect of filamentation instability on laser fusion physical processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zunqi; Lin; Anle; Lei; Wei; Fan; Shenlei; Zhou; Li; Wang

    2013-01-01

    The process of high power laser interaction with the large scale length corona plasma produced by the leading edge of the laser pulse has been investigated. Early experimental results are re-analyzed and conclusions drawn. In particular,studies of the close connection of unstable filamentation instability with – mainly – two-plasmon decay and – partly –stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and resonance absorption are carried out in this paper. The positive and negative effects of filamentation instability are also discussed.

  20. Kink instability evidenced by analyzing the leg rotation of a filament

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X L; Liu, J H; Ma, L; Kong, D F; Qu, Z Q; Li, Z

    2014-01-01

    Kink instability is a possible mechanism for solar filament eruption. However, the twist of a solar filament is very difficult to directly measure from observation. In this paper, we carried out the measurement of the twist of a solar filament by analyzing its leg rotation. An inverse S-shaped filament in active region NOAA 11485 was observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on 2012 May 22. During its eruption, the leg of the filament exhibited a significant rotation motion. The 304 \\AA\\ images were used to uncurl along the circles, whose centers are the axis of the filament's leg. The result shows that the leg of the filament rotated up to about 510 degrees (about 2.83$\\pi$) around the axis of the filament within twenty-three minutes. The maximal rotation speed reached 100 degrees per minute (about 379.9 km/s at radius 18$^\\prime$$^\\prime$), which is the fastest rotation speed that has been reported. We also calculated the decay index along the polarity inversion ...

  1. Firing wave instability of the current filaments in a semiconductor. An analogy with neurodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1983-10-01

    Periodic oscillations and chaos have been observed in the firing density wave of the current filaments in n-GaAs at 4.2 K. The mechanism of the firing-wave instability has been discussed by an analogy with neurodynamics.

  2. Instability in the Peeling of a Polymeric Filament from a Rigid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole

    2000-01-01

    The 3D Lagrangian integral method is used to simulate the effects of the rheology on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates.It is shown that strain hardening materials with a negative second normal stress differe...

  3. Suppression of Instabilities and Stochastic Pulsation at Laser-Plasma Interaction by Beam Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Osman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of direct drive laser fusion is the appearance of parametric instabilities, stochastic pulsation, self-focusing (filamentation and other anomalies. During the long years studies, the empirical and intuitively developed methods for smoothing of the laser beam were rather successful but a transparent understanding of the physics has still to be found. The first theory how the instabilities are reduced by smoothing was given recently by using PIG simulation while the suppression of the 10-picosecond stochastic pulsation by broadband laser beams was analyzed by the genuine two fluid models. A synoptic evaluation of these results is presented here where the correlation between the instabilities with the pulsation is evident. This opens new ways for direct drive laser fusion with the fundamental red laser light avoiding expensive and because of crystal defects - unsolved problems with higher harmonic production.

  4. 2-D studies of Relativistic electron beam plasma instabilities in an inhomogeneous plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrashekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [Phys. Rev Letts. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nano tube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and simulations with the help of 2-D Particle - In - Cell code. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/ks...

  5. The Linear Instability of Dilute Ultrarelativistic e ± Pair Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Lamberts, Astrid; Shalaby, Mohamad; Vasil, Geoffrey

    2016-12-01

    The annihilation of TeV photons from extragalactic TeV sources and the extragalactic background light produces ultrarelativistic {e}+/- beams, which are subject to powerful plasma instabilities that sap their kinetic energy. Here we study the linear phase of the plasma instabilities that these pair beams drive. To this end, we calculate the linear growth rate of the beam-plasma and oblique instability in the electrostatic approximation in both the reactive and kinetic regimes, assuming a Maxwell-Jüttner distribution for the pair beam. We reproduce the well-known reactive and kinetic growth rates for both the beam-plasma and oblique mode. We demonstrate for the oblique instability that there is a broad spectrum of unstable modes that grow at the maximum rate for a wide range of beam temperatures and wave-vector orientations relative to the beam. We also delineate the conditions for applicability for the reactive and kinetic regimes and find that the beam-plasma mode transitions to the reactive regime at a lower Lorentz factor than the oblique mode due to a combination of their different scalings and the anisotropy of the velocity dispersions. Applying these results to the ultrarelativistic {e}+/- beams from TeV blazars, we confirm that these beams are unstable to both the kinetic oblique mode and the reactive beam-plasma mode. These results are important in understanding how powerful plasma instabilities may sap the energy of the ultrarelativistic {e}+/- beams as they propagate through intergalactic space.

  6. Rayleigh-Plateau instability of slipping viscous filaments in v-shaped grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Martin; Chan, Tak Shing; Seemann, Ralf

    2016-11-01

    Since the seminal works of Rayleigh and Plateau on the break-up of free-standing liquid jets, a large number of studies have addressed capillary instability of cylindrical interfaces in various settings. Here, we report the numerical results of a linear stability analysis of cylindrical liquid filament wetting v-shaped grooves employing a boundary element formalism. It is found that slip affects the wavelength λmax of the fastest growing mode whenever the transverse dimension W of the filaments is comparable, or smaller than the Navier slip-length B. The corresponding timescale of the decay, τmax, grows logarithmically with increasing B / W . In the opposite limit B / W > 1 are in good agreement with the numerical results only for contact angles 0 < θ - Ψ << 1 where the neutrally stable wavelength λ* <λmax is large compared to the transverse filament dimension W.

  7. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey [Fermilab

    2016-06-23

    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  8. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  9. Effects of electron-cyclotron instabilities on gyrotron beam quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries. It has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D. First results show an electromagnetic backward instability periodically growing and decaying to energy levels close to those obtained from the electrostatic Bernstein wave instability. On the average, the resulting beam degradation is 3 to 4 times larger than that predicted by electrostatic models. (author) 8 figs., 14 refs.

  10. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full three dimensional calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A., E-mail: antoineclaude.bret@uclm.es [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-02-15

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing the most unstable filamentation modes.

  11. Space-Charge Waves and Instabilities in Intense Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. G.

    1997-11-01

    Advancced accelerator applications, such as drivers for heavy ion inertial fusion, high-intensity synchrotrons for spallation neutron sources, high energy boosters, free electron lasers, high-power microwave generators, etc., require ever-increasing beam intensity. An important beam dynamics issue in such beams is the collective behavior of charged particles due to their space charge effects. This includes the phenomena of space-charge waves and instabilities excited on beams by external perturbations. It is very crucial to fully understand these phenomena in order to develop advanced accelerators for various applications. At the University of Maryland we have been conducting experimental programs to study space-charge waves and longitudinal instabilities by employing low-energy, high-current, space-charge dominated electron beams. Localized perturbations on the beams are generated from a gridded electron gun. In a conducting transport channel focused by short solenoids, these perturbations evolve into space-charge waves propagating on the beams. The wave speed is measured and many beam parameters are determined with this technique. The reflection of space-charge waves at the shoulder of an initially rectangular beam bunch is also observed. In a resistive-wall channel focused by a uniform long solenoid, the space-charge waves suffer longitudinal instability. The properties of the instabilities are studied in detail in the long wavelength range. In this talk we review our experimental results on the waves and instabilities and compare with theory.

  12. Extension of filament propagation in water with Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Bessel-Gaussian beams with different numbers of radial modal lobes. The transverse modes of the incident Bessel-Gaussian beam were created from a Gaussian beam of a Ti:sapphire laser system by using computer generated hologram techniques. We found that filament propagation length increased with increasing number of lobes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central peak of the incident beam, suggesting that the radial modal lobes may serve as an energy reservoir for the filaments formed by the central intensity peak.

  13. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  14. Space- and time-resolved observation of single filaments propagation in an underdense plasma and of beam coupling between neighbouring filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, J [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Nakatsutsumi, M [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Marques, J-R [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Antici, P [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Bourgeois, N [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Grech, M [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Lin, T [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadephia, PA 19111-2497 (United States); Romagnani, L [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Tikhonchuk, V [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Weber, S [CELIA, UMR 5107 Universite Bordeaux 1-CNRS-CEA, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Kodama, R [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Audebert, P [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2007-12-15

    We have performed a systematic study of beam propagation (400 ps, I = 10{sup 10}-10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2}) in underdense plasmas (n{sub e} = 10{sup 19}-10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) at a level of reduced complexity compared with the smoothed beams currently used in inertial confinement fusion studies, using one or two well-controlled filaments. These experiments have been performed on the LULI 100 TW laser facility. The use of well-controlled, diffraction-limited single filaments is possibly due to the use of adaptative optics. We have used either a single filament or two filaments having variable distance, delay, intensity ratio and polarization. The single filament configuration allows to study basic beam propagation and reveals occurrence of filamentation at low intensity levels. The use of two filaments demonstrates the occurrence of beam coupling and merging, and the importance of cross-talk effects supported by the plasma.

  15. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  16. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of beam instabilities in gyrotron beam tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, T.M.; Jost, G.; Appert, K.; Sauter, O. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuthrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-10-01

    Experimental observations seem to indicate that the beam velocity and energy spreads are larger than those calculated from the electron trajectory codes which do not take into account the effects of beam instabilities. On the other hand, parasitic oscillations of the beam with frequencies close to the electron cyclotron frequency {omega}{sub ce} have been observed experimentally, suggesting the possibility that instabilities can be excited in the beam tunnels and are responsible for the beam degradation. 2D electrostatic and electromagnetic time-dependent PIC codes have been developed to simulate the beam transport in the beam tunnel. The results of extensive parametric runs, using these codes (which were ported on the Cray T3D massively parallel computer), together with the role of the beam instabilities around {omega}{sub ce} on the beam degradation will be reported. (author) 2 figs., 9 refs.

  17. Robustness of the filamentation instability in arbitrarily oriented magnetic field: Full 3D calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The filamentation (Weibel) instability plays a key role in the formation of collisionless shocks which are thought to produce Gamma-Ray-Bursts and High-Energy-Cosmic-Rays in astrophysical environments. While it has been known for long that a flow-aligned magnetic field can completely quench the instability, it was recently proved in 2D that in the cold regime, such cancelation is possible if and only if the field is perfectly aligned. Here, this result is finally extended to a 3D geometry. Calculations are conducted for symmetric and asymmetric counter-streaming relativistic plasma shells. 2D results are retrieved in 3D: the instability can never be completely canceled for an oblique magnetic field. In addition, the maximum growth-rate is always larger for wave vectors lying in the plan defined by the flow and the oblique field. On the one hand, this bears consequences on the orientation of the generated filaments. On the other hand, it certifies 2D simulations of the problem can be performed without missing ...

  18. Optical beam dynamics in a gas repetitively heated by femtosecond filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Jhajj, N; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M

    2013-01-01

    We investigate beam pointing dynamics in filamentation in gases driven by high repetition rate femtosecond laser pulses. Upon suddenly exposing a gas to a kilohertz train of filamenting pulses, the filament is steered from its original direction to a new stable direction whose equilibrium is determined by a balance among buoyant, viscous, and diffusive processes in the gas. Results are shown for Xe and air, but are broadly applicable to all configurations employing high repetition rate femtosecond laser propagation in gases.

  19. Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huashun; Jiang, Jiasheng

    2017-02-01

    Beam deflection induced by E×B near a linear filament cathode in a two grid electron gun is presented theoretically and experimentally. The experimental results are consistent with the calculation based on the theoretical equations. The influences upon performance and design of electron gun with linear filament cathode, which is used broadly in electrocurtain accelerators, are discussed in detail.

  20. Stabilization of beam-weibel instability by equilibrium density ripples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. K., E-mail: nishfeb@gmail.com; Kaw, Predhiman; Das, A.; Sengupta, S. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Ravindra Kumar, G. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2014-01-15

    In this paper, we present an approach to achieve suppression/complete stabilization of the transverse electromagnetic beam Weibel instability in counter streaming electron beams by modifying the background plasma with an equilibrium density ripple, shorter than the skin depth; this weakening is more pronounced when thermal effects are included. On the basis of a linear two stream fluid model, it is shown that the growth rate of transverse electromagnetic instabilities can be reduced to zero value provided certain threshold values for ripple parameters are exceeded. We point out the relevance of the work to recent experimental investigations on sustained (long length) collimation of fast electron beams and integral beam transport for laser induced fast ignition schemes, where beam divergence is suppressed with the assistance of carbon nano-tubes.

  1. Simulation Study of Magnetic Fields generated by the Electromagnetic Filamentation Instability driven by Pair Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Hededal, C.; Hardee, P.; Mizuno, Y.; Fishman, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Using a 3-D relativistic particle-in-cell (RPIC) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic electron-positron (cold) jet propagating into ambient electron-positron and electron-ion plasmas without initial magnetic fields in order to investigate the nonlinear stage of the Weibel instability. We have also performed simulations with broad Lorentz factor distribution of jet electrons and positrons, which are assumed to be created by the photon annihilation. The growth time and nonlinear saturation levels depend on the initial jet parallel velocity distributions and ambient plasma. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shocks accelerates jet and ambient particles both perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. The nonlinear fluctuation amplitude of densities, currents, electric, and magnetic fields in the electron-ion ambient plasma are larger than those in the electron-positron ambient plasma. We have shown that plasma instabilities driven by these streaming electron-positron pairs are responsible for the excitation of near-equipartition, turbulent magnetic fields. These fields maintain a strong saturated level on timescales much longer than the electron skin depth at least for the duration of the simulations. Our results reveal the importance of the electromagnetic filamentation instability in ensuring an effective coupling between electron-positron pairs and ions, and may help explain the origin of large upstream fields in GRB shock.

  2. PIC simulations of the trapped electron filamentation instability in finite-width electron plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winjum, B. J.; Banks, J. W.; Berger, R. L.; Cohen, B. I.; Chapman, T.; Hittinger, J. A. F.; Rozmus, W.; Strozzi, D. J.; Brunner, S.

    2012-10-01

    We present results on the kinetic filamentation of finite-width nonlinear electron plasma waves (EPW). Using 2D simulations with the PIC code BEPS, we excite a traveling EPW with a Gaussian transverse profile and a wavenumber k0λDe= 1/3. The transverse wavenumber spectrum broadens during transverse EPW localization for small width (but sufficiently large amplitude) waves, while the spectrum narrows to a dominant k as the initial EPW width increases to the plane-wave limit. For large EPW widths, filaments can grow and destroy the wave coherence before transverse localization destroys the wave; the filaments in turn evolve individually as self-focusing EPWs. Additionally, a transverse electric field develops that affects trapped electrons, and a beam-like distribution of untrapped electrons develops between filaments and on the sides of a localizing EPW. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Laboratory Research and Development Program at LLNL under project tracking code 12-ERD-061. Supported also under Grants DE-FG52-09NA29552 and NSF-Phy-0904039. Simulations were performed on UCLA's Hoffman2 and NERSC's Hopper.

  3. Luminosity Loss due to Beam Distortion and the Beam-Beam Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Juhao; Raubenheimer, Tor O; Seryi, Andrei; Sramek, Christopher K

    2005-01-01

    In a linear collider, sources of emittance dilution such as transverse wakefields or dispersive errors will couple the vertical phase space to the longitudinal position within the beam (the so-called ‘banana effect'). When the Intersection Point (IP) disruption parameter is large, these beam distortions will be amplified by a single bunch kink instability which will lead to luminosity loss. We study this phenomena both analytically using linear theory and via numerical simulation. In particular, we examine the dependence of the luminosity loss on the wavelength of the beam distortions and the disruption parameter. This analysis may prove useful when optimizing the vertical disruption parameter for luminosity operation with given beam distortions.

  4. BEPCII Injector Linac Upgrade and Beam Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shu-Hong; GENG Zhe-Qiao; PEI Shi-Lun; DENG Bing-Lin; CHEN Zhi-Bi; PEI Guo-Xi; CHI Yun-Long; CHEN Yan-Wei; CAO Jian-She; KONG Xiang-Cheng; ZHAO Feng-Li; HOU Mi; LIU Wei-Bin

    2008-01-01

    The upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) and its injector linac is working well.The linac upgrade aims at a higher injection rate of 50 mA/min into the storage ring,which requires an injected beam with low emittance,low energy spread and high beam orbit and energy stabilities. This goal is finally reached recently by upgrading the linac components and by dealing with rich and practical beam physics,which are described in this study.

  5. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  6. Instability Versus Equilibrium Propagation of Laser Beam in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.; Rose, Harvey A.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam, that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and non-equilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtain...

  7. Multidimensional electron beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime

    OpenAIRE

    BRET, ANTOINE; Gremillet, Laurent; Dieckmann, Mark Eric

    2010-01-01

    The interest in relativistic beam-plasma instabilities has been greatly rejuvenated over the past two decades by novel concepts in laboratory and space plasmas. Recent advances in this long-standing field are here reviewed from both theoretical and numerical points of view. The primary focus is on the two-dimensional spectrum of unstable electromagnetic waves growing within relativistic, unmagnetized, and uniform electron beam-plasma systems. Although the goal is to provide a unified picture ...

  8. Thermal Instability with Anisotropic Thermal Conduction and Adiabatic Cosmic Rays: Implications for Cold Filaments in Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the cores of nearby galaxy clusters show H$\\alpha$ and molecular emission line filaments. We argue that these are the result of {\\em local} thermal instability in a {\\em globally} stable galaxy cluster core. We present local, high resolution, two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of thermal instability for conditions appropriate to the intracluster medium (ICM); the simulations include thermal conduction along magnetic field lines and adiabatic cosmic rays. Thermal conduction suppresses thermal instability along magnetic field lines on scales smaller than the Field length ($\\gtrsim$10 kpc for the hot, diffuse ICM). We show that the Field length in the cold medium must be resolved both along and perpendicular to the magnetic field in order to obtain numerically converged results. Because of negligible conduction perpendicular to the magnetic field, thermal instability leads to fine scale structure in the perpendicular direction. Filaments of cold gas along magnetic field lines are thu...

  9. Ion-Beam-Excited, Electrostatic, Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  10. Ion-Beam-Excited Electrostatic Ion Cyclotron Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    The stability limits of the ion‐beam‐excited, electrostatic, ion cyclotron instability were investigated in a Q‐machine plasma where the electrons could be heated by microwaves. In agreement with theory, the beam energy necessary for excitation decreased with increasing electron temperature....

  11. Nonlinear Evolution of the Ion-Ion Beam Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The criterion for the existence of vortexlike ion phase-space configurations, as obtained by a standard pseudopotential method, is found to coincide with the criterion for the linear instability for two (cold) counterstreaming ion beams. A nonlinear equation is derived, which demonstrates...

  12. Suppression of Beam-Ion Instability in Electron Rings with Multi-Bunch Train Beam Fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Cai, Y.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC; Fukuma, H.; /KEK, Tsukuba

    2011-08-18

    The ion-caused beam instability in the future light sources and electron damping rings can be serious due to the high beam current and ultra-small emittance of picometer level. One simple and effective mitigation of the instability is a multi-bunch train beam filling pattern which can significantly reduce the ion density near the beam, and therefore reduce the instability growth rate up to two orders of magnitude. The suppression is more effective for high intensity beams with low emittance. The distribution and the field of trapped ions are benchmarked to validate the model used in the paper. The wake field of ion-cloud and the beam-ion instability is investigated both analytically and numerically. We derived a simple formula for the build-up of ion-cloud and instability growth rate with the multi-bunch-train filling pattern. The ion instabilities in ILC damping ring, SuperKEKB and SPEAR3 are used to compare with our analyses. The analyses in this paper agree well with simulations.

  13. Instability versus equilibrium propagation of a laser beam in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, Pavel M; Rose, Harvey A

    2004-06-25

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtained, which provides an essential correction to a geometric optic approximation for beam propagation.

  14. A Hybrid Mode and a Classification of Beam Plasma Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    classification scheme, based on the beam energy and beam density. This classification identifies the domains for the hybrid mode, the Weibel mode,13 and...the classical two stream instabilities. In that section, we also furnish a simple derivation of the Weibel mode for a relativist..c electron beam...w p which is non-zero. This mode has been called a Weibel mode,1 3𔃻 4 and is predominant in Domain III in the classification shown in Fig. 4. (B2

  15. Ion-Induced Beam Instability in an Electron Storage Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-Jun; JIN Yu-Ming; LI Wei-Min; LIU Zu-Ping

    2000-01-01

    In a small electron storage ring, such as the Hefei Light Source (HLS) ring, the newly generated ions, which can not escape from the beam potential and then are trapped from turn to turn, will lead to the beam instability. The ions created by the leading bunches can perturb the trailing bunches and also themselves during their subsequent passage, which will make the amplitude of beam oscillation be damped and anti-damped periodically. A computer simulation based on the strong-weak model shows a good agreement with our analytical model using the linear theory.

  16. Semiflexible filament networks viewed as fluctuating beam frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianxiang; Purohit, Prashant

    2012-02-01

    We present a new method combining structural and statistical mechanics to study the entropic elasticity of semiflexible filament networks. We view a filament network as a frame structure and use structural mechanics to determine its static equilibrium configuration under applied loads in the first step. To account for thermal motion around this static equilibrium state, we then approximate the potential energy of the deformed frame structure up to the second order in kinematic variables and obtaina deformation-dependent stiffness matrix characterizing the flexibility of the network. Using statistical mechanics, we then evaluate the partition function, free energy and thermo-mechanical properties of the network in terms of the stiffness matrix. We show that penalty methods commonly used in finite elements to account for constraints, are applicable even when statistical and structural mechanics are combined in our method. We apply our framework to understand the expansion, shear, uniaxial tension and compression behavior of some simple filament networks. We are able to capture the stress-stiffening behavior due to filament reorientation and stretching out of thermal fluctuations, as well as the reversible stress-softening behavior due to filament buckling.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics of the ion Weibel-filamentation instability: An analytical model for the evolution of the plasma and spectral properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyer, C., E-mail: charles.ruyer@polytechnique.edu; Gremillet, L., E-mail: laurent.gremillet@cea.fr; Debayle, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Bonnaud, G. [CEA, Saclay, INSTN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2015-03-15

    We present a predictive model of the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability induced by two symmetric, counter-streaming ion beams in the non-relativistic regime. This self-consistent model combines the quasilinear kinetic theory of Davidson et al. [Phys. Fluids 15, 317 (1972)] with a simple description of current filament coalescence. It allows us to follow the evolution of the ion parameters up to a stage close to complete isotropization, and is thus of prime interest to understand the dynamics of collisionless shock formation. Its predictions are supported by 2-D and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations of the ion Weibel instability. The derived approximate analytical solutions reveal the various dependencies of the ion relaxation to isotropy. In particular, it is found that the influence of the electron screening can affect the results of simulations using an unphysical electron mass.

  18. Nonlinear dynamics of the ion Weibel-filamentation instability: an analytical model for the evolution of the plasma and spectral properties

    CERN Document Server

    Ruyer, C; Debayle, A; Bonnaud, G

    2015-01-01

    We present a predictive model of the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability induced by two symmetric, counter-streaming ion beams in the non-relativistic regime. This self-consistent model combines the quasilinear kinetic theory of Davidson et al. [Phys. Fluids 15, 317 (1972)] with a simple description of current filament coalescence. It allows us to follow the evolution of the ion parameters up to a stage close to complete isotropization, and is thus of prime interest to understand the dynamics of collisionless shock formation. Its predictions are supported by 2-D and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations of the ion Weibel instability. The derived approximate analytical solutions reveal the various dependencies of the ion relaxation to isotropy. In particular, it is found that the influence of the electron screening can affect the results of simulations using an unphysical electron mass.

  19. Analysis of beam plasma instability effects on incoherent scatter spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Diaz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally Enhanced Ion Acoustic Lines (NEIALs detected with Incoherent Scatter Radars (ISRs can be produced by a Langmuir decay mechanism, triggered by a bump on tail instability. A recent model of the beam-plasma instability suggests that weak-warm beams, such those associated with NEIAL events, might produce Langmuir harmonics which could be detected by a properly configured ISR. The analysis performed in this work shows that such a beam-driven wave may be simultaneously detected with NEIALs within the baseband signal of a single ISR. The analysis shows that simultaneous detection of NEIALs and the first Langmuir harmonic is more likely than simultaneous detection of NEIALs and enhanced plasma line. This detection not only would help to discriminate between current NEIAL models, but could also aid in the parameter estimation of soft precipitating electrons.

  20. Two-dimensional studies of relativistic electron beam plasma instabilities in an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-11-15

    Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation, etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [G. Chatterjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nanotube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/k{sub s} of the inhomogeneous plasma is less than the typical plasma skin depth (c/ω{sub 0}) scale. At such small scale lengths channelization of currents is also observed in simulation.

  1. Instabilities in Beam-Plasma Waves in a Model of the Beam-Driven FRC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, Bradley Scott; Necas, Ales; Tajima, Toshi; Tri Alpha Energy Team

    2016-10-01

    Using a semi-analytic solver, the kinetic properties of plasma waves are analyzed in various regimes in the presence of a beam. This analysis is done to model the strong beam-driven Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasma kinetic instabilities in the neighborhood of the ion cyclotron frequency. As the frequency is relatively high, and wavelength small, the plasma is taken to be local and thus homogeneous, comprised of bulk ions, electrons, and beam ions, with a uniform background magnetic field. The beam ions are given an azimuthal drift velocity with respect to the magnetic field, but otherwise have various Maxwellian velocity distributions. First, the magnetic field is varied to create regimes of low and high β, and the mode structures are compared. The low- β case (corresponding to the scrape-off layer and near the separatrix) features primarily the beam-driven ion Bernstein instability. The high- β case (the core of FRC) is primarily electromagnetic and features the AIC instability when temperature anisotropy is included. The most unstable modes are incited by near-perpendicular beam injection with respect to the magnetic field. Finally, the results of the semi-analytic solver are compared with those from the EPOCH PIC code to evaluate the influence of nonlinear effects. This theoretical modeling was used in conjunction with EPOCH to investigate the beam driven instabilities in Tri Alpha Energy's C-2U experiment.

  2. Instability of Annular Beam with Finite Thickness in Dielectric-Loaded Cylindrical Waveguide

    OpenAIRE

    Tamura, Shusuke; Yamakawa, Mitsuhisa; Takashima, Yusuke; Ogura, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    The cherenkov and slow cyclotron instabilities driven by an axially injected electron beam in a cylindrical waveguide are studied using a new version of the self-consistent linear theory considering three-dimensional beam perturbations. There are three kinds of models for beam instability analysis, which are based on a cylindrical solid beam, an infinitesimally thin annular beam, and a finitely thick annular beam. Among these models, the beam shape properly representing the often used actual ...

  3. Studies of longitudinal instability with an electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    This progress report covers the research on the 'Study of Longitudinal Instability with an Electron Beam' performed at the University of Maryland during the period from September 1, 1993 to February 28, 1994 of the two-year grant sponsored by the Department of Energy, under Grant No. DEFG02-92ER54178. This research is motivated by the issue of longitudinal instability in induction linacs as drivers for heavy ion inertial fusion. The Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) in its final report to DOE (September 1990) identified longitudinal instability as a key physics problem that needs to be solved if an induction linac is to be developed into a successful HIF driver. The FPAC report also stated that 'in parallel' to the design and construction of ILSE 'enhanced theoretical and experimental efforts are required for an improved understanding of potentially serious longitudinal beam instability issues'. The experiment with electron beams in this area is a low-cost way to gain a thorough understanding of the instability and to test computer codes in collaboration with LBL, LLNL, and I. Haber at NRL. The last six months saw the transition of the research activities from phase 1 to phase 2. By the end of last September, the experiments on space-charge waves had been completed. This had fulfilled the first year's goal of this two-year grant. Though the completion of the experiments was one month later than that scheduled and the data analysis still continues up to now, the authors have done much more than was originally proposed.

  4. Collective instabilities and collisional effects for space charge dominated beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)]. E-mail: benedetti@bo.infn.it; Turchetti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper is organized into two parts. In the first one we analyze the equipartitioning process in the presence of collisions for a Gaussian anisotropic beam. Far from instabilities the equipartition process can be described correctly by using Landau's collisional theory, whereas when the dynamics of the system is strongly nonlinear (e.g. in the vicinity of a resonance) a hybrid dynamical-collisional equipartition mechanism occurs. In the second part of the paper we discuss shortly a systematic study of the collective instabilities in a symmetric periodic focusing channel for a KV beam by using the moments method. We emphasize differences occurring when the periodic focusing lattice is replaced by the corresponding constant focusing one.

  5. Beam instability in 980-nm power lasers: Experiment and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James; Tan, G. L.; Ohkubo, M.; Fukushima, T.; Ikegami, Y.; Ijichi, T.; Irikawa, M.; Mand, R. S.; Xu, J. M.

    1994-12-01

    A theoretical analysis of beam instability (steering), commonly observed in high power ridge waveguide laser diodes is presented. A physical model of multiple interfering lateral modes is proposed and implemented in a two-dimensional self-consistent numerical code. It is shown that the dynamic evolution of the effective waveguide and the coherent lasing of emergent multiple lateral modes of the waveguide under high injection could lead to beam steering and knees in the fiber coupled L-I characteristics. The theory of simultaneous lasing and interaction between several lateral modes is found to be consistent with the observed back-plane radiation image.

  6. Parametric instabilities in an electron beam plasma system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakach, R.; Cuperman, S.; Gell, Y.; Levush, B.

    1981-08-01

    The excitation of low-frequency parametric instabilities by a finite wavelength pump in a system consisting of a warm electron plasma traversed by a warm electron beam is investigated in a fluid dissipationless model. The dispersion relation for the three-dimensional problem in a magnetized plasma with arbitrary directions for the waves is derived, and the one-dimensional case is analyzed numerically. For the one-dimensional back-scattering decay process, it is found that when the plasma-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup p/) is larger than the beam-electron Debye length (lambda/sub D//sup b/), two low-frequency electrostatic instability branches with different growth rates may exist simultaneously. When lambda/sub D//sup p/approx. =lambda/sub D//sup b/, the large growth rate instability found in the analysis depends strongly on the amplitude of the pump field. For the case lambda/sub D//sup p/instability branch is generally excited.

  7. Summary of Impedance Issues and Beam Instabilities Proc. eeFACT2016 Daresbury, UK, October 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the session on impedance issues and beam instabilities at the ICFA workshop on future circular electron-positron factories "eeFACT2016" held at the Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, from 24 to 27 October 2016. This session also covered active beam stabilization by feedback systems. Beam-beam effects and coherent beam-beam instabilities were addressed separately and, therefore, are not included here.

  8. Dual-scale turbulence in filamenting laser beams at high average power

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Elise; Mongin, Denis; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Metzger, Thomas; Michel, Knut

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the self-induced turbulence of high repetition rate laser filaments over a wide range of average powers (1 mW to 100 W) and its sensitivity to external atmospheric turbulence. Although both externally-imposed and self-generated turbulences can have comparable magnitudes, they act on different temporal and spatial scales. While the former drives the shot-to-shot motion at the millisecond time scale, the latter acts on the 0.5 s scale. As a consequence, their effects are decoupled, preventing beam stabilization by the thermally-induced low-density channel produced by the laser filaments.

  9. Recent progresses in relativistic beam-plasma instability theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bret

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Beam-plasma instabilities are a key physical process in many astrophysical phenomena. Within the fireball model of Gamma ray bursts, they first mediate a relativistic collisionless shock before they produce upstream the turbulence needed for the Fermi acceleration process. While non-relativistic systems are usually governed by flow-aligned unstable modes, relativistic ones are likely to be dominated by normally or even obliquely propagating waves. After reviewing the basis of the theory, results related to the relativistic kinetic regime of the poorly-known oblique unstable modes will be presented. Relevant systems besides the well-known electron beam-plasma interaction are presented, and it is shown how the concept of modes hierarchy yields a criterion to assess the proton to electron mass ratio in Particle in cell simulations.

  10. Understanding the beam self-cleaning behavior of ultrashort laser pulse filamentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU WeiWei; See Leang Chin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report a recent study on the beam self-cleaning behavior occurred during the ultrashort laser pulse filamentation process. The propagation of a Gaussian beam with distorted beam profile is numerically simulated based on the nonlinear wave equation. Our results demonstrate that when the power is not too high so that multiple filaments are not yet induced, the intensity perturbation contained in the initial beam profile could be treated as high order spatial modes superpositioning on a fundamental mode. Then the self-focusing of the laser beam acts as a spatial filter. It focuses the fundamental mode toward the propagation axis, and produces a fundamental mode profile at the self-focus. While the strong diffraction of higher order modes could not be counteracted by the self-focusing. Therefore their propagation is mainly governed by the divergence without destroying the high profile quality at the self-focal region. These lead to the observation of beam profile self-cleaning behavior.

  11. Understanding the beam self-cleaning behavior of ultrashort laser pulse filamentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    See; Leang; Chin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we report a recent study on the beam self-cleaning behavior occurred during the ultrashort laser pulse filamentation process. The propagation of a Gaussian beam with distorted beam profile is numerically simulated based on the nonlinear wave equation. Our results demonstrate that when the power is not too high so that multiple filaments are not yet induced, the intensity perturbation con-tained in the initial beam profile could be treated as high order spatial modes su-perpositioning on a fundamental mode. Then the self-focusing of the laser beam acts as a spatial filter. It focuses the fundamental mode toward the propagation axis, and produces a fundamental mode profile at the self-focus. While the strong diffraction of higher order modes could not be counteracted by the self-focusing. Therefore their propagation is mainly governed by the divergence without de-stroying the high profile quality at the self-focal region. These lead to the observa-tion of beam profile self-cleaning behavior.

  12. A study of spatial phenomena in semiconductor lasers: Beam filamentation and optical feedback effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciante, John Robert

    1997-10-01

    In an effort to improve the performance of high-power semiconductor lasers to meet the demands of applications, this thesis contains work studying the issues which limit their performance: beam filamentation and spatial feedback effects. Through computer simulations, we investigate the role of three nonlinear mechanisms which can lead to filamentation, and determine the stability boundaries of the material parameters for which the device will not exhibit filamentary tendencies. We use an analytic theory to verify these findings, and to predict the spatio- temporal nature of the filaments through an analytic expression for the gain, in which contributions of the various mechanisms can clearly be seen. We experimentally verify the spatio-temporal characteristics of the filaments, discover effects of the stripe width and transitions to chaos, and discuss how to compare the relative severity of filamentation among different devices. We propose a new method of controlling filamentation using below-bandgap semiconductor nonlinearities. With simulations, we determine under what conditions this imposed nonlinearity can counteract the carrier-induced self-focusing inside the active region. We fabricate a prototype device using new epitaxial layers containing the below-bandgap nonlinearities, and compare the performance of these new devices to a control set. In studying the spatial effects of optical feedback, we use Fresnel diffraction theory to derive an expression for the field that is reflected back into the laser. This result is applied to our computer model and used to explore the effects of feedback on narrow-stripe, broad- area, and tapered-stripe semiconductor lasers. Re- examining feedback in narrow-stripe devices through experiments and analytic theory, we investigate the coupling effects between the narrow waveguide and the feedback field, and the changes in the operating characteristics of the laser due to this coupling. We experimentally examine the beam

  13. Kerr self-defocusing of multiple filaments in TW peak power UV laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvorykin, V. D.; Goncharov, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Ryabchuk, S. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Shutov, A. V.; Smetanin, I. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ustinovskii, N. N.

    2016-12-01

    An effective suppression of multiple filamentation of the sub-TW peak power supercritical laser beam in xenon gas was demonstrated in direct amplification of subpicosecond UV pulses at Ti:sapphire/KrF laser facility GARPUN-MTW. A large negative nonlinear refractive index due to a two-photon resonance of KrF laser radiation with Xe 6p{{≤ft[1/2\\right]}0} state ensured Kerr self-defocusing of a few hundred filaments with a local peak intensity of ~0.2 TW cm-2, 200-fold higher than the average one over the beam cross section, and thus homogenized the laser beam. UV filaments in Xe produced a narrow-angle monochromatic coherent cone emission at 828 nm wavelength due to stimulated hyper-Raman scattering and amplified spontaneous emission at the transition 6p{{≤ft[1/2\\right]}0}\\to 6s≤ft[3/2\\right]10 .

  14. A comparative study of the filamentation and two-stream instabilities in weakly relativistic counter-streaming plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanalilu, M.; Sadegzadeh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Counter-streaming plasma structures are ubiquitous in astrophysical sources of non-thermal radiations. We discuss the dispersion properties and the stability of this non-thermal particle distribution, which is modeled on the basis of the relativistic Jüttner-Maxwell distribution function in the correct laboratory frame of reference. In this work, we aim to construct analytical solutions of the dispersion relations and investigate the properties of the growth rate of the filamentation and two-stream instabilities in an unmagnetized and homogeneous counter-propagating plasma. The Maxwell and the relativistic Vlasov equations are used to derive the covariant dispersion relations that are valid in any (conveniently chosen) reference frame. Aperiodic solutions ( ℜ(ω)≃0 ) to the covariant dispersion relations of the growing modes ( ℑ(ω)>0 ) are demonstrated with the aid of analytical calculations. The dependence of the growth rate on the normalized bulk velocity β0=V0/c and thermal parameter μ=m c2/KBT is shown in graphic illustrations. We found that for both kinds of instabilities, growth rates are decreased by increasing the temperature and decreasing the bulk velocity. Therefore, the electrons at sufficiently low temperatures and with relativistic streams are capable of increasing the range of unstable wave numbers and consequently prevent the instability to cease at small wave numbers. The results indicate that under the same condition and in contrast to the non-relativistic regime, the filamentation instability has the largest growth rate and the electrostatic two-stream instability is in the next place.

  15. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  16. Filamentation of an annular laser beam with a vortex phase dislocation in fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, E. V.; Shlenov, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    The filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse in fused silica has been numerically investigated for the case of an annular beam with a phase singularity at a wavelength of 800 {\\text{nm}}. The spatiotemporal propagation dynamics of the pulse and the transformation of its frequency-angular spectra are analysed. It is shown that a tubular structure with a radius of 3 - 4 \\unicode{956}{\\text{m}}, peak intensity of about 2.4 × 1013 {\\text{W cm}}-2, and maximum plasma density on the order of 1020 {\\text{cm}}-3 is formed in the nonlinear focus; the length of this structure significantly exceeds the waist length in the linear case. The results of the analysis are compared with the data obtained for an annular beam free of phase dislocations and for a Gaussian beam.

  17. Thermal effects in the dissipative instability of the electron beam-plasma systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Research Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha, PO Box 55134-44, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, PO Box 19395-1795, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: b-shokri@cc.sbu.ac.ir; Khorashadizadeh, S.M. [Physics Department of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department of Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-04-10

    The effects of the thermal motion of the charged particles in the dissipative instability of the under and over-limiting currents of a relativistic electron beam in a fully magnetized beam-plasma waveguide is investigated. It is shown that by increasing the temperature of the plasma electrons, the resonant frequency of the waveguide slightly increases and the growth rates of the instability development decreases. In addition, an increase of the temperature of the plasma electron can change the dissipative hydrodynamic instability to the collisionless kinetic instability. Furthermore, the dissipative instability of the overlimiting electron beam is shown to be more sensitive with respect to the electron plasma temperature compared to the underlimiting electron beam case.

  18. Capillary focusing close to topographic step: Shape and instability of confined liquid filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, M; Seemann, R; Kondic, L

    2014-01-01

    Step-emulsification is a microfluidic technique for droplet generation which relies on the abrupt decrease of the confinement of a liquid filament surrounded by a continuous phase. A striking feature of this geometry is the transition between two distinct droplet breakup regimes at a critical capillary number. We present experimental results on the shape of the filament for a wide range of capillary numbers and compare the results with numerical simulations. The computational framework also captures the transition between two breakup regimes, offering a deeper understanding of the underlying breakup mechanism.

  19. Hose Instability and Wake Generation By An Intense Electron Beam in a Self-Ionized Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, S.; Barnes, C.D.; Clayton, C.E.; O' Connell, C.; Decker, F.J.; Fonseca, R.A.; Huang, C.; Hogan, M.J.; Iverson, R.; Johnson, D.K.; Joshi, C.; Katsouleas, T.; Krejcik,; Lu, W.; Mori, W.B.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.; Tsung, F.; Walz, D.; Zhou, M.; /Southern California U. /UCLA /SLAC

    2006-04-12

    The propagation of an intense relativistic electron beam through a gas that is self-ionized by the beam's space charge and wakefields is examined analytically and with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Instability arises from the coupling between a beam and the offset plasma channel it creates when it is perturbed. The traditional electron hose instability in a preformed plasma is replaced with this slower growth instability depending on the radius of the ionization channel compared to the electron blowout radius. A new regime for hose stable plasma wakefield acceleration is suggested.

  20. The Effect of Nonlinear Landau Damping on Ultrarelativistic Beam Plasma Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Very-high energy gamma-rays from extragalactic sources pair-produce off of the extragalactic background light, yielding an electron-positron pair beam. This pair beam is unstable to various plasma instabilities, especially the "oblique" instability, which can be the dominant cooling mechanism for the beam. However, recently, it has been claimed that nonlinear Landau damping renders it physically irrelevant by reducing the effective damping rate to a low level. Here, we show with numerical calculations that the effective damping rate is $8\\times 10^{-4}$ of the growth rate of the linear instability, which is sufficient for the "oblique" instability to be the dominant cooling mechanism of these pair beams. In particular, we show that previous estimates of this rate ignored the exponential cutoff in the scattering amplitude at large wavenumber and assumed that the damping of scattered waves entirely depends on collisions, ignoring collisionless processes. We find that the total wave energy eventually grows to ap...

  1. Modulation instability of broad optical beams in nonlinear media with general nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongcheng Wang; Weilong She

    2006-01-01

    @@ The modulation instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams is investigated in the frame of generalized Schr(o)dinger equation with the nonlinear term of a general form. General expressions are derived for the dispersion relation, the critical transverse spatial frequency, as well as the instability growth rate.The analysis generalizes the known results reported previously. A detailed discussion on the modulation instability in biased centrosymmetric photorefractive media is also given.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamical simulation of the formation of clumps and filaments in quiescent diffuse medium by thermal instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareing, C. J.; Pittard, J. M.; Falle, S. A. E. G.; Van Loo, S.

    2016-06-01

    We have used the adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamic code, MG, to perform idealized 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations of the formation of clumpy and filamentary structure in a thermally unstable medium without turbulence. A stationary thermally unstable spherical diffuse atomic cloud with uniform density in pressure equilibrium with low density surroundings was seeded with random density variations and allowed to evolve. A range of magnetic field strengths threading the cloud have been explored, from β = 0.1 to 1.0 to the zero magnetic field case (β = ∞), where β is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. Once the density inhomogeneities had developed to the point where gravity started to become important, self-gravity was introduced to the simulation. With no magnetic field, clouds and clumps form within the cloud with aspect ratios of around unity, whereas in the presence of a relatively strong field (β = 0.1) these become filaments, then evolve into interconnected corrugated sheets that are predominantly perpendicular to the magnetic field. With magnetic and thermal pressure equality (β = 1.0), filaments, clouds and clumps are formed. At any particular instant, the projection of the 3D structure on to a plane parallel to the magnetic field, i.e. a line of sight perpendicular to the magnetic field, resembles the appearance of filamentary molecular clouds. The filament densities, widths, velocity dispersions and temperatures resemble those observed in molecular clouds. In contrast, in the strong field case β = 0.1, projection of the 3D structure along a line of sight parallel to the magnetic field reveals a remarkably uniform structure.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of velocity scattering of an anisotropic electron beam by electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. R.; Cowee, M. M.; Liu, K.; Peter Gary, S.; Winske, D.

    2014-04-01

    The velocity space scattering of an anisotropic electron beam (T⊥b/T∥b>1) flowing along a background magnetic field B0 through a cold plasma is investigated using both linear theory and 2D particle-in-cell simulations. Here, ⊥ and ∥ represent the directions perpendicular and parallel to B0, respectively. In this scenario, we find that two primary instabilities contribute to the scattering in electron pitch angle: an electrostatic electron beam instability and a predominantly parallel-propagating electromagnetic whistler anisotropy instability. Our results show that at relative beam densities nb/ne≤0.05 and beam temperature anisotropies Tb ⊥/Tb ∥≤25, the electrostatic beam instability grows much faster than the whistler instabilities for a reasonably fast hot beam. The enhanced fluctuating fields from the beam instability scatter the beam electrons, slowing their average speed and increasing their parallel temperature, thereby increasing their pitch angles. In an inhomogeneous magnetic field, such as the geomagnetic field, this could result in beam electrons scattered out of the loss cone. After saturation of the electrostatic instability, the parallel-propagating whistler anisotropy instability shows appreciable growth, provided that the beam density and late-time anisotropy are sufficiently large. Although the whistler anisotropy instability acts to pitch-angle scatter the electrons, reducing perpendicular energy in favor of parallel energy, these changes are weak compared to the pitch-angle increases resulting from the deceleration of the beam due to the electrostatic instability.

  4. Instability and dynamics of two nonlinearly coupled laser beams in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K; Marklund, M; Stenflo, L; Kourakis, I; Parviainen, M; Dieckmann, M E

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear interaction between two laser beams in a plasma in the weakly nonlinear and relativistic regime. The evolution of the laser beams is governed by two nonlinear Schroedinger equations that are coupled with the slow plasma density response. We study the growth rates of the Raman forward and backward scattering instabilities as well of the Brillouin and self-focusing/modulational instabilities. The nonlinear evolution of the instabilities is investigated by means of direct simulations of the time-dependent system of nonlinear equations.

  5. Carbon doping in molecular beam epitaxy of GaAs from a heated graphite filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R. J.; Nottenberg, R. N.; Schubert, E. F.; Walker, J. F.; Ryan, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon doping of GaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been obtained for the first time by use of a heated graphite filament. Controlled carbon acceptor concentrations over the range of 10 to the 17th-10 to the 20th/cu cm were achieved by resistively heating a graphite filament with a direct current power supply. Capacitance-voltage, p/n junction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements indicate that there is negligible diffusion of carbon during growth and with postgrowth rapid thermal annealing. Carbon was used for p-type doping in the base of Npn AlGaAs/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors. Current gains greater than 100 and near-ideal emitter heterojunctions were obtained in transistors with a carbon base doping of 1 x 10 to the 19th/cu cm. These preliminary results indicate that carbon doping from a solid graphite source may be an attractive substitute for beryllium, which is known to have a relatively high diffusion coefficient in GaAs.

  6. Modulation instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams in biased photorefractive- photovoltaic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ke-Qing; Zhao Wei; Yang Yan-Long; Zhu Xiang-Ping; Li Jin-Ping; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the modulation instability of quasi-plane-wave optical beams in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals by globally treating the space-charge field. The modulation instability growth rate is obtained, which depends on the external bias field, on the bulk photovoltaic effect, and on the ratio of the optical beam's intensity to that of the dark irradiance. Our analysis indicates that this modulation instability growth rate is identical to the modulation instability growth rate studied previously in biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals when the bulk photovoltaic effect is negligible for shorted circuits, and predicts the modulation instability growth rate in open- and closed-circuit photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals when the external bias field is absent.

  7. The Linear Instability of Dilute Ultrarelativistic $e^{\\pm}$ Pair Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Lamberts, Astrid; Shalaby, Mohamad; Vasil, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    The annihilation of TeV photons from extragalactic TeV sources and the extragalactic background light produces ultrarelativistic $e^{\\pm}$ beams, which are subject to powerful plasma instabilities that sap their kinetic energy. Here we study the linear phase of the plasma instabilities that these pair beams drive. To this end, we calculate the linear growth rate of the beam plasma and oblique instability in the electrostatic approximation in both the reactive and kinetic regimes, assuming a Maxwell-J{\\"u}ttner distribution for the pair beam. We reproduce the well-known reactive and kinetic growth rates for both the beam plasma and oblique mode. We demonstrate for the oblique instability that there is a broad spectrum of unstable modes that grow at the maximum rate for a wide range of beam temperatures and wave vector orientations relative to the beam. We also delineate the conditions for applicability for the reactive and kinetic regimes and find that the beam plasma mode transitions to the reactive regime at...

  8. Note on quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Lotov, K V; Mesyats, E A; Snytnikov, A V; Vshivkov, V A

    2014-01-01

    A large number of model particles is shown necessary for quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability with the clouds-in-cells method. The required number of particles scales inversely with the expected growth rate, as in the kinetic regime only a narrow interval of beam velocities is resonant with the wave.

  9. Note on quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotov, K. V.; Timofeev, I. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Mesyats, E. A.; Snytnikov, A. V.; Vshivkov, V. A. [Institute of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Geophysics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    A large number of model particles are shown necessary for quantitatively correct simulations of the kinetic beam-plasma instability with the clouds-in-cells method. The required number of particles scales inversely with the expected growth rate, as only a narrow interval of beam velocities is resonant with the wave in the kinetic regime.

  10. Modulation instability, solitons and beam propagation in spatially nonlocal nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Bang, Ole; Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2004-01-01

    We present an overview of recent advances in the understanding of optical beams in nonlinear media with a spatially nonlocal nonlinear response. We discuss the impact of nonlocality on the modulational instability of plane waves, the collapse of finite-size beams, and the formation and interaction...

  11. Dissipative instability of a highly relativistic electron beam through the excitation of surface waves on a conducting medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, B. [Physics Department and Laser-Plasma Research Institute of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics, P.O. Box 19395-1795, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: b-shokri@cc.sbu.ac.ir; Khorashadizadeh, S.M. [Physics Department of Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department of Birjand University, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-09-19

    The possibility of the dissipative instability of a relativistic electron beam streaming near a conducting medium is investigated. The development of this dissipative beam instability through the surface wave excitation slightly disturbs the beam leading to the slightly heating of the conducting medium.

  12. Experimental Investigation of the End Plate Instability in the Extension of Polymer Melts in a Filament Stretch Rheometer. P.-Y. Longin, H. K. Rasmussen, A. Bach and O. Hassager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Longin, Pierre-Yves; Bach, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We consider here a particular instability, an axis symmetry breaking meniscus instability, that occurs under certain conditions in the transient filament stretching apparatus near the endplates as the plates are separated. Spiegelberg and McKinley [1] investigated this instability development in ...

  13. MHD simulation of the formation of clumps and filaments in quiescent diffuse clouds by thermal instability

    CERN Document Server

    Wareing, C J; Falle, S A E G; Van Loo, S

    2016-01-01

    We have used the AMR hydrodynamic code, MG, to perform 3D MHD simulations of the formation of clumpy and filamentary structure in a thermally unstable medium. A stationary thermally unstable spherical diffuse cloud with uniform density in pressure equilibrium with low density surroundings was seeded with random density variations and allowed to evolve. A range of magnetic field strengths threading the cloud have been explored, from beta=0.1 to beta=1.0 to the zero magnetic field case (beta=infinity), where beta is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. Once the density inhomogeneities had developed to the point where gravity started to become important, self-gravity was introduced to the simulation. With no magnetic field, clumps form within the cloud with aspect ratios of around unity, whereas in the presence of a relatively strong field (beta=0.1) these become filaments, then evolve into interconnected corrugated sheets that are predominantly perpendicular to the magnetic field. With magnetic a...

  14. The thermal instability in a sheared magnetic field - Filament condensation with anisotropic heat conduction. [solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoven, G.; Mok, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The condensation-mode growth rate of the thermal instability in an empirically motivated sheared field is shown to depend upon the existence of perpendicular thermal conduction. This typically very small effect (perpendicular conductivity/parallel conductivity less than about 10 to the -10th for the solar corona) increases the spatial-derivative order of the compressible temperature-perturbation equation, and thereby eliminates the singularities which appear when perpendicular conductivity = 0. The resulting growth rate is less than 1.5 times the controlling constant-density radiation rate, and has a clear maximum at a cross-field length of order 100 times and a width of about 0.1 the magnetic shear scale for solar conditions. The profiles of the observable temperature and density perturbations are independent of the thermal conductivity, and thus agree with those found previously. An analytic solution to the short-wavelength incompressible case is also given.

  15. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  16. THE EFFECT OF NONLINEAR LANDAU DAMPING ON ULTRARELATIVISTIC BEAM PLASMA INSTABILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Philip; Lamberts, Astrid [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald, E-mail: chang65@uwm.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-20

    Very high energy gamma-rays from extragalactic sources produce pairs from the extragalactic background light, yielding an electron-positron pair beam. This pair beam is unstable to various plasma instabilities, especially the ''oblique'' instability, which can be the dominant cooling mechanism for the beam. However, recently, it has been claimed that nonlinear Landau damping renders it physically irrelevant by reducing the effective damping rate to a low level. Here we show with numerical calculations that the effective damping rate is 8 × 10{sup –4} the growth rate of the linear instability, which is sufficient for the ''oblique'' instability to be the dominant cooling mechanism of these pair beams. In particular, we show that previous estimates of this rate ignored the exponential cutoff in the scattering amplitude at large wave numbers and assumed that the damping of scattered waves entirely depends on collisions, ignoring collisionless processes. We find that the total wave energy eventually grows to approximate equipartition with the beam by increasingly depositing energy into long-wavelength modes. As we have not included the effect of nonlinear wave-wave interactions on these long-wavelength modes, this scenario represents the ''worst case'' scenario for the oblique instability. As it continues to drain energy from the beam at a faster rate than other processes, we conclude that the ''oblique'' instability is sufficiently strong to make it the physically dominant cooling mechanism for high-energy pair beams in the intergalactic medium.

  17. Drift-kink instability induced by beam ions in field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Kazumi; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    The drift-kink instability in field-reversed configurations with a beam component is investigated by means of a three-dimensional particle simulation. The unstable mode with the toroidal mode number n=4 grows with the rate {gamma} {approx} 0.1 - 1.0{omega}{sub ci} for a strong beam current and deforms the plasma profile along the beam orbit in the vicinity of the field-null line. This mode is nonlinearly saturated as a result of the relaxation of current profile. Both the saturation level and the growth rate tend to increase as the ratio of the beam current to the plasma current I{sub b}/I{sub p} increases. It is also found that there is a threshold value of the beam velocity {upsilon}{sub b} {approx} {upsilon}{sub Ti} (ion thermal velocity) for the excitation of the instability. (author)

  18. Beam Ion Instability in ILC Damping Ring with Multi-Gas Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lanfa; Pivi, Mauro; /SLAC

    2012-05-30

    Ion induced beam instability is one critical issue for the electron damping ring of the International Linear Collider (ILC) due to its ultra small emittance of 2 pm. The beam ion instability with various beam filling patterns for the latest lattice DTC02 is studied using PIC code. The code has been benchmarked with SPEAR3 experimental data and there is a good agreement between the simulation and observations. It uses the optics from MAD and can handle arbitrary beam filling pattern and vacuum. Different from previous studies, multi-gas species and exact beam filling patterns have been modeled simultaneously in the study. This feature makes the study more realistic. Analyses have been done to compare with the simulations.

  19. Recent studies of the electron cloud induced beam instability at the Los Alamos PSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, Robert James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Crady, Rodney C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaugg, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-09

    Recent beam studies have demonstrated that a stable beam with the standard production bunch width of 290 ns and near the e-p instability threshold will become unstable when the bunch width is shortened significantly. This was not the case years earlier when the ring rf operated at the 72.000 integer subharmonic of the Linac bunch frequency. The present operating frequency is set at the 72.070 non-integer subharmonic and appears to be responsible for the recently observed 'short pulse instability phenomenon'. Experimental characteristics of the short pulse instability are presented along with comparisons to the instability under 72.000 subharmonic operating conditions.

  20. Recent studies of the electron cloud induced beam instability at the Los Alamos PSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macek, Robert James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Crady, Rodney C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rybarcyk, Lawrence J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaugg, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holmes, Jeffrey A [SNS, ORNL

    2011-01-06

    Recent beam studies have demonstrated that a stable beam with the standard production bunch width of 290 ns and near the e-p instability threshold will become unstable when the bunch width is shortened significantly. This was not the case years earlier when the ring rf operated at the 72.000 integer subharmonic of the Linac bunch frequency. The present operating frequency is set at the 72.070 non-integer subharmonic and appears to be responsible for the recently observed 'short pulse instability phenomenon'. Experimental characteristics of the short pulse instability are presented along with comparisons to the instability under 72.000 subharmonic operating conditions.

  1. On the control of filamentation of intense laser beams propagating in underdense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E A

    2005-10-21

    In indirect drive ICF ignition designs, the laser energy is delivered into the hohlraum through the laser entrance holes (LEH), which are sized as small as practicable to minimize X-ray radiation losses. On the other hand, deleterious laser plasma processes, such as filamentation and stimulated back-scatter, typically increase with laser intensity. Ideally, therefore, the laser spot shape should be a close fit to the LEH, with uniform (envelope) intensity in the spot and minimal energy at larger radii spilling onto the LEH material. This keeps the laser intensity as low as possible consistent with the area of the LEH aperture and the power requirements of the design. This can be achieved (at least for apertures significantly larger than the laser's aberrated focal spot) by the use of custom-designed phase plates. However, outfitting the 192 beam (National Ignition facility) NIF laser with multiple sets of phase plates optimized for a variety of different LEH aperture sizes is an expensive proposition. It is thus important to assess the impact on laser-plasma interaction processes of using phase plates with a smaller than optimum focal spot (or even no phase plates at all!) and then de-focusing the beam to expand it to fill the LEH and lower its intensity. We find significant effects from the lack of uniformity of the laser envelope out of the focal plane, from changes in the characteristic sizes of the laser speckle, and on the efficacy of additional polarization and/or SSD beam smoothing. We quantify these effects with analytic estimates and simulations using our laser plasma interaction code pF3D.

  2. Effects of Beam Energy Spread on the Weibel Instability in Fast Ignitor Scenarios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Hong-Bo; ZHU Shao-Ping; ZHENG Chun-Yang; HE Xian-Tu; LI Ji-Wei

    2006-01-01

    The effects of transverse temperature distribution on the Weibel instability in a laser produced plasma are studied analytically by using a three dimensional waterbag model. It is found that the purely transverse Weibel instability can be stabilized for the case in which the electron beam has a more symmetric transverse temperature distribution. This analytical expectation is supported by our two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  3. MD1228: Validation of Single Bunch Stability Threshold & MD1751: Instability Studies with a Single Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; Biancacci, Nicolo; Buffat, Xavier; Iadarola, Giovanni; Lasocha, Kacper; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Levens, Tom; Metral, Elias; Salvant, Benoit; Tambasco, Claudia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    Instabilities were being routinely observed in B1V during ADJUST. The timing of the instabilities has been localised to shortly after the TOTEM bump has been implemented. The result is emittance blowup which can negatively effect the luminosity output of the fill. This MD aimed to rule out possible sources of the instability (i.e. beam-beam effects or electron cloud) by only taking one single beam to 6.5TeV and going through the full machine cycle. After the implementation of the TOTEM bump, a reduction of the octupole current was performed in order to determine if there was a discrepancy in the threshold between simulations and measurement. As a precursor, the results of the End of Fill MD: Validation of Single Bunch Stability Threshold will also be described.

  4. Dynamic Characteristics of Growing Modes of Raman Instability from Intense Laser Beam Propagating Through Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-Bing; CHEN Tao; CHEN Shi-Gang

    2004-01-01

    An essential dispersion relation,which can describe the dynamic properties of stimulated Raman scattering instability as a laser beam propagates through plasmas,is derived analytically.The development of growth mode,angle distribution,and temperature dependence of the instabilities are presented by solving this dispersion relation numerically.A significant dynamic characteristic has been revealed that the temperature increasing of the electron would result in redshift of scattered spectrum at high laser intensities.Furthermore,a novel modulational instability with double-peak temporal structure appears in a limited density region because of the coupling of scattered upshift and downshift waves.

  5. Transverse to longitudinal phase space coupling in an electron beam for suppression of microbunching instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dazhang; Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Gu, Qiang; Zhao, Zhentang

    2016-10-01

    The microbunching instability developed during the beam compression process in the linear accelerator (LINAC) of a free-electron laser (FEL) facility has always been a problem that degrades the lasing performance, and even no FEL is able to be produced if the beam quality is destroyed too much by the instability. A common way to suppress the microbunching instability is to introduce extra uncorrelated energy spread by the laser heater that heats the beam through the interaction between the electron and laser beam, as what has been successfully implemented in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra. In this paper, a simple and effective scheme is proposed to suppress the microbunching instability by adding two transverse gradient undulators (TGU) before and after the magnetic bunch compressor. The additional uncorrelated energy spread and the density mixing from the transverse spread brought up by the first TGU results in significant suppression of the instability. Meanwhile, the extra slice energy spread and the transverse emittance can also be effectively recovered by the second TGU. The magnitude of the suppression can be easily controlled by varying the strength of the magnetic fields of the TGUs. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in the LINAC of an x-ray free-electron laser facility.

  6. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    The proton beam generation and focusing in fast ignition inertial confinement fusion is studied. The spatial and energy spread of the proton beam generated in a laser-solid interaction is increased due to the synergy of Weibel and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. The focal spot radius can reach 100 μm, which is nearly an order of magnitude larger than the optimal value. The energy spread decreases the beam deposition energy in the focal spot. Under these conditions, ignition of a precompressed DT fuel is achieved with the beam powers much higher than the values presently in consideration. Work supported in part by NIKOLA TESLA Laboratories (Stefan University), La Jolla, CA.

  7. Exact kinetic theory for the instability of an electron beam in a hot magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Annenkov, V. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    Efficiency of collective beam-plasma interaction strongly depends on the growth rates of dominant instabilities excited in the system. Nevertheless, exact calculations of the full unstable spectrum in the framework of relativistic kinetic theory for arbitrary magnetic fields and particle distributions were unknown until now. In this paper, we give an example of such a calculation answering the question whether the finite thermal spreads of plasma electrons are able to suppress the fastest growing modes in the beam-plasma system. It is shown that nonrelativistic temperatures of Maxwellian plasmas can stabilize only the oblique instabilities of relativistic beam. On the contrary, non-Maxwellian tails typically found in laboratory beam-plasma experiments are able to substantially reduce the growth rate of the dominant longitudinal modes affecting the efficiency of turbulent plasma heating.

  8. Exact kinetic theory for the instability of an electron beam in a hot magnetized plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency of collective beam-plasma interaction strongly depends on the growth rates of dominant instabilities excited in the system. Nevertheless, exact calculations of the full unstable spectrum in the framework of relativistic kinetic theory for arbitrary magnetic fields and particle distributions were unknown until now. In this paper we give an example of such a calculation answering the question whether the finite thermal spreads of plasma electrons are able to suppress the fastest growing modes in the beam-plasma system. It is shown that nonrelativistic temperatures of Maxwellian plasmas can stabilize only the oblique instabilities of relativistic beam. On the contrary, non-Maxwellian tails typically found in laboratory beam-plasma experiments are able to substantially reduce the growth rate of the dominant longitudinal modes affecting the efficiency of turbulent plasma heating.

  9. Propagation of dark stripe beams in nonlinear media: Snake instability and creation of optical vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of (1+1) dimensional dark stripe beams in bulk media with a photorefractive nonlinear response. These beams, including solitary wave solutions, are shown to be unstable with respect to symmetry breaking and formation of structure along the initially homogeneous coordinate....... Experimental results show the complete sequence of events starting from self-focusing of the stripe, its bending due to the snake instability, and subsequent decay into a set of optical vortices....

  10. Reversible Electron Beam Heating for Suppression of Microbunching Instabilities at Free-Electron Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, Christopher; /DESY; Huang, Zhirong; Xiang, Dao; /SLAC

    2012-05-30

    The presence of microbunching instabilities due to the compression of high-brightness electron beams at existing and future x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) results in restrictions on the attainable lasing performance and renders beam imaging with optical transition radiation impossible. The instability can be suppressed by introducing additional energy spread, i.e., heating the electron beam, as demonstrated by the successful operation of the laser heater system at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The increased energy spread is typically tolerable for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs but limits the effectiveness of advanced FEL schemes such as seeding. In this paper, we present a reversible electron beam heating system based on two transverse deflecting radio-frequency structures (TDSs) upstream and downstream of a magnetic bunch compressor chicane. The additional energy spread is introduced in the first TDS, which suppresses the microbunching instability, and then is eliminated in the second TDS. We show the feasibility of the microbunching gain suppression based on calculations and simulations including the effects of coherent synchrotron radiation. Acceptable electron beam and radio-frequency jitter are identified, and inherent options for diagnostics and on-line monitoring of the electron beam's longitudinal phase space are discussed.

  11. Weibel and Two-Stream Instabilities for Intense Charged Particle Beam Propagation through Neutralizing Background Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald C. Davidson; Igor Kaganovich; Edward A. Startsev

    2004-04-09

    Properties of the multi-species electromagnetic Weibel and electrostatic two-stream instabilities are investigated for an intense ion beam propagating through background plasma. Assuming that the background plasma electrons provide complete charge and current neutralization, detailed linear stability properties are calculated within the framework of a macroscopic cold-fluid model for a wide range of system parameters.

  12. Radiative instability of a relativistic electron beam moving in a photonic crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V G

    2010-01-01

    The radiative instability of a beam moving in a photonic crystal of finite dimensions is studied. The dispersion equation is obtained. The law $\\Gamma\\sim \\rho ^{1/\\left( {s + 3} \\right)}$ is shown to be valid and caused by the mixing of the electromagnetic field modes in the finite volume due to the periodic disturbance from the photonic crystal.

  13. Radiative instability of a relativistic electron beam moving in a photonic crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshevsky, V.G.; Gurinovich, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    The radiative instability of a beam moving in a photonic crystal of finite dimensions is studied. The dispersion equation is obtained. The law $\\Gamma\\sim \\rho ^{1/\\left( {s + 3} \\right)}$ is shown to be valid and caused by the mixing of the electromagnetic field modes in the finite volume due to the periodic disturbance from the photonic crystal.

  14. Asymptotic growth of cumulative and regenerative beam break-up instabilities in accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y. Y.

    1988-06-01

    It is found that the asymptotic growth of the cumulative beam break up instability is independent of the focusing magnetic field, according to the model of Panofsky and Bander. The analysis is extended to include the transition from the cumulative to the regenerative type, both in the presence and absence of a focusing magnetic field.

  15. Cures for Beam Instabilities in the CERN SPS and their Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Shaposhnikova, E

    2006-01-01

    The LHC beam in the SPS is unstable with a threshold almost an order of magnitude below the nominal intensity. The cures used to stabilise this beam against coupled bunch instabilities apart from RF feedback, feed-forward and longitudinal damping, include a fourth harmonic RF system and controlled emittance blow-up. The limitations of the two last methods were studied experimentally and are analysed here from the point of view of beam quality requirements at extraction and future intensity increases up to ultimate value.

  16. Ion beam driven resonant ion-cyclotron instability in a magnetized dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Ved; Vijayshri [School of Sciences, Indira Gandhi National Open University, Maidan Garhi, New Delhi 110 068 (India); Sharma, Suresh C. [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India); Gupta, Ruby [Department of Physics, Swami Shraddhanand College, University of Delhi, Alipur, Delhi 110 036 (India)

    2014-03-15

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves are excited by axial ion beam in a dusty plasma via Cerenkov and slow cyclotron interaction. The dispersion relation of the instability is derived in the presence of positively/negatively charged dust grains. The minimum beam velocity needed for the excitation is estimated for different values of relative density of negatively charged dust grains. It is shown that the minimum beam velocity needed for excitation increases as the charge density carried by dust increases. Temperature of electrons and ions, charge and mass of dust grains, external static magnetic field and finite boundary of dusty plasma significantly modify the dispersion properties of these waves and play a crucial role in the growth of resonant ion cyclotron instability. The ion cyclotron modes with phase velocity comparable to the beam velocity possess a large growth rate. The maximum value of growth rate increases with the beam density and scales as the one-third power of the beam density in Cerenkov interaction and is proportional to the square root of beam density in slow cyclotron interaction.

  17. Indirect self-modulation instability measurement concept for the AWAKE proton beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M.; Petrenko, A.; Biskup, B.; Burger, S.; Gschwendtner, E.; Lotov, K. V.; Mazzoni, S.; Vincke, H.

    2016-09-01

    AWAKE, the Advanced Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment, is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN using a 400 GeV / c proton beam from the CERN SPS (longitudinal beam size σz = 12 cm) which will be sent into a 10 m long plasma section with a nominal density of ≈ 7 ×1014 atoms /cm3 (plasma wavelength λp = 1.2 mm). In this paper we show that by measuring the time integrated transverse profile of the proton bunch at two locations downstream of the AWAKE plasma, information about the occurrence of the self-modulation instability (SMI) can be inferred. In particular we show that measuring defocused protons with an angle of 1 mrad corresponds to having electric fields in the order of GV/m and fully developed self-modulation of the proton bunch. Additionally, by measuring the defocused beam edge of the self-modulated bunch, information about the growth rate of the instability can be extracted. If hosing instability occurs, it could be detected by measuring a non-uniform defocused beam shape with changing radius. Using a 1 mm thick Chromox scintillation screen for imaging of the self-modulated proton bunch, an edge resolution of 0.6 mm and hence an SMI saturation point resolution of 1.2 m can be achieved.

  18. Modeling the effects of laser-beam smoothing on filamentation and stimulated Brillouin backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, R.L.; Kaiser, T.B.; Lasinski, B.F. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Using the three-dimensional code (F3D), the authors compute the filamentation and backscattering of laser light. The results show that filamentation can be controlled and stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) can be reduced by using random phase plates (RPP) and small f-numbers or smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) with large bandwidth. An interesting result is that, for uniform plasmas, the SBBS amplification takes place over several laser axial coherence lengths (coherence length = speckle length).

  19. The Dispersion Relations and Instability Thresholds of Oblique Plasma Modes in the Presence of an Ion Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Verscharen, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An ion beam can destabilize Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves and magnetosonic/whistler waves if the beam speed is sufficiently large. Numerical solutions of the hot-plasma dispersion relation have previously shown that the minimum beam speed required to excite such instabilities is significantly smaller for oblique modes with $\\vec k \\times \\vec B_0\

  20. Modulation instability of an intense laser beam in an unmagnetized electron–positron–ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    San Qiu Liu; Wei Tang; Xiao Qing Li

    2012-03-01

    The modulation instability of an intense circularly polarized laser beam propagating in an unmagnetized, cold electron–positron–ion plasma is investigated. Adopting a generalized Karpman method, a three-dimensional nonlinear equation is shown to govern the laser field. Then the conditions for modulation instability and the temporal growth rate are obtained analytically. In order to compare with the usual electron–ion plasmas, the effect of positron concentration is considered. It is found that the increase in positron-to-electron density ratio shifts the instability region towards higher vertical wave numbers but does not cause displacement along the parallel wave number direction, and the growth rate increases as the positron-to-electron density ratio increases.

  1. Keyhole depth instability in case of CW CO2 laser beam welding of mild steel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Kumar; S Dash; A K Tyagi; Baldev Raj

    2010-10-01

    The study of keyhole (KH) instability in deep penetration laser beam welding (LBW) is essential to understand welding process and appearance of weld seam defects. The main cause of keyhole collapse is the instability in KH dynamics during the LBW process. This is mainly due to the surface tension forces associated with the KH collapse and the stabilizing action of vapour pressure. A deep penetration high power CW CO2 laser was used to generate KH in mild steel (MS) in two different welding conditions i.e. ambient atmospheric welding (AAW) and under water welding (UWW). KH, formed in case of under water welding, was deeper and narrower than keyhole formed in ambient and atmospheric condition. The number and dimensions of irregular humps increased in case of ambient and under water condition due to larger and rapid keyhole collapse also studied. The thermocapillary convection is considered to explain KH instability, which in turn gives rise to irregular humps.

  2. Simulation of Transverse Multi-Bunch Instabilities of Proton Beams in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Koschik, Alexander; Zotter, Bruno

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed for highest luminosity and therefore requires operation with a large number of bunches and high intensities. Its performance could be limited by the electromagnetic interaction between the charged particle beam and its surroundings which cause collective instabilities. This thesis describes methods of simulating and analyzing multi-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators and storage rings. The simulation models as well as analyzing tools presented here, also facilitate the interpretation of measurements in multi-bunch machines. The 3-dimensional, multi-bunch tracking program MultiTRISIM was developed, based on its single-bunch predecessor TRISIM3D. It allows the exploration of longrange effects in round or flat vacuum chambers for equidistant or uneven filling schemes. Previous computer simulations of collective effects concentrated mainly on instabilities of single or few bunches in electron storage rings. There, the strong radiation damping reduces the r...

  3. High-Voltage Breakdown Penalties for the Beam-Breakup Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-22

    The strength of the dangerous beam breakup (BBU) instability in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) is determined by the transverse coupling impedance Z of the induction cell cavity. For accelerating gap width w less than the beam pipe radius b, the transverse impedance is theoretically proportional to w/b, favoring narrow gaps to suppress BBU. On the other hand, cells with narrow gaps cannot support high accelerating gradients, because of electrical breakdown and shorting of the gap. Thus, there is an engineering trade-off between BBU growth and accelerating gradient, which must be considered for next generation LIAs now being designed. In this article this tradeoff is explored, using a simple pillbox cavity as an illustrative example. For this model, widening the gap to reduce the probability of breakdown increases BBU growth, unless higher magnetic focusing fields are used to further suppress the instability.

  4. Indirect Self-Modulation Instability Measurement Concept for the AWAKE Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, M; Biskup, B; Burger, S; Gschwendtner, E; Lotov, K V; Mazzoni, S; Vincke, H

    2016-01-01

    AWAKE, the Advanced Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment, is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN using a 400 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN SPS (longitudinal beam size sigma_z = 12 mm) which will be sent into a 10 m long plasma section with a nominal density of approx. 7x10^14 atoms/cm3 (plasma wavelength lambda_p = 1.2mm). In this paper we show that by measuring the time integrated transverse profile of the proton bunch at two locations downstream of the AWAKE plasma, information about the occurrence of the self-modulation instability (SMI) can be inferred. In particular we show that measuring defocused protons with an angle of 1 mrad corresponds to having electric fields in the order of GV/m and fully developed self-modulation of the proton bunch. Additionally, by measuring the defocused beam edge of the self-modulated bunch, information about the growth rate of the instability can be extracted. If hosing instability occurs, it could be detected by measuring a non-uniform defo...

  5. fs激光在靶背表面产生的质子束成丝%Filamented proton beams from the rear surface of target irradiated by fs laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷渝秋; 蔡达锋; 郑志坚; 温天舒; 淳于书泰; 陈家斌; 周维民; 焦春晔; 陈豪

    2004-01-01

    介绍了利用3TW/60fs钛宝石超短超强激光与20μm铜薄膜靶相互作用的实验.实验观测到质子束的角分布随激光功率密度有所变化.在较高的功率密度(~1×1018W/cm2)时,观测到环状的质子束分布,发散角较大.在较低的激光功率密度(~2×1017W/cm2)时,质子束发散角减小,质子束出现成丝现象.质子束的角分布实际上反映了从靶前输运到靶背的超热电子电流横向分布.在输运过程中,由于Weibel不稳定性会使超热电子电流出现空心化并最后破裂成丝.%Proton emission patterns from the rear surface of targets irradiated by 60fs laser pulse at different intensity have been studied. The filaments of protons emission from 20μm Cu target were observed in the shots with lower laser intensity (about 2×1017W/cm2). As the laser intensity increased up to about 1×1018W/cm2 for the same target thickness, the filaments of proton beam disappeared and a hollow proton beam emerged. The patterns of proton beams revealed the traverse distribution of hot electrons reached the rear surface of target after a long distance transportation from the front surface of target. In this process, Weibel instability will drive electron beam into hollow structure and break into filaments in the end.

  6. Non-linear Dynamics in ETG Mode Saturation and Beam-Plasma Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokluoglu, Erinc K.

    Non-linear mechanisms arise frequently in plasmas and beam-plasma systems resulting in dynamics not predicted by linear theory. The non-linear mechanisms can influence the time evolution of plasma instabilities and can be used to describe their saturation. Furthermore time and space averaged non-linear fields generated by instabilities can lead to collisionless transport and plasma heating. In the case of beam-plasma systems counter-intuitive beam defocusing and scaling behavior which are interesting areas of study for both Low-Temperature and High Energy Density physics. The non-linear mode interactions in form of phase coupling can describe energy transfer to other modes and can be used to describe the saturation of plasma instabilities. In the first part of this thesis, a theoretical model was formulated to explain the saturation mechanism of Slab Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) mode observed in the Columbia Linear Machine (CLM), based on experimental time-series data collected through probe diagnostics [1]. ETG modes are considered to be a major player in the unexplained high levels of electron transport observed in tokamak fusion experiments and the saturation mechanism of these modes is still an active area of investigation. The data in the frequency space indicated phase coupling between 3 modes, through a higher order spectral correlation coefficient known as bicoherence. The resulting model is similar to [2], which was a treatment for ITG modes observed in the CLM and correctly predicts the observed saturation level of the ETG turbulence. The scenario is further supported by the fact that the observed mode frequencies are in close alignment with those predicted theoretical dispersion relations. Non-linear effects arise frequently in beam-plasma systems and can be important for both low temperature plasma devices commonly used for material processing as well as High Energy Density applications relevant to inertial fusion. The non-linear time averaged

  7. Non-Conservative Instability of Non-uniform Beams Resting on an Elastic Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.; Yang, C. C.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of a Winkler elastic foundation and the slenderness ratio on the non-conservative instability of cantilever non-uniform beams of rectangular cross-section with constant height and linearly varied breadth (T1), constant breadth and linearly varied height (T2) and double taper (T3), subjected to an end concentrated follower force is investigated. It is found that without the elastic foundation the critical flutter load of the non-uniform beam decreases as the taper ratio of the beam is increased. However, when the elastic foundation modulus is greater than a critical value, the critical flutter load of the taper beams is always greater than that of uniform beams. Within the domain considered, when the taper ratio of the beam lies in a certain range, several critical turning points, including a jump phenomenon, may exist for the critical flutter load. The jump mechanism and the influence of the elastic foundation modulus and the slenderness ratio on the jump phenomenon of Timoshenko beams is explored.

  8. Measurement and interpretation of transverse beam instabilities in the CERN large hadron collider (LHC) and extrapolations to HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067185; Arduini, Gianluigi; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Buffat, Xavier; Carver, Lee Robert; Iadarola, Giovanni; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Pieloni, Tatiana; Romano, Annalisa; Rumolo, Giovanni; Salvant, Benoit; Schenk, Michael; Tambasco, Claudia; Biancacci, Nicolo

    2016-01-01

    Since the first transverse instability observed in 2010, many studies have been performed on both measurement and simulation sides and several lessons have been learned. In a machine like the LHC, not only all the mechanisms have to be understood separately, but the possible interplays between the different phenomena need to be analysed in detail, including the beam-coupling impedance (with in particular all the necessary collimators to protect the machine but also new equipment such as crab cavities for HL-LHC), linear and nonlinear chromaticity, Landau octupoles (and other intrinsic nonlinearities), transverse damper, space charge, beam-beam (long-range and head-on), electron cloud, linear coupling strength, tune separation between the transverse planes, tune split between the two beams, transverse beam separation between the two beams, etc. This paper reviews all the transverse beam instabilities observed and simulated so far, the mitigation measures which have been put in place, the remaining questions an...

  9. Numerical Analysis of Slow-Wave Instabilities in Oversized Sinusoidaly Corrugated Waveguide Driven by Finitely Thick Annular Electron Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Otubo, Kosuke; Ogura, Kazuo; Yamakawa, Mitsuhisa; Takashima, Yusuke

    2010-01-01

    Three kinds of models are used for beam instability analyses: those based on a solid beam, an infinitesimally thin annular beam, and a finitely thick annular beam. In high-power experiments, the electron beam is an annulus of finite thickness. In this paper, a numerical code for a sinusoidally corrugated waveguide with a finitely thick annular beam is presented and compared with other models. Our analysis is based on a new version of the self-consistent linear theory that takes into account t...

  10. Parametric instabilities in 3D periodically focused beams with space charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Ingo; Boine-Frankenheim, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Parametric resonances of beam eigenmodes with a periodic focusing system under the effect of space charge—also called structural instabilities—are the collective counterparts to parametric resonances of single particles or of mechanical systems. Their common feature is that an exponential instability is driven by a temporal modulation of a system parameter. Thus, they are complementary to the more commonly considered space charge single particle resonances, where space charge pseudo-multipole terms are assumed to exist already at finite level in the initial distribution. This article elaborates on the characteristics of such parametric instabilities in 3D bunched beams—as typical in linear accelerators—for modes of second (envelope), third and fourth order, including the transverse coupled "sum envelope instabilities" recently discovered for 2D beams. Noteworthy results are the finding that parametric resonances can be in competition with single particle resonances of twice the order due to overlapping stopbands; furthermore the surprisingly good applicability of the stopband positions and widths obtained from previously published 2D linearised Vlasov stability theory to the 3D non-Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij particle-in-cell code studies presented here.

  11. Measurements of beam-driven instabilities with the upgraded MST interferometer-polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, E.; Anderson, J. K.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2016-10-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) in MST produces a core-localized fast ion population that modifies the plasma equilibrium and drives a rich variety of instabilities. These instabilities include energetic particle modes (EPMs) and Alfvénic modes that can produce an avalanche process leading to significantly enhanced fast ion transport, as well as chirping modes. The MST FIR interferometer-polarimeter system has high-bandwidth and low phase noise and has previously been used to characterize density fluctuations correlated with many of these instabilities, as well as internal magnetic fluctuations associated with the dominant, n = 5 EPM. However, many of the Alfvénic and chirping modes were too weak to observe in polarimetry measurements in previous studies. Recent upgrades to the interferometer-polarimeter have further reduced the noise floor and extended the accessible bandwidth for fluctuation measurements. Initial measurements of fast ion driven instabilities with the upgraded system will be presented. Improved measurements of internal structure may be important for understanding mode dynamics and particle transport. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E.

  12. Filamentation in Laser Wakefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Eva; Trines, Raoul; Silva, Luis; Bingham, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Laser filamentation instability is observed in plasma wakefields with sub-critical densities, and in high density inertial fusion plasmas. This leads to non-uniform acceleration or compression respectively. Here, we present simulation results on laser filamentation in plasma wakefields. The 2-D simulations are carried out using the particle-in-cell code Osiris. The filament intensity was found to increase exponentially before saturating. The maximum amplitude to which the highest intensity filament grew for a specific set of parameters was also recorded, and plotted against a corresponding parameter value. Clear, positively correlated linear trends were established between plasma density, transverse wavenumber k, laser pulse amplitude and maximum filament amplitude. Plasma density and maximum filament amplitude also showed a positive correlation, which saturated after a certain plasma density. Pulse duration and interaction length did not affect either filament intensity or transverse k value in a predictable manner. There was no discernible trend between pulse amplitude and filament width.

  13. Filamentation and Forward Brillouin Scatter of Entire Smoothed and Aberrated Laser Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, C.H.; Berger, R.L.; Langdon, A.B.; Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.

    1999-10-29

    Laser-plasma interactions are sensitive to both the fine-scale speckle and the larger scale envelope intensity of the beam. For some time, simulations have been done on volumes taken from part of the laser beam cross-section, and the results from multiple simulations extrapolated to predict the behavior of the entire beam. However, extrapolation could very well miss effects of the larger scale structure on the fine-scale. The only definitive method is to simulate the entire beam. These very large calculations have been infeasible until recently, but they are now possible on massively parallel computers. Whole beam simulations show the dramatic difference in the propagation and break up of smoothed and aberrated beams.

  14. Stream instabilities in relativistically hot plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shaisultanov, Rashid; Eichler, David

    2011-01-01

    The instabilities of relativistic ion beams in a relativistically hot electron background are derived for general propagation angles. It is shown that the Weibel instability in the direction perpendicular to the streaming direction is the fastest growing mode, and probably the first to appear, consistent with the aligned filaments that are seen in PIC simulations. Oblique, quasiperpendicular modes grow almost as fast, as the growth rate varies only moderately with angle, and they may distort or corrugate the filaments after the perpendicular mode saturates.

  15. The effects of transverse plasma flow on laser beam deflection and of ultra-intense laser beam filamentation on channel formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, D. E.

    1997-11-01

    Recent experiments conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) with the Nova and Janus lasers demonstrate deflection of the laser beam in plasma with flow transverse to the beam. In gas-filled hohlraum experiments(S. G. Glendinning et al.), the laser spot on the hohlraum wall is ~ 100 μm closer to the laser entrance hole (LEH) than in empty hohlraum experiments, which degrades drive symmetry. In a series of exploding foil experiments(J. D. Moody et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1294 (1996)., intensity dependent deflection of the transmitted beam is observed, and interferometric measurements of laser-produced channels in preformed plasma(P. E. Young et al.), to be submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., 1997. show beam deflection in the presence of near-sonic transverse flow. Theoretical analysis(D. E. Hinkel et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1298 (1996). yields simple scaling laws for the formation of ponderomotively (or thermally) created density depressions downstream from the laser beam's high intensity regions, into which the light is refracted. An integrated approach that utilizes plasma parameters from the hydrocode Lasnex, detailed knowledge of the beam structure, and plasma physics analysis and modelling with F3D(R. L. Berger et al.), Phys. Fluids B 5, 2243 (1993)., has been used to develop a predictive capability that successfully quantifies the amount of beam deflection occurring in experiments. Related physics of beam self-focussing and filamentation is of relevance to the Fast Ignitor(M. Tabak et al.), Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994).. In channeling experiments performed on the 100 TW laser at LLNL, the f/3 laser beam, which has a 15 μm waist at best focus, has intensities in excess of IL = 1 × 10^17 W/cm^2. Modelling of these high intensity experiments indicates that channel formation occurs over a wide range of cone angles for an idealized (Gaussian) beam. However, when beam structure is taken into consideration, channel formation in the underdense

  16. Blistering of viscoelastic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Sattler, R; Wagner, C

    2007-01-01

    When a dilute polymer solution experiences capillary thinning, it forms an almost uniformly cylindrical thread, which we study experimentally. In the last stages of thinning, when polymers have become fully stretched, the filament becomes prone to instabilities, of which we describe two: A novel "breathing" instability, originating from the edge of the filament, and a sinusoidal instability in the interior, which ultimately gives rise to a "blistering" pattern of beads on the filament. We describe the linear instability with a spatial resolution of 80 nm in the disturbance amplitude. For sufficiently high polymer concentrations, the filament eventually separates out into a "solid" phase of entangled polymers, connected by fluid beads. A solid polymer fiber of about 100 nanometer thickness remains, which is essentially permanent.

  17. Control of Multibunch Longitudinal Instabilities and Beam Diagnostics Using a DSP-based Feedback System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, Dmitry

    2000-03-30

    A bunch-by-bunch longitudinal feedback system has been designed and built to control coupled-bunch instabilities in the PEP-II machine. A prototype system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source at LBNL. Programmable DSPs allow longitudinal feedback processing in conjunction with data acquisition or instrumentation algorithms. Here the authors describe techniques developed for different beam and system diagnostics, such as measurements of the modal growth and damping rates and measurements of the bunch-by-bunch currents. Results from the Advanced Light Source are presented to illustrate these techniques.

  18. Nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional instabilities of thin and thick electron scale current sheets: Plasmoid formation and current filamentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg [Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, Göttingen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-Von-Liebig-Weg-3, Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Nonlinear evolution of three dimensional electron shear flow instabilities of an electron current sheet (ECS) is studied using electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. The dependence of the evolution on current sheet thickness is examined. For thin current sheets (half thickness =d{sub e}=c/ω{sub pe}), tearing mode instability dominates. In its nonlinear evolution, it leads to the formation of oblique current channels. Magnetic field lines form 3-D magnetic spirals. Even in the absence of initial guide field, the out-of-reconnection-plane magnetic field generated by the tearing instability itself may play the role of guide field in the growth of secondary finite-guide-field instabilities. For thicker current sheets (half thickness ∼5 d{sub e}), both tearing and non-tearing modes grow. Due to the non-tearing mode, current sheet becomes corrugated in the beginning of the evolution. In this case, tearing mode lets the magnetic field reconnect in the corrugated ECS. Later thick ECS develops filamentary structures and turbulence in which reconnection occurs. This evolution of thick ECS provides an example of reconnection in self-generated turbulence. The power spectra for both the thin and thick current sheets are anisotropic with respect to the electron flow direction. The cascade towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow.

  19. A coupled bunch instability due to beam-photoelectron interactions in KEKB-LER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmi, Kazuhito [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    LER of KEKB is designed to storage the positron beam of 2.6 A with multibunch operation. Nb = 3.3 x 10{sup 10} positrons are filled in a bunch and the bunch passes every 2ns through a beam chamber. The photoelectron instability may be serious for KEKB-LER. We consider a motion of photoelectrons produced by a bunch with a computer simulation technic. A cylindrical chamber with a diameter of 10 cm was used as a model chamber. About 15 times of the photoelectrons were produced by a bunch. The wake force was calculated for the loading bunches with displacements of 0.5 mm and 1 mm. The wake characteristics seems to be caused by the trapped electrons kicked by the loading bunch. The wake was saturated with the loading displacement of 0.5 mm. We obtained a growth rate by the wake force. It is very high rate, 2500s{sup -1} which exceeds damping rates of various mechanism, radiation, head-tail and feedback. Perhaps it is essential to remove the photoelectrons around the positron beam explicitly. If we apply magnetic field fo about 20 G, the growth rate will be reduced. (S.Y.)

  20. Strong quantum squeezing near the pull-in instability of a nonlinear beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George

    2016-08-01

    Microscopic silicon-based suspended mechanical oscillators, constituting an extremely sensitive force probe, transducer, and actuator, are being increasingly employed in many developing microscopies, spectroscopies, and emerging optomechanical and chem-bio sensors. We predict a significant squeezing in the quantum state of motion of an oscillator constrained as a beam and subject to an electrically induced nonlinearity. By taking into account the quantum noise, the underlying nonlinear dynamics is investigated in both the transient and stationary regimes of the driving force leading to the finding that strongly squeezed states are accessible in the vicinity of the pull-in instability of the oscillator. We discuss a possible application of this strong quantum squeezing as an optomechanical method for detecting broad-spectrum single or low-count photons, and further suggest other novel sensing actions.

  1. Properties of twisted ferromagnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belovs, Mihails; Cebers, Andrejs [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, LV-1002 (Latvia)], E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2009-02-01

    The full set of equations for twisted ferromagnetic filaments is derived. The linear stability analysis of twisted ferromagnetic filament is carried out. Two different types of the buckling instability are found - monotonous and oscillatory. The first in the limit of large twist leads to the shape of filament reminding pearls on the string, the second to spontaneous rotation of the filament, which may constitute the working of chiral microengine.

  2. PERTURBATION ANALYSIS FOR MAGNETO-PLASTIC INSTABILITY OF FERROMAGNETIC BEAM-PLATES WITH GEOMETRIC IMPERFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhouYouhe; GaoYuanwen; ZhengXiaojing

    2004-01-01

    The magneto-plastic instability of a ferromagnetic beam-type plate with simple supports and small initial imperfection is analytically investigated in this paper for that the plastic deformation of the plate with a linear-strain hardening relation is considered when the plate is located in a strong uniformly distributed magnetic field. After the distribution of magnetic fields related to the deflected configuration of plate is imaginably divided into two parts, i.e.,one is related to the flat plate and the other dependent on the perturbation of magnetic fields for which the plate configuration changes from the flat into the deformed state, the perturbation technique is employed to analyze the distribution of the perturbation magnetic fields in and out-of the magnetic medium of the ferromagnetic structure in a transverse magnetic field, which leads to some analytical formulae/solutions for the magnetic fields and the resulting magnetic force exerted on the plate. Based on them, the magneto-plastic buckling and snapping of the plate in a transverse magnetic field is discussed, and the critical magnetic field is analytically formulated in terms of the parameters of geometry and material of the plate employed by solving the governing equation of the magneto-plastic plate in the applied magnetic field. Further, the sensitivity of the initial imperfection on the magneto-plastic instability, expressed by an amplification function, is obtained by solving the dynamic equation of deflection of the plate after the inertial force in the transverse direction is taken into account. The results obtained show that the critical magnetic field is sensitive to the plastic characteristic, e.g., hardening coefficient, and the instability mode and deflection of the plate are dependent on the geometrical imperfection as well.

  3. New Density Estimation Methods for Charged Particle Beams With Applications to Microbunching Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balsa Terzic, Gabriele Bassi

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we discuss representations of charge particle densities in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, analyze the sources and profiles of the intrinsic numerical noise, and present efficient methods for their removal. We devise two alternative estimation methods for charged particle distribution which represent significant improvement over the Monte Carlo cosine expansion used in the 2d code of Bassi, designed to simulate coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in charged particle beams. The improvement is achieved by employing an alternative beam density estimation to the Monte Carlo cosine expansion. The representation is first binned onto a finite grid, after which two grid-based methods are employed to approximate particle distributions: (i) truncated fast cosine transform (TFCT); and (ii) thresholded wavelet transform (TWT). We demonstrate that these alternative methods represent a staggering upgrade over the original Monte Carlo cosine expansion in terms of efficiency, while the TWT approximation also provides an appreciable improvement in accuracy. The improvement in accuracy comes from a judicious removal of the numerical noise enabled by the wavelet formulation. The TWT method is then integrated into Bassi's CSR code, and benchmarked against the original version. We show that the new density estimation method provides a superior performance in terms of efficiency and spatial resolution, thus enabling high-fidelity simulations of CSR effects, including microbunching instability.

  4. Spatio-temporal development of the filaments due to the thermal self-focusing instability near the critical surface in ionospheric plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondarenko, N. A.; Guzdar, P. N.; Milikh, G. M.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.; Ossakow, S. L.

    1999-07-01

    We study fully nonlinear spatio-temporal development of the thermal self-focusing instability of high-power radio waves near the critical surface of the ionosphere. These simulations improve on our earlier work by including an evolution equation for the density instead of using the assumption of constant pressure to determine the perturbed density connected with the known temperature perturbation. Using our two-dimensional nonlinear code we analyze the time scale and associated velocity for the development of the field-aligned irregularities as they spread from the critical surface both in the underdense as well as the overdense regions. The scaling of this velocity as a function of the radiated power of the heater electromagnetic wave (ERP) is determined. We also study the characteristic size of the self-focused filament as a function of ERP. Finally, the spectrum of the density and temperature fluctuations as well as modifications in the equilibrium values of these parameters for different values of ERP are presented.

  5. Control of power, torque, and instability drive using in-shot variable neutral beam energy in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, D. C.; Collins, C. S.; Crowley, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Pawley, C.; Rauch, J.; Scoville, J. T.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Zhu, Y. B.; The DIII-D Team

    2017-01-01

    A first-ever demonstration of controlling power and torque injection through time evolution of neutral beam energy has been achieved in recent experiments at the DIII-D tokamak (Luxon 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 614). Pre-programmed waveforms for the neutral beam energy produce power and torque inputs that can be separately and continuously controlled. Previously, these inputs were tailored using on/off modulation of neutral beams resulting in large perturbations (e.g. power swings of over 1 MW). The new method includes, importantly for experiments, the ability to maintain a fixed injected power while varying the torque. In another case, different beam energy waveforms (in the same plasma conditions) produce significant changes in the observed spectrum of beam ion-driven instabilities. Measurements of beam ion loss show that one energy waveform results in the complete avoidance of coherent losses due to Alfvénic instabilities. This new method of neutral beam operation is intended for further application in a variety of DIII-D experiments including those concerned with high-performance steady state scenarios, fast particle effects, and transport in the low torque regime. Developing this capability would provide similar benefits and improved plasma control for other magnetic confinement fusion facilities.

  6. Self-focusing and filamentation of a laser beam within the paraxial stationary approximation. Part I: theoretical aspects; Autofocalisation et filamentation d`un faisceau laser dans le cadre de l`approximation paraxiale et stationnaire. Partie I: aspects theoriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, M.A.; Bonnaud, G.; Chiron, A.; Riazuelo, G.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the propagation of an intense laser beam in a unmagnetized plasma, which is relevant for both the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the ultra-high intensity (UHI) pulses. The width and the irradiance of the laser pulses are respectively: (0.1-10) nanosecond and (10{sup 13}-10{sup 16}) W/cm{sup 2} for the ICF context and (0.1-1) picosecond and in excess of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} for the UHI context. The nonlinear mechanisms for beam self-focusing and filamentation, induced by both the ponderomotive expelling of charged particles and the relativistic increase of the electron mass, are specified studied. Part I deals with the theoretical aspects and part II is concerned with the results of two-dimensional simulations. The results have been obtained within the framework of the paraxial approximation and the stationary response of the plasma. The large set of scenarios that characterize the behavior of Gaussian beam and a modulated beam is presented; a synthetic overview of the previous theoretical works is also provided. The interplay of two crossing beams is discussed. This report will be a help to improve the uniformity of the laser irradiation in the ICF context and to channel a very intense laser beam over large distance in the UHI context. (authors). 53 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Self-focusing and filamentation of a laser beam within the paraxial stationary approximation. Part II: computer simulations; Autofocalisation et filamentation d`un faisceau laser dans le cadre de l`approximation paraxiale et stationnaire. Partie II: simulations numeriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blain, M.A.; Bonnaud, G.; Chiron, A.; Riazuelo, G.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the propagation of an intense laser beam in a unmagnetized plasma, which is relevant for both the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the ultra-high intensity (UHI) pulses. The width and the irradiance of the laser pulses are respectively: (0.1-10) nanosecond and (10{sup 13}-10{sup 16}) W/cm{sup 2} for the ICF context and (0.1-1) picosecond and in excess of 10{sup 1}8 W/cm{sup 2} for the UHI context. The nonlinear mechanisms for beam self-focusing and filamentation, induced by both the ponderomotive expelling of charged particles and the relativistic increase of the electron mass, are specified studied. Part I deals with the theoretical aspects and part II is concerned with the results of two-dimensional simulations. The results have been obtained within the framework of the paraxial approximation and the stationary response of the plasma. The large set of scenarios that characterize the behavior of Gaussian beam and a modulated beam is presented; a synthetic overview of the previous theoretical works is also provided. The interplay of two crossing beams is discussed. This report will be a help to improve the uniformity of the laser irradiation in the ICF context and to channel a very intense laser beam over large distance in the UHI context. (authors). 17 refs., 53 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Acceleration of plasma electrons by intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Interferometric radar observations of filamented structures due to plasma instabilities and their relation to dynamic auroral rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Grydeland

    2004-04-01

    -electron two-stream mechanism favoured by many authors is an unlikely candidate to explain the observations. The video data has helped establish a clear correlation between the enhanced echoes and auroral activity, on sub-second time scales, showing a threshold connection between the auroral intensity and the triggering of the radar enhancements. It appears that the up- and down-shifted enhanced echoes correlate with fine auroral structures in different ways.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; plasma waves and instabilities – Radio science (interferometry

  10. On electromagnetic instabilities at ultra-relativistic shock waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoine, Martin

    2009-01-01

    (Abridged) This paper addresses the issue of magnetic field generation in a relativistic shock precursor through micro-instabilities. The level of magnetization of the upstream plasma turns out to be a crucial parameter, notably because the length scale of the shock precursor is limited by the Larmor rotation of the accelerated particles in the background magnetic field and the speed of the shock wave. We discuss in detail and calculate the growth rates of the following beam plasma instabilities seeded by the accelerated and reflected particle populations: for an unmagnetized shock, the Weibel and filamentation instabilities, as well as the Cerenkov resonant longitudinal and oblique modes; for a magnetized shock, in a generic oblique configuration, the Weibel instability and the resonant Cerenkov instabilities with Alfven, Whisler and extraordinary modes. All these instabilities are generated upstream, then they are transmitted downstream. The modes excited by Cerenkov resonant instabilities take on particula...

  11. Dynamic behavior of pre- and post-instability of an axisymmetric elastic beam subjected to axial leakage flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K.; Morikazu, H.; Shintani, A. [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Mechanical Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of an axisymmetric elastic beam subjected to axial leakage flow is investigated numerically and experimentally. The coupled equations of motion for a fluid and a beam structure are derived using the Navier-Stokes equation for an axial leakage flow-path and the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The variation in the dynamic behavior during pre- and post-instability is investigated with respect to increasing axial leakage flow velocity. The experiment was performed to determine the critical velocity of the unstable dynamic behavior of an axisymmetric elastic beam confined in a concentric cylinder subjected to axial leakage flow through a small annulus, and to measure the variation of the dynamic behavior during pre- and post-instability when the unstable phenomenon with the lower predominant frequency is shifted to the higher. The relationships between the axial flow velocities and the unstable phenomena are clarified for the transition from the lower mode to the higher mode by comparing the numerical simulation results with experimental observations. (authors)

  12. Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with 44 beam-lines of Nike KrF Laser^*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.

    2009-11-01

    With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  13. Hosing Instability of the Drive Electron Beam in the E157 Plasma-Wakefield Acceleration Experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, Brent Edward; /SLAC /UCLA

    2005-10-10

    In the plasma-wakefield experiment at SLAC, known as E157, an ultra-relativistic electron beam is used to both excite and witness a plasma wave for advanced accelerator applications. If the beam is tilted, then it will undergo transverse oscillations inside of the plasma. These oscillations can grow exponentially via an instability know as the electron hose instability. The linear theory of electron-hose instability in a uniform ion column predicts that for the parameters of the E157 experiment (beam charge, bunch length, and plasma density) a growth of the centroid offset should occur. Analysis of the E157 data has provided four critical results. The first was that the incoming beam did have a tilt. The tilt was much smaller than the radius and was measured to be 5.3 {micro}m/{delta}{sub z} at the entrance of the plasma (IP1.) The second was the beam centroid oscillates in the ion channel at half the frequency of the beam radius (betatron beam oscillations), and these oscillations can be predicted by the envelope equation. Third, up to the maximum operating plasma density of E157 ({approx}2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}), no growth of the centroid offset was measured. Finally, time-resolved data of the beam shows that up to this density, no significant growth of the tail of the beam (up to 8ps from the centroid) occurred even though the beam had an initial tilt.

  14. Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and Multipactoring)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.A. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The processes defining the density distribution of the photoelectrons are quite complicated. In this study, a simplified model of the instability was used to get a quick estimate of the growth rate of the instability and the relative importance of the parameters, as has been done in Ohmi`s paper. The production rate and dynamics of the photoelectrons are studied for the PEP-II parameters. The growth rate of the transverse instability driven by the primary photoelectrons is of the order of 0.7 msec for the PEP-II parameters. The multipactoring at resonance currents cannot produce large electron density due to the final energy spread caused by the finite bunch length and the intrinsic energy spread of the secondary electrons. Production of the secondary electrons may lead to large average densities. The ion can be produced in electron collisions with the residual gas with density of the order of the electron density. (G.K.)

  15. ON THE BEAM INDUCED QUASI-INSTABILITY TRANSFORMATION OF THE DAMPED APERIODIC MODE IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolberg, U.; Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- and Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: uk@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Highly relativistic electron–positron pair beams considerably affect the spontaneously emitted field fluctuations in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM). In view of the considered small density ratio of beam and background plasma, a perturbative treatment is employed in order to derive the spectral balance equations for the fluctuating fields from first principles of plasma kinetic theory that are covariantly correct within the limits of special relativity. They self-consistently account for the competing effects of spontaneous and induced emission and absorption in the perturbed thermal plasma. It is found that the presence of the beam transforms the growth rate of the dominating transverse damped aperiodic mode into an effective growth rate that displays positive values in certain spectral regions if beam velocity and wave vector are perpendicular or almost perpendicular to each other. This corresponds to a quasi-instability that induces an amplification of the fluctuations for these wavenumbers. Such an effect can greatly influence the cosmic magnetogenesis as it affects the strengths of the spontaneously emitted magnetic seed fields in the IGM, thereby possibly lowering the required growth time and effectivity of any further amplification mechanism such as an astrophysical dynamo.

  16. On the Beam Induced Quasi-instability Transformation of the Damped Aperiodic Mode in the Intergalactic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolberg, U.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-02-01

    Highly relativistic electron-positron pair beams considerably affect the spontaneously emitted field fluctuations in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM). In view of the considered small density ratio of beam and background plasma, a perturbative treatment is employed in order to derive the spectral balance equations for the fluctuating fields from first principles of plasma kinetic theory that are covariantly correct within the limits of special relativity. They self-consistently account for the competing effects of spontaneous and induced emission and absorption in the perturbed thermal plasma. It is found that the presence of the beam transforms the growth rate of the dominating transverse damped aperiodic mode into an effective growth rate that displays positive values in certain spectral regions if beam velocity and wave vector are perpendicular or almost perpendicular to each other. This corresponds to a quasi-instability that induces an amplification of the fluctuations for these wavenumbers. Such an effect can greatly influence the cosmic magnetogenesis as it affects the strengths of the spontaneously emitted magnetic seed fields in the IGM, thereby possibly lowering the required growth time and effectivity of any further amplification mechanism such as an astrophysical dynamo.

  17. Cumulative effect of Weibel-type instabilities in counterstreaming plasmas with non-Maxwellian anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Lázár, M; Shukla, P K

    2008-01-01

    Counterstreaming plasma structures are widely present in laboratory experiments and astrophysical systems, and they are investigated either to prevent unstable modes arising in beam-plasma experiments or to prove the existence of large scale magnetic fields in astrophysical objects. Filamentation instability arises in a counterstreaming plasma and is responsible for the magnetization of the plasma. Filamentationally unstable mode is described by assuming that each of the counterstreaming plasmas has an isotropic Lorentzian (kappa) distribution. In this case, the filamentation instability growth rate can reach a maximum value markedly larger than that for a a plasma with a Maxwellian distribution function. This behaviour is opposite to what was observed for the Weibel instability growth rate in a bi-kappa plasma, which is always smaller than that obtained for a bi-Maxwellian plasma. The approach is further generalized for a counterstreaming plasma with a bi-kappa temperature anisotropy. In this case, the filam...

  18. Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume $n$ cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analyzed.

  19. Enhancement in the electromagnetic beam-plasma instability due to ion streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nitin; Stockem, A.; Fiúza, F.; Silva, L. O.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the Weibel instability in counter-propagating electron-ion plasmas with focus on the ion contribution, considering a realistic mass ratio. A generalized dispersion relation is derived from the relativistic theory by assuming an initially anisotropic temperature, which is represented by a waterbag distribution in momentum space, which shows an enhanced growth rate due to ion response. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support the theoretical analysis, showing a further amplification of magnetic field on ion time scale. The effect of an initial anisotropic temperature is investigated showing that the growth rate is monotonously decreased if the transverse spread is increased. Nevertheless, the presence of ions generates that the instability can develop for significantly higher electron temperatures. Suppression of oblique mode is also explored by introducing a parallel velocity spread.

  20. Instability criterion for the system composed of elastic beam and strain-softening pillar based on gradient-dependent plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin Wang

    2005-01-01

    A mechanical model is proposed for the system of elastic beam and strain-softening pillar where strain localization is initiated at peak shear stress. To obtain the plastic deformation of the pillar due to the shear slips of multiple shear bands, the pillar is divided into several narrow slices where compressive deformation is treated as uniformity. In the light of the compatibility condition of deformation, the total compressive displacement of the pillar is equal to the displacement of the beam in the middle span. An insta bility criterion is derived analytically based on the energy principle using a known size of localization band according to gradientdependent plasticity. The main advantage of the present model is that the effects of the constitutive parameters of rock and the geometrical size of structure are reflected in the criterion. The condition that the derivative of distributed load with respect to the deflection of the beam in the middle span is less than zero is not only equivalent to, but also even more concise in form than the instability criterion. To study the influences of constitutive parameters and geometrical size on stability, some examples are presented.

  1. Characterization of HI Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubar, Emily; Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2017-01-01

    We characterized the properties of dramatic interstellar HI filaments to learn more about the dynamics and structure of such features. Using Gauss fitting software, we searched the Effelsburg-Bonn HI Survey data for indications of a simple twisting (toroidal) motion across these filaments. Instead, we found that the structure was more complicated than expected. Apparent angular widths of several filaments were measured using the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array HI (GALFA-HI), Bonn, and Leident/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) surveys. Based on filament widths and other parameters, we conclude that magnetism is the dominant force opposing internal motion and maintaining the structure of these filaments. The apparent width as a function of beam width closely follows a relationship reported in 1993 for HI features in general. They tend to subtend an angle two times the beam width, suggesting that the features remain unresolved.The Arecibo Observatory is operated by SRI International under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (AST-1100968), and in alliance with Ana G. Méndez-Universidad Metropolitana, and the Universities Space Research Association. The Arecibo Observatory REU is funded under grant AST-1559849 to Universidad Metropolitana.

  2. Indirect Self-Modulation Instability Measurement Concept for the AWAKE Proton Beam

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, M.; Petrenko, A.; Biskup, B.; Burger, S; Gschwendtner, E; Lotov, K. V.; S. Mazzoni; Vincke, H.

    2015-01-01

    AWAKE, the Advanced Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment, is a proof-of-principle R&D experiment at CERN using a 400 GeV/c proton beam from the CERN SPS (longitudinal beam size sigma_z = 12 cm) which will be sent into a 10 m long plasma section with a nominal density of approx. 7x10^14 atoms/cm3 (plasma wavelength lambda_p = 1.2mm). In this paper we show that by measuring the time integrated transverse profile of the proton bunch at two locations downstream of the AWAKE plas...

  3. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M.; Belenkiy, V. Ya.; Koleva, E. G.; Varushkin, S. V.

    2014-04-01

    Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 1016 m-3, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A.m-2, i.e. 8 mA for a 3-10 cm2 collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  4. Runaway Electron Beam Instability in Slide-Away Discharges in the HT-7 Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhong-Yong; WAN Bao-Nian; LING Bi-Li; GAO Xiang; DU Qin; TI Ang; LIN Shi-Yao; S. Sajjad; HT-7 Team

    2007-01-01

    Slide-away discharges are achieved by decreasing the plasma density or ramping down the plasma current in runaway discharges in the HT-7 tokamak. In the case of plasma current ramp down, the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the electron cyclotron frequency is higher than in the stationary pulses when the discharge goes into a slide-away regime. The instability regime is characterized by relaxations in the electron cyclotron emission due to relativistic anomalous Doppler effect which transfers energy from parallel to perpendicular motion. The triggering of relativistic anomalous Doppler effect at higher density by ramping down of plasma current may provide a alternative runaway energy control scenario.

  5. Analysis of Static Instability of an Asymmetric, Rotating Sand-Wich Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Dash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The static stability of an asymmetric, rotating sandwich beam subjected to an axial pulsating load has been investigated for pinned-pinned and fixed-free boundary conditions. The equations of motion and associated boundary conditions have been obtained by using the Hamilton's energy principle. Then, these equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions have been nondimensionalised. A set of Hill's equations are obtained from the nondimensional equations of motion by the application of the general Galerkin method. The static buckling loads have been obtained from Hill's equations. The influences of geometric parameters and rotation parameters on the nondimensional static buckling loads have been investigated.

  6. On the viability of the single wave model for the beam plasma instability

    CERN Document Server

    Carlevaro, Nakia; Terzani, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the interaction of a cold fast electron beam with a thermalized plasma, in the presence of many Langmuir modes. The work aims at characterizing the deviation of the system behavior from the single mode approximation, both with respect to a consistent spectral analysis of the most unstable mode harmonics and to the presence of a dense spectrum, containing linearly unstable and stable modes. We demonstrate how, on the one hand, the total energy fraction adsorbed by the harmonics is negligible at all; and, on the other hand, the additional Langmuir modes can be excite via an avalanche mechanism, responsible for a transport in the particle velocity space. In particular, we show that the spectral broadening outlines a universal shape and the distribution function, associated to the avalanche mechanism, has an asymptotic plateau, differently from the coherent structures characterizing the single wave model.

  7. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Liu, J. H. [Department of Physics, Shijiazhuang University, Shijiazhuang 050035 (China); Xu, C. L. [Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China)

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  8. Unwinding Motion of a Twisted Active Region Filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Liu, J. H.; Kong, D. F.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-12-01

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  9. PLASMA EFFECTS ON EXTRAGALACTIC ULTRAHIGH-ENERGY COSMIC-RAY HADRON BEAMS IN COSMIC VOIDS. II. KINETIC INSTABILITY OF PARALLEL ELECTROSTATIC WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakau, S.; Schlickeiser, R., E-mail: steffen.krakau@rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-02-20

    The linear instability of an ultrarelativistic hadron beam in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM) is investigated with respect to the excitation of parallel electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations. This analysis is important for the propagation of extragalactic ultrarelativistic cosmic rays from their distant sources to Earth. As opposed to the previous paper, we calculate the minimum instability growth time for Lorentz-distributed cosmic rays which traverse the hot IGM. The growth times are orders of magnitude higher than the cosmic-ray propagation time in the IGM. Since the backreaction of the generated plasma fluctuations (plateauing) lasts longer than the propagation time, the cosmic-ray hadron beam can propagate to the Earth without losing a significant amount of energy to electrostatic turbulence.

  10. G2DEM: a parallel two-dimensional electromagnetic PIC code for the study of electron-cyclotron instabilities of relativistic electron beams in cylindrical cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, G.; Tran, T.M.; Appert, K. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP); Wuethrich, S. [CRAY Research, PATP/PSE, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    A two-dimensional PIC code aimed at the investigation of electron-cyclotron beam instabilities in gyrotrons and their effects on the beam quality is presented. The code is based on recently developed techniques for handling charge conservation and open boundaries and uses an electromagnetic field which is decomposed in its transverse magnetic (TM) and electric (TE) components. The code has been implemented on the massively parallel computer CRAY T3D, and on the CRAY Y-MP. (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  11. Equilibrium shapes of twisted magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belovs, Mihails; Cirulis, Teodors; Cebers, Andrejs [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, LV-1002 (Latvia)], E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2009-06-12

    It is shown that ferromagnetic filaments with free and unclamped ends undergo buckling instabilities under the action of twist. Solutions of nonlinear equations describing the buckled shapes are found, and it is shown that the transition to the buckled shape is subcritical if the magnetization is parallel to the field and supercritical when the magnetization of the straight filament is opposite to the external field. Solutions with the localized curvature distribution are found in the case of long filaments. The class of solutions corresponding to helices is described, and the behavior of coiled ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic filaments is compared.

  12. Pressure tensor dynamics in the fluid description of Weibel-type instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrat, Mathieu; Del Sarto, Daniele; Ghizzo, Alain

    2016-10-01

    The study of Weibel-type instabilities triggered by temperature or momentum anisotropy normally requires a full kinetic treatement, though reduced kinetic models often provide an efficient alternative, both from a computational point of view and thanks to a simplified analysis that helps a better physical insight. We here show how, similarly to reduced kinetic models, an extended fluid model including the full pressure tensor dynamics provides a consistent description of Weibel-type modes in presence of two counterstreaming, non-relativistic beams with initially anisotropic pressures: focussing on propagation transverse and parallel to the beams we discuss the fluid dispersion relation of Weibel Instability-Current Filamentation Instability coupled modes and of the time resonant Weibel instability. This fluid analysis is shown to agree with the kinetic result and to allow the identification of some thermal effects, whose interpretation appeared more difficult in full kinetic descriptions.

  13. Band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Sydorenko, D.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is γ≈(1 /13 )ωpe(nb/np)(L ωpe/vb)ln (L ωpe/vb)[1 -0.18 cos (L ωpe/vb+π/2 ) ] , where ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, nb and np are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, vb is the beam velocity, and L is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number, and the spatial and temporal growth rates, as functions of the plasma size, exhibit band structure. The amplitude of saturation of the instability depends on the system length, not on the beam current. For short systems, the amplitude may exceed values predicted for infinite plasmas by more than an order of magnitude.

  14. Experiments to Observe the Weibel Instability: The Origin of Gamma Ray Burst Afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Channing; Matsuoka, T.; Maksimchuk, A.; Yanovsky, V.; Krushelnick, K.; Katsouleas, T.; Medvedev, M. V.; Silva, L. O.; Mori, W. B.; Bingham, R.; Drake, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    Recent theories suggest that the radiation signature of gamma ray bursts may be the result of the interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons, ejected from supernova shocks, with small-scale magnetic fields.a These tiny "tangled" magnetic fields are thought to be created by the two-stream filamentation instability, or Weibel Instability, of the beaming electrons. As the charged particles propagate, local density perturbations form lines of current, which create magnetic fields within the beam. These fields act to pinch the areas of higher electron density, forming filaments of characteristic diameter c/ωp, where c is the speed of light and ωp is the electron plasma frequency. Using the Hercules laser facility at the University of Michigan, we are conducting an experiment to create an electron beam by the laser wakefield technique, produce such filaments by passing the electron beam through another plasma, and image the resulting structure. Analysis of the beam structure will be compared with theory and simulation and will provide direction for future investigation of gamma ray burst signatures. a. Medvedev MV., Loeb A. Generation of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Shock of Gamma-Ray-Burst Sources. Astrophys.J. 526 (1999) 697-706 This research was sponsored by the National Science Foundation through Grant PHY-0114336 and by NNSA Stewardship Sciences Academic Alliances through DOE Research Grant DE-FG52-04NA00064.

  15. Towards filament free semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter; Skovgaard, Peter M. W.

    2000-01-01

    We outline physical models and simulations for suppression of self-focusing and filamentation in large aperture semiconductor lasers. The principal technical objective is to generate multi-watt CW or quasi-CW outputs with nearly diffraction limited beams, suitable for long distance free space...

  16. Stabilization of vortex beams in Kerr media by nonlinear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, Miguel A; Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We elaborate a new solution for the problem of stable propagation of transversely localized vortex beams in homogeneous optical media with self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Stationary nonlinear Bessel-vortex states are stabilized against azimuthal breakup and collapse by multiphoton absorption, while the respective power loss is offset by the radial influx of the power from an intrinsic reservoir. A linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations reveal a region of stability of these vortices. Beams with multiple vorticities have their stability regions too. These beams can then form robust tubular filaments in transparent dielectrics as common as air, water and optical glasses at sufficiently high intensities. We also show that the tubular, rotating and speckle-like filamentation regimes, previously observed in experiments with axicon-generated Bessel beams, can be explained as manifestations of the stability or instability of a specific nonlinear Bessel-vortex state, which is fully identified.

  17. Stabilization of vortex beams in Kerr media by nonlinear absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Miguel A.; Carvalho, Márcio; Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-11-01

    We elaborate a solution for the problem of stable propagation of transversely localized vortex beams in homogeneous optical media with self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Stationary nonlinear Bessel-vortex states are stabilized against azimuthal breakup and collapse by multiphoton absorption, while the respective power loss is offset by the radial influx of the power from an intrinsic reservoir. A linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations reveal a region of stability of these vortices. Beams with multiple vorticities have their stability regions too. These beams can then form robust tubular filaments in transparent dielectrics as common as air, water, and optical glasses at sufficiently high intensities. We also show that the tubular, rotating, and specklelike filamentation regimes, previously observed in experiments with axicon-generated Bessel beams, can be explained as manifestations of the stability or instability of a specific nonlinear Bessel-vortex state, which is fully identified.

  18. Broadband feedback systems for the damping of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring ELSA; Breitbandige Feedback-Systeme zur Daempfung kohaerenter Strahlinstabilitaeten am Stretcherring ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, Andre

    2012-12-15

    At the Electron Stretcher Facility ELSA an upgrade of the internal beam current up to 200 mA would be desirable in order to increase the intensity of the extracted electron beam for the future experimental hadron physics program. However, such an upgrade is mainly limited by the excitation of coherent beam instabilities in the stretcher ring. As active counteraction, broadband bunch-by-bunch feedback-systems for the longitudinal, as well as for both transverse planes were installed. After detection of the motion of each of the 27 4 stored bunches via beam position monitors, the systems determine independent correction signals for each bunch using digital signal processors. The amplified correction signals are applied to the beam by means of broadband longitudinal and transverse kicker structures. The detailed setup, the commissioning procedure and measurement results of the damping performance of the systems are presented. In addition, the operation of the longitudinal system during the fast energy ramp of 4 GeV/s from 1.2 GeV to 3.2 GeV is investigated.

  19. Langmuir wave filamentation in the kinetic regime

    CERN Document Server

    Silantyev, Denis A; Rose, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear Langmuir wave in the kinetic regime $k\\lambda_D\\gtrsim0.2$ has a transverse instability, where $k$ is the wavenumber and $\\lambda_D$ is the Debye length. The nonlinear stage of that instability development leads to the filamentation of Langmuir waves. Here we study the linear stage of transverse instability of both Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes and dynamically prepared BGK-like initial conditions to find the same instability growth rate suggesting the universal mechanism for the kinetic saturation of stimulated Raman scatter in laser-plasma interaction experiments. Multidimensional Vlasov simulations results are compared to the theoretical predictions.

  20. Astrophysical Weibel instability in counterstreaming laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, William; Fiksel, Gennady; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Change, Po-Yu; Germaschewski, Kai; Hu, Suxing; Nilson, Philip

    2014-06-01

    Astrophysical shock waves play diverse roles, including energizing cosmic rays in the blast waves of astrophysical explosions, and generating primordial magnetic fields during the formation of galaxies and clusters. These shocks are typically collisionless and require collective electromagnetic fields to couple the upstream and downstream plasmas. The Weibel instability has been proposed to provide the requisite interaction mechanism for shock formation in weakly-magnetized shocks by generating turbulent electric and magnetic fields in the shock front. This work presents the first laboratory identification of this Weibel instability between counterstreaming supersonic plasma flows and confirms its basic features, a significant step towards understanding these shocks. In the experiments, conducted on the OMEGA EP laser facility at the University of Rochester, a pair of plasmas plumes are generated by irradiating of a pair of opposing parallel plastic (CH) targets. The ion-ion interaction between the two plumes is collisionless, so as the plumes interpenetrate, supersonic, counterstreaming ion flow conditions are obtained. Electromagnetic fields formed in the interaction of the two plumes were probed with an ultrafast laser-driven proton beam, and we observed the growth of a highly striated, transverse instability with extended filaments parallel to the flows. The instability is identified as an ion-driven Weibel instability through agreement with analytic theory and particle-in-cell simulations, paving the way for further detailed laboratory study of this instability and its consequences for particle energization and shock formation.[1] W. Fox, G. Fiksel, A. Bhattacharjee, P. Y. Chang, K. Germaschewski, S. X. Hu, and P. M. Nilson, “Filamentation instability of counterstreaming laser-driven plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 225002 (2013).

  1. Band Structure of the Growth Rate of the Two-Stream Instability of an Electron Beam Propagating in a Bounded Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kaganovich, I D

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a finite-size plasma placed between two electrodes. It is shown that the growth rate in such a system is much smaller than that of an infinite plasma or a finite size plasma with periodic boundary conditions. Even if the width of the plasma matches the resonance condition for a standing wave, a spatially growing wave is excited instead with the growth rate small compared to that of the standing wave in a periodic system. The approximate expression for this growth rate is $\\gamma \\approx (1/13)\\omega_{pe}(n_{b}/n_{p})(L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})\\ln (L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b})[ 1-0.18\\cos ( L\\omega_{pe}/v_{b}+{\\pi }/{2}) ]$, where $\\omega_{pe}$ is the electron plasma frequency, $n_{b}$ and $n_{p}$ are the beam and the plasma densities, respectively, $v_{b}$ is the beam velocity, and $L$ is the plasma width. The frequency, wave number and the spatial and temporal growth rates as functions of the plasma size exhibit band structure.

  2. Orbital angular momentum of helical necklace beams in colloid-based nonlinear optical metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasik, Wiktor T.; Silahli, Salih Z.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2016-09-01

    Colloidal metamaterials are a robust and flexible platform for engineering of optical nonlinearities and studies of light filamentation. To date, nonlinear propagation and modulation instability of Gaussian beams and optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum were studied in such media. Here, we investigate the propagation of necklace beams and the conservation of the orbital angular momentum in colloidal media with saturable nonlinearity. We study various scenarios leading to generation of helical necklace beams or twisted beams, depending on the radius, power, and charge of the input vortex beam. Helical beams are build of two separate solitary beams with circular cross-sections that spiral around their center of mass as a result of the equilibrium between the attraction force of in-phase solitons and the centrifugal force associated with the rotational movement. A twisted beam is a single beam with an elliptical cross-section that rotates around it's own axis. We show that the orbital angular momentum is converted into the rotational motion at different rates for helical and twisted beams. While earlier studies reported that solitary beams are expelled form the initial vortex ring along straight trajectories tangent to the vortex ring, we show that depending on the charge and the power of the initial beam, these trajectories can diverge from the tangential direction and may be curvilinear. These results provide a detailed description of necklace beam dynamics in saturable nonlinear media and may be useful in studies of light filamentation in liquids and light propagation in highly scattering colloids and biological samples.

  3. Implications of plasma beam instabilities for the statistics of the Fermi hard gamma-ray blazars and the origin of the extragalactic gamma-ray background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 East Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Fermi has been instrumental in constraining the luminosity function and redshift evolution of gamma-ray bright BL Lac objects, a subpopulation of blazars with almost featureless optical spectra. This includes limits on the spectrum and anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB), redshift distribution of nearby Fermi active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the construction of a logN-log S relation. Based on these, it has been argued that the evolution of the gamma-ray bright BL Lac population must be much less dramatic than that of other AGNs. However, critical to such claims is the assumption that inverse Compton cascades reprocess emission above a TeV into the Fermi energy range, substantially enhancing the strength of the observed limits. Here we demonstrate that in the absence of such a process, due, e.g., to the presence of virulent plasma beam instabilities that preempt the cascade, a population of TeV-bright BL Lac objects that evolve similarly to quasars is consistent with the population of hard gamma-ray BL Lac objects observed by Fermi. Specifically, we show that a simple model for the properties and luminosity function is simultaneously able to reproduce their logN-log S relation, local redshift distribution, and contribution to the EGRB and its anisotropy without any free parameters. Insofar as the naturalness of a picture in which the hard gamma-ray BL Lac population exhibits the strong redshift evolution observed in other tracers of the cosmological history of accretion onto halos is desirable, this lends support for the absence of the inverse Compton cascades and the existence of the beam plasma instabilities.

  4. Star forming filaments in warm dark models

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Liang; Springel, Volker

    2014-01-01

    We performed a hydrodynamical cosmological simulation of the formation of a Milky Way-like galaxy in a warm dark matter (WDM) cosmology. Smooth and dense filaments, several co-moving mega parsec long, form generically above z 2 in this model. Atomic line cooling allows gas in the centres of these filaments to cool to the base of the cooling function, resulting in a very striking pattern of extended Lyman-limit systems (LLSs). Observations of the correlation function of LLSs might hence provide useful limits on the nature of the dark matter. We argue that the self-shielding of filaments may lead to a thermal instability resulting in star formation. We implement a sub-grid model for this, and find that filaments rather than haloes dominate star formation until z 6. Reionisation decreases the gas density in filaments, and the more usual star formation in haloes dominates below z 6, although star formation in filaments continues until z=2. Fifteen per cent of the stars of the z=0 galaxy formed in filaments. At hi...

  5. The hydrodynamic stability of gaseous cosmic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Birnboim, Yuval; Zinger, Elad

    2016-01-01

    Virial shocks at edges of cosmic-web structures are a clear prediction of standard structure formation theories. We derive a criterion for the stability of the post-shock gas and of the virial shock itself in spherical, filamentary and planar infall geometries. When gas cooling is important, we find that shocks become unstable, and gas flows uninterrupted towards the center of the respective halo, filament or sheet. For filaments, we impose this criterion on self-similar infall solutions. We find that instability is expected for filament masses between $10^{11}-10^{13}M_\\odot Mpc^{-1}.$ Using a simplified toy model, we then show that these filaments will likely feed halos with $10^{10}M_{\\odot}\\lesssim M_{halo}\\lesssim 10^{13}M_{\\odot}$ at redshift $z=3$, as well as $10^{12}M_{\\odot}\\lesssim M_{halo}\\lesssim 10^{15}M_{\\odot}$ at $z=0$. The instability will affect the survivability of the filaments as they penetrate gaseous halos in a non-trivial way. Additionally, smaller halos accreting onto non-stable filam...

  6. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...

  7. MHD Instabilities and Their Effects on Plasma Confinement in Large Helical Device Plasmas with Intense Neutral Beam Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Toi; K. Narihara; K. Tanaka; T. Tokuzawa; H. Yamada; Q. Yang; LHD experimental group; S. Ohdachi; S. Yamamoto; S. Sakakibara; K. Y. Watanabe; N. Nakajima; X. Ding; J. Li; S. Morita

    2004-01-01

    MHD stability of the Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas produced with intense neutral beam injection is experimentally studied. When the steep pressure gradient near the edge is produced through L-H transition or linear density ramp experiment, interchange-like MHD modes whose rational surface is located very close to the last closed flux surface are strongly excited in a certain discharge condition and affect the plasma transport appreciably. In NBI-heated energetic ion loss, but also trigger the formation of internal and edge transport barriers.

  8. Collective instabilities and collisional effects for a 2D model of a beam in a storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, C

    2007-01-01

    We consider a collisional 2D model for a beam in a ring. In the smooth focusing approximation the relaxation time scales according to Landau’s theory, but the p.d.f of momentum jumps has a power law decaying queue. A new hybrid regime is found for the equipartitioning due to the interplay between collisional and collective effects. The moments equations of a small perturbation to the KV distribution are analytically determined and the stability conditions follow from Floquet’s theory.

  9. Filament propagation length of femtosecond pulses with different transverse modes

    CERN Document Server

    Kaya, N; Kaya, G; Strohaber, J; Kolomenskii, A A; Schuessler, H A

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally studied intense femtosecond pulse filamentation and propagation in water for Gaussian, Laguerre-Gaussian, and Bessel-Gaussian incident beams. These different transverse modes for incident laser pulses were created from an initial Gaussian beam by using a computer generated hologram technique. We found that the length of the filament induced by the Bessel-Gaussian incident beam was longer than that for the other transverse modes under the conditions of the same peak intensity, pulse duration, and the size of the central part of the beam. To better understand the Bessel-Gaussian beam propagation, we performed a more detailed study of the filament length as a function of the number of radial modal lobes. The length increased with the number of lobes, implying that the radial modal lobes serve as an energy reservoir for the filament formed by the central intensity peak.

  10. Effect of light source instability on uniformity of 3D reconstructions from a cone beam optical CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, J; Taylor, M L; Holloway, L; Kron, T; Franich, R D

    2014-12-01

    Temporally varying light intensity during acquisition of projection images in an optical CT scanner can potentially be misinterpreted as physical properties of the sample. This work investigated the impact of LED light source intensity instability on measured attenuation coefficients. Different scenarios were investigated by conducting one or both of the reference and data scans in a 'cold' scanner, where the light source intensity had not yet stabilised. Uniform samples were scanned to assess the impact on measured uniformity. The orange (590 nm) light source decreased in intensity by 29 % over the first 2 h, while the red (633 nm) decreased by 9 %. The rates of change of intensity at 2 h were 0.1 and 0.03 % respectively over a 5 min period-corresponding to the scan duration. The normalisation function of the reconstruction software does not fully account for the intensity differences and discrepancies remain. Attenuation coefficient inaccuracies of up to 8 % were observed for data reconstructed from projection images acquired with a cold scanner. Increased noise was observed for most cases where one or both of the scans was acquired without sufficient warm-up. The decrease in accuracy and increase in noise were most apparent for data reconstructed from reference and data scans acquired with a cold scanner on different days.

  11. Return-current formation in the electron beam – plasma system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bárta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a 3-D electromagnetic particle-in-cell model an evolution of the electron distribution function in the beam-plasma system with the return current is computed. It was found that the resulting electron distribution function depends on the magnetic field assumed along the beam-propagation direction. While for small magnetic fields the electron distribution function becomes broad in the direction perpendicular to the beam propagation due to the Weibel (filamentation instability and the return current is formed by a shifted bulk distribution, for stronger magnetic fields the distribution, especially on the return current side, is extended in the beam-propagation direction. To understand better the instabilities influencing the mentioned processes, the dispersion diagrams are computed and discussed.

  12. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Kurz, Heiko G.; Bergé, Luc; Skupin, Stefan; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled to the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which has been paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions in the picosecond regime are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. In focused propagation geometry, a unique feature of picosecond filamentation is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for many applications including laser-guided electrical breakdown of air, channeling microwave beams and air lasing.

  13. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments - Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Filaments are formed in magnetic loops that hold relatively cool, dense gas suspended above the surface of the Sun (David Hathaway/NASA)

  14. Flexible magnetic filaments in a shear flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebers, Andrejs [Institute of Physics, University of Latvia, Salaspils-1 LV-2169 (Latvia)]. E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2006-05-15

    By flexible magnetic filament model its behavior under the simultaneous action of the shear flow and the magnetic field is investigated. It is found that for magnetoelastic numbers larger as the critical value, which depends on the shear rate, the periodic regime is established. For the values of the magnetoelastic number close to the critical the periodical regime is characterized by a rather slow development of the buckling instability due to the action of magnetic torques with the subsequent stage of the fast straightening of the filament. For the magnetoelastic numbers below the critical slightly bent shape of the filament orientated along the flow is established. The application of the results for the description of the viscoelasticity of the magnetorheological suspensions is discussed.

  15. Reduced filamentation in high power semiconductor lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Peter M. W.; McInerney, John; O'Brien, Peter

    1999-01-01

    High brightness semiconductor lasers have applications in fields ranging from material processing to medicine. The main difficulty associated with high brightness is that high optical power densities cause damage to the laser facet and thus require large apertures. This, in turn, results in spatio......-temporal instabilities such as filamentation which degrades spatial coherence and brightness. We first evaluate performance of existing designs with a “top-hat” shaped transverse current density profile. The unstable nature of highly excited semiconductor material results in a run-away process where small modulations...... in the optical field causes spatial hole-burning and thus filamentation. To reduce filamentation we propose a new, relatively simple design based on inhomogeneous pumping in which the injected current has a gradual transverse profile. We confirm the improved laser performance theoretically and experimentally...

  16. Aperiodic magnetic turbulence produced by relativistic ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Niemiec, Jacek; Bret, Antoine; Stroman, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic-field generation by a relativistic ion beam propagating through an electron-ion plasma along a homogeneous magnetic field is investigated with 2.5D high-resolution particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The studies test predictions of a strong amplification of short-wavelength modes of magnetic turbulence upstream of nonrelativistic and relativistic parallel shocks associated with supernova remnants, jets of active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We find good agreement in the properties of the turbulence observed in our simulations compared with the dispersion relation calculated for linear waves with arbitrary orientation of ${\\vec k}$. Depending on the parameters, the backreaction on the ion beam leads to filamentation of the ambient plasma and the beam, which in turn influences the properties of the magnetic turbulence. For mildly- and ultra-relativistic beams, the instability saturates at field amplitudes a few times larger than the homogeneous magnetic field strength. This result matches our...

  17. The general dispersion relation of induced streaming instabilities in quantum outflow systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdian, H., E-mail: mehdian@khu.ac.ir; Hajisharifi, K.; Hasanbeigi, A. [Department of Physics and Institute for Plasma Research, Kharazmi University, 49 Dr Mofatteh Avenue, Tehran 15614 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript the dispersion relations of streaming instabilities, by using the unique property (neutralized in charge and current by default) of plasma shells colliding, have been generalized and studied. This interesting property for interpenetrating beams enables one to find the general dispersion relations without any restrictions used in the previous works in this area. In our previous work [H. Mehdian et al., ApJ. 801, 89 (2015)], employing the plasma shell concept and boost frame method, the general dispersion relation for filamentation instability has been derived in the relativistic classical regime. But in this paper, using the above mentioned concepts, the general dispersion relations (for each of streaming instabilities, filamentation, two-stream and multi-stream) in the non-relativistic quantum regime have been derived by employing the quantum fluid equations together with Maxwell equations. The derived dispersion relations enable to describe any arbitrary system of interacting two and three beams, justified neutralization condition, by choosing the inertial reference frame embedded on the one of the beams. Furthermore, by the numerical and analytical study of these dispersion relations, many new features of streaming instabilities (E.g. their cut-off wave numbers and growth rates) in terms of all involved parameters have been illustrated. The obtained results in this paper can be used to describe many astrophysical systems and laboratory astrophysics setting, such as collision of non-parallel plasma shells over a background plasma or the collision of three neutralized plasma slabs, and justifying the many plasma phenomena such as particle accelerations and induced fields.

  18. Studies of Energy Recovery Linacs at Jefferson Laboratory: 1 GeV Demonstration of Energy Recovery at CEBAF and Studies of the Multibunch, Multipass Beam Breakup Instability in the 10 kW FEL Upgrade Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-10-01

    An energy recovering linac (ERL) offers an attractive alternative for generating intense beams of charged particles by approaching the operational efficiency of a storage ring while maintaining the superior beam quality typical of a linear accelerator. Two primary physics challenges exist in pushing the frontier of ERL performance. The first is energy recovering a high energy beam while demonstrating operational control of two coupled beams in a common transport channel. The second is controlling the high average current effects in ERLs, specifically a type of beam instability called multipass beam breakup (BBU). This work addresses both of these issues. A successful 1 GeV energy recovery demonstration with a maximum-to-injection energy ratio of 51:1 was carried out on the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility at Jefferson Laboratory in an effort to address issues related to beam quality preservation in a large scale system. With a 1.3 km recirculation length and containing 312 superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, this experiment has demonstrated energy recovery on the largest scale, and through the largest SRF environment, to date. The BBU instability imposes a potentially severe limitation to the average current that can be accelerated in an ERL. Simulation results for Jefferson Laboratory's 10 kW free electron laser (FEL) Upgrade Driver predict the occurrence of BBU below the nominal operating current. Measurements of the threshold current are described and shown to agree to within 10% of predictions from BBU simulation codes. This represents the first time the codes have been benchmarked with experimental data. With BBU limiting the beam current, several suppression schemes were developed. These include direct damping of the higher-order mode using two different cavity-based feedbacks and modifying the electron beam optics to reduce the coupling between the beam and mode. Specifically the effect of implementing (1) point

  19. Drops moving along and across a filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rakesh P.; Sinha-Ray, Suman; Yarin, Alexander; Pourdeyhimi, Behnam

    2013-11-01

    The present work is devoted to the experimental study of oil drop motion both along and across a filament due to the air jet blowing. In case of drop moving along the filament, phenomena such as drop stick-slip motion, shape oscillations, shedding of a tail along the filament, the tail capillary instability and drop recoil motion were observed which were rationalized in the framework of simplified models. Experiments with cross-flow of the surrounding gas relative to the filament with an oil drop on it were conducted, with air velocity in the range of 7.23 to 22.7 m s-1. The Weber number varied from 2 to 40 and the Ohnesorge number varied from 0.07 to 0.8. The lower and upper critical Weber numbers were introduced to distinguish between the beginning of the drop blowing off the filament and the onset of the bag-stamen breakup. The range of the Weber number between these two critical values is filled with three types of vibrational breakup: V1 (a balloon-like drop being blown off), V2 (a drop on a single stamen being blown off), and V3 (a drop on a double stamen being blown off). The Weber number/Ohnesorge number plane was delineated into domains of different breakup regimes. The work is supported by the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC).

  20. Failure and nonfailure of fluid filaments in extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Kolte, Mette Irene; Renardy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    fluid filaments do not exhibit ductile failure without surface tension; (2) some viscoelastic fluids form stable filaments while other fluids exhibit ductile failure as a result of an elastic instability; (3) for large Deborah numbers, the Considere condition may be used to predict the Hencky strain......The phenomenon of ductile failure of Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid filaments without surface tension is studied by a 2D finite element method and by ID non-linear analysis. The viscoelastic fluids are described by single integral constitutive equations. The main conclusions are: (1) Newtonian...

  1. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  2. Semiflexible filamentous composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, E.M.; Heussinger, C.; Storm, C.; Barkema, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by the ubiquity of composite filamentous networks in nature, we investigate models of biopolymer networks that consist of interconnected floppy and stiff filaments. Numerical simulations carried out in three dimensions allow us to explore the microscopic partitioning of stresses and strains

  3. Proteomics of Filamentous Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passel, van M.W.J.; Schaap, P.J.; Graaff, de L.H.

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae traditionally have had an important role in providing enzymes and enzyme cocktails that are used in food industry. In recent years the genome sequences of many filamentous fungi have become available. This combined with technologica

  4. Tungsten Filament Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2016-01-01

    We safely remove the outer glass bulb from an incandescent lamp and burn up the tungsten filament after the glass is removed. This demonstration dramatically illustrates the necessity of a vacuum or inert gas for the environment surrounding the tungsten filament inside the bulb. Our approach has added historical importance since the incandescent…

  5. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  6. Electron proton instability in the CSNS ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Na; QIN Qing; LIU Yu-Dong

    2009-01-01

    The electron proton(e-p)instability has been observed in many proton accelerators.It will induce transverse beam size blow-up,cause beam loss and restrict the machine performance.Much research work has been done on the causes,dynamics and cures of this instability.A simulation code is developed to study the e-p instability in the ring of the China Spallation Neutron Source(CSNS).

  7. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  8. PIC Simulations of the Temperature Anisotropy-Driven Weibel Instability: Analyzing the perpendicular mode

    CERN Document Server

    Stockem, A; Schlickeiser, R

    2010-01-01

    An instability driven by the thermal anisotropy of a single electron species is investigated in a 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. This instability is the one considered by Weibel and it differs from the beam driven filamentation instability. A comparison of the simulation results with analytic theory provides similar exponential growth rates of the magnetic field during the linear growth phase of the instability. We observe in accordance with previous works the growth of electric fields during the saturation phase of the instability. Some components of this electric field are not accounted for by the linearized theory. A single-fluid-based theory is used to determine the source of this nonlinear electric field. It is demonstrated that the magnetic stress tensor, which vanishes in a 1D geometry, is more important in this 2-dimensional model used here. The electric field grows to an amplitude, which yields a force on the electrons that is comparable to the magnetic one. The peak energy density of each mag...

  9. Astrophysical Weibel instability in counter-streaming laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, W.

    2014-10-01

    Astrophysical shock waves play diverse roles, including energizing cosmic rays in the blast waves of astrophysical explosions, and generating primordial magnetic fields during the formation of galaxies and clusters. These shocks are typically collisionless and require collective electromagnetic fields to couple the upstream and downstream plasmas. The Weibel instability has been proposed to provide the requisite interaction mechanism for shock formation in weakly-magnetized shocks by generating turbulent electric and magnetic fields in the shock front. This work presents the first laboratory identification of this Weibel instability between counterstreaming supersonic plasma flows and confirms its basic features, a significant step towards understanding these shocks. In the experiments, conducted on the OMEGA EP laser facility at the University of Rochester, a pair of plasmas plumes are generated by irradiating of a pair of opposing parallel plastic (CH) targets. The ion-ion interaction between the two plumes is collisionless, so as the plumes interpenetrate, supersonic, counterstreaming ion flow conditions are obtained. Electromagnetic fields formed in the interaction of the two plumes were probed with an ultrafast laser-driven proton beam, and we observed the growth of a highly striated, transverse instability with extended filaments parallel to the flows. The instability is identified as an ion-driven Weibel instability through agreement with analytic theory and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of colliding ablation flows, which include a collision operator. The experimental proton-radiography results are compared with synthetic ray-tracing through 3-D simulations.

  10. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  11. Femtosecond Laser Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, See Leang

    2010-01-01

    Femtosecond Laser Filamentation gives a comprehensive review of the physics of propagation of intense femtosecond laser pulses in optical media (principally air) and the applications and challenges of this new technique. This book presents the modern understanding of the physics of femtosecond laser pulse propagation, including unusual new effects such as the self-transformation of the pulse into a white light laser pulse, intensity clamping, the physics of multiple filamentation and competition, and how filaments’ ability to melt glass leads to wave guide writing. The potential applications of laser filamentation in atmospheric sensing and the generation of other electromagnetic pulses from the UV to the radio frequency are treated, together with possible future challenges in the excitation of super-excited states of molecules. Exciting new phenomena such as filament induced ultrafast birefringence and the excitation of molecular rotational wave packets and their multiple revivals in air (gases) will also ...

  12. Modeling the Galactic Center Nonthermal Filaments as Magnetized Wake

    CERN Document Server

    Dahlburg, R B; La Rosa, T N; Shore, S N; Dahlburg, Russell B.; Einaudi, Giorgio; Shore, Steven N.

    2001-01-01

    We simulate the Galactic Center nonthermal filaments as magnetized wakes formed dynamically from amplification of a weak (tens of $\\mu$G) global magnetic field through the interaction of molecular clouds with a Galactic Center wind. One of the key issues in this cometary model is the stability of the filament against dynamical disruption. Here we show 2-dimensional MHD simulations for interstellar conditions that are appropriate for the Galactic Center. The structures eventually disrupt through a shear driven nonlinear instability but maintain coherence for lengths up to 100 times their width as observed. The final instability, which destroys the filament through shredding and plasmoid formation, grows quickly in space (and time) and leads to an abrupt end to the structure, in accord with observations. As a by-product, the simulation shows that emission should peak well downstream from the cloud-wind interaction site.

  13. Evolutionarily divergent, unstable filamentous actin is essential for gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skillman, Kristen M; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Khan, Asis; Tang, Keliang; Sept, David; Sibley, L David

    2011-10-01

    Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and its relationship to gliding motility remain unresolved. We demonstrate that recombinant Toxoplasma (TgACTI) and Plasmodium (PfACTI and PfACTII) actins polymerized into very short filaments in vitro but were induced to form long, stable filaments by addition of equimolar levels of phalloidin. Parasite actins contain a conserved phalloidin-binding site as determined by molecular modeling and computational docking, yet vary in several residues that are predicted to impact filament stability. In particular, two residues were identified that form intermolecular contacts between different protomers in conventional actin filaments and these residues showed non-conservative differences in apicomplexan parasites. Substitution of divergent residues found in TgACTI with those from mammalian actin resulted in formation of longer, more stable filaments in vitro. Expression of these stabilized actins in T. gondii increased sensitivity to the actin-stabilizing compound jasplakinolide and disrupted normal gliding motility in the absence of treatment. These results identify the molecular basis for short, dynamic filaments in apicomplexan parasites and demonstrate that inherent instability of parasite actin filaments is a critical adaptation for gliding motility.

  14. Evolutionarily divergent, unstable filamentous actin is essential for gliding motility in apicomplexan parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Skillman

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites rely on a novel form of actin-based motility called gliding, which depends on parasite actin polymerization, to migrate through their hosts and invade cells. However, parasite actins are divergent both in sequence and function and only form short, unstable filaments in contrast to the stability of conventional actin filaments. The molecular basis for parasite actin filament instability and its relationship to gliding motility remain unresolved. We demonstrate that recombinant Toxoplasma (TgACTI and Plasmodium (PfACTI and PfACTII actins polymerized into very short filaments in vitro but were induced to form long, stable filaments by addition of equimolar levels of phalloidin. Parasite actins contain a conserved phalloidin-binding site as determined by molecular modeling and computational docking, yet vary in several residues that are predicted to impact filament stability. In particular, two residues were identified that form intermolecular contacts between different protomers in conventional actin filaments and these residues showed non-conservative differences in apicomplexan parasites. Substitution of divergent residues found in TgACTI with those from mammalian actin resulted in formation of longer, more stable filaments in vitro. Expression of these stabilized actins in T. gondii increased sensitivity to the actin-stabilizing compound jasplakinolide and disrupted normal gliding motility in the absence of treatment. These results identify the molecular basis for short, dynamic filaments in apicomplexan parasites and demonstrate that inherent instability of parasite actin filaments is a critical adaptation for gliding motility.

  15. Dynamics of wave fronts and filaments in anisotropic cardiac tissue

    CERN Document Server

    Dierckx, Hans J F M

    2015-01-01

    The heartbeat is mediated between cardiac cells by waves of electrical depolarisation. During cardiac arrhythmias, electrical activity was found to be organised in scroll waves which rotate around a dynamical filament curve. In this thesis, a curved-space approach is used to mathematically capture anisotropy of wave propagation. We derive for the first time the covariant laws of motion for traveling wave fronts and scroll wave filaments in anisotropic excitable media such as cardiac tissue. We show that locally varying anisotropy yields non-zero Riemann tensor components, which may alter the stability of scroll wave filaments. The instability of scroll wave filaments has been linked to transition from ventricular tachycardia to fibrillation.

  16. The role of surface tension on the elastic decohesion of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We simulate the rapid extension of polymeric filaments between parallel plates with special attention to the role of surface tension in the symmetry breaking aximuthal instability that may occur near the end plates. The instability is viewed as a precursor to the eventual elastic decohesion of th...

  17. Subhalo Accretion through Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roberto E.; Padilla, Nelson D.

    2016-09-01

    We track subhalo orbits of galaxy- and group-sized halos in cosmological simulations. We identify filamentary structures around halos and use these to define a sample of subhalos accreted from filaments, as well as a control sample of subhalos accreted from other directions. We use these samples to study differences in satellite orbits produced by filamentary accretion. Our results depend on host halo mass. We find that for low masses, subhalos accreted from filaments show ∼10% shorter lifetimes compared to the control sample, show a tendency toward more radial orbits, reach halo central regions earlier, and are more likely to merge with the host. For higher-mass halos this lifetime difference dissipates and even reverses for cluster-sized halos. This behavior appears to be connected to the fact that more massive hosts are connected to stronger filaments with higher velocity coherence and density, with slightly more radial subhalo orbits. Because subhalos tend to follow the coherent flow of the filament, it is possible that such thick filaments are enough to shield the subhalo from the effect of dynamical friction at least during their first infall. We also identify subhalo pairs/clumps that merge with one another after accretion. They survive as a clump for only a very short time, which is even shorter for higher subhalo masses, suggesting that the Magellanic Clouds and other Local group satellite associations may have entered the Milky Way virial radius very recently and probably are in their first infall.

  18. Formation of current filaments and magnetic field generation in a quantum current-carrying plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghadosi, M. R.; Majedi, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    The nonlinear dynamics of filamentation instability and magnetic field in a current-carrying plasma is investigated in the presence of quantum effects using the quantum hydrodynamic model. A new nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained for the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic field in the diffusion regime. This equation is solved by applying the Adomian decomposition method, and then the profiles of magnetic field and electron density are plotted. It is shown that the saturation time of filamentation instability increases and, consequently, the instability growth rate and the magnetic field amplitude decrease in the presence of quantum effects.

  19. Aerogel-supported filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Craig R.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Johnson, III, Coleman V.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

  20. Mechanical instability

    CERN Document Server

    Krysinski, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a study of the stability of mechanical systems, i.e. their free response when they are removed from their position of equilibrium after a temporary disturbance. After reviewing the main analytical methods of the dynamical stability of systems, it highlights the fundamental difference in nature between the phenomena of forced resonance vibration of mechanical systems subjected to an imposed excitation and instabilities that characterize their free response. It specifically develops instabilities arising from the rotor-structure coupling, instability of control systems, the se

  1. Collective instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  2. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  3. Filamentation and supercontinuum generation in lanthanum glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxia; Liao, Meisong; Li, Xia; Bi, Wanjun; Ohishi, Yasutake; Cheng, Tonglei; Fang, Yongzheng; Zhao, Guoying; Gao, Weiqing

    2017-01-01

    A broadband supercontinuum (SC) covering 400-2800 nm in a 20 dB dynamic range is reported in a piece of highly nonlinear, low-dispersion bulk lanthanum glass without employing any lens to focus the pump pulse. The spectrum width obtained in this study is broader than the maximum spectrum width obtained in silica photonic crystal fibers. The filaments and bright conical visible emission patterns of the SC are analyzed. Under optimum pump conditions, an SC conversion efficiency of 75% is obtained. The SC conversion efficiency is confirmed to be stable. Additionally, the relationship between the input peak intensity and the output beam radius is elucidated by simulating the propagation of a Gaussian beam in the bulk lanthanum glass. A 0.20 mm stable laser beam radius at the end of the propagation domain is demonstrated in a certain input peak intensity range. This small value of the beam radius indicates that most of the output power is localized over a small region because of the Kerr focusing effect despite the existence of conical emission in the SC generation by filamentation. The findings of this study are of significance for the development of ultra-broadband SC sources based on bulk glasses and high peak power lasers.

  4. Solar Features - Prominences and Filaments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Prominences and filaments are two manifestations of the same phenomenon. Both prominences and filaments are features formed above the chromosphere by cool dense...

  5. Positrusion Filament Recycling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TUI proposes a novel process to produce 3d printer feedstock filament out of scrap ABS on the ISS. Currently the plastic filament materials that most 3d printers use...

  6. Theoretical study of electrostatic two-stream instability on cold relativistic electron beams%相对论性冷电子束流静电双流不稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺妮妮; 刘笑兰

    2012-01-01

    The relativistic electrostatic two-stream instability can take place in the fast ignition process of in-ertial confinement fusion, which has an important influence on the fast electron propagation and energy deposition. From the full covariant relativistic hydrodynamic equations of electromagnetism,the relativistic electrostatic two-stream instability has been investigated both (delete) analytically and numerically. The dispersion relation for cold relativistic electron beams was derived. The numerical results indicated that a-long with the fast-electron beam density increasing,the electron two-stream instability growth rate would become larger,while the unstable range would become smaller and shift to the smaller wave number region. By contrast, as the speed of fast stream increases, the growth rate and unstable region decrease. In brief,the two-stream instability is restrained.%激光核聚变的“快点火”过程中高能电子的产生会引起相对论性静电双流不稳定性,它对相对论性电子的传输和能量沉积有重要影响.从完全协变相对论性电磁流体力学方程出发,研究了相对论性冷电子束流激发的静电双流不稳定性.研究表明,快电子束流速度越大,对不稳定的增长率和不稳定区域的抑制性越强,即相对论性越强,越能抑制双流不稳定性的产生;而快电子束密度越大,越易于引发双流不稳定性;随着快电子束流速度以及束流密度的增大,不稳定性最大增长率都向小波数区域移动.

  7. TubZ filament assembly dynamics requires the flexible C-terminal tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pérez, Maria E.; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Martín-González, Alejandro; Juan-Rodríguez, David; Llorca, Oscar; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Oliva, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    Cytomotive filaments are essential for the spatial organization in cells, showing a dynamic behavior based on nucleotide hydrolysis. TubZ is a tubulin-like protein that functions in extrachromosomal DNA movement within bacteria. TubZ filaments grow in a helical fashion following treadmilling or dynamic instability, although the underlying mechanism is unclear. We have unraveled the molecular basis for filament assembly and dynamics combining electron and atomic force microscopy and biochemical analyses. Our findings suggest that GTP caps retain the filament helical structure and hydrolysis triggers filament stiffening upon disassembly. We show that the TubZ C-terminal tail is an unstructured domain that fulfills multiple functions contributing to the filament helical arrangement, the polymer remodeling into tubulin-like rings and the full disassembly process. This C-terminal tail displays the binding site for partner proteins and we report how it modulates the interaction of the regulator protein TubY. PMID:28230082

  8. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  9. Different approaches to modeling the LANSCE H- ion source filament performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, I. N.; O'Hara, J. F.; Rybarcyk, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    An overview of different approaches to modeling of hot tungsten filament performance in the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) H- surface converter ion source is presented. The most critical components in this negative ion source are two specially shaped wire filaments heated up to the working temperature range of 2600 K-2700 K during normal beam production. In order to prevent catastrophic filament failures (creation of hot spots, wire breaking, excessive filament deflection towards source body, etc.) and to improve understanding of the material erosion processes, we have simulated the filament performance using three different models: a semi-empirical model, a thermal finite-element analysis model, and an analytical model. Results of all three models were compared with data taken during LANSCE beam production. The models were used to support the recent successful transition from the beam pulse repetition rate of 60 Hz-120 Hz.

  10. Langmuir wave filamentation in the kinetic regime. II. Weak and Strong Pumping of Nonlinear Electron Plasma Waves as the Route to Filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Silantyev, Denis A; Rose, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    We consider two kinds of pumped Langmuir waves (LWs) in the kinetic regime, $k\\lambda_D\\gtrsim0.2,$ where $k$ is the LW wavenumber and $\\lambda_D$ is the Debye length. They are driven to finite amplitude by a coherent external potential whose amplitude is either weak or strong. These dynamically prepared nonlinear LWs develop a transverse (filamentation) instability whose nonlinear evolution destroys the LW's transverse coherence. Instability growth rates in the weakly pumped regime are the same as those of BGK modes considered in Part I, while strongly pumped LWs have higher filamentation grow rates.

  11. Solid friction between soft filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Andrew; Schwenger, Walter; Welch, David; Lau, A W C; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Mahadevan, L; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    Any macroscopic deformation of a filamentous bundle is necessarily accompanied by local sliding and/or stretching of the constituent filaments. Yet the nature of the sliding friction between two aligned filaments interacting through multiple contacts remains largely unexplored. Here, by directly measuring the sliding forces between two bundled F-actin filaments, we show that these frictional forces are unexpectedly large, scale logarithmically with sliding velocity as in solid-like friction, and exhibit complex dependence on the filaments' overlap length. We also show that a reduction of the frictional force by orders of magnitude, associated with a transition from solid-like friction to Stokes' drag, can be induced by coating F-actin with polymeric brushes. Furthermore, we observe similar transitions in filamentous microtubules and bacterial flagella. Our findings demonstrate how altering a filament's elasticity, structure and interactions can be used to engineer interfilament friction and thus tune the prop...

  12. 激光等离子体相互作用中自生磁场及其空间演化%Spatial Evolution of Electron Beam Instability in the Ultraintense Laser-Plasma Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    帕尔哈提·吐尼亚孜; 阿不都热苏力; 阿布都外力

    2013-01-01

    利用粒子模拟程序,模拟研究了超强激光与等离子体相互作用中的电子束流不稳定性的产生机制,得到了不稳定性所激发的自生磁场的线性增长率与各向异性参数之间的函数关系.观察到了激光与等离子体相互作用时产生的饱和自生磁场在表面领域上的演化过程,发现沿x方向出现的电流比较大时,饱和自生的磁场在z方向的发展比较快,临界面附近较大,但随着深度的增加,逐渐以指数形式减少.%Generation mechanism of electron beam instability in the ultraintense laser-plasma interactions is studied using electromagnetic relativistic particle-in-cell program simulation.Functional relationship between liner growth rate of spontaneous magnetic excited by electron beam instability and anisotropic parameters is provided.The saturated magnetic field in the skin on the field is observed.When the electric current in the x direction is larger,the magnetic field in z direction is stronger than other directions,and all the values get their maximum near the critical area and decrease exponentially with depth becoming larger.

  13. [Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James; Hardee, Philip

    1996-01-01

    NASA grant NAG 5 2866, funded by the Astrophysics Theory Program, enabled the study the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in protostellar jets. In collaboration with co-investigator Philip Hardee, the PI derived the analytic dispersion relation for the instability in including a cooling term in the energy equation which was modeled as one of two different power laws. Numerical solutions to this dispersion relation over a wide range of perturbation frequencies, and for a variety of parameter values characterizing the jet (such as Mach number, and density ratio) were found It was found that the growth rates and wavelengths associated with unstable roots of the dispersion relation in cooling jets are significantly different than those associated with adiabatic jets, which have been studied previously. In collaboration with graduate student Jianjun Xu (funded as a research associate under this grant), hydrodynamical simulations were used to follow the growth of the instability into the nonlinear regime. It was found that asymmetric surface waves lead to large amplitude, sinusoidal distortions of the jet, and ultimately to disruption Asymmetric body waves, on the other hand, result in the formation of shocks in the jet beam in the nonlinear regime. In cooling jets, these shocks lead to the formation of dense knots and filaments of gas within the jet. For sufficiently high perturbation frequencies, however, the jet cannot respond and it remains symmetric. Applying these results to observed systems, such as the Herbig-Haro jets HH34, HH111 and HH47 which have been observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, we predicted that some of the asymmetric structures observed in these systems could be attributed to the K-H modes, but that perturbations on timescales associated with the inner disk (about 1 year) would be too rapid to cause disruption. Moreover, it was discovered that weak shock 'spurs' in the ambient gas produced by ripples in the jet surface due to nonlinear, modes of

  14. Ideal laser-beam propagation through high-temperature ignition Hohlraum plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Meezan, N B; Dixit, S; Moody, J D; Neumayer, P; Pollock, B B; Ross, J S; Glenzer, S H

    2007-02-23

    We demonstrate that a blue (3omega, 351 nm) laser beam with an intensity of 2 x 10(15) W cm(-2) propagates nearly within the original beam cone through a millimeter scale, T(e)=3.5 keV high density (n(e)=5 x 10(20) cm(-3)) plasma. The beam produced less than 1% total backscatter at these high temperatures and densities; the resulting transmission is greater than 90%. Scaling of the electron temperature in the plasma shows that the plasma becomes transparent for uniform electron temperatures above 3 keV. These results are consistent with linear theory thresholds for both filamentation and backscatter instabilities inferred from detailed hydrodynamic simulations. This provides a strong justification for current inertial confinement fusion designs to remain below these thresholds.

  15. Electron plasma wave filamentation in the kinetic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, Pavel; Rose, Harvey; Silantyev, Denis

    2016-10-01

    We consider nonlinear electron plasma wave (EPW) dynamics in the kinetic wavenumber regime, 0.25 Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode. Transverse perturbations of any of these initial conditions grow with time eventually producing strongly nonlinear filamentation followed by plasma turbulence. We compared these simulations with the theoretical results on growth rates of the transverse instability BGK mode showing the satisfactory agreement. Supported by the New Mexico Consortium and NSF DMS-1412140.

  16. Recombination instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1967-01-01

    A recombination instability is considered which may arise in a plasma if the temperature dependence of the volume recombination coefficient, alpha, is sufficiently strong. Two cases are analyzed: (a) a steady-state plasma produced in a neutral gas by X-rays or high energy electrons; and (b) an af...

  17. Wakefields and Instabilities in Linear Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M; Palumbo, L

    2014-01-01

    When a charged particle travels across the vacuum chamber of an accelerator, it induces electromagnetic fields, which are left mainly behind the generating particle. These electromagnetic fields act back on the beam and influence its motion. Such an interaction of the beam with its surro undings results in beam energy losses, alters the shape of the bunches, and shifts the betatron and synchrotron frequencies. At high beam current the fields can even lead to instabilities, thus limiting the performance of the accelerator in terms of beam quality and current intensity. We discuss in this lecture the general features of the electromagnetic fields, introducing the concepts of wakefields and giving a few simple examples in cylindrical geometry. We then show the effect of the wakefields on the dynamics of a beam in a linac, dealing in particular with the beam breakup instability and how to cure it.

  18. Interstellar Turbulent Magnetic Field Generation by Plasma Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Tautz, R C

    2013-01-01

    The maximum magnetic field strength generated by Weibel-type plasma instabilities is estimated for typical conditions in the interstellar medium. The relevant kinetic dispersion relations are evaluated by conducting a parameter study both for Maxwellian and for suprathermal particle distributions showing that micro Gauss magnetic fields can be generated. It is shown that, depending on the streaming velocity and the plasma temperatures, either the longitudinal or a transverse instability will be dominant. In the presence of an ambient magnetic field, the filamentation instability is typically suppressed while the two-stream and the classic Weibel instability are retained.

  19. Modulation Instability in Biased Photorefractive-Photovoltaic Crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ke-Qing; ZHAO Wei; YANG Yan-Long; SUN Chuan-Dong; GAO Hong-Wen; LI Jin-Ping; ZHANG Yan-Peng

    2004-01-01

    @@ We show the modulation instability of broad optical beams in biased photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals under steady-state conditions. This modulation instability growth rate depends on the external bias field, the bulk photovoltaic effect, and the ratio of the optical beam intensity to that of the dark irradiance. Under appropriate conditions, this modulation instability growth rate is the modulation instability growth rate studied previously in biased photorefractive-nonphotovoltaic crystals, and the modulation instability growth rate in open- and closed-circuit photorefractive-photovoltaic crystals can be predicted.

  20. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  1. Surface stress effect on the vibration and instability of nanoscale pipes conveying fluid based on a size-dependent Timoshenko beam model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, R.; Gholami, R.; Norouzzadeh, A.; Darabi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Presented in this paper is a precise investigation of the effect of surface stress on the vibration characteristics and instability of fluid-conveying nanoscale pipes. To this end, the nanoscale pipe is modeled as a Timoshenko nanobeam. The equations of motion of the nanoscale pipe are obtained based on Hamilton's principle and the Gurtin-Murdoch continuum elasticity incorporating the surface stress effect. Afterwards, the generalized differential quadrature method is employed to discretize the governing equations and associated boundary conditions. To what extent important parameters such as the thickness, material and surface stress modulus, residual surface stress, surface density, and boundary conditions influence the natural frequency of nanoscale pipes and the critical velocity of fluid is discussed.

  2. Modifications of the laser beam coherence inertial confinement fusion plasmas; Modifications des proprietes de coherence des faisceaux laser dans les plasmas de fusion par confinement inertiel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grech, M

    2007-06-15

    Inertial confinement fusion by laser requires smoothed laser beam with well-controlled coherence properties. Such beams are made of many randomly distributed intensity maxima: the so-called speckles. As the laser beam propagates through plasma its temporal and spatial coherence can be reduced. This phenomenon is called plasma induced smoothing. For high laser intensities, instabilities developing independently inside the speckles are responsible for the coherence loss. At lower intensities, only collective effects, involving many speckles, can lead to induced smoothing. This thesis is a theoretical, numerical and experimental study of these mechanisms. Accounting for the partially incoherent behavior of the laser beams requires the use of statistical description of the laser-plasma interaction. A model is developed for the multiple scattering of the laser light on the self-induced density perturbations that is responsible for a spreading of the temporal and spatial spectra of the transmitted light. It also serves as a strong seed for the instability of forward stimulated Brillouin scattering that induces both, angular spreading and red-shift of the transmitted light. A statistical model is developed for this instability. A criterion is obtained that gives a laser power (below the critical power for filamentation) above which the instability growth is important. Numerical simulations with the interaction code PARAX and an experiment performed on the ALISE laser facility confirm the importance of these forward scattering mechanisms in the modification of the laser coherence properties. (author)

  3. Fluid description for the resonant Weibel instability

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrat, M; Ghizzo, A

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a fluid model with inclusion of the complete pressure tensor dynamics for the description of Weibel type instabilities in a counterstreaming beams configuration. Differently from the case recently studied in Sarrat et al. 2016, where perturbations perpendicular to the beams were considered, here we focus only on modes propagating along the beams. Such a configuration is responsible for the growth of two kind of instabilities, the Two-Stream Instability and the Weibel instability, which in this geometry becomes "time-resonant", i.e. propagative. This fluid description agrees with the kinetic one and makes it possible e.g. to identify the transition between non-propagative and propagative Weibel modes, already evidenced by Lazar et al. 2009 as a "slope-breaking" of the growth rate, in terms of a merger of two non propagative Weibel modes.

  4. Chaperonin filaments: The archael cytoskeleton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, J.D.; Kagawa, H.K.; Yaoi, Takuro; Olle, E.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1997-08-01

    Chaperonins are multi-subunit double-ring complexed composed of 60-kDa proteins that are believed to mediate protein folding in vivo. The chaperonins in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae are composed of the organism`s two most abundant proteins, which represent 4% of its total protein and have an intracellular concentration of {ge} 3.0 mg/ml. At concentrations of 1.0 mg/ml, purified chaperonin proteins aggregate to form ordered filaments. Filament formation, which requires Mg{sup ++} and nucleotide binding (not hydrolysis), occurs at physiological temperatures under conditions suggesting filaments may exist in vivo. If the estimated 4,600 chaperonins per cell, formed filaments in vivo, they could create a matrix of filaments that would span the diameter of an average S. shibatae cell 100 times. Direct observations of unfixed, minimally treated cells by intermediate voltage electron microscopy (300 kV) revealed an intracellular network of filaments that resembles chaperonin filaments produced in vitro. The hypothesis that the intracellular network contains chaperonins is supported by immunogold analyses. The authors propose that chaperonin activity may be regulated in vivo by filament formation and that chaperonin filaments may serve a cytoskeleton-like function in archaea and perhaps in other prokaryotes.

  5. Local stability of a gravitating filament: a dispersion relation

    CERN Document Server

    Freundlich, Jonathan; Combes, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Filamentary structures are ubiquitous in astrophysics and are observed at various scales. On a cosmological scale, matter is usually distributed along filaments, and filaments are also typical features of the interstellar medium. Within a cosmic filament, matter can contract and form galaxies, whereas an interstellar gas filament can clump into a series of bead-like structures which can then turn into stars. To investigate the growth of such instabilities, we derive a local dispersion relation for an idealized self-gravitating filament, and study some of its properties. Our idealized picture consists of an infinite self-gravitating and rotating cylinder with pressure and density related by a polytropic equation of state. We assume no specific density distribution, treat matter as a fluid, and use hydrodynamics to derive the linearized equations that govern the local perturbations. We obtain a dispersion relation for axisymmetric perturbations and study its properties in the (k_R, k_z) phase space, where k_R a...

  6. Focused ion beam and field-emission microscopy of metallic filaments in memory devices based on thin films of an ambipolar organic compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Christopher; Bowen, Leon; Lee, Myung Won; Fisher, Alison L.; Linton, Katherine E.; Bryce, Martin R.; Petty, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the mechanism of operation of organic thin film resistive memory architectures based on an ambipolar compound consisting of oxadiazole, carbazole, and fluorene units. Cross-sections of the devices have been imaged by electron microscopy both before and after applying a voltage. The micrographs reveal the growth of filaments, with diameters of 50 nm–100 nm, on the metal cathode. We suggest that these are formed by the drift of aluminium ions from the anode and are responsible for the observed switching and negative differential resistance phenomena in the memory devices.

  7. The propagation dynamics of ultraviolet light filament with Rayleigh scattering in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hua

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time the effects of Rayleigh scattering on the long distance propagation of ultraviolet (UV) light filament in air based on the stationary analysis. The simulation results show that the effects of Rayleigh scattering on the propagation of UV laser filaments may not be ignored. These influences are slightly dependent on the laser wavelength. We also compare the UV filament propagations at different input powers in the presence and the absence of the Rayleigh scattering and discuss the mechanisms of power loss and beam defocusing.In the absence of Rayleigh scattering, the filament propagation is determined by the oscillating behaviour of the beam size. In the presence of the scattering, the propagation lengths of filament are close to each other at different initial powers and determined by the Rayleigh scattering.

  8. [Carpal instability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redeker, J; Vogt, P M

    2011-01-01

    Carpal instability can be understood as a disturbed anatomical alignment between bones articulating in the carpus. This disturbed balance occurs either only dynamically (with movement) under the effect of physiological force or even statically at rest. The most common cause of carpal instability is wrist trauma with rupture of the stabilizing ligaments and adaptive misalignment following fractures of the radius or carpus. Carpal collapse plays a special role in this mechanism due to non-healed fracture of the scaphoid bone. In addition degenerative inflammatory alterations, such as chondrocalcinosis or gout, more rarely aseptic bone necrosis of the lunate or scaphoid bones or misalignment due to deposition (Madelung deformity) can lead to wrist instability. Under increased pressure the misaligned joint surfaces lead to bone arrosion with secondary arthritis of the wrist. In order to arrest or slow down this irreversible process, diagnosis must occur as early as possible. Many surgical methods have been thought out to regain stability ranging from direct reconstruction of the damaged ligaments, through ligament replacement to partial stiffening of the wrist joint.

  9. Large scale filaments associated with Milky Way spiral arms

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ke; Ginsburg, Adam; Walmsley, C Malcolm; Molinari, Sergio; Schisano, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquity of filamentary structure at various scales through out the Galaxy has triggered a renewed interest in their formation, evolution, and role in star formation. The largest filaments can reach up to Galactic scale as part of the spiral arm structure. However, such large scale filaments are hard to identify systematically due to limitations in identifying methodology (i.e., as extinction features). We present a new approach to directly search for the largest, coldest, and densest filaments in the Galaxy, making use of sensitive Herschel Hi-GAL data complemented by spectral line cubes. We present a sample of the 9 most prominent Herschel filaments, including 6 identified from a pilot search field plus 3 from outside the field. These filaments measure 37-99 pc long and 0.6-3.0 pc wide with masses (0.5-8.3)$\\times10^4 \\, M_\\odot$, and beam-averaged ($28"$, or 0.4-0.7 pc) peak H$_2$ column densities of (1.7-9.3)$\\times 10^{22} \\, \\rm{cm^{-2}}$. The bulk of the filaments are relatively cold (17-21 K), whi...

  10. Gravitational instability of filamentary molecular clouds, including ambipolar diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinirad, Mohammad; Abbassi, Shahram; Roshan, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational instability of a filamentary molecular cloud in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics is investigated. The filament is assumed to be in hydrostatic equilibrium. We add the effect of ambipolar diffusion to the filament which is threaded by an initial uniform axial magnetic field along its axis. We write down the fluid equations in cylindrical coordinates and perform linear perturbation analysis. We integrate the resultant differential equations and then derive the numerical dispersion relation. We find that, a more efficient ambipolar diffusion leads to an enhancement of the growth of the most unstable mode, and to increase of the fragmentation scale of the filament.

  11. Instabilities of a rotating helical rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunyoung; Ko, William; Kim, Yongsam; Lim, Sookkyung

    2016-11-01

    Bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio alginolyticus have helical flagellar filament. By rotating a motor, which is located at the bottom end of the flagellar filament embedded in the cell body, CCW or CW, they swim forward or backward. We model a left-handed helix by the Kirchhoff rod theory and use regularized Stokes formulation to study an interaction between the surrounding fluid and the flagellar filament. We perform numerical studies focusing on relations between physical parameters and critical angular frequency of the motor, which separates overwhiring from twirling. We are also interested in the buckling instability of the hook, which is very flexible elastic rod. By measuring buckling angle, which is an angle between rotational axis and helical axis, we observe the effects of physical parameters on buckling of the hook.

  12. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in argon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    XIEXING QI; WENBIN LIN

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, as well as the narrowest filament and the most stable beam radius. These results indicate that the pulse with shorter wavelength is more suitable for the long-range propagation in argon.

  13. FINANCIAL INSTABILITY AND POLITICAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an important link between the following two variables: financial instability and political instability. Often, the link is bidirectional, so both may influence each other. This is way the lately crisis are becoming larger and increasingly complex. Therefore, the academic environment is simultaneously talking about economic crises, financial crises, political crises, social crises, highlighting the correlation and causality between variables belonging to the economic, financial, political and social areas, with repercussions and spillover effects that extend from one area to another. Given the importance, relevance and the actuality of the ones described above, I consider that at least a theoretical analysis between economic, financial and political factors is needed in order to understand the reality. Thus, this paper aims to find links and connections to complete the picture of the economic reality.

  14. Ion-Beam-Assisted Deposition of MoS2 and Other Low-Friction Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    the ion beam. Immersed in the beam is a heated tungsten filament which emits electrons to neutralize the positive charge of the beam. The sources...inadequate, indicating a temperature far below actual, and was replaced by a fine-gauge thermocouple inserted into a bronze shoe riding in contact with the...filaments lasted only about an hour when the source was operated at high power due to erosion of the tungsten wire. New filaments draw about 6 A at high beam

  15. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  16. Resonantly enhanced filamentation in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Doussot, J; Billard, F; Béjot, P; Faucher, O

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, a low-loss Kerr-driven optical filament in Krypton gas is experimentally reported in the ultraviolet. The experimental findings are supported by ab initio quantum calculations describing the atomic optical response. Higher-order Kerr effect induced by three-photon resonant transitions is identified as the underlying physical mechanism responsible for the intensity stabilization during the filamentation process, while ionization plays only a minor role. This result goes beyond the commonly-admitted paradigm of filamentation, in which ionization is a necessary condition of the filament intensity clamping. At resonance, it is also experimentally demonstrated that the filament length is greatly extended because of a strong decrease of the optical losses.

  17. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Seamus D; Hubber, David A

    2016-01-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long, initially sub-critical but accreting filaments. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length scale which is roughly 4 times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multi-wavelength density power spectrum there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispe...

  18. Effect of high-power laser divergence on the plasma structural parameters during multiple filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geints, Yu. E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Multiple filamentation of an infrared high-power laser pulse in air is considered. Based on the numerical solution to the unidirectional pulse propagation equation, the effect of radiation external focusing on the spatial structure of the plasma area produced in the filamentation region is studied. We show that the number of generated plasma channels in the beam wake and the density of their spatial distribution over the filamentation region depend on the initial divergence of laser radiation. We found that in a specific range of beam focusing the number of produced plasma channels could be minimized due to the formation of a consolidated thick plasma bunch at the beam axis.

  19. Dielectric permittivity tensor and low frequency instabilities of a magnetoactive current-driven plasma with nonextensive distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rastbood, E.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M. [Physics Department, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The dielectric permittivity tensor of a magnetoactive current-driven plasma is obtained by employing the kinetic theory based on the Vlasov equation and Lorentz transformation formulas with an emphasize on the q-nonextensive statistics. By deriving the q-generalized dispersion relation of the low frequency modes in this plasma system, the possibility and properties of filamentation and ion acoustic instabilities are then studied. It is shown that the occurrence and the growth rate of these instabilities depend strongly on the nonextensive parameters, external magnetic field strength, and drift velocity. It is observed that the growth rate of ion acoustic instability is affected by the magnetic field strength much more than that of the filamentation instability in the low frequency range. The external magnetic field facilitates the development of the ion-acoustic instability. It is also shown that the filamentation is the dominant instability only for the high value of drift velocity.

  20. Observation of transverse instabilities in the FNAL 200 MeV Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrory, E.; Lee, G.; Webber, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Using newly installed Beam Position Monitors in the downstream half of the FNAL Linac, we have observed significant transverse beam instabilities within the 30 ..mu..s beam pulse. We can affect the instability so that the peak-to-peak amplitude is as small as 0.5 mm or as large as 8 mm. The effect is largely due to a beam-plasma instability in the ten-meter 750-keV transport line. Other causes are being investigated. Using these instabilities as an analysis tool, the betatron amplitude of the beam has been reduced. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Perturbation growth in accreting filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, S. D.; Whitworth, A. P.; Hubber, D. A.

    2016-05-01

    We use smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the growth of perturbations in infinitely long filaments as they form and grow by accretion. The growth of these perturbations leads to filament fragmentation and the formation of cores. Most previous work on this subject has been confined to the growth and fragmentation of equilibrium filaments and has found that there exists a preferential fragmentation length-scale which is roughly four times the filament's diameter. Our results show a more complicated dispersion relation with a series of peaks linking perturbation wavelength and growth rate. These are due to gravo-acoustic oscillations along the longitudinal axis during the sub-critical phase of growth. The positions of the peaks in growth rate have a strong dependence on both the mass accretion rate onto the filament and the temperature of the gas. When seeded with a multiwavelength density power spectrum, there exists a clear preferred core separation equal to the largest peak in the dispersion relation. Our results allow one to estimate a minimum age for a filament which is breaking up into regularly spaced fragments, as well as an average accretion rate. We apply the model to observations of filaments in Taurus by Tafalla & Hacar and find accretion rates consistent with those estimated by Palmeirim et al.

  2. Activity Cycle of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. J. Li; Q. X. Li; P. X. Gao; J. Mu; H. D. Chen; T. W. Su

    2007-06-01

    Long-term variation in the distribution of the solar filaments observed at the Observatorie de Paris, Section de Meudon from March 1919 to December 1989 is presented to compare with sunspot cycle and to study the periodicity in the filament activity, namely the periods of the coronal activity with the Morlet wavelet used. It is inferred that the activity cycle of solar filaments should have the same cycle length as sunspot cycle, but the cycle behavior of solar filaments is globally similar in profile with, but different in detail from, that of sunspot cycles. The amplitude of solar magnetic activity should not keep in phase with the complexity of solar magnetic activity. The possible periods in the filament activity are about 10.44 and 19.20 years. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 10.44 years is statistically significant during the whole consideration time. The wavelet local power spectrum of the period 19.20 years is under the 95% confidence spectrum during the whole consideration time, but over the mean red-noise spectrum of = 0.72 before approximate Carrington rotation number 1500, and after that the filament activity does not statistically show the period. Wavelet reconstruction indicates that the early data of the filament archive (in and before cycle 16) are more noiseful than the later (in and after cycle 17).

  3. Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-01-10

    Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.

  4. Multi-dimensional collective effects in high-current relativistic beams relevant to High Density Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Gennady

    2014-05-09

    In summary, an analytical model describing the self-pinching of a relativistic charge-neutralized electron beam undergoing the collisionless Weibel instability in an overdense plasma has been developed. The model accurately predicts the final temperature and size of the self-focused filament. It is found that the final temperature is primarily defined by the total beam’s current, while the filament’s radius is shown to be smaller than the collisionless skin depth in the plasma and primarily determined by the beam’s initial size. The model also accurately predicts the repartitioning ratio of the initial energy of the beam’s forward motion into the magnetic field energy and the kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The density profile of the final filament is shown to be a superposition of the standard Bennett pinch profile and a wide halo surrounding the pinch, which contains a significant fraction of the beam’s electrons. PIC simulations confirm the key assumption of the analytic theory: the collisionless merger of multiple current filaments in the course of the Weibel Instability provides the mechanism for Maxwellization of the beam’s distribution function. Deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are explained by incomplete thermalization of the deeply trapped and halo electrons. It is conjectured that the simple expression derived here can be used for understanding collsionless shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification in astrophysical plasmas.

  5. Structures of actin-like ParM filaments show architecture of plasmid-segregating spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, Tanmay A M; Murshudov, Garib N; Sachse, Carsten; Löwe, Jan

    2015-07-02

    Active segregation of Escherichia coli low-copy-number plasmid R1 involves formation of a bipolar spindle made of left-handed double-helical actin-like ParM filaments. ParR links the filaments with centromeric parC plasmid DNA, while facilitating the addition of subunits to ParM filaments. Growing ParMRC spindles push sister plasmids to the cell poles. Here, using modern electron cryomicroscopy methods, we investigate the structures and arrangements of ParM filaments in vitro and in cells, revealing at near-atomic resolution how subunits and filaments come together to produce the simplest known mitotic machinery. To understand the mechanism of dynamic instability, we determine structures of ParM filaments in different nucleotide states. The structure of filaments bound to the ATP analogue AMPPNP is determined at 4.3 Å resolution and refined. The ParM filament structure shows strong longitudinal interfaces and weaker lateral interactions. Also using electron cryomicroscopy, we reconstruct ParM doublets forming antiparallel spindles. Finally, with whole-cell electron cryotomography, we show that doublets are abundant in bacterial cells containing low-copy-number plasmids with the ParMRC locus, leading to an asynchronous model of R1 plasmid segregation.

  6. Compact 180-kV Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by femtosecond laser filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantchouk, L.; Point, G.; Brelet, Y.; Larour, J.; Carbonnel, J.; André, Y.-B.; Mysyrowicz, A.; Houard, A.

    2014-03-01

    We developed a compact Marx generator triggered in atmospheric air by a single femtosecond laser beam undergoing filamentation. Voltage pulses of 180 kV could be generated with a subnanosecond jitter. The same laser beam was also used to initiate simultaneously guided discharges up to 21 cm long at the output of the generator.

  7. Kink deformation of Weibel-mediated current filaments and onset of shock formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyer, Charles; Alves, E. Paulo; Fiuza, Frederico

    2016-10-01

    The Weibel instability is believed to mediate the interaction of high Mach number collisionless shocks in weakly magnetized astrophysical environments. Although the generation of current filaments and strong magnetic fields by this instability has now been demonstrated experimentally, it is still not clear what is the long-term evolution of these filaments and how they lead to shock formation. We have studied the stability of Weibel-mediated current filaments using 2D/3D Particle-In-Cell simulations and analytical theory. We show that these are prone to kink-like instabilities that we characterize in both the linear and non-linear stage for a single filament, leading to an efficient ion slowing down and isotropization. We then demonstrate that our results are relevant to the self-consistent counter-streaming plasma interaction. Our 3D simulations show that the kink deformation dominates the late-stage of the interaction, when the current filaments break and most of the flow dissipation occurs, leading to the onset of magnetic turbulence and shock formation. We will discuss the important implications of these results for the shock structure and its ability to accelerate particles. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Science, Fusion Energy Science (FWP 100182).

  8. Comparative Biomechanics of Thick Filaments and Thin Filaments with Functional Consequences for Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaffold of striated muscle is predominantly comprised of myosin and actin polymers known as thick filaments and thin filaments, respectively. The roles these filaments play in muscle contraction are well known, but the extent to which variations in filament mechanical properties influence muscle function is not fully understood. Here we review information on the material properties of thick filaments, thin filaments, and their primary constituents; we also discuss ways in which mechanical properties of filaments impact muscle performance.

  9. Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne

    2014-12-01

    We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.

  10. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons.......We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  11. Garnet-filled trails associated with carbonaceous matter mimicking microbial filaments in Archean basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, K; Philippot, P; Benzerara, K; Wang, G-Y

    2009-09-01

    The study of the earliest traces of life on Earth can be complicated by abiotically formed biomorphs. We report here the finding of clustered micrometer-sized filaments of iron- and calcium-rich garnets associated with carbonaceous matter in an agate amygdale from a 2.7-billion-year-old basalt of the Maddina Formation, Western Australia. The distribution of carbonaceous matter and the mineral phases composing the filaments were analyzed using a combination of confocal laser scanning microscopy, laser-Raman micro-spectroscopy, focused ion beam sectioning and transmission electron microscopy. The results allow consideration of possible biogenic and abiotic processes that produced the filamentous structures. The filaments have a range of sizes, morphologies and distributions similar to those of certain modern iron-mineralized filamentous bacteria and some ancient filamentous structures interpreted as microfossils. They also share a high morphological similarity with tubular structures produced by microbial boring activity. However, the microstructures and the distribution of carbonaceous matter are more suggestive of an abiotic origin for the filaments. They are characteristic features of trails produced by the displacement of inclusions associated with local dissolution of their silica matrix. Organic compounds found in kerogen or bitumen inclusions may have contributed significantly to the dissolution of the quartz (or silica gel) matrix driving filamentous growth. Discriminating the products of such abiotic organic-mediated processes from filamentous microfossils or microbial borings is important to the interpretation of the scarce Precambrian fossil record and requires investigation down to the nanoscale.

  12. Particles trajectories in Weibel magnetic filaments with a flow-aligned magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    For a Weibel shock to form, two plasma shells have to collide and trigger the Weibel instability. At saturation, this instability generates in the overlapping region magnetic filaments with peak field $B_f$. In the absence of an external guiding magnetic field, these filaments can block the incoming flow, initiating the shock formation, if their size is larger than the Larmor radius of the incoming particles in the peak field. Here we show that this results still holds in the presence of an external magnetic field $B_0$, provided it is not too high. Yet, for $B_0 \\gtrsim B_f/2$, the filaments become unable to stop any particle, regardless of its initially velocity.

  13. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our prel...

  14. Instability of two-dimensional solitons and vortices in defocusing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Rasmussen, J. Juul

    1995-05-01

    In the framework of the three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation the instability of two-dimensional solitons and vortices is demonstrated. The soliton instability can be considered as the analog of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili instability (Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 192, 753 (1970) [Sov. Phys. Dokl. 15, 539 (1970)]) of one-dimensional acoustic solitons in media with positive dispersion. For large distances between the vortices, this instability transforms into the Crow instability [AIAA J. 8, 2172 (1970)] of two vortex filaments with opposite circulations.

  15. Coherent Instabilities of ILC Damping Ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.; Stupakov, G.; Bane, K.; /SLAC

    2006-09-27

    The paper presents the first attempt to estimates the ILC damping ring impedance and compare thresholds of the classical instabilities for several designs initially proposed for the DR. The work was carried out in the spring of 2006. Since then the choice of the DR is narrowed. Nevertheless, the analysis described may be useful for the next iterations of the beam stability. Overall, the conventional instabilities will have little impact on the ring performance provided the careful design of the ring minimizes the impedance below acceptable level indicated above. The only exception is the transverse CB instability. The longitudinal CB is less demanding. However, even the transverse CB instability would have threshold current above nominal provided the aperture in the wigglers is increased from 8 mm to 16 mm. The microwave instability needs more studies. Nevertheless, we should remember that the ILC DR is different from existing high-current machines at least in two respects: absence of the beam-beam tune spread stabilizing beams in colliders, and unusual strict requirements for low emittance. That may cause new problems such as bunch emittance dilution due to high-frequency wakes (BPMs, grooves), etc. Even if such a possibility exists, it probably universal for all machines and ought be addressed in the design of vacuum components rather than have effect on the choice of the machine design.

  16. The density number of filaments in the state of the weak and optical turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bulygin, A D

    2012-01-01

    We consider the statistics of density number of filaments for the propagation of a laser beam subjected to multiple filamentation in a closed area with reflecting boundaries. Dissipation arrests the catastrophic collapse of filaments, causing their disintegration into almost linear waves.These waves form a nearly gaussian random field that seeds new filaments. The evolution of the energy distribution function of the angular spectrum and accordingly law of the dynamics of formation of the thermodynamic characteristics of the light field such as the effective temperature and entropy was found. It is established that the growth rate of the thermodynamic functions and the Hamiltonian of the system grows in proportion to the number density of filaments. Also found that depending on the level of the average (background) intensity of the light field can move in two steady state. The first mode is realized for the steady state level of the background intensity does not exceed the value, and is characterized by typica...

  17. Optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Zuo-Liang; Chen Jian-Ping; Li Ru-Xin; Lin Li-Huang; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We report the experiments on the optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate and with several hundreds micro-joule-energy. A 10m-long filament and its breakup and merging at the nonlinear focal region produced by modulational instability of femtosecond laser pulses in air are observed. A simple model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation coupled with multiphoton ionization law is presented to explain the several experimental results.

  18. Plasma channels during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse with wavefront astigmatism in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dergachev, A A; Kandidov, V P; Shlenov, S A [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ionin, A A; Mokrousova, D V; Seleznev, L V; Sinitsyn, D V; Sunchugasheva, E S; Shustikova, A P [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We have demonstrated experimentally and numerically the possibility of controlling parameters of plasma channels formed during filamentation of a femtosecond laser pulse by introducing astigmatism in the laser beam wavefront. It is found that weak astigmatism increases the length of the plasma channel in comparison with the case of aberration-free focusing and that strong astigmatism can cause splitting of the plasma channel into two channels located one after another on the filament axis. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  19. Femtosecond laser-induced color change and filamentation in Ag+-doped silicate glass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyi Sun; Fei He; Jian Xu; Yang Liao; Ya Cheng; Zhizhan Xu; Xiongwei Jiang; Ye Dai

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the influence of multiple filamentation (MF) on the micromachining in Ag+-doped silicate glass irradiated by a 1-kHz femtosecond laser. The thresholds of MF and color change (CC) are measured for both linearly and circularly polarized laser beams. The results demonstrate that the thresholds of MF and CC are very close. The thresholds of CC and MF for circular polarization increase by ~1.4 times compared with linear polarization. Circular polarization can suppress the number of filaments to some extent compared with linear polarization. However, it is difficult to obtain CC without any filamentation if circular polarization technique is used alone.

  20. Boolean gates on actin filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siccardi, Stefano; Tuszynski, Jack A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Actin is a globular protein which forms long polar filaments in the eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin networks play a key role in cell mechanics and cell motility. They have also been implicated in information transmission and processing, memory and learning in neuronal cells. The actin filaments have been shown to support propagation of voltage pulses. Here we apply a coupled nonlinear transmission line model of actin filaments to study interactions between voltage pulses. To represent digital information we assign a logical TRUTH value to the presence of a voltage pulse in a given location of the actin filament, and FALSE to the pulse's absence, so that information flows along the filament with pulse transmission. When two pulses, representing Boolean values of input variables, interact, then they can facilitate or inhibit further propagation of each other. We explore this phenomenon to construct Boolean logical gates and a one-bit half-adder with interacting voltage pulses. We discuss implications of these findings on cellular process and technological applications.

  1. Galaxy pairs align with galactic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, Elmo

    2015-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse theory and numerical simulations suggest that the velocity field within large-scale galaxy filaments is dominated by motions along the filaments. Aims. Our aim is to check whether observational data reveal any preferred orientation of galaxy pairs with respect to the underlying filaments as a result of the expectedly anisotropic velocity field. Methods. We use galaxy pairs and galaxy filaments identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. For filament extraction, we use the Bisous model that is based the marked point process technique. During the filament detection, we use the centre point of each pair instead of the positions of galaxies to avoid a built-in influence of pair orientation on the filament construction. For pairs lying within filaments (3012 cases), we calculate the angle between the line connecting galaxies of each pair and their host filament. To avoid redshift-space distortions, the angle is measured in the plain of the sky. Results. The alignment analysis...

  2. Angle-resolved multioctave supercontinua from mid-infrared laser filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, A V; Voronin, A A; Sidorov-Biryukov, D A; Mitryukovsky, S I; Rozhko, M V; Pugžlys, A; Fedotov, A B; Panchenko, V Ya; Baltuška, A; Zheltikov, A M

    2016-08-01

    Angle-resolved spectral analysis of a multioctave high-energy supercontinuum output of mid-infrared laser filaments is shown to provide a powerful tool for understanding intricate physical scenarios behind laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared. The ellipticity of the mid-infrared driver beam breaks the axial symmetry of filamentation dynamics, offering a probe for a truly (3+1)-dimensional spatiotemporal evolution of mid-IR pulses in the filamentation regime. With optical harmonics up to the 15th order contributing to supercontinuum generation in such filaments alongside Kerr-type and ionization-induced nonlinearities, the output supercontinuum spectra span over five octaves from the mid-ultraviolet deep into the mid-infrared. Full (3+1)-dimensional field evolution analysis is needed for an adequate understanding of this regime of laser filamentation. Supercomputer simulations implementing such analysis articulate the critical importance of angle-resolved measurements for both descriptive and predictive power of filamentation modeling. Strong enhancement of ionization-induced blueshift is shown to offer new approaches in filamentation-assisted pulse compression, enabling the generation of high-power few- and single-cycle pulses in the mid-infrared.

  3. Temperature Controlled Filamentation in Argon Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Shi-Ying; KONG Wei-Peng; SONG Zhen-Ming; QIN Yu; LI Ru-Xin; WANG Qing-Yue; ZHANG Zhi-Gang

    2008-01-01

    Temperature controlled filamentation is experimentally demonstrated in a temperature gradient gas-filled tube.The proper position of the tube is heated by a furnace and two ends of the tube are cooled by air. The experimental results show that multiple filaments are shrunken into a single fila.ment or no filament only by increasing the temperature at the beginning of the filament. This technique offers another degree of freedom of controlling the filamentation and opens a new way for intense monocycle pulse generation through gradient temperature in a noble gas.

  4. Intermediate Filaments in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    More than 70 different genes in humans and 12 different genes in Caenorhabditis elegans encode the superfamily of intermediate filament (IF) proteins. In C. elegans, similar to humans, these proteins are expressed in a cell- and tissue-specific manner, can assemble into heteropolymers and into 5-10nm wide filaments that account for the principal structural elements at the nuclear periphery, nucleoplasm, and cytoplasm. At least 5 of the 11 cytoplasmic IFs, as well as the nuclear IF, lamin, are essential. In this chapter, we will include a short review of our current knowledge of both cytoplasmic and nuclear IFs in C. elegans and will describe techniques used for their analyses.

  5. Frequency resolved transverse mode instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Maack, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dynamics of transverse mode instabilities (TMIs) are investigated by testing three 285/100 rod fibers in a single-pass amplifier setup reaching up to ~200W of extracted output power without beam instabilities. The pump power is increased well above the TMI threshold to uncover output...

  6. Instability Paths in the Kirchhoff-Plateau Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusteri, Giulio G.; Franceschini, Paolo; Fried, Eliot

    2016-08-01

    The Kirchhoff-Plateau problem concerns the equilibrium shapes of a system in which a flexible filament in the form of a closed loop is spanned by a soap film, with the filament being modeled as a Kirchhoff rod and the action of the spanning surface being solely due to surface tension. Adopting a variational approach, we define an energy associated with shape deformations of the system and then derive general equilibrium and (linear) stability conditions by considering the first and second variations of the energy functional. We analyze in detail the transition to instability of flat circular configurations, which are ground states for the system in the absence of surface tension, when the latter is progressively increased. Such a theoretical study is particularly useful here, since the many different perturbations that can lead to instability make it challenging to perform an exhaustive experimental investigation. We generalize previous results, since we allow the filament to possess a curved intrinsic shape and also to display anisotropic flexural properties (as happens when the cross section of the filament is noncircular). This is accomplished by using a rod energy which is familiar from the modeling of DNA filaments. We find that the presence of intrinsic curvature is necessary to obtain a first buckling mode which is not purely tangent to the spanning surface. We also elucidate the role of twisting buckling modes, which become relevant in the presence of flexural anisotropy.

  7. Post-filamentation propagation of high-power laser pulses in air in the regime of narrowly focused light channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geints, Yu. E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of experimental and theoretical studies of the post-filamentation stage of nonlinear propagation of high-power pulsed radiation from a Ti : sapphire laser in air. We have for the first time obtained the experimental dependences of the angular divergence of specific spatially localised high-intensity light structures that are observed in the beam after its multiple filamentation (post-filamentation of channels) when varying the initial focusing of laser radiation and its energy. It is found that the angular divergence of the post-filamentation channels decreases with increasing pulse energy and reducing beam numerical aperture. The experimental dependences are qualitatively interpreted based on the diffraction model of the Bessel - Gaussian beam.

  8. Longitudinal Single Bunch Instability Study on BEPCII

    CERN Document Server

    Dou, Wang; Zhe, Duan; Na, Wang; Li, Wang; Lin, Wang; Jie, Gao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the single bunch longitudinal instability in BEPCII, experiments on the positron ring (BPR) for the bunch lengthening phenomenon were made. By analyzing the experimental data based on Gao's theory, the longitudinal loss factor for the bunch are obtained. Also, the total wake potential and the beam current threshold are estimated.

  9. Study of Fast Instability in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Chicago U.; Adamson, Philip [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab; Yang, Ming-Jen [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    One of the factors which may limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler is a fast transverse instability. It develops within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, may lead to a beam loss. Various peculiar features of the instability: its occurrence only above a certain intensity threshold, and only in horizontal plane, as well as the rate of the instability, suggest that its cause is electron cloud. We studied the phenomena by observing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam. We found that beam motion can be stabilized by a clearing bunch, which confirms the electron cloud nature of the instability. The findings suggest electron cloud trapping in Recycler combined function mag-nets. Bunch-by-bunch measurements of betatron tune show a tune shift towards the end of the bunch train and allow the estimation of the density of electron cloud and the rate of its build-up. The experimental results are in agreement with numerical simulations of electron cloud build-up and its interaction with the beam.

  10. 中性束注入在EAST中激发的离散阿尔文不稳定性%Neutral beam injection induced discrete Alfv´en instabilities on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 胡纯栋; 胡双辉; 吴斌; 丁斯晔; 王进芳

    2013-01-01

    The neutral beam injection (NBI) system is applied to the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). It will excite some Alfv´en instabilities when the plasma characteristics are improved. The numerical research on the NBI-induced discrete Alfv´en eigenmode (αTAE) and toroidal effect-induced Alfv´en eigenmode (TAE) in the pedestal region is presented in the paper. The research results show that plenty ofαTAEs appear in this region. TheαTAE is very different from the TAE. These modes are trapped by theα-induced potential wells along the magnetic field line. Due to negligible continuum damping via wave energy tunneling, similar to TAE, theαTAE can also be readily destabilized by energetic particles. Differently,αTAE frequency spectrum is more broad than TAE, and they are existed not only inside the gap but also outside the gap. The growth rate increases with injected power increasing. This instability maybe affects the physical behavior of the tokamak and the confinement of the plasma.%  中性束加热将应用于先进实验超导托卡马克装置中,在改善等离子性能的同时也会激发起多种阿尔文不稳定性。本文主要采用了数值模拟的方法在理论上研究了中性束注入时在台基区激发的离散阿尔文本征模(αTAE)和环效应阿尔文本征模(TAE),结果表明在这个区域会激发出丰富的离散阿尔文不稳定性,这种离散阿尔文不稳定性不同于传统的TAE,这种模式是俘获在气球模驱动势阱中的束缚态,由于气球模势阱的存在使它和连续谱解耦,从势阱中漏出去的能量可以忽略不计,和TAE类似都很容易被激发,这种模式可以存在于gap内,也可以存在于gap外,频谱更宽泛。注入功率越大这种不稳定性增长率越大。这种不稳定性可能会影响等离子体的物理行为,从而影响等离子体的约束。

  11. Spatial and temporal instabilities in high voltage power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milady, Saeed

    2010-01-29

    Dynamic avalanche can occur during the turn-off process of high voltage bipolar devices, e.g. IGBTs and p{sup +}n{sup -}n{sup +} power diodes, that may result in spatial instabilities of the homogeneous current density distribution across the device and the formation of current filaments. Filaments may cause the destruction of the device, mainly because of the high local temperatures. The first part of this work is dedicated to the current filament behavior. The positive feedback mechanisms caused by the transient current flow through the gate capacitance of an IGBT operating under short circuit conditions may result in oscillations and temporal instabilities of the IGBT current. The oscillations may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, the positive feedback mechanism may accelerate the over-heating of the device and result in a thermal run-away. This is the subject of the second part of this work. In the first part of this work using the device simulation results of power diodes the underlying physical mechanisms of the filament dynamic is investigated. Simulation results of diode structures with evenly distributed doping inhomogeneities show that, the filament motion gets smoother as the distance between the inhomogeneities decreases. Hopping to faraway inhomogeneities turns into the hopping to neighboring ones and finally a smooth motion. In homogeneous structures the slow inhibitory effect of the electron-hole plasma extraction and the fast activation, due to hole current flowing along the filament, result in a smooth filament motion. An analytical model for the filament velocity under isothermal conditions is presented that can reproduce the simulation data satisfactorily. The influence of the boundary conditions on the filament behavior is discussed. The positive beveled edge termination prohibits a long stay of the filament at the edge reducing the risk of filament pinning. Self-heating effects may turn the initially electrically triggered

  12. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-02

    LeibnizUniversityHannover,Welfengarten 1, D-30167Hannover, Germany 3 CEA-DAM,DIF, F-91297Arpajon, France 4 Univ.Bordeaux—CNRS—CEA,Centre Lasers ...optics.arizona.edu Keywords: laser filamentation, picosecond laser pulses, nonlinear propagation, optical ionization Abstract The propagation of intense

  13. Transient filament stretching rheometer II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1997-01-01

    The Lagrangian sspecification is used to simulate the transient stretching filament rheometer. Simulations are performed for dilute PIB-solutions modeled as a four mode Oldroyd-B fluid and a semidilute PIB-solution modeled as a non-linear single integral equation. The simulations are compared...

  14. Merger of Long Vortex Filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Akshay

    2012-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video demonstrates the merger of long vortex filaments is shown experimentally. Two counter-rotating vortices are generated using in a tank with very high aspect ratio. PIV demonstrates the merger of the vortices within a single orbit.

  15. Filament Winding. A Unified Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koussios, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation we have presented an overview and comprehensive treatment of several facets of the filament winding process. With the concepts of differential geometry and the theory of thin anisotropic shells of revolution, a parametric shape generator has been formulated for the design proced

  16. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...... and quantified. (C) 1999 The Society of Rheology. [S0148-6055(99)00103-0]....

  17. Role of Intermediate Filaments in Vesicular Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Margiotta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate filaments are an important component of the cellular cytoskeleton. The first established role attributed to intermediate filaments was the mechanical support to cells. However, it is now clear that intermediate filaments have many different roles affecting a variety of other biological functions, such as the organization of microtubules and microfilaments, the regulation of nuclear structure and activity, the control of cell cycle and the regulation of signal transduction pathways. Furthermore, a number of intermediate filament proteins have been involved in the acquisition of tumorigenic properties. Over the last years, a strong involvement of intermediate filament proteins in the regulation of several aspects of intracellular trafficking has strongly emerged. Here, we review the functions of intermediate filaments proteins focusing mainly on the recent knowledge gained from the discovery that intermediate filaments associate with key proteins of the vesicular membrane transport machinery. In particular, we analyze the current understanding of the contribution of intermediate filaments to the endocytic pathway.

  18. Arcade Implosion Caused by a Filament Eruption in a Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Juntao; Fletcher, L; Thalmann, J K; Hudson, H S; Hannah, I G

    2016-01-01

    Coronal implosions - the convergence motion of plasmas and entrained magnetic field in the corona due to a reduction in magnetic pressure - can help to locate and track sites of magnetic energy release or redistribution during solar flares and eruptions. We report here on the analysis of a well-observed implosion in the form of an arcade contraction associated with a filament eruption, during the C3.5 flare SOL2013-06-19T07:29. A sequence of events including magnetic flux-rope instability and distortion, followed by filament eruption and arcade implosion, lead us to conclude that the implosion arises from the transfer of magnetic energy from beneath the arcade as part of the global magnetic instability, rather than due to local magnetic energy dissipation in the flare. The observed net contraction of the imploding loops, which is found also in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations, reflects a permanent reduction of magnetic energy underneath the arcade. This event shows that, in addition to resulting in e...

  19. Analysis of a filament stretching rheometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Hassager, Ole

    1996-01-01

    A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown.......A finite element analysis of the stretching filament rheometer of Tirtaadmadja and Sridhar (1993) is presenetd. Simulations of the stretching of a filament of the polymet test solution, fluid A, between two plates are shown....

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Carbon Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    catalysts gave straight filaments, while the use of nickel and other catalysts resulted in a variety of vermicular forms of filaments. Ferrocene, (C5H5)2Fe...vapor deposition of carbon filaments is presented along with a theory for the vermicular growth of filaments on quartz substrates. I U I I I I I I...one hour. The experimental details of the matrix and results are discussed, also theories for the role of hydrogen and the vermicular growth of

  1. Large-scale Motion of Solar Filaments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pavel Ambrož; Alfred Schroll

    2000-09-01

    Precise measurements of heliographic position of solar filaments were used for determination of the proper motion of solar filaments on the time-scale of days. The filaments have a tendency to make a shaking or waving of the external structure and to make a general movement of whole filament body, coinciding with the transport of the magnetic flux in the photosphere. The velocity scatter of individual measured points is about one order higher than the accuracy of measurements.

  2. Electron heat flux instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.

    2017-02-01

    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  3. Remote electrical arc suppression by laser filamentation

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Elise; Kasparian, Jérôme; Wolf, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of narrow plasma channels formed in the filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses, with a DC high voltage. The laser filaments prevent electrical arcs by triggering corona that neutralize the high-voltage electrodes. This phenomenon, due to the electric field modulation and free electron release around the filament, opens new prospects to lightning and over-voltage mitigation.

  4. KEKB beam instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arinaga, M.; Flanagan, J.; Hiramatsu, S.; Ieiri, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ishii, H.; Kikutani, E.; Mimashi, T.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Mizuno, H.; Mori, K.; Tejima, M.; Tobiyama, M.

    2003-02-01

    For the stable high-luminosity operation and luminosity increase, the electron and positron storage rings of the KEK B-Factory (KEKB) is equipped with various beam instrumentations, which have been working well since the start of the commissioning in December, 1998. Details and performance of the beam-position monitor system based on the spectrum analysis using DSPs, the turn-by-turn BPM with four-dimensional function available for measurements of the individual bunch position, phase and intensity, the parametric beam-DCCTs designed so as to avoid the magnetic-core-selection problems for the parametric flux modulation, the bunch-by-bunch feedback system indispensable to suppress the strong multibunch instabilities in KEKB, the various optical beam diagnostic systems, such as synchrotron radiation interferometers for precise beam-size measurement, the tune meters, the bunch length monitors and the beam-loss monitors are described. Delicate machine tuning of KEKB is strongly supported by these instrumentations.

  5. Evaluating shoulder instability treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder instability common occurs. When treated nonoperatively, the resulting societal costs based on health care utilization and productivity losses are significant. Shoulder function can be evaluated using patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs). For shoulder instability, these include the

  6. Observation of coherent instability in the CERN PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    McAteer, M; Forte, V; Rumolo, G; Tomás, R

    2014-01-01

    At high intensities and at certain working points, an instability develops in the CERN PS Booster and large coherent transverse oscillations and beam loss occur [1]. The coherent oscillations and beam loss can be effectively controlled with the transverse damper system, but the origin of the instability is not well understood. In preparation for nonlinear optics measurements in the PS Booster that will take place after CERN’s first Long Shutdown, trial measurements were made with the PSB’s new trajectory measurement system. The measurements gave some new insight into the nature of this transverse instability, and these observations are presented here.

  7. Hydrodynamic ion sound instability in systems of a finite length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkarov, O.; Chapurin, O.; Smolyakov, A.; Kaganovich, I.; Ilgisonis, V.

    2016-09-01

    Plasmas permeated by an energetic ion beam is prone to the kinetic ion-sound instability that occurs as a result of the inverse Landau damping for ion velocity. It is shown here that in a finite length system there exists another type of the ion sound instability which occurs for v02 excitation of the lower-hybrid waves in Hall thruster. It is expected that this mechanism of ion sound and lower hybrid instabilities may be operative in E × B plasma discharges in which the ion beam is created by the application of the external voltage.

  8. Unveiling a network of parallel filaments in the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506

    CERN Document Server

    Busquet, Gemma; Palau, Aina; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro; Estalella, Robert; Ho, Paul T P; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar; Pillai, Thushara; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Girart, Josep M; Santos, Fábio P; Franco, Gabriel A P

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of combined NH3(1,1) and (2,2) line emission observed with the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg 100m telescope of the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506. The NH3 emission reveals a network of filaments constituting two hub-filament systems. Hubs are associated with gas of rotational temperature Trot \\sim 25 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion ~1.1 km/s, and exhibit signs of star formation, while filaments appear to be more quiescent (Trot \\sim 11 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion ~0.6 km/s). Filaments are parallel in projection and distributed mainly along two directions, at PA \\sim 10 deg and 60 deg, and appear to be coherent in velocity. The averaged projected separation between adjacent filaments is between 0.5 pc and 1pc, and the mean width of filaments is 0.12 pc. Cores within filaments are separated by ~0.33 pc, which is consistent with the predicted fragmentation of an isothermal gas cylinder due to the 'sausage'-type instability. The network of parallel filaments observed in G...

  9. Electron/ion whistler instabilities and magnetic noise bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, K.; Gary, S. Peter; Omidi, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two whistler instabilities are investigated by means of the linear Vlasov dispersion equation. They are called the electron/ion parallel and oblique whistler instabilities, and are driven by electron/ion relative drifts along the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that the enhanced fluctuations from these instabilities can explain several properties of magnetic noise bursts in and near the plasma sheet in the presence of ion beams and/or field-aligned currents. At sufficiently high plasma beta, these instabilities may affect the current system in the magnetotail.

  10. Filaments in the southern giant lobe of Centaurus A: constraints on nature and origin from modelling and GMRT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wykes, Sarka; Hardcastle, Martin J; Achterberg, Abraham; Jones, Thomas W; Jerjen, Helmut; Orru, Emanuela; Lazarian, Alex; Shimwell, Timothy W; Wise, Michael W; Kronberg, Philipp P

    2014-01-01

    We present results from imaging of the radio filaments in the southern giant lobe of Centaurus A using data from GMRT observations at 325 and 235 MHz, and outcomes from filament modelling. The observations reveal a rich filamentary structure, largely matching the morphology at 1.4 GHz. We find no clear connection of the filaments to the jet. We seek to constrain the nature and origin of the vertex and vortex filaments associated with the lobe and their role in high-energy particle acceleration. We deduce that these filaments are at most mildly overpressured with respect to the global lobe plasma showing no evidence of large-scale efficient Fermi I-type particle acceleration, and persist for ~ 2-3 Myr. We demonstrate that the dwarf galaxy KK 196 (AM 1318-444) cannot account for the features, and that surface plasma instabilities, the internal sausage mode and radiative instabilities are highly unlikely. An internal tearing instability and the kink mode are allowed within the observational and growth time const...

  11. UNVEILING A NETWORK OF PARALLEL FILAMENTS IN THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225-0.506

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Zhang, Qizhou; Ho, Paul T. P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C-5 parell, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Liu, Hauyu Baobab [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Sanchez-Monge, Alvaro [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-05125 Firenze (Italy); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain); De Gregorio-Monsalvo, Itziar [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pillai, Thushara [Caltech Astronomy Department, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wyrowski, Friedrich [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Santos, Fabio P.; Franco, Gabriel A. P., E-mail: gemma.busquet@iaps.inaf.it [Departamento de Fisica-ICEx-UFMG, Caixa Postal 702, 30.123-970 Belo Horizonte-MG (Brazil)

    2013-02-20

    We present the results of combined NH{sub 3} (1,1) and (2,2) line emission observed with the Very Large Array and the Effelsberg 100 m telescope of the infrared dark cloud G14.225-0.506. The NH{sub 3} emission reveals a network of filaments constituting two hub-filament systems. Hubs are associated with gas of rotational temperature T{sub rot} {approx} 15 K, non-thermal velocity dispersion {sigma}{sub NT} {approx} 1 km s{sup -1}, and exhibit signs of star formation, while filaments appear to be more quiescent (T{sub rot} {approx} 11 K and {sigma}{sub NT} {approx} 0.6 km s{sup -1}). Filaments are parallel in projection and distributed mainly along two directions, at P.A. {approx} 10 Degree-Sign and 60 Degree-Sign , and appear to be coherent in velocity. The averaged projected separation between adjacent filaments is between 0.5 pc and 1 pc, and the mean width of filaments is 0.12 pc. Cores within filaments are separated by {approx}0.33 {+-} 0.09 pc, which is consistent with the predicted fragmentation of an isothermal gas cylinder due to the {sup s}ausage{sup -}type instability. The network of parallel filaments observed in G14.225-0.506 is consistent with the gravitational instability of a thin gas layer threaded by magnetic fields. Overall, our data suggest that magnetic fields might play an important role in the alignment of filaments, and polarization measurements in the entire cloud would lend further support to this scenario.

  12. The density gradient effect on quantum Weibel instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M., E-mail: m.mahdavi@umz.ac.ir; Khodadadi Azadboni, F., E-mail: f.khodadadi@stu.umz.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, P. O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    The Weibel instability plays an important role in stopping the hot electrons and energy deposition mechanism in the fast ignition of inertial fusion process. In this paper, the effects of the density gradient and degeneracy on Weibel instability growth rate are investigated. Calculations show that decreasing the density degenerate in the plasma corona, near the relativistic electron beam emitting region by 8.5% leads to a 92% reduction in the degeneracy parameter and about 90% reduction in Weibel instability growth rate. Also, decreasing the degenerate density near the fuel core by 8.5% leads to 1% reduction in the degeneracy parameter and about 8.5% reduction in Weibel instability growth rate. The Weibel instability growth rate shrinks to zero and the deposition condition of relativistic electron beam energy can be shifted to the fuel core for a suitable ignition by increasing the degeneracy parameter in the first layer of plasma corona.

  13. The alignment of satellite galaxies and cosmic filaments: observations and simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, E; Kipper, R; Libeskind, N I

    2015-01-01

    The accretion of satellites onto central galaxies along vast cosmic filaments is an apparent outcome of the anisotropic collapse of structure in our Universe. Numerical work (based on gravitational dynamics of N-body simulations) indicates that satellites are beamed towards hosts along preferred directions imprinted by the velocity shear field. Here we use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to observationally test this claim. We construct 3D filaments and sheets and examine the relative position of satellites galaxies. A statistically significant alignment between satellite galaxy position and filament axis is confirmed. We find a similar (but stronger) signal by examining satellites and filaments similarly identified in the Millennium simulation, semi-analytical galaxy catalogue. We also examine the dependence of the alignment strength on galaxy properties such as colour, magnitude and (relative) satellite magnitude, finding that the alignment is strongest for the reddest and brightest central and satellite galaxi...

  14. Arcade Implosion Caused by a Filament Eruption in a Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juntao; Simões, P. J. A.; Fletcher, L.; Thalmann, J. K.; Hudson, H. S.; Hannah, I. G.

    2016-12-01

    Coronal implosions—the convergence motion of plasmas and entrained magnetic field in the corona due to a reduction in magnetic pressure—can help to locate and track sites of magnetic energy release or redistribution during solar flares and eruptions. We report here on the analysis of a well-observed implosion in the form of an arcade contraction associated with a filament eruption, during the C3.5 flare SOL2013-06-19T07:29. A sequence of events including the magnetic flux-rope instability and distortion, followed by a filament eruption and arcade implosion, lead us to conclude that the implosion arises from the transfer of magnetic energy from beneath the arcade as part of the global magnetic instability, rather than due to local magnetic energy dissipation in the flare. The observed net contraction of the imploding loops, which is found also in nonlinear force-free field extrapolations, reflects a permanent reduction of magnetic energy underneath the arcade. This event shows that, in addition to resulting in the expansion or eruption of an overlying field, flux-rope instability can also simultaneously implode an unopened field due to magnetic energy transfer. It demonstrates the “partial opening of the field” scenario, which is one of the ways in 3D to produce a magnetic eruption without violating the Aly-Sturrock hypothesis. In the framework of this observation, we also propose a unification of three main concepts for active region magnetic evolution, namely the metastable eruption model, the implosion conjecture, and the standard “CSHKP” flare model.

  15. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  16. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Walkden, N R; Militello, F; Omotani, J T

    2016-01-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the filament has a significant temperature perturbation compared to its density perturbation: They lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  17. Microwave processing of ceramic oxide filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, G.J.; Katz, J.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The objective of the microwave filament processing project is to develop microwave techniques at 2.45 GHZ to manufacture continuous ceramic oxide filaments. Microwave processing uses the volumetric absorption of microwave power in oxide filament tows to drive off process solvents, to burn out organic binders, and to sinter the dried fibers to produce flexible, high-strength ceramic filaments. The technical goal is to advance filament processing technology by microwave heating more rapidly with less energy and at a lower cost than conventional processing, but with the same quality as conventional processing. The manufacturing goal is to collaborate with the 3M Company, a US manufacturer of ceramic oxide filaments, to evaluate the technology using a prototype filament system and to transfer the microwave technology to the 3M Company.

  18. Dynamics of 3D isolated thermal filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Easy, L.; Militello, F.; Omotani, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Simulations have been carried out to establish how electron thermal physics, introduced in the form of a dynamic electron temperature, affects isolated filament motion and dynamics in 3D. It is found that thermal effects impact filament motion in two major ways when the pressure perturbation within the filament is supported primarily through a temperature increase as opposed to density: they lead to a strong increase in filament propagation in the bi-normal direction and a significant decrease in net radial propagation. Both effects arise from the temperature dependence of the sheath current which leads to a non-uniform floating potential, with the latter effect supplemented by faster pressure loss. The reduction in radial velocity can only occur when the filament cross-section loses angular symmetry. The behaviour is observed across different filament sizes and suggests that filaments with much larger temperature perturbations than density perturbations are more strongly confined to the near SOL region.

  19. Competition between Buneman and Langmuir Instabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Jun; YU Bin

    2012-01-01

    The electron-ion beam instabilities are studied by one-dimensional electrostatic particle-in-cell simulation.The simulation results show that both the low-frequency Buneman mode and high-frequency Langmuir wave (LW) are excited in the nonlinear phase. The power of Buneman instability is stronger than that of the LW.The Buneman instability is firstly excited.Then the backward LW appears,which is probably excited by the particles trapped in the wave potential and moving opposite to the original beam direction.After some time,the forward LW can be found,which has a larger maximum frequency than that of the backward LW.With the decrease of the electron drift velocity,the instabilities become weaker; the LW appears to have almost equal intensities and becomes symmetric for forward and backward propagation directions. The LW can also heat the electron,so the relative drift speed cannot far exceed the electron thermal speed,which is not helpful to the development of Buneman instability.

  20. Density filament and helical field line structures in three dimensional Weibel-mediated collisionless shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritaka, Toseo; Sakawa, Youichi; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Morita, Taichi; Yamaura, Yuta; Ishikawa, Taishi; Takabe, Hideaki

    2016-03-01

    Collisionless shocks mediated by Weibel instability are attracting attention for their relevance to experimental demonstrations of astrophysical shocks in high-intensity laser facilities. The three dimensional structure of Weibel-mediated shocks is investigated through a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. The structures obtained are characterized by the following features: (i) helical magnetic field lines elongated in the direction upstream of the shock region, (ii) high and low density filaments inside the helical field lines. These structures originate from the interaction between counter-streaming plasma flow and magnetic vortexes caused by Weibel instability, and potentially affect the shock formation mechanism.

  1. Helical Kink Instability in a Confined Solar Eruption

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanin, Alshaimaa

    2016-01-01

    A model for strongly writhing confined solar eruptions suggests an origin in the helical kink instability of a coronal flux rope which remains stable against the torus instability. This model is tested against the well observed filament eruption on 2002 May 27 in a parametric MHD simulation study which comprises all phases of the event. Good agreement with the essential observed properties is obtained. These include the confinement, terminal height, writhing, distortion, and dissolution of the filament, and the flare loops. The agreement is robust against variations in a representative range of parameter space. Careful comparisons with the observation data constrain the ratio of the external toroidal and poloidal field components to $B_\\mathrm{et}/B_\\mathrm{ep}\\approx1$ and the initial flux rope twist to $\\Phi\\approx4\\pi$. Different from ejective eruptions, two distinct phases of strong magnetic reconnection can occur. First, the erupting flux is cut by reconnection with overlying flux in the helical current ...

  2. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Crab Nebula

    CERN Document Server

    Porth, Oliver; Keppens, Rony

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the development of Rayleigh-Taylor filaments in axisymmetric simulations of Pulsar wind nebulae (PWN). High-resolution adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are used to resolve the non-linear evolution of the instability. The typical separation of filaments is mediated by the turbulent flow in the nebula and hierarchical growth of the filaments. The strong magnetic dissipation and field-randomization found in recent global three-dimensional simulations of PWN suggests that magnetic tension is not strong enough to suppress the growth of RT filaments, in agreement with the observations of prominent filaments in the Crab nebula. The long-term axisymmetric results presented here confirm this finding.

  3. Terahertz imaging with sub-wavelength resolution by femtosecond laser filament in air

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jiayu; Guo, Lanjun; Wang, Zhi; Cheng, Ya; Liu, Weiwei; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging provides cutting edge technique in biology, medical sciences and non-destructive evaluation. However, due to the long wavelength of the THz wave, the obtained resolution of THz imaging is normally a few hundred microns and is much lower than that of the traditional optical imaging. We introduce a sub-wavelength resolution THz imaging technique which uses the THz radiation generated by a femtosecond laser filament in air as the probe. This method is based on the fact that the femtosecond laser filament forms a waveguide for the THz wave in air. The diameter of the THz beam, which propagates inside the filament, varies from 20 {\\mu}m to 50 {\\mu}m, which is significantly smaller than the wavelength of the THz wave. Using this highly spatially confined THz beam as the probe, THz imaging with resolution as high as 20 {\\mu}m (~{\\lambda}/38) can be realized.

  4. Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab

    2017-01-05

    Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.

  5. Shoulder instability; Schulterinstabilitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Mainiz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2014-06-15

    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  6. Explicit demonstration of the role of Marangoni effect in the breakup of nanoscale liquid filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seric, Ivana; Mahady, Kyle; Afkhami, Shahriar; Hartnett, Chris; Fowlkes, Jason; Rack, Philip; Kondic, Lou

    2016-11-01

    We consider a breakup of bi-metal filaments deposited on a solid substrate. These filaments are exposed to laser irradiation and, while in the liquid phase, evolve by a process resembling breakup of a liquid jet governed by the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. The novel element is that the Marangoni effect, resulting from a different surface tension of the two metals from which the filament is built, is crucial in understanding the instability development. In particular, Marangoni effect may lead to the inversion of the breakup process, producing droplets at the locations where according to the Rayleigh-Plateau theory dry spots would be expected. We present experimental results carried out with Cu-Ni filaments, as well as direct numerical simulations based on a novel algorithm that includes variable surface tension in a Volume-of-Fluid based Navier-Stokes solver. These results suggest the possibility of using Marangoni effect for the purpose of self- and directed-assembly on the nanoscale. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET-1604351.

  7. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  8. Supercomputations and big-data analysis in strong-field ultrafast optical physics: filamentation of high-peak-power ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, A. A.; Panchenko, V. Ya; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    High-intensity ultrashort laser pulses propagating in gas media or in condensed matter undergo complex nonlinear spatiotemporal evolution where temporal transformations of optical field waveforms are strongly coupled to an intricate beam dynamics and ultrafast field-induced ionization processes. At the level of laser peak powers orders of magnitude above the critical power of self-focusing, the beam exhibits modulation instabilities, producing random field hot spots and breaking up into multiple noise-seeded filaments. This problem is described by a (3  +  1)-dimensional nonlinear field evolution equation, which needs to be solved jointly with the equation for ultrafast ionization of a medium. Analysis of this problem, which is equivalent to solving a billion-dimensional evolution problem, is only possible by means of supercomputer simulations augmented with coordinated big-data processing of large volumes of information acquired through theory-guiding experiments and supercomputations. Here, we review the main challenges of supercomputations and big-data processing encountered in strong-field ultrafast optical physics and discuss strategies to confront these challenges.

  9. 3D Simulations of Plasma Filaments in the Scrape Off Layer: A Comparison with Models of Reduced Dimensionality

    CERN Document Server

    Easy, Luke; Omotani, John; Dudson, Benjamin; Havlíčková, Eva; Tamain, Patrick; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders H

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents simulations of isolated 3D filaments in a slab geometry obtained using a 3D reduced fluid code. First, systematic scans were performed to investigate how the dynamics of a filament are affected by its amplitude, perpendicular size and parallel extent. The perpendicular size of the filament was found to have a strong influence on its motions, as it determined the relative importance of parallel currents to polarisation and viscous currents, whilst drift-wave instabilities were observed if the initial amplitude of the blob was increased sufficiently. Next, the 3D simulations were compared to 2D simulations using different parallel closures; namely, the sheath dissipation closure, which neglects parallel gradients, and the vorticity advection closure, which neglects the influence of parallel currents. The vorticity advection closure was found to not replicate the 3D perpendicular dynamics and overestimated the initial radial acceleration of all the filaments studied. In contrast, a more satis...

  10. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  11. Development of 3D beam-beam simulation for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-06-01

    We present status of development of a 3D Beam-Beam simulation code for simulating the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The essential features of the code are 3D particle-in-cell Poisson solver for calculating the Beam-Beam electromagnetic interactions with additional modules for linear optics, machine impedance and chromaticity, and multiple bunch tracking. The simulations match synchrobetatron oscillations measured at the VEPP-2M collider. The impedance calculations show beam instability development consistent with analytic expressions.

  12. Fast Instability Caused by Electron Cloud in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, S. A. [Chicago U.; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermilab; Yang, M. J. [Fermilab

    2016-12-12

    One of the factors which may limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler is a fast transverse instability. It develops within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, may lead to a beam loss. The high rate of the instability suggest that its cause is electron cloud. We studied the phenomena by observing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, simulating numerically the build-up of the electron cloud, and developed an analytical model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function di-poles. We found that beam motion can be stabilized by a clearing bunch, which confirms the electron cloud nature of the instability. The clearing suggest electron cloud trapping in Recycler combined function mag-nets. Numerical simulations show that up to 1% of the particles can be trapped by the magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a Recycler combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated resulting instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and the mode fre-quency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulation in the PEI code. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  13. Solubilization and fractionation of paired helical filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P J; Correas, I; Avila, J

    1992-09-01

    Paired helical filaments isolated from brains of two different patients with Alzheimer's disease were extensively treated with the ionic detergent, sodium dodecyl sulphate. Filaments were solubilized at different extents, depending on the brain examined, thus suggesting the existence of two types of paired helical filaments: sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble and insoluble filaments. In the first case, the number of structures resembling paired helical filaments greatly decreased after the detergent treatment, as observed by electron microscopy. Simultaneously, a decrease in the amount of sedimentable protein was also observed upon centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-treated paired helical filaments. A sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was isolated as a supernatant after low-speed centrifugation of the sodium dodecyl sulphate-treated paired helical filaments. The addition of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet-P40 to this fraction resulted in the formation of paired helical filament-like structures. When the sodium dodecyl sulphate-soluble fraction was further fractionated by high-speed centrifugation, three subfractions were observed: a supernatant, a pellet and a thin layer between these two subfractions. No paired helical filaments were observed in any of these subfractions, even after addition of Nonidet P-40. However, when they were mixed back together, the treatment with Nonidet P-40 resulted in the visualization of paired helical filament-like structures. These results suggest that at least two different components are needed for the reconstitution of paired helical filaments as determined by electron microscopy. The method described here may allow the study of the components involved in the formation of paired helical filaments and the identification of possible factors capable of blocking this process.

  14. High-energy-throughput pulse compression by off-axis group-delay compensation in a laser-induced filament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, A. A. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Alisauskas, S.; Muecke, O. D.; Pugzlys, A.; Baltuska, A. [Photonics Institute, Vienna University of Technology, Gusshausstrasse 27-387, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Zheltikov, A. M. [Physics Department, International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3257 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Off-axial beam dynamics of ultrashort laser pulses in a filament enable a radical energy-throughput improvement for filamentation-assisted pulse compression. We identify regimes where a weakly diverging wave, produced on the trailing edge of the pulse, catches up with a strongly diverging component, arising in the central part of the pulse, allowing sub-100-fs millijoule infrared laser pulses to be compressed to 20-25-fs pulse widths with energy throughputs in excess of 70%. Theoretical predictions have been verified by experimental results on filamentation-assisted compression of 70-fs, 1.5-{mu}m laser pulses in high-pressure argon.

  15. Ultrafast Beam Filamentation: Spatio-Temporal Characterization and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Ti:sapphire laser systems. Recently, work by the University of Strathclyde in Scotland , demonstrated the direct diode pumping of a Ti:sapphire laser...Durfee, “Pumping of Ti:sapphire moves to the blue,” Laser Focus World, Sep. 2012. [29] P. W. Roth , A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp, “Directly...diode-laser-pumped Ti: sapphire laser,” Opt Lett, vol. 34, no. 21, pp. 3334–3336, 2009. [30] P. W. Roth , A. J. Maclean, D. Burns, and A. J. Kemp

  16. Hydrodynamic interactions between nearby slender filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Man, Yi; Lauga, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biology abound with filaments interacting through fluids, from intracellular microtubules, to rotating flagella and beating cilia. While previous work has demonstrated the complexity of capturing nonlocal hydrodynamic interactions between moving filaments, the problem remains difficult theoretically. We show here that when filaments are closer to each other than their relevant length scale, the integration of hydrodynamic interactions can be approximately carried out analytically. This leads to a set of simplified local equations, illustrated on a simple model of two interacting filaments, which can be used to tackle theoretically a range of problems in biology and physics.

  17. Deep coronal hole associated with quiescent filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesumaningrum, Rasdewita; Herdiwidjaya, Dhani

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the morphology of quiescent filament observed by H-alpha Solar Telescope at Bosscha Observatory in association with coronal hole observed by Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) instrument in 193 Å from Solar Dynamics Observatory. H-alpha images were processed by imaging softwares, namely Iris 5.59 and ImageJ, to enhance the signal to noise ratio and to identify the filament features associated with coronal hole. For images observed on October 12, 2011, November 14, 2011 and January 2, 2012, we identified distinct features of coronal holes above the quiescent filaments. This associated coronal holes have filament-like morphology with a thick long thread as it's `spine', defined as Deep Coronal Hole. Because of strong magnetic field of sunspot, these filaments and coronal holes emerged far from active region and lasted for several days. It is interesting as for segmented filament, deep coronal holes above the filaments lasted for a quite long period of time and merged. This association between filament and deep coronal hole can be explained by filament magnetic loop.

  18. Probing the Physical Structures of Dense Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di

    2015-08-01

    Filament is a common feature in cosmological structures of various scales, ranging from dark matter cosmic web, galaxy clusters, inter-galactic gas flows, to Galactic ISM clouds. Even within cold dense molecular cores, filaments have been detected. Theories and simulations with (or without) different combination of physical principles, including gravity, thermal balance, turbulence, and magnetic field, can reproduce intriguing images of filaments. The ubiquity of filaments and the similarity in simulated ones make physical parameters, beyond dust column density, a necessity for understanding filament evolution. I report three projects attempting to measure physical parameters of filaments. We derive the volume density of a dense Taurus filament based on several cyanoacetylene transitions observed by GBT and ART. We measure the gas temperature of the OMC 2-3 filament based on combined GBT+VLA ammonia images. We also measured the sub-millimeter polarization vectors along OMC3. These filaments were found to be likely a cylinder-type structure, without dynamic heating, and likely accreting mass along the magnetic field lines.

  19. Drop dynamics on a stretched viscoelastic filament: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2016-11-01

    Capillary pressure can destabilize a thin liquid filament during breakup into a succession of drops. Besides, the addition of a linear, high molecular weight, flexible and soluble polymer is enough to modify the morphology of this instability. In the time period preceding the breakup, the development of beads-on-a-string structures where drops are connected by thin threads is monitored. The drops dynamics involve drop formation, drop migration and drop coalescence. Experiments using a high-speed camera on stretched bridges of viscoelastic polymeric solutions were conducted for a range of viscosities and polymer concentrations. The rheological properties of the solutions are also quantified through conventional shear rheology and normal stress difference. The overall goal of this experimental investigation is to gain more insight into the formation and time evolution of the drops. The project BIOENGINE is co-financed by the European Union with the European regional development fund and by the Normandie Regional Council.

  20. A CIRCULAR-RIBBON SOLAR FLARE FOLLOWING AN ASYMMETRIC FILAMENT ERUPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin [Space Weather Research Laboratory, New Jersey Institute of Technology, University Heights, Newark, NJ 07102-1982 (United States); Liu, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Pariat, Étienne [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universits, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-92190 Meudon (France); Wiegelmann, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Liu, Yang [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Kleint, Lucia, E-mail: chang.liu@njit.edu [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland)

    2015-10-20

    The dynamic properties of flare ribbons and the often associated filament eruptions can provide crucial information on the flaring coronal magnetic field. This Letter analyzes the GOES-class X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48), in which we found an asymmetric eruption of a sigmoidal filament and an ensuing circular flare ribbon. Initially both EUV images and a preflare nonlinear force-free field model show that the filament is embedded in magnetic fields with a fan-spine-like structure. In the first phase, which is defined by a weak but still increasing X-ray emission, the western portion of the sigmoidal filament arches upward and then remains quasi-static for about five minutes. The western fan-like and the outer spine-like fields display an ascending motion, and several associated ribbons begin to brighten. Also found is a bright EUV flow that streams down along the eastern fan-like field. In the second phase that includes the main peak of hard X-ray (HXR) emission, the filament erupts, leaving behind two major HXR sources formed around its central dip portion and a circular ribbon brightened sequentially. The expanding western fan-like field interacts intensively with the outer spine-like field, as clearly seen in running difference EUV images. We discuss these observations in favor of a scenario where the asymmetric eruption of the sigmoidal filament is initiated due to an MHD instability and further facilitated by reconnection at a quasi-null in corona; the latter is in turn enhanced by the filament eruption and subsequently produces the circular flare ribbon.

  1. The Origin of Solar Filament Plasma Inferred from In Situ Observations of Elemental Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H. Q.; Chen, Y.; Li, B.; Li, L. P.; Zhao, L.; He, J. S.; Duan, D.; Cheng, X.; Zhang, J.

    2017-02-01

    Solar filaments/prominences are one of the most common features in the corona, which may lead to energetic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and flares when they erupt. Filaments are about 100 times cooler and denser than the coronal material, and physical understanding of their material origin remains controversial. Two types of scenarios have been proposed: one argues that the filament plasma is brought into the corona from photosphere or chromosphere through a siphon or evaporation/injection process, while the other suggests that the material condenses from the surrounding coronal plasma due to thermal instability. The elemental abundance analysis is a reasonable clue to constrain the models, as the siphon or evaporation/injection model would predict that the filament material abundances are close to the photospheric or chromospheric ones, while the condensation model should have coronal abundances. In this Letter, we analyze the elemental abundances of a magnetic cloud that contains the ejected filament material. The corresponding filament eruption occurred on 1998 April 29, accompanying an M6.8 class soft X-ray flare located at the heliographic coordinates S18E20 (NOAA 08210) and a fast halo CME with the linear velocity of 1374 km s‑1 near the Sun. We find that the abundance ratios of elements with low and high first ionization potential such as Fe/O, Mg/O, and Si/O are 0.150, 0.050, and 0.070, respectively, approaching their corresponding photospheric values 0.065, 0.081, and 0.066, which does not support the coronal origin of the filament plasma.

  2. A Statistical Study of Solar Filament Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanche, Nicole; Aggarwal, Ashna; Reeves, Kathy; Kempton, Dustin James; Angryk, Rafal

    2016-05-01

    Solar filaments are cool, dark channels of partially-ionized plasma that lie above the chromosphere. Their structure follows the neutral line between local regions of opposite magnetic polarity. Previous research (e.g. Schmieder et al. 2013, McCauley et al. 2015) has shown a positive correlation (70-80%) between the occurrence of filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections (CME’s). In this study, we attempt to use properties of the filament in order to predict whether or not a given filament will erupt. This prediction would help to better predict the occurrence of an oncoming CME. To track the evolution of a filament over time, a spatio-temporal algorithm that groups separate filament instances from the Heliophysics Event Knowledgebase (HEK) into filament tracks was developed. Filament features from the HEK metadata, such as length, chirality, and tilt are then combined with other physical features, such as the overlying decay index for two sets of filaments tracks - those that erupt and those that remain bound. Using statistical methods such as the Kolmogrov-Smirnov test and a Random Forest Classifier, we determine the effectiveness of the combined features in prediction. We conclude that there is significant overlap between the properties of filaments that erupt and those that do not, leading to predictions only ~5-10% above chance. However, the changes in features, such as a change in the filament's length over time, were determined to have the highest predictive power. We discuss the possible physical connections with the change in these features."This project has been supported by funding from the Division of Advanced Cyberinfrastructure within the Directorate for Computer and Information Science and Engineering, the Division of Astronomical Sciences within the Directorate for Mathematical and Physical Sciences, and the Division of Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences within the Directorate for Geosciences, under NSF award #1443061.”

  3. Vortex dynamics and shear layer instability in high intensity cyclotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Cerfon, Antoine J

    2016-01-01

    We show that the space charge dynamics of high intensity beams in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in cyclotrons is described by the two-dimensional Euler equations for an incompressible fluid. This analogy with fluid dynamics gives a unified and intuitive framework to explain the beam spiraling and beam break up behavior observed in experiments and in simulations. In particular, we demonstrate that beam break up is the result of a classical instability occurring in fluids subject to a sheared flow. We give scaling laws for the instability and predict the nonlinear evolution of beams subject to it. Our work suggests that cyclotrons may be uniquely suited for the experimental study of shear layers and vortex distributions that are not achievable in Penning-Malmberg traps.

  4. Instability in evolutionary games.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zimo Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phenomena of instability are widely observed in many dissimilar systems, with punctuated equilibrium in biological evolution and economic crises being noticeable examples. Recent studies suggested that such instabilities, quantified by the abrupt changes of the composition of individuals, could result within the framework of a collection of individuals interacting through the prisoner's dilemma and incorporating three mechanisms: (i imitation and mutation, (ii preferred selection on successful individuals, and (iii networking effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We study the importance of each mechanism using simplified models. The models are studied numerically and analytically via rate equations and mean-field approximation. It is shown that imitation and mutation alone can lead to the instability on the number of cooperators, and preferred selection modifies the instability in an asymmetric way. The co-evolution of network topology and game dynamics is not necessary to the occurrence of instability and the network topology is found to have almost no impact on instability if new links are added in a global manner. The results are valid in both the contexts of the snowdrift game and prisoner's dilemma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The imitation and mutation mechanism, which gives a heterogeneous rate of change in the system's composition, is the dominating reason of the instability on the number of cooperators. The effects of payoffs and network topology are relatively insignificant. Our work refines the understanding on the driving forces of system instability.

  5. Cavitation Instabilities in Inducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    gas handling turbomachines . The fluctuation of the cavity length is plotted in Fig.8 under the surge mode oscillation vi . The major differences...Cavitation Instabilities of Turbomachines .” AIAA Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol.17, No.3, 636-643. [5] Tsujimoto, Y., (2006), “Flow Instabilities in

  6. Limitation of the ECRIS performance by kinetic plasma instabilities (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul’yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Toivanen, V. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Machicoane, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropic electron velocity distribution. The instabilities are associated with strong microwave emission and periodic bursts of energetic electrons escaping the magnetic confinement. The instabilities explain the periodic ms-scale oscillation of the extracted beam current observed with several high performance ECRISs and restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of extracted beam currents of highly charged ions. Experiments with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS have demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B{sub min}-field is less than 0.8B{sub ECR}, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of ECRISs.

  7. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    reduces the radial velocity of isolated filaments. The results are discussed in the context of convective transport in scrape-off layer plasmas, comprising both blob-like structures in low confinement modes and edge localized mode filaments in unstable high confinement regimes. (c) 2006 American Institute...

  8. Spectral stability of Alfven filament chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid model of nonlinear Alfven perturbations has singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. We investigate analytically and numerically the spectral stability of single and double rows of filaments. Staggered and non-staggered double rows (von Karman streets) are studied. I

  9. Spectral stability of Alfven filament configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The two-fluid plasma equations that describe nonlinear Alfven perturbations have singular solutions in the form of current-vortex filaments. These filaments are analogous to point vortices in ideal hydrodynamics and geostrophic fluids. In this work the spectral (linear) stability of current-vortex f

  10. Reconstitution of the muscle thin filament from recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Fumiko; Deshimaru, Shungo; Oda, Toshiro; Fujiwara, Satoru

    2010-04-15

    We have developed a technique by which muscle thin filaments are reconstituted from the recombinant troponin components and the native thin filaments. By this technique, the reconstituted troponin complex is exchanged into the native thin filaments in the presence of 20% glycerol and 0.3M KCl at pH 6.2. More than 90% of endogenous troponin complex was replaced with the recombinant troponin complex. Structural integrity and Ca(2+) sensitivity of the reconstituted thin filament prepared by this technique was confirmed by X-ray fiber diffraction measurements and the thin filament-activated myosin subfragment 1 ATPase measurements, respectively.

  11. Model of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler

    CERN Document Server

    Balbekov, V

    2015-01-01

    Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  12. Model of E-Cloud Instability in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    Simple model of electron cloud is developed in the paper to explain e-cloud instability of bunched proton beam in the Fermilab Recycler. The cloud is presented as an immobile snake in strong vertical magnetic field. The instability is treated as an amplification of the bunch injection errors from the batch head to its tail. Nonlinearity of the e-cloud field is taken into account. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  13. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Instituto de Investigaciones Energéticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-07-15

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  14. Particles trajectories in magnetic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Bret, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    The motion of a particle in a spatially harmonic magnetic field is a basic problem involved, for example, in the mechanism of formation of a collisionless shock. In such settings, it is generally reasoned that particles entering a Weibel generated turbulence are trapped inside it, provided their Larmor radius in the peak field is smaller than the field coherence length. The goal of this work is to put this heuristic conclusion on firm ground by studying, both analytically and numerically, such motion. A toy model is analyzed, consisting of a relativistic particle entering a region of space occupied by a spatially harmonic field. The particle penetrates the magnetic structure in a direction aligned with the magnetic filaments. Although the conclusions are not trivial, the main result is confirmed.

  15. Filamentous Growth in Eremothecium Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, Therese

    , this thesis deals with some of the aspects of hyphal growth, which is an important virulence factor for pathogenic fungi infecting both humans and plants. Hyphal establishment through continuous polar growth is a complex process, requiring the careful coordination of a large subset of proteins involved......-regulatory activity of AgGts1, the protein could have additional actin organizing properties. In the second and third part, this thesis addresses the use of A. gossypii and its relative E. cymbalariae as model organisms for filamentous growth. A series of assays analyzed the capability of Eremothecium genus fungi...... of molecular tools for E. cymbalariae to enable a faster and more efficient approach for genetic comparisons between Eremothecium genus fungi....

  16. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  17. Theory of Semiflexible Filaments and Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanlong Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the recent developments in the theory of individual semiflexible filaments, and of a crosslinked network of such filaments, both permanent and transient. Starting from the free energy of an individual semiflexible chain, models on its force-extension relation and other mechanical properties such as Euler buckling are discussed. For a permanently crosslinked network of filaments, theories on how the network responds to deformation are provided, with a focus on continuum approaches. Characteristic features of filament networks, such as nonlinear stress-strain relation, negative normal stress, tensegrity, and marginal stability are discussed. In the new area of transient filament network, where the crosslinks can be dynamically broken and re-formed, we show some recent attempts for understanding the dynamics of the crosslinks, and the related rheological properties, such as stress relaxation, yield stress and plasticity.

  18. Solar Filaments as Tracers of Subsurface Processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D. M. Rust

    2000-09-01

    Solar filaments are discussed in terms of two contrasting paradigms. The standard paradigm is that filaments are formed by condensation of coronal plasma into magnetic fields that are twisted or dimpled as a consequence of motions of the fields' sources in the photo-sphere. According to a new paradigm, filaments form in rising, twisted flux ropes and are a necessary intermediate stage in the transfer to interplanetary space of dynamo-generated magnetic flux. It is argued that the accumulation of magnetic helicity in filaments and their coronal surroundings leads to filament eruptions and coronal mass ejections. These ejections relieve the Sun of the flux generated by the dynamo and make way for the flux of the next cycle.

  19. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  20. Single Bunch Longitudinal Instability in the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Lasheen, Alexandre; Hancock, Steven; Radvilas, Edgaras; Roggen, Toon; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The longitudinal single bunch instability observed in the SPS leads to uncontrolled emittance blow-up and limits the quality of high intensity beams required for the High Luminosity LHC and AWAKE projects at CERN. The present SPS impedance model developed from a thorough survey of machine elements was used in macro-particle simulations (with the code BLonD) of the bunch behavior through the acceleration cycle. Comparison of simulations with measurements of the synchrotron frequency shift, performed on the SPS flat bottom to probe the impedance, show a reasonable agreement. During extensive experimental studies various beam and machine parameters (bunch intensity, longitudinal emittance, RF voltage, with single and double RF systems) were scanned in order to further benchmark the SPS impedance model with measurements and to better understand the mechanism behind the instability. It was found that the dependence of instability threshold on longitudinal emittance and beam energy has an unexpected non-monotonic b...

  1. Parametric instabilities of large amplitude Alfven waves with obliquely propagating sidebands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief report on properties of the parametric decay and modulational, filamentation, and magnetoacoustic instabilities of a large amplitude, circularly polarized Alfven wave. We allow the daughter and sideband waves to propagate at an arbitrary angle to the background magnetic field so that the electrostatic and electromagnetic characteristics of these waves are coupled. We investigate the dependance of these instabilities on dispersion, plasma/beta, pump wave amplitude, and propagation angle. Analytical and numerical results are compared with numerical simulations to investigate the full nonlinear evolution of these instabilities.

  2. Adhesion Transition of Flexible Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur; Lauga, Eric

    2009-03-01

    As forays into fabrication and self-assembly venture to increasingly small length scales, the role of adhesion events between material elements of the system must be closely scrutinized. This area of study is typically dominated by investigations into capillary adhesion, but relatively recent interest in carbon nanotubes and biomimetic devices have spurred interest in intermolecular forces as another source of micro- and nano-scale adhesion. We present here a far-field model for ``dry'' adhesion. We consider a small number N of flexible beams interacting with each other via a typical Lennard-Jones 6-12 potential, and describe the behavior of the system as the ratio of bending rigidity to beam-beam attraction is reduced. Applications ranging from fibrillar systems to the comparatively stiff carbon nanotubes are discussed.

  3. Characterization of 3D filament dynamics in a MAST SOL flux tube geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkden, N. R.; Dudson, B. D.; Fishpool, G.

    2013-10-01

    Non-linear simulations of filament propagation in a realistic MAST SOL flux tube geometry using the BOUT++ fluid modelling framework show an isolation of the dynamics of the filament in the divertor region from the midplane region due to three features of the magnetic geometry; the variation of magnetic curvature along the field line, the expansion of the flux tube and strong magnetic shear. Of the three effects, the latter two lead to a midplane ballooning feature of the filament, whilst the former leads to a ballooning around the X-points. In simulations containing all three effects the filament is observed to balloon at the midplane, suggesting that the role of curvature variation is sub-dominant to the flux expansion and magnetic shear. The magnitudes of these effects are all strongest near the X-point which leads to the formation of parallel density gradients. The filaments simulated, which represent filaments in MAST, are identified as resistive ballooning, meaning that their motion is inertially limited, not sheath limited. Parallel density gradients can drive the filament towards a Boltzmann response when the collisionalityof the plasma is low. The results here show that the formation of parallel density gradients is a natural and inevitable consequence of a realistic magnetic geometry and therefore the transition to the Boltzmann response is a consequence of the use of realistic magnetic geometry and does not require initializing specifically varying background profiles as in slab simulations. The filaments studied here are stable to the linear resistive drift-wave instability but are subject to the non-linear effects associated with the Boltzmann response, particularly Boltzmann spinning. The Boltzmann response causes the filament to spin on an axis. In later stages of its evolution a non-linear turbulent state develops where the vorticity evolves into a turbulent eddy field on the same length scale as the parallel current. The transition from interchange

  4. Nonlinear helical MHD instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zueva, N.M.; Solov' ev, L.S.

    1977-07-01

    An examination is made of the boundary problem on the development of MHD instability in a toroidal plasma. Two types of local helical instability are noted - Alfven and thermal, and the corresponding criteria of instability are cited. An evaluation is made of the maximum attainable kinetic energy, limited by the degree to which the law of conservation is fulfilled. An examination is made of a precise solution to a kinematic problem on the helical evolution of a cylindrical magnetic configuration at a given velocity distribution in a plasma. A numerical computation of the development of MHD instability in a plasma cylinder by a computerized solution of MHD equations is made where the process's helical symmetry is conserved. The development of instability is of a resonance nature. The instability involves the entire cross section of the plasma and leads to an inside-out reversal of the magnetic surfaces when there is a maximum unstable equilibrium configuration in the nonlinear stage. The examined instability in the tore is apparently stabilized by a magnetic hole when certain limitations are placed on the distribution of flows in the plasma. 29 references, 8 figures.

  5. Automatic Detect and Trace of Solar Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Chen, P. F.; Tang, Yu-hua; Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang

    We developed a series of methods to automatically detect and trace solar filaments in solar Hα images. The programs are able to not only recognize filaments and determine their properties, such as the position, the area and other relevant parameters, but also to trace the daily evolution of the filaments. For solar full disk Hα images, the method consists of three parts: first, preprocessing is applied to correct the original images; second, the Canny edge-detection method is used to detect the filaments; third, filament properties are recognized through the morphological operators. For each Hα filament and its barb features, we introduced the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopted Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine; then, using polarity inversion line shift method for measuring the polarities in both sides of the filament to determine the filament axis chirality; finally, employing connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculating the angle between each barb and spine to indicate the barb chirality. Our algorithms are applied to the observations from varied observatories, including the Optical & Near Infrared Solar Eruption Tracer (ONSET) in Nanjing University, Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) and Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). The programs are demonstrated to be effective and efficient. We used our method to automatically process and analyze 3470 images obtained by MLSO from January 1998 to December 2009, and a butterfly diagram of filaments is obtained. It shows that the latitudinal migration of solar filaments has three trends in the Solar Cycle 23: The drift velocity was fast from 1998 to the solar maximum; after the solar maximum, it became relatively slow and after 2006, the migration became divergent, signifying the solar minimum. About 60% filaments with the latitudes larger than 50 degree migrate towards the Polar Regions with relatively high velocities, and the latitudinal migrating

  6. Power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage electron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lige; Yang, Lei; Yang, Jun, E-mail: jyang@mail.hust.edu.cn; Huang, Jiang; Liu, Kaifeng; Zuo, Chen

    2015-12-21

    The filament is a key component for the electron emission in the high-voltage electron accelerator. In order to guarantee the stability of the beam intensity and ensure the proper functioning for the power supply in the airtight steel barrel, an efficient filament power supply under accurate control is required. The paper, based on the dual-switch forward converter and synchronous rectification technology, puts forward a prototype of power supply design for the filament of the high-voltage accelerator. The simulation is conducted with MATLAB-Simulink on the main topology and the control method. Loss analysis and thermal analysis are evaluated using the FEA method. Tests show that in this prototype, the accuracy of current control is higher than 97.5%, and the efficiency of the power supply reaches 87.8% when the output current is 40 A.

  7. Filamentation of Campylobacter in broth cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacheervan M Ghaffar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition from rod to filamentous cell morphology has been identified as a response to stressful conditions in many bacterial species and has been ascribed to confer certain survival advantages. Filamentation of Campylobacter jejuni was demonstrated to occur spontaneously on entry in to stationary phase distinguishing it from many other bacteria where a reduction in size is more common. The aim of this study was to investigate the cues that give rise to filamentation of C. jejuni and C. coli and gain insights into the process. Using minimal medium, augmentation of filamentation occurred and it was observed that this morphological change was wide spread amongst C. jejuni strains tested but was not universal in C. coli strains. Filamentation did not appear to be due to release of diffusible molecules, toxic metabolites, or be in response to oxidative stress in the medium. Separated filaments exhibited greater intracellular ATP contents (2.66 to 17.4 fg than spiral forms (0.99 to 1.7 fg and showed enhanced survival in water at 4oC and 37oC compared to spiral cells. These observations support the conclusion that the filaments are adapted to survive extra-intestinal environments. Differences in cell morphology and physiology need to be considered in the context of the design of experimental studies and the methods adopted for the isolation of campylobacters from food, clinical and environmental sources.

  8. Filamentous Biopolymers on Surfaces: Atomic Force Microscopy Images Compared with Brownian Dynamics Simulation of Filament Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mücke, Norbert; Klenin, Konstantin; Kirmse, Robert; Bussiek, Malte; Herrmann, Harald; Hafner, Mathias; Langowski, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of filamentous biopolymers, such as the persistence length, may be determined from two-dimensional images of molecules immobilized on surfaces. For a single filament in solution, two principal adsorption scenarios are possible. Both scenarios depend primarly on the interaction strength between the filament and the support: i) For interactions in the range of the thermal energy, the filament can freely equilibrate on the surface during adsorption; ii) For interactions much stronger than the thermal energy, the filament will be captured by the surface without having equilibrated. Such a ‘trapping’ mechanism leads to more condensed filament images and hence to a smaller value for the apparent persistence length. To understand the capture mechanism in more detail we have performed Brownian dynamics simulations of relatively short filaments by taking the two extreme scenarios into account. We then compared these ‘ideal’ adsorption scenarios with observed images of immobilized vimentin intermediate filaments on different surfaces. We found a good agreement between the contours of the deposited vimentin filaments on mica (‘ideal’ trapping) and on glass (‘ideal’ equilibrated) with our simulations. Based on these data, we have developed a strategy to reliably extract the persistence length of short worm-like chain fragments or network forming filaments with unknown polymer-surface interactions. PMID:19888472

  9. Filamentous biopolymers on surfaces: atomic force microscopy images compared with Brownian dynamics simulation of filament deposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mücke

    Full Text Available Nanomechanical properties of filamentous biopolymers, such as the persistence length, may be determined from two-dimensional images of molecules immobilized on surfaces. For a single filament in solution, two principal adsorption scenarios are possible. Both scenarios depend primarily on the interaction strength between the filament and the support: i For interactions in the range of the thermal energy, the filament can freely equilibrate on the surface during adsorption; ii For interactions much stronger than the thermal energy, the filament will be captured by the surface without having equilibrated. Such a 'trapping' mechanism leads to more condensed filament images and hence to a smaller value for the apparent persistence length. To understand the capture mechanism in more detail we have performed Brownian dynamics simulations of relatively short filaments by taking the two extreme scenarios into account. We then compared these 'ideal' adsorption scenarios with observed images of immobilized vimentin intermediate filaments on different surfaces. We found a good agreement between the contours of the deposited vimentin filaments on mica ('ideal' trapping and on glass ('ideal' equilibrated with our simulations. Based on these data, we have developed a strategy to reliably extract the persistence length of short worm-like chain fragments or network forming filaments with unknown polymer-surface interactions.

  10. Beam-Beam Effects in the Ring-Ring Version of eRHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Jack; Wang, Dong; Wang, Fuhua

    2005-01-01

    The eRHIC is a proposed electron ring at the RHIC that will provide collisions between a polarized 5-10 GeV electron beam and an ion beam from one of the RHIC rings. In order to achieve proposed high luminosity, large bunch current and small beta-functions at the IP has to be employed. Such measures result in large beam-beam parameters, 0.029 and 0.08 for the electron beam and 0.0065 and 0.0033 for the proton beam in the horizontal and vertical plane, respectively, in the current ZDR design. The beam-beam effect especially the coherent beam-beam effect is therefore one of important issues to the eRHIC. Moreover, the proposed configuration of unequal circumferences of the electron and proton rings could further enhance the coherent beam-beam effect. The beam-beam effect of eRHIC has therefore been studied with a self-consistent beam-beam simulation by using the particle-in-cell method. Beam-beam limits of the electron and proton beam were examined as thresholds of the onset of coherent beam-beam instability. F...

  11. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253 but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  12. Thermal and Chemical Evolution of Collapsing Filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scannapieco, Evan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States). School of Earth and Space Exploration

    2013-01-15

    Intergalactic filaments form the foundation of the cosmic web that connect galaxies together, and provide an important reservoir of gas for galaxy growth and accretion. Here we present very high resolution two-dimensional simulations of the thermal and chemical evolution of such filaments, making use of a 32 species chemistry network that tracks the evolution of key molecules formed from hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. We study the evolution of filaments over a wide range of parameters including the initial density, initial temperature, strength of the dissociating UV background, and metallicity. In low-redshift, Z ≈ 0.1Z filaments, the evolution is determined completely by the initial cooling time. If this is sufficiently short, the center of the filament always collapses to form dense, cold core containing a substantial fraction of molecules. In high-redshift, Z = 10-3Z filaments, the collapse proceeds much more slowly. This is due mostly to the lower initial temperatures, which leads to a much more modest increase in density before the atomic cooling limit is reached, making subsequent molecular cooling much less efficient. Finally, we study how the gravitational potential from a nearby dwarf galaxy affects the collapse of the filament and compare this to NGC 5253, a nearby starbusting dwarf galaxy thought to be fueled by the accretion of filament gas. In contrast to our fiducial case, a substantial density peak forms at the center of the potential. This peak evolves faster than the rest of the filament due to the increased rate at which chemical species form and cooling occur. We find that we achieve similar accretion rates as NGC 5253, but our two-dimensional simulations do not recover the formation of the giant molecular clouds that are seen in radio observations.

  13. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))

    2009-04-15

    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.

  14. Instabilities in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Csernai, László P; Papp, G

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of dynamical perturbations is examined in nuclear multifragmentation in the frame of Vlasov equation. Both plane wave and bubble type of perturbations are investigated in the presence of surface (Yukawa) forces. An energy condition is given for the allowed type of instabilities and the time scale of the exponential growth of the instabilities is calculated. The results are compared to the mechanical spinodal region predictions. PACS: 25.70 Mn

  15. Prediction of Algebraic Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretzky, Paula; King, Kristina; Hill, Nicole; Keithley, Kimberlee; Barlow, Nathaniel; Weinstein, Steven; Cromer, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A widely unexplored type of hydrodynamic instability is examined - large-time algebraic growth. Such growth occurs on the threshold of (exponentially) neutral stability. A new methodology is provided for predicting the algebraic growth rate of an initial disturbance, when applied to the governing differential equation (or dispersion relation) describing wave propagation in dispersive media. Several types of algebraic instabilities are explored in the context of both linear and nonlinear waves.

  16. Identifying Instability Pockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    TYPE SAMS Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) FEB 2014 – DEC 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IDENTIFYING INSTABILITY POCKETS 5a. CONTRACT...century, and if the first few years of the new century are indicative of the future, Central Asia is surely destined to be a focus of the world...reasons. First, there is a possibility of the collapse and instability of Afghanistan once all the U.S troops vacate .107 This stability will most

  17. Plasma-beam traps and radiofrequency quadrupole beam coolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M; Cavenago, M; Comunian, M; Chirulotto, F; Galatà, A; De Lazzari, M; Porcellato, A M; Roncolato, C; Stark, S; Caruso, A; Longhitano, A; Cavaliere, F; Maero, G; Paroli, B; Pozzoli, R; Romé, M

    2014-02-01

    Two linear trap devices for particle beam manipulation (including emittance reduction, cooling, control of instabilities, dust dynamics, and non-neutral plasmas) are here presented, namely, a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) beam cooler and a compact Penning trap with a dust injector. Both beam dynamics studies by means of dedicated codes including the interaction of the ions with a buffer gas (up to 3 Pa pressure), and the electromagnetic design of the RFQ beam cooler are reported. The compact multipurpose Penning trap is aimed to the study of multispecies charged particle samples, primarily electron beams interacting with a background gas and/or a micrometric dust contaminant. Using a 0.9 T solenoid and an electrode stack where both static and RF electric fields can be applied, both beam transport and confinement operations will be available. The design of the apparatus is presented.

  18. Observation of magnetic field generation via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    CERN Document Server

    Huntington, C M; Ross, J S; Zylstra, A B; Drake, R P; Froula, D H; Gregori, G; Kugland, N L; Kuranz, C C; Levy, M C; Li, C K; Meinecke, J; Morita, T; Petrasso, R; Plechaty, C; Remington, B A; Ryutov, D D; Sakawa, Y; Spitkovsky, A; Takabe, H; Park, H -S

    2013-01-01

    As the ejecta from supernovae or other energetic astrophysical events stream through the interstellar media, this plasma is shaped by instabilities that generate electric and magnetic fields. Among these instabilities, the Weibel filamentation instability plays a particularly important role, as it can generate significant magnetic fields in an initially un-magnetized medium. It is theorized that these Weibel fields are responsible for the observed gamma-ray burst light curve, particle acceleration in shock waves, and for providing seed fields for larger-scale cosmological magnetic structures. While the presence of these instability-generated fields has been inferred from astrophysical observation and predicted in simulation, observation in experiments is challenging. Here we report direct observation of well-organized, large-amplitude, filamentary magnetic fields associated with the Weibel instability in a scaled laboratory experiment. The experimental images, captured with proton radiography, are shown to be...

  19. Stability Issues of the Mu2e Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    Stability issues of the mu2e proton beam are discussed. These include space-charge distortion of bunch shape, microwave instabilities, mode-coupling instabilities, head-tail instabilities, as well as electron-cloud effects. We have studied several beam stability issues of the proton beam heading to the target for the mu2e experiment. We find bunch-shape distortions driven by the space charge force is reasonably small, and longitudinal microwave instability will unlikely to occur. Electron-cloud buildup, with density up to {rho}{sub e} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 12} m{sup -3} in the Accumulator, can probably drive head-tail instabilities. However, these, together with the instabilities driven by the resistive-wall impedance can be avoided by restricting the chromaticity to larger than {approx} 0.2. TMCI will not occur even when the electron-cloud wake is included.

  20. Can We Determine the Filament Chirality by the Filament Footpoint Location or the Barb-bearing?

    CERN Document Server

    Hao, Q; Fang, C; Chen, P F; Cao, W

    2015-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the unweighted undirected graph concept and adopt the Dijkstra shortest-path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with H-alpha filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) H-alpha archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have ...

  1. Propagating Instabilities in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Stelios

    1998-03-01

    Instability is one of the factors which limit the extent to which solids can be loaded or deformed and plays a pivotal role in the design of many structures. Such instabilities often result in localized deformation which precipitates catastrophic failure. Some materials have the capacity to recover their stiffness following a certain amount of localized deformation. This local recovery in stiffness arrests further local deformation and spreading of the instability to neighboring material becomes preferred. Under displacement controlled loading the propagation of the transition fronts can be achieved in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level known as the propagation stress. The stresses in the transition fronts joining the highly deformed zone to the intact material overcome the instability nucleation stresses and, as a result, the propagation stress is usually much lower than the stress required to nucleate the instability. The classical example of this class of material instabilities is L/"uders bands which tend to affect mild steels and other metals. Recent work has demonstrated that propagating instabilities occur in several other materials. Experimental and analytical results from four examples will be used to illustrate this point: First the evolution of L=FCders bands in mild steel strips will be revisited. The second example involves the evolution of stress induced phase transformations (austenite to martensite phases and the reverse) in a shape memory alloy under displacement controlled stretching. The third example is the crushing behavior of cellular materials such as honeycombs and foams made from metals and polymers. The fourth example involves the axial broadening/propagation of kink bands in aligned fiber/matrix composites under compression. The microstructure and, as a result, the micromechanisms governing the onset, localization, local arrest and propagation of instabilities in each of the four materials are vastly different. Despite this

  2. Tunnel ionization, population trapping, filamentation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leang Chin, See; Xu, Huailiang

    2016-11-01

    The advances in femtosecond Ti-sapphire laser technology have led to the discovery of a profusion of new physics. This review starts with a brief historical account of the experimental realization of tunnel ionization, followed by high harmonic generation and the prediction of attosecond pulses. Then, the unique phenomenon of dynamic population trapping during the ionization of atoms and molecules in intense laser fields is introduced. One of the consequences of population trapping in the highly excited states is the neutral dissociation into simple molecular fragments which fluoresce. Such fluorescence could be amplified in femtosecond laser filamentation in gases. The experimental observations of filament-induced fluorescence and lasing in the atmosphere and combustion flames are given. Excitation of molecular rotational wave packets (molecular alignment) and their relaxation and revival in a gas filament are described. Furthermore, filament-induced condensation and precipitation inside a cloud chamber is explained. Lastly, a summary and future outlook is given.

  3. Interaction and merging of vortex filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Weston, R. P.; Ishii, K.; Ting, L.; Visintainer, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    The asymptotic solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for vortex filaments of finite strength with small effective vortical cores are summarized with special emphasis placed on the physical meaning and the practical limit to the applicability of the asymptotic solution. Finite-difference solutions of Navier-Stokes equations for the marging of the filament(s) are described with a focus on the development of the approximate boundary conditions for the computational domain. An efficiency study employing a model problem is used to assess the advantages of the present approximate boundary condition method over previously used techniques. Applications of the present method are presented for the motion and decay of a 3:1 elliptic vortex ring, and for the merging process of a pair of coaxial vortex rings. A numerical procedure for the problem of local merging of vortex filaments, which requires the asymptotic analysis as well as the numerical Navier-Stokes solver, is also presented.

  4. Fusion Implosion Fluid after Indirectly Driven by Laser Beam Instability%聚变内爆流体受激光间接驱动后的不稳定性表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红利; 杨永和

    2015-01-01

    Fluid dynamics that occur multilayer target ball each interface instability related to the indirect drive inertial confinement fu-sion ignition success,that burst medium radiation related shooting in fluid mechanics local 3D application program of LARED -S through the analysis of the process.We find the system summary and feedback,and draw a conclusion that the instability of linear and weakly nonlinear results through the presentation of the results obtained,which are consistent with the nonlinear test,analysis of the construction by the corresponding numerical simulation test and the bronze drum aluminum wheel model,obtain the ICf detonation physics significance of observation ignition research significance and draw the conclusion as the nature of fluid,the fusion after the out-break in the in life,the fluid and the corresponding laser have the indirect effect of unstable drive,the emergence of a feedback insta-bility makes the fusion implosion fluid numerical increase and pressure expansion phenomenon.%多层靶球每个界面所发生的流体力学的不稳定关系到激光间接驱动惯性约束聚变的点火成功,通过对过程的分析得出爆多介质辐射相关射流体力学中的局部三维应用 LARED -S 程序。得出系统的总结和反馈,并通过结果得出不稳定性线性和弱非线性结果的表述,进而非线性试验都符合,通过相应的模拟数值试验并铜鼓铝轮模型构建分析,得出 ICf 爆点火研究意义并得出自然界流体的物理学观察意义,其结论为其聚变后内爆发生中,相应的流体和激光产生不稳定的间接影响驱动,出现一种不稳定的反馈使得聚变后内爆流体出现数值增加和压力膨胀现象。

  5. Three-dimensional gyrokinetic simulation of the relaxation of a magnetized temperature filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, R. D.; Morales, G. J.; Maggs, J. E.; Van Compernolle, B.

    2015-10-01

    An electromagnetic, 3D gyrokinetic particle code is used to study the relaxation of a magnetized electron temperature filament embedded in a large, uniform plasma of lower temperature. The study provides insight into the role played by unstable drift-Alfvén waves observed in a basic electron heat transport experiment [D. C. Pace et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 122304 (2008)] in which anomalous cross-field transport has been documented. The simulation exhibits the early growth of temperature-gradient-driven, drift-Alfvén fluctuations that closely match the eigenmodes predicted by linear theory. At the onset of saturation, the unstable fluctuations display a spiral spatial pattern, similar to that observed in the laboratory, which causes the rearrangement of the temperature profile. After saturation of the linear instability, the system exhibits a markedly different behavior depending on the inclusion in the computation of modes without variation along the magnetic field, i.e., kz = 0. In their absence, the initial filament evolves into a broadened temperature profile, self-consistent with undamped, finite amplitude drift-Alfvén waves. But the inclusion of kz = 0 modes causes the destruction of the filament and damping of the drift-Alfvén modes leading to a final state consisting of undamped convective cells and multiple, smaller-scale filaments.

  6. Organizing Filament of Small Amplitude Scroll Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU TianShou; ZHANG SuoChun

    2001-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the organizing filament of small amplitude scroll waves in general excitable media by perturbation method and explicitly give the expressions of coefficients in Keener theory. In particular for the excitable media with equal diffusion, we obtain a close system for the motion of the filament. With an example of the Oregonator model, our results are in good agreement with those simulated by Winfree.``

  7. On the nature of star-forming filaments: II. Sub-filaments and velocities

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rowan J; Klessen, Ralf S; Fuller, Gary A

    2015-01-01

    We show that hydrodynamic turbulent cloud simulations naturally produce large filaments made up of a network of smaller and coherent sub-filaments. Such simulations resemble observations of filaments and fibres in nearby molecular clouds. The sub-filaments are dynamical features formed at the stagnation points of the turbulent velocity field where shocks dissipate the turbulent energy. They are a ubiquitous feature of the simulated clouds, which appear from the beginning of the simulation and are not formed by gradual fragmentation of larger filaments. Most of the sub-filaments are gravitationally sub-critical and do not fragment into cores, however, there is also a significant fraction of supercritical sub-filaments which break up into star-forming cores. The sub-filaments are coherent along their length, and the residual velocities along their spine show that they are subsonically contracting without any ordered rotation on scales of ~0.1 pc. Accretion flows along the sub-filaments can feed material into st...

  8. Actin filament attachments for sustained motility in vitro are maintained by filament bundling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Hu

    Full Text Available We reconstructed cellular motility in vitro from individual proteins to investigate how actin filaments are organized at the leading edge. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of actin filaments, we tested how profilin, Arp2/3, and capping protein (CP function together to propel thin glass nanofibers or beads coated with N-WASP WCA domains. Thin nanofibers produced wide comet tails that showed more structural variation in actin filament organization than did bead substrates. During sustained motility, physiological concentrations of Mg(2+ generated actin filament bundles that processively attached to the nanofiber. Reduction of total Mg(2+ abolished particle motility and actin attachment to the particle surface without affecting actin polymerization, Arp2/3 nucleation, or filament capping. Analysis of similar motility of microspheres showed that loss of filament bundling did not affect actin shell formation or symmetry breaking but eliminated sustained attachments between the comet tail and the particle surface. Addition of Mg(2+, Lys-Lys(2+, or fascin restored both comet tail attachment and sustained particle motility in low Mg(2+ buffers. TIRF microscopic analysis of filaments captured by WCA-coated beads in the absence of Arp2/3, profilin, and CP showed that filament bundling by polycation or fascin addition increased barbed end capture by WCA domains. We propose a model in which CP directs barbed ends toward the leading edge and polycation-induced filament bundling sustains processive barbed end attachment to the leading edge.

  9. Can we determine the filament chirality by the filament footpoint location or the barb-bearing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Guo, Yang; Fang, Cheng; Chen, Peng-Fei; Cao, Wen-Da

    2016-01-01

    We attempt to propose a method for automatically detecting the solar filament chirality and barb bearing. We first introduce the concept of an unweighted undirected graph and adopt the Dijkstra shortest path algorithm to recognize the filament spine. Then, we use the polarity inversion line (PIL) shift method for measuring the polarities on both sides of the filament, and employ the connected components labeling method to identify the barbs and calculate the angle between each barb and the spine to determine the bearing of the barbs, i.e., left or right. We test the automatic detection method with Hα filtergrams from the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) Hα archive and magnetograms observed with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Four filaments are automatically detected and illustrated to show the results. The barbs in different parts of a filament may have opposite bearings. The filaments in the southern hemisphere (northern hemisphere) mainly have left-bearing (right-bearing) barbs and positive (negative) magnetic helicity, respectively. The tested results demonstrate that our method is efficient and effective in detecting the bearing of filament barbs. It is demonstrated that the conventionally believed one-to-one correspondence between filament chirality and barb bearing is not valid. The correct detection of the filament axis chirality should be done by combining both imaging morphology and magnetic field observations.

  10. Electron-beam dynamics for an advanced flash-radiography accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-06-22

    Beam dynamics issues were assessed for a new linear induction electron accelerator. Special attention was paid to equilibrium beam transport, possible emittance growth, and beam stability. Especially problematic would be high-frequency beam instabilities that could blur individual radiographic source spots, low-frequency beam motion that could cause pulse-to-pulse spot displacement, and emittance growth that could enlarge the source spots. Beam physics issues were examined through theoretical analysis and computer simulations, including particle-in cell (PIC) codes. Beam instabilities investigated included beam breakup (BBU), image displacement, diocotron, parametric envelope, ion hose, and the resistive wall instability. Beam corkscrew motion and emittance growth from beam mismatch were also studied. It was concluded that a beam with radiographic quality equivalent to the present accelerators at Los Alamos will result if the same engineering standards and construction details are upheld.

  11. Filaments in the Lupus molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedettini, M.; Schisano, E.; Pezzuto, S.; Elia, D.; André, P.; Könyves, V.; Schneider, N.; Tremblin, P.; Arzoumanian, D.; di Giorgio, A. M.; Di Francesco, J.; Hill, T.; Molinari, S.; Motte, F.; Nguyen-Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Roy, A.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Spinoglio, L.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the filaments extracted from the column density maps of the nearby Lupus 1, 3, and 4 molecular clouds, derived from photometric maps observed with the Herschel satellite. Filaments in the Lupus clouds have quite low column densities, with a median value of ˜1.5 × 1021 cm-2 and most have masses per unit length lower than the maximum critical value for radial gravitational collapse. Indeed, no evidence of filament contraction has been seen in the gas kinematics. We find that some filaments, that on average are thermally subcritical, contain dense cores that may eventually form stars. This is an indication that in the low column density regime, the critical condition for the formation of stars may be reached only locally and this condition is not a global property of the filament. Finally, in Lupus we find multiple observational evidences of the key role that the magnetic field plays in forming filaments, and determining their confinement and dynamical evolution.

  12. Filaments in the Lupus molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedettini, M; Pezzuto, S; Elia, D; André, P; Könyves, V; Schneider, N; Tremblin, P; Arzoumanian, D; di Giorgio, A M; Di Francesco, J; Hill, T; Molinari, S; Motte, F; Nguyen-Luong, Q; Palmeirim, P; Rivera-Ingraham, A; Roy, A; Rygl, K L J; Spinoglio, L; Ward-Thompson, D; White, G J

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the filaments extracted from the column density maps of the nearby Lupus 1, 3, and 4 molecular clouds, derived from photometric maps observed with the Herschel satellite. Filaments in the Lupus clouds have quite low column densities, with a median value of $\\sim$1.5$\\times$10$^{21}$ cm$^{-2}$ and most have masses per unit length lower than the maximum critical value for radial gravitational collapse. Indeed, no evidence of filament contraction has been seen in the gas kinematics. We find that some filaments, that on average are thermally subcritical, contain dense cores that may eventually form stars. This is an indication that in the low column density regime, the critical condition for the formation of stars may be reached only locally and this condition is not a global property of the filament. Finally, in Lupus we find multiple observational evidences of the key role that the magnetic field plays in forming filaments, and determining their confinement and dynamical evolution.

  13. Filaments in Simulations of Molecular Cloud Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Gilberto C

    2013-01-01

    We report on the filaments that develop self-consistently in a new numerical simulation of cloud formation by colliding flows. As in previous studies, the forming cloud begins to undergo gravitational collapse because it rapidly acquires a mass much larger than the average Jeans mass. Thus, the collapse is hierarchical in nature, proceeding along its shortest dimension first. This naturally produces filaments in cloud, and clumps within the filaments. The filaments are not in equilibrium at any time, but instead are long-lived flow features, through which the gas flows from the cloud to the clumps. The filaments are long-lived because they accrete from their environment while simultaneously accreting onto the clumps within them; they are essentially the locus where the flow changes from accreting in two dimensions to accreting in one dimension. Moreover, the clumps also exhibit a hierarchical nature: the gas in a filament flows onto a main, central clump, but other, smaller-scale clumps form along the infalli...

  14. Fusion of regularized femtosecond filaments in air: far field on-axis emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipilo, D. E.; Panov, N. A.; Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Andreeva, V. A.; Kosareva, O. G.; Seleznev, L. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Ionin, A. A.; Chin, S. L.

    2016-11-01

    The fusion of several coherent 800 nm femtosecond filaments is induced experimentally and numerically by transmitting a beam through a mask with circular apertures followed by the focusing lens. The far-field image of the four-filament fusion region reveals bright on-axis maximum and differs drastically from the diffraction pattern of a low energy beam propagating through the mask in the linear regime. In 3D+time numerical simulations with the carrier wave resolved we show a factor-of-5 saturable growth in the peak plasma density with successive increase in the number of mask openings. An overall spectral blueshift of the fundamental and the third harmonics follows the plasma density increase. The simulated far-field on-axis emission agrees with the experiment and serves as the indication of nonlinear interaction in the fusion region.

  15. Initial mass function of planetesimals formed by the streaming instability

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Urs; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The streaming instability is a mechanism to concentrate solid particles into overdense filaments that undergo gravitational collapse and form planetesimals. However, it remains unclear how the initial mass function of these planetesimals depends on the box dimensions of numerical simulations. To resolve this, we perform simulations of planetesimal formation with the largest box dimensions to date, allowing planetesimals to form simultaneously in multiple filaments that can only emerge within such large simulation boxes. In our simulations planetesimals with sizes between 80 km and several hundred kilometers form. We find that a power law with a rather shallow exponential cutoff at the high-mass end represents the cumulative birth mass function better than an integrated power law. The steepness of the exponential cutoff is largely independent of box dimensions and resolution, while the exponent of the power law is not constrained at the resolutions we employ. Moreover, we find that the characteristic mass scal...

  16. Experimental validation of a filament transport model in turbulent magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Carralero, D; Aho-Mantila, L; Birkenmeier, G; Brix, M; Groth, M; Müller, H W; Stroth, U; Vianello, N; Wolfrum, E; Contributors, JET

    2015-01-01

    In a wide variety of natural and laboratory magnetized plasmas, filaments appear as a result of interchange instability. These convective structures substantially enhance transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. According to filament models, their propagation may follow different regimes depending on the parallel closure of charge conservation. This is of paramount importance in magnetic fusion plasmas, as high collisionality in the scrape-off layer may trigger a regime transition leading to strongly enhanced perpendicular particle fluxes. This work reports for the first time on an experimental verification of this process, linking enhanced transport with a regime transition as predicted by models. Based on these results, a novel scaling for global perpendicular particle transport in reactor relevant tokamaks such as ASDEX-Upgrade and JET is found, leading to important implications for next generation fusion devices.

  17. Microwave Instability at Transition Crossing: Experiments and a Proton-Klystron Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Ken; Arakawa, Dai; Kishiro, Junichi; Koba, Kiyomi; Yoshii, Masahito

    1997-02-01

    Longitudinal bunch shapes in the KEK proton synchrotron were measured by a fast bunch-monitor system, which showed the rapid growth of the instability at the frequency of ~1 GHz and significant beam loss just after transition energy. Temporal evolution of the microwave instability is explained for the first time with a proton-klystron model.

  18. Self-focusing of femtosecond diffraction-resistant vortex beams in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffler, Stacy; Polynkin, Pavel; Moloney, Jerome

    2011-10-01

    We report experiments on self-focusing of femtosecond diffraction-resistant vortex beams in water. These beams are higher-order Bessel beams with weak azimuthal modulation of the transverse intensity patterns. The modulation overrides the self-focusing dynamics and results in the formation of regular bottlelike filament distributions. The peak-power thresholds for filamentation, at a particular distance, are relatively accurately estimated by the adaptation of the Marburger formula derived earlier for Gaussian beams. The nonlinear conversion of the incident conical waves into the localized spatial wave packets propagating near the beam axis is observed.

  19. Using the self-filtering property of a femtosecond filament to improve second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shwa, David; Eisenmann, Shmuel; Marcus, Gilad; Zigler, Arie

    2009-04-13

    In this paper we demonstrate the use of NIR femtosecond filament for improving the generation of second harmonic using a type I BBO crystal. Using this method the beam propagation factor (M(2)) of the second harmonic was improved significantly; which led to enhancement of the attainable SH intensity by up to two orders of magnitude. This method can be beneficial for applications demanding high intensities, small spot size or long interaction lengths.

  20. Parametric resonance in concrete beam-columns

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma,Mamta R.; Singh,Arbind K; Benipal,Gurmail S

    2014-01-01

    A dynamic instability, called parametric resonance, is exhibited by undampedelastic beam-columns when under the action of pulsating axial force. The scope of the existing theory of parametric resonance is restricted to physically linear beam-columns undergoing finite lateral displacements. In this Paper, the dynamic behaviour of physically nonlinear elastic cracked concrete beam-columns under pulsating axial force and constant lateral force is investigated. The constitutive equations derived ...

  1. Potential fields of merging and splitting filaments in air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yuan-Yuan; Lu Xin; Xi Ting-Ting; Hao Zuo-Qiang; Gong Qi-Huang; Zhang Jie

    2007-01-01

    Two interacting light filaments with different initial phases propagating in air are investigated numerically by using a ray tracing method. The evolution of the rays of a filament is governed by a potential field. During propagation, the two potential wells of the two filaments can merge into one or repel each other, depending on the initial phase difference between the two filaments. The study provides a simple description of the interacting filaments.

  2. Causes of genome instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    chemicals present in our modern society could contribute to carcinogenesis by indirectly affecting genome stability. The selected chemicals with their mechanisms of action proposed to indirectly contribute to genome instability are: heavy metals (DNA repair, epigenetic modification, DNA damage signaling...... function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...

  3. High power beam analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Oren

    2014-02-01

    In various modern scientific and industrial laser applications, beam-shaping optics manipulates the laser spot size and its intensity distribution. However the designed laser spot frequently deviates from the design goal due to real life imperfections and effects, such as: input laser distortions, optical distortion, heating, overall instabilities, and non-linear effects. Lasers provide the ability to accurately deliver large amounts of energy to a target area with very high accuracy. Thus monitoring beam size power and beam location is of high importance for high quality results and repeatability. Depending on the combination of wavelength, beam size and pulse duration , laser energy is absorbed by the material surface, yielding into processes such as cutting, welding, surface treatment, brazing and many other applications. This article will cover the aspect of laser beam measurements, especially at the focal point where it matters the most. A brief introduction to the material processing interactions will be covered, followed by fundamentals of laser beam propagation, novel measurement techniques, actual measurement and brief conclusions.

  4. Suppressing the Numerical Cherenkov Instability in FDTD PIC Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, Brendan B

    2014-01-01

    A procedure for largely suppressing the numerical Cherenkov instability in finite difference time-domain (FDTD) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of cold, relativistic beams is derived, and residual growth rates computed and compared with WARP code simulation results. Sample laser-plasma acceleration simulation output is provided to further validate the new procedure.

  5. Mixing through shear instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggen, M

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a stratified shear layer. This shear instability is believed to be responsible for extra mixing in differentially rotating stellar interiors and is the prime candidate to explain the abundance anomalies observed in many rotating stars. All mixing prescriptions currently in use are based on phenomenological and heuristic estimates whose validity is often unclear. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the mixing efficiency as a function of the Richardson number and compare our results with some semi-analytical formalisms of mixing.

  6. PDGF induces reorganization of vimentin filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgeirsdóttir, S; Claesson-Welsh, L; Bongcam-Rudloff, E; Hellman, U; Westermark, B; Heldin, C H

    1998-07-30

    In this study we demonstrate that stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) leads to a marked reorganization of the vimentin filaments in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells ectopically expressing the PDGF beta-receptor. Within 20 minutes after stimulation, the well-spread fine fibrillar vimentin was reorganized as the filaments aggregated into a dense coil around the nucleus. The solubility of vimentin upon Nonidet-P40-extraction of cells decreased considerably after PDGF stimulation, indicating that PDGF caused a redistribution of vimentin to a less soluble compartment. In addition, an increased tyrosine phosphorylation of vimentin was observed. The redistribution of vimentin was not a direct consequence of its tyrosine phosphorylation, since treatment of cells with an inhibitor for the cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase Src, attenuated phosphorylation but not redistribution of vimentin. These changes in the distribution of vimentin occurred in conjunction with reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells expressing a Y740/751F mutant receptor that is unable to bind and activate phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3-kinase), the distribution of vimentin was virtually unaffected by PDGF stimulation. Thus, PI3-kinase is important for vimentin reorganization, in addition to its previously demonstrated role in actin reorganization. The small GTPase Rac has previously been shown to be involved downstream of PI3-kinase in the reorganization of actin filaments. In PAE cells overexpressing dominant negative Rac1 (N17Rac1), no change in the fine fibrillar vimentin network was seen after PDGF-BB stimulation, whereas in PAE cells overexpressing constitutively active Rac1 (V12Rac1), there was a dramatic change in vimentin filament organization independent of PDGF stimulation. These data indicate that PDGF causes a reorganization of microfilaments as well as intermediate filaments in its target cells and suggest an important role for Rac downstream of PI3-kinase in

  7. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ting; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    We make a comparative analysis for two filaments that showed quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are carried out to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17-20 and September 29. The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4*10^21 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed within 3 days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2*10^20 Mx, about one ...

  8. Dynamic instability--a common denominator in prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA segregation and cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuesler, John A; Li, Hsin-Jung Sophia

    2012-12-01

    Dynamic instability is an essential phenomenon in eukaryotic nuclear division and prokaryotic plasmid R1 segregation. Although the molecular machines used in both systems differ greatly in composition, strong similarities and requisite nuances in dynamics and segregation mechanisms are observed. This brief examination of the current literature provides a functional comparison between prokaryotic and eukaryotic dynamically unstable filaments, specifically ParM and microtubules. Additionally, this mini-review should support the notion that any dynamically unstable filament could serve as the molecular machine driving DNA segregation, but these machines possess auxiliary features to adapt to temporal and spatial disparities in either system.

  9. Effect of collisions on the two-stream instability in a finite length plasm

    CERN Document Server

    Sydorenko, Dmytro; Vetzek, Peter L G

    2016-01-01

    The instability of a monoenergetic electron beam in a collisional one-dimensional plasma bounded between grounded walls is considered both analytically and numerically. Collisions between electrons and neutrals are accounted for the plasma electrons only. Solution of a dispersion equation shows that the temporal growth rate of the instability is a decreasing linear function of the collision frequency which becomes zero when the collision frequency is two times the collisionless growth rate. This result is confirmed by fluid simulations. Practical formulas are given for the estimate of the threshold beam current which is required for the two-stream instability to develop for a given system length, neutral gas pressure, plasma density, and beam energy. Particle-in-cell simulations carried out with different neutral densities and beam currents demonstrate good agreement with the fluid theory predictions for both the growth rate and the threshold beam current.

  10. Effect of collisions on the two-stream instability in a finite length plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, D.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Ventzek, P. L. G.; Chen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The instability of a monoenergetic electron beam in a collisional one-dimensional plasma bounded between grounded walls is considered both analytically and numerically. Collisions between electrons and neutrals are accounted for the plasma electrons only. Solution of a dispersion equation shows that the temporal growth rate of the instability is a decreasing linear function of the collision frequency which becomes zero when the collision frequency is two times the collisionless growth rate. This result is confirmed by fluid simulations. Practical formulas are given for the estimate of the threshold beam current which is required for the two-stream instability to develop for a given system length, neutral gas pressure, plasma density, and beam energy. Particle-in-cell simulations carried out with different neutral densities and beam currents demonstrate a good agreement with the fluid theory predictions for both the growth rate and the threshold beam current.

  11. Unwinding motion of a twisted active-region filament

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, X L; Liu, J H; Kong, D F; Xu, C L

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the structures of active-region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active-region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on June 22, 2010. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament is consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5$\\pi$ obtained by using time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active-region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magn...

  12. The Weibel instability in a strongly coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M., E-mail: m.mahdavi@umz.ac.ir; Khanzadeh, H. [Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, P. O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, the growth rate of the Weibel instability is calculated for an energetic relativistic electron beam penetrated into a strongly coupled plasma, where the collision effects of background electron-ion scattering play an important role in equations. In order to calculate the growth rate of the Weibel instability, two different models of anisotropic distribution function are used. First, the distribution of the plasma and beam electrons considered as similar forms of bi-Maxwellian distribution. Second, the distribution functions of the plasma electrons and the beam electrons follows bi-Maxwellian and delta-like distributions, respectively. The obtained results show that the collision effect decreases the growth rate in two models. When the distribution function of electrons beam is in bi-Maxwellian form, the instability growth rate is greater than where the distribution function of beam electrons is in delta-like form, because, the anisotropic temperature for bi-Maxwellian distribution function in velocity space is greater than the delta-like distribution function.

  13. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, P. [Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Müller, S. H. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego 92093 (United States); Fuchert, G. [Insitut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universität Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Assoziation, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  14. Filament velocity scaling laws for warm ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, P.; Carralero, D.; Birkenmeier, G.; Müller, H. W.; Müller, S. H.; Fuchert, G.; Scott, B. D.; Stroth, U.

    2013-10-01

    The dynamics of filaments or blobs in the scrape-off layer of magnetic fusion devices are studied by magnitude estimates of a comprehensive drift-interchange-Alfvén fluid model. The standard blob models are reproduced in the cold ion case. Even though usually neglected, in the scrape-off layer, the ion temperature can exceed the electron temperature by an order of magnitude. The ion pressure affects the dynamics of filaments amongst others by adding up to the interchange drive and the polarisation current. It is shown how both effects modify the scaling laws for filament velocity in dependence of its size. Simplifications for experimentally relevant limit regimes are given. These are the sheath dissipation, collisional, and electromagnetic regime.

  15. Heterologous expression of cellobiohydrolases in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoglowek, Marta; Lübeck, Peter S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2015-01-01

    Cellobiohydrolases are among the most important enzymes functioning in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose, significantly contributing to the efficient biorefining of recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and bio-based products. Filamentous fungi are recognized as both well...... into valuable products. However, due to low cellobiohydrolase activities, certain fungi might be deficient with regard to enzymes of value for cellulose conversion, and improving cellobiohydrolase expression in filamentous fungi has proven to be challenging. In this review, we examine the effects of altering...... promoters, signal peptides, culture conditions and host post-translational modifications. For heterologous cellobiohydrolase production in filamentous fungi to become an industrially feasible process, the construction of site-integrating plasmids, development of protease-deficient strains and glycosylation...

  16. Oscillating Filaments: I - Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid based AMR-code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, e.g. with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process `geometrical fragmentation'. In our realization the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristical scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. ...

  17. Shock instability in dissipative gases

    OpenAIRE

    Radulescu, Matei I.; Sirmas, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves in thermally relaxing gases, such as ionizing, dissociating and vibrationally excited gases, can become unstable. To date, the mechanism controlling this instability has not been resolved. Previous accounts of the D'yakov-Kontorovich instability, and Bethe-Zel'dovich-Thompson behaviour could not predict the experimentally observed instability. To address the mechanism controlling the instability, we study the propagation of shock waves in a ...

  18. Finite-size effects in parametric subharmonic instability

    CERN Document Server

    Bourget, Baptiste; Dauxois, Thierry; Bars, Michaël Le; Odier, Philippe; Joubaud, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The parametric subharmonic instability in stratified fluids depends on the frequency and the amplitude of the primary plane wave. In this paper, we present experimental and numerical results emphasizing that the finite width of the beam also plays an important role on this triadic instability. A new theoretical approach based on a simple energy balance is developed and compared to numerical and experimental results. Because of the finite width of the primary wave beam, the secondary pair of waves can leave the interaction zone which affects the transfer of energy. Experimental and numerical results are in good agreement with the prediction of this theory, which brings new insights on energy transfers in the ocean where internal waves with finite-width beams are dominant.

  19. Generation of stable overlaps between antiparallel filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Johann, D; Kruse, K

    2015-01-01

    During cell division, sister chromatids are segregated by the mitotic spindle, a bipolar assembly of interdigitating antiparallel polar filaments called microtubules. Establishing a stable overlap region is essential for maintenance of bipolarity, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using a particle-based stochastic model, we find that the interplay of motors and passive cross linkers can robustly generate partial overlaps between antiparallel filaments. Our analysis shows that motors reduce the overlap in a length-dependent manner, whereas passive cross linkers increase it independently of the length. In addition to maintaining structural integrity, passive cross linkers can thus also have a dynamic role for size regulation.

  20. Nuclear flow in a filamentous fungus

    CERN Document Server

    Hickey, Patrick C; Read, Nick; Glass, N Louise; Roper, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The syncytial cells of a filamentous fungus consist of a mass of growing, tube-like hyphae. Each extending tip is fed by a continuous flow of nuclei from the colony interior, pushed by a gradient in turgor pressure. The myco-fluidic flows of nuclei are complex and multidirectional, like traffic in a city. We map out the flows in a strain of the model filamentous fungus {\\it N. crassa} that has been transformed so that nuclei express either hH1-dsRed (a red fluorescent nuclear protein) or hH1-GFP (a green-fluorescent protein) and report our results in a fluid dynamics video.

  1. Filament stretching rheometer: inertia compensation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szabo, Peter; McKinley, Gareth H.

    2003-01-01

    The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end of the e......The necessary inertia compensation used in the force balance for the filament stretching rheometer is derived for an arbitrary frame of reference. This enables the force balance to be used to extract correctly the extensional viscosity from measurements of the tensile force at either end...

  2. The exo-metabolome in filamentous fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Ulf; Andersen, Birgitte; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2007-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms that have a significant impact on human life as spoilers of food and feed by degradation and toxin production. They are also most useful as a source of bulk and fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. This chapter focuses on the exo......-metabolome in filamentous fungi, which comprises more than 30,000 known secondary metabolites. Profiles of this diverse range of secondary metabolites have, for more than 25 years, been central in development of fungal systematics, taxonomy, and ecology, today integrated in a multidisciplinary and polyphasic approach...

  3. On the nature of star-forming filaments: I. Filament morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Rowan J; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    We use a suite of high resolution molecular cloud simulations carried out with the moving mesh code Arepo to explore the nature of star-forming filaments. The simulated filaments are identified and categorised from column density maps in the same manner as for recent Herschel observations. When fit with a Plummer-like profile the filaments are in excellent agreement with observations, and have shallow power-law profiles of p~2.2 without the need for magnetic support. The derived filament widths depend on the data range that is fitted. When data within 1 pc of the filament centre is fitted with a Gaussian function, the average FWHM is ~0.3 pc, in agreement with predictions for accreting filaments. However, if the fit is constructed using only data within 0.35 pc of the centre, in order to better match the procedure used to derive filament widths from Herschel observations, the resulting FWHM is only ~0.2 pc. This value is larger than that measured in IC 5146 and Taurus, but is similar to that found in the Plan...

  4. Thermal instability of cell nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmt, Enrico; Kießling, Tobias R.; Stange, Roland; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2014-07-01

    DNA is known to be a mechanically and thermally stable structure. In its double stranded form it is densely packed within the cell nucleus and is thermo-resistant up to 70\\:^\\circ {\\rm{C}}. In contrast, we found a sudden loss of cell nuclei integrity at relatively moderate temperatures ranging from 45 to 55\\:^\\circ {\\rm{C}}. In our study, suspended cells held in an optical double beam trap were heated under controlled conditions while monitoring the nuclear shape. At specific critical temperatures, an irreversible sudden shape transition of the nuclei was observed. These temperature induced transitions differ in abundance and intensity for various normal and cancerous epithelial breast cells, which clearly characterizes different cell types. Our results show that temperatures slightly higher than physiological conditions are able to induce instabilities of nuclear structures, eventually leading to cell death. This is a surprising finding since recent thermorheological cell studies have shown that cells have a lower viscosity and are thus more deformable upon temperature increase. Since the nucleus is tightly coupled to the outer cell shape via the cytoskeleton, the force propagation of nuclear reshaping to the cell membrane was investigated in combination with the application of cytoskeletal drugs.

  5. Plasma effects on fast pair beams. III. Oblique electrostatic growth rates for perpendicular Maxwellian pair beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supsar, Markus; Schlickeiser, Reinhard, E-mail: markus.supsar@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-03-10

    The distant universe is opaque to γ radiation from blazars due to gamma-gamma attenuation with extragalactic background light. This process produces electron-positron pair beams that interact with the intergalactic medium and are unstable to linear instabilities, particularly the electrostatic and Weibel instabilities. The electrostatic instability grows faster and so determines the dissipation of the free energy of the beam. Here, we generalize the calculation of the electrostatic growth rate to a beam plasma system with a Maxwellian perpendicular momentum spread and allow for oblique propagation directions. We show that the growth rate for the oblique electrostatic mode has a maximum value that is even higher than for a cold beam or for one with a constant perpendicular momentum spread.

  6. Simulation of Instability at Transition Energy with a New Impedance Model for CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Na; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Persichelli, Serena; Sterbini, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Instabilities driven by the transverse impedance are proven to be one of the limitations for the high intensity reach of the CERN PS. Since several years, fast single bunch vertical instability at transition energy has been observed with the high intensity bunch serving the neu-tron Time-of-Flight facility (n-ToF). In order to better understand the instability mechanism, a dedicated meas-urement campaign took place. The results were compared with macro-particle simulations with PyHEADTAIL based on the new impedance model developed for the PS. Instability threshold and growth rate for different longitu-dinal emittances and beam intensities were studied.

  7. On the Numerical Dispersion of Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell Code : Finite Grid Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Meyers, M D; Zeng, Y; Yi, S A; Albright, B J

    2014-01-01

    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is widely used in relativistic particle beam and laser plasma modeling. However, the PIC method exhibits numerical instabilities that can render unphysical simulation results or even destroy the simulation. For electromagnetic relativistic beam and plasma modeling, the most relevant numerical instabilities are the finite grid instability and the numerical Cherenkov instability. We review the numerical dispersion relation of the electromagnetic PIC algorithm to analyze the origin of these instabilities. We rigorously derive the faithful 3D numerical dispersion of the PIC algorithm, and then specialize to the Yee FDTD scheme. In particular, we account for the manner in which the PIC algorithm updates and samples the fields and distribution function. Temporal and spatial phase factors from solving Maxwell's equations on the Yee grid with the leapfrog scheme are also explicitly accounted for. Numerical solutions to the electrostatic-like modes in the 1D dispersion relation for a ...

  8. Improved Numerical Cherenkov Instability Suppression in the Generalized PSTD PIC Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Godfrey, Brendan B

    2015-01-01

    The family of generalized Pseudo-Spectral Time Domain (including the Pseudo-Spectral Analytical Time Domain) Particle-in-Cell algorithms offers substantial versatility for simulating particle beams and plasmas, and well written codes using these algorithms run reasonably fast. When simulating relativistic beams and streaming plasmas in multiple dimensions, they are, however, subject to the numerical Cherenkov instability. Previous studies have shown that instability growth rates can be reduced substantially by modifying slightly the transverse fields as seen by the streaming particles . Here, we offer an approach which completely eliminates the fundamental mode of the numerical Cherenkov instability while minimizing the transverse field corrections. The procedure, numerically computed residual growth rates (from weaker, higher order instability aliases), and comparisons with WARP simulations are presented. In some instances, there are no numerical instabilities whatsoever, at least in the linear regime.

  9. Study of filamentation with a high power high repetition rate ps laser at 1.03 µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houard, A; Jukna, V; Point, G; André, Y-B; Klingebiel, S; Schultze, M; Michel, K; Metzger, T; Mysyrowicz, A

    2016-04-01

    We study the propagation of intense, high repetition rate laser pulses of picosecond duration at 1.03 µm central wavelength through air. Evidence of filamentation is obtained from measurements of the beam profile as a function of distance, from photoemission imaging and from spatially resolved sonometric recordings. Good agreement is found with numerical simulations. Simulations reveal an important self shortening of the pulse duration, suggesting that laser pulses with few optical cycles could be obtained via double filamentation. An important lowering of the voltage required to induce guided electric discharges between charged electrodes is measured at high laser pulse repetition rate.

  10. Investigation of the vertical instability at the Argonne Intense Pulsed Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoheng; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R. L.; McMichael, G. E.

    2009-10-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron of the intense pulsed neutron source at Argonne National Laboratory normally operates at an average beam current of 14 to 15μA, accelerating protons from 50 to 450 MeV 30 times per second. The beam current is limited by a single-bunch vertical instability that occurs in the later part of the 14 ms acceleration cycle. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor data, two cases of vertical beam centroid oscillations were discovered. The oscillations start from the tail of the bunch, build up, and develop toward the head of the bunch. The development stops near the bunch center and oscillations remain localized in the tail for a relatively long time (2-4 ms, 1-2×104 turns). This vertical instability is identified as the cause of the beam loss. We compared this instability with a head-tail instability that was purposely induced by switching off sextupole magnets. It appears that the observed vertical instability is different from the classical head-tail instability.

  11. A pressure tensor description for the time-resonant Weibel instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrat, M.; Del Sarto, D.; Ghizzo, A.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss a fluid model with inclusion of the complete pressure tensor dynamics for the description of Weibel-type instabilities in a counterstreaming beam configuration. Differently from the case recently studied in Sarrat et al. (Europhys. Lett., vol. 115, 2016, 45001), where perturbations perpendicular to the beams were considered, here we focus only on modes propagating along the beams. Such a configuration is responsible for the growth of two kinds of instabilities, the two-stream instability and the Weibel instability, which in this geometry becomes `time resonant', i.e. propagating. This fluid description agrees with the kinetic one and makes it possible e.g. to identify the transition between non-propagating and propagating Weibel modes, already evidenced by Lazar et al. (J. Plasma Phys., vol. 76 (1), 2010, p. 49) as a `slope breaking' of the growth rate, in terms of a merger of two non-propagating Weibel modes.

  12. Longitudinal instabilities affecting the moving critical layer laser-plasma ion accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sahai, Aakash Ajit

    2014-01-01

    In this work we analyze the longitudinal instabilities of propagating acceleration structures that are driven by a relativistically intense laser at the moving plasma critical layer [1]. These instabilities affect the energy-spectra of the accelerated ion-beams in propagating critical layer acceleration schemes [2][3]. Specifically, using analytical theory and PIC simulations we look into three fundamental physical processes and their interplay that are crucial to the understanding of energy spectral control by making the laser-plasma ion accelerators stable. The interacting processes are (i) Doppler-shifted ponderomotive bunching [1][4] (ii) potential quenching by beam-loading [2] and (iii) two-stream instabilities. These phenomenon have been observed in simulations analyzing these acceleration processes [5][6][7]. From the preliminary models and results we present in this work, we can infer measures by which these instabilities can be controlled [8] for improving the energy-spread of the beams.

  13. Overview and Issues of Experimental Observation of Microbunching Instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Lumpkin, Alex H

    2014-01-01

    The generation of the ultra-bright beams required by modern accelerators and drivers of free-electron lasers (FELs) has generally relied on chicane-based bunch compressions that often result in the microbunching instability. Following compression, spectral enhancements extend even into the visible wavelengths through the longitudinal space charge (LSC) impedances. Optical transition radiation (OTR) screens have been extensively used for transverse electron beam size measurements for the bright beams, but the presence of such longitudinal microstructures (microbunching) in the electron beam or the leading edge spikes can result in strong, localized coherent enhancements (COTR) that mask the actual beam profile. Generally, we have observed effects in rf photocathode (PC) injected linacs with chicane compressions since an R56 term is needed. In the past COTR had been only reported in S-band and L-band photoinjected based linacs with single or double bunch compression. Drive laser modulations and charge shot nois...

  14. Ion streaming instabilities with application to collisionless shock wave structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, K. I.; Linson, L. M.; Mani, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    The electromagnetic dispersion relation for two counterstreaming ion beams of arbitrary relative strength flowing parallel to a dc magnetic field is derived. The beams flow through a stationary electron background and the dispersion relation in the fluid approximation is unaffected by the electron thermal pressure. Magnetic effects on the ion beams are included, but the electrons are treated as a magnetized fluid. The dispersion relation is solved with a zero net current condition applied and the regions of instability in the k-U space (U is the relative velocity between the two ion beams) are presented. These results are extensions of Kovner's analysis for weak beams. The parameters are then chosen to be applicable for parallel shocks. It is found that unstable waves with zero group velocity in the shock frame can exist near the leading edge of the shock for upstream Alfven Mach numbers greater than 5.5.

  15. Fast Transverse Instability and Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Eddy, Nathan; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton; Thangaraj, Jayakar; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zwaska, Robert; Ji, Yichen

    2015-03-01

    A new transverse instability is observed that may limit the proton intensity in the Fermilab Recycler. The instability is fast, leading to a beam-abort loss within two hundred turns. The instability primarily affects the first high-intensity batch from the Fermilab Booster in each Recycler cycle. This paper analyzes the dynamical features of the destabilized beam. The instability excites a horizontal betatron oscillation which couples into the vertical motion and also causes transverse emittance growth. This paper describes the feasibility of electron cloud as the mechanism for this instability and presents the first measurements of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Recycler. Direct measurements of the electron cloud are made using a retarding field analyzer (RFA) newly installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Indirect measurements of the electron cloud are made by propagating a microwave carrier signal through the beampipe and analyzing the phase modulation of the signal. The maximum betatron amplitude growth and the maximum electron cloud signal occur during minimums of the bunch length oscillation.

  16. Genetic instability in Gynecological Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qing-hua; ZHOU Hong-lin

    2003-01-01

    Defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes also have beenidentified in many kinds of tumors. Loss of MMR functionhas been linked to genetic instability especially microsatelliteinstability that results in high mutation rate. In this review, wediscussed the microsatellite instability observed in thegynecological tumors. We also discussed defects in the DNAmismatch repair in these tumors and their correlation to themicrosatellite instability, as well as the gene mutations due tothe microsatellite instability in these tumors. From thesediscussion, we tried to understand the mechanism ofcarcinogenesis in gynecological tumors from the aspect ofgenetic instability due to mismatch repair defects.

  17. High energy density physics with intense ion and laser beams. Annual report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyrich, K. (comp.)

    2004-07-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Laser plasma physics, plasma spectroscopy, beam interaction experiments, atomic and radiation physics, pulsed power applications, beam transport and accelerator research and development, properties of dense plasma, instabilities in beam-plasma interaction, beam transport in dense plasmas, short-pulse laser-matter interaction. (HSI)

  18. Femtosecond filament initiated, microwave heated cavity-free nitrogen laser in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Daniil; Shneider, Mikhail N.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of numerical modeling of the igniter-heater concept for initiation of standoff, cavity free lasing action in the atmosphere when a femtosecond laser filament is used for plasma generation (igniter) and a microwave heater provides electron-collision pumping of electronic states in molecular nitrogen. By solving numerically the kinetic equation for the energy distribution function of electrons, generated in a femtosecond laser filament and heated by a microwave beam, we identify the conditions enabling single-pass, standoff UV-laser from molecular nitrogen in the atmosphere. The plasma density, the minimum amplitude of the microwave field, and the small-signal gain, necessary to achieve the lasing, are determined. We demonstrate that lasing build up time can be minimized and efficiency improved by using elliptically polarized laser pulses for filamentation. It is shown that realization of the filament-igniter, microwave-heater concept of the sky laser at low altitudes would require a microwave source of hundreds of kilowatt-megawatt power. The required microwave power can be reduced by several orders of magnitude when the igniter-heater scheme is used at the 10-30 km range of altitudes.

  19. Nonlinear generation of whistler waves by an ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, K.; Winske, D.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic hybrid code is used to simulate a new mechanism for whistler wave generation by an ion beam. First, a field-aligned ion beam becomes unstable to the electromagnetic ion/ion right-hand resonant instability which generates large amplitude MHD-like waves. These waves then trap the ion beam and increase its effective temperature anisotropy. As a result, the growth rates of the electron/whistler instability are significantly enhanced, and whistlers start to grow above the noise level. At the same time, because of the reduced parallel drift speed of the ion beam, the frequencies of the whistlers are also downshifted. Full simulations were performed to isolate and separately investigate the electron/ion whistler instability. The results are in agreement with the assumption of fluid electrons in the hybrid simulations and with the linear theory of the instability.

  20. Modulation instability: The beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, Roman; Belov, Pavel; Kivshar, Yuri

    2012-11-01

    The study of metal nanoparticles plays a central role in the emerging novel technologies employing optics beyond the diffraction limit. Combining strong surface plasmon resonances, high intrinsic nonlinearities and deeply subwavelength scales, arrays of metal nanoparticles offer a unique playground to develop novel concepts for light manipulation at the nanoscale. Here we suggest a novel principle to control localized optical energy in chains of nonlinear subwavelength metal nanoparticles based on the fundamental nonlinear phenomenon of modulation instability. In particular, we demonstrate that modulation instability can lead to the formation of long-lived standing and moving nonlinear localized modes of several distinct types such as bright and dark solitons, oscillons, and domain walls. We analyze the properties of these nonlinear localized modes and reveal different scenarios of their dynamics including transformation of one type of mode to another. We believe this work paves a way towards the development of nonlinear nanophotonics circuitry.

  1. Instabilities in sensory processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J.

    2014-07-01

    In any organism there are different kinds of sensory receptors for detecting the various, distinct stimuli through which its external environment may impinge upon it. These receptors convey these stimuli in different ways to an organism's information processing region enabling it to distinctly perceive the varied sensations and to respond to them. The behavior of cells and their response to stimuli may be captured through simple mathematical models employing regulatory feedback mechanisms. We argue that the sensory processes such as olfaction function optimally by operating in the close proximity of dynamical instabilities. In the case of coupled neurons, we point out that random disturbances and fluctuations can move their operating point close to certain dynamical instabilities triggering synchronous activity.

  2. Instability and internet design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.

  3. Nonlinear Kinetic Development of the Weibel Instability and the generation of electrostatic coherent structures

    CERN Document Server

    Palodhi, L; Pegoraro, F; 10.1088/0741-3335/51/12/125006

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of the Weibel instability driven by the anisotropy of the electron distribution function in a collisionless plasma is investigated in a spatially one-dimensional configuration with a Vlasov code in a two-dimensional velocity space. It is found that the electromagnetic fields generated by this instability cause a strong deformation of the electron distribution function in phase space, corresponding to highly filamented magnetic vortices. Eventually, these deformations lead to the generation of short wavelength Langmuir modes that form highly localized electrostatic structures corresponding to jumps of the electrostatic potential.

  4. Modulation instability: The beginning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Ostrovsky, L. A.

    2009-03-01

    We discuss the early history of an important field of “sturm and drang” in modern theory of nonlinear waves. It is demonstrated how scientific demand resulted in independent and almost simultaneous publications by many different authors on modulation instability, a phenomenon resulting in a variety of nonlinear processes such as envelope solitons, envelope shocks, freak waves, etc. Examples from water wave hydrodynamics, electrodynamics, nonlinear optics, and convection theory are given.

  5. The instability of markets

    CERN Document Server

    Huberman, B A; Huberman, Bernardo A; Youssefmir, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Recent developments in the global liberalization of equity and currency markets, coupled to advances in trading technologies, are making markets increasingly interdependent. This increased fluidity raises questions about the stability of the international financial system. In this paper, we show that as couplings between stable markets grow, the likelihood of instabilities is increased, leading to a loss of general equilibrium as the system becomes increasingly large and diverse.

  6. Carpal instability nondissociative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Scott W; Garcia-Elias, Marc; Kitay, Alison

    2012-09-01

    Carpal instability nondissociative (CIND) represents a spectrum of conditions characterized by kinematic dysfunction of the proximal carpal row, often associated with a clinical "clunk." CIND is manifested at the midcarpal and/or radiocarpal joints, and it is distinguished from carpal instability dissociative (CID) by the lack of disruption between bones within the same carpal row. There are four major subcategories of CIND: palmar, dorsal, combined, and adaptive. In palmar CIND, instability occurs across the entire proximal carpal row. When nonsurgical management fails, surgical options include arthroscopic thermal capsulorrhaphy, soft-tissue reconstruction, or limited radiocarpal or intercarpal fusions. In dorsal CIND, the capitate subluxates dorsally from its reduced resting position. Dorsal CIND usually responds to nonsurgical management; refractory cases respond to palmar ligament reefing and/or dorsal intercarpal capsulodesis. Combined CIND demonstrates signs of both palmar and dorsal CIND and can be treated with soft-tissue or bony procedures. In adaptive CIND, the volar carpal ligaments are slackened and are less capable of inducing the physiologic shift of the proximal carpal row from flexion into extension as the wrist ulnarly deviates. Treatment of choice is a corrective osteotomy to restore the normal volar tilt of the distal radius.

  7. Chromosomal instability in meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, Angela A G; Al Allak, Bushra; Velthuizen, Sandra C J M; de Vries, Annie; Kros, Johan M; Avezaat, Cees J J; de Klein, Annelies; Beverloo, H Berna; Zwarthoff, Ellen C

    2005-04-01

    Approximately 60% of sporadic meningiomas are caused by inactivation of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 22. No causative gene is known for the remaining 40%. Cytogenetic analysis shows that meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene can be divided into tumors that show monosomy 22 as the sole abnormality and tumors with a more complex karyotype. Meningiomas not caused by the NF2 gene usually have a diploid karyotype. Here we report that, besides the clonal chromosomal aberrations, the chromosome numbers in many meningiomas varied from one metaphase spread to the other, a feature that is indicative of chromosomal instability. Unexpectedly and regardless of genotype, a subgroup of tumors was observed with an average number of 44.9 chromosomes and little variation in the number of chromosomes per metaphase spread. In addition, a second subgroup was recognized with a hyperdiploid number of chromosomes (average 48.5) and considerable variation in numbers per metaphase. However, this numerical instability resulted in a clonal karyotype with chromosomal gains and losses in addition to loss of chromosome 22 only in meningiomas caused by inactivation of the NF2 gene. In cultured cells of all tumor groups, bi- and multinucleated cells were seen, as well as anaphase bridges, residual chromatid strings, multiple spindle poles, and unseparated chromatids, suggesting defects in the mitotic apparatus or kinetochore. Thus, we conclude that even a benign and slow-growing tumor like a meningioma displays chromosomal instability.

  8. The LHC Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas; Métral, Elias

    In this thesis, the problem of the transverse coupled-bunch instabilities created by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam-coupling impedance, that can possibly limit the machine operation, is addressed thanks to several new theories and tools. A rather complete vision of the problem is proposed here, going from the calculation of the impedances and wake functions of individual machine elements, to the beam dynamics study. Firstly, new results are obtained in the theory of the beam-coupling impedance for an axisymmetric two-dimensional structure, generalizing Zotter's theories, and a new general theory is derived for the impedance of an infinite flat two-dimensional structure. Then, a new approach has been found to compute the wake functions from such analytically obtained beam-coupling impedances, over-coming limitations that could be met with standard discrete Fourier transform procedures. Those results are then used to obtain an impedance and wake function model of the LHC, based on the (resistive-) wall im...

  9. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  10. Using Drosophila for Studies of Intermediate Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Thiemann, Dylan A; Magin, Thomas M; Wallrath, Lori L

    2016-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a useful organism for determining protein function and modeling human disease. Drosophila offers a rapid generation time and an abundance of genomic resources and genetic tools. Conservation in protein structure, signaling pathways, and developmental processes make studies performed in Drosophila relevant to other species, including humans. Drosophila models have been generated for neurodegenerative diseases, muscular dystrophy, cancer, and many other disorders. Recently, intermediate filament protein diseases have been modeled in Drosophila. These models have revealed novel mechanisms of pathology, illuminated potential new routes of therapy, and make whole organism compound screens feasible. The goal of this chapter is to outline steps to study intermediate filament function and model intermediate filament-associated diseases in Drosophila. The steps are general and can be applied to study the function of almost any protein. The protocols outlined here are for both the novice and experienced Drosophila researcher, allowing the rich developmental and cell biology that Drosophila offers to be applied to studies of intermediate filaments.

  11. Filament stretching rheometry of polymer melts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole; Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2005-01-01

    The Filament Stretching Rheometry (FSR) method developed by Sridhar, McKinley and coworkers for polymer solutions has been extended to be used also for polymer melts. The design of a melt-FSR will be described and differences to conventional melt elongational rheometers will be pointed out. Results...

  12. Linear viscoelastic characterization from filament stretching rheometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wingstrand, Sara Lindeblad; Alvarez, Nicolas J.; Hassager, Ole

    viscoelasticity well into the nonlinear regime. Therefore at present, complete rheological characterization of a material requires two apparatuses: a shear and an extensional rheometer. This work is focused on developing a linear viscoelastic protocol for the filament stretching rheometer (FSR) in order...

  13. Self-assembly of Artificial Actin Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosenick, Christopher; Cheng, Shengfeng

    Actin Filaments are long, double-helical biopolymers that make up the cytoskeleton along with microtubules and intermediate filaments. In order to further understand the self-assembly process of these biopolymers, a model to recreate actin filament geometry was developed. A monomer in the shape of a bent rod with vertical and lateral binding sites was designed to assemble into single or double helices. With Molecular Dynamics simulations, a variety of phases were observed to form by varying the strength of the binding sites. Ignoring lateral binding sites, we have found a narrow range of binding strengths that lead to long single helices via various growth pathways. When lateral binding strength is introduced, double helices begin to form. These double helices self-assemble into substantially more stable structures than their single helix counterparts. We have found double helices to form long filaments at about half the vertical binding strength of single helices. Surprisingly, we have found that triple helices occasionally form, indicating the importance of structural regulation in the self-assembly of biopolymers.

  14. Filament eruption with apparent reshuffle of endpoints

    CERN Document Server

    Filippov, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Filament eruption on 30 April - 1 May 2010, which shows the reconnection of one filament leg with a region far away from its initial position, is analyzed. Observations from three viewpoints are used for as precise as possible measurements of endpoint coordinates. The northern leg of the erupting prominence loop 'jumps' laterally to the latitude lower than the latitude of the originally southern endpoint. Thus, the endpoints reshuffled their positions in the limb view. Although this behaviour could be interpreted as the asymmetric zipping-like eruption, it does not look very likely. It seems more likely to be reconnection of the flux-rope field lines in its northern leg with ambient coronal magnetic field lines rooted in a quiet region far from the filament. From calculations of coronal potential magnetic field, we found that the filament before the eruption was stable for vertical displacements, but was liable to violation of the horizontal equilibrium. This is unusual initiation of an eruption with combinat...

  15. The Apis mellifera filamentous virus genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    A complete reference genome of the Apis mellifera Filamentous virus (AmFV) was determined using Illumina Hiseq sequencing. The AmFV genome is a double strand DNA molecule of approximately 498’500 nucleotides with a GC content of 50.8%. It encompasses 251 non overlapping open reading frames (ORFs), e...

  16. Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeffer, Christian; Larsen, Steffen; Song, Jie

    2012-01-01

    across centimetre-wide zones. Here we present evidence that the native conductors are long, filamentous bacteria. They abounded in sediment zones with electric currents and along their length they contained strings with distinct properties in accordance with a function as electron transporters. Living...

  17. Effect of Power Losses on Self-Focusing of High Intensity Laser Beam in Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Semak, V V

    2013-01-01

    A theoretical study of power loss from periphery of an ultrashort pulse laser beam and temporally resolved defocussing produced by laser induced plasma are performed using paraxial approximation. Our analysis incorporate consideration of spatial distribution of the laser beam irradiance and the results show that substantial power losses (10%-80%) occur from the beam periphery limiting length of a filament. It was also shown that generally accepted concept of self-focusing critical power is inconsistent with consideration of self-induced refraction of spatially distributed laser beam. A new criterion for self-focusing and hypothesis for multiple filamentation are proposed.

  18. Effect of wave localization on plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levedahl, W.K.

    1987-01-01

    The Anderson model of wave localization in random media is invoked to study the effect of solar-wind density turbulence on plasma processes associated with the solar type-III radio burst. ISEE-3 satellite data indicate that a possible model for the type-III process is the parametric decay of Langmuir waves excited by solar-flare electron streams into daughter electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves. The threshold for this instability, however, is much higher than observed Langmuir-wave levels because of rapid wave convection of the transverse electromagnetic daughter wave in the case where the solar wind is assumed homogeneous. Langmuir and transverse waves near critical density satisfy the Ioffe-Riegel criteria for wave localization in the solar wind with observed density fluctuations {approximately}1%. Computer simulations using a linearized hybrid code show that an electron beam will excite localized Langmuir waves in a plasma with density turbulence. An action-principle approach is used to develop a theory of nonlinear wave processes when waves are localized. A theory of resonant particles diffusion by localized waves is developed to explain the saturation of the beam-plasma instability.

  19. Interaction of Two Filament Channels of Different Chiralities

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Schmieder, Brigitte; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Young-Jae; Uddin, Wahab

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of interactions between the two filament channels of different chiralities and associated dynamics that occurred during 2014 April 18 -- 20. While two flux ropes of different helicity with parallel axial magnetic fields can only undergo a bounce interaction when they are brought together, the observations at the first glance show that the heated plasma is moving from one filament channel to the other. The SDO/AIA 171 A observations and the PFSS magnetic field extrapolation reveal the presence of fan-spine magnetic configuration over the filament channels with a null point located above them. Three different events of filament activations, partial eruptions, and associated filament channel interactions have been observed. The activation initiated in one filament channel seems to propagate along the neighbour filament channel. We believe that the activation and partial eruption of the filaments bring the field lines of flux ropes containing them closer to the null point and trigger the m...

  20. Assembly characteristics of plant keratin intermediate filaments in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵光伟; 杨澄; 佟向军; 翟中和

    1999-01-01

    After selective extraction and purification, plant keratin intermediate filaments were reassembled in vitro. Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs showed that acidic keratins and basic keratins can assemble into dimers and further into 10 nm filaments in vitro. In higher magnification images, it can be seen that fully assembled plant keratin intermediate filaments consist of several thinner filaments of 3 nm in diameter, which indicates the formation of protofilaments in the assembly processes. One of the explicit features of plant keratin intermediate filaments is a 24—25 nm periodic structural repeat alone the axis of beth the 10 nm filaments and protofilaments. The periodic repeat is one of the fundamental characteristic of all intermediate filaments, and demonstrates the half staggered arrangement of keratin molecules within the filaments.

  1. Flexible ferromagnetic filaments and the interface with biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erglis, K.; Belovs, M. [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Riga LV-1002 (Latvia); Cebers, A. [University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Riga LV-1002 (Latvia)], E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.lv

    2009-04-15

    Flexible ferromagnetic filaments are studied both theoretically and experimentally. Two main deformation modes of the filament at magnetic field inversion are theoretically described and observed experimentally by using DNA-linked chains of ferromagnetic particles. Anomalous orientation of ferromagnetic filaments perpendicular to AC field with a frequency which is high enough is predicted and confirmed experimentally. By experimental studies of magnetotactic bacteria it is demonstrated how these properties of ferromagnetic filaments may be used to measure the flexibility of the chain of magnetosomes.

  2. Electric Current Filamentation at a Non-potential Magnetic Null-point Due to Pressure Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelínek, P.; Karlický, M.; Murawski, K.

    2015-10-01

    An increase of electric current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-potential magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-potential magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, the electric current in a non-potential magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the electric current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of electric current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.

  3. ELECTRIC CURRENT FILAMENTATION AT A NON-POTENTIAL MAGNETIC NULL-POINT DUE TO PRESSURE PERTURBATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelínek, P. [University of South Bohemia, Faculty of Science, Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Branišovská 10, CZ-37005 České Budějovice (Czech Republic); Karlický, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Astronomical Institute, Fričova 258, CZ-25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic); Murawski, K., E-mail: pjelinek@prf.jcu.cz [Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Institute of Physics, Group of Astrophysics, Radziszewskiego 10, PL-20031 Lublin (Poland)

    2015-10-20

    An increase of electric current densities due to filamentation is an important process in any flare. We show that the pressure perturbation, followed by an entropy wave, triggers such a filamentation in the non-potential magnetic null-point. In the two-dimensional (2D), non-potential magnetic null-point, we generate the entropy wave by a negative or positive pressure pulse that is launched initially. Then, we study its evolution under the influence of the gravity field. We solve the full set of 2D time dependent, ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations numerically, making use of the FLASH code. The negative pulse leads to an entropy wave with a plasma density greater than in the ambient atmosphere and thus this wave falls down in the solar atmosphere, attracted by the gravity force. In the case of the positive pressure pulse, the plasma becomes evacuated and the entropy wave propagates upward. However, in both cases, owing to the Rayleigh–Taylor instability, the electric current in a non-potential magnetic null-point is rapidly filamented and at some locations the electric current density is strongly enhanced in comparison to its initial value. Using numerical simulations, we find that entropy waves initiated either by positive or negative pulses result in an increase of electric current densities close to the magnetic null-point and thus the energy accumulated here can be released as nanoflares or even flares.

  4. BEAM COUPLING PHENOMENA IN FAST KICKER SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZHANG,W.; AHRENS,L.A.; GLENN,J.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.

    2001-06-18

    Beam coupling phenomena have been observed in most fast kicker systems through out Brookhaven Collider-Accelerator complex. With ever-higher beam intensity, the signature of the beam becomes increasingly recognizable. The beam coupling at high intensity produced additional heat dissipation in high voltage modulator, thyratron grids, thyratron driver circuit sufficient to damage some components, and causes trigger instability. In this paper, we will present our observations, basic coupling mode analysis, relevance to the magnet structures, issues related to the existing high voltage modulators, and considerations of the future design of the fast kicker systems.

  5. Self-induced dipole force and filamentation instability of a matter wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of copropagating electromagnetic and matter waves is described with a set of coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Optical self-focusing modulates an initially planar wave leading to the generation of dipole forces on the atoms. Atomic channeling due to the dipole...

  6. Remote sensing for oil products on water surface via fluorescence induced by UV filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunchugasheva, E. S.; Ionin, A. A.; Mokrousova, D. V.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Geints, Yu. E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.

    2016-10-01

    Remote monitoring of water pollution, namely thin films of oil or oil products on water surface, can be carried out by laser fluorimetry. The pollutants fluorescence during its interaction with ultrashort UV laser pulses was experimentally studied in this paper. The laser pulses power was considered in a wide range of values including the filamentation regime. We compared fluorescence stimulated by femtosecond UV laser pulses with two central wavelengths (248 and 372 nm) for detection of crude oil and the following oil products: oil VM-5, oil 5W-40 and solvent WhiteSpirit. It was shown that shorter UV wavelengths are more suitable for fluorescence excitation. The spatial resolution of the fluorescence localization was no worse than 30 cm. We discuss techniques of high intensity emission delivery to the remote target as post-filamentation channels and multifilamentation beam propagation regime as well experimentally and numerically.

  7. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  8. Numerical Simulation of the Microtron Electron Beam Absorption by the Modified ABS-Plastic

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Each specific task of the electron beam application imposes requirements for the beam profile and shape. One of the methods allows achieving high accuracy and low cost of the filters production is the 3D print method. The required properties of the electron beam interaction with the material can be achieved by using the modified plastic filaments. In this paper, the results of the model creation of the electron beams interaction with the ABS-plastic doped with different concentrations are pre...

  9. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Mithun; K Porsezian

    2014-02-01

    We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic field triggers the modulational instability and demonstrate that irrespective of the magnetic field effect the uniaxial and biaxial nematic phases show modulational instability.

  10. Weibel instability with nonextensive distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Hui-Bin; Liu, Shi-Bing [Strong-field and Ultrafast Photonics Lab, Institute of Laser Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124 (China)

    2013-10-15

    Weibel instability in plasma, where the ion distribution is isotropic and the electron component of the plasma possesses the anisotropic temperature distribution, is investigated based on the kinetic theory in context of nonextensive statistics mechanics. The instability growth rate is shown to be dependent on the nonextensive parameters of both electron and ion, and in the extensive limit, the result in Maxwellian distribution plasma is recovered. The instability growth rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter of electron increases.

  11. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Swagel, Phillip; Roubini, Nouriel; Ozler, Sule; Alesina, Alberto

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  12. Morgellons disease: a filamentous borrelial dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelveen, Marianne J; Stricker, Raphael B

    2016-01-01

    Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques. Spirochetes genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto predominate as the infective agent in most of the Morgellons skin specimens studied so far. Other species of Borrelia including Borrelia garinii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and Borrelia hermsii have also been detected in skin specimens taken from MD patients. The optimal treatment for MD remains to be determined. PMID:27789971

  13. Merging and energy exchange between optical filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgieva, D. A., E-mail: dgeorgieva@tu-sofia.bg [Faculty of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Sofia, 8 Kliment Ohridski Blvd., 1000 Sofia (Bulgaria); Kovachev, L. M. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradcko Chaussee Blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-28

    We investigate nonlinear interaction between collinear femtosecond laser pulses with power slightly above the critical for self-focusing P{sub cr} trough the processes of cross-phase modulation (CPM) and degenerate four-photon parametric mixing (FPPM). When there is no initial phase difference between the pulses we observe attraction between pulses due to CPM. The final result is merging between the pulses in a single filament with higher power. By method of moments it is found that the attraction depends on the distance between the pulses and has potential character. In the second case we study energy exchange between filaments. This process is described through FPPM scheme and requests initial phase difference between the waves.

  14. Intergalactic Filaments as Isothermal Gas Cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Harford, A Gayler

    2010-01-01

    Using a cosmological simulation at redshift 5, we find that the baryon-rich cores of intergalactic filaments radiating from galaxies commonly form isothermal gas cylinders. The central gas density is typically about 500 times the cosmic mean total density, and the temperature is typically 1-2 times 10^4 K, just above the Lyman alpha cooling floor. These findings argue that the hydrodynamic properties of the gas are more important than the dark matter in determining the structure. Filaments form a major pipeline for the transport of gas into the centers of galaxies. Since the temperature and ionization state of the gas completely determine the mass per unit length of an isothermal gas cylinder, our findings suggest a constraint upon gas transport into galaxies by this mechanism.

  15. Laser filamentation mathematical methods and models

    CERN Document Server

    Lorin, Emmanuel; Moloney, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    This book is focused on the nonlinear theoretical and mathematical problems associated with ultrafast intense laser pulse propagation in gases and in particular, in air. With the aim of understanding the physics of filamentation in gases, solids, the atmosphere, and even biological tissue, specialists in nonlinear optics and filamentation from both physics and mathematics attempt to rigorously derive and analyze relevant non-perturbative models. Modern laser technology allows the generation of ultrafast (few cycle) laser pulses, with intensities exceeding the internal electric field in atoms and molecules (E=5x109 V/cm or intensity I = 3.5 x 1016 Watts/cm2 ). The interaction of such pulses with atoms and molecules leads to new, highly nonlinear nonperturbative regimes, where new physical phenomena, such as High Harmonic Generation (HHG), occur, and from which the shortest (attosecond - the natural time scale of the electron) pulses have been created. One of the major experimental discoveries in this nonlinear...

  16. Microbunched electron cooling for high-energy hadron beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner, D

    2013-08-23

    Electron and stochastic cooling are proven methods for cooling low-energy hadron beams, but at present there is no way of cooling hadrons as they near the TeV scale. In the 1980s, Derbenev suggested that electron instabilities, such as free-electron lasers, could create collective space charge fields strong enough to correct the hadron energies. This Letter presents a variation on Derbenev's electron cooling scheme using the microbunching instability as the amplifier. The large bandwidth of the instability allows for faster cooling of high-density beams. A simple analytical model illustrates the cooling mechanism, and simulations show cooling rates for realistic parameters of the Large Hadron Collider.

  17. In situ ellipsometric study of surface immobilization of flagellar filaments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurunczi, S., E-mail: kurunczi@mfa.kfki.hu [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Nemeth, A.; Huelber, T. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Kozma, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Petrik, P. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Jankovics, H. [Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Sebestyen, A. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Vonderviszt, F. [Department of Photonics, Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1121, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, Budapest (Hungary); Department of Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Information Technology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprem, H-8200 (Hungary); Institute of Enzymology, Karolina ut 29-33, Budapest, H-1113 (Hungary); and others

    2010-10-15

    Protein filaments composed of thousands of subunits are promising candidates as sensing elements in biosensors. In this work in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry is applied to monitor the surface immobilization of flagellar filaments. This study is the first step towards the development of layers of filamentous receptors for sensor applications. Surface activation is performed using silanization and a subsequent glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Structure of the flagellar filament layers immobilized on activated and non-activated Si wafer substrates is determined using a two-layer effective medium model that accounted for the vertical density distribution of flagellar filaments with lengths of 300-1500 nm bound to the surface. The formation of the first interface layer can be explained by the multipoint covalent attachment of the filaments, while the second layer is mainly composed of tail pinned filaments floating upwards with the free parts. As confirmed by atomic force microscopy, covalent immobilization resulted in an increased surface density compared to absorption.

  18. COMPLEX FLARE DYNAMICS INITIATED BY A FILAMENT–FILAMENT INTERACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chunming; McAteer, R. T. James [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, NM 88003 (United States); Liu, Rui [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Alexander, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, TX 77005 (United States); Sun, Xudong, E-mail: czhu@nmsu.edu [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    We report on an eruption involving a relatively rare filament–filament interaction on 2013 June 21, observed by SDO and STEREO-B. The two filaments were separated in height with a “double-decker” configuration. The eruption of the lower filament began simultaneously with a descent of the upper filament, resulting in a convergence and direct interaction of the two filaments. The interaction was accompanied by the heating of surrounding plasma and an apparent crossing of a loop-like structure through the upper filament. The subsequent coalescence of the filaments drove a bright front ahead of the erupting structures. The whole process was associated with a C3.0 flare followed immediately by an M2.9 flare. Shrinking loops and descending dark voids were observed during the M2.9 flare at different locations above a C-shaped flare arcade as part of the energy release, giving us unique insight into the flare dynamics.

  19. Topological Aspect of Knotted Vortex Filaments in Excitable Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2008-01-01

    Scroll waves exist ubiquitously in three-dimensional excitable media.The rotation centre can be regarded as a topological object called the vortex filament.In three-dimensional space,the vortex filaments usually form closed loops,and can be even linked and knotted.We give a rigorous topological description of knotted vortex filaments.By using the Φ-mapping topological current theory,we rewrite the topological current form of the charge density of vortex filaments,and using this topological current we reveal that the Hopf invariant of vortex filaments is just the sum of the linking and self-linking numbers of the knotted vortex filaments.We think that the precise expression of the Hopf invariant may imply a new topological constraint on knotted vortex filaments.

  20. The Dark Matter filament between Abell 222/223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jörg P.; Werner, Norbert; Clowe, Douglas; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kitching, Tom; Miller, Lance; Simionescu, Aurora

    2016-10-01

    Weak lensing detections and measurements of filaments have been elusive for a long time. The reason is that the low density contrast of filaments generally pushes the weak lensing signal to unobservably low scales. To nevertheless map the dark matter in filaments exquisite data and unusual systems are necessary. SuprimeCam observations of the supercluster system Abell 222/223 provided the required combination of excellent seeing images and a fortuitous alignment of the filament with the line-of-sight. This boosted the lensing signal to a detectable level and led to the first weak lensing mass measurement of a large-scale structure filament. The filament connecting Abell 222 and Abell 223 is now the only one traced by the galaxy distribution, dark matter, and X-ray emission from the hottest phase of the warm-hot intergalactic medium. The combination of these data allows us to put the first constraints on the hot gas fraction in filaments.